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From OFDM-256 to S-OFDMA
Software solutions in radiocommunications
Fixed WiMAX, based on 802.16d-2004, is a stationary technology with customer premises equipment (CPE) and antennas installed in a fixed location, even though some vendors have included portability and limited mobility into their equipment. Only with 802.16e-2005 and Mobile WiMAX comes the capability of mobile units to hand off between base stations. True mobility is therefore enabled in addition to what 802.16d-2004 already features. The management of different duplexing modes, AAS, and service flow provisioning (among others...) are already included in the d-2004 standard, and new items such as OFDMA sub-channelization techniques, hand off sessions and management of the multicast/broadcast service have to be supported to be compliant with the e-2005 version. WiMax evolves from OFDM-256 FFT to S-OFDMA, so must radio network design methodologies. This white paper highlights the different functionalities of ICS telecom dedicated to network design in OFDMA environment.
• • • • • • WiMAX Forum: Mobile WiMAX -- Part I: A Technical Overview and Performance Evaluation ATDI: A quickguide to 802.16 radio-planning with ICS telecom ATDI: Signal propagation modeling in urban environment Intel© Corporation / Hassan Yaghoobi: Scalable OFDMA Physical Layer in IEEE 802.16 WirelessMAN Intel© Corporation / Sassan Ahmadi: Introduction to mobile WiMAX radio access technology : PHY and MAC architecture Motorola©: WiMAX: E vs. D – The advantages of 802.16e over 802.16d
• brief overview
Table of Content
1 2 Acronyms ___________________________________________________________________ 5 Mobile WiMax basics__________________________________________________________ 7 2.1 What is mobile WiMax ? __________________________________________________ 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 2.2 Main features of mobile WiMax ____________________________________________ 2.2.1 OFDMA ____________________________________________________________ 2.2.2 High data rates _______________________________________________________ 2.2.3 Quality of Service _____________________________________________________ 2.2.4 Scalability ___________________________________________________________ 2.2.5 Security _____________________________________________________________ 2.2.6 Mobility_____________________________________________________________ 2.3 3
Mobile WiMAX certification profiles ________________________________________ 8
Review of mobile WiMax PHY Layer _____________________________________________ 9 3.1 Duplex mode ____________________________________________________________ 9 3.1.1 Concept _____________________________________________________________ 9 3.1.2 Impact on mobile WiMAX radio-planning with ICS telecom __________________ 10 3.2 OFDMA basics _________________________________________________________ 3.2.1 Concept ____________________________________________________________ 188.8.131.52 Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM)________________________________ 184.108.40.206 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)_____________________ 220.127.116.11 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) ________________ 18.104.22.168 Scalable Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (S-OFDMA) _______ 3.2.2 OFDMA symbol structure _____________________________________________ 3.2.3 Subchannelization schemes ____________________________________________ 22.214.171.124 Manual input ______________________________________________________ 126.96.36.199 Predifined tables ___________________________________________________ 3.3 Impact on mobile WiMAX radio-planning with ICS telecom ___________________ 3.3.1 Calculation of the system gain and the sensitivity ___________________________ 188.8.131.52 Downlink_________________________________________________________ 184.108.40.206 Uplink ___________________________________________________________ 3.3.2 Calculation of the throughput ___________________________________________ 3.4 12 12 12 13 14 15 16 18 18 19 20 21 21 23 24
SISO, MISO, SIMO, MIMO schemes_______________________________________ 26
3.5 Frequency reuse schemes _________________________________________________ 30 3.5.1 Concept ____________________________________________________________ 30 3.5.2 Impact on mobile WiMAX radio-planning with ICS telecom __________________ 32 4 Review of mobile WiMAX MAC layer____________________________________________ 34 4.1 QoS – Data service Types _________________________________________________ 34 4.1.1 Concept ____________________________________________________________ 34
