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STAFF
Editor-In-Chief
Emmanuel Gol dstei n
Artwork
Hol l y Kaufman Spruch
Design
Zel da and the Ri ght Thumb
Writers: Eri c Corl ey, John Drake, Paul Estev, Mr . French, The Gl itch , The
I nfi del , The Pl ague, David Ruder man, Ber nie S., Lou Scan non, Si l ent
Switchman, Viol ence, and t he growing anonymous bunch.
Remote Observations: Geo. C. Pi l you
Winter 1989-90 2600 Magazine Page 3
the day the phone system
We al l knew t he day woul d come.
And at l east some of us were prepared
for i t. But, as usual , the vast majority
had absol utel y no i dea what was going
on.
AT&T was hit hard by a computer
wor m on January 1 5. That i s a f act.
And after reading the techni cal expl a­
nati on bel ow, you' l l see why t his i s so.
But AT&T wasn't the onl y entity hi t
by thi s worm -we al l were, some far
more t han others. The i nabi l ity to get
t hrough, the deni al of access, cupl ed
wi th the bl ind faith we put i n technol o­
gy, t he unwi l l i ngness to spread i nfor­
mati on so we can al l understand the
pr oces s. Ye a h , i t was f u n f or t h e
phone phreaks as we watched the net­
work cr umbl e. But i t was also an omi ­
nous si gn of what's to come.
I n t h e wor ds of a h i g h - r an ki ng
AT& T person, "very l i ttl e cou l d have
"The news here isn't
so much the faiure of
a computer program,
but the faiure of
A T& T's entire
structure. "
gone wor se". Accordi ng to AT&T, of
1 48 mi l l i on att empt s, onl y 50 mi l l i on
went t hrough. Many cl ai m i t was f ar
worse t han that.
But what was i t t hat act ual l y hap­
pened? Here' s what we were abl e to
deter mi ne:
The probl e m st art ed i n a 4ESS
machi ne i n New York. Th e 4ESS i s
used t o route cal l s and i s basi cal l y, in
t he wor ds of a Bel l Lab t echni ci an,
"nothing mor e t han a bi g computer".
New York, for reasons unknown, sent
ou t a br oadcast war ni ng me ssag e
(BWM) , whi ch tri ggered al l of t he 1 1 3
ot her 4ESS mach i n e s a ro u nd t h e
nation to d o l i kewi se.
Why di d t h i s h appen now? Wel l ,
back i n t h e l at e sevent i es, Bel l Labs
devel oped a common ch an n el s i g­
nal l ing syst em known as System Si x
or CCS 6 . I nt ernat i o n al st and ar ds
have been devel oped over t he past
coupl e of year s wh i ch necessi tated
some change on AT&Ts par. So CCS
7, or System Seven , was i nt roduced.
Somewhere i nsi de System Seven i s
where the probl em l urked, undeteced,
unti l January 1 5.
Acco rd i ng t o e x p e rt s , Syst e m
Seven i s a much more fl exi bl e system
and that' s why i t' s become the i nter na­
ti onal standard. I t' s act ual l y more of a
protocol to whi ch each company must
adjust . They don' t al l use t he same
software. AT&T uses i ts own software,
Bri ti sh Tel ecm uses somet hi ng differ­
ent, U. S. Spri nt uses somet hi ng el se,
et c. Some AT&T peopl e , ai ded by
wel l - meani ng but ignorant medi a, were
spreadi ng t he noti on t hat many com­
pan i es had t h e same sof t war e and
t her efore coul d face t he same probl em
someday. Wrong. Thi s was enti rel y an
AT& T software def i ci ency. Of course,
other compani es cul d face compl ete­
l y diferent soft war e probl e ms. B ut ,
then, so too could AT&T.
The 1 1 4 4ESS machi n es aro u nd
t h e co u n t ry h ave n e w sof t war e
i n st al l ed per i odi cal l y. Wh en t h i s i s
done, it' s done gradual l y, ci rcu it by ci r­
cuit, one machi ne at a ti me. The net­
wor k i s pr esent l y conf i gu red so t hat
t he 4ESS mach i nes have some ci r­
cui t s consi st i ng of both Syst em Si x
and Syst e m Seve n . Eve n t u a l l y ,
Page 4 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90
REALLY died
though, al l ti es to t he Si x wi l l be el i mi ­
nated. "There's no reason to be con­
cerned wi th t hi s, " AT&T says. "We've
had some major changes in t he net­
wor k i n t h e l ast t e n ye ar s. I n f act ,
we've had quite a few in t he l ast t hree
or f our. They've al ways been f or t he
better. "
B ut wh at cau s e d t h e p robl e m?
Exact l y the ri ght si tuat i on occurred at
t he ri ght moment for a parti cul ar event
to occur. Possi bl y the fac t hat January
15th was a hol i day had somet hi ng to
do wi th it . Traff i c was fai rly l ow, whi ch
was u n u s u a l f or a Mo n d ay . I t ' s
assu med t hat t he probl em ori gi nated
i n a part i cul ar component known as
Co mmo n N et wor k I n t e rf ace ( CN I )
Ri n g. The r e i s a component o f t hat
r i ng t hat al l ows t he 4ESS to transmit
messages across the ri ng and across
t h e Co m mo n Ch a n n e l Si g n a l l i n g
Networ k. What apparentl y happen ed
was t hat t here was a fl aw of some ki nd
i n t he software i n one of those r i ngs.
The bogus BWM f rom New York was
sent out and i t caused an excess of
messages goi ng to ot her 4ESS l oca­
ti ons. A snowbal l eff ect began and t he
congest i on spr ead and grew rapi dl y.
Al l of t he 4ESS machi nes wer e effect­
ed wi t hi n hal f an hour.
Sounds l i ke a worm to us. Not the
ki n d t h at g et s spr ead del i ber at el y.
Th e r e ar e pl e nt y of p ro g r a mmi n g
errors t hat cause acci dental worms. I t
could happen to any computer system.
Ph o n e c a l l s we r e f or ced of f of
System Seven and onto Syst em Si x.
The probl em was f i xed by overwri ti ng
par of t he software, in effect , bypass­
i ng it . But, at press ti me, t he speci fi c
cause sti l l hadn't been made known.
The n ame of t he organ izat i on of
Bel l Labs software peopl e tryi ng to f i g­
ure al l of t hi s out i s NESAC, Nati onal
E l ect r o n i c Swi t c h i n g As s i st an ce
Cent er . They' r e wor ki ng ou t of Ly l e
and I ndi an Hi l l , I l l i noi s.
Lck of Redundancy
One exper sai d , "Th ere's been a
t e n d e n cy i n t h i s compan y t o save
money by central i zi ng operati ons and
maki ng t h i ngs bi gger . And t hat has
made t he whol e system more vul nera­
bl e. "
There i s much l ess redu ndancy i n
today's system, meani ng t here i s l ess
of a backup. The cur rent i nf at uat i on
wi th fi ber opti cs t hat cert ai n l ong di s­
tance compani es have (AT&T i ncl ud­
ed) spel l s cert ai n t roubl e because of
the l ack of redundancy i n t hese cheap
systems.
The probl em occu rred i n a part of
t h e si g n al l i ng syst em t h at doesn't
carry voi ce traff i c. It's known as "out­
of-band si gnal l i ng" because it's out ­
si de t he band t hat carri es t he act ual
conversati on. Data, such as t he num­
ber cal l ed and t he number call i ng, i s
s e nt over t h i s pat h . Amo n g ot h e r
thi ngs, t hi s prevents bl ue boxi ng si nce
s u bscr i be rs h ave no access t o t h e
routi ng signal s.
And that's basi call y al l we know at
thi s stage. What we don't know is how
a major force i n commu ni cat i ons l i ke
AT&T coul d be so sloppy. What hap­
pe ned to backups? Su r e, comput er
systems go down al l t he t i me, but peo­
pl e maki ng phone cal l s ar e n ot t he
same as peopl e l oggi ng onto comput­
ers. We must make t hat di sti ncti on. It's
not acceptabl e for t he phone system
or any other essent i al servi ce to "go
down". I f we cnti n ue to t r ust technol o­
gy wit hout understand i ng it , we can
l ook forward to many vari ati ons on thi s
theme.
AT&T owes i t to i ts customers to be
prepared to instantly swi tch to another
(continued on page 46)
Winter 1989-90 2600 Magazine Page 5
Moris Found Guilty
Robert T. Morri s Jr. , the 25-
year-old Corell student responsi­
ble for the Internet Worm, was
found gUilty on Jauary 22 of fed­
era computer tampering charges in
Syracuse, NY. He now faces fve
years i n pri son and a $250,000
fne. He was the frst person to b
prosecuted under a portion of the
1 986 Computer Fraud and Abuse
Act. A hearing is set for Febrar
27 in Albany, NY. Sentencing will
probably b scheduled then.
The government argued that
Morri s i ntenti onal l y wrote the
wor program to brea into "fed­
eral interest" computers he was not
authorzed to use, and by doing this
prevented their authorized use

d
caused a mi nimum of $1,000 m
damage.
.
Several jurors said it was ObVI­
ous Morri s di dn' t i ntend to do
damage. But they say te damage
woul d never have happened i f
Morris hadn' t put the wor there.
None of the jurors owned a home
computer.
One j uror s ai d of Morri s , "I
bel i eve hi s i nt egri t y. I di d not
bel i eve t here was any mal i ce
intended. "
Another said Morris was "not a
criminal. I don' t think he should go
to jail. I don' t thin jail would do
ayting for him. To me j

il
.
i s for
criminals, and he' s not a cnmmal. I
think somebody should thank him
our
in te end. "
In i ts November 26, 1 988 edi ­
t i on s hortl y after the Internet
Worm made i t s appearance, the
New York Times described Morri s
as "fascinated with powerfl com­
puters and obsessed with the uni­
verse created by i nterconnected
networks of machines".
Last year Senator Patrck Leahy
of Vermont s ai d, "We cannot
unduly inhibit that inqui siliv

13-
year-old, who, if lef to expenment
today, may, tomorow, develop the
telecommuni cations or comput er
technol ogy t o l e ad the Unit ed
States i nto the 21 st century.
"
He
also expressed doubts that a com-
puter virs law of any kind would
b effective.
There is no doubt that Robert
Morri s Jr. has a l ot of potenti al.
There seems to be no doubt that
he ' s an honest person. Even the
prosecution seems to bel ieve this.
We alknow that he was te person
responsible for te Interet Wo

