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AP Calculus BC Study Guide

John Fu June 19, 2010

1
1.1
1.

DIFFERENTIATION

Properties of Derivatives Derivative - The instantaneous rate of change, or slope, at an x-value of a function. It also
can be expressed as the limit of the dierence quotient.

2.

Properties of the First and Second Derivatives


(a)

First Derivative - If

f (x)

is positive, then

f (x)

is increasing. If

f (x)

is negative, then

f (x)
(b)

is decreasing.

Second Derivative - If

f (x)

is positive, then

f (x)

is concave up; it is either increasing

at an increasing rate or decreasing at an increasing rate. If rate. 3.

f (x)

is negative, then

f (x)

is concave down; it is either decreasing at an increasing rate or increasing at a decreasing

Dierentiability and Continuity


(a)

Mandatory Conditions for Dierentiability


i. The existence of:

xc+
ii. The existence of:

lim f (x)

xc
iii. The limits are equal to each other:

lim f (x)

xc+
(b)

lim f (x) = lim f (x)


xc

Occurrences of Non-Dierentiability
i. ii. iii.

Peak - The derivative approaches two dierent values from both sides of the peak. Corner - The derivative approaches two dierent values from both sides. Break - The function is not continuous at the break, or the derivative approaches
two dierent values from both sides.

(c)

Types of Discontinuity
i.

Jump Discontinuity - When the left hand limit and right hand limits of a x-value
approach dierent values.

ii. iii.

Innite Discontinuity - When there is a vertical asymptote. Hole - Occurs at a x-value that makes f(x) the indeterminate form.

1.2
1.

Rules of Dierentiation Secant Line Approximation:

f (x) = lim
2.

f (x + h) f (x) xh h

Power Rule:

d n [x ] = nxn1 dx d [f (x)g(x)] = f (x)g (x) + g(x)f (x) dx g(x)f (x) f (x)g (x) d f (x) [ ]= dx g(x) g(x)2

3.

Product Rule:

4.

Quotient Rule:

5.

Chain Rule:

d [f (g(x))] = f (g(x))g (x) dx (f 1 ) (x) = 1 f (f 1 (x))

6.

Inverse Derivative Rule:

7.

L'Hpital's Rule: When the limit of a function results in an indeterminate form,

xc

lim

f (x) f (x) = lim g(x) xc g (x)

1.3
1.

Theorems of Dierentiation Intermediate Value Theorem - If f is continuous at every point


between

[a, b]

and

is any number

f (x)

and

g(x),

there is at least one point between

and

that takes on the value of

N.
2.

Extreme Value Theorem - If a function f is continuous on the closed interval [a, b], then f
must attain its absolute maximum and minimum values each at least once within this interval.

3.

Mean Value Theorem - If f is continuous and dierentiable on


point

[a, b],

there is at least one

line at

[a, b] point c:
on

where the slope of the secant line from

to

equals the slope of the tangent

f (c) =
4.

f (b) f (a) ba

Rolle's Theorem - Rolle's Theorem is a subset of the Mean Value Theorem. If f is continuous
and dierentiable on

[a, b] and there is at least one point c on [a, b] where the slope of the tangent f (c) = 0

line at point c equals zero:

2
2.1
1. 2. 3.

APPLICATIONS OF DIFFERENTIATION

Tests for Relative Extrema and Points of Inection First Derivative Test - Set Concavity Test - Set

f (x) = 0,

nd Critical Points, and look for sign shifts.

f (x) = 0,

nd potential points of inection, and look for sign shifts.

Second Derivative Test - Take the Critical Points found in the First Derivative Test, make
a sign chart, and look for sign shifts at those Critical Points to determine concavity.

2.2

Related Rates and Optimization

1. State restrictions. 2. Write the primary equation 3. If more than one variable is present, use other information in the problem to write a secondary equation and eliminate excess variables. 4. 5.

Related Rates: Substitute and dierentiate to nd the related rate asked for. Optimization: Substitute, dierentiate, and nd relative extrema. Be careful of what they
are asking because you might need to plug your answer back into another equation to determine the real answer.

