Types of concrete
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search There are many types of concrete, variations of installation, composition, finish and performance characteristics.
A highway paved with concrete.
Regular concrete paving blocks
Concrete in sidewalk stamped with contractor name and date it was laid
Modern concrete mix designs can be complex. The design of a concrete, or the way the weights of the components of a concrete is determined, is specified by the requirements of the project and the various local building codes and regulations.
The design begins by determining the "durability" requirements of the concrete. These requirements take into consideration the weather conditions that the concrete will be exposed to in service, and the required design strength. The compressive strength of a concrete is determined by taking standard molded, standard-cured cylinder samples. Many factors need to be taken into account, from the cost of the various additives and aggregates, to the trade offs between, the "slump" for easy mixing and placement and ultimate performance. A mix is then designed using cement (Portland or other cementitious material), coarse and fine aggregates, water and chemical admixtures. The method of mixing will also be specified, as well as conditions that it may be used in. This allows a user of the concrete to be confident that the structure will perform properly. Various types of concrete have been developed for specialist application and have become known by these names.. Concrete mixes can also be designed using software programs. Such softwares provide the user an opportunity to select their preferred method of mix design and enter the material data to arrive at proper mix designs.
Regular concrete is the lay term describing concrete that is produced by following the mixing instructions that are commonly published on packets of cement, typically using sand or other common material as the aggregate, and often mixed in improvised containers. This concrete can be produced to yield a varying strength from about 10 MPa (1450 psi) to about 40 MPa (5800 psi), depending on the purpose, ranging from blinding to structural concrete respectively. Many types of pre-mixed concrete are available which include powdered cement mixed with an aggregate, needing only water. Typically, a batch of concrete can be made by using 1 part Portland cement, 2 parts dry sand, 3 parts dry stone, 1/2 part water. The parts are in terms of weight – not volume. For example, 1cubic-foot (0.028 m3) of concrete would be made using 22 lb (10.0 kg) cement, 10 lb (4.5 kg) water, 41 lb (19 kg) dry sand, 70 lb (32 kg) dry stone (1/2" to 3/4" stone). This would make 1cubic-foot (0.028 m3) of concrete and would weigh about 143 lb (65 kg). The sand should be mortar or brick sand (washed and filtered if possible) and the stone should be washed if possible. Organic materials (leaves, twigs, etc) should be removed from the sand and stone to ensure the highest strength.
High-strength concrete has a compressive strength generally greater than 6,000 pounds per square inch (40 MPa = 5800 psi). High-strength concrete is made by lowering the water-cement
(W/C) ratio to 0.35 or lower. Often silica fume is added to prevent the formation of free calcium hydroxide crystals in the cement matrix, which might reduce the strength at the cementaggregate bond. Low W/C ratios and the use of silica fume make concrete mixes significantly less workable, which is particularly likely to be a problem in high-strength concrete applications where dense rebar cages are likely to be used. To compensate for the reduced workability, superplasticizers are commonly added to high-strength mixtures. Aggregate must be selected carefully for highstrength mixes, as weaker aggregates may not be strong enough to resist the loads imposed on the concrete and cause failure to start in the aggregate rather than in the matrix or at a void, as normally occurs in regular concrete. In some applications of high-strength concrete the design criterion is the elastic modulus rather than the ultimate compressive strength.
Stamped concrete is an architectural concrete which has a superior surface finish. After a concrete floor has been laid, floor hardeners (can be pigmented) are impregnated on the surface and a mold which may be textured to replicate a stone / brick or even wood is stamped on to give a attractive textured surface finish. After sufficient hardening the surface is cleaned and generally sealed to give a protection. The wear resistance of stamped concrete is generally excellent and hence found in applications like parking lots, pavements, walkways etc.
High-performance concrete (HPC) is a relatively new term used to describe concrete that conforms to a set of standards above those of the most common applications, but not limited to strength. While all high-strength concrete is also high-performance, not all high-performance concrete is high-strength. Some examples of such standards currently used in relation to HPC are:
Ease of placement Compaction without segregation Early age strength Long-term mechanical properties Permeability Density Heat of hydration Toughness Volume stability Long life in severe environments Depending on its implementation, environmental
During the 1980s a number of countries including Japan. Obviously this need to be done in a sealed container. rather than slump(height) no need for vibrators to compact the concrete placement being easier. When the steam condenses into water it will create a low pressure over the concrete that will pull air from the concrete. The greatest advantage of the process is that shotcrete can be applied overhead or on vertical surfaces without forming.
. typically between 650-750 mm on a flow table. 38 departments of transportation in the US accept the use of SCC for road and bridge projects. This emerging technology is made possible by the use of polycarboxylates plasticizer instead of older naphthalene based polymers. In the US precast concrete industry. As of 2005. This will make the concrete stronger due to there being less air in the mixture. Can be detrimental to Safety and workmanship
SCC can save up to 50% in labor costs due to 80% faster pouring and reduced wear and tear on formwork. pools.
The use of steam to produce a vacuum inside of concrete mixing truck to release air bubbles inside the concrete is being researched. Sweden and France developed concretes that are self-compacting. see Self Leveling Concrete. self-consolidating concretes account for 10-15% of concrete sales in some European countries. This self-consolidating concrete (SCCs) is characterized by:
extreme fluidity as measured by flow. dams. This type of concrete is often used as a quick fix for weathering for loose soil types in construction zones. and viscosity modifiers to address aggregate segregation.
Main article: Shotcrete Shotcrete (also known by the trade name Gunite) uses compressed air to shoot concrete onto (or into) a frame or structure. It is often used for concrete repairs or placement on bridges. especially in tunneling.For more details on this topic. SCC represents over 75% of concrete production. Shotcrete is also used for applications where seepage is an issue to limit the amount of water entering a construction site due to a high water table or other subterranean sources. The idea is that the steam displaces the air normally over the concrete. Shotcrete is frequently used against vertical soil or rock surfaces. as it eliminates the need for formwork. It is sometimes used for rock support. no bleed water. known as self-consolidating concrete in the United States. and on other applications where forming is costly or material handling and installation is difficult. or aggregate segregation Increased Liquid Head Pressure.
It is formed by leaving out some or all of the fine aggregate (fines).There are two application methods for shotcrete. Due to the low water content and air permeability. the concrete must be covered with a 6-mil poly plastic. and allow replenishment of groundwater when conventional concrete does not. lightweight aerated concrete.