.
So, wi t h all of thi s i n mi nd, I t
seems as i f te last few weeks have
been a tremendous waste of time
for everyone.
Yes , he di d i t . He admi t ted
doing it. He didn' t mean to cause
damage, but he made � progra
n
­
ming error. The shockmg fact I S
tat one programming errr could
cause so much confusion. Add to
that the fact tat the holes he made
use of were common knowledge to
Page 6 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90
CVCI-Ch3n_In_ WUIÌU
te Interet community. Yet, noth­
i ng was done to close the holes
until afer al of this happened. It
seems like someone should answer
for this neglect of responsibilities.
And l et ' s not forget one other
i mportant fact. Morri s never
logged into another computer sys­
tem without authorization. There is
no proof that he ever planned to.
He simply sent out a program to
collect data -through noral and
legal chanels. It was data he never
should have had access to, but
thanks to the holes in the system,
he did.
Morrs made a mi stake. That ' s
all a part of the learning game,
which he ' s now been bani shed
from. This technology i s still in its
infancy and, like any system, its
limits need to be constantly tested.
We' r making a very grave error if
we choose to simply focus upon
the debatable legalities of what he
did, rather than lear from what
he' s taught us.
We' re damn lucky it was Morrs
who did thi s. Because if a mali­
cious or immatre prson had done
it fi rst, the damage would have
been real.
Real Damage
A rather nasty "troj an horse
vi rus" has been showi ng up on
floppy di sks throughout Europe,
Africa, ad Caiforia. More than
10,00 foppy disks labeled "AIDS
Inforation Intrductory Diskette"
have tured up. After a random
numbr of tmes, the prgram will
forat the hard drive and destry
al data on it. PC Business Word
Magazine says its mailing list had
been used by the unknown creators
of ths mischief. They' re offering a
free program called "AIDS OUT"
to anyone who was hurt by the
diskette. If nothing else, this inci­
dent may remind people that run­
ning unknown sofware in this day
and age is a risky thing to do. It ' s
estimated that the cost of putting
thi s whole prank together was
about $20,00 which is a crime in
itelf.
Jailed for
Incompetence?
A Georgia man is facing up to
1 5 years in jail for illegaly access­
ing a computer. He was convicted
in Novembr. The difference here
is that the defendant claimed ino­
cence because of technical igno­
rance. Legal expers say tis could
be a trend-setting case, where users
could bcome legal scapegoats for
system crashes.
New Technology
Imagine a day when you can use
any calling card number (AT&T,
Sprnt, MCI, and al the others) to
make local calls as well as long
distance ones. Imagine a day when
Winter 1989-90 2600 Magazine Page 7
nCVS 3nU h3QQCnInÿ8
the Sprint operator will actually
accept a Spri nt cal l i ng card !
Imagine not bing confsed. It all
could happen as Bellcore develops
a new, though temporary, system
for handling calli ng cards . The
plan calls for 14 digit credit card
numbers. The frst six digits would
be known as the Card I s suer
Identifer (CIID) . That would be
different for every company. The
next four digits would be the cus­
tomer account numbr and the last
four would be a personal identf­
cation number. The plan is bing
developed as a quick and tempo­
rary way of allowing alterate long
di stance companies to use calling
cards to process local calls. The
whole thing will b reevaluated in
1 991 . One prblem we fnd is the
shorness of the customer account
code (four di gi ts? I). Why is the
company gi ven si x di gi t s? Are
tere a million companies? Perhaps
they' re not explaining this propr­
ly. It wouldn' t b the frst time . .. .
And Things To
Play With
New York Telephone has a new
toy that allows them to fire even
more employees. Now, when you
di al zero plus a number and hit
another zero at te tone, you get a
computerized menu, which says,
"For cllect cals, dial 11; to charge
tis call to aother numbr, dial the
complete billing number now; for
person-to-person and other calls,
dia 0 for te operator." When you
dia 1 1 , you' re asked to record your
name. The advantage here is that
your name can be anything you
want, like "Call Me Back". The
system uses voice recognition when
aski ng the cal l ed part y i f they
accept. The caller' s mouthpiece i s
cut off during thi s procedure, so
you can forget abut accepting your
own call. Also, the system won' t
accept a respnse tat bgins befor
it fnishes asking te question. Tis
helps el i mi nate ans weri ng
machines that may inadvertently
say "yes" at some poi nt. Thi rd
party billing is only verfed when
you place te call frm a payphone.
The system asks you for your name
at that point. It' s f to play with,
but once again, ultmately a rpoff
for te average consumer. The rates
haven' t gone down, even though
it' s prtty obvious that this system
will save New York Telephone a
bundle. But the worst par of al is
for those pople who have resisted
getting a touch tone phone (and
payi ng the unfai r monthl y and
"instalation" fees). Instead of get­
ting an operator a couple of seconds
aft er the initi al tone, pul se cus­
tomers must si t through the entire
menu before te system finally con­
nects them to an operator. The
waiting time for an operator under
the old system: tee seconds afer
(continued on page 42)
Page 8 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90
n}nBX data
by The Plague
(Special thanks to Kornfake Killer)
The folowing inforaton and data relate u te
NYNEX (New York Ô New England Telephone) tele­
phone switching syste. Most of the aride is a huge
database of New Yor Telephone center frther SD
divided by sector. It contains useful inforation on
ever switch in te NYNEX syste. Thi inforatio
is very handy H social egnerg, plotig networ
switching maps, and finding out paricularly useful
infonatio abot your Cetl LDO. Ther is uual­
ly mor tan oe switch per cetrl offce. Since ste­
by-step ofce tend to b goo for blue boxig, this
infonatio could come in handy.
U te database the following felds exist:
SECTOR - U is Nynex terminology for a lare
inter-ofce and billing center (i.e., Williamsburg or
White Plains). All switches throughout NYNEX are
coreted to oe of thee main center.
The following New Yor sectos are etabishe
by NYNEX:
(Secto:Switching Type:Loation)
ALBY:D200:Albany BING:IAES :Binghamto
BUF:D20:Buffalo C!SP:4ESS:Central Islip
GDCY:4ESS:Garden City NY21:4ESS:Soho
N38:4ESS:East 38t St POUG:5ESS:Poughkelie
SYRA:D20:Syrcuse WHPL:4ESS:White Plains
WLMG:4ESS:Williamsbur
CLL! code - Common Language Location
Identifcation. This is Bell syste shorand for the
location and typ of the switch. Yo can refer to Bell
Labs and Bellcore literture or te Octobr 1987 issue
of 260 for mor details. A CIL! code consist of 11
charcter. The f"lt 4 charcters defne the town, the
next 2 characters define the state abbreviation, the
next 2 te buiding ID, and te last 3 te building sub­
division.
Example: NYCMNY42CGI is New York City
Manhattan, NY, 42nd stet, Control Group I (repr­
seting a Ρ lA, 2, 2B, or 3ESS switch).
SWITCH TYP E - Te switch type, ca be one of
the following: AESS, lESS, ISXS, 2B ESS,
350ASXS, 3556ASXS, 355ASXS, 356ASXS,
360ASXS, 3ESS, 5XB, DlO, DlOO, D5E, NCXB,
RSM, RSS. ( XB ; Crossbar, ESS ; Elect ronic
Switching Syst em, SXS - St ep by Step, D ;
DMSligtl, R ; Reote)
V Ô H - These are numbers used by Bell
Copanie to rpreent Vertcal and Horotal loa­
tion. Thee ar integer whch ar ofset frm a fxed
point o te er deignate by te phone copany.
These numbers are used in calculating distances
betwe central offces as well as for network plan­
ning. Any entrie in te following databases which
have te same V ò H ar in the same buildingoa­
tion. You shold red Bel Labs and Bellcore literture
to f"md out more abot V ò Hand netwO planning.
HOST Switch - Tis field is shown only for thoe
switche which ar reote in natur (RSM ad RSS).
This feld is simply te CLL! code of te host switch
tat connets to the reote switch.
This artde shold b use as refeence materal,
and doesn't go into explaining any detail s about
switching. Refer to oter artide and Bell litratur for
tat infonatio.
You may ne a magnifying glass to red all of
tis but it was the only way we culd fit it in te issue.
Fields are separated by the : symbol. If there is a
HOST switch prent, it appes on te folowing line
indente.
aow York Toloyoo
Soct:CLI Cod:S.¿:V:B:
ALBY:CMBRNYC677 aH:4 537:1633
ALBY: CBRNYCRS 1 :RDGT :UNK :UNl:
ABY:GNWCNYGWRSI :ROGT:UNK:UNl:
TROYNY030S 0
Bm Sw1tm
MBY :ALBYNYGDCGO: lES :4 6 4 0: 1653
MBY :ALBYNYS SCGO: l AES: 4 6 4 0: 1 630
ALBY :ALBYYS SCGl : l AES: 4 6 4 0 : 1 630
ABY:ALBYNYSSDSI :DGT1:UNK:UNK
ALBY :ALBYYWACGO: lAES: 4 639: 16 4 0
ALBY :ALMTNYALCGO: 3ES:4 65 7: 16 7 2
ALBY:AMSTNYP EDSO :DGTL: UNK: UNK
ALBY :AMSTNYPEGO :5XB :4 632: 1725
MBY :ARGYYAYRS I :RSS: 4 511: 1675:
GLFLNYGFCGO
ALBY:AVPKYAV674 :OTH: 4 623: 1602
ALBY : AVPKYAVRS1 :RIT: UNK:UNK:
MBYNYSSD5 0
ALBY :BASNYBAGO : 2BES: 4 5 8 8 : 168 9
ALBY :BERNNYBRGO : 5XB: 4 67 7: 1667
ABY :BERNNYBRRS1 :RDGT: UNK: UNK:
SSCHNYSODSO
ALBY :BLLNNYBGRS 1 : RSS : 4 4 7 2: 1739 :
GLFLNYGFCGO
ABY :BRNVNYBW4 25 :OTH: 4 28 2: 1961
ALBY :CAIRNYCACGO :3£S: 4 7 2 5: 1615
MBY :CBLSNYZB234 : SXS : 4 70 6: 17 27
ALBY :CBLSNYZBRS1 : ROOT : UNK:UNK:
SSCHNYSODSO
ALBY :CHTGNYZH4 97 :OTH: 4 2 7 5: 19 7 6
ALBY: CLPKYCPDSO : DGTL: UNK: UNK
MBY :CLPKYCPMGO : 5XB: 4 60 9: 16 5 9
ALBY :CLVLNYCKRS1 :RSS: 4 6 7 2 : 1646:
ABYNYGDCGO
ALBY :CLVRNYCVCGO :3E5: 4 713: 15 7 0
TROYNY03DSO
ALB Y: CNBRNYCo8 68: aH: 4 68 6: 1 712
ALBY :CNBRNYCDRS 1: RDGT :UNK :UNK:
S SCHNYSODSO
ALBY:CSTNNYCs732:cH: 4 6 60: 1 613
ALBY:CTBRNYCBRS 1: 5RSM :UNK :UNK:
TROYNYO 30S0
ALBY: CTSKNYCTDSO: DGTL :UNK: UNI
ALBY: CTSKNYCTMO: 5XB: 472 6: 15 4 7
ALBY: OLMRNYDMCGO : 2BE5 : 4 652: 1636
ALBY: OLSNNYDL895 : aR: 4 6 6 6: 1697
ALBY: DNMRNYDNRS 1: ROGT:4 2 7 7: 1905:
P LBGNYPBDSO
ALBY: EGLVNYGLCGO: 2BES: 4 613: 1683
ALBY: EGNBNYEG4 7 7: SXC: 4 645: 1615
ALBY: EGNBNYEGRS I.5RSM :UNK :UNK:
ALBYNYSSOSO
ALBY: ELDPNYEU 5 94: aH: <2 53 : 194 0
ALBY: ES PRNYER87 5 :aH: 4 6 69: 170 9
ALBY: EZTWNYEZRS 1: RDGT: 4352; 1820:
TCNDNY'IDS O
ALBY: F"HONYFHRS 1: RDGT: UNK: UNI:
CTSKYCTDSO
ALBY: FRHDN'FRSGl :OH: <720: 162 8
ALBY: FTANYFARS 1: RSS: 4 4 81: 16 9 9:
GLFLNYGFCGO
ALBY: FTCVNYFC358 :aH: 4302: 2036
ALBY: FTCVNYFCDS O: DGTL :UNK :UNK
ALBY:GLFLNYGFCGO: IAES: 4 514: 1705
ALBY:GLWYNYGWCGO: 3ES: <603: 1714
ALBY: GNWCNYGW692 :aH: 4539: 1657
Winter 1989-90
ALBY :GRCTNYGC8 93 : OTH: 4 5 64: 1706
ALBY :GRCTNYGCRS1: 5 RSM:UNK: UNK:
TROYNY03 OS 0
ALBY:GRVGNYGVRSI :RDGT:UNK:UNK:
CTSKNYCTDSO
ALBY :GRVGNYGVSGI :OTH: 4 7 0 7: 1633
ALBY :GRV INYGEMGO: 5XB: 4 4 60: 1670
ALBY :GRV I NYGERSI :RDGT: UNf: UNK:
SRSPNYSRDSO
ALBY: HAGUNYHQRS1 : RDGT: 4 4 2 4 : 174 5 :
TCNDNYTI DS O
ALBY :HDFLNYHURS 1 :RDGT: UNK: UNK:
SRSPNYSROS 0
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NY21 :NYCMYSRRS2 :ROT: UNK: UN!:
NYCNY50DS2
NY21:NYCMYSTCGO lAtS:S004:1405
NY21 :NYCMYSTCGl lAtS: 5004: 1405
NY21 :NYCMYSTDSO DGL:UN!:UN!
NY21:NYCHYSCGO lAtS:5002:1405
NY21 :NYCMYVSDSO 5ES : UN! : UN!
NY21 :NYCMYWSCGO lES :5004: 1406
NY21 :NYCMYSCGl lAtS: 5004: 140 6
NY21:NYCMYWSCG2 1AES:5004:1406
NY21:NYCMYSCG3 1AES:5004:1406
NY21 :NYCMYWSCG4 lAES: 5004: 140 6
NY21:NYCMYWSDSO DGL:5004:1406
NY21 :N'CMYWSDSl DGL:UNI:UNI
NY21 :NYCMYWSDS2 DGL:UNI:UNI
NY21 :NYCMYWSDS3 DGL:UNK:UNI
NY21:NYCMYWSMG2 1X:5004:1406
NY21 :NYCMYWSMG4 5X :5004: 1406
NY21 :NYCMYSMG5 5X:5004: 1406
NY21 :NYCMYWSMG8 5):5004: 1406
NY21:NYCMYWSRSO RDT:5004:1406:
NYCN'wSDSO
NY21:NYCRNYOGO lAES:5039:1401
NY21 :NYCRNYNDGO 5XB :5039: 1401
NY21:NYCRN'SDSO DGL:5027:1406
NY21 :NYCRNYNSDS1 DGL:UN!:UNX
NY21 :NYCRN'NSMGO 1XB:5027: 1406
NY21 :NYCRN'SMGl 5XB:5027: 1406
NY21 :NYCRNYSSCGO lAS: 5052: 1404
NY21 :NYCRNYSSMGO 5XB :5052: 1404
NY21 :NYCRNYSCGO lAS: 5037: 1411
NY21 :NYCRNYSMGO 5XB :5037: 1411
NY38:NYCMY37CGO lAS:4994:1405
NY38:NYCHY37CG1 1AES:4994:1405
NY38:NYCMNY37DSO DGTL:UNX:UNK
NY38 :NYCMy)7DSl 5E5 :UNK :UNK
NY38:NYCMY37MGl 1XB:4994:1405
NY38:NYCMY37MG2 1XB:4994:1405
NY38 :NYCMY37MG3 lXB:4994: 1405
NY3::NYCMY31MG4 5XB:4994:140S
NY38:NYCMY37MG5 SXB:4994:140S
NY38:NYCMY31MG6 5XB:4994:1405
NY38 :NYCMNY56CGO lAS: 4991: 1405
NY38 : NYCMNY5 6CGl lAS: 4 991 : 140 5
NY38 :NYCMNY56CG2 lAES:4991: 1405
NY38:NYCMY56CG3 1AS:4991:140S
NY38 :NYCMNY56G4 lAt5: 4991: 1405
NY38:NYCMY56DSO DGL:UNK:UNK
NY38:NYCMNY56G6 5xB:4991:1405
NY38:NYCMY7]CGO lAES:4989:1410
NY38 :NYCMY7)DsO DGTL: UNK: UNK
NY38:NYCMNY73MGO lXB:4989:1410
NY38:NYCMY"MG1 5XB:4989:1410
NY38:NYCMY79GO 1ES:4988:1406
NY38 :NYCMY7 9G1 lAS: 4988: 1406
NY3e :NYCMNY7 90S0 DGTL: UNK: UNI
NY38:NYCMY79GO lXD:4988:1406
NY38:NYCMY79G1 5xB:4988:1406
NY38 : NYCMy7 9G2 5 XB : 4 98 8: 1406
NY38 :NYCMY97CGO 1AES: 4985: 1407
NY38 :NYCMY970S0 5ES: UNI: UNK
NY38:NYCMY97MGO lXB:4985:1407
NY38 :NYCMY97MG1 lXB: 4 985: 1407
NY38:NYCMYCACGO lES:4911:1411
NY38 :NYCMYCADSO DGTL:UNI:lNK
NY38:NYCMYCAGO 1XB:4977:1411
NY38:NYCMYNCGO lAES:4983:1410
NY38 :NYCMYNDSO DGTL: UNK: UNK
NY38:NYCMNYNMG1 1XB:4983:1410
NY38:NYCMYHCGO 1E5:4969:1414
NY38:NYCMYTBGO lXB:4969:1414
NY38:NYCMYWACGO lES:4973:1413
NY38 :NYCMYWASO DGTL:UNK:UNK
NY38:NYCMYWAGO lXB:4973:1413
NY38:NYCXYCIRS1 5RSM:UN!:UNK:
Winter 1989-90 260 Magazine Page 11
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NYCXNYGDSO
NY38 :NYCXYCRCGO: 1ts :4962: 1401
NY38 :NYCXYCRDSO :DGL:UNK:UK
NY38 :NYCXYCRGO: 1X :4962: 1401
N138 :NYCXYCRG1: 1X :4962 : 1401
HY38 :NYCXYCRG2 :5X :4962: 140'
NY38 :NYCXYEAGO: 1ES :4959: 1403
NY38 :HYCXYGCDSO :5ES :UNX:UNK
NY38 :NYXYGCGO: 1X :49'1: 1410
NYl8 :NYCXYGCRSO :lOT: UNK: UNX:
NYCNYXDS 0
NY38 :NYCXYBOGO: 1MS: 49'2: 1404
NY38 :NYCXYBCGI: IX :49'2: 1404
NYl8 :NYCXYBCG2: 1X:4912: 1404
NYl8 :NYCXYJCGO: lES :4973 : 1409
NYl8 :NYCXYJGO: 1X: 49'3: 1409
NY38 :NYCXYKBDSO :OGL: 4964 : 1414
NY38 :NYCXYKBGO: 1X :4964: 1414
NY38 :NYCXYBG1 :5X:4964: 1414
NY38 :NYCXYBSO :DGL :UI : Ui
NY38 :NYCXYBGO: 1X :49'6: 140'
NY38 :NYCX'BG1: 1X:4916: 140'
NY38 :NYCXYBRSO :5RSM:UNK : UNK:
NYCXNYGDSO
NYl8 :NYCXYBGO: 1MS: 4961 : 1409
NY38 :NYCXYBDSO :DGL:ONX:UNK
NYl8 :NYCXYBG: 1X :496': 1409
NY38 :NYCXYlCGO: 1ES :4966: 1400
NY38 :NYCXYRSO :DGL:UX: UK
NY38 :NYCXYRGO: 1X:4966: 1400
NY38 :NYCXYRG1 :5X: 4966: 1400
POUG :ANNYARSO: 51SM: UNX:UK:
PGBKNYSBDSO
POUG :ANNYASGI :OB:4761 : 149'
POUG :BECNYrSO :DGL: UNK: UHK
POUG:BECNNYBEG :5X :4861 : 15C4
POUG:CLNNYCNGO :5X:4921: 1681
POUG :CLlYCCRSO: 5lSH : UNK: UNK:
PGHKNYSBDSO
POUG :CNDLHYCLGO :3ES :4835 : 1541
POUG:CRNWYCWGO :3ES :4879: 1504
POUG:CRNWYCNSO :RDT:UNK :UNK:
NNBRNYNNDS 0
POUG :DVLNYOPRSO :5RSH: UNK:UNK:
PGfYSRDSO
POUG :DVLNYDPSGI :OB:4181: 1486
POUG :ELVNYELGO :5X :4866: 1588
POUG:FLBGYFBGO : 5X :4888 : 1618
POUG :FLBGYFBRSO :ROT:UNK : UNK:
MTINYHDSO
POUG :FLSCYFMGO :5X :4802: 1665
POUG :FLSCNYFHSO :ROT: UNK : UNK:
KGTNYKGDSO
POUG:FSBKYLDDSO :DGL:UNK : UK
POUG :FSRKYLDGO :5X :4844 : 1491
POUG : GHVLNYGHSGI : OTH : UNK : UNK
POUG:BG1DNYHGGO :3ES :4823: 1532
POUG:BGLDHYRGRSO :ROT:UN} :UNK :
PGHKNYSHDSO
POUG:BIFLNYBFRSO :ROT : UHK : UNK :
XGTNYXGDS 0
POUG :HIFLNYBFSG1 :OH:4820: 15 69
POUG:HYKYBKSO :SRSH : UNK:UNK :
PGBXNYSHDSO
POUG :JLNYJGO :5X :4906: 1667
POUG:JYJFRSO : ROT : UNK : UNK :
MTINYHDSO
POUG :KGNYGOSO :DGL:UNK :UHK
POUG :}GNNY1QGO :5X :4190: IS 65
POUG :KRBHYXRCGO :3£5 :4846: 1584
POUG :LBRTYLBGO :5X :4885 : 1645
POUG:LKBNHYLHSG1 :OH: 4928 : 1662
POUG :LKTYLKCGO : 1[5 :4'81 : 15'0
POUG:LVYLVGO :5X: 4816: 1669
POUG:HLBKYLRSO: 5RSM : UNK:UNK:
PGBXNYSHDSO
POUG :MLBKYLSG1 :OH :4184: 1506
POUG :MLTHNYRSO :ROT : UNK : UNK :
NNBRNYHNDS 0
POUG :HLTNHYSGI OB:4833 : 1524
POUG :HNTINYTDSO DGL :UNK:UNK
POUG :HHTIHY'GO 5XB:4905 : 1618
POUG :MNTINYTRSQ 5RSH :UNK:UNK
PCG:HBOHYHSGI :OH:4844 : 1�19
POG :NCLVYNCRSO : 5RSM :UNK :UNK :
PGBKYSHDSO
POG:NNBRHYNNDSO : 5ES :UNK : UNK
POG :NNBRHYNNO : 5XB : 4865 : 1510
POG:NWBRNYNMO : 5XB: 4863: 1527
POG : NWBRNYWRSO : 5RSH: UNK :UNK, :
NNRNYNSO
POG :NNPLNYNPHO: 5XB: 4830: 1552
POG:NWWNYNWRSO: 5RSH :UNK :UNK :
NNRYNSO
POG : PGBKNYSHDSO: 5ES: 4822 : 1525
POG : PGBKNYSPDSO : OTL :UNK :UNK
POG : PGBKNYSPHO : 5XB : 4828 : 1518
POG : PRNCNYPBRSO : RSS: UK: UNK :
LDTYLKCGO
POG:PVYDMnDCGO : 3rS: 4804 : 151 '
POG : PWGNYSSRSO : 5RSH: UNK : UNK :
PGBKYSBDSO
POG : RODLNYRDRSO : RG: UNK : UHI :
PG8KYSHDSO
POG:RODLNYRDSGI :aB: 4813: 1564
POG: SGRTNYSGRSO: 5RSM :UNK : UNK :
PGBKYSBDSO
POG: SGRTNYSGSGl : SXS : 4'59 : 1579
POG : SBKNYSKCGO: 3ES : 4802 : 1598
POG : STNVYSTCGO :3ES : 4770 : 1518
POG : NSTNYNSRSO : RDG :UHK: UHK :
PGHKYSRDSO
POG: NSTNYNSSG1 :OB: 4'82 : 1595
POG:NBLKNYNRO: 5XB: 4914: 1640
POG: NDLNYNCGO: 3ES: 41 96: 1471
POG:NFLNYNFCGO : 2BES :4839 : 1510
SY:NBRNYARSO: RSS :UNK: UNK :
SYRCNYSUCGO
SYRA :ATNHYAW6S9 :OH : 4544 :20'0
SYRA: ATNNYAWRSO: RDG: UNK : UNK :
WTWYUNDSO
SYRA : AUBNNYAUDSO : OTL: UNK : UNK
SYRA :AUBNNYAUSG1 : SXS : 485' :2029
SYIA : ABANYA482 : SXS: 4548 : 2121
SYRA :ABANYARSO : RDGT : UNl : UNK :
NTWYUNDSO
SYIA : BAVHYBVCGO : 2SES : 4194 : 2028
SYA: BLRVYBCDSO : DTL : 4 594 : 2069
SYRA :BNVNYBD896 :OH: 4668: 1896
SYRA: BNVNYBDRSO : RDG :UHK :UNK :
NHaYBDSO
SYIA :BRPTNYBP633 :OH : 4760: 1977
SYRA: BRPTHYBPDSO : DTL :t'HK : UHK
SYIA: CICRNYCJCGO : 2BES : 4 772 : 2003
SYRA:CLAYNYOSCGO : 1ES : 4'85 :2016
SYRA : CLEVNYCElSO : lSS : UNK : UNK :
SYRCNYSUCGO
SYRA :CLTNNYZIDSO : OTL :UNK :UNK
SYRA :CLTNNYZISGl : SXS : 4725 : 1891
SYl A: CL YDHYCY923 : OH:4857 : 2088
SYRA : ODNNYZHDSO : DTL :UHK : UHK
SYRA :CDNNYZMO : 5XB : 4709: 197 6
SYRA :CLSNYIDRSO : RSS : UNK : UNK :
SYRCYSUCGO
SYRA:CLSNY�CGO : IES : 4806: 2002
SYRA :CNSTHYZADSO : DTL :4756: 1942
SYRA : CNTNYZORSO: 5RSM : UNK : UN":
PTSDNYSDSO
SYA : CNTNNYZOSG 1 : C8·4434 : 206 7
SYR: CNTNYCI lSO : RSS : UNK : UNK :
SYRCNYSUCGO
SYR:COTNNY56HO : OC : 4403: 2054
SYRA:CONY56RSO : RDGT :UNK :UNK :
PTSDNYSOSO
SYRA :CPNBNYZP 688: oB : 4605 : 203 9
SYRA: CPNBNYZPlSO : RDGT : UNK : UNK :
trr NYUHDSO
SYRA : CRLDNYCRDSO :DGTL: 4880: 1937
SYRA : CRTBNYZGDS 0: DTL : UNK : UNK
SYRA:CNGNYCHCGO : 3ES : 4711: 1953
SYRA :CYTNNYZYCGO: 3ES: 4581: 2136
SYRA : DLGYO429:OH: 4659: 1820
SYRA: DLGYDRSO : RDGT : UNK: UNK :
HRKYBCDSO
SYRA :EVLNYEIRSO RDGT:UNK:UNK:
WTWYUNDSO
Page 12 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90
SYR: FABSNYFBlSO :lSS : ONK :UNK:
SYRCNYSUCGO
SYM: FYTNYFY5 49 :OTH: 4 900: 204 6
SYR:FYTNYFnSO :ROT:UNK : UNK :
GENVYGHDSO
SYR:FYLNYFVSO :DGL : 4188 : 1969
SYR:GENVYGNDSO tDGL : 4907 :20'6
SY::GRTNNYGTRSO :RDT: 4900 : 1959 :
ClLDNYCRDSO
SYR:GVNNYGCGO :5X :4501 : 2070
SYR:GVNNYGORSO :5RSM:UNX :UNK :
PTSDNYFSDSO
SYR:BMHNYRAGO :5X: 4780 : 1883
SYR:SaRYBHSO :DGL :UNK:UNK
SYR: HRKYBCDSO : DGL: UNK: UNK
SYR:BRYBCGO :5X :4692 : 1838
SYR:HRVLNYBV543 :OH :4525 :2028
SYR:HVNNYHXl44 :OH :4452 : 2100
SYR:BVNNYHXRSO :5RSM:UNK:UNK :
PTSONYPSOSO
SYR: ILINNYILRSO :ROT :UNK : UNK :
HRKNYHCDSO
SYR: ILINNYI LSGI : SXS : 4 699: 1842
SYR: ITHCNYIBDSO :DGL : 4938 : 1957
SYR: ITHCYFGGO :5X: 4 931 : 1958
SYR:J1DNNYJDGO :3ES :4825: 2034
SYR:LFRVYLE658 :OTH :4580 : 2115
SYR:LFRVYLERSO : ROT : UNK : UNK :
WTWNYUNDSO
SYR:LFYTYLFRSO :RSS :UNK :ONK :
SYRCNYSUCGO
SYR:LNNGNYLG533 :OH: 4923 : 1976
SYA:LTFLNYLSMGO :5X: 4671 : 1823
SYRA :LYSHYLYCGO : 3ES : 4 87 3 : 21 02
SYR:MADNYCCGO :2ES :4903 : 2145
SYR:MRNNYR926 :OTH : 4817 : 2137
SYM :HCDGYD585 :OTH : 4 910 : 205'
SYR:MCGRNYGRSO :lOT : 4872: 1924 :
CRLDNYCRDSO
SYR:MCLNNYZRSO :RDT : 4899: 1945 :
CRLDNYCRDSO
SYR:MDRDNYK322 :OH : 4403: 2081
SYR:MEXCYXSO :lSS :UNK :UNK :
SYRCNYSUCGO
SYR:HINOYIDSO :DGTL: UNK :UNK
SYR:HORVYcIGO :5XB :4883 : 1982
SYR:MRTKYW315 :OTB :4483: 2119
SYR:MRTNYNRSO :5RSM : UNK :UNK :
PTSDNnSDSO
SYR:MSSNNYQSO :OGTL : 4349 :2077
SYR:NRFLNYN0384 :OH :4382 : 20/2
SYR:NRFLNYORSO :5RSM : UNK : UNK :
PTSDNYPSDSO
SYRA :NROSNYR581 :OTH :4841 : 2104
SYR:NROSNYRRSO :RDT :UNK : UNK :
GENVYGDSO
SYR :NRWDNYD353 : SXS : 43 90: 20 66
SYR:NRNDNYDRSO :5RSM :UNK : UNK :
PTSDNYPSDSQ
SYR :NSYRHYSMGO 5XB :UNK :UNK
SYR:NNFONYNF564 08:4961:1960
SYR:NWRKYKSO DGTL : UNK : UNK
SYRA :NWRKYKGO 5XB:4886:2113
SYR:OGBGNYOGO 5XB:4445:2120
SYR:OBGNYORSO 5RSM:UNK:UNK:
PT50NYFSDSO
SYR:ONEDHYODGO 5XB:4143:1931
SYR:ONTlYOHCGO 3E5:4871:2159
SYR:OSWGYOSDSO DGTL :UK :UNK
SYR:OSWGNYOSMGO 5XB:4759:2088
SYR:ONSCNYO'84 OTH:4861:2006
SYR:PHLAYFF642 OTB;4560:2077
SYR:PRLAYPFR50 RDT :UNK :UNK :
WTWNYUNDSO
SYR:PUYNYFYCGO 3ES :4894: 2132
SYR:PNYNNYN536 SXS :4<50:2058
SYR:PNYNNYPHDSO DGL :UNK :UNK
SYR:PPlGHYFP364 08:4895:2011
SYR:PlISNYPARSO RSS :UNK :UNK :
SYRCNYSUCGO
SYR:PTSDNYP5DSO 5ES :UNK :UNK
SYR:PTSDHYFSHGO 5XB:4403:2054
SYRA :RCSPNYRSMGO 5XB:4723:181S
SYR:RCSPNYRSlSO RDGT:UNK:UNK:
m
ha t t he � kno
m
RRlNYHCDSO
SYRA: RDCKYRC154 : OTH : 4 8 1 S 2 0 90
5YRA: RCENYRMSQ : DGTL : UNK UNK
SYRA: RCENYRMGO : 5 XB : 4 1 0 4 1 92 2
SYRA : SALKYQT8 4 8 : OTH : 4 4 9S 1 9 94
SYRA : 5CBRNYQHRS O : RDGT : UN K ONK :
tTWNYUNDSO
SYR : SKTNYSE685 : S XS : 4 8 4 2 : 20 1 3
SYRA: S KNTNYS ERSO : DGTL : UN K : UNK
5YRA : SNFLNYSL5 68 : S XS : 4 88 2 : 2 0 5 1
5'RA : SNFLNYSLDSQ : DGTL : UNK : UN K
SYRA : SOOSNYSD483 : OTH : 4 8 4 8 : 2 1 3 3
SYRA : SOSNYSODSO : DGT1 : UN X : UNK
SYRA: S YBHNY0Y1 62 : OTH : 4 73 3 : 1 95 4
SYRA: S YBBNYQYDS O : DGTL : UNK : UNK
SyIA : S YRCN YODDSO : DGTL : UNK : UNK
SYRA : SYlCNYEPDSQ : DGTL : UNK : UNK
SYR: S YRCNYEPMGO : 5 XB : 4 1 9 2 : 2 0 0 2
SYRA: S YRCNYGSDSO : DGTL : 4 1 9 1 : 1 98 3
SYRA: S YRCNYJSCGO : I ES : 4 78 9 : 1 9 8 1
SYRA: S YRCNYSACGO : I ES : 4 8 0 5 : 1 9 8 3
SYRA: S YRCNYSUCGO : l AE S : 4 1 91 : 1 990
SYRA : S YRCNYSUCGl : 1 MS : 4 1 91 : 1 990
SYRA : THRSNYH628 : OTH : 4 S 5 9: 20 9 6
5YRA: THRSNYTlRSO : &OT : UN K : UNK :
WTNNYUNDSO
SYRA : TLLYNYYlSO : RS S : 4 83 8 : 1 95 2 :
SYRCNYSUCGO
SYRA : UNSPNYUS 8 8 9 : OTH : 4 88 5 : 2 034
SYRA : UNSPNYUSRSO : RDGT : UN K : UNK :
AUBNNYAUDSO
SYRA: UTI CNYUTCGO : 1AES : 4 1 0 3 : 1 8 1 9
SYRA : WDPTNYWT8 34 : OTH : 4 83 1 : 2 0 4 3
SYRA: lDTNNYY3 8 8 : OTH : 4 3 9 1 : 2 1 0 6
SYRA: lHBOYWBDSO : OG'L : 4 1 0 4 : 1 8 8 9
SYRA : WLCTNYWCS 94 : OTH : 4 82 9 : 2 0 9 9
SYRA : wLCTNYWCRSO : RDGT : UNK : UNK:
GENVNYGNDS 0
SYRA : WMSNNYWN5 8 9 : OTH : 4 8 6 2 : 2 1 4 1
SYRA: WMSNNYWNRSO : RDGT : UNK : UNK :
NWlKNYNKDS 0
SYRA : N'RLNYWT539 : S XS : 4 8 8 9 : 2 0 65
SYRA : WTRLNYWTDS O : DGTL : UN X : UNK
SYRA : WTTtYUND50 : OG'L : 4 61 2 : 2 0 8 0
SYRA : NWLNYlW1 31 : OTH : 4 1 1 9 : 1 8 1 6
SYRA : NWLNYWQ50 : RDT : UNK : UN K :
lBBONYWBOS 0
HBPL : ARVGNYAVGO 5 XB : 4 90 2 : 1 4 2 1
WHPL : BOVGNYBVD50 OGTL : UNK : UNK
WHPI : BRWSNYBNGO 2BES : 4 8 4 5 : 1 4 4 4
WHPI : CBPQYCP050 OGTI. : 4 90 1 : 1 43 3
WHPL : CNGRNYCND50 DGTL : 4 9 1 9 : 1 4 5 2
WHP! : CRHONYCBOSO DGTL : 4 9 0 5 : 1 4 5 5
WHPL : CRLNYCLCGO 2£5 : 4 8 4 4 : 1 4 5 8
WHPL : CRLNYCLR50 RDGT : UN K : UN K :
YRTWNYYTOSO
WHPL : C5PPNYCSCGO 3 £5 : 4 81 4 : 1 4 9 1
WHPL : OBFYNYDFDSO OGTL : 4 9 3 6 : 1 4 2 6
WBPL : GNBGNYFV5 0 OGTL : UNX : UNK
WBPL : GNBGNYFVGO 5 XB : UNK : UNK
WHPL : GNWCCTGNCG1 1 £S : 4 91 1 : 1 3 9 6
WBPL : GRLKNYGLRS O RDGT : UN K : UNK:
NNCYNYNCDS O
WBPL : GRLKNYGLSG1 OTB : 4 94 2 : 1 5 1 0
NHPI. : GRSNNYGACGO 3 ES : 4 88 1 : 1 4 8 4
NBPL : BHFLNYBFOSO OGTL : 4 8 8 4 : 1 4 8 6
NBPL : BRSNNYBNDS O OGTL : UN K : UNK
WHP L : HRSNNYBNHGO 5 XB : 4 92 2 : 1 4 0 8
WHP L : KTNHNYlADS O OGTL : 4 8 1 6 : 1 4 3 5
WHPL : LRTNYLADSO 5ES : UNK : UNK
WBPL : LRTNYLAGO 5 XB : 4 8 4 0 : 1 4 0 1
NBPL : MBPCNYPCGO 2ES : 4 8 6 4 : 1 4 5 6
WHPL :MMRNNYSO DGTL: UNK : UNK
WHPL : MMRNNYGO 5 XB : 4 93 3 : 1 4 0 1
WBP L: MTKSNYKCGO 2BES : 4 8 8 8 : 1 43 3
WBPL : MTKSNYKSO 5 E S : UNK : UNK
WBPL :MTVRNYSO DGTL : 4 9 5 2 : 1 4 0 9
WHPL : NNCYYNCDSO DGTL : 4 92 6 : 1 4 5 9
WHPL : NNRCNYRCGO 1 E5 : 4 94 8 : 1 4 0 1
WHPL : NWRCNYNROSO DGTL : lNK : UNK
WHPL : NWRCNYRG1 5XB : 4 94 8 : 1 4 0 1
WBPL : NYACNYNKDSO DGTL : UNK : UNK
WBPL : NYACNYNKGO 5 XB : UHK : UNK
WhP L : ORBGNYOBDSO OGTL : UNK : UNK
WHP L : ORBGNYOBMGO 5XB : 4 938 : 1 4 4 0
WHP L : OSNGNYOS DSO DGTL : 4 91 1 : 1 4 4 5
WHP L : PASNNYPTCGO 3ES : 4 8 2 3 : 1 4 5 9
WHP L : P ASHNYPTDS 0 DTL : UNK : UNK
WHP L : PKSKNYPSOSO DGTL : 4 8 9 3 : 1 4 1 0
W8P L : POHNYPODS O DGTL : UNK : UNK
NBP L : PQNYFOO SXB : 4 9 2 1 : 1 4 6 9
WHP L : PRDYNYPDCGO 2£S : 48 6 1 : 1 4 4 0
WBPL : PRRVNYNPDSO 5ES : UNK : UNK
WHP L : PRRVNYNPMGO 5XB : 4 9 4 9 : 1 4 4 1
WBP L : PRRVNYNPRSO RDGT : UNK : UNK :
NNCYNYNCDSO
WHP L : PSVLNYPVOSO : DGTL : UNK : UNK
WBPL : PTCBNYPCCGO : 1 ES : 4 9 1 8 : 1 3 9 8
WHP L : PTVYNYPYCGO : 2ES : 4 813 : 1 4 68
WBP L : RYE-NYRYDSO : DTL ; UNK : UNK
W8P L : RYE-NYRYMGO : 5XB : 4 923 : 1 3 9 9
WHP L : SCDLNYSRDSO : DGTL : 4 93 4 : 1 4 1 4
WHP L : SFRNNYSUDSO : DTL : UNK : UNK
WBP L : SFRNNYSUHGO : 5X8 : 4 9 4 6 : 1 4 1 5
WRPL : SLTSNYSLRS O : RDGT : 4 94 4 : 1 4 8 1 :
NNYNYCOSO
NHP t : SPvYNYSVCGO : 2BtS : 4 93 8 : 1 4 62
WBPL : SPVYNYSVDSO : DGTL : UNK : UNK
WHP L : SPVYNYSVGO : 5XB : 4 938 : 1 4 6 2
WHP L : S S LHNY55DSO : DGTL : UNK : UNK
WHP L : TKHONYTUCGO : ItS : 4 9 4 4 : 1 4 1 2
W8P L : TRTWNYTTOSO : DGTL : 4 92 5 : 1 4 3 4
WBP L : TUXONYTXRS O : RDGT : UNK : UNK :
P RRVNYNPDSO
WHP L : TUXDNYTXSG1 : SXS : 4 9 36 : 1 4 9 4
W8P L : WHPLNYWPCGO : 1AtS : 4 92 4 : 1 4 1 6
WHP L : WHPLNYWPDSO : 5ES : UNK: UNK
WBP L : WHPLNYWPMGO : IX! : 4 9 2 4 : 1 4 1 6
WBP L : WBPLNYWPHG 1 : 5XB : 4 9 2 4 : 1 4 1 6
WHP L : NHVNYWBDS 0 : OGTL : UNK : UNK
WRP L : WHVRNYNHMGO : 5XB : 4 9 1 4 : 1 4 6 8
NBP L : YNKRNYYNCGO : 1AES : 4 95 4 : 1 4 2 0
WHPL : YNKRNYYNDSO : DGTL : UNK : UNK
WHP L : YKRNYYNMG2 : 5XB : 4 9 5 4 : 1 4 2 0
W8P L : YRTWNY'TDSO : DGTL : UNK : UNK
W8P t : YRTWNYY'MGO : 5XB : 4 8 7 9 : 1 4 5 5
WLMG : NYCKNY 1 4 CGO : 1 ES : 5 0 1 0 : 1 3 9 6
WLG : NYCKNY7 1 CGO : 1 ES : 50 1 9 : 1 3 9 1
WLG : NYCKNY7 1 DS O : 5 E S : UNK : UNK
NLHG : NYCKNY11 MGO : 1XB : 50 1 9 : 1 3 9 1
WLG : NYCKNYl1CGO : 1 ES : 5 02 0 : 1 3 9 6
WlG : NYCKNY11QSO : OGTL : UNK : UNK
WLMG : NYCKNY11MGO : 1 XB: 5 0 2 0 : 1 3 9 6
WLG : NYCKNY11MG 1 : 5XB : 5 0 2 0 : 1 3 9 6
WLHG: NYCKNYAI DSO : DGTL : 5 0 0 9 : 1 3 8 3
WLG : NYCKHYAI MO : 5XB : 5 0 0 9 : 1 3 8 3
WLG : NYCKNYAIMG 1 : 5XB : 5 0 0 9 : 1 3 8 3
WLG : NYCKNYAI MG2 : 5XB : 5 0 0 9 : 1 3 8 3
WLMG : NYCKNYACGO : 1AES : 5 0 1 0 : 1 3 8 9
WLG : NYCXNY ALDS 0 : DGTL : UNK : UNK
WLG : NYCKNYALMGO : 1XB : 50 1 0 : 1 3 8 9
WLG : NYCKNYARCGO : 1 ES : 50 1 8 : 1 3 8 4
WLMG : NYCKNYARDSO : DTL : UNK : UNK
WLHG: NYCKNYARMGO : 1 XB : 50 1 8 : 1 3 & 4
WLG : NYCKNYAUCGO : 1 ES : 5 0 2 1 : 1 3 8 6
WLG : NYCKNYAUDSO : OOTL : UNK : UNK
WLMG: NYCKNYAUMGO : 1 XB : 5 0 2 1 : 1 3 8 6
WLG: NYCKNYAYCGO : l ES : 50 1 9 : 1 3 8 1
W!MG : NYCKNYAYDS 0 : DGTL : UNK : UNK
WLG: NYCKNYAYMGO : l XB: 50 1 9 : 1 3 8 1
WLG : NYCKNYBRCGO : 1 ES : 5 005 : 1 3 9 9
WLG : NYCKNYBRCG1 : 1 ES : 5 005 : 1 3 9 9
WLHG : NYCKNYBRDSO : 5ES : 5 005 : 1 3 9 9
WLG : NYCKNYBRDS 1 : DGTL : UNK : UNK
WLMG: NYCKNYBRMGO : 1XB : 5 005 : 1 3 9 9
WLG: NYCKNYBRMG1 : 5XB : 5 005 : 1 3 9 9
WLMG : NYCKNYBUCGC : 1 ES : 4 9 9 9 : 1 3 9 0
WUG : NYCKNYBUDSO : OOTL : UNK : UNK
WLG : NYCKHYBUMGO : 5XB : 4 9 9 9 : 1 3 9 0
WLG : NYCKNYCLCGO : 1 ES : 5 0 0 S : 1 3 9 5
WLG : NYCKNYCLDSO : 5tS : UNK : UNK