Example 1. (Related Rates) - A conical cup has a height of 4 inches and a base of 3 inches. It is
lling up with uid at a rate of 1.5 inch /sec. How fast is the uid rising when it is 2 inches deep? Primary Equation:

1 V = 3 r2 h.

Secondary Equation: The ratios of the height of the cone to the radius of the cone and the height of the uid to the radius of the uid are equal, since the uid is the same shape as the cone. In be

dV dt dh dt

h1 h2 r1 = r2 . order to remove one of the variables in the primary equation, the secondary equation needs to h 4 3 1 3 3 2 3 solved. r = 1.5 . Therefore, r = 8 h and V = 3 ( 8 h) h = 64 h . Dierentiate V to get 9 9 2 dh = 64 h dt . You have all the variables, so just plug them in: 1.5 = 64 (2)2 dh . Simplify to get dt 8 = 3 inches/sec.

Example 2. (Optimization) - What is the maximum volume of a cylinder inscribed within a sphere
of radius 4 meters? Primary Equation:

V = r2 h.
There is also the vertical distance from the center of the cylinder to the

Secondary Equation: The radius of the sphere is equal to the distance from the center of the cylinder to the edge of its base. center of its base to consider. Finally, the radius is 4 meters. These three distances form a right triangle with the result that Plugging this into setting it equal

h = 2 16 r2 .

Solving this for


2

r2 ,

we get

r2 = 16
3

h2 4 .

V = r2 h yields V = (16 h )h, which is V = 16h h . 4 4 3 2 to zero: V = 16 h = 0. Solving for h yields h = 8 3 3 4 154.778
meters .

Dierentiating this and meters. After checking

a sign chart, this is conrmed to be the height of the maximized cylinder. The corresponding radius is

4 6 3 meters. The maximized volume is therefore

3
3.1
1.

INTEGRATION

Properties of Integrals Indenite Integral - A family of functions, any of which, when dierentiated, gives the
function that was integrated.

2.

Denite Integral - The limit of a Riemann Sum or the accumulation of area under a curve
from one value to another. (a)

Displacement vs. Distance - Displacement is found by taking the regions under the
x-axis are negative. Distance is the absolute value of displacement and can be found by summing all regions, whether above or below the x-axis, as positive values.

(b)

Velocity vs. Speed - Velocity can be negative or positive, whereas the speed, which is
the absolute value of the velocity, can only be positive.

3.2
1.

Rules of Integration Summation Identities


(a)

c = cn
i=1
(b)

i=
i=1
(c)

n(n + 2) 2

i2 =
i=1
(d)

n(n + 2)(2n + 1) 6

i3 =
i=1
2.

n2 (n + 2)2 4

Riemann Sum Approximations


(a)

Left Endpoint Approximation


n n n

lim

f (mi )x = lim
i=1

f(
i=1

i(b a) b a )( ) n n

(b)

Right Endpoint Approximation


n n n

lim

f (Mi )x = lim
i=1

f(
i=1

(i + 1)(b a) b a )( ) n n

(c)

Midpoint Approximation
n n

lim

f(
i=1

xi + xi+1 (2i + 1)(b a) b a f( )x = lim )( ) n 2 2n n i=1

(d)

Trapezoid Approximation
n n n

lim

i=1

f (xi ) + f (xi+1 ) x 2

= lim =(

[f (
i=1

i(b a) (i + 1)(b a) b a ) + f( )]( ) n n 2n

ba )[f (xi ) + f (xi+1 ) + ... + f (xn1 ) + f (xn )] 2n

3.3
1.

Theorems of Integration First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus - The denite integral from a to b of a continuous
function is the dierence between the value of its antiderivative taken at antiderivative taken at

and the value of its

a,

where

is the antiderivative of

f,

is:

b f (x)dx = F (b) F (a)


a
2.

Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus - The derivative, with respect to


being a variable and the lower limit of integration being a constant, is:

x,

of the

denite integral of a function containing a dummy variable, with the upper limit of integration

d dx
3.

u f (t)dt = f (u)
c

d [u] dx

Mean Value Theorem for Integrals (the  Average Value Theorem ) - The height of
the rectangle with the same area as the integral of

f (x)

from

to

is:

1 f (c) = ba

b f (x)dx
a

3.4
1.

Advanced Methods of Integration Integration by Parts - Integration by parts is a method used when there are two pieces
of an integral multiplied together. It uses the Product Rule from dierentiation to derive a general equation for nding the integral of these functions.

udv = uv

vdu

(a) When choosing u, make sure that it is easily dierentiable and eventually dierentiates to 0. (b) When choosing dv, make sure that it is easily integrated.