Pervious concrete can significantly reduce noise. then packed or tamped into place.
Pervious concrete is installed by being poured into forms. to level (not smooth) the surface. not to be confused with aerated autoclaved concrete. which is manufactured off-site using an entirely different method. by allowing air to be squeezed between vehicle tires and the roadway to escape. and can both remove the normal surface-water drainage infrastructure. The mixes are pumped through the hoses.
. At the nozzle compressed air is added for spraying.
Aerated concrete produced by the addition of an air-entraining agent to the concrete (or a lightweight aggregate like expanded clay pellets or cork granules and vermiculite) is sometimes called cellular concrete. The remaining large aggregate then is bound by a relatively small amount of Portland cement. wet-mix – the mixes are prepared with all necessary water for hydration. This product cannot be used on major U. When set. The water needed for the hydration is added at the nozzle. within 5-15 minutes of tamping. to allow air or water to move through the concrete.
Pervious concrete contains a network of holes or voids. then screeded off. state highways currently due to the high psi ratings required by most states.
For both methods additives such as accelerators and fiber reinforcement may be used. This allows water to drain naturally through it.
dry-mix – the dry mixture of cement and aggregates is filled into the machine and conveyed with compressed air through the hoses. typically between 15 % and 25 % of the concrete volume is voids. allowing water to drain at around 5 gal/ft²/ min (70 L/m²/min) through the concrete. Pervious concrete has been tested up to 4500 psi so far. foamed concrete and lightweight or ultra-lightweight concrete. variable density concrete.S. or it will dry out prematurely and not properly hydrate and cure.
Cork granules do not significantly influence cement hydration. where regular concrete is 2400 kg/m³. There are many competing products that use a foaming agent that resembles shaving cream to mix air bubbles in with the concrete. but cork dust may. These composites can be made of density from 400 to 1500 kg/m³. The variable density reduces strength to increase thermal and acoustical insulation by replacing the dense heavy concrete with air or a light material such as clay. easily repaired. lower densities and good energy absorption characteristics.0 MPa. sometimes called rollcrete. The concrete is placed on the surface to be covered. Buildings and Construction. Is there any way of combining all these good qualities of concrete and also having a material which is light in weight. cork granules and vermiculite. And it's [sic] surface is ugly. compressive strength from 1 to 26 MPa. It is fluid. although at this density it would have no structural integrity at all and would function as a filler or insulation use only. It is heavy and hard to work. cut with a saw. cold. and hard in feeling unless covered by expensive finishes not integral to the structure. is a low-cement-content stiff concrete placed using techniques borrowed from earthmoving and paving work. with a pleasant finish? There is. All accomplish the same outcome: to displace concrete with air. such as lower thermal conductivities. or nail into it. and relatively cheap." The variable density is normally described in kg per m³. And yet concrete.5 to 4. After it sets one cannot cut into it. It is possible to use a whole range of ultra-lightweight concretes which have a density and compressive strength very similar to that of wood.
Main article: Roller-compacted concrete Roller-compacted concrete.
Waste Cork granules are obtained during production of bottle stoppers from the treated bark of Cork oak. A University of California professor of engineering sciences. Variable density can be as low as 300 kg/m³.In the 1977 work on A Pattern Language: Towns. in some form. can be nailed with ordinary nails. Kumar Mehta. architect Christopher Alexander wrote in pattern 209 on Good Materials: "Regular concrete is too dense. We believe that ultra-lightweight concrete is one of the most fundamental bulk materials of the future. and is compacted in place using large heavy rollers typically used in
. easy to work. They are easy to work with. drilled with wood-working tools. and flexural strength from 0. Cork cement composites have several advantages over standard concrete. P. strong. lower than most lightweight aggregates used for making lightweight concrete. is a fascinating material. has even just recently found a way of converting abandoned rice husks into Portland cement. It is available in almost every part of the world. These granules have a density of about 300 kg/m³.
While "rubberized asphalt concrete" is common. with bituminous materials replacing cement as the binder. repair road surfaces that become fully operational in just a few hours. with large scale research being carried out at Columbia University in New York.
The use of recycled glass as aggregate in concrete has become popular in modern times. are said to be achieved by the manufacturer at both atmospheric and extreme conditions. This feature has advantages such as removing the formwork early and to move forward in the building process at record time. This greatly enhances the aesthetic appeal of the concrete.
Strictly speaking. and better mechanical properties.g. a polymer mix may reach 5000 psi in only four hours.
Geopolymer or green concrete
Geopolymer concrete is a greener alternative to ordinary Portland cement made from inorganic aluminosilicate (Al-Si) polymer compounds that can utilise 100% recycled industrial waste (e. fly ash and slag) as the manufacturing inputs resulting in up to 80% lower carbon dioxide emissions. asphalt is a form of concrete as well.
. Polymer concrete is generally more expensive than conventional concretes. For example. Polymer concrete can gain a lot of strength in a short amount of time. Greater chemical and thermal resistance.earthwork.
Rapid strength concrete
This type of concrete is able to develop high resistance within few hours after being manufactured. but has also been used to build concrete dams. The concrete mix achieves a high density and cures over time into a strong monolithic block. rubberized Portland cement concrete ("rubberized PCC") is still undergoing experimental tests. as of 2009
Polymer concrete is concrete which uses polymers to bind the aggregate. Recent research findings have shown that concrete made with recycled glass aggregates have shown better long term strength and better thermal insulation due to its better thermal properties of the glass aggregates. Roller-compacted concrete is typically used for concrete pavement. as the low cement content causes less heat to be generated while curing than typical for conventionally placed massive concrete pours.
On-going research into alternative mixtures and constituents has identified potential mixtures that promise radically different properties and characteristics. Concrete cloth can be used to rapidly create waterproof. Other institutions have identified magnesium silicate (talc) as an alternative ingredient to replace Portland cement in the mix.
High-temperature applications. ballistic protection and sterile concrete shelters. fireproof.Similar concretes have not only been used in Ancient Rome (see Roman concrete) as mentioned but also in the former Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s. and floor leveling. A PVC backing on one surface of the cloth ensures the material is completely waterproof. containing a specially formulated dry concrete mix. but refractory concretes are better able to withstand such conditions. fiber-reinforced thin concrete forms across a wide range of applications: rapid trackway or landing surfaces. Researchers have been able to take mixtures beyond 3 percent strain. Buildings in Ukraine are still standing after 45 years so that this kind of formulation has a sound track record. concretes based on Portland cement can be damaged or destroyed by elevated temperatures. This avoids the usual high-temperature production process that is very energy and greenhouse gas intensive and actually absorbs carbon dioxide while it cures. structural reinforcement. ground stabilization.