Impact on mobile WiMax radio-planning with ICS telecom ___________________ 35 37 37 37 38 39 40 41
4.2 Handoff _______________________________________________________________ 4.2.1 FBSS / MDHO ______________________________________________________ 220.127.116.11 List of neighbors ___________________________________________________ 18.104.22.168 Active set allocation ________________________________________________ 22.214.171.124 FSBB/MDHO handover map within the same active set ____________________ 4.2.2 Hard handover_______________________________________________________ 4.2.3 Hand-over along a mobile path__________________________________________
4.3 Multicast and broadcast service ___________________________________________ 42 4.3.1 Concept ____________________________________________________________ 42 4.3.2 Impact on mobile WiMAX radio-planning with ICS telecom __________________ 42
5 5 5/43 NETWORK DESIGN WITH ICS TELECOM MOBILE WIMAX Note : all provided values are FOR IN FORMATION ONLY 1 Acronyms AAS AMC MIMO BE BS CCI CINR CP DL EIRP ErtPS FBSS FDD FFT FRS FFRS FTP FUSC HHO HiperMAN HO IEEE ISI LOS MAC MAN MBS MDHO MU nLOS NLOS nrtPS OFDM Adaptive Antenna System also Advanced Antenna System Adaptive Modulation and Coding Adaptive Multiple Input Multiple Output Best Effort Base Station Co-Channel Interference Carrier to Interference + Noise Ratio Cyclic Prefix Downlink Effective Isotropic Radiated Power Extended Non-Real-Time Packet Service Fast Base Station Switch Frequency Division Duplex Fast Fourier Transform Frequency reuse scheme Fractionnal frequency reuse scheme File Transfer Protocol Fully Used Sub-Channel Hard Hand-Off High Performance Metropolitan Area Network Hand-Off Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inter-Symbol Interference Line of Sight Media Access Control Metropolitan Area Network Multicast and Broadcast Service Macro Diversity Hand Over Mobile Unit Near Line-of-Sight Non Line-of-Sight Non-Real-Time Packet Service Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex .
6 6 6/43 OFDMA PUSC QAM QPSK RTG rtPS SF SFN SISO SNIR SNR S-OFDMA STC TDD TTG UGS UL VoIP WiMAX Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Partially Used Sub-Channel Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Receive/transmit Transition Gap Real-Time Packet Service Service Flow Single Frequency Network Single Input Single Output (Antenna) Signal to Noise + Interference Ratio Signal to Noise Ratio Scalable Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access Space Time Coding Time Division Duplex Transmit/receive Transition Gap Unsolicited Grant Service Uplink Voice over Internet Protocol Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access .
16 and the WiMAX Forum help define the end-to-end system solution for a Mobile WiMAX network.2.2 High data rates The use of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna techniques (see §3. See §4.16e-2005 air-interface standards. The WiMAX Forum Network Working Group (NWG) is developing the higher-level networking specifications for Mobile WiMAX systems beyond what is defined in the IEEE 802.3 Quality of Service The fundamental premise of the IEEE 802. Mobile WiMAX is not the same as IEEE 802. kindly refer to the previous white paper "WiMax radio-planning quickguide with ICS telecom".2 for further details. .16e-2005. 2.1 What is mobile WiMax ? Mobile WiMAX is a rapidly growing broadband wireless access technology based on IEEE 802.1 OFDMA The mobile WiMAX air interface uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) as the radio access method for improved multipath performance in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environments. rather a subset of the IEEE STD 802.4) along with flexible subchannelization schemes.2. 2.2. that can be downloaded from the ATDI web sites. 2. Concerning the adaptive modulation. The combined effort of IEEE 802.16 medium access control (MAC) architecture is QoS.7 7 7/43 2 Mobile WiMax basics 2. It defines service flows which can be mapped to fine granular IP sessions or coarse differentiated-services code points to enable end-to-end IP based QoS.16 standard that simply addresses the air interface specifications.1 for further details. adaptive modulation and coding enable the mobile WiMAX technology to support both peak downlink and uplink high data rates. See §3.2 Main features of mobile WiMax 2.16-2004 and IEEE 802. The WiMax forum is developing mobile WiMAX system profiles that define the mandatory and optional features of the IEEE standard that are necessary to build a mobile WiMAX compliant air interface which can be certified by the WiMAX Forum.16 standard features and functionalities.