WLG : NYCKNYCLMGO : 1 XB: 5 0 0 5 : 1 3 9 5
WLG : NYCKNYCLRSO : 5RSM : 5 0 0 5 : 1 3 95 :
NYCKYSRDSO
W11G : NYCRNYFACGO : 1 ES : 4 9 94 : 1 3 9 0
NLHG : NYCKNYFAOSO : OGTL : UHK : UNR
WLMG : NYCKNYFAGO 1 XB : 4 9 94 : 1 3 90
WLM: NYCKNYFAG1 5 XB : 4 994 : 1 3 90
WLMG : NYCKNYFTCGO 1AES : 50 1 4 : 1 3 9 2
WLMG : NYCKYFTDSO OGTL : UNR : UNR
WLMG : NYCKNYFTGO 1 XB : 5 0 1 4 : 1 3 92
NLHG : NYCKYKPCGO 1AES : 50 1 3 : 1 3 8 7
WLMG : NYCKNYKPMGO l XB : 5 0 1 3 : 1 3 8 1
WLMG : NYCKNYLACGO l ES : 4 99 1 : 1 38 3
WLM: NYCKYLASO DGTL : UNK : UNK
WLMG : NYCKYLAGO 5 XB : 4 99 1 : 1 383
WLMG : NYCKNYRACGO 1 £5 : 5 0 0 2 : 1 3 8 5
WLM : NYCKYRASO OGTL : UNK : UNK
WLMG : NYCKYRAGO 1 XB : 5 00 2 : 1 3 8 5
WLH: NYCKNYT'CGO 1AES : 5 0 0 5 : 1 3 8 9
WLMG : NYCKNYTYDSO DGTL : 50 0 5 : 1 3 8 9
WLMG : NYCKNYTYGO 1 XB : 5 0 0 5 : 1 3 8 9
WLH: NYCKNYWMGO 1AES : 50 0 2 : 1 3 8 5
WLHG : NYCQYASCGO 1 AES : 4 9 8 5 : 1 4 0 1
WLM: NYCQYASDSO DGTL : UN K : UNK
WLM: NYCQYASMGO 1 XB : 4 98 5 : 1 4 0 1
WLMG : NYCQNYBASO DGTL : UNK : UNK
WLHG : NYCQNYBAGO 1 XB : 4 91 1 : 1 3 8 0
WLMG : NYCQNYBAG1 5 XB : 4 97 1 : 1 380
WLM: : NYCQYBASO RDT : UN K : UNK:
NYCQNYFLDSO
WLMG : NYCQYBHDSO : 5ES : 5 00 5 : 1 3 62
WLMG : NYCQYBHGO : 1 XB : 5 0 0 5 : 1 3 62
WLM : NYCQYBHRS 1 : 5 RSM : UN K : UNK :
NYCQNYFRDS O
WLMG : NYCQNYCOSO : 5 ES : UNK : UNK
WLMG : NYCQYCCGO : 5 XB : 4 98 4 : 1 3 8 9
WLMG : NYCQYFHCGO : 1 ES : 4 9 8 6 : 1 3 8 4
WLMG : NYCQYFHDSO : DGTL : UN X : UNK
WLMG : NYCQYFBGO : l XB : 4 98 6 : 1 384
WLM : NYCQYFHMG1 : l XB : 4 98 6 : 1 384
WLM: NYCQYFHG2 : 5 XB : 4 98 6 : 1 384
WLMG : NYCQYFLDSO : 5ES : UNK : UNK
WLMG : NYCQNYFLG1 : S XB : 4 91 1 : 1 388
WLMG : NYCQHYFLHG2 : 5 XB : 4 91 1 : 1 3 8 8
WLMG : NYCQNYFRDSO : 5 ES : 4 997 : 1 3 5 1
WLHG : NYCQYFRMGO : l XB : 4 991 : 1 3 5 1
WLMG : NYCQNYHSDSO : DGTL : 4 978 : 1 3 7 2
WMG : NYCQNYHSMGO : l XB : 4 91 8 : 1 3 1 2
WLMG : NYCQNYHSMG1 : 5 XB : 4 91 8 : 1 31 2
WLMG : NYCQNYBSRSO : RDGT : UNK : UNK :
NYCQNYLNDS I
WLHe : NYCQYHSRS 1 : RDGT : UN! : UNK :
N'CQNYLNDS I
WLMG : NYCQNYI ACGO : 1 ES : 4 9 92 : 1 3 6 9
WLM: NYCQYI AQSO : DGTL : UNK : UNK
WLMG : NYCQNYI IGO : 5 XB : 4 992 : 1 3 69
WLMG : NYCQNYJADSO : DGTL: 4 984 : 1 3 1 6
HLMG : NYCQNYLI CGO : 1 ES : 4 992 : 1 4 0 1
WLMG : NYCQNYL I OSO : DGTL : UN! : UNK
WLMG : NYCQNYLIMGl : 5 XB : 4 992 : 1 4 0 1
WLMG : NYCQNYLNDS I : DGTL : UNK : UNK
WLMG : NYCQNYLNMGO : 1 XB : 4 98 6 : 13 67
WLM : NYCQYLNMG1 : 5 XB : 4 98 6 : 1 3 61
WLH : NYCQNYNJSO : OGTL : UN K : UNK
WLMG : NYCQNYNJGO : 5 XB : 4 980 : 1 3 8 0
WLMG : NYCQNYNWCGO : 1 AtS : 4 9 8 6 : 1 3 9 2
WLHG : NYCQNYNWOS O : 5 ES : UNK : UN!
WLMG : NYCQYNWGl : 5 XB : 4 98 6 : 1 3 92
WLMG : NYCQNYOPCGO : 1 ES : 4 99 1 : 1 3 1 5
WLMG : NYCQNYOPDSO : DGTL : UNK : UNK
WLMG : NYCQNYOPMGO : l XB : 4 99 1 : 1 3 1 5
WLMG : NYCQN'OPMGl : 5 XB : 4 99 1 : 1 3 1 5
WLMG : NYCQNYRHDSO : DGTL : 4 9 90 : 1 3 8 0
WLMG : NYCQNYRHMGO : 1 XB : 4 9 90 : 1 3 8 0
WLH: NYCQNYRHRSO : RDGT : UNK : UN K :
NYCQNYLNDS 1
WLMG : NYCQNYlSCGO : 1 ES : 4 91 1 : 1 3 8 8
Too ri sky to mai l ?
Too paranoid t o
speak i t s name?
Then FAX i t!
516-751-2608
Winter 1989-90 2600 Magazine Page 13
by Vi ol ence
Thi s is the second part of a seri es on
t he P RI MOS operati ng system. I n thi s part I
wi l l detai l the several usef ul appl i cati ons
you are l i kel y t o fi nd on Pri me computers.
You wi l l l earn about the DSM ( Di stri buted
Sy st em Man ag e me n t ) ut i l i t i e s , t he
EDI T_PROFI LE uti l i ty (the P RI MOS user
edi tor), and several others. Thi s wi l l enabl e
you to make the most of any Pri me comput­
er you happen to vi si t.
Exampl es appear i n i tal i cs. Bol d i tal i cs
i ndicate user i nput , regul ar i tal i cs i ndicate
computer output.
EDIT PROFI LE
EDI T_PROFI LEi s the uti l i ty that i s used
to add, del ete, and modi fy users on a Pri me
computer runni ng PRI MOS. I t i s si mi l ar to
the VAXIVMS AUTHORI ZE ut i l i ty . There
are t hree modes of E D I T_P ROF I LE
acess, and these are:
System I niti al ization (SI) mode
System Admi nistrator (SA) mode
Project Admi nistrator ( PA) mode
Yo u wi l l p robabl y never be u s i n g
E DI T_P ROFI LE i n Syste m I ni t i al i zati on
mode as that mode i s used for i ni ti al sys­
tem user setup. SA mode wi l l al l ow you to
perf orm whol esal e u s er modi f i cati on s ,
whereas P A mode wi l l onl y al l ow you to
perform modi fi cati ons to users i n the same
project as you. When you decided to try out
E DI T_PROFI LE on t he system that you
have hacked i nto, type thi s:
OK, eit_profe
If it gi ves you an error message then
you obvi ousl y don' t have good enough priv­
i l eges. Don' t gi ve u p hope, however, as
there are ways around thi s. Unfortunatel y,
though, the methods whi ch you must use
are beyond the scope of t hi s tutori al . I t
i nvol ves programmi ng i n a hi gh l evel l an­
guage ( FORTRAN I V, FORTRAN-77, PU1
Subset G, et . aL) as wel l as knowl edge of
t he appropri ate system cal l s t o make. Do
l ots of research and experi ment. You mi ght
j ust get l ucky.
I f, on the other hand, i t al l ows you to
i nvoke EDI T_PROFI LE then i t wi l l di spl ay
the uti l ity' s heral d ( revi si on number, seri al
number, and copyri ght i nformation) and a
MORE HACKING
message stati ng what mode you are i n .
The mode message wi l l be one of these:
In system administrator mode
In project administrator mode
If you are in SA mode then the account
you are usi ng has SYS1 pri vi l eges (that' s
the best you can do from a remote stand­
poi nt ) . Before I get deep i n how to use
EDIT_PROFI LE properl y I shoul d menti on
that I have the source code to thi s wonder­
f ul l y useful program and a securi ty audi t
feature was added i n duri ng the l ast few
years (ci rc 1 986) . It wi l l l og all successful
and fai l ed commands. The onl y way I have
di scovered around thi s is to remove the
l oggi n g procedur es from the code and
r eco mpi l e i t o n l i n e , but t hat ' s p ret ty
advancd stuff and not advi sed at any rate.
The best you can do at mai ntai ni ng your
pr es ence on t he sy st em i s not to u se
EDI T_PROFI LE overly much. I n fact, don' t
use i t unl es s you mu st . I general l y use
EDI T_PROFI LE once per hack, and that i s
after I get i n. What do I do? I obtain a f ul l
u s er/ proj ect l i st i n g f or f ut ure hacki ng
purposes. You can' t obtai n an account' s
password from wi thi n EDI T_PROFI LE, but
you can obtain a f ul l user and project l i st­
i ng, as wel l as add , modi f y, and del ete
u sers. I f you get a user l i st, try and hack at
¨Cna uSa||S
aaS|a||O h|da
|han |h|aaO|
0O/a.¨
t hose account s before want onl y addi ng
u ser accounts. Be sensi bl e. Get al l that you
can before addi ng a user. And i f you must
add a user, j ust add one. There is no need
to add three or four users. No need at al l .
One user is easi er to hi de than three or
more. Use common sense here, guys.
Page 14 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90
ON PRIMOS
Once E D I T_PROF I L E has been
i nvoked you wi l l be di spatched merci l essl y
to the ">" prompt. To obtai n hel p, j ust type
HELP and press RETURN. Before I get i nto
addi ng users, I ' l l di scuss the procedures for
pul l i ng user l i sts and si mi l ar i nformati on.
To get ful l i nformati on about t he system
you are on ( project s, users, etc) you si mpl y
need to type:
>lsL system -sl
You can abbrevi ate the LI ST_SYSTEM
command wi th LS. You can l i st i ndi vi dual
system attri butes by substi tuti ng new argu­
ments i n pl ace of the - ALL argument. To
see what LS arguments are avai l abl e, type
H ELP . You shoul d ex peri ment wi t h t he
avai l abl e " L I ST " c omman ds i n
EDI T_PROFI LE.
Before atempti ng t o add a user on any
Pri me system you shoul d al ways l i st the
sy stem attri but es so t hat you wi l l know
what projects and groups are in use. When
you deci de to add a super-user, make sure
that you add yoursel f to the common pro­
j ect (usual l y DEFAULT) and al l of the hi gh­
access groups (exampl es I have seen are:
. ADMI N I STRATORS$, . P ROJ E CT_AD­
MI N I STRATORS$ , . OP E RATORS$,
. NET _MGT$, etc. ) . Addi ng super-users i s
not always a good i dea. Never add more
than 1 or 2 users on a system. Al so, try to
fol l ow the nami ng cnventi ons used on the
system. If users have thei r first name as a
User I D, then when you add a user make
sure that your new user' s User I D is a fi rst
name. Likewi se, i f al l users have thei r i ni ­
ti al s as thei r User I D t hen make sure that
your new user has a User ID wi th i ni ti al s.
Now, t o add a u ser, type:
>sdd_user usersme
Where "username" is the User I D you
wi sh t o use. After you type thi s you wi l l be
asked for your password. Enter the pass­
word that you wi sh to use. Then you wi l l be
asked for your group( s) and your defaul t
l ogi n project. Li ke I sai d, you shoul d use
t he " LI ST _" co mman ds t o see what
group( s) are i n use. Groups al ways start
wi th a period ( . ) . Gi ve yoursel f the admi ni s­
trator groups and you wi l l be doi ng good.
As for proj ect, an entry of DEFAULT wi l l
u sual l y sufi ce.
An easi er method to add users i s to use
the -LI KE argument. Try thi s:
>sdd_user userame -lke system
Agai n, " username" is the name of the
User I D that you wi sh to use. Thi s argu­
ment of t he ADD_USE R command wi l l
make a copy of t he user cal l ed SYSTEM
(found on al l Pri mes that I have seen; al so
a user of the super-user cl ass) and add the
copy as a new u ser but wi t h a di f f erent
name. Now, set your password wi th the
CHANGE_USER command. Type:
>change _ user usersme -pw
You wi l l be prompted for your new pass­
word. Ta da. You now have a User I D wi th
the same stats as the User ID "SYSTEM" .
Occsi onal l y upon addi ng a user you may
have to add your User I D to a fi l e cal l ed
LOGUFD l ocated i n one of the UFD' s off of
MFD O. Thi s wi l l general l y not happen. I f it
dos, then si mpl y correct i t with one of your
other acount s.
You are advi sed not t o wantonl y del ete
users or edit them. Al so try not to u se the
CHANGE_SYSTEM _ADMI NI STRATOR
command. Basi cal l y, type HELP and start
to experi ment ( but be careful of what you
do). Make sure that you keep track of the
changes that you make so that i n cse you
mess somethi ng up you can fi x i t. Get your
feet wet.
I f you fi nd yoursel f i n PA mode you can
do most of the above, but onl y regardi ng
t he proj ect t hat you are admi n i strat i ng .
Thus you can onl y add users to that pro­
ject, only del ete u sers from that proj ect, etc.
This means no addi ng of super-users, etc.
The Di stri bute System Management
( DSM) Uti l i t ies
The DSM uti l i ti es i s a set of commands
and services that hel p wi th the admi ni stra­
t i on and day-to-day operati on of Pr i me
computer systems. I t i s i ntended pri mari l y
for use wi th networked systems, but can
al so be u sed on s i ngl e Pri me systems
(those l acki ng networki ng capabi l i ty) .
The DSM u t i l i t i es al l ow Pr i me s y s tem
admi ni strators and seni or operators to per­
form system management tasks from any
poi nt on a network. DSM' s mai n faci l i ti es
Winter 1989-90 2600 Magazine Page 15
are summarized below.
SI M ( Syst em I nf or mat i on/ Met er i ng)
Commands System status and resource
moni tori ng of l ocal and remote systems
from any poi nt withi n the netork.
RESUS ( REmote System USer) Faci l i ty
Control of remote Prime systems from any
termi nal . Al l ows use of console-onl y com­
mands from a remote termi nal .
Col l ection and col l ati on of event mes­
sages, i ncl udi ng PRI MOS and network
even t s , t hr ough DSM' s Un s ol i ci t ed
Message Handli ng ( UMH) and loggi ng ser­
vices, with redirection of event messages to
l og fi l es or users troughout the network.
Generalized loggi ng of DSM messages
i n private or system logs, wi th commands
for admi ni steri ng, di spl ayi ng and pri nti ng
l ogs.
Faci l i ti es for defi ni ng users' access t o
DSM commands throughout the netork,
i n a si ngl e confi guration fil e.
As you can see, te DSM uti l i ti es can
be a ver y u sef ul asset t o have .
Unfortunately, SYS1 pri vi leges (admi ni stra­
tor) are requi red to use the most exci ti ng
aspect s of t he DSM ut i l i ti es. Al l normal
users can uti l i ze the SI M commands, and I
have even menti oned some of t hem i n
other parts of thi s series. What i s real l y
useful to us, however , are te RESUS and
l og uti l i ti es. I n a nutshel l here are the basi c
DSM commands. After thi s li st wi l l be ful l
di scourses on the RESUS uti l i ty and the
SI M cmmands.
Remote System Control :
R ESUS - I nvokes Pr i me' s REmote
System USer faci li ty.
Event Message Handl i ng and
Redi rection:
CONFI G_UM conf i g u re s DSM
Unsol i ci ted Message Handl i ng.
Admi nistering Logs:
ADMI N LOG -creates and admi ni sters
DSM 1 0 fi l es.
Di spl aying and Pri nti ng Logs:
DISPLY_LO -di spl ays and prints the
contents of log fi les, i ncludi ng system and
netork event logs.
DSM Configurator Commands:
CONFIG DSM -creates a new DSM con­
fi guration
-
fi l e.
MORE
DlSTRI BUTE_DSM -di stri butes a new
DSM confi gurati on fi l e.
STATUS_DSM -di splays the currently
active confi gurati on.
DSM Startup and Shutdown Commands:
START_DSM - starts DSM system con­
sole commands.
STOP _DSM -stops DSM system consol e
commands.
For more i nformation on any of the DSM
commands, type:
HELP command-name
or
command-name -HELP
The RESUS Uti l ity
RESUS is the REmote System USer
faci l i ty, and allows remote operati on of the
physi cl superi sor cnsol e from any termi ­
nal . What thi s basi cl l y means i s that, wi th
RES US enabled, all users wi th admi ni stra­
tor access wi l l be abl e to execute com­
mands that are normal l y onl y executabl e
from the system cnsol e. I t wi l l l et you forc
other users of the system (not a good idea
to use thi s capabi l ity unl ess you MUST) ,
t ake t he sy st em down ( you mu s t be
STUPI D t o do such a thi ng) , etc. RESUS
s u pp ort s the f ol l owi n g co mman d l i n e
options:
-ENABLE
-DISABLE [-FORCE]
-START [-ON node name]
-STOP
-STATUS [-ON node group]
-HELP [-NO_WAIT]
-USAGE
-ENABLE
Thi s option enabl es RESUS to be used
on a s y s tem. I t i s on l y val i d f r om t he
superi sor termi nal .
-DISABLE
Thi s opti on i s used to prevent RESUS
from bei ng used on a system on whi ch i t
has previ ousl y been - E NABLEd. The -
FORCE opt i on must be s uppl i ed if t he
RESUS i s actual l y i n use. I t i s onl y val i d
from the superi sor termi nal .
-START [-ON node name]
Thi s is the means by whi ch an autho­
rized user of RESUS may i nvoke REmote
System USer faci l i ti es on a system. If -ON
Page 16 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90
PRI ME HACKING
node name i s omi tted, the defaul t i s the
l ocal node. For thi s command to be suc­
cessful , RESUS must previousl y have been
-ENABLEd at the supervi sor termi nal .
-STOP
Thi s option termi nates remote control of
the su per vi s or t er mi n al , l eavi ng t he
REmote System USer faci l i ti es avai l abl e for
use by other authori zed u sers . It is onl y
val id from the remote termi nal i n cntrol of
the suprvi sor termi nal through RESUS.
-STATUS [-ON nodegroup]
Thi s di s pl ays t he cur r ent st at u s of
RESUS on al l nodes i n a speci fi ed node
group. I f a node group i s not speci fi ed, the
status of the local nod is di spl ayed.
-HELP, -H [-NO_WAIT, -NW]
Di spl ays command-speci fi c Hel p text.
-USAGE
Di spl ays command l i ne syntax.
The DSM SI M Commands
The DSM SI M ( Sy st em
I nformati on/ Meteri ng) commands gather
and di splay i nformati on about system/net­
work status and resource usage from any
poi nt on the netork.
SI M commands are i nvoked from the
P RI MOS comman d l i n e. They can be
i nvoked from any termi nal to di spl ay i nfor­
mation about any system on the netork.
They cn b i nvoked once, or peri odi cal l y
at specified ti me i nteral s. Output di spl ays
are pagi nated for screen di spl ay and can
be recorded i n pri vate or system l og fi l es.
User access to SI M commands on l ocal
and remote nodes is control l ed by DSM
securi t.
A l i st of SI M commands and descri p­
ti ons of the general SI M opti ons fol l ows.
LIST ASSI GNED DEVICES - l i sts
assig
n
ed dvices
-
L1ST_ASYNC - l i sts asynchronous termi ­
nal s
LIST COMM CONTROLLERS - l i sts
com
m
s cntr
O
lers cnfi guration
LIST_CON FI G - l i sts PRI MOS cl dstart
confi guration
LIST_DISKS - l i sts di sk partiti on names
L1ST_LAN_NODES - l i sts nodes on
LAN30 locl netorks
LIST_MEMORY - l i sts physical memor
usage
L1ST_PRI MENET_NODES - l i sts
PRI MENET confi gured nodes
LIST PRI MENET LINKS - l i sts active
PRI
M
ENET l i nks -
L1ST_PRI MENET_PORTS - l i sts assi gned
PRI MENET ports
LIST_PROCESS - l i sts active system pro­
cesses
LIST_SEMAPHORES - l i sts active
semaphores
LIST_SYNC - l i sts synchronous l i ne confi g­
urati on
LIST_UNITS - l i sts users open fi l e uni ts
L1ST_ VCS - li sts active vi rtual ci rcui ts
General SI M opti ons are:
-HELP, -H [-NO_WAI T, -NW]
-USAGE
-ON {node, noderoup}
-PRI VATE_LOG, -PLOG path name [-
NTY, -N]
-SYSTEM_LOG, -SLOG path name [­
NTY, -N)
-NO WAIT, -NW
-FREQ i nteer
-TI MES i nteer
-START, -S date+time
-STOP date+ti me .
-ON {node, noderoup}
Thi s opti on al l ows you to specify the tar­
get node, or nodegroup to whi ch the com­
mand i s to be di rected. The defaul t i s to
di rect the command to the node on which
the cmmand is i nvoked.
-PRI VATE_LOG, -PLOG pathname [ ­
NTIY, -N )
-SYSTEM_LOG, -SLOG path name [
-NTTY, -N ]
The -PRI VATE_LOG opti on al l ows you
to speci fy a standard PRI MOS path name
as a DSM l og fi l e to whi ch al l messages
from the target nodes are to be l ogged. I f
the l og does not al ready exi st, i t i s created
automati cal l y for you. User DSMASR ( the
DSM appl i cati on server) must have ALL
access to the di rectory that contai ns the
log.
The -SYSTEM_LOG opti on al l ows you
a ·si mi l ar faci l ity usi ng l ogs that are mai n­
tai ned on the system l oggi ng di rect ory
DSM*>LOGS. System l ogs onl y exi st on
Winter 1989-90 2600 Magazine Page 1 7
thi s di rectory or its subdi rectories, and must
be created wi th the ADMI N_LOG cmmand
prior to use.
Logged d at a can s u b sequent l y be
retrieved, pri nted and di spl ayed usi ng the
DI SPLY LOG command.
-NTT - N; cn be used with the -PRI ­
VATE_LOG and -SYSTEM_LOG opti ons,
and i ndi cates t hat no dat a i s to be di s­
pl ayed to t he user . When t hi s opt i on i s
used, t he command spawns a phant om
whi ch execut es t he command on y our
behalf, and fres your termi nal .
-HELP, -H [NO_WAIT, -NW]
Thi s opti on overrides all other options to
di spl ay hel p i nformation about the associat­
ed command.
-USAGE
Thi s option overri des al l other opti ons to
di spl ay usage i nformati on, for the associat­
ed command.
-NO WAIT, -NW
T
i s opti on i ndicates that you are not to
be prompted or queri ed duri ng the com­
mand output di splay.
I f t h i s opt i on i s n ot u s ed, y ou are
prompted betwee n each target node' s
response, and after every 2 3 l i nes ( 1 page)
of output di spl ays "-More-" and waits for
your response. To see more output press
the carri age retur n. To suppress further
output and return to command l evel , type
Q, Qui t, N, or No. Any other response wi l l
di spl ay more output.
-FREQ
-TI MES
-START, -S
-STOP
These opti ons can be u sed to i mpl e­
ment priodic executi on of a command.
-FREQ opti on provi des peri odi c execu­
t i on of a comman d , wi t h t he i n terval
between execut i ons deter mi ned i n sec­
onds. The i nteral you speci fy i s the i nter­
val between to successi ve executi ons of a
command, and not the i nterval between
compl eti on of te command' s di splay and
the next executi on. The i nterval i s corrected
to t he n earest mul t i pl e of fou r seconds
bel ow that speci fi ed. I f FREQ 0 i s specified,
the command is re-executed i mmedi atel y
on completi on of the previ ous execution. I f
I NFI L TRA TI NG
the i nterval el apses before compl eti on of
the previ ous di splay, the next execution i s
delayed unti l the di splay i s complete.
-TI MES i s used i n association wi th the -
FREQ opti on, to set a l i mi t on the number
of ti mes that a cmmand i s to b executed.
-START, -S sets the date and ti me that
execut i on starts . The for mat can be i n
ei ther I SO standard:
(YY_MM_DD. HH: MM:SS)
or i n USA standard:
(MM/DDIYY . HH: MM :SS)
Defaul ts are: year to current year; date
to current date; and time to zero.
-STOP sets the date and ti me execution
stops ; format and dfaults are the same as
for -START.
I n t he absence of any of t hese f our
opti ons, t he command i s executed once,
and i mmediately.
I n the presence of any of t hese f our
options, the dfaults appl i ed to the urspeci ­
fied opti ons are:
-FREQ - I mmeiate reexeuti on
-TI MES - i nfi nite
-START - now
-STOP - never
For more i nformation on any of the SI M
commands, type:
HELP command-name
or
command-name -HELP
PRI MOS Electroni c Mai l Capabi l i ties
PRI MOS, l i ke any other operati ng sys­
tem worth its bans, supports ful l electroni c
mai l capabi lities. However, the mail system
used wi l l vary from system to system. A
l ack of standards? Perhaps. But I fi nd i t
enjoyable learni ng the differencs beteen
the many mail systems avai l abl e.
I won' t di scuss how to use the mail sys­
tems due to l ack of space, but that shoul d
pose no problem, as al l of them have onl i ne
hel p avai l abl e.
Pri me Computer, I nc. ' s old mai l system
( i nvoked by typi ng MAI L) is your typi cal
run-of-the-mi l l mail system. I t' s not too di ffi ­
cul t to fi gure out how to use.
Pri me Computer, I nc. has al so created
a PRI MOS i mpl ementati on of the UNI X
XMAI L system. Thi s seems to b e thei r pre-
Page 18 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90
A PRI ME
ferred el ectroni c mai l system. I t i s very
easy to use, not to menti on very powerful .
My favori te el ectroni c mai l server i s
NETMAI L, wri tten by those cunni ng pro­
grammers at Bramal ea Software Systems
( the same fi rm that created LOGI N_SEN­
TRY) . NETMAI L i s the mai l server wi th the
most useful features. Not onl y do you get
the normal features of sendi ng user-to-user
mai l local l y and to si mi l arl y confi gured si tes
on the netork, you can al so send:
Courtesy cpi es to other users
Encapsul ate non-SAM files
Courtesy copi es i s basi cal l y message
forardi ng. Assume I wrote a memoran­
du m. I f I wanted al l t he peopl e on the
" Board of Trustees" to get a copy I j ust
send c' s (courtesy cpi es) t o them.
The fi l e encapsul ati on feature makes
NETMAI L a pseudo-fi l e transfer appl i cati on
l i ke FTS ( Fi l e Transfer Servi ce, Pr i me' s
answer to UNI X' s FTP uti l i ty) . Say I wrote a
useful publ i c domai n program and want to
di stri bute it to some users on the local sys­
tem and some remote systems. Don' t want
them to get the sources, now do we? So
we encapsulate the executabl e fi l e ( com­
pi l ed program) and mai l i t out as an encap­
sulated fi l e. When the receivers read thei r
mai l , they wi l l be abl e to tel l NETMAI L to
save it as a fi l e to thei r di rectory. Ver ni ce!
Some si tes use custom-written mai l uti l i ­
t i es. I t al l depends. Most , if not al l , are
rather user-fri endl y and easy to l earn wi th­
out documentati on. Don' t forget ! Onl i ne
hel p fi l es.
ED - The PRI MOS Text Editor
ED i s the PRI MOS text edi tor and it i s
l i ne-ori ented as opposed to f ul l -screen . I f
you are usi ng VT - 1 00 or a si mi lar emul a­
t i o n , you mi g h t pl ay ar ound wi t h t he
EMACS ful l -screen edi tor, but I won' t be
di scussi ng EMACS here. After al l , i t comes
wi th i ts own i nteracti ve tutori al . Another
reason why I won' t be di s cus s i ng i t i s
because not al l Pri me sites have i t onl i ne (i t
i s a separately pri cd product) . RUNOFF i s
another separatel y pri ced product. I t i s a
ful l y equi pped word processor. ED, on the
other hand, cmes wi th PRI MOS and it i s
always avai l abl e.
To i nvoke the PRI MOS EDitor, type:
ed
at the "OK, " prompt.
Th i s wi l l e nt er E D wi t h an e mpty
workspace. You are creati ng a new fi l e. To
edit an exi sti ng fi l esystem object, type:
ed fename
When y ou ent er ED wi t h an empt y
workspace you wi l l b dumped i nto I NPUT
mode. Everythi ng you type here wi l l be
taken as i nput i nto the fi l e you are creati ng.
I f you tel l ED t o l oad a f i l e and edi t i t
( i . e. , ED fi l ename) then you wi l l b dumped
i nto EDI T mode. Everythi ng you type will be
taken as ED edi ti ng commands.
To swi tch between I NPUT and EDI T
¨¥Oua|a
ad||SadnO||O
wan|On|yda|a|a
uSa|S O|ad||
|ha0. ¨
mode, i ssue a nul l l i ne (that i s to say, press
the RETURN key) . Thi s bri ngs a new prob­
l em i nto mi nd. How do you make a bl ank
l i ne i f when you press RETURN al one i t
swi tches between modes? Yes, thi s i s a
shortcomi ng for PRI MOS users who are
used to standard text edi ti ng systems. To
create a "nul l " l i ne, type a space and then
press RETURN. I t looks nUl l , but i t i s real l y
treated as a l i ne one character i n length by
ED. Take note that both I NPUT mode and
EDI T mode use no prompt.
To i l l ustrate what we have learned so
far, consi der thi s "pretend" sessi on wi th the
ED line editor. (Since this magazine is not
an 80-column environment, we'll use the
nn
symbol at the beginning of lines that
are actualy part of the preceding lne in an
80-column setting. )
OK, e
INPUT
Hey, this is
p
retty nice. A nice text
(continued on page 34)
Winter 1989-90 2600 Magazine Page 19
b y Mr . U p s e t t e r
E v e r y d ay p e o p l e u s e t o u c h
t o n e s t o s i g n a l b e t we e n t h e i r
ph on e a n d t h e p h o n e co mpan y' s
s wi t c h i n g e q u i p m e n t . Wh at t h e
ave r age man o n t h e st r eet does n't
know i s t h at t h e r e ar e f ou r ot h e r
t o u c h t o n e s t h at a r e n ' t u s e d i n
r eg u l ar t el ephon e s i g n al i n g . As al l
good phon e experi me nt ers know, a
s i l v e r b o x i s a d e v i c e t h at c a n
cr eat e t h e f o u r ext r a DTMF ( d u a l ­
t o n e mu l t i - f r eq u e n cy ) t o n e s t h at
ar e n ot used i n n or mal t el epho n e
s e rv i c e . Th e s e DTMF t o n e s ar e
k n own as A, B, C, an d D. I t i s
q u i t e easy t o g e n er at e t h e s e DTMF
t o n e s b e c a u s e t h e s t a n d a r d 1 6
t one f or mat i s u s ed i n man y popu­
l a r DTM F t o n e g e n e r at o r I C' s .
Th i s ar t i c l e s h ows t wo ways t o
modi f y t el ephon e equ i pment on t h e
ma r ket t o make s i l ver box t on es