Limecrete or lime concrete is concrete where cement is replaced by lime. It is a mixture of gypsum. and sand.
A recent innovation is the concrete cloth. past the more typical 0. sound reduction. while hydrophilic fibers on the opposite surface aid hydration by drawing water into the cement. It consists of a three-dimensional fiber matrix. radiant heating. Portland cement.
Main article: Gypsum concrete Gypsum concrete is a building material used as a floor underlayment used in wood-frame and concrete construction for fire ratings. such as masonry ovens and the like.1% point at which failure occurs. One university has identified a mixture with much smaller crack propagation that does not suffer the usual cracking and subsequent loss of strength at high levels of tensile []. generally require the use of a refractory cement.
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still the largest unreinforced solid concrete dome. it is recommended that individual blocks be mixed from different pallets.
Outer view of the Roman Pantheon. Check with an OmniPro sales associate for availability. For other uses. Circular Patio
From Wikipedia. Not all colors are available in all shapes or styles. the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation. To assure random color distribution. see Concrete (disambiguation).
. or style may change without notice. search This article is about the construction material. size.
A modern building: Boston City Hall (completed 1968) is constructed largely of concrete. shape. Product. color. both precast and poured in place.production run.
The water reacts with the cement. parking structures.
Hennebique House in Bourg-la-Reine. Concrete is a composite construction material. composed of cement (commonly Portland cement) and other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement. In contrast to modern concrete structures. fences and poles. eventually creating a robust stone-like material. bridges/overpasses. from "con-" (together) and "crescere" (to grow). the perfect passive participle of "concrescere". architectural structures. motorways/roads. constructed between 1894 and 1904. Concrete is used to make pavements. aggregate (generally a coarse aggregate made of gravel or crushed rocks such as limestone. plus a fine aggregate such as sand). The word concrete comes from the Latin word "concretus" (meaning compact or condensed). the first concrete building in France. which bonds the other components together. brick/block walls and footings for gates. or granite. water and chemical admixtures. the concrete walls of Roman buildings were covered. Concrete solidifies and hardens after mixing with water and placement due to a chemical process known as hydration. pipe.
. usually with brick or stone.Opus caementicium lying bare on a tomb near Rome. foundations.
1 Additives 2 Composition o 2. about 7.5 Chemical admixtures o 2.3 Pre-stressed concrete structures o 11. More than 55. As of 2006.4 Concrete dust 6 Health concerns o 6.6 Mineral admixtures and blended cements 3 Concrete production o 3.4 Reinforcement o 2.3 Aggregates o 2. prestressed concrete and precast concrete are the most widely used types of concrete functional extensions in modern days.
1 History o 1.2 Surface runoff o 5.4 Concrete textures 12 Building with concrete
.5 cubic kilometers of concrete are made each year—more than one cubic meter for every person on Earth.2 Workability o 3.1 Mass concrete structures o 11.1 Carbon dioxide emissions and climate change o 5.3 Curing 4 Properties 5 Environmental concerns o 5.2 Reinforced concrete structures o 11.1 Mixing concrete o 3.1 Concrete pumping o 10. employing more than two million workers in the United States alone.1 Cement o 2.2 Water o 2.000 km) of highways in the United States are paved with this material.3 Urban heat o 5. Reinforced concrete. Concrete powers a US$35 billion industry.Concrete is used more than any other man-made material in the world.000 miles (89.1 Concrete handling/safety precautions 7 Damage modes 8 Concrete repair 9 Concrete recycling 10 World records o 10.2 Continuous pours 11 Use of concrete in infrastructure o 11.
Hadrian's Pantheon in Rome is an example of Roman concrete construction. was a new and revolutionary material.2 Energy efficiency 12.3 Fire safety and quality of life 12.1 Environmentally sustainable 12. vaults and domes.2 Bibliography 15 External links
o o o o
Concrete has been used for construction in various ancient structures. pozzolana and an aggregate of pumice. in Roman practice.4 Recycling and recyclable 13 See also 14 References o 14. Its widespread use in many Roman structures. An analysis of ancient Egyptian pyramids has shown that concrete may have been employed in their construction. its mix consistency is fluid and homogeneous. Roman concrete (or opus caementicium) was made from quicklime. allowing it to be poured into forms rather than requiring hand-layering together with the placement of aggregate. Concrete. free from many of the internal thrusts and strains that trouble the builders of similar structures in stone or brick. which. it quickly hardened into a rigid mass. 200 kg/cm2).1 Notes o 14. its tensile strength was far lower and its mode of application was also different: Modern structural concrete differs from Roman concrete in two important details. as the Romans knew it. a key event in the history of architecture termed the Roman Architectural Revolution. often
12. However. During the Roman Empire. due to the absence of steel reinforcement. freed Roman construction from the restrictions of stone and brick material and allowed for revolutionary new designs in terms of both structural complexity and dimension. Modern tests show that opus caementicium had as much compressive strength as modern Portland-cement concrete (ca. Laid in the shape of arches. although its composition would have differed from modern concrete.
It is a basic ingredient of concrete. whereas Roman concrete could depend only upon the strength of the concrete bonding to resist tension. Likewise there are concrete structures in Finland that date back to the 16th century. created by varying the proportions of the main ingredients below. or chemical and thermal resistance properties. The widespread use of concrete in many Roman structures has ensured that many survive to the present day. The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are just one example. The most conspicuous of these is fly ash. Marconite is one example. Some have stated that the secret of concrete was lost for 13 centuries until 1756. English masonry worker Joseph Aspdin patented Portland cement in 1824. The mix design depends on the type of structure being built. as does the dome of the Pantheon. Similarly. using pebbles and powdered brick as aggregate. However. the Romans knew that adding horse hair made concrete less liable to crack while it hardened and adding blood made it more frost-resistant. Portland cement was first used in concrete in the early 1840s. when it was discovered that adding volcanic ash to the mix allowed it to set under water. the Canal du Midi was built using concrete in 1670. how the concrete will be mixed and delivered and how it will be placed to form this structure.
Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general usage. as the ash acts as a cement replacement. integral reinforcing steel gives modern concrete assemblies great strength in tension. when the British engineer John Smeaton pioneered the use of hydraulic lime in concrete. it was named because of its similarity in color to Portland limestone. density. researchers have experimented with the addition of other materials to create concrete with improved properties.