This particular topic will not be addressed in this white paper. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) based authenticated encryption.5 Security The mobile WiMAX incorporates the most advanced security features that are currently used in wireless access systems.2. and Cipher-based Message Authentication Code (CMAC) and Hashed Message Authentication Code (HMAC) based control message protection schemes. These include Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) based authentication. See §3.2.4 for further details 2.4 Scalability The mobile WiMAX technology utilizes scalable OFDMA (S-OFDMA) and has the capability to operate in scalable bandwidths from 1. as it is not relevant in scope of radio-planning.2.6 Mobility The mobile WiMAX supports optimized handover schemes with latencies less than 50 ms to ensure real-time applications such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP).3 Mobile WiMAX certification profiles .8 8 8/43 2.2. 2.25 to 20 MHz to comply with various spectrum allocations worldwide. 2.1.
which requires a pair of channels. Unlike FDD. However. . Transceiver designs for TDD implementations are less complex and therefore less expensive.1 Duplex mode 3.1 Concept The IEEE 802. the initial release of mobile WiMAX profiles only includes the TDD mode of operation.16e-2005 air-interface supports both Time Division Duplexing (TDD) and Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD) modes. It ensures channel reciprocity for better support of link adaptation.9 9 9/43 3 Review of mobile WiMax PHY Layer 3. advanced antenna techniques such as transmit beam-forming or MIMO.1. The TDD mode is preferred for the following reasons: • • • • It enables a dynamic allocation of DL and UL resources to support efficiently asymmetric DL/UL traffic (adaptation of DL:UL ratio to DL/UL traffic). TDD only requires a single channel for both downlink and uplink providing greater flexibility for adaptation to varied global spectrum allocations.
If crossed with the modulation and the number of OFDMA data sub-carriers used per frame. . the software calculates the number of data symbols used in DL and UL.10 10 10/43 3. ICS telecom can automatically calculate the corresponding throughput in DL and UL (see §3.2 Impact on mobile WiMAX radio-planning with ICS telecom The choice of the duplex mode used by the WiMax base stations can be done in their technical parameters: Definition of the WiMAX profile at the Base Station level Note that the percentage specified in the UL/DL duration boxes in ICS telecom represents the percentage of the UL duration wrt to the DL duration within the same frame.2). the user can define: • • • • • The number of symbols in the OFDMA frame (48 by default) The number of overhead symbols in the Downlink The number of overhead symbols in the Uplink The UL/DL duration ratio (1:1. Using the new OFDMA calculator of ICS telecom. 12:25. 9:28…) The number of symbols included in the Time Transition Gap (TTG) Based upon these inputs.1.3.
33 in ICS telecom) OFDMA calculator in ICS telecom : calculation of the available data symbols per OFDMA frame according to the UL/DL duration ratio .11 11 11/43 1:1 DL/UL duration (1.5 in ICS telecom) 3:1 DL/UL duration (0.00 in ICS telecom) 2:1 DL/UL duration (0.
Each of them having an impact on the network design. 3.2. it is useful to start with the source namely FDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing). signals from multiple transmitters are transmitted simultaneously (at the same time slot) over multiple frequencies. To understand how OFDM and OFDMA work.2.12 12 12/43 3. Frequency Division Multiplexing Spacing is put between two adjacent sub-carriers In FDM system.1 Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) WiMAX air interface is based on OFDM/OFDMA PHY. Each frequency range (sub-carrier) is modulated separately by different data stream and a spacing (guard band) is placed between sub-carriers to avoid signal overlap. .2 OFDMA basics 3.1 Concept Different physical layer (PHY) have been used in order to define the WiMAX air interface.1.
2. a very high rate data stream is divided into multiple parallel low rate data streams. This is possible because the frequencies (sub-carriers) are orthogonal. OFDM needs less bandwidth than FDM to carry the same amount of information which translates to higher spectral efficiency.13 13 13/43 3. meaning the peak of one sub-carrier coincides with the null of an adjacent sub-carrier. OFDM also uses multiple sub-carriers but the sub-carriers are closely spaced to each other without causing interference. removing guard bands between adjacent sub-carriers. It can efficiently overcome interference and frequency-selective fading caused by multipath because equalizing is done on a subset of sub-carriers instead of a single broader carrier. Each smaller data stream is then mapped to individual data sub-carrier and modulated using some Phase Shift Keying Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QPSK. 64-QAM…). Besides a high spectral efficiency. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) In an OFDM system. an OFDM system such as WiMAX is more resilient in NLOS environment.1.2 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Like FDM. The effect of ISI (Inter Symbol Interference) is suppressed by virtue of a longer symbol period of the parallel OFDM subcarriers than a single carrier system and the use of a cyclic prefix (CP). 16-QAM. ICS telecom’s OFDM parameters box for simulating multipath reflection can highlight the cases where the signal is damaged due to the reflected signal being greater (by a user-defined margin in dB) than the direct path threshold and with a ToA outside of the OFDM receiver Guard interval: Constructive and Destructive OFDM signals in ICS telecom .