Example 3. Evaluate
Let

x u = 2x and dv = ex . Then, du = 2dx and v = e . udv = uv vdu, so xex = x 2xex 2e dx. Therefore, 2xex = 2ex (x 1) + C. Example 4. Evaluate ln(x)dx. dx Let u = ln(x) and dv = dx. Then, du = udv = uv vdu, so ln(x)dx = x and v = x. x xln(x) x dx = xln(x) 1dx. Therefore, ln(x)dx = xln(x) x + C . Example 5. Evaluate arctan(x)dx. dx Let u = arctan(x) and dv = dx. Then, du = udv = uv vdu, so 1+x2 and v = x. xdx xdx arctan(x)dx = xarctan(x) 1+x2 . 1+x2 simplies to 1 ln|1 + x2 |, so the nal answer is 2 arctan(x)dx = xarctan(x) 1 ln|1 + x2 | + C . 2
Integration by Parts (Tabular Method) - There is an easier way to apply integration by
parts that works well when Steps:

2xex .

2.

eventually dierentiates to

0.

It uses a table like the one below.

(a) If possible, make easily integrated.

something that eventually dierentiates to

0,

and make

dv

something

(b) Once the table is lled, diagonally multiply across the entire table, starting with the rst

term and ending when multiplication across all three columns is impossible.

(c) Sum the products (don't forget

Example 6. Try
Derivatives of

+C )

to get the nal answer.

x3 sin(x)dx
Integrals of

using the tabular method, with

u = x3

and

dv = sin(x).

Alternating signs of

x3 3x2 6x 6 0 6xcos(x) + C .
3.

sin(x) cos(x) sin(x) cos(x) sin(x)

+1 1 +1 1 +1

Multiplying diagonally, the nal result will be

x3 sin(x)dx = x3 cos(x) + 3x2 sin(x) +

Integration by Partial Fractions - Integration by partial fractions is used when there is a


factorable denominator in the integrand. (a) If you have a factorable denominator in what you're trying to integrate, factor it, and split up the fraction using partial fraction decomposition. (b) Find the new constants in the numerators. Note that these are equal to the coecients of the terms. (c) Integrate separately.

Example 7. Evaluate

dx x2 +5x6 .

First, factor the denominator into

1 (x + 6)(x 1). Now split up the fraction like so: x2 +5x6 = B A x+6 + x1 . Multiply through by the entire polynomial to get 1 = A(x 1) + B(x + 6). Foil and distribute: 1 = Ax A + Bx + 6B . 1 = A + 6B + (A + B)x. The coecients of the
terms on both sides should match up. What this means is that (there is no term on the left side being multiplied by

A + 6B = 1

and

x,

so essentially the coecient for

A+B =0 x is

0).

Set up a system of equations:

A + 6B = 1 A+B =0
Solving for this, Simplied, it is

B =

1 7 and

6| +
4.

1 7 ln|x

1| +

dx x2 +5x6 C.

A = 6 . The 7 dx 6 = 7 x+6 + 1 7

integral is now

dx x2 +5x6

6
7 x+6

dx +

1
7 x1

dx.

dx x1 , and the nal solution is

dx x2 +5x6

= 6 ln|x + 7

Integrating Powers of Trigonometric Functions - There are the two primary rules used
to integrate equations containing trigonometric functions raised to powers. (a)

"Odd Man Out" Rule - In an integral with only sines and cosines, split the one raised
to the odd degree and convert the remaining piece into the other function.

(b)

"Steven Todd" Rule - In an integral with only secants and tangents, if the secant is
raised to an even degree, factor out and set up an u - substitution

sec2 (x), convert the remaining secants to tangents, 2 where u = tan(x) so that du = sec (x). If the tangent is

odd, factor out a , convert the remaining tangents to secants, and set up an u-substitution

u = sec(x)

where so that

du = sec(x)tan(x).
6

Example 8. Evaluate

cos 3 (x)sin3 (x)dx. 2 2 3 The odd integral here is sin (x). cos 3 (x)sin3 (x)dx = cos 3 (x)(1 cos2 (x))sin(x)dx = 2 8 cos 3 (x)sin(x)dx cos 3 (x)sin(x)dx. Perform a u-substitution with u = cos(x). The nal 5 11 2 8 answer is cos 3 (x)sin3 (x)dx = 3 cos 3 (x) + 11 cos 8 (x) + C . 5
Trigonometric Substitution - Trigonometric substitution is used to simplify certain integrals containing radical expressions by substituting them with trigonometric identities. (a)

5.