There are many types of concrete available.consisted of rubble. In this way or by substitution for the cemetitious and aggregate phases. In modern times. the finished product can be tailored to its application with varying strength.
Concrete additives have been used since Roman and Egyptian times. quarried from the
. mortar and plaster. reduces the amount of cement required. This use reduces the amount of quarrying and landfill space required and. a by-product of coal-fired power plants. Many Roman aqueducts and bridges have masonry cladding on a concrete core. Second. such as higher strength or electrical conductivity. Recently the use of recycled materials as concrete ingredients has been gaining popularity because of increasingly stringent environmental legislation.
Sand. demolition and excavation waste) are increasingly used as partial replacements of natural aggregates. Portland cement and similar materials are made by heating limestone (a source of calcium) with clay and grinding this product (called clinker) with a source of sulfate (most commonly gypsum). more durable concrete. Impure water used to make concrete can cause problems when setting or in causing premature failure of the structure. the products of the cement hydration process gradually bond together the individual sand and gravel particles and other components of the concrete. while a number of manufactured aggregates.
. It consists of a mixture of oxides of calcium.English Isle of Portland and used extensively in London architecture. including air-cooled blast furnace slag and bottom ash are also permitted. silicon and aluminium. The cement paste glues the aggregate together. Recycled aggregates (from construction.
Combining water with a cementitious material forms a cement paste by the process of hydration. to form a solid mass. As the reactions proceed. more water will give an freer-flowing concrete with a higher slump. fills voids within it and allows it to flow more freely. Fine and coarse aggregates make up the bulk of a concrete mixture. Reaction: Cement chemist notation: C3S + H → C-S-H + CH Standard notation: Ca3SiO5 + H2O → (CaO)·(SiO2)·(H2O)(gel) + Ca(OH)2 Balanced: 2Ca3SiO5 + 7H2O → 3(CaO)·2(SiO2)·4(H2O)(gel) + 3Ca(OH)2
Cement and sand ready to be mixed. often occurring at the same time. Less water in the cement paste will yield a stronger. Hydration involves many different reactions. natural gravel and crushed stone are used mainly for this purpose.
This can lead to strength gradients. Reinforced concrete solves these problems by adding either steel reinforcing bars. as the aggregate efficiently carries the compression load. Concrete is strong in compression.
Installing rebar in a floor slab during a concrete pour. glucose. The common types of admixtures are as follows.
. popular among landscape designers. as each 1% of air may result in 5% decrease in compressive strength. The presence of aggregate greatly increases the robustness of concrete above that of cement. However. In normal use. Typical polyol retarders are sugar. sodium gluconate. or plastic fiber to carry tensile loads. However. small river stones or crushed glass are sometimes added to the surface of concrete for a decorative "exposed aggregate" finish. so that nitrates may be favored. Ca(NO3)2 and NaNO3. sucrose. Air entrainments add and entrain tiny air bubbles in the concrete. glass fiber. However. citric acid and tartaric acid. Typical materials used are CaCl2. allowing the structure to fail. Redistribution of aggregates after compaction often creates inhomogeneity due to the influence of vibration. it is weak in tension as the cement holding the aggregate in place can crack. which will reduce damage during freeze-thaw cycles. use of chlorides may cause corrosion in steel reinforcing and is prohibited in some countries. thereby increasing the concrete's durability. Retarders slow the hydration of concrete and are used in large or difficult pours where partial setting before the pour is complete is undesirable.
Accelerators speed up the hydration (hardening) of the concrete. Thereafter the concrete is reinforced to withstand the tensile loads upon it. which otherwise is a brittle material and thus concrete is a true composite material.
 Chemical admixtures
Chemical admixtures are materials in the form of powder or fluids that are added to the concrete to give it certain characteristics not obtainable with plain concrete mixes. entrained air entails a trade off with strength.Decorative stones such as quartzite. admixture dosages are less than 5% by mass of cement and are added to the concrete at the time of batching/mixing. steel fibers.
Superplasticizers (also called highrange water-reducers) are a class of plasticizers that have fewer deleterious effects and can be used to increase workability more than is practical with traditional plasticizers.
Fly ash: A by-product of coal-fired electric generating plants. with less consolidating effort. Brazil. Pigments can be used to change the color of concrete. thicken the paste and reduce separation and bleeding. sulfonated melamine formaldehyde condensate. These very fine-grained materials are added to the concrete mix to improve the properties of concrete (mineral admixtures). Corrosion inhibitors are used to minimize the corrosion of steel and steel bars in concrete. Pumping aids improve pumpability. it is used to partially replace Portland cement (by up to 60% by mass). siliceous fly ash is pozzolanic. for aesthetics. Plasticizers can be used to reduce the water content of a concrete while maintaining workability and are sometimes called water-reducers due to this use. The properties of fly ash depend on the type of coal burnt. allowing it be placed more easily. or as a replacement for Portland cement (blended cements). A typical plasticizer is lignosulfonate.
Plasticizers increase the workability of plastic or "fresh" concrete.
 Mineral admixtures and blended cements
There are inorganic materials that also have pozzolanic or latent hydraulic properties. while calcareous fly ash has latent hydraulic properties. Compounds used as superplasticizers include sulfonated naphthalene formaldehyde condensate.
Blocks of concrete in Belo Horizonte. acetone formaldehyde condensate and polycarboxylate ethers. Such treatment improves its strength and durability characteristics. In general.
. Bonding agents are used to create a bond between old and new concrete (typically a type of polymer) .
This results in a higher surface to volume ratio and a much faster pozzolanic reaction. the chains of crystals join and form a rigid structure. High reactivity Metakaolin (HRM): Metakaolin produces concrete with strength and durability similar to concrete made with silica fume. These continue to react over time. While silica fume is usually dark gray or black in color. with the initially fluid gel often aiding in placement by improving workability. but has a particle size 100 times smaller. Silica fume is similar to fly ash. more of the cement reacts with the residual water (hydration). low moisture permeability and chemical and volumetric stability. gluing the aggregate particles in place. Portland cement and water rapidly form a gel.
. but generally requires the use of superplasticizers for workability. As the concrete sets. making it the preferred choice for architectural concrete where appearance is important.
Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS or GGBS): A by-product of steel production is used to partially replace Portland cement (by up to 80% by mass). The processes used vary dramatically. Silica fume: A by-product of the production of silicon and ferrosilicon alloys. Silica fume is used to increase strength and durability of concrete. from hand tools to heavy industry. It has latent hydraulic properties. Among these qualities are mechanical strength. During curing. high-reactivity metakaolin is usually bright white in color. This curing process develops physical and chemical properties.
 Concrete production
Concrete plant facility (background) with concrete delivery trucks. but result in the concrete being placed where it cures into a final form. Wide range of technological factors may occur during production of concrete elements and their influence to basic characteristics may vary When initially mixed together. formed of tangled chains of interlocking crystals.
sand provides dissipation of energy and creates high shear conditions on the surface of cement particles. This results in the full volume of water interacting with cement. In this process. The liquid activated mixture can be used by itself or foamed (expanded) for lightweight concrete.
. The cement paste premix may include admixtures such as accelerators or retarders. The premixed paste is then blended with aggregates and any remaining batch water and final mixing is completed in conventional concrete mixing equipment. Separate paste mixing has shown that the mixing of cement and water into a paste before combining these materials with aggregates can increase the compressive strength of the resulting concrete.
 Mixing concrete
Thorough mixing is essential for the production of uniform.Cement being mixed with sand and water to form concrete. or silica fume. shear-type mixer at a w/cm (water to cement ratio) of 0. The paste is generally mixed in a high-speed. water and sand with net specific energy consumption of at least 5 kilojoules per kilogram of the mix. pigments. For this reason equipment and methods should be capable of effectively mixing concrete materials containing the largest specified aggregate to produce uniform mixtures of the lowest slump practical for the work. High-energy mixed (HEM) concrete is produced by means of high-speed mixing of cement. which can later be mixed with aggregates in a conventional concrete mixer. plasticizers.30 to 0. HEM concrete hardens in low and subzero temperature conditions and possesses an increased volume of gel. high quality concrete.45 by mass. A plasticizer or a superplasticizer is then added to the activated mixture. which drastically reduces capillarity in solid and porous materials.
Main article: Concrete slump test Workability is the ability of a fresh (plastic) concrete mix to fill the form/molud properly with the desired work (vibration) and without reducing the concrete's quality.Pouring a concrete floor for a commercial building. with the resulting concrete having reduced quality. cementitious content and age (level of hydration) and can be modified by adding chemical admixtures. The use of an aggregate with an undesirable gradation can result in a very harsh mix design with a
. slab-on-ground. aggregate (shape and size distribution). Raising the water content or adding chemical admixtures will increase concrete workability.
A concrete slab ponded while curing. Excessive water will lead to increased bleeding (surface water) and/or segregation of aggregates (when the cement and aggregates start to separate). Workability depends on water content.
Concrete pump. like superplasticizer.
the enclosed material will slump a certain amount due to gravity. a simplistic measure of the plasticity of a fresh batch of concrete following the ASTM C 143 or EN 12350-2 test standards. concrete is a fluid and can be pumped to the location where needed. When the cone is carefully lifted off.
Concrete mixture placement
. can increase the slump of a mix. Some other admixtures. with each layer being tamped with a steel rod in order to consolidate the layer. One of these methods includes placing the cone on the narrow end and observing how the mix flows through the cone while it is gradually lifted. especially airentraining admixture. like self-consolidating concrete. A relatively wet concrete sample may slump as much as eight inches. High-flow concrete. Workability can be measured by the concrete slump test. Slump can be increased by addition of chemical admixtures such as plasticizer or superplasticizer without changing the water-cement ratio. It is then filled in three layers of equal volume. Workability can also be measured by using the flow table test. is tested by other flow-measuring methods. After mixing. which cannot be readily made more workable by addition of reasonable amounts of water. having a slump value of one or two inches (25 or 50 mm). non-absorptive surface.very low slump. A relatively dry sample will slump very little. The cone is placed with the wide end down onto a level. Slump is normally measured by filling an "Abrams cone" with a sample from a fresh batch of concrete.
In all but the least critical applications. initially setting and becoming rigid though very weak and gaining in strength in the weeks following. this is achieved by spraying or ponding the concrete surface with water. However. lowers the pH of the cement pore solution and can cause the reinforcement bars to corrode. In practice. Properly curing concrete leads to increased strength and lower permeability and avoids cracking where the surface dries out prematurely. Cement requires a moist. It depends on cross-section dimension of elements and conditions of structure exploitation. though strengthening may continue for decades. or overheating due to the exothermic setting of cement (the Hoover Dam used pipes carrying coolant during setting to avoid damaging overheating). During this period concrete needs to be kept under controlled temperature and humid atmosphere. The conversion of calcium hydroxide in the concrete into calcium carbonate from absorption of CO2 over several decades further strengthen the concrete and making it more resilient to damage.Pouring and smoothing out concrete at Palisades Park in Washington DC. called carbonation. care needs to be taken to properly cure concrete. Hydration and hardening of concrete during the first three days is critical. This happens after the concrete has been placed. reduced strength. Improper curing can cause scaling. In around 3 weeks. resulting in greater shrinkage cracking. often by increased use of cement that increases shrinkage and cracking. The cement paste hardens over time. High-earlystrength concrete is designed to hydrate faster. poor abrasion resistance and cracking. Minimizing stress prior to curing minimizes cracking.
. Strength of concrete changes (increases) up to three years. controlled environment to gain strength and harden fully. Care must also be taken to avoid freezing. typically over 90% of the final strength is reached. this reaction. to achieve best strength and hardness. ponding – submerging setting concrete in water and wrapping in plastic to contain the water in the mix. The early strength of the concrete can be increased if it is kept damp during the curing process. thereby protecting the concrete mass from ill effects of ambient conditions. The pictures to the right show two of many ways to achieve this. Abnormally fast drying and shrinkage due to factors such as evaporation from wind during placement may lead to increased tensile stresses at a time when it has not yet gained sufficient strength.
The elasticity of concrete is relatively constant at low stress levels but starts decreasing at higher stress levels as matrix cracking develops.
Both concrete and asphalt are the primary contributors to what is known as the urban heat island effect. roadways and parking lots.
. when water runs off impervious surfaces. can cause heavy soil erosion. All concrete structures will crack to some extent. motor oil. Tests can be made to ensure the properties of concrete correspond to specifications for the application. However. Urban runoff tends to pick up gasoline. Indeed. Concrete that is subjected to long-duration forces is prone to creep. The embodied carbon dioxide (ECO2) of one tonne of concrete is around 100 kg/tonne. due to shrinkage and tension. A 2008 report by the United States National Research Council identified urban runoff as a leading source of water quality problems.