a Mobile WiMAX BS can allocate within the same time slot more transmit power for lower SNR cases and less power for higher SNR cases. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (Sub-carriers with the same color represent a sub-channel) Sub-channelization defines sub-channels that can be allocated to the mobile units depending on their channel conditions and data requirements. Sub-channelization in the uplink can save a user device transmit power because it can concentrate power only on certain sub-channel(s) allocated to it. OFDMA employs multiple closely spaced sub-carriers. In OFDMA. Using sub-channelization.14 14 14/43 3. the likely case in Mobile WiMAX. only one MU transmits in one time slot.1. Each group is named a sub-channel. several MUs can transmit at the same time slot over several sub-channels.3 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) Like OFDM. The sub-carriers that form a sub-channel do not need to be adjacent. . but the sub-carriers are divided into groups of sub-carriers. This power-saving feature is particularly useful for battery-powered user devices. In OFDM.2.
The FFT scales its size to the channel bandwidth in order to keep constant carrier spacing.1. OFDMA scalability parameters in the OFDMA calculator of ICS telecom . This brings higher spectral efficiency in wide channels and a cost reduction in narrow channels.2.15 15 15/43 3.4 OFDMA) Scalable Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (S- Additionally benefit over OFDMA is brought by scalable OFDMA (S-OFDMA).
16 16 16/43 3.2. Adjacent Sub-carrier Permutation Uses adjacent sub-carriers for each sub-channel for use with beam forming AMC (or Band AMC)–Adaptive Modulation and Coding (UL and DL) o o Note that alternative permutations. OFDMA sub-carrier structure The sub-carriers forming one sub-channel may be. Null sub-carriers for no transmission at all. Pilot sub-carriers for various estimation and synchronization purposes. . such as TUSC (supporting both beam forming and OFDMA permutation) might be used as an option in the DL sub-frame. contiguous.16 are called permutations Three main permutations: • • FUSC – Full Usage of Sub-channels (DL only): Achieves best frequency diversity by spreading the subcarriers over the entire band PUSC – Partial Usage of Sub-channels (UL and DL) o o • Groups the sub-carriers into tiles to enable fractional frequency reuse scheme (FFRS).2 OFDMA symbol structure There are three types of OFDMA sub-carriers: • • • Data sub-carriers for data transmission. Still has distribution of sub-carriers across band for each sub-channel a. Different ways of grouping sub-carriers into channels in 802. Active sub-carriers are divided into subsets of sub-carriers called sub-channels.a. used for guard bands (left and right) and DC carriers (used at the transmission frequency). but not need to be.k.
distributed sub-carrier permutations perform very well in mobile applications while adjacent subcarrier permutations can be properly used for fixed. portable. In general. Diversity (mobility users) FUSC DL PUSC TUSC UL PUSC AMC AMC Contiguous (fixed and nomadic users) . These options enable the system designers to trade mobility for throughput. or low mobility environments.17 17 17/43 There are two main types of sub-carrier permutations: distributed (diversity) and localized (contiguous).
the user can select a given OFDMA permutation and the number of data sub-carriers used either manually or by pointing to predefined tables. . 16 and 1) The number of occupied sub-carriers and occupied data sub-carriers impacts the cell edge radius.3 Subchannelization schemes In ICS telecom.3.25 MHz BW DL FUSC DL PUSC DL O-FUSC DL O-AMC UL PUSC UL O-PUSC UL O-AMC 2 3 2 2 4 6 2 Number of sub-channels 5 MHz BW 8 15 8 8 17 24 8 10 MHz BW 16 30 16 16 35 48 16 20 MHz BW 32 60 32 32 92 96 32 • Defning the number of pilot. 3. as well as the throughput.18 18 18/43 3.2. data and null sub-carrier per sub-channel (default respectively to 8.1 • Manual input The user can to define its own configuration of the OFDMA permutation by: Selecting if he wants to work in DL or in UL • Defining the total number of sub-channels in the OFDMA frame OFDMA permutation 1.2.