and t h e n g i v e s a s ch e mat i c of a
d e v i c e t h at wi l l p r o d u c e a l l 1 6
DTMF t ones.
Mo d i f i c at i o n f o r Te l e p h o n e s
Yo u may not k n ow i t , bu t y ou
mi g ht a l r eady o wn a s i l v e r box .
T h at i s , t h e DTM F e n c o d e r I C
i nsi de you r t ouch t on e phone may
be capabl e of prod u ci n g s i l ver box
t o n e s . I f yo u r p h o n e i s a n e we r
t ouch t o n e a n d does not have f ea­
t u r es s u ch as cal l st o r age or r ed i ­
a l , t h e mo d p r e s e n t ed h e r e wi l l
wo r k , i f i t h as t h e r i g h t ch i p .
Th e r e a r e many d i f f er en t ty pes
of DTMF ch i ps , b ut t h i s mod i f i ca­
t i on is f or ph on es u s i n g t h e 1 6 pi n
TCM5087 t on e e n cod e r . Thi s chi p
i s speci f i cal l y desi gned t o g e n e r­
ate t h e e i g ht d i f f e r en t t ones u s ed
HOWÏO BUlLU
i n d u al t one t el ephon e di al i ng sys­
t e ms . Se e Fi g u r e s 1 an d 2 f or a
l i st of t on e s an d associ at ed f r e­
q u e n c i e s . He r e' s h o w t h e 5 0 8 7
wo r ks. Wh e n a key i s pr essed , i t
c o n n e c t s t wo p i n s o n t h e I C
t oget her . One i s a row pi n and one
i s a col u mn pi n . For i n st ance, i f a
6 i s p r e s s e d , t h e r o w 2 p i n i s
con n ect ed t o t h e col u mn 3 p i n o n
t h e 50 8 7. Th i s cau s es a 770 Hz
an d 1477 Hz t on e to be e mi t t ed .
For nor mal phon e u se, t he col u mn
4 p i n , wh i ch i s u s e d t o make t h e
A, B , C, an d D tones i s u n used .
B ef o r e y o u st a rt t h i s s i mp l e
m o d i f i c at i o n y o u m u s t h av e a
p h o n e wi t h a 5 0 8 7 c h i p . On t h e
n ew t r i m l i n e s t y l e p h o n e s t h i s
c h i p i s l ocat ed i n t h e cent er of t h e
l arg e r pr i nt ed c i rcu i t board ( PCB)
i n t h e h an d s et . Th e ch i p s h o u l d
h av e t h e n u mb e r s 5 0 8 7 o n t h e
back al ong wi t h some ot h e r n u m­
b e r s , s o i t wi l l r e a d s o met h i n g
l i k e " T 9 5 0 8 7 " o r " TC M 5 0 8 7" .
Once you h ave i de nt i f i ed t he chi p,
you mu st gai n access to t h e sol d e r
s i d e of t he PCB.
Th e f ou r t on es are 8 n abl ed by
i n s t a l l i n g t h r e e w i r e s a n d a
swi t c h . Fi r st , cut t h e t r ace on t he
PCB goi n g f rom pi n 5 of t he 5 087
t o t he keypad . Use a r azor bl ade
o r a s mal l f i l e . ( On an I C t he f i r st
p i n i s t h e o n e i n t h e l o we r l e f t
cor n er when you h ol d t h e c h i p s o
t h e l e t t e r s a r e r i g h t s i d e u p .
Th e r e may al s o b e a d ot o n t h e
c a s e above p i n 1 . ) Ne x t , s o l d e r
s e p a r at e wi r e s t o p i n 5 , pi n 9 ,
a n d t o co l u mn 3 of t h e k e y pad .
Th i s i s t he p o i n t o n t he k e y pad
Page 20 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90
A SlL vLH BOX
t h at was con n ect ed to pi n 5 of t h e
I C bef or e yo u cut t h e t r ace. See
Fi g u r e 3 f or t h e sch e mat i c of t h e
mod i f i cat i o n . On a t r i m l i n e t y pe
p h o n e i t i s e as i e st t o m ak e a l l
co n n ect i o ns t o t h e sol d e r s i de of
the PCB. Be s u re you h ave i de nt i ­
f i ed t h e p i n s on t h e I C cor r ect l y
bef or e y ou st art s ol d e r i n g . Now,
s ol d e r t h e wi r e f r o m t h e keypad
t o t h e m i d d l e t a b of an S P OT
swi t ch . So l d e r t h e wi r e f ro m p i n
9 t o on e s i d e o f t h e swi t ch and t h e
wi r e f ro m pi n 5 t o t h e ot h e r . Th e
mod i f i cat i on i s n ow compl et e. Fo r
n o r ma l OTMF t o n e s t h e s wi t c h
s i mpl y con n ects t h e keypad t o pi n
5, t h e co l u m n 3 p i n . Fo r s i l v e r
b o x t o n e s , t h e s wi t c h c o n n ect s
t h e pr ev i ou s l y u n u s ed p i n 9, t he
col u mn 4 pi n , t o t h e keypad . The
keys 3, 6, 9, an d # now beco me
A, B , C, and 0 r espect i ve l y .
Bef or e y ou pu t eve r yt h i ng back
t og et h e r d ou bl ec heck y o u r wor k.
Tog g l e t he swi t ch and make sur e
al l t h e t on e s wor k. Make s u r e t he
wi r e s you i n st a l l ed d o n ' t c a u s e
a n y s h o rt s. Last l y, f i n d a pl ace t o
s ecu r el y i n st al l t h e swi t ch .
An ot he r Modi f i ca t i on
I f t h e above mo d won ' t wor k on
an y of y ou r phones, you can do a
s i mi l ar mod on a prod uct sol d by
R ad i o S h a c k . T h e i r " e c o n o m y
pocket t on e d i al e r " ( $ 1 5 . 95 ) u s e s
a 50 8 7 c h i p and c an be convert ed
f o r s i l ver box t on es . Th e mod i f i ­
c at i o n u s e s t h r e e wi r e s a n d a
swi t ch , as bef or e. Once co mpl et­
ed , yo u wi l l h ave a n i ce po rt abl e
1 6 ton e OTMF g e n e rator .
The f i r st st ep of t h i s mod i s t o
r emove t he PCB. Car ef u l l y pop of f
t h e back of t h e u n i t an d r e move
t h e p o w e r s wi t c h a n d t h e s i x
scr ews i n t h e PCB. Th e n d esol der
t h e t wo s p e a k e r wi r e s a n d t h e
batt er y wi r es f rom t h e P CB . Yo u
may al so want to r emove t h e key­
pad and t he keys. Now l ook at t he
keypad si de of t h e PCB ( n ot t he
co mpo n e n t s i d e ) . Cut t h e t r ace
goi n g f r om pi n 5 of t h e I C t o col ­
u mn 3 of t h e keypad . Th i s i s t h e
o u t e r mo s t o f t h e t h r e e t r a c e s
goi n g f ro m t h e I C t o t h e keypad.
Now t h e swi t ch mu st be i n st al l ed.
Fi nd a t i nned rou nd pad mar ked C3
i n t he upper l ef t of t h e co mpo n e nt
si de of t h e PCB and s ol d e r a wi re
f r om h e re to t h e mi ddl e t ab of an
SPOT swi t ch . Thi s swi t ch mu st be
a v e r y s m a l l t o g g l e o r s l i d e
s wi t c h . Al s o o n t h e co mp o n e n t
si d e , sol d e r a wi r e f ro m p i n 9 t o
one si de of t he swi t ch and a wi r e
f r o m p i n 5 t o t h e o t h e r . As
be f o r e , b e s u r e t o i d e n t i f y t h e
p i n s co r r ect l y . Th e r e i s r oo m t o
i n st al l a swi t ch i n s i de t he en c l o­
s u r e i n t h e gap t o t he l ef t of t h e
d i ode at t h e t op of t h e PCB. As
u s u al , ch eck f or s h orts cau sed by
t h e w i r e s o r t h e s w i t c h . T h e
s wi t c h w i l l o p e r at e e x act l y as
descr i bed i n t h e pr evi o u s modi f i ­
cat i o n .
Al t e r n a t i v e 1 6 Ton e
DT MF Gen er a t or
I f y o u d o n ' t h a v e t h e r i g h t
phon e and don ' t want t o spend $1 6
at Radi o Sh ack , you can bui l d you r
own t ou ch t one encode r usi ng t he
sch e mat i c i n Fi g u r e 4. Thi s d evi ce
i s ve ry s i mi l ar t o t he o n e s ol d by
Radi o Shack. I t uses t he TCM5089
OTMF e ncod er I C to produce al l 1 6
Winter 1989-90 2600 Magazine Page 21
t on es . The 5089 i s cl osel y r el at ed
t o t he 5087 i n bot h f u n ct i on and
pi n ou t . One i mpor t ant d i ff er en ce
i s t h at t h e 5087 pr od uces a t on e
wh en a r ow an d col u mn pi n ar e
c o n n e ct e d t o g et h e r , w h i l e t h e
5089 prod uces a ton e wh en a row
and col u mn pi n are conn ect ed to
g r o u n d . As a r e s u l t , t h e 5 0 8 9
mu st b e used wi t h a speci f i c t ype
of keypad , cal l ed a 2- of - 8 keypad .
Expl anat i on of t h e sch e mat i c i s
as f ol l ows : pressi ng a key causes
a r ow and col u mn pi n to go l ow,
t hus produci ng a DTMF tone at pi n
1 6, t h e out put . Th e I C r eq u i r es a
si ne wave i nput s uppl i ed by a TV
c o l o r - bu r st c ry s t a l at 3 . 579545
MHz ( X1 ) t o g e n e rat e e i g ht d i f f e r­
e nt audi o s i n uso i dal f r eq u en ci es .
The t one out put f rom pi n 1 6 goes
t o a 32 ohm speaker , C2, C3, and
R1 . Var yi ng t he val ues of C2, C3 ,
and R1 wi l l change t h e vol u me and
audi o q u al i t y of t he si gnal . I f you
use a speaker of h i g h e r and l ower
i mpedance, you s h ou l d ex per i ment
wi t h t h e val ues of C2, C3, and R1
f o r t h e b e s t a u d i o v o l u m e a n d
q u al i t y. Th e d evi ce i s power ed by
4. 5V but t h e 5089 can h an dl e u p
t o 1 2V.
Pa r t s L i st a n d Su p p l i e r s
C 1 - 2 2 u f , 1 6 V e l e ct r o l y t i c
C 2 - 1 u f , 1 6 V e l e c t r o l y t i c
C 3 - 2 . 2 u f , 1 6 V e l e ct r o l y t i c
I C 1 - T C M5 0 8 9 DT M F
e n co d e r
R 1 - 6 8 o h m , 1 / 4 W
X 1 - 3 . 5 7 9 5 4 5 M H z c o l o r­
b u r s t c r y s t a l
Ot h e r p a r t s : 2 - o f - 8 k e y p a d ,
s p e a k e r , b a t t e r i e s , b a t t e r y
h o l d e r , e n c l o s u r e , p owe r
USING ÏHOSL
s wi t c h , c i r c u i t b o a r d , e t c .
Th e TCM5089 i s avai l abl e f ro m
ma n y s o u r c e s . On e i s J a m e c o
E l e c t r o n i c s , 1 3 5 5 S h o r e w a y
Ro ad , Be l mo nt , CA 94002. A 2-
of - 8 keypad i s avai l abl e f ro m Th e
E l e ct r o n i c Go l d m i n e , P . O. Box
540 8 , Scott s dal e, AZ 85261 . The
c r y s t al i s av a i l a b l e f r o m Ra d i o
Sh ack or Jameco, a n d many ot h­
e rs . Tot al cost of e l ect ro n i c part s
s h ou l d be ar ound $6- 7.
I f you buy t h e keypad f r om The
El ectron i c Gol d mi n e , t he pi nout i s
as f o l l ows :
Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û Û
E F G H J K L M N
These ar e t he n i n e pi ns on t he
back of t he keypad . E: g rou n d, F:
col u mn 4, G: col u mn 3 , H: col u mn
2 , J : co l u mn 1 , K: r o w 4 , L : r ow
3, M : r ow 2 , N: r ow 1 .
Now Wh at ?
Some of you may b e wonder i ng
wh at t o d o wi t h yo u r n ew t oy . A
s i l v e r box i s n ' t a t o l l avo i d ance
devi ce l i ke a bl ue o r r ed box ; i t i s
anot h e r t ool wi t h wh i ch t o expl o r e
t he phon e syste m. And t hat means
you h ave to do t he exper i ment i ng .
Try beepi ng si l ver box t o n es i nt o
voi ce message syst e ms , c e l l u l ar
VMS, t est exch ang es , l oops, pay
phones, 1 0NXX and 950 n u mber s,
an swer i n g mach i n e s , o r anywh er e
el se you t h i n k t h e tones shoul dn ' t
be l o n g . Se e wh at h appe n s wh e n
you d rop a s i l v e r box t o n e or t wo
d o w n y o u r l o c a l e x c h a n g e o r
t h r o u g h d i f f e r e n t l o n g d i st a n c e
c a r r i e r s . I f you e x p e r i me n t sys­
t e m at i c a l l y a n d k e e p g o o d
r ecord s , yo u wi l l s u r e l y u n cover
s omet h i n g i nt er est i n g .
Page 22 2600 Magaine Winter 1989-90
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Page 23
HeZp Needed
Dear 2600:
I a hoping you may b able to
help me. I a in a psition where
several times people I do not kow
have tried to trick me into saing
illegal things on the phone. I need
a way to b able to tell their phone
numbers as they call me.
I have heard that there exists
phones or boxs that ca pick up
the number calling you from a sig­
nal transmitted wth any call and
display it. Do you know where I
could buy one, get one, or how I
could build one?
Concered
Syracue, N
Yes, suh bxes exist, but it wil
be some time before thy can tell
you th phne numr ofA call,
that i s, cal l s outside your local
callin area. And it won' t work at
al l i your local phone company
isn' t oferi a caller-I type ofser­
vice.
Cal ler- ID is becoming a very
controversial topi. Anonymity on
the phone is somethig we all take
for granted. Removin this would
make using the phne a comlete­
ly dif erent experience, one that
would prbably b a whle lot less
j and a great deal more intimi­
datin.
But t hen there are those who
abuse t he anonymit y feat ure.
What do we do with them? In your
case, you'd be wise not to remain
on th line whn thse peple call
if indeed they are trying to trick
you. I thy contiue to call, fle a
comlait with your phne coma­
ny. Noboy (including the phone
wo rd s a n d
comany, law enforcement, or reg­
ular people) h th riht to harass
you on the phone i they're told to
stop. I you're deteried enough,
thy wil b tracked down.
Interesting Facts
Dear 2600:
The ANI ' s for the 4 1 2
(Pittsburgh) area code are scat­
tered i n the 4 1 0 exchange . We
know of the following:
41 0-41 00: downtown Pittsburgh
and suburban.
41 0-6633: east suburban.
Aso, US Sprint issues a com­
plete rundown of who called an
800 number. We got our 800 bill
and surprisingly it showed every
number that called us.
The Renegade of Pittsbugh
Sysop of Charlotte
(412) 829-2767
Te copy ofthe bill you sent u
loks exactly lie a regular Sprint
bill, except the numbers on it are
the numbers t hat cal l ed you.
Smethin to think abut. especial­
ly thse of you wh lie t call 800
nuers. Lo k in our Sprig 1 989
i ssue to find out which 800
exchanges are owned by Sprint.
We'd like to know i th other com­
panies prov ide such det ai l ed
billing.
By the way, Sprint' s FNLine
800 serv ice i sn' t a bad deal .
Tere' s currently no startu fee to
obtain an 800 number and you
can attach it to any existin phne
number. Your 800 number wil l
work al l ovr th country and the
monthly fee is only $1 0. The per
call fee is rather steep, though. It
averages about 22 cents a minute.
P
age 24 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90
c h a ra c t e r s
But it·s one way to virtually guar­
antee not gettin riped ofby an
AOS somewhre. Of course. you
can only dial one numer.
More Fequencies
Dear 2600:
In your Autumn 1 989 issue a
reader poi nt ed out t he Mobi l e
Telephone Assignments. Te read­
er however lef out an important
set of frequencies which are used
for phones on airplanes. Tese fre­
quencies usually have senators.
congressmen. and other important
business people calling home, set­
t i ng appoi ntment s . or tal ki ng
about other things:
454. 675, 454. 700. 454 . 725.
454. 750. 4 5 4 . 775. 45 4. 800.
454. 825, 45 4. 850, 45 4. 875.
454. 900. 454. 925. 454. 950.
454. 975.
Pl ease not e: " I t is a federal
cri me wi th severe puni shment
and/or fnes t o 1 ) divulge what you
hear to anyone who is not a part
to the broadcast; 2) to make use of
any broadcast information for your
own personal gain; 3) to make use
of any broadcast information for
illegal purposes or to commit a
crime. Any such violations may be
investigated by the FBI and prose­
cuted by the US Department of
Justice. "
MM
Rutherford. NJ
We wonder i thse sam penal­
ties apply to anyone who over­
hars a conversation on a bu. It' s
basically th same thin. Th only
dif erence is that the people talkin
on th phone ofen aren' t aware of
how easy it is for othrs to listen
in. Th crime i that case is ino­
rance. ofen peretuated by manu­
facturers who would rather their
customers not know how non-pri­
vate thir convrsatins really are.
Still. this is better than th cellular
fiasco. where Congress decided
that the best (and only) prtetin
would be to simly make listenin
in i l l egal . Who woul d be fool
enouh to listen to something ille­
gal in t he pri vacy of their own
hme?
Numers Needed
Dear 2600:
I am wri ti ng to inquire as to
whether any issue of your maga­
zi ne has i nformati on regarding
access to long distance telephone
calling card codes using AT&T or
Sprint services without a comput­
er.
I used to have a calling card
number that worked and billed to
someone else. but it is no longer
valid.
I don' t have a computer, so I
need some way of fnding a valid
card number that works . From
what I ' ve read in one of your
books. that isn't easy t o do at ran­
dom because AT&T is difcult to
hack without a computer. I've tried
using my oid card and changing
the last four digits, but it won't go
through.
If you have anything on this or
know of a publication that does,
please let me know.
MC
Van Nuys. CA
Wt you want to do really has
not hi ng to do wit h hacking or
phreakin. Tre are lots of ways
Winter 1989-90 2600 Magazine Page 25
i n
to make telephone calls. You dis­
cover t hem t hrough indi vidual
experimentation. Using someone
else's callin card is not th way
to go. You victimize an innocent
person and you also r a tremen­
dous risk ojgetting cauht. I you
want to explore and manipulate
th system, thre's never been a
better tim. I you sily want to
steal, you'll hav t wait in lie.
BBS Queston
Dear 260:
What are the requirements for
putting up a 2600 BBS? I have a
Amiga and I want to put up a
board. Wat BBS prgram should
I use?
Greg
New York
As it stans riht nw, thre are
no 2600 boards. It was working
out Jairly well Jor a while but thn
we Joun ourselvs devting more
and more time to th br when
we should hav been working on
th magaine. We've got our prri­
ties and t hey center arund t h
maain itsel Anyon intereste
in running boards has our bless­
ings, and i they want to spread
the word through 2600, we' ll do
what we can. The only basic
requirements we insist upon are
user anonymity and private mail
that cannot be read by system
operators.
Coments/
Suggestions
Dear 260:
I had not intended to renew this
time, since I've found ver little of
interest in the last few issues. In
o t h e r wo rd s ,
particular, the articles about the
command l anguages of several
( common) operat i ng syst ems
seemed no more than a reprnt of
what was easily available in users'
manuals. I read those all day. Your
Fl issue was superb, however, so
I'd like to renew.
Don't misunderstand. I do like
the artic les on computers when
they present something fresh. But,
in general. I fnd the articles on the
t elephone syst em muc h more
interesting. And I especially like
the information on threats to pri­
vacy (and would appreciate more
abut "practical" ways to counter­
act these threats) .
I do have one question. In many
cases, the telephone inforation is
a bit too advanced for me, as I a
only a beginner. I would appreciate
it i sometime you could publish a
bibliography of above- and under­
ground information, from which I
could lear the basics. A you may
have most of thi s i nformati on
already, which may otherwise be
hard to fnd, maybe you could put
it altogether into a ·primer" which
you could ofer for sale.
In closing, again, thanks for the
last issue, which was golden.
He
Phoeni
It WAS a go issu, wasn't i?
We were responding to our read­
ers' sugestions, which we never
tire oj hari. We need a continu­
ing fow ojmore articles, hwever,
in order to keep issues l ike that
one comin.
The prject you sugest is one
we' ve had our eye on Jor some
ti. We've h ou eye on others
Page 26 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90
t h Ð I Ð t t Ð rs
as wel l . Maybe something wil l
materialie son . . . .
COCOT Hacking
Dear 260:
A non Bel l System l ookal i ke
payphone was recently i nstalled
outside in the parking lot of a con­
veni ence store across the street
from my resi dence . The phone
wires coring out of i t ae exposed
and unprotected; you could proba­
bly splice into them leaving extra
connections to hok up a conven­
tional telephone.
No phone number is listed on it
so I made a short long distance
collect call to a friend. A choppy
woman's digitized computer voice
said, MThis is a public payphone.
This is not a billable number. " It
repeated this about four or five
times as the call was being initiat­
ed - even the person I phoned
could hear it. I was then able to
get the payphone' s number from
my friend's phone bill.
I called the payphone and afer
to rings the same voice answered
by j ust saying MThank you" fol ­
lowed by a seri es of four touch­
tones ( I assume) i n rapi d
succession. There' s about a 20
second pause. ( I would guess the
payphone owners enter a code
from a touch tone phone on their
end to de te rmi ne how much
money has been collected, etc. I t
would be fun to hang an FM trans­
mitter on the line and eventually
get al the codes to activate its var­
ious information modes. ) Without
entering a chain of touch tones it
recognizes, it simply hangs up.
I then took my cordless phone
over to it and dialed it up. The
payphone produces a sof chirping
sound instead of a ringing bel l ,
and it's not loud at all. When you
pick up the handset it simply says
MOne moment please" four or fve
times but it simply will not con­
nect you through to the caller. A
a general rule I avoid these pri­
vately owned payphones and
whenever possible go for genuine
Bell .
A an open sugestion, could a
knowledgeable 2600 reader submit
a sc hemat i c for a devi c e t hat
would display a digital readout of a
string of touch tones applied to its
input? The NSA uses such devices
in the ir surve i l l anc e work.
Recently Moder Electronics had a
device that would give an actual
voice of the various touch tone dig­
its. Its construction was fairly sim­
pl e . but t he t ones had to be
entered ver slowly - i t couldn' t
tell you a rapid string like you' d
get from an auto speed dialer or
even from normal hand dialing.
Thi s devi ce woul d be great for
monitoring cellulars or the 46/49
Mhz cordless porta phones.
Ad fnally, one question: is it
pssible to call a 900 number from
a payphone using a red box some­
where in this countr? It doesn' t
work in my area.
I enjoy your periodical a great
deal (the phone articles are by far
the best since access is universal) .
Keep up the good work!
Aron. Oho
The COCOT (Customer Owned
Coi n Operated Telephone) you
invstiated i a ver common one.
Some others Jor our readers to
Winter 1989-90 2600 Magazine Page 27
play with are at 602-820- 1 430,
51 6-467-9183, an 21 4-286-3334.
It may take a goo ten rings for
thm to answer with th cmuter
vie an it miht b hr to keep
curious humans frm picking u
whn you call. 1 for tons afer
th 'hnk you� son suspiiu­
ly lie silvr bo tns (, B, C, D)
- we don't know what thir pu­
pose i. ObVisly, th phon thn
waits for yu to enter th riht di­
its. Curently, we hv n ia as
to what the format is. Once we
hv that inforatin, it'll b easi­
er to crack and we can see just
what these phones can do. We
eCae L rears to evaluate
th dif eet typs ofpayphns i
thir areas, get thi numrs, call
thm, eMt, etc. Lt us knw
what youfm.
Regarding 900 numbers from
payphones: generally it doesn' t
work, not even 900- 555- 1 2 1 2
whih is a fee call. But sowar�
errors in the central office can
make wonderful things happen.
There was a time when quite a
few payphnes in New York City
woul call A 900 numer fee of
charge. You may fn thi in your
area i nobody' s caught it. You
may find a COCOT t hat allows
this. But don' t expect it to last.
Usually afer th frst bill rlls in,
thy flure out wht's wrng pret­
ty quickly. I you are lucky enouh
to find one of these holes, you' ll
son discovr hw borig most of
these servies are, even for fee.
And thn you won't hav to won
about falling for that crap in the
fture. It's to bad the general pp­
ulace can't shre that realiatin.
t h e 2 6 0 0
GTE Mysteres
Dar 2600:
I'm the knd of guy that likes to
just try things for the hell of it
(what' s this button for??) . You
know, to see what happns or j ust
for the sake of knowing someting
new, even i it's "useless" . Anyway,
that's how I stumbled upon this
litte telephone episoe.
I live in the "south bay� region
of Ls Angeles and my phone com­
pany is the infamous GTE. Just
recently, I had the "Smart Pack"
features (call forard, call waiting,
call conferencing, and speed call­
ing added to my serice. Anyway, I
dialed my own number, for what­
ever reason, and much to my sur­
prise, I did not get a busy signal .
What I got instead were four short
beps (sounding just like "conver­
sat i on bei ng recorded" beeps)
spaced apart about a half second
each. Then I'm disconnected and
just dead silence. I waited a few
seconds, pushed assorted buttons,
nothing. Then a nice steady tone
like one would get calling a long
distance 800 numbr. Not knowing
why, how, or what to do, I j ust
pushed more tones. Nothing. Ten
the nasty "line off the hok" tone
comes blasting through, so I hung
up.
Are you familiar with an i nci ­
dent such as this? Is this related
to the Smart Packge? GTE? Freak
of nature? Sorry I can' t tell you
what ESS is in use here. If you
haven' t already guessed, I am a
novice at phone hackng.
By the way, I love your publica-
Page 28 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90
mì h t Ð r l Ð t t Ð rs
tion, flled with neat stuff I may
never use but still fun to read.
Some thank you info: 1 1 4 in my
GT area gets the computer voice
readout of the numbr you're call­
ing on, and I 've been told 1 223
does likewise for PAC-TL.
H.
Manhattan Beach, CA
It sounds like you came in on
your own call waitin. That couId
explain the Jour beeps. We don' t
know why you were diconnecte,
hwevr. GT has a lot ojodities
and we'd lov to har about some
more oj them. For instance, WHT
"nice steady tone like one would
get cal l ing a long distance 800
number" ? We in non- GTE l and
hav nevr heard oj such a thin.
whih you prbably take Jor grant­
e.
On Being Taced
Dear 2600:
There' s a question that every
hacker has asked at least once in
his life and I am surprised that
you have not as yet covered i t.
When hacki ng onto a sys t em,
everbody always wants t o know
"Who does the system belong to?"
and "Does this system trace?" The
answer to the frst one should be
obvious. CNA's have always proven
to be ver useful here, But what
about the second question? How
common is i t for a mainframe to
have tracing eqUipment on it, and
afer hackng it for some time, is it
possible, if the company detects
you, for them to obtai n traci ng
eqUipment to catch you, and i f so,
how likely do you think it is that
they will obtain such faci l i ti es?
Te reason I ask this i s tat I ofen
scan exchanges looking for com­
puters to hack and I ofen wonder
how " safe" a syst em that I am
playng with is.
The CPU Raider
We' v covred this many times.
Any system. b it a phone system
or a comuter system. can install a
trace i abuse is suspected. It is
not wie to call any system diret­
ly Jrm your home Jor jut that rea­
son. Callin an extender to rerute
your cal l to a computer system
won' t do you much good i the
extender people put a trace on
THEIR system! But don' t let us
misl ead you. There are al ways
ways to get in and STAY in i
you' re good, determi ned. and
smart.
Infonaton
Dear 2600:
Do you still have 2600 t -shirts?
KS
Pttsbugh, PA
Not at the moment. Hopejlly by
the time the Spring issue comes
out. we'll hav a new Ï.
Dear 2600:
I was wonderi ng what the
addre ss was for the Chaos
Computer Club i n West Germany.
DS
Rocky Point, N
Chaos Computer Cl ub.
Schwenckestr 85. D- 2000
Hamburg 20. West Germany.
Phone number Jrom the States:
01 1 -49-40-4903757.
Dear 2600:
To compl ete my col lecti on of
2600 Magaine I have back issues
for 84. 85. 86. 87. and parts of 88
Winter 1989-90 2600 Magazine Page 29
and 89 to date. What I need to
know is:
Ae there other back issues of
2600 beyond Januar 84?
In 88 I started wit te Summer
issue. Wat issues in 88 preceded
these? Ae tey available? What is
the cost?
Would ayone out tere happen
to know the current address to
WORM Magazi ne , or if it sti l l
exsts?
AG
San Beradio. CA
1 984 was our fist year ojpuli­
cation and so there are no back
issues beJore then. Fr 1 988 and
1 989, it is possible to buy single
back issues Jor $6. 25 each doms­
tially, $7. 50 overseas. We don' t