(b)

(c)

Example 9. Evaluate

a2 x2 , let x = asin() and use 2 2 identity cos () = 1 sin (). Then the nal result is a cos (). Tangent Substitution - If the integrand contains a2 + x2 , let x = atan() and use 2 2 2 2 identity sec () = 1 + tan (). Then the nal result is a sec (). 2 2 Secant Substitution - If the integrand contains x a , let x = asec() and use 2 2 2 2 identity tan () = sec () 1. Then the nal result is a tan (). dx
Sine Substitution - If the integrand contains
2 2 9x2
.

the

the

the

The denominator is in the form

a2 x2 ,

so a sine substitution is ideal.

There are two important equations that stem from this equation:

3cos()d. The denominator equals 9 9sin2 () = 3cos() 1 1 d = 2 2 + C = 2 arcsin( x ) + C . 3cos() d = 3


6.

Let x = 3sin(). = arcsin( x ) and dx = 3 dx 9cos2 () = 3cos(). Then, 9x2 =

Improper Integrals - An improper integral has at least one of these two properties:
(a) One of the limits of integration is i. If

c
a

f (x)dx

exists for every

. c > a,

then,

c f (x)dx = lim
c a
then,

f (x)dx

ii. If

b
c

f (x)dx

exists for every

c < b, b

b f (x)dx = lim
c c
are convergent, then,

f (x)dx

iii. If both

f (x)dx

and

f (x)dx

c f (x)dx = f (x)dx +

f (x)dx
c

where

c is any number.

This requires that

both

of the previous integrals be convergent.

If one of them is divergent, then so is this one.

Example 10. Evaluate 1


1 x2 dx

1 = limc [ x ]c = 1

1 x2 dx. 1 [

(1)] = 1

(a) The curve being integrated has an innite discontinuity between the limits of integration. i. If

f (x)

is continuous on the interval

[a, b)

and not continuous at

b,

then,

b f (x)dx = lim
cb a

c f (x)dx
a

provided the limit exists and is nite. Note that a left hand limit is used because the interval of integration is entirely on the left side of the upper limit.

ii. If

f (x)

is continuous on the interval

(a, b]

and not continuous at

a,

then,

b f (x)dx = lim
a ca+

b f (x)dx
c

provided the limit exists and is nite. Note that a right hand limit is used because the interval of integration is entirely on the right side of the lower limit. iii. If

f (x)

is not continuous at

c,

where

a < c < b, c

and both

c
a

f (x)dx

and

b
c

f (x)dx

are convergent, then,

b f (x)dx =
a
iv. If

b f (x)dx + f (x)dx
c

f (x) is not continuous at a or b, and both b f (x)dx =


a a

c
a

f (x)dx and b

b
c

f (x)dx are convergent,

then,

c f (x)dx +

f (x)dx
c

4
4.1
1.

APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRATION

Area, Arc Length and Surfaces of Revolution Area of a Region Bounded by Two Curves - The area of a region bounded by two curves,
with

f (x)

<

g(x),

is

b A=
a

f (x) g(x)dx

2.

Arc Length - The length of a rectangular arc of an integrable function

f (x)

on

[a, b]

is

b 1 + [f (x)]2 dx
a
3.

Surfaces of Revolution - The surface area of the solid obtained by rotating a function
about a xed axis is

f (x)

b 2f (x)
a

1 + [f (x)]2 dx

4.2
1.

Volume Approximations Disk Method

b V =
a

R2 r2 dx

(a) The Disk Method features rectangles perpendicular to the axis of rotation.

2.

Washer Method

b V =
a

R2 r2 dx

(a) The Washer Method also features rectangles perpendicular to the axis of rotation. It is used when there is a missing region between the outer radius and the axis of rotation. 3.

Shell Method

b V = 2
a

r(x)R(x)dx

(a) The Shell Method features rectangles parallel to the axis of rotation. It is usually used in place of the other methods when nding volume rotated about the y-axis or some other axis parallel to it. 4.

Cross-Sectional Volume

b V =
a

A(x)dx

(a) Cross Sectional Volume is found by taking the integral of the area of the cross sectional shapes, found by their bases.