2 Predifined tables The user can also select the OFDMA permutation to check by selecting it once he has defined the channel BW and whether he wants to work in UL or in DL. OFDMA permutation DL FUSC Nb of sub-carrier Nb of data sub-carrier Nb of sub-carrier Nb of data sub-carrier Nb of sub-carrier Nb of data sub-carrier Nb of sub-carrier Nb of data sub-carrier Nb of sub-carrier Nb of data sub-carrier Nb of sub-carrier Nb of data sub-carrier Nb of sub-carrier Nb of data sub-carrier 109 108 96 433 432 384 865 864 768 1729 1728 1536 1. ICS telecom will automatically fill the number of sub-carriers used (cell edge calculation) and the number of data sub-carriers used (throughput calculation).3.25 MHz BW 105 96 85 72 108 96 108 96 97 5 MHz BW 426 384 421 360 432 384 432 384 408 272 10 MHz BW 851 768 841 720 864 768 864 768 840 840 20 MHz BW 1702 1536 1681 1440 1728 1536 1728 1536 1681 DL PUSC DL O-FUSC DL O-AMC UL PUSC UL O-PUSC UL O-AMC .19 19 19/43 3. In that case.2.
in order to avoid cell edge-interference. the more sub-division of the channel bandwidth will occur in order to avoid co-channel interference. However.20 20 20/43 3. users operate on sub-channels. the smaller the cell range The data rate : the more sub-channel are used. . the bigger the throughput The interference : the more users.3 Impact on mobile WiMAX radio-planning with ICS telecom With mobile WiMax. which only occupy a small fraction of the channel bandwidth (FFRS). the fractional use of the channel bandwidth is trade-off between: • • • The link budget : the more sub-channel are used.
. as well as the receiving sensitivity of the mobile unit for this given OFDMA permutation.21 21 21/43 3.1.1 Calculation of the system gain and the sensitivity 3.3.1 • Base Station o o The output power per antenna elements The number of transmitting antenna elements o o The nominal antenna gain The number of antenna arrays (if AAS is enabled) o • The pilot power boosting loss The nominal receiving antenna gain The diversity receiving antenna gain The noise figure Mobile Unit o o o Downlink The user specifies the following input parameters: • Advanced parameters o o o SNR required Thermal noise The number OFDMA sub-carriers used per OFDMA frame ICS telecom will then calculate the system gain in downlink.3.
22 22 22/43 Scalability for mobile WiMax : impact of the variation of the FTT size on the coverage (Downlink – FUSC OFDMA permutation – Mobile handheld receiver – 16QAM1/2) .
1. .2 • Mobile unit o o o Uplink The user specifies the following input parameters: The type of equipment The output power per antenna elements The number of transmitting antenna elements o o The nominal antenna gain The number of antenna arrays (if AAS is enabled) o • The pilot power boosting loss The nominal receiving antenna gain The diversity receiving antenna gain The noise figure The base Station o o o • Advanced parameters o o o SNR required Thermal noise The number OFDMA sub-carriers used per OFDMA frame ICS telecom will then calculate the system gain in uplink. as well as the receiving sensitivity of the base station for this given OFDMA permutation.3.23 23 23/43 3.
PUSC Uplink permutation – 16QAM1/2 3.3.2 Calculation of the throughput In addition to the calculation of the receiving sensitivity in both uplink and downlink. ICS telecom calculates the throughput according to: • • • The specified modulation (if not in AMC permutation) The UL/DL duration ratio The number of data sub-carriers used per OFDMA frame .24 24 24/43 Mobile WiMax coverage according to the type of receiver 1024 FFT size .
ICS telecom can calculate the maximum achievable bit rate for every single modulation. Mobile WiMax coverage according in the O-AMC permutation 1024 FFT size O-AMC permutation .25 25 25/43 In case the O-AMC is selected.
MISO. MIMO. spatial multiplexing. SISO case SIMO case MISO case MIMO case : .4 SISO. combining multipath signals. These adaptive systems take advantage of their ability to effectively locate and track various types of signals to dynamically minimize interferences and maximize intended signal reception. Adaptive Array Systems(AAS)... SIMO. The strategies used rely on optimising the gain or the directionality of the radiation patterns. STC. SIMO.26 26 26/43 3. MIMO schemes Various technologies are used for smart antenna systems: Switched Beams.