sell inividual back issues beJore
1 988 because we were a monthly
puliatin and th space needed
to keep a ready suply oj EVRY
indiviual issue is beyon L abil­
ities. That's wh we ofer only th
package deal Jor 1 984 through
1 987.
It appears t hat WORM
Magazine dosn't eist, L mail to
the address we publ ished has
been comin back combined with
the Jact that we haven' t seen an
issu Jor quite som time. Th best
way to Jind out is by reading
Factsheet Five, a magazine that
revi ews other magazines (yes,
we' re i n there) and gives you a
good idea oj the diversity that 's
available. You can write to them
care oj Mike Gunderloy at 6
Arizona Ave. , Renssel aer, NY
1 21 44-4502 or call 51 8-479-3707.
A single copy costs $3 in North
Ameria, $7 elsewhre.
s e n d u s g u u r
Lie' s Litle Momnts
Dear 2600:
Athough I have only recently
come in from the cold to what I feel
to be old friends at 2600, I would
want you to know I 've had great
respect for your work over the
years. Our old netork was Cloud
Nine (it went down in November of
1 978) , the head master of which
was Honest Ae of Kentuck.
Now that we have put "old blue"
on the shelf, I want to ask the pro­
letariat for their best shot at our
new " system" here at the old sin
din. It was hatched by our group
of Sigma Pi Sigmas here on cam­
pus. Te idea was br when MA
bought our local wire chef a new
refectascope+spectrum analyzer.
It is a real dream machine and we
have all had phun playing "footsy"
with him. Fortunate- ly/unfortu­
nately he missed the part about
capaci tive reactance i n his I CS
courses. Our l i nk i s a cordl ess
phone tapped in through a mer­
cur wetted reverse curent break­
poi nt to the payphone up the
bl ock. This is so when John Q.
Public goes of hook to use the
payphone it drps us of automati­
cally (we work the BBS's at night
anyway) . So far we have lost only
the bottom half of a Southwester
Bel l Freedom Phone and the
breakpoint relay (we hid i t better
this time) . Around here MA has
never been into Radio Direction
Finding (until Cell Phones) so we
have had it pretty easy. Te only
sad part is when we hear the
screams of the sysops on the other
end of the voice line. Is M work-
Page 30 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90
l Ð t t Ð f8 u h 0 0 u mmÐ h t 8
i ng on t hem wi th cattl e prods
these days? I n the past our R link
was 2 meter H band but i you
lose one of them it can b quite a
bit more expensive than the loss of
half a Freedom Phone 1 700. We
use most anything to punch our
modems through the top half of
the cordless phone (I use my oid
"SH" -80 4/P with a Teletrends
Corp. T51 2P 1 200 baud - so I
don' t have that much to lose. ) I
use Omni t erm wi t h BI G RED
(quarters only) on board.
Te wire chef uses 2 R. to ping
wit his new refetascope so we use
a good tight notch pass bridge flter
wit H pad resonant coupling to let
him go by. Te te point can we use
at the pay phone happens to be a
regul ar rats nest and thi s hel ps
hide things. Also we use #32 wire
for the physical tap (he wears tr­
focal glasses and hasn't seen any­
thing that small in about fve years
now) . We also have a drop weight
fxed just out of sight so when he
lifs up the can lid it rips out our
tap lines and sligshots the bypass
flter and H pad resonant LC cou­
pler (both together are about the
sie of a Tootsy Role) over the top
of the pole into the next county.
I greatly enj oyed readi ng the
back issues of 2600 and will order
the rest of them when I get time
and cash.
You Batard Stepchld
and Friend.
F .M. "Cordes"
We enjoyed reading your letter.
It ' s not often we hear from your
partiular universe.
Fn Numers
Dear 2600:
Here in New York Cit the whole
959 prefix is dedi cated to t est
numbers and lots of other interest­
ing stuf. Te neat thing about this
number is that i t is free to call.
Either at home or on a payphone
the call costs you nothing.
Aother interesting number can
b found at 21 2-439-3200. That's
the Lnox Hill Hospital health hot­
line. Usi ng a touch tone phone,
you can ent er three digit codes
and get medi cal information on
over 300 topi cs. Each message is
between three and fve mi nutes
and has been approved by Lenox
Hi l l Hospi tal physi ci ans. If you
want a list of all of the topics, you
can call 21 2-439-2980 to request a
brochure.
The Seeker
New York City. N
In addi t ion to 959, the 890
exhane i jll oftest nwers for
the phone company, al l of which
are toll-ee. A go way to avi
the annoying repair service com­
puter at 6 1 1 is current l y 890-
661 1 . A human answers now, but
we' re sure that that person's job
won't last much loner. 890 i gen­
erally ruted to th 31 5 area coe
in ustate New York, but i you call
the one in your area code, you
won' t b charged. You miht even
Õ a call show u on your phn
bill that says "S CAL" instead
of the phne nwer. Don' t won,
no charges wil l apply. Another
odity: u unti recently, 890-1S
conneted you to a strange service­
order type of vice comuter, an
Winter 1989-90 260 Magazine Page 31
we wa n t t o h e a r
890- TONE hooked you i nto a
modem of sort s. Bot h of t hose
numbers are unreachable now,
uless you dial them i n area coe
31 5, whre thy only work som­
tis. We don't know wht they're
for, but you will be biled i you call
th diret.
That hspital halth htli i a
great service and it shws what
slimebags th 900/dial - it service
people really are. You don't need
to charge a dollar a minute to pr­
vide a servie. Ti htlin i yous
for th prie of a phne call. Lt's
hp for more ofth.
Words of Tanks
Dear 2600:
Thank you ver much for both
2600 and for the Central Offce
BBS - using i nfo derived from
them, I was able to gain vengeance
against some sleaz Aona com­
puterniks who got me fred from
my j ob. Perhaps you would not
agree with my methods. but I feel
justifed (to say the least) i n using
extreme measurs against a gang
of out-and-out crimial hackers, in
a cit where all the cops are cor­
rupt. . . .
The ANI for t he Sacramento
area (91 6 area code) is 830-xx.
where 2222 is any four di gi ts .
( 1 1 1 1 works in most of the Cit. )
Rngback is 970-xx.
If you print this, please don't
use my namel l l I have go reason
not to be connect ed wi th the
above. Tank you ver much.
171
As your letter came unsigned
and wit hout a return address,
thre really wouldn' t be a way for
us to pri nt your name, would
thre?
How?
Dear 2600:
How is it possible to publish
hacking and phreaking informa­
tion without those in authority
changi ng those systems you
epose?
WAB
Kob Noster. MO
Go question. Sometimes the
systems are changed, sometimes
some of thm are changed, some­
tims none of them are changed.
But what we get out of it is the
knowledge of how the systems
operate and that's an invaluable
tol whih leads t our furin out
stal more of them. In othr words,
knowledge and information are
always advantageous and shuld
never be stie.
Hacker Clubs
Dear 2600:
In your Autumn 1 989 edi ti on
you mentioned that you thought
the hack/phreak spirit in the US
was dying. I agree, but would there
be a way to start an open
hack/ phreak group si mi l ar t o
Chaos Comput er Cl ub? I f you
want you could call it 2600 and
advertise in the Marketplace for
people to start the clubs in their
areas. They could have meetings
similar to the ones you have once
a month on Fridays.
BK
Syracuse. N
We'd liefor that to happn, but
we can' t wave our wands and
exet it to Lr jut beause we
want it to. There has to be a desire
Page 32 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90
f f0 m g 0 u |
from various people in various
places. We can inspire that but we
can't contrl it. It would be nie i
peple all ovr the world had meet­
ings/ get - toget hers on t he fi rst
Fiday of t he mont h. Ours have
been goin quite well an reently
we' ve been having hackers from
Europe call u on the payphones
at Citir. We invite anyone to d
thi s. Those payphone numbers
are: 21 2-223-901 1 , 21 2-223-8927,
21 2-308-8044, 21 2-308-81 62, an
21 2-308-81 84. We're thre on the
fi rst Friday of every mont h
between t h hurs of5:00 PM an
8:00 PM, Easter time. A warin:
many strange peple come to our
meet ings, so you may get an
unredictable response when you
call. You may even get a regular
person wh knows nothin about
2600. We guarantee nothin.
Another
Rip-Of Stor
Dear 2600:
I thought the following might be
i nt erest i ng to you. I re c e ntly
attended a State Fair. At one of the
booths at the fai r, there was a
group of Spri nt representatives
asking people to sign up for a free
FON card. All the person had to do
was sign a slip of paper. However,
by signing that slip of paper, the
person also agreed to make Sprint
their primar long distance carrier.
The representatives really down­
played that fact; they highlighted
with a pen all the phrases that
contained "FON card", but the part
which stated that Sprnt would be
made the long distance carrier was
not hi ghl i ghted, and i n smaller
print. I asked i I could have a FON
card without making Spri nt my
primar long distance carrier, and
they said that I would need a cred­
it card for that. Wel l , I wasn' t
about t o let these bums see it, so I
declined on the deal. I wrote a let­
ter to the BBB complaining about
their tacti cs. My complai nt was
forwarde d to Network 2000
Communications Corporation, an
independent marketing company
that is authoried to sell US Sprint
services to residential and small
business customers. Here is part
of their reply:
"A large majority of customers
that Network 2000 I ndependent
Marketing Representatives obtain
for US Sprnt are acquired at fairs,
fea markets, malls, etc. Network
2000 representatives are required
to attend a thorough training pro­
gram to lean proper, professional
steps to obtaining customers for
US Sprint before beginning their
Ne twork 2000 busi ne s s . The
method of obtai ni ng customers
used by a probable Network 2000
IMR which you described in your
letter is totall y agai nst Network
2000 policy. Once we determine
the name of the IMR, if we deter­
mine he acted unprofessionally, we
will take swif action in terminat­
i ng the i ndividual' s status as a
Network 2000 IMR. "
By the way, the ANI for Everett,
Washington, which is sered by
GT, is 41 1 .
Dr. Wiliams
Washingon State
If more people did what you
di, this kin ofri-oJ would son
disappear. Unfortunately, you can
(continued on page 46)
Winter 1989-90 2600 Magazine Page 33
(continued from page 19)
USING AND ABUSING
>edltor. Heh. Ok, lets see what
Damn! No wordwrap. Remember, press
>RETURN at the end of each 79
characters, ok? Now, lets go to EDIT
>mode ...
EDIT
wow
BAD WOW
INPUT
oops! "wow" is not an ED command! I'l
>discuss ED's EDIT mode
commands in a few minutes. Let's
q
uit!
EDIT
q
FILE MODIFIED OK T QUIT? Y
OK,
Okay, we are back at the PRI MOS com­
mand l i ne. Damn ! We forgot to save our
newl y-created text ! What do we do now!
Don' t pani c. Your text is sti l l floati ng around
i n PRI MOS' memory. To restore your ED
sessi on, typ:
OK, start 1000 (cnti nues from break)
or
OK, start 1001 (resume in EDI T mode)
So, l et' s test i t out, shal l we?
OK, start 1001
EDI T
fle sample_text
q
OK,
A few comment s ar e now i n or der .
Normal l y, when done wi th a document you
woul d FI LE the text away and then QUI T. I f
you try and QUI T wi thout savi ng new text
or changes made to text, you wi l l be told
that the fi l e has been modi fi ed and asked
for verifiction to quit. Shoul d you make a
"boo-boo
·
you can save your text by usi ng
one of the START command vari at i ons .
The two EDI T mode commands we have
just l earned are:
FI LE (abbreviate FI L) - fi l es your text to
the current UFD
QUIT (abbrevi ated 0) - exi t ED t o the P RI ­
MOS command l i ne
An alternate command to save your text
i s t he SAVE command ( abbrevi ated by
SA) . I prefer SAVE to FI LE because SAVE
i s al so used on my mi crocomputer. Use
whichever you prefer, however.
A great feature of the START command
will now be i l l ustrated. Say you are moving
around UFD' s and you end up tryi ng to cre­
ate a fi l e i n a di rector that you don' t have
W (Wri te) access i n. Oh no! How do we
save thi s new CPL program we just creat­
ed? Si mpl e! Usi ng tech ni ques t hat you
have j ust l earned, you cn move to a differ­
ent UFD (one that you have W acess i n)
and save your text ther e. Fi rst , get i nto
EDI T mode and QUI T the EDitor. From the
PRI MOS command l i ne, use the OR cm­
mand to get to y ou r " h ome" U F D or
ATTACH to a di fferent one and then i ssue
the START 1 01 command. Now FI LE your
text. Voi l a! A ni ce trick for the forgetful .
We now know t he very basi cs of the
PRI MOS l i ne EDi tor. We can create new
fi l es from scratch, append text to exi sti ng
fi l es, save or abort our modi fi cti ons, and
recver our text i f we acci dental l y quit or hi t
the BREAK key ( or send a BREAK si gnal ) .
What w
e
don' t know i s how to edi t the text
wi thi n an existing fi l e or how to i nsertdelete
text from an exi st i ng f i l e ( whi ch is real l y
easy) . So read on !
P RI MOS nor mal l y u ses t he ? and "
(doubl e quote) as the ki l l and erase charac­
ters, respecti vel y. So typi ng a ? i n I NPUT
mode wi l l ki l l t he enti re l i ne. A " wi l l si mi larly
erase the previ ous character. I find the ?
and " characters i ntegral in my documents
and you probably wi l l too. The fi x? Si mpl e.
From the PRI MOS command l i ne ( OK, ) ,
type:
term -erase <Ctr-H>
term -kil
P res s
-
CONTROL- H wh ere i t says
"<Ctrl -H>". Thi s wi l l make the erase charac­
ter a backspace and the ki l l character the
DELETE key. Substi tute whatever charac­
ters you feel most comfortabl e wi th on your
microcomputer.
The semicolon character at the end of a
l i ne ( ; ) wi l l force a l i nefeed (as if you had
pressed RETURN i nstead) . You cn end a
l i ne wi th ei ther RETURN or a semi col on
( useful if your RETURN key i s broken?) . I f
you ent er a l i ne of t ext contai ni ng semi -
Page 34 2600 Magazine Winler 1989-90
WITH PRIMOS
col ons such as thi s:
line one;;line three
ED wi l l take it and output it as thi s:
line one
line three
Dependi ng u pon t he l ocati on of t he
semi col on i t may produce a l i nefeed or a
mode swi tch. Thus, the l i ne of text:
This is a cveat;
wi l l swi tch you from I NPUT mode i nto
EDI T mode. Avoi d h avi ng semi col ons at
the end of a l i ne of text. I wi l l detai l the
m
e
thod you wi l l have to use to get around
thi s if you want to have semi col ons in your
fi le.
Shoul d you wi sh to edi t! i nser del ete
l i nes of text wi thi n an exi sti ng fi l e you wi l l
have to learn how ED addresses text i n its
buffer. I ' l l assume that you have l oaded a
f i l e i nto ED and are in EDI T mode. The
basi s of our exampl e:
OK, e example_fle
EDIT
Now let' s view the enti re fi l e:
p 9999
. NULL.
This is the text of the file we are using
>In our example.
I wil change this file around so that you
>will se how
to eit add/ delete text In a fle.
. NULL.
BOTTM
Thi s exampl e used .p 9999" to di spl ay
the contents. · P" is the abbreviation for the
PRI NT command. So you see, I told ED to
PRI NT the fi rst 9999 l i nes of the fi l e in i t' s
buffer. PRI NT di spl ays the speci fi ed num­
ber of l i nes ( 9999 i n t he exampl e) and
makes t he last l i ne di spl ayed the ·current"
l i ne.
The . NULL. i s not a part of the fi l e, but
rather a marker. I t marks a pl ace where you
can i nser text. BOnOM i ndi ctes that you
are at the bottom of the f i l e. Shoul d you
type PRI NT (or P) agai n i t wi l l si mpl y say:
. NULL.
You can type P RI NT (or P) by i t sel f
wi thout a numeri c argument. PRI NT has a
defaul t val ue of 1 . Conversel y, a PRI NT -n
("n" bei ng a whol e number) command wi l l
cause ED to di spl ay the fi l e backwards.
To get to t he top or bottom of a f i l e,
type:
top (Abbreviation is T)
or
bottom (Abbreviation i s B)
Very si mpl e. To see what the l i ne num­
ber of t he current l i ne you are poi nti ng t o i s,
type:
where
BOTTM
Si nce we di d that PRI NT 9999 com­
mand we are at the BOTTOM of the fi l e.
Let' s go t o l i ne 2. Type:
point 2
Thi s wi l l set the ED poi nter to l i ne num­
ber 2. ED wi l l tel l you that you are at l i ne 2
by di spl ayi ng l i ne 2 on your screen . You
can abbrevi ate the POI NT command by
typi ng PO i n stead. Now try the WHERE
command (i t al so has an abbreviated form,
whi ch is W) . Type:
w
LINE 2
We now know how to move around in a
fi l e and di spl ay some or all of the l i nes of
text i t contai ns.
The NEXT command (abbrevi ated by N)
wi l l move t he poi nter down the speci fi ed
number of l i nes towards the BOTTOM of
t he f i l e (assumi ng that t he specified number
i s posi ti ve) . Negati ve numbers wi l l move
the poi nter up. As per the PO command,
the new poi nter l i ne wi l l be di spl ayed. Here
are two examples :
n 1
to editad/dlete text in a file.
n ·2
Tis is the text of the fe we are using in
>our example.
To f i nd t ext i n t he b u f fer , u s e t he
LOCATE command ( abbrevi ated L) . For
exampl e, to fi nd the stri ng ·change thi s fi l e"
type:
I change this fe
I wil change this file around so that you
>wil see how
Now l ook and see where you are. Type:
Winter 1989·90 2600 Magazine Page 35
THINGS TO KNOW
w
LINE 2
Aha! The LOCATE command not onl y
fi nds the specfi ed stri ng , but sets the poi nt­
er to the new l i ne. Now, tr and LOCATE
the stri ng "Aunt Jemi ma". Typ:
I Aunt Jemima
BOTTM
ED culd not fi nd the stri ng in the text.
The new poi nter i s BOTTOM, meani ng that
you are at the l ast line in the fi le.
Si mi l ar to LOCATE is t he FI N D com­
mand (abbreviated F) . FI ND onl y checks to
see if the speci fi ed stri ng is at the begi n­
ni ng of a l i ne ( i . e. , the fi rst character i s i n
col umn 1 , te second i n cl umn 2, and so
forth) . Here i s an exampl e:
find to editadd
to editad/delete text in a file.
¨H9adµ9Oµ|9`S
wO/dµ/OC9SS|ng
UOCu09n|$, S99
wha|`$ |n |h9|/
da|aOa$9$.¨
As with LOCATE, FI ND di spl ays the l i ne
and resets the poi nter to i ts new locati on. I f
the stri ng i s not found, FI ND returns wi th
BOTTOM and sets the poi nter to the bot­
tom of the fi l e.
N F I N D i s a s i mi l ar command whi ch
works in the opposi te manner of the FI ND
command. NF I ND ( abbrevi ated N F) wi l l
locate t he fi rst l i ne bel ow t he current l i ne
whi ch does not begi n wi t h t he speci fi ed
stri ng. I n the fol lowi ng exampl e, I ' l l di splay
use of the NFI ND command as wel l as di s­
play the method you may use to have multi­
ple ED commands on one l i ne.
EDIT
p3
. NULL.
Tis is the text of the file we are using in
>our example.
I wilchange this file around so that you
>wil see how
to editad/dlete text in a file.
top, nfind Tis Is
I wil change this fie around so that you
>wil see how
As you can see, NFI ND only fi nds the
first line that does not star with the speci­
fied stri ng. Al so note the use of the cmma
as a command del i mi ter when i ssui ng the
TOP and NFI ND cmmands. Just l i ke with
LOATE and FI ND, NFI ND will al so return
BOTTOM and set the pi nter to the end of
the fi l e if it cannot fi nd a l i ne not starti ng
wi th the string you speci fy.
You can al so FI ND and NFI ND stri ng
patterns on a l i ne starti ng at a col umn posi ­
tion other than 1 . The format for thi s option
i s di spl ayed bel ow:
f(8) change this fe
I wil change this fie around so that you
>wil see how
The parentheses are required and there
Clnnot be any spaces beteen the com­
mand and the (#).
To append text to the end of the current
l i ne, use the APPEND cmmand (abbrevi­
ated with A). To append · 0224/89. " to the
end of the l ast line, type:
p03
to editad/delete text in a file.
a 02/2489.
to editad/dlete text in a fle. 0224/89.
You must have a space between the
APPEND command and the stri ng you wi sh
to append. I f you had i nstead typed:
a 02/24/89.
you woul d have gotten:
t o edtad/dlete text in a fle. 02/2489.
Use the CHANGE cmmand (abbreviat-
Page 36 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90
ON A PRI ME
ed C) to change a stri ng i n the current l i ne.
The fi rst character after the CHANGE com­
mand i s used as the del i mi ter. Thi s i s a
more compl i cated command t han most
other ED commands. Format:
CHANGE/strlng-1/strlng-2[G] [n]
· st ri n g- 1 " i s t he ori gi n al st r i ng and
·stri ng-2" i s te repl acement stri ng. G spe­
i fi es a global change. I f G i s omitted then
onl y the fi rst occurance of stri ng- 1 wi l l be
changed. ·n" i s a poi nter val ue. I f i t i s 0 or 1
(defaul t val ues) t hen the change wi l l be
made to the current l i ne (assumi ng the G
. option is not in use) . If "n" is a val ue other
than 0 or 1 then ED will i nspect and make
changes on ·n" l i nes stari ng at the current
l i ne. As usual , ED wi l l reset te poi nter to
the last l i ne i nspcte. Shoul d the fi l e con­
tain fewer than "n" l i nes, ED will make the
spcifie changes in all te l i nes of te fi l e
and end by sayi ng BOnOM.
Shoul d you wish t change a stri ng con­
tai ni ng sl ashes (I) , CHANGE' s del i mi ter
character, then substitute a new del i mi ter
character. Exampl es:
f 02
to editaddelete text in a fie. 0224189.
change:021:011:
to editaddelete text in a fle. 01124189.
c#l-#
to editaddelete text in a fle. 01-24-89.
c/01-2424-Fel
to editaddelete text in a fle. 24-Feb-89.
You shoul d always i ssue te TOP com­
mand prior to making gl obal fi l e changes.
To i nsert characters at te bgi nni ng of
a l i ne, use CHANGE l i ke thi s:
po3
to editaddelete text in a file. 24-Feb-89.
c//Last Line ¬Þ1
Last Line -> to editadddlete text in a
>fie. 24-Feb-89.
Remember our di l emma with the semi ­
colon character ( ; ) ? Say you want to have
semi col ons in your fi l e. Fi rst , l et ' s mark
where we want ED to put the semi col on.
Do thi s:
po
3
Last Line -> to editadddelete text in a
>file. 24-Feb-89.
c/. 24@24
Last Line -> to editadddelete text in a
>fie@ 24-Feb-89.
top, cl@l;g9999
Last Line -> to editadddelete text in a
>fie; 24-Feb-89.
If you know where you want your semi ­
col ons from the star then just use a char­
act er t hat y ou don ' t p l an o n u s i n g
el sewhere i n the fi l e (l i ke the @ character)
and pl ace them where you desi re. Then
perorm the above procdure. Voi l a! I nstant
semicolons when you tought i t coul dn' t b
done.
To del ete cmmands from a fi l e, use the
DELETE command (abbreviate wi th D). I
bel i eve I don' t l ike the second l i ne of our
exampl e f i l e. Let ' s del ete i t . To do t hi s,
tp
:
po2
d
top
p9999
. NULL.
Tis is the text of the fie we are using in
>our example.
Last Line -> to editadddelete text in a
>fie; 24-Feb-89.
. NULL.
No more l i ne 2. As with other ED cm­
mands, DELETE deletes from the current
l i ne. DELETE 1 wi l l not del ete the first l i ne
of t he fi l e, but rather the cu r rent l i n e.
DELETE 5 wi l l del ete the fifh l i ne from the
current l i ne (with starti ng l i ne bei ng the cur­
rent l i ne).
The l ast ED cmmand I wi l l go over i s
the RETYPE command (abbreviated wi th
R). RETYPE wi l l dl ete the current l i ne and
repl ace i t wi th the speci fi ed stri ng. Noti ce
that the text of our exampl e is now nonsen­
si cal . The secnd l i ne i s a sentence frag­
ment. Let's fi x thi s grammaticl error.
po2
Last Line -> to editadddelete text in a
Winter 1989-90 2600 Magazine Page 37
PRIME HACKI NG
>fe; 24-Feb-89.
r Now you wl ler how to
>ediadd/delete tex In a fle.
Now you wil lear how to editaddelete
>text in a fie.
RETYPE f ol l owed by a space and a
RETURN wi l l delete te current l i ne. Thi s
wi l l make a "nul l " l i ne. Ti s can b used as
an alternate meto for creati ng "nul l " l i nes
( to del i mi t par agraphs i n your text) as
oppose to maki ng te l i ne a bl ank space.
Let's look at both te origi nal exampl e
fi le and i ts present form:
ORI GI NAL:
This is the text of the fle we are using in
>ur example.
I wil change this fle around so that you
>wil sehow
to editaddelete text in a fe.
CURRENT:
This is the text of the fle we are using in
>our example.
Now you wil lear how to editad/delete
>text in a fie.
The most useful means of usi ng ED i s
t o upl oad text (documents or sources) t o
t he host Pri me. Si mpl y load i n t he f i l e on
your mi croomputer and go i nto your termi ­
nal program' s edi t or . Change al l occu­
rances of a n u l l l i ne t o a s pace and a
RETURN. Now enter ED and upload your
fi l e vi a te ASCI I protool . You mi ght need
to lower te sending spe (the line del ay)
i f you sem t o be sendi ng text t o fast for
ED to get it. When dne wi th the send, j ust
enter EDI T mode and SAVE or FI LE the
text.
WARNI NG: I f the fi l ename you speci fy
ED to save your text as exi sts i n the current
UFO ten ED will overri te the fi l e wi th the
text i n its buffer. Be creful not to use an
exi sti ng fi l ename when you save fi l es or
you mi ght b sorr.
Now for some i mprant notes on PRI ­
MOS fi l enames.
1 . Fi l ename cn be up to 32 characters
l ong.
2. Fi l enames can onl y contai n the fol ­
l owi ng characters: A-Z, 0-9, & - $ . _ , #
3. The fi rst character cannot b a num­
ber.
4. No embeded bl anks or special char­
acters (l i ke [ 1 ( ) { } etc) .
5. All characters are mapped to UPPER
CASE by PRI MOS.
Leal Filenames
MYFI LE
TODA YS·SYSTEMS
$MONEY
TEXT FI LE
PRI MES&VAXEN
Illegal Fi lenames
MY FI LE
SYSTEMS?
4MONEY
ACCTS@PRI ME
"COL"
NOTE: ED des not l i ke TABs! Do not
use your termi nal ' s TAB key ! ED wi l l not
understand them. To tell ED to use a TAB,
use te backs l ash (\) character. Exampl e:
tblfhislouflfor me.
wi l l i nsert tabs where the \'s are.
EDi tor has many ot her commands .
Type HELP ED to obtai n a l i st of them and
a bri ef statement of each one's functi on.
Experimentation With Other
PRI MOS Appl ications and Uti l i ties
There are many other appl icati ons that
you will fi nd on Pri mes. Some of them use­
ful and i nteresti ng, some of no use whatso­
ever to the hacker. I can' t bgi n to dscri b
them here. Thi s par of the series is already
larger tan I had pl anned, so I am goi ng to
have to end i t here. Here is a very i ncm­
plete l i st of appl i cti ons cmmonl y found on
Prime computer systems :
PRI ME I NFORMATION · A database sys­
tem
PRI ME WORD · A word-processi ng system
MI DAS · A graphi cs dsi gn uti l i ty
TELL·A·GRAF • A graphi ng uti l i ty
ORACLE · A database system
There are tons more appl i cati ons sys­
tems to b found on Pri mes. Experi ment! I t
i s bst to experi ment wi th avai l abl e appl i c­
t i ons to see if they can be useful . Read
peopl e' s word processi ng dcuments, see
what' s i n thei r databases. You never know
what you mi ght fi nd! Just be creful not to
delete or change anythi ng!
Page 38 260MagaziM Willer 199-90
Someone must have put in one
of those weird payphones last
night.
Yo Fred! Look what we got
here.