5
5.1
1.

PARAMETRIC, POLAR, AND VECTOR FUNCTIONS

Polar Functions Derivative of a Polar Function


dy d dx d

dy = dx
2.

The Region Bounded by Polar Curves

1 A= 2
where

b r2 d
a

is the dierence between the two curves.

5.2
1.

Parametric Functions Derivative of a Parametric Function

dy = dx

dy dt dx dt

(a) Can be used to nd the angle at the end of a parabolic path: Therefore,

dy dx

dy dt dx dt

= tan().

dy = arctan( dx ).

2.

Arc Length, Speed, and Acceleration of a Particle


(a) Arc Length

b D=
a

dx 2 dy ) + ( )2 dt dt

(b) Speed (the Norm of velocity)

||v|| =
(c) Acceleration

dx 2 dy ) + ( )2 dt dt

A=

d2 x 2 d2 y 2 ) +( ) dt dt

5.3
1.

Vector Functions/Motion in the Plane Derivative of a Vector Function - Since vectors are represented by horizontal and vertical
components, their derivatives behave much like those of parametric functions.

d (s) = f (t)i + g (t)j dt

6
6.1

DERIVATIVES AND INTEGRALS OF TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

The Natural Logarithmic Function


Derivative Integral

Function

ln(u)
6.2

u u

uln(u) u + C

Exponential Functions
Derivative Integral

Function

e au

e u au ln(a)u

eu u +C au u ln(a) + C

6.3

Trigonometric Functions
Derivative Integral

Function

sin(u) cos(u) tan(u) csc(u) sec(u) cot(u)

u cos(u) u sin(u) u sec2 (u) u [csc(u)cot(u)] u [sec(u)tan(u)] u csc2 (u)

cos(u) + C sin(u) + C ln|cos(u)| + C ln|csc(u) + cot(u)| + C ln|sec(u) + tan(u)| + C ln|sin(u)| + C

10

6.4

Inverse Trigonometric Functions


Domain Range Derivative Integral

Function

arcsin(u) arccos(u) arctan(u) arccsc(u) arcsec(u) arccot(u)

[1, 1] [1, 1] (, ) , x = (1, 1) , x = (1, 1) ,x=0


[

[ , ] 2 2 [0, ] ( , ) 2 2
2 , 0) 2)

(0, ] 2

[0,

( , ] 2

[ , ] 2 2

u 1u2 u 1u2 u 1+u2 u uu2 1 u u u2 1 u 1+u2

u arcsin(u) + u arccos(u)

1 x2 + C

1 x2 + C
x2 1 x2 | x2 1 x2 2

1 u arctan(u) 2 ln(1 + x2 ) + C

u arccsc(u) + ln|x + x u arcsec(u) ln|x + x u arccot(u) +


1 2 ln(1

+C

|+C

+x )+C

7
7.1
1.

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

Slope Fields and Euler's Method Slope Fields - A slope eld is a graphical representation of the slopes of a function in
dierential form, specically

dy dx . To get a slope at a coordinate, plug in the x and y values into the dierential equation and draw a short line with that slope at that coordinate.
(a) Equations with only (b) Equations with only

x y

have the same slopes at each column. have the same slopes at each row.

(c) The graphical representation of the

particular solution involves an initial point and a

quick sketch of the curve using the lines of the slope eld as a guide. 2.

Euler's Method - A numerical approach to approximating the particular solution of the


dierential equation using  steps to approximate a solution curve. (a) First graph the point (b) Move a step of size

(x0 , y0 ).

dy h horizontally from (x0 , y0 ). The new point is (x0 +h, y0 +h[ dx |(x0 , y0 ) ]), dy dy with [ dx |(x0 , y0 ) ] being the value of dx at the initial point (x0 , y0 ) or more simply, the slope at (x0 , y0 ).

(c) Label the new point is whichever comes rst.

(x1 , y1 ).

Repeat until told to stop or until you die from boredom,

7.2
1.

Separation of Variables and Logistic Growth Separation of Variables - Separation of variables on the standard growth function, dt
yields,

dy

= ky ,

y = Cekt
where both 2.

and

are constants.