The "burst" gain" is calculated and the nominal gain updated. • For switched beams. ICS telecom nG automatically detects the best predefined beam to offer/receive the best signal in a given direction and then applies interference rejection from pattern discrimination and location of the interferers. For adaptive antenna arrays. based on the assumption that an antenna array containing M elements can provide a power gain of M over white noise level.27 27 27/43 The key parameters for field strength predictions are the antenna gain in the transmitting and receiving ways and the sensitivity of the receiver. • • the radio planner can use ICS telecom to define manually its own parameters to set the antenna gain and receiving threshold. the user defines the composite pattern corresponding to all radiating elements and the number of available elements. Adaptive antenna systems in ICS telecom : the user specifies the number of arrays available in DL and UL DL UL Calculation of the EIRP according to the number of antenna elements and antenna arrays in the OFDMA calculator of ICS telecom .
.28 28 28/43 In addition to the features available to model adaptive antenna arrays. but also the capability to modify the coverage according to the directivity of a receiver and the location of its most-probable server. ICS telecom also includes not only specific functions related to dynamic beam forming according to angle or arrival (off-axis angle) of the signals.
29 29 29/43 Best server plot from BS1 and BS2 Coverage of BS 1 (left) and BS 2 (right) with an omni-directionnal Rx antenna Coverage of BS 1 (left) and BS 2 (right) with 4 arrays Rx antenna pointing to its most-probable server and therefore reducing the interfrering power of the other base stations .
in order to avoid intercell interference. FRS 1x3x3 uses different (orthogonal) sets of tones (called “segments”) for each sector of a base-station thereby reducing inter-cell interference and minimizing outage area. In multi-cell deployments.30 30 30/43 3. These FRS may be described by denotation NcxNsxNf. OFDMA systems. OFDMA with its various subcarrier allocation schemes (FUSC and PUSC) improves performance in multi-cell deployments by averaging the interference across multiple cells. basic OFDM requires directional antennas or relatively high frequency-reuse schemes and careful radio-frequency (RF) planning. hence opening the door for operators who have limited amount of spectrum. are very flexible in terms of RF planning and support a variety of frequency reuse schemes (FRS).5. This scheme also simplifies RF planning–one need only assign segments to sectors while using the same RF channel among all base-stations. Both schemes use three-sector base-stations and require only one RF channel for all sectors and BS. FRS 1x3x1 eliminates the need for any frequency planning. FRS 1x3x1 FRS 1x3x3 . where • • • Nc is number of independent frequency channels in the WiMAX network Ns is the number of sectors per cell Nf is the number of segments in exploited frequency channel.1 Concept OFDM works well in the channels with relatively high SINR. The interference becomes a function of cell loading and can be significantly reduced by efficient scheduling. That is a significant advantage especially for heavy urban areas where RF planning is very difficult.5 Frequency reuse schemes 3. Two of these FRS are for instance 1x3x1 and 1x3x3. on the other hand.
the entire frequency band is divided by three and allocated in each sector. One benefit of using zone switching is that different frequency schemes can be dynamically deployed in a cell. also have suppressed co-channel interference (CCI) users around the cell center have the full frequency band because they are relatively less subject to co-channel interference. The benefits of deploying FFRS in one frame are: • • edge users.31 31 31/43 Since the OFDMA PHY layer has many choices of sub-carrier allocation methods. forming a fractional frequency reuse scheme (FFRS). the whole same frequency band is used in each sector. The image here below shows an example of deploying different FFRS in one frame. FFRS with 802. multiple zones can use different sub-carrier allocation methods to divide each subframe. For the second half of each frame.16 OFDMA wimax . who are receiving co-channel interference from other sectors in other cells. For the first half of each frame.
5.32 32 32/43 3. Mobile WiMax SINR map : FRS 1x3x1 Mobile WiMax SINR map : FRS 1x3x3 FFT 1024 – DL PUSC permutation – SIMO configuration with 4 antenna arrays at the Mobile Unit . in order to highlight the positive impact of using segmented frequency channels with regards to the interference.2 Impact on mobile WiMAX radio-planning with ICS telecom ICS telecom features the functionality of calculating SINR maps.
33 33 33/43 Map of the subchannel distribution in case of a non-fractionnal frequency reuse scheme (FRS 1x3x3) Mobile WiMax sub-channel distribution with a FFRS 1x3x3 FFT 1024 – SIMO configuration with 4 antenna arrays at the Mobile Unit – PUSC 1/3 .
1 Concept In the Mobile WiMAX MAC layer. The QoS parameters associated with the service flow define the transmission ordering and scheduling on the air interface. the base station and user-terminal first establish a unidirectional logical link between the peer MACs called a connection. . Quality of Service (QoS) is provided via service flow (SF).34 34 34/43 4 Review of mobile WiMAX MAC layer 4.1. Before providing a certain type of data service. The outbound MAC then associates packets traversing the MAC interface into a service flow to be delivered over the connection.1 QoS – Data service Types 4.