\
''LC
/
Where do you come off even
posing as a payphone? You're
nothing more than ð slot
machi ne! Do you honestly think
people will choose you over
real payphones like us?
Hey you! Pi nball machine! You
think our clientele are stupid
enough to fall for your sleazy
rate stucture?! Gimme a break!
\
II
\
I'
'
P YO'' '!' C!'
PL'
'
I cringe to think what he' s going
to do to the propeny values.
Sigh. Maybe they' l l appreciate
us i n Easter Europe.

Winter 1989-90 2600 Magazine Page 39
KEEP THOSE FAXES COMI NG!
51 6-751 -2608
Page 40 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90
2ôUU

YÅDÅÎΦ Red box kts, plans, and asem­
bled units. Also, other unique products. For
educatonal puroses only. Pleae send info­
mati on and pri ces t o: TJ, 2 1 Rosemont
Avenue, Johnston, RI 0291 9.
HÅHÎ ÅÎÏ ÜÅL& ÏbbÍÎ bÎÅ (like TAP
but strictly telephones) . Complete 7 issue
1 1 4 page set. $ 1 5 ppd. Have photo copy
machine self-serve key counter. Would like
to trade for red box mi nus its I e' S. Pete
Has, P. O. Box 702, Kent, Ohio 44240.
ÅMÎ LMÎbMÎHÎ LÅÅÅÍÀbÅ, former
editor of the TA newsletter, has dates avail­
able to lecture in Europ in late August and
early September. For lecture fees and info­
maton on seminars to b given, wri te to:
modems. The best war dial ers, extender
scanners , and hacki ng programs . $8. 00,
i ncl udi ng s hippi ng and handl i ng. Make
payabl e t o Ti m S . , P. O. Box 25 1 1 ,
Bellingham, WA 98227-251 1 .
ÏLH bÅÏΦ Manua for stepping swi tches
(c) 1 964. This is a tue collector's item, with
detaled explanatons, diagrams, theoy, and
practical hints. $ 1 5 or trade for Applecat
Tone Recogni tion program. FOR SALE:
Genuine Bell phone hadset. Oange w/tone,
pulse, mute, listen- tak, status lights. Fully
functional. Box clip and bel t clip included.
$90 OBO. Pl ease post to S. Foxx, POB
3 145 1 , River Staton, Rochester, NY 1 4627.
tLH bÅÍΦ ÎÎL NÅANñb manuals for
VMS 4. 2. Al l Richard Ches hire,
P. O. Box 64 1 ,
Cape Canav eral,
F, USA 32920.
Å Î D Å Å Å Î N Î
ÎÅ ÅÎb for Sum­
mercon 90: J une
22-24. Watch this
manual s are i n
Do you have somet hi ng to sel l ? Are
you l ooki ng for somet hi ng to buy? Or
trade? Thi s I s the pl ace! The 2600
Marketpl ace i s free to subscri bers!
Send your ad to: 2600 Marketpl ace,
P. O. Box 99, Mi ddl e I sl and, NY 1 1 953.
I ncl ude your address l abel .
Onl y peopl e pl ease, no busi nesses.
mi nt condi t i on,
some still i n the
shrink-wrap. This
is the best source
for VMS knowl­
edge anywhere !
Contact me for
more i nfo. Kurt
P. , POB 1 1 282,
Blacksburg, VA,
24062- 1 282.
space.
LÀÜÎHÍÍD&b,
M Å L & Î H b ,
Í M H Î Å & b ,
L i b e r t a r i a n s ,
D i s c o r d i a n s , Y Å D Å Î Î ¦
Soldiers of Fortune, and Generally Naughty
People: Protect your data! Send me a buck
and I' l l send you an I BM PC foppy with
some nifty shareware encryption routines
and a copy of my paper " Crossbows to
Cryptography: Techno-Thwang the State. "
Chuck, The Li berTech Proj ect, 8726 S.
Sepulveda Blvd. , Suite B-253, Los Angeles,
CA 9005.
DÎÎÎÎΦ I nfo on speech encrypt i on
(Digicom, Crypto). Send t o Hack Tic, P. O.
Box 22953, 1 1 00 DL, Ams terdam, The
Netherlands.
ÅÅÍ ÜÅL& ÎbbÎÎb, comlete set Vol 1 -91
of QUALITY copies fom orginals. I ncludes
schematcs and indexes. $1 00 postaid. Via
UPS or Firs t Cl ass Mai l . Copy of 1 97 1
Esquire article "The Secrets of the Little
Blue Box" $5 & lage SASE w/45 cents of
stams. Pete G. , P Box 463, Mt. Laurl, NJ
08054. We are the Oginal !
MÅL&ÎDl ÅDÎ ÍMHÎÅ&ÎDl bLtÅ-
YÅHÎ for the I BM and Hayes compatble
Schematic and/or block diagram for G. E.
TDM- 1 1 4B- 1 3 data set. John B. Riley, 91 4
N. Cordova St. , Burbank, CA 91 505-2925.
ÍDÎÎHlHLÍDÎ ÜLL&b ¦ TAP, com­
pl ete set, vol umes 1 - 9 1 , $80. Electronic
surveillance and wiretapping -- a nuts and
bolts guide, $ 1 5. The bst of TAP, over 1 0
pages of their best, $40. Computer crime,
over 40 pages fom the best of goverment
publicatons, prosecutors' gudes, documents,
case studies, etc. , including how it's done,
$60. Include $3 handling per book. Make
payment to Ti m S . , PO Box 25 1 1 ,
Bellingham, Washington 98227-25 1 1 .
2600 NÎÅÎDlb. First Friday of the month
at the Citcor Center--fom 5 to 8 pm in the
lobby near the payphones, 1 53 E 53rd St. ,
NY, btween Lex & 3rd. Come by, drop off
articles, ask questions. Call 5 1 6-75 1 -2600
for more i nfo. Payphone numbers at
Citcorp: 21 2-223- 901 1 , 21 2-223-8927, 21 2-
308-804, 21 2-308- 81 62, 21 2-308-81 84.
ΣB0Î Ì 0£Í0lbglÌ0g ñBlK£lgÎBC£¦ 3/1/90.
Winter 1989-90 2600 Magazine Page 41
(cntinue from page 8)
Vh3I
·
S h3QQCnIn_
the tone. Under the new system:
thiry seconds afer te tone. You
know wher tis compay' s prior­
tes a, don' t you?
Ripoff City
Add Cable and Wireless (DX)
to te list of long distance compa­
ni es rippi ng off thei r customers
wit AOS oprators. If you dia a
zero plus c al l on a l i ne that ' s
selected Cable and Wireless as its
long distance compay, you' l1 hear
an AT&T-li ke tone, but you ' ll
wind up bing connected to NS.
To give you an example of where
NS is coming fom, tey refsed
to give us their rates until we gave
them our card number. When we
have managed to get rates from
them, they were ofen more than
double those of AT&T' s. MCI did
the same thing abut a year ago,
then suddenly stopped after the
media got wind of it. And IT has
been using the ITI company to pr­
cess its oprator assisted cals. Not
only are they ripping people off,
but they' re confusing them with
the similar sounding naes! Cable
and Wireless won' t process any
c al l s on i t s 1 0223 code unl ess
you' ve signed up with them. IT
prcesses cals on bth 1088 and
1 0999 rgardless of wheter or not
you' ve siged up wit them. To get
ripped of, just dia a zer plus te
numbr you' r calling afer enter­
ing one of the abve codes.
+++
New York State offci al s are
wag lottery players that a tele­
phone hotline for winning numbr
is charging more than three times
te cost of a lotery ticket for each
call. According to a representative
of the State Lottery, Buffal o
Audiotex Inc. bills callers $3. 50 to
fnd out noting more than te pre­
vious night ' s wi nning numbers,
information readily available for
free. The company al so doesn' t
bther mentionng the prce durng
the course of te cal. But the best
part of it is that, according to the
New York Publi c Seri ce Com­
mission, it' s al completely lega.
Callig London
London i s bracing for a major
catastrophe: a city code chage. On
May 6th, the city code of 01 will
be split in half. Inner London will
change to 071 ad the rest of the
present 01 area wil chage to 081 .
For pople caling in from outside
the country, the leadi ng zero i s
always dropped, so the code will
b chaging frm 1 to eiter 71 or
8 1 . Not much of a hassle frm over
here in the St ates , but i nsi de
London it' s another story. If you
need to c all from one part o f
London to aother, instead of dia­
ing seven di gi ts , you will soon
have to dia ten. Is nothing sacred?
Page 42 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90 .
Sprint Is Watchin
.
g
Businesses using US Spnnt ca
now get a free serice to help them
track down people who use their
PBX' s witout authorization. Since
Sprint is able to determine wh�re
calls to their network are commg
from, they' re more than willing to
di s cl os e t hi s i nfo rmat i on. US
Spri nt us es Northern Tel ec�m
DMS- 2S0 swi tches coupled wIth
Feature Group D access capabili ty
in central offi ces to identi fy the
originating nubrs of
.
all �etwork
cals. Welcome to the nmetles.
Equal Access For Al
Pri soners at the State Correc­
tional Institute in Dalas, PA man­
aged to install and use �elephone
serice at a rmote locatIon. They
obtained credi t i nformation on a
number of prison corrctional of­
cers. Usi ng thi s i nforation, they
had lines instaled in tose names at
a house in Phi ladelphi a. When an
inmate called one of the numbers
col l ect , an acquai ntance at
.
the
house would three-way them mto
the number they wanted to cal . The
total bill came to around $12,00.
German Democratic
Phones
According to i ndustry experts,
most of East Germany' s severely
strained phone network i s beyond
repair and needs a complete over­
haul . The net work has been i n
place since before World War II.
However, duri ng the event s of
November 9, the network virtally
collapsed. Several West Ge�an
companies have expressed an mter­
est in rebuilding te system. West
Germany has about 40 milion tele­
phone l i nes and a popul ati on of
about 60 milli on. East Germany,
wi t 17 million pople, only has 4
million phone lines. The quality of
serice is al so poor, and "self-dial­
ing" i s vi rtually unkown outside
of East Berlin.
Too Much Chatter
Prodi gy, the I BM- Sears j oi nt
vent ure for personal computer
users, has gotten ri d of something
it apparently doesn' t want : cont
.
ro­
versy. The $10 a month �ervI ce
gives users access to shoppmg ser­
vi ces, stock market reports , and
airline reserations. But i t also has
bulletin bards tat let subscrbrs
communicate with each other. One
of these boards, known as Heath
Spa, tured into a debating ground
between homosexuals and funda­
mentalists. That was too much for
Prodigy, who di scontinued the ser­
vice in Decembr because, accord­
ing to them, it was�' t gen�rating
enough interest. ThIS despIte the
fact that the board generated far
more traffc tan many of the other
"successfl" bards.
Winter 1989-90 260 Magazine Page 43
tt BJ8 f0VB|00OB
Frm a reent Belcore V&H Tape, here is a list of al North Americn are codes
and the number of exchanges being used in each. Delaware (302) has the fewest
with only 97 1n use. Both 212 and 213 area codes ar nearly ful enough to split for
the second time. In a couple of years, area codes wil no longer have to have a 1 or
a 0 as the middle digit. Depending upon how this is implemented, the efects could
be
q
uite traumatic.
Format is area code: number of exchanges within.
2 0 1 : 660
2 02 : 566
203 : 445
204 : 334
2 0 5 : 5 8 3
2 06 : 5 1 0
207 : 325
2 0 8 : 263
2 0 9 : 297
2 12 : 624
2 1 3 : 662
2 14 : 67 1
2 1 5 : 5 5 5
2 1 6 : 5 2 1
2 1 7 : 34 1
2 1 8 : 268
2 1 9 : 329
3 0 1 : 65 0
302 : 97
303 : 468
304 : 3 1 5
3 0 5 : 422
3 06 : 4 2 6
30 7 : 1 3 7
3 0 8 : 1 8 9
30 9 : 2 5 0
3 12 : 7 69
3 1 3 : 5 8 6
3 1 4 : 4 94
3 1 5 : 2 4 6
3 1 6 : 3 4 5
3 1 7 : 3 7 8
3 1 8 : 3 2 1
3 1 9 : 3 1 9
4 0 1 : 1 2 0
4 0 2 : 3 92
4 0 3 : 5 7 5
4 0 4 : 6 1 1
4 0 5 : 4 7 5
4 0 6 : 3 2 3
4 0 7 : 3 3 3
4 0 8 : 2 6 6
4 0 9 : 2 63
4 1 2 : 4 0 8
4 1 3 : 1 2 6
4 1 4 : 4 2 0
4 1 5 : 5 8 0
4 1 6 : 5 73
4 1 7 : 1 B9
4 1 8 : 3 4 8
4 1 9 : 3 1 9
50 1 : 5 1 2
5 0 2 : 3 2 8
5 0 3 : 4 B 1
5 0 4 : 3 0 6
5 0 5 : 2 B B
5 0 6 : 1 5 7
5 0 7 : 2 5 1
50 B : 3 3 9
5 0 9 : 2 2 4
5 1 2 : 5 7 6
5 1 3 : 4 4 B
5 1 4 : 4 4 5
5 1 5 : 3 B 9
5 1 6 : 3 3 9
5 1 7 : 3 0 3
5 1 8 : 2 3 6
5 1 9 : 3 2 6
60 1 : 3 7 9
602 : 5 5 2
603 : 2 1 9
604 : 5 23
60 5 : 320
6 0 6 : 25 6
60 7 : 1 5 B
60 8 : 2 2 6
60 9 : 2 5 0
61 2 : 4 B 2
6 1 3 : 2 6 2
6 1 4 : 3 7 9
61 5 : 4 9 4
6 1 6 : 3 4 9
6 1 7 : 3 3 0
6 1 8 : 3 1 1
6 1 9 : 4 3 3
7 0 1 : 34 1
7 02 : 2 4 7
7 03 : 5 1 3
7 0 4 : 3 1 0
7 0 5 : 2 5 3
7 0 6 : 1 5 B
7 0 7 : 1 6 3
7 0 8 : 4 1 5
7 0 9 : 2 4 0
7 1 2 : 264
7 1 3 : 474
7 1 4 : 504
7 1 5 : 294
7 1 6 : 347
7 1 7 : 453
7 1 8 : 365
7 1 9 : 1 4 6
8 0 1 : 3 0 0
8 02 : 1 7 1
8 0 3 : 467
8 04 : 446
8 0 5 : 2 5 0
8 0 6 : 2 3 6
8 0 7 : 1 0 1
8 0 8 : 226
8 0 9: 4 4 9
B 1 2 : 2 5 9
8 1 3 : 4 4 9
8 1 4 : 2 5 0
B 1 5 : 2 7 1
B 1 6 : 4 2 8
B 1 7 : 4 4 3
8 1 8 : 3 1 2
B 1 9: 295
90 1 : 2 0 5
902 : 2 4 6
904 : 4 64
90 5 : 2 60
90 6 : 1 0 8
90 7 : 3 3 7
91 2 : 3 0 6
9 1 3 : 4 1 7
91 4 : 3 1 1
91 5 : 2 7 5
91 6 : 3 7 1
91 B : 27 4
J I D . 60 3
Now here's the same list showing the least-populated area codes folowe by the
most-populated. The area codes at the bottom of the list are the ones most lkely to
splt of in the near future. A few are already In the process of doing this.
Format is number of exchanges: area code.
97 : 302
1 0 1 : 8 0 7
l O B : 906
1 20 : 4 0 1
1 2 6 : 4 1 3
1 37 : 3 0 7
1 4 6 : 7 1 9
1 57 : 5 0 6
1 5 8 : 607
1 5 B : 706
1 63 : 707
1 7 1 : 8 02
1 89 : 3 0 8
1 8 9: 4 1 7
20 5 : 90 1
2 1 9 : 60 3
224 : 5 0 9
226 : 608
226 : 8 0 B
236 : 5 1 8
236 : 8 0 6
2 4 0 : 7 0 9
2 4 6 : 3 1 5
24 6 : 9 0 2
2 4 7 : 702
2 5 0 : 3 0 9
2 5 0 : 609
Page 44
2 5 0 : 8 0 5
2 5 0 : 8 1 4
2 5 1 : 5 0 7
2 5 3 : 7 0 5
2 5 6 : 6 0 6
2 5 9 : 8 1 2
260 : 9 0 5
262 : 6 1 3
263 : 2 0 8
263 : 4 0 9
264 : 7 1 2
2 6 6 : 4 0 8
2 6 8 : 2 1 8
2 7 1 : 8 1 5
2 7 4 : 9 1 8
2 7 5 : 9 1 5
2 8 8 : 5 0 5
294 : 7 1 5
2 9 5 : B 1 9
297 : 2 0 9
3 0 0 : 8 0 1
3 0 3 : 5 1 7
3 0 6 : 5 0 4
3 0 6 : 9 1 2
3 1 0 : 7 0 4
3 1 1 : 6 1 8
3 1 1 : 9 1 4
2600 Magazine
3 1 2 : 8 1 8
3 1 5 : 3 0 4
3 1 9 : 3 1 9
3 1 9 : 4 1 9
32 0 : 6 0 5
32 1 : 3 1 8
323 : 4 0 6
32 5 : 2 0 7
32 6 : 5 1 9
3 2 8 : 5 0 2
3 2 9 : 2 1 9
3 3 0 : 6 1 7
33 3 : 4 0 7
3 3 4 : 2 0 4
337 : 9 0 7
33 9 : 5 0 8
33 9 : 5 1 6
34 1 : 2 1 7
34 1 : 7 0 1
34 5 : 3 1 6
34 7 : 7 1 6
34 8 : 4 1 8
3 4 9 : 6 1 6
365 : 7 1 8
37 1 : 9 1 6
37 8 : 3 1 7
3 7 9 : 6 0 1
3 7 9 : 61 4
3 8 9 : 5 1 5
3 92 : 402
4 0 8 : 41 2
4 1 5 : 7 08
4 1 7 : 91 3
4 2 0 : 4 1 4
4 2 2 : 3 0 5
4 2 6 : 3 0 6
4 2 B : B 1 6
4 3 3 : 6 1 9
4 4 3 : B 1 7
4 4 5 : 203
4 4 5 : 5 1 4
4 4 6 : B 0 4
4 4 8 : 5 1 3
4 4 9 : 8 0 9
4 4 9 : B 1 3
4 53 : 7 1 7
4 64 : 904
4 67 : 803
4 6 8 : 303
4 74 : 7 1 3
4 75 : 4 0 5
4 8 1 : 5 0 3
4 82 : 6 1 2
4 94 : 3 1 4
494 : 6 1 5
5 04 : 7 1 4
5 1 0 : 2 0 6
5 1 2 : 5 0 1
5 1 3 : 7 0 3
52 1 : 2 1 6
52 3 : 604
5 5 2 : 602
5 5 5 : 2 1 5
5 6 6 : 202
5 7 3 : 4 1 6
5 7 5 : 4 03
5 7 6 : 5 1 2
5 8 0 : 4 1 5
5 8 3 : 2 0 5
5 8 6 : 3 1 3
603 : 9 1 9
61 1 : 4 04
62 4 ; 2 1 2
65 0 : 3 0 1
660 : 2 0 1
662 : 2 1 3
67 1 : 2 1 4
769 : 3 1 2
Tis info comes from the Telecom Digest
Winter 1989-90
UÏL´ ULDÏ1L
by The Plague
I certainly hope you enjoyed my arti cl e i n the
l ast i ssue. However the fol ks at UAPC di d not.
Needl ess to say, there was a bi g medi a scandal
here i n New York when 2600 hit the stands last
fal l . Certain i ndi vi dual s tok i t upon themselves to
crack UAPC at any cost. As I predi cted , soci al
engi neeri ng and trashi ng were key el ements used
i n cracki ng the system. At l east one gr oup of
hackers was abl e to get access to more than a
dozen accunts. They cntacted peopl e at 260
who alerted the medi a. And for the fi rst ti me i n
America, hackers were t he ones t o break a stor
about hacki ng. For once , the hackers had the
upper hand, whi ch greatly reduced the amount of
i naccuraci es i n the story. It al so made those i n
charge of the system l ook l i ke utter fol s.
The al mi ghty school system got very angry
and deci ded to take secu ri ty messures . They
cl ai med that they were goi ng to put UAPC on
l eased l i nes by January 1 99. Wel l , that hasn' t
happened, and even i f i t dos happen , t he next
few paragraphs wi l l show you how to get around
that.
I mysel f enjoyed rubbi ng i t in to UAPC, by
placing certain foul sti ckers on their door as wel l
as having some fun engi neeri ng thei r Hel p Desk
whi le they were i n a state of security al ertness.
"Hel l o, i s thi s the UAPC Hel p Desk? Yeah? Wel l
you certai nl y do need hel p! ! " and thi ngs of that
sort.
One thi ng that UAPC di d whi ch was very
nast was to place a Project 10 on every si ngl e
account. Now, that's not a bi g probl em. I f you cn
get the password, you can get the Project 1 0 i n
the same way. However, one day I stumbl ed onto
somethi ng i nteresti ng. I found out that you can
connect to UAPC through the CUNY/UCC ( Ci ty
Uni versi ty of New York - Uni versi ty Computer
Center) . What's even better i s that you cn con­
nect at up to 2400 baud and use the termi nal
emulation of your choi ce. But, the very best thi ng
about i t i s that you don' t have to provi de a Project
10 to UAPC i f you connect via UCC. Apparentl y,
the Project I D' s are onl y used when UAPC i s
accessed vi a UAPC' s own di al -up l i nes.
UCC i s a compu t i ng ser ver l ocated i n
Manhatten . I t provi des high-speed netork l i nks
(SNA) to many computers throughout the CUNY
system. UAPC i s l i nked vi a thi s hi gh-speed net­
wor k, and t her e is much l ess secur i ty when
accessi ng UAPC vi a UCC.
Here i s what you can do. UCC i s a publ i c
number, so I mi ght as wel l gi ve it out. I t' s 2 1 2-
974-8600 and cnnects at 30, 1 200, and 2400
baud usi ng 7E1 ( seven data bi ts, even parity, one
stop bi t) . Once connected, you hi t RETURN a few
ti mes. It shoul d ask for termi nal type. You can hi t
return to see the avai l abl e termi nal types, and
then choose one that your softare cn emul ate.
You wi l l then see the UCC openi ng screen. At
that poi nt you hi t the TAB key unti l the cursor i s at
the COMMAND l i ne, then type DI AL VTAM and
hi t return. You wi l l then see a menu screen of the
computers that you cn connect to. You keep hi t­
ting TAB (al so known as Ctrl - I ) unti l your cursor is
at UAPC and then you hi t return. You are now
connected to UAPC. You wi l l notice that UAPC
onl y asks for User 1 0 and Password. I t dos not
ask for Project 10. The password i nput area i s
di vi ded i nto three areas. The first i s required. The
other two are opti onal . The fi rst i nput area i s for
the password, the second is for the password you
want to change i t to (i f the password i s val i d) , the
thi rd i s to veri fy the change. You don't have to
worry about that at al l . You can just typ the user
name fol l owed by return and then the password
fol l owed by return . As a side note on UCC, you
can emul ate the PF keys on your ter mi nal by
usi ng the ESC key. For i nstance, PF1 is the same
thi ng as hi tti ng ESC and then 1 .
So now you cn see that even i f UAPC dos
go on leased l i nes, whi ch I ' m wi l l i ng to bet i t wi l l
not , you cn sti l l acess i t via UCC. The reason
that I thi nk leased l i nes are out of the questi on i s
because i t wi l l severel y hi nder access for l egi ti­
mate users all throughout the Board of Ed and
CUNY.
Apparentl y , UAPC hacki ng and abuse has
become a rather popular hobby here i n New York.
I ' m constantl y heari ng rumors about peopl e wi l l ·
i ng to pay cash for grade changes and peopl e
who cn fi l l that parti cul ar servic need.