Logistic Growth - Logistic growth is a special kind of exponential growth. Unlike regular exponential growth, logistic growth features carrying capacity, which limits the growth to a
certain quantity. This is useful in real life applications; for example, a carrying capacity limits the population to a number that the environment can sustain. The graph of logistic growth changes concavity from positive to negative, leveling o at the carrying capacity. Growth often appears in growth and temperature problems. Logistic

11

8
8.1
1.

SEQUENCES AND SERIES

Sequences Convergence/Divergence of a Sequence - A sequence converges if the limit as its terms


tend to innity is a nite number. It is divergent if the limit as its terms tend to innity is

.
8.2
1.

Innite Series Convergence/Divergence of an Innite Series - If the limit of the SOPS converges, then
the innite series converges, and its sum is equal to the limit at which the SOPS converged. (a)

Sequence of Partial Sums (SOPS) - The sum of a piece of the series, rather than the
entire thing. For example, to

S3 = a1 + a2 + a3 .

If the series converges, the limit as

tends

of

Sn

is the sum of the series:

L = lim Sn
n
i. This denition is useful for nding the sum of a converging telescoping series because some terms in a telescoping series always cancel, making nding 2.

Sn

an easy task.

n=1 an , (negative terms help the series converge), and take n=1 |an |, whose terms are all positive, then if n=1 |an | converges, n=1 an converges absolutely. However, if n=1 an converges absolutely, it does not mean that n=1 |an | converges to the same value as n=1 an . Absolute convergence is the strongest type of convergence.
absolute value of the summand. If we strip away the potential negative values of

Absolute Convergence - An innite series is said to converge absolutely if the sum of the

3.

Conditional Convergence - An innite series is said to converge conditionally if the original


summand converges, but its absolute value diverges. In other words, if

but n=1 verging.

|an |

does not,

n=1

n=1 an converges, an converges conditionally. Can be thought of as barely con-

(a) A very interesting fact is that by reording the terms of a conditionally converging series, it is possible to converge to

any

real number. Series with absolute convergence do not

exhibit this behavior; no matter how you reorder the terms, an absolutely converging series will converge to the same number.

8.3

Tests for Convergence

Can be remembered using the acronym  PARTING C .

1.

P-Series Test - A P-Series is of the form,

1 np n=1
where

is a positive constant.

(a) Converges if (b) Diverges if

p > 1.

0 < p 1.

12

2.

Alternating Series Test - An Alternating Series is of the form

(1)n+1 .
n=1
(a) The series converges if 3.

an > 0,

it is decreasing (an+1

< an ),

and

limn an = 0.

Ratio Test - The Ratio Test involves nding the ratio

n
(a) Converges if (b) Diverges if
n+1 limn | aan | < 1.

lim |

an+1 |. an

n+1 limn | aan | > 1. n+1 limn | aan | = 1.

(c) Inconclusive if 4.

Telescoping Series Test - A Telescoping Series does not have a set form. However, it has
some distinctive characteristics. In general, watch out for any series in which there are a massive cancellation of terms. Find this out by writing out the rst few terms. Partial sums, for example, commonly simplify to a sum of some early terms and some ending terms, leaving all the middle terms to cancel. (a) Once you can be sure that you're dealing with a Telescoping Series, take the limit of the Sequence of Partial Sums,

Sn .

Terms in a telescoping series always cancel, making nding

Sn
5.

easy. Note that not every Telescoping Series converges.

Integral Test - A series can be integrated if it is Positive, Monotonically Decreasing, and


Continuous. First, convert integral

n=1

f (n)

into

f (x),

and integrate from

to

If the improper

f (x)dx
1
exists, then the series converges. If it does not exist, the series diverges. Note that the result of the integration is NOT the limit of convergence for the original series. 6.

N th Term Test for Divergence


this test is inconclusive.

- If

limn Sn = 0,

then the series is a divergent series.

Note that this test can ONLY be used to prove divergence, not convergence. If

limn Sn = 0,

7.

Geometric Series Test - A Geometric Series is of the form,

a0 rn
n=0
where

is a constant. Also note this series starts at

the rst term of the series needs to be (a) Converges if

a0 ,

and starting at

n = 0 instead of n = 1. This is n = 0 will accomplish this.

because

|r| < 1.

If the series converges, it has a sum of,

S=
where

a0 1r

a0

is the result from plugging in

n = 0.

(b) Diverges if

|r| > 1. r = 1.

(c) Inconclusive if

13

8.