 Environmental concerns
For the environmental impact of cement production see Cement
 Carbon dioxide emissions and climate change
The cement industry is one of two primary producers of carbon dioxide (CO2). particularly from the combustion of fossil fuels. of which 50% is from the chemical process and 40% from burning fuel. The impervious cover in a typical urban area limits groundwater percolation and causes five times the amount of runoff generated by a typical woodland of the same size. creating up to 5% of worldwide man-made emissions of this gas.Main article: Properties of concrete Concrete has relatively high compressive strength. but much lower tensile strength and for this reason is usually reinforced with materials that are strong in tension (often steel).
Surface runoff. Cement manufacture contributes greenhouse gases both directly through the production of carbon dioxide when calcium carbonate is thermally decomposed. such as non-porous concrete. The CO2 emission from the concrete production is directly proportional to the cement content used in the concrete mix. trash and other pollutants from sidewalks. producing lime and carbon dioxide. Concrete has a very low coefficient of thermal expansion and shrinks as it matures. 900 kg of CO2 are emitted for the fabrication of every ton of cement. some companies have recognized the problem and are envisaging solutions to counter their CO2 emissions. and also through the use of energy. The principle of carbon capture and storage consists of directly capturing the CO2 at the outlet of the cement kiln in order to transport it and to store the captured CO2 in an adequate and deep geological formation. heavy metals.
the pH of fresh cement water is highly alkaline due to the presence of free potassium and sodium hydroxides in solution (pH ~ 13. A low albedo value. cities.S.5). their average city temperature decreased by 6 °F. Atlanta has tried to mitigate the heat-island effect.
Building demolition and natural disasters such as earthquakes often release a large amount of concrete dust into the local atmosphere. City officials noted that when using heatreflecting concrete. depending on the source of the raw materials used. Indeed. Toxic substances may also be added to the mixture for making concrete by unscrupulous makers. This directly affects the temperature of the city and contributes to the urban heat island effect. Natural radioactive elements (K. U and Th) can be present in various concentration in concrete dwellings.Using light-colored concrete has proven effective in reflecting up to 50% more light than asphalt and reducing ambient temperature.
Concrete handling/safety precautions
Handling of wet concrete must always be done with proper protective equipment. Paving with light-colored concrete would lower temperatures of paved areas and improve night-time visibility.
. absorbs a large percentage of solar heat and contributes to the warming of cities. However. The potential of energy saving within an area is also high. The Design Trust for Public Space found that by slightly raising the albedo value in New York City. characteristic of black asphalt. saving energy.
The presence of some substances in concrete. In many U. hands and feet must be correctly protected to avoid any direct contact with wet concrete and washed without delay if necessary. in addition to replacing asphalt with light-colored concrete. can cause health concerns. in winter this may be a disadvantage as ice will form more easily and remain longer on the light colored surfaces as they will be colder due to less energy absorbed from the reduced amount of sunlight in winter. pavement covers about 30-40% of the surface area. beneficial effects such as energy savings could be achieved. With lower temperatures. It was concluded that this could be accomplished by the replacement of black asphalt with light-colored concrete. Dust from rubble or broken concrete upon demolition or crumbling may cause serious health concerns depending also on what had been incorporated in the concrete. the demand for air conditioning decreases. By paving with light colored concrete. including useful and unwanted additives. Eyes. Contact with wet concrete can cause skin chemical burns due to the caustic nature of the mixture of cement and water. Concrete dust was concluded to be the major source of dangerous air pollution following the Great Hanshin earthquake. communities can lower their average temperature.
having dissolved components of concrete. Water seeping through the concrete.
.Secondary efflorescence. often in cracks.
Main article: Concrete degradation
Concrete spalling caused by the corrosion of reinforcement bars after that carbonation of cement decreased the pH below the passivation threshold for steel.
CPP and CPR techniques include slab stabilization. design data. These methods are often less expensivethan an asphalt overlay but last three times longer and provide a greener solution. sulfates and distillate water). dowel bar retrofit. When repairing a road. diamond grinding and joint and crack resealing. cracks or the pavement edge.Flight through a µCT image stack of a piece of concrete found at Montpellier. freezing of trapped water. leaving air inclusions. Full-depth repairs fixes cracked slabs and joint deterioration by removing at least a portion of the existing slab and replacing it with new concrete.
Slab stabilization restores support to concrete slabs by filling small voids that develop underneath the concrete slab at joints. Partial-depth repairs corrects surface distress and joint-crack deterioration in the upper third of the concrete slab. physical damage and chemical damage (from carbonation. The methods are described below. are utilized in lieu of short-lived asphalt overlays and bituminous patches to repair roads. this non-overlay method is used to repair isolated areas of distress. Concrete can be damaged by many processes. Placing a partial-depth repair involves removing the deteriorated concrete. cleaning the patch area and placing new concrete.
. construction data. fire or radiant heat. Pavements repaired using CPR methods usually last 15 years. environmental data. bacterial corrosion. such as the expansion of corrosion products of the steel reinforcement bars. developed over the last 40 years. traffic data. CPR methods.
Concrete pavement preservation (CPP) and concrete pavement restoration (CPR) are techniques used to manage the rate of pavement deterioration on concrete streets. cross stitching longitudinal cracks or joints. CPR techniques can be used to address specific problems or bring a pavement back to its original quality. previous CPR activities and pavement condition. chlorides. Years of salt water contact have dissolved calcium-based fillers (clamp and snail shells).and partial-depth repair. erosion by fast-flowing water. full. leaching. Without changing concrete grade. aggregate expansion. France. highways and airports. must all be taken into account. sea water effects.
codep) approximated that almost 17% of worldwide landfill was by-products of concrete based waste. by removing faulting.
The world record for the largest concrete pour in a single project is the Three Gorges Dam in Hubei Province. Joint and crack sealing minimizes the infiltration of surface water and incompressible material into the joint system. but recycling is increasing due to improved environmental awareness. slab warping. Concrete. conserving landfill space and use as aggregate reduces the need for gravel mining. though the use of recycled concrete limits strength and is not allowed in many jurisdictions.