1.35 35 35/43 4. Traffic request and Service Flows provisioning at the Mobile Unit level in ICS telecom .2 Impact on mobile WiMax radio-planning with ICS telecom Depending on the customer profile. and the priorities to respect (the contention free SF have piority over the SF working in contention mode). the user can specify per mobile unit its Service Flow repartition.
the UL/DL duration ratio. calculated according to the OFDMA permutation and the number of data sub-carriers used. the modulation… A variation of the contention ratio according to the hour of the day .36 36 36/43 The overall QoS of each sector can be calculated according to: • • • A service flow provisioning defined on a per mobile unit basis The throughput available at each sector.
2.1 a neighbor. Transition from one Anchor BS to another (i. the use can locate BS per BS with what other BS it could be Highlighting the neighbours of the Base Station in order to define the Active Sets . 4. 4. Of these. an Anchor BS is defined. In FBSS. BS switching) is performed without invocation of explicit HO signaling messages.16e standard – Hard Handoff (HHO).e. the HHO is mandatory while FBSS and MDHO are two optional modes.. Among the BSs in the Active Set.1 FBSS / MDHO When the FSBB or MDHO are supported. This set is called an Active Set.1. Fast Base Station Switching (FBSS) and Macro Diversity Handover (MDHO). the MU only communicates with the Anchor BS for uplink and downlink messages including management and traffic connections. When operating in FBSS.2. the MS and BS maintain a list of BSs that are involved in FBSS/MFDHO with the MU.2 Handoff There are three handoff methods supported within the 802.37 37 37/43 4. List of neighbors If it is not already known by the mobile operator. The MDHO hand off allow a mobile unit to transmit and receive from multiple BS at the same time. the MS continuously monitors the base stations in the Active Set.
2.38 38 38/43 4.2 Active set allocation The radio-planner can specify for each BS the active set(s) it is belonging to : Definition of the active sets each BS belongs to in ICS telecom .1.
1.2.3 FSBB/MDHO handover map within the same active set The user can specify the active set to be analyzed. By specifying the soft handover mode. otherwise ICS telecom can give the color of the active set (or the color of the best server.39 39 39/43 4. FSBB handover map for a mobile unit anchored to active set 1 FSBB handover map for a mobile unit anchored to active set 2 FSBB handover map for a mobile unit anchored to active set 3 . These areas are highlighted in yellow in the pictures below. ICS telecom will highlight the areas where an FSBB/MDHO handover can occur. if needed).
HHO map of a mobile anchored to Active set 1 with any other active set HHO map of a mobile anchored to Active set 2 with any other active set HHO map of a mobile anchored to Active set 3 with any other active set .2 Hard handover When the Mobile WiMAX unit switches from one active set area to another.40 40 40/43 4. ICS telecom can display where the mobile anchored to a specific active set will have to hard hand off to another one.2. it performs what is called a hard handover (HHO).
41 41 41/43 4.2.3 Hand-over along a mobile path If the radio planner is more particularly interested into a mobile path. a dedicated hand over analysis can be performed. Display of the FSBB hand-over of a mobile unit anchored to active set 3 . in UL or in DL.
1 Concept The Multicast and Boroadcast service (MBS) can be supported in two ways : • • Embedded MBS: a separate MBS zone is defined in the DL frame along with the unicast service Whole MBS: the whole frame can be dedicated to MBS (DL only) for standalone broadcast service.3.3. use the same permutation.42 42 42/43 4. which increase the delay spread of the equivalent/consolidated channel.2 Impact on mobile WiMAX radio-planning with ICS telecom When working in MBS mode. subchanellization… The equivalent channel reception is the sum of the individual channels from all the BS in the MBS. all the BS participating the same MBS transmit the same data. The MBS zone supports multiple Base Stations working in MBS mode using Single Frequency Network (SFN) operation It may be noted that multiple MBS zones are also feasible. The delay in the signal that comes from a distant BS translates to a delayed impulse response. generating therefore ISI in the SFN area.3 Multicast and broadcast service 4. . 4.
43 43 43/43 WiMax coverage in Unicast situation (left) or in Multicast situation right) .
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