Comparison Tests
(a)

Direct Comparison Test - Used to directly compare two series.


i. If the rst series converges, and the second series is smaller than the rst, the second also converges. ii. If the rst series diverges, and the second series is larger than the rst, the second also diverges. iii. Any other combinations are inconclusive.

(b)

Limit Comparison Test - When comparing two series,


an
n=1
select

and

bn
n=1

n=1 bn to be a known convergent/divergent series that will make the numerator 1 x and denominator of equal degrees. For example, if an = x3 +1 , bn = x2 is a good 3 3 a x x 1 choice. This way, n = 3 bn x +1 and limn x3 +1 = 1. Therefore, since bn = x2 converges, x an = x3 +1 also converges. an n=1 bn implies the converbn is a nite value, then the convergence of genece of an . n=1 a ii. If limn n = , then the divergence of n=1 bn implies the divergence of n=1 an . bn
i. If

limn

8.4
1.

Taylor Polynomials and Approximations Taylor Polynomial - A sequence of approximations of a dierentiable function around a
specic point by polynomials. Note that this is

not

a series. The approximation of a function

f (x)

is,

f (x) Pn (x) = f (c) + f (c)(x c) +


where

f (c)(x c)2 f (c)(x c)3 f (n) (c)(x c)n + + ... + 2! 3! n!

is the specic point of approximation.

(a) At 2.

x = c,

the Taylor polynomial is a perfect representation of

f (x),

since

Pn (x) = f (c).

Lagrange Remainder - Denoted by

in all Taylor polynomials; the oset when (a) The Lagrange Remainder Function is,

Rn (x). The function that represents Pn (x) is compared to f (x).

the error inherent

Rn (x) =
where

f (n+1) (z)(x c)(n+1) (n + 1)! c. z


is the value that will make

is some number between

and

|f (n+1) (z)|

the

largest possible value it can be. This way, the error bound is the largest possible value; the Taylor Polynomial cannot be less accurate than that value. (b) It is the function that will make

f (x) equal,

not approximate,

Pn (x).

Therefore, the

Taylor polynomial can be rewritten as

f (x) = Pn (x) + Rn (x).

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8.5
1.

Power Series Power Series - An innite polynomial series of the form,

f (x) =
n=0
when (a)

an (x c)n

is centered around

c.

Convergence of Power Series


i.

Convergence of Power Series - The radius of convergence

for a Power Series

can be found by performing a ratio test on the generic Power Series,

f (x) =
n=0
The

an (x c)n

n terms cancel out using the Ratio Test, leaving a variant of |xc|, thus obtaining ( lim |
n

an+1 |)|x c| < 1 an an | an+1 x


less than a certain Since

Solving for

|x c|,

you get

|x c| < lim |
n
The radius of convergence distance away from

can be dened as the values of

that will cause the Power Series to converge.

|x c|

already represents that distance,

R = lim |
n
A. All Power Series will converge at

an | an+1

x = c.

B. If a Power Series converges, it will converge within a xed interval centered around

c.
C. Power Series will converge absolutely on the interval for which D. E.

x < c R. Power Series will converge conditionally at the endpoints where x = c R. It is important to test the endpoints of the Interval of Convergence, c R

for

convergence or divergence by plugging those values back into the Power Series and using one of the Tests for Convergence.

8.6
1.

Taylor and Maclaurin Series Taylor Series - A representation of a function as an innite sum of terms calculated from the
values of its derivatives at a single point. Also, a Taylor series is the innite sum of a Taylor polynomial. A

Maclaurin Series is simply a Taylor Series centered around

c = 0.

f (n) (c) (x c)n n! n=1


(a)

Convergence of Taylor and Maclaurin Series - First, use the generic example of the
Taylor Series to nd the Taylor Polynomials for that function. Then, get that function in terms of

and

in order to be able to use the Ratio Test on it. From there, it's the

same thing as the Power Series.

15

Function

Maclaurin Series
5 7 3 (1)n x x + x x + ... + n=0 (2n+1)! x2n+1 3! 5! 7! n 2 4 6 1 x + x x + ... + n=0 (1) x2n 2! 4! 6! (2n)! 2 3 n 1 + x + x + x + ... + n=0 x 2! 3! n! 1 + x + x2 + x3 + ... + n=0 xn for |x| < 1

sin(x)
2.

Common Maclaurin Series -

cos(x) ex
1 1x

16