Main article: Concrete recycling Concrete recycling is an increasingly common method of disposing of concrete structures. Concrete debris was once routinely shipped to landfills for disposal. bricks and rocks. Reinforced concrete contains rebar and other metallic reinforcements. Cross-stitching longitudinal cracks or joints repairs low-severity longitudinal cracks. which is quieter than transverse textures. Larger chunks may go through the crusher again. wood. China by the Three Gorges Corporation. slows pumping and erosion of the sub-base fines and may limit dowel-bar corrosion caused by de-icing chemicals. Recycling concrete provides environmental benefits. Diamond grinding. governmental laws and economic benefits. a government funded research team (the VIRL research. Dowel bar retrofits link slabs together at transverse cracks and joints so that the load is evenly distributed across the crack or joint.
Dowel bar retrofit consists of cutting slots in the pavement across the joint or crack. which must be free of trash. Minimizing water entering the joint reduces sub-grade softening. with fresh concrete or asphalt placed over it. which are removed with magnets and recycled elsewhere. studded tire wear and unevenness resulting from patches. placing the dowel bars and backfilling the slots with new concrete. Diamond grinding reduces road noise by providing a longitudinal texture. The remaining aggregate chunks are sorted by size. Aggregate base gravel is laid down as the lowest layer in a road. diamond grinding creates a smooth. Crushed recycled concrete can sometimes be used as the dry aggregate for brand new concrete if it is free of contaminants. often along with asphalt. cleaning the slots. The amount of concrete used in the
. is collected from demolition sites and put through a crushing machine. On March 3. paper and other such materials. This method adds reinforcing steel to hold the crack together tightly. The longitudinal texture also enhances surface texture and skid resistance in polished pavements. 1983. uniform pavement profile. Smaller pieces of concrete are used as gravel for new construction projects.
2 million cubic meters held by Itaipu hydropower station in Brazil. Mahan Construction Company.900 m2) of concrete placed within a 30 hour period.
The world record was set at on 7 August 2009 during the construction of the Parbati Hydroelectric Project. this placement will allow the 50. The monolithic placement consisted of 225.
. The previous record (close to 10. near the village of Suind.5% in total area.000 cubic meters of concrete poured within a two day period. J.662 m2) cofferdam to be dewatered approximately 26 feet (7.224 cubic yards of concrete placed in a 58 hour period using two concrete pumps and two dedicated concrete batch plants.83. in Louisville. The record for the largest continuously placed underwater concrete pour was completed October 18. Kentucky by design-build firm EXXCEL Project Management. 2010. Louisiana by contractor C.construction of the dam is estimated at 16 million cubic meters over 17 years.9 m) below sea level to allow the construction of the IHNC GIWW Sill & Monolith Project to be completed in the dry. 1997. The pour (a part of the foundation for the Abu Dhabi's Landmark Tower) was 16. This surpassed the previous record by 50% in total volume and 7. LLC of Grove City.60 and a levelness tolerance of FL 43. when the concrete mix was pumped through a vertical height of 715 m (2. India. The placement consisted of 10. finished to a flatness tolerance of FF 54.346 ft). Himachal Pradesh.180-square-foot (4. 2007.
The world record for largest continuously poured concrete raft was achieved in August 2007 in Abu Dhabi by contracting firm Al Habtoor-CCC Joint Venture. The previous record was 3. Upon curing. The world record for largest continuously poured concrete floor was completed November 8.500 cubic meters) was held by Dubai Contracting Company and achieved March 23. in New Orleans.000 square feet (20. Ohio.
a 67-foot (20 m) lizard and 40foot (12 m) cacti along the 8-mile (13 km) stretch. feature desert flora and fauna. after casting. Sound/retaining walls. The project. With the use of form liner.The interior of the Pantheon in the 18th century.
Use of concrete in infrastructure
Mass concrete structures
These include gravity dams such as the Hoover Dam. In pre-tensioned concrete." is one example of how concrete can be shaped using elastomeric form liner. Concrete that is poured all at once in one block (so that there are no weak points where the concrete is "welded" together) is used for tornado shelters. Arizona. This can greatly reduce the weight of beams or slabs.
. For example. the pre-stressing is achieved by using steel or polymer tendons or bars that are subjected to a tensile force prior to casting. the image of a dull.
Pre-stressed concrete structures
Main article: Pre-stressed concrete Pre-stressed concrete is a form of reinforced concrete that builds in compressive stresses during construction to oppose those found when in use.
When one thinks of concrete. bridges. If the reinforcement along the bottom of the beam is pre-stressed. office buildings and more serve as the optimal canvases for concrete art. it can counteract this. the Pima Freeway/Loop 101 retaining and sound walls in Scottsdale. or for post-tensioned concrete. by better distributing the stresses in the structure to make optimal use of the reinforcement. the Itaipu Dam and the Three Gorges Dam and large breakwaters. For example a horizontal beam will tend to sag down. gray concrete wall often comes to mind. painted by Giovanni Paolo Pannini. titled "The Path Most Traveled.
Reinforced concrete structures
Main article: Reinforced concrete Reinforced concrete contains steel reinforcing that is designed and placed in the structure at specific positions to cater for all the stress conditions that the structure is required to accommodate. concrete can be cast and molded into different textures and used for decorative concrete applications.
its only energy-intensive ingredient. concrete conserves resources by reducing the need for reconstruction. Italy. Concrete does not require any CO2 absorbing trees to be cut down. metals accounted for 3000 kg of CO2 and wood accounted for 127 kg of CO2.
40-foot cacti decorate a sound/retaining wall in Scottsdale. Concrete absorbs CO2 throughout its lifetime through carbonation. Concrete consists of between 7% and 15% cement. It provides superior fire resistance. During this time.
The Baths of Caracalla. compared with wooden construction and can gain strength over time. The
. Rome. AZ. in 2003. aggregate (sand and gravel or crushed stone). A study  comparing the CO2 emissions of several different building materials for construction of residential and commercial buildings found that concrete accounted for 147 kg of CO2 per 1000 kg used. helping reduce its carbon footprint. it is realistic to assume that approximately 86% of the concrete is carbonated after 100 years. Structures made of concrete can have a long service life. A recent study  indicates that in countries with the most favorable recycling practices. About 50% of the CO2 is absorbed within a short time after concrete is crushed during recycling operations. the concrete will absorb approximately 57% of the CO2 emitted during the original calcination. Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world with annual consumption estimated at between 21 and 31 billion tonnes.
Building with concrete
Concrete is one of the most durable building materials.
With its 100-year service life. Its ingredients are cement and readily available natural materials: water. The land required to extract the materials needed to make concrete is only a fraction of that used to harvest forests for lumber.
typically manufactured within 100 kilometers of the job site. Insulating Concrete Forms (ICFs) are hollow blocks or panels made of either insulating foam or rastra that are stacked to form the shape of the walls of a building and then filled with reinforced concrete to create the structure. thermal mass uses walls to store and release energy. By storing and releasing the energy needed for heating or cooling. Concrete reduces the risk of structural collapse and is an effective fire shield.quantity of CO2 generated during the cement manufacturing process can be reduced by changing the raw materials used in its manufacture. While insulation reduces energy loss through the building envelope. Air leakage accounts for a large percentage of energy loss from a home.
 Energy efficiency
Energy requirements for transportation of concrete are low because it is produced locally from local resources. Furthermore." in the Lentos Museum in Linz.
Models of Porsche automobiles.
Fire safety and quality of life
Concrete buildings are more resistant to fire than those constructed using wood or steel frames. Concrete made with PLC performs similarly to concrete made with regular cement and thus PLC-based concrete can be widely used as a replacement. Modern concrete wall systems use both insulation and thermal mass to create an energy-efficient building. Since concrete does not burn and stops fire from spreading. rather than the 5% in regular Portland cement and results in 10% less CO2 emissions from production with no impact on product performance. concrete offers significant energy efficiency over the lifetime of a building. In Europe. PLC will be included in the National Building Code in 2010. Concrete walls leak air far less than those made of wood-frames. A new environmentally friendly blend of cement known as Portland-limestone cement (PLC) is gaining ground all over the world. it does not produce any smoke or toxic gases and does not drip molten particles. providing safe means of escape for occupants and protection for fire fighters. In Canada. Austria in 2009. It contains up to 15% limestone. PLCbased concrete has replaced about 40% of general use concrete. concrete's thermal mass delivers year-round benefits by reducing temperature swings inside and minimizing heating and cooling costs. The thermal mass properties of concrete increase the efficiency of both residential and commercial buildings. "Best of Austria. made out of concrete. it offers total fire protection for occupants and their property.
. Once in place. part of an exhibition. The approval of PLC is still under consideration in the United States.
It covered 125 fires that occurred between 1995 and 2004.000 compared with €10. in which ICF walls were subjected to a continuous gas flame with a temperature of more than 1000 °C for as long as 4 hours showed no significant breaks in the concrete layer or dangerous transmission of heat. Neither heat. ceilings and roofs made of cast-in-place and hollow-core precast concrete. A study was conducted in Sweden by Olle Lundberg on the cost of fire damage associated with larger fires in multi-unit buildings. ICFs are hollow blocks or panels made of fireproof insulating foam that are stacked to form the shape of the walls of a building and then filled with reinforced concrete to create the structure.which can spread fire.000. Concrete provides stable compartmentation in large industrial and multi-storey buildings so a fire starting in one section does not spread to others. whereas only 9% of the concrete ones were beyond repair the fire spread to neighbouring apartments in only three of the 55 fires in concrete houses of those 55 fires. Using concrete to construct buildings offers the best possible protection and safety in fires:
. concrete masonry technology and Insulating Concrete Forms (ICFs) are additional options. per unit in wood frame buildings was around five times that of fires in concrete buildings (approximately €50. For walls. The results showed that:
the average insurance payout per fire. flames nor the water used to extinguish a fire seriously affect the structure of concrete walls and floors making repairs after a fire a relatively simple task. wood frame walls normally collapse in an hour or less under these conditions. but 56% of the major fires. about 10% of the fires in multi-family homes. The study was limited to buildings with an insured value greater than €150. based on statistics from the insurance association in Sweden (Försäkringsförbundet). 50% of those made with wood had to be demolished. ―Fire-wall‖ tests. 45 were in attics and roofing
Options for non-combustible construction include floors.000) a major fire is more than 11 times more likely to develop in a wood-frame house than in one built using concrete among the burned houses. In comparison.
tornadoes due to its lateral stiffness that results in minimal horizontal movement. As a result of all these benefits. it also provides superior resistance to seismic events.Multi-story residential buildings constructed using concrete in Chile. Concrete also provides the best resistance of any building material to high winds. insurance for concrete homes is often 15 to 25 percent lower than for comparable wood frame homes. hurricanes.
it does not burn or add to fire load it has high resistance to fire. It does not rust. toxic gases or drip molten particles it reduces the risk of structural collapse it provides safe means of escape for occupants and access for fire fighters as it is an effective fire shield it is not affected by the water used to put out a fire it is easy to repair after a fire and thus helps residents and businesses recover sooner it resists extreme fire conditions.
. making it ideal for storage facilities with a high fire load it provides complete fire protection so there is normally no need for additional measures
Recycled crushed concrete being loaded into a semi-dump truck to be used as granular fill. rot or sustain growth of mold and stands up well to the freeze – thaw cycle. When properly designed for ductility. preventing it from spreading thus reduces resulting environmental pollution it does not produce any smoke.
As it is practically inert and waterproof. carbon footprint and quantity of landfill materials. toxicity and release of volatile organic compounds so they are generally healthier to live in than those made of wood or steel. Concrete can be easily cleaned with organic. Even kiln dust. special coatings or sealers.
Recycling and recyclable
A nearly inert material. their impacts on the environment are negligible. which helps reduce embodied energy. After accounting for sound passing through windows.
. Its sound insulating properties make buildings and homes a quiet and comfortable living environment. a solid waste generated by cement manufacturing. Due to the long life of concrete structures. alumina and iron needed for making cement. calcium. they have minimal maintenance requirements and as a result minimal social disruption. Fly ash. Industrial by-products such as ash from coal combustion. a concrete home is about two-thirds quieter than a comparable wood-frame home. Once built. thereby minimizing the waste put into landfills. is often recycled back into the kiln as a raw material. Old concrete that has reached the end of its service life can be recycled and reused as granular fill for road beds. slag and silica fume are used in making concrete. concrete is suitable as a medium for recycling waste and industrial byproducts. fly ash from power stations as well as mill scale and foundry sand from steel casting provide the silica. Using concrete reduces construction waste as it is used on an as-required basis. The process of making cement also uses waste materials. concrete does not need volatile organic-based preservatives. non-toxic substances. Tires have high energy content and can supplement coal as fuel in the kiln.Concrete buildings also have excellent indoor air quality with no off-gassing.