t. . • �
.
¹
; _ .

--
A 2600 stafer demonstrates the ease of
canging high scol grades in a report aired
ovr WNBC-TV in New York.
Winter 1989-90 2600 Magazine Page 45
| Ð t t Ð f8
(continued fom page 33)
fld thse con-artists almost ever­
where you look today. While
Network 2000's response seems to
indicate that they' re concerned,
th Jact remains that thy're blam­
ing one person Jor this violatin.
Bu you sai i was a gru ojrep­
resentatives whih would sem to
iniat tht what thy wee doin
was comany poliy. It's also hard
to bel i eve that one person i s
respnsibl Jor reuci th si oj
the print on a key part oj the
advertisement.
Anyone invol ved in simi l ar
escaades? Lt's hear abut thm.
And to add to the l ist oj ANI
(ANAC Jor those wh want to be
technial) numbers, tr 1 -200 Jol­
lowed by almost any sevn num­
bers in the 305 and 407 area
coes in Frida. Also, dialin 51 1
fom many phons there will dis­
abl e the phone Jor at least two
minutes.
We know you have some-
th to sy to ul S wrte u
a letter now before it sip
you mind. O addres i
260 Ltters, P Bo 9,
Midde Isand, N 1 1953. Ou
FA nuber i 516-751-260.
O new network addres i
260@ell.sf.ca.u.
8 1 8 1 (cntinued frm page 5)
network i f somethi ng strange and unpre­
di ctabl e starts occurri ng. The news here
i sn't so much the fai l ure of a computer pro­
gram, but the fai l ure of AT&T' s enti re struc­
ture.
The Non-Technical Problems
I n the hei ght of the cri si s, Laura Abbott,
an AT&T s pokes pers on , s ai d cal l er s
shoul dn' t t usi ng any of the other cmpa­
ni es. She recommended repeated t ri es
over AT&T. " I f you don' t get through the
f i rst ti me, you' l l get through the second
ti me. "
AT& T operators, hours after the cri si s
began, refused to tel l customers how they
could place thei r clls over other long dis­
tance compani es. I t went agai nst cmpany
poli cy. Thi s, despite the fact that most long
di stanc compani es tel l the customer how
to acess AT&T i f he/she needs to.
The medi a once agai n let us down by
not doi ng enough to educate themsel ves,
l et alone t he publ i c. Al l that had t o b dne
was to aler the publ i c as to how to make a
l ong di stance call usi ng another company.
Nobdy had to b i nconveni encd on that
day.
Breaki ng up the Bell system was essen­
tial i n the name of fai rness. But i t dosn' t
end there. The general publ i c has to be
educted on how to use the new system to
tei r advantge. What god i s a fai r system
i f most peopl e don' t know how to use it?
Why are peopl e so afraid to do thi s? Why
are they di scouraged?
Many i n st i t ut i on s and bu s i nes ses
choose t o blok access t o the 1 0XXX sys­
tem, thi nki ng that somehow it wi l l generate
more bi l l s. Many of them now realize blat­
edly the useful ness of that system.
The carrier accss code l i st we pri nted
in our l ast i ssue shoul d be avai l abl e to
everybody i n the country. Possessi on of
t hi s l i st i s real l y the onl y way consumers
wi l l fi nd alternative l ong di stance compa­
ni es that coul d be a l i fe-saver i n a si tuation
l i ke thi s.
Duri ng the Cal i forni a earthquake l ast
October, AT&T made a deci si on for us.
They dci dd that i ncmi ng cl l s weren' t as
i mportant as outgoi ng cal l s to the peopl e
there. They were probabl y ri ght . But, by
bl ocki ng vi rtual l y al l attempts , they were
maki ng a ctegorical assumption that si m­
pl y doesn't hol d up to i ndi vi dual reasoni ng .
For those of us who knew the alternative
ways to route our cal l s, call i ng i n was no
problem. But so few of us knew thi s.
There obvi ousl y have to be more alter­
nati ves, so that there are more choi cs for
each of us. But there has to be a level of
awareness among the end-users, or el se,
what' s the poi nt?
Page 46 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90
NOW NcÆk ÎNÆÎ
At 2 6 0 0 , we don ' t exact l
y
go out o f our way t o
nag
y
ou about when your subscr ipt i on i s go i ng
t o s t op . You won ' t f i nd
y
ours e l f get t i ng tho s e
g l o s s y remi nder s wi th f r ee pens and di g i t a l
quart z c l ocks and a l l that j unk . We be l i eve
our subs cr ibe rs are i nt e l l i gent enough t o l oo k
at the i r addre s s l abe l and s ee i f t he i r sub ­
s c r i pt i on i s about t o c onc lude . I f i t i s o r i f
y ou want t o extend i t , j us t f i l l out the f o r m
be l ow ( your l abe l s hou l d be on the ot her s i de )
and s end i t t o our addres s ( a l s o on t he o t h e r
page ) . You don ' t get se l f addre s s ed s t amped
enve l ope s from 2 6 0 0 . But the t ime and mone�- we
s ave w i l l go t owards mak ing 2 6 0 0 as good a nd
i n fo rmat ive a s i t can get .
I NDI VI DUAL SUBSCRI PTI ON
. 1 year/$1 8 c 2 years/$33 : 3 years/$48
CORPORATE SUBSCRI PTI ON
. 1 year/$45 . 2 years/$85 � 3 years/$ 1 25
OVERSEAS SUBSCRI PTI ON
. 1 year , i ndi vi dual /$30 . 1 year, corporat e/$65
LI FETI ME SUBSCRI PTI ON
. $260 (you' l l never have to deal wi th th i s anymore)
BACK I SSUES ( never OU! of styl e)
. 1 984/$25 . 1 985/$25 . 1 986/$25 . 1 987/$25
. 1 988/ $25
TOTAL AMOUNT ENCLOSED: I�


what' s inside
(W KNOW - Tis issue should have ben out i n Dembr,
but we wanted to wait for te A T& T stor to break Srr. )
r - - - - - - - - - -
,
4
I I
the at&t stor
our ever- changing worl d
I nynex central ofce data
I
prirnos, part t-vo
buildi ng a silver box
I
l etters
I
I
2600 Inarket l)l ace
area code/exchange count
uapc updat e
� I
1 4
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I
2
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L _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .
2 6 0 0 Ma g a z i n e
P O B O H 1 5 2
Mi d d l e I s l a n d , N Y 1 1 9 5 3 U . S . A .
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Zelda and the Right Th u m b Writers: Eric Corley, Joh n Drake, P a u l Estev, M r . French, T h e Gl itch , The Infid e l , The Plag u e , David Ruderman, Bernie S., Lou Scan non, Si lent Switch m a n , Violence, and the g rowing ano nymous b u nch. Remote Observations: Geo. C. Pilyou
Winter 1989-90

2600 Magazine

Page 3

the day the phone system
We a l l knew t h e d ay would co me. And at least some of u s were prepared for it. But, as usual, the vast m ajority h ad absol utely no idea what was going on. AT&T was h it h ard by a com pute r worm on J anuary 1 5. T h at i s a f act. And after reading the technical expla­ nation below, you'll see why t h is is so. But AT&T wasn't the only entity hit by this worm - we al l were, some far m o re than others. The inab i l ity to g et t h ro ug h , the d enial of access, coupled with the blind faith we put in technolo­ g y , t h e unw i l l ing ness to spread infor­ m ation s o we can all understand the p r o c e s s. Ye a h , it was f u n f o r t h e phone ph reaks as w e watched the net­ work crumble. But it was also an o m i ­ nous s i g n o f what's to come. In t h e w o r d s o f a h i g h - r a n k i ng AT& T pe rson, "ve ry l ittl e co u ld h ave "nothing more t h a n a big com pute r". N ew York, for reasons u n know n , sent o u t a b r o a d cast w a rning m e s s a g e (BWM), which trigge red all of the 1 1 3 o t h er 4ESS m ac h i n e s a ro u nd t h e nation to d o l ikewise. Why did t h is h ap p e n now? We l l , back i n t h e l ate sevent i e s , B e l l Labs d e velo p e d a co m m o n c h a n n e l s i g ­ nal l ing system known a s Syste m S i x o r C C S 6 . I nt e rnat io n a l st a n d a r d s hav e b e e n d e v e l o p e d o v e r t h e past co upl e of y e ars wh ich nec e s s itated som e change o n AT&Ts part. So CCS 7, or Syste m Seve n , was i nt roduced . Somew h e re i n s i d e Syste m S eve n is whe re the problem l u rked , u n d etected, u ntil Jan uary 1 5. A c c o rd i ng t o e x p e rt s , S y st e m Seven i s a much more flexible system and that's why it's beco m e the interna­ tiona l standard. It's act ual ly more of a protocol to wh ich each co mpany m ust adjust. They d o n ' t a l l u s e t h e s a m e software. AT&T uses its o w n software, Briti sh Telecom uses som ething d iffer­ e nt, U. S. Sprint uses so m ething else, e t c . S o m e AT&T p e op l e , a ided by well-meaning but ig norant media, were spread i ng t h e notio n t h at m any com ­ p a n i e s h a d t h e s a m e software a n d therefore cou ld face the s a m e probl e m someday. Wrong. T h i s was e ntirely an AT&T software d eficiency. Of cou rse, oth er co mpan i es could face co mplete­ g o n e worse". Acco rd i n g to AT&T, of l y different software p rob l e m s . B ut , 1 48 m i l l i o n att e m pt s , only 50 m i l li o n then, s o too cou ld AT&T. went t h ro u g h . Many c l a i m it w a s f a r Th e 1 1 4 4 E S S m ac h i n es a ro u nd worse than that. t h e c o u n t ry h av e n e w s o f tw a r e But what was it t h at actually h ap­ i n st a l l e d p e r i o d i c a l l y . W h e n t h i s i s pened? H ere's w h at we w e re able to done, it's done g rad ually, ci rcu it by cir­ d etermine: c u it, one mach ine at a ti m e . The n et­ The p ro b l e m s t a rt e d i n a 4 E S S wo r k is presently co n f i g u red so t h at m ac h ine i n N e w Yo rk. Th e 4 E S S i s t he 4 E S S mach i n e s have s o m e ci r­ used t o route calls and i s basically, in c u it s cons i st i n g of both S y ste m S i x t h e wo rds of a B e l l Lab t ec h n i c ian, a nd S y st e m S e v e n . E v e n t u a l l y ,
Page 4

"The news here isn't so much the failure of a computer program, but the failure of A T& T's entire structure. "

2600 Magazine

Winter 1989-90

" B u t w h at c a u s e d t h e p ro b l e m ? Exact ly the right situation occu rred at the right mom ent for a particu lar event to occur. this preve nts blue boxi ng since s u bs c r i b e rs h av e n o acc e s s to t h e routing sig n als. we've h ad q u ite a few in the last three or four. "We've h ad s o m e m ajo r changes in t h e n et­ wo r k in t h e l ast t e n y e a r s . It cou ld happen to any computer system . A m o n g o t h e r th i ngs. but peo­ p l e m a k i n g p h o n e c a l l s a r e n ot t h e same a s people logg i ng o nto comput­ ers. P h o n e c a l l s w e r e f o r c e d o f f of System Seven and onto Syst e m S i x . in effect . T h e re i s a co m po n e n t o f t h at ring that al lows t h e 4ESS to tran s m it m essages across the ring and across t h e Com mo n C h a n n e l S i g n a l l i n g N etwork. And that's basically all we know at this stag e . "The re's n o reason to be con­ cerned with t h is. co m p ut e r systems go dow n a l l t h e t i m e . AT&T owes it to its customers to be prepared to instantly switch to anoth e r Winter 1989-90 2600 Magazine (continued on page 46) Page 5 . Th e problem occu rred i n a part of t h e s i g n a l l i n g s y st e m t h at d o e s n 't carry voice traffic. the specific cause still h ad n't been made known.REALLY died thoug h . And t h at h a s m a d e the whole system more v u l n e ra­ ble. They've always been for t h e better. Traffic was fai rly low. The bog us BWM f rom New York was sent out and it c a u s ed an excess of m essages g o i n g to oth e r 4ESS loca­ tions. All of t h e 4ESS machines were effect­ ed within half an h o u r. I n f act . It's known as "out­ of-band s i g n a l l i ng" beca u s e it's o u t ­ side t h e b a n d t h at carries t h e act u al conversatio n . i s s e n t o v e r t h i s p at h . T h e r e a r e p l e n t y o f p ro g r a m m i n g e rrors that cause accidental worms. Lack o f Redundancy On e expert said . T h e c u r re n t infat u at i o n with fiber optics t h at certain l o n g d is­ tance co mpanies h ave (AT&T includ­ ed ) spe lls cert a i n tro u b l e beca use of the lack of red undancy in these cheap systems. I t ' s assu med t h at t h e p roblem o rig i nated in a part i c u l a r co m po n e nt known as C o m m o n N et w o r k I n t e rf a c e ( C N I ) R i n g . Possibly the fact t h at January 15th was a holiday had somet h i ng to do with it . Not the k i n d t h at g et s s p r e a d d e l i b e r at e l y ." AT&T says. What hap­ pe n e d to bac k u ps? S u re . A snowball effect beg an and the congestion spread a n d g rew rapidly. wh ich w a s u n u s u a l f o r a M o n d ay . Th ey're worki n g o u t o f Ly l e a n d I n d i a n Hil l . What we don't know is how a m ajor force in com m u n ications l i ke AT&T could be so sloppy . T h e n a m e of the o rg a n izat i o n of Bell Labs software peopl e trying to fig­ u re all of t h is o ut is NESAC. N ational E l e ct r o n i c S w i tc h i n g A s s i s t a n c e C e n t e r . Sounds like a worm to us. at press time. Data. bypass­ i ng it . Illi nois. meaning there is less of a backu p . "Th e re's be e n a t e n d e n cy i n t h i s co m p a n y t o s a v e money b y centralizing operations and m ak i n g t h i ng s big g e r . B ut. such as the n u m ­ b e r called a n d t h e n u m be r call i n g . What appare ntly h appe n ed was that there was a flaw of some kind i n t h e software i n o n e of those rings. T h e problem w a s f ixed b y ove rwriti ng part of the software. If we conti n ue to trust technolo­ gy w it h o ut u n d e rstand i n g it . we can look forward to m any variations o n this theme. We m ust make that distinctio n ." Th e re is m u ch less red u nd a ncy in tod ay's syste m . It's not acceptable for t h e p h o n e syste m o r any oth e r essential s e rv ice to "go down". all ties to the Six will be elimi­ n ated .

To me j �il i s for . I d i d n o t b e l i eve t h e re w a s a n y m al i c e intended. w a s found gUilty o n January 2 2 o f fed­ eral computer tampering charges in S yracuse. has a l o t of potent i al. develop the telecommuni c ations or comput er t e c h no l o g y t o l e ad t h e Unit e d States i nto the 2 1 s t century. I think somebody should thank him Page 6 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90 . He didn ' t mean to cause 1 986 Computer F raud and Abuse Act. who . T h e g o v e rn m e n t argu e d that Mo rri s i nt e n t i o n al l y w ro te the worm program to break into "fed­ eral interest" computers he was not authorized to use. "We c ann o t unduly inhibit that inqui siliv� 13year-old . and by doing this prevented their authorized use � d c a u s e d a m i nim u m o f $1. " Another said Morris was "not a criminal. and he ' s not a cnmmal. I t seem s as i f the last few weeks have been a tremendous waste of tim e for everyone. NY. the New York Times described Morri s a s "fascinated with powerful com­ puters and obses sed with the uni­ v erse cre ated b y i nterco nnected networks of machines". But they say the damage would never have happened i f Morris had n 't put the worm there. criminals. if left to expenment today. Y e s . He w as the fi rst person to be pro secuted under a portion of the in the end. Sentencing will probably be scheduled then. tomorrow. A hearing is set for February 27 in Albany . NY . He now faces five y e ars i n p r i s o n and a $250. Add to that the fact that the holes he made u se of were common knowledge to doing it. m ay. I don ' t think he should go to j ail. " In i t s November 26 . Ev en the prosecution seem s to bel ieve this . w i t h a l l of t h i s i n m i n d . W e all know that h e w as th e person responsible for the Internet Wo � ." H e puter virus law of any kind would be effective. Mo rri s Jr. Several jurors said it was ObVI­ also expressed doubt s that a com-­ o u s M o rri s d i d n ' t i nt e n d to do damage. None of the juro rs owned a home computer. There seem s to be no doubt that he ' s an honest p ers o n. The shockmg fact I S that one programm ing error could cause so much confusion.000 m d amage.our Morris Found Guilty Robert T. H e a dm i t te d d am age . h e d i d i t . I don't think j ail would do anything for him . 1 98 8 edi ­ t i o n s h o rtl y a fte r the Inte rn e t W o rm m ad e i t s appe aranc e . Last year Senator Patrick Leahy of Ve r m o nt s a i d . O n e j u ro r s a i d of Mo rri s . There is no doubt that Robert Morri s Jr. S o . the 25year-old Cornell student responsi­ ble fo r the Internet W o rm .000 fine . . . but he made � pro gran:­ ming error. "I b e l i ev e h i s i n t e g ri t y .

It ' s estim ated that the cost of putting thi s w h o l e prank to g e t h e r w a s about $20. noth­ i ng was done to close the holes until after all of this happened. Morri s m ade a mi stake.through normal and legal channels. he did. rather than learn from what he ' s taught us.000 which is a crime in itself. like any system. this inci­ dent may remind people that run­ ning unknown software in this day and age is a risky thing to do. Information Introductory Diskette" have turned up. The difference here is that the defendant claimed inno­ cence because of technical igno ­ rance. Legal experts say this could be a trend-setting case. Africa. There is no proof that he ever planned to.ever-changing world the Internet community. He simply sent out a program to collect data .000 floppy disks labeled "AIDS New Technology Imagine a day when you can use any calling card number (AT&T. its limits need to be constantly tested. Real Damage A rathe r n a s t y "troj an h o r s e v i ru s" h a s been s h o w i n g u p o n floppy di sks throughout Europe. where users could become legal scapegoats for system crashes. More than 10. He was convicted in November. B ec ause if a m ali­ cious or immature person had done it fi rst. After a random number of times. Im agine a day when Winter 1989-90 2600 Magazine Page 7 . If nothing else. We ' re making a very grave error if we choose to simply focus upon the debatable legalities of what he did. the program will format the hard drive and destroy all data on it. This technology i s still in its infancy and. That ' s all a part o f the le arning game. It seems like someone should answer for this neglect of responsibilities. Jailed for Incompetence? A Georgia man is facing up to 1 5 years in jail for illegally access­ ing a computer. but thanks to the holes in the system. Sprint. Yet. It was data he never s h o u l d h a v e h a d a c c e s s to. M o rri s n ev e r logged into another computer sys­ tem without authorization. PC B usiness World Magazine says its mailing list had been used by the unknown creators of this mischief. and all the others) to m ake local c alls as well as long distance ones. which h e ' s n o w b e e n b a n i s hed from. They ' re offering a free program called "AIDS OUT" to anyone who w a s h u rt by the diskette. We ' re damn lucky it was Morris who did thi s. and California. MCI. A n d l e t ' s n o t fo rget o n e o t h e r i m p o rt ant f a c t . the damage would have been real.

This helps e l i m i nate a n s w e ri n g m achines that m ay inadvertently s a y "y e s " at s o m e p o i nt. dial 0 for the operator. system fo r h andling c al l i n g c a rd s . you get a computerized menu. so you can forget about accepting your o wn call. dial 11. you ' re asked to record your name. Why is the c o m p any g i v e n s i x d i g i t s ? Are there a million companies? Perhaps the y ' re not explaining this proper­ ly." When you dial 1 1 .. Instead of get­ ting an operator a couple of seconds aft er the initi al tone. The next four digits would be the cus­ tomer account number and the last four would be a personal identifi­ cation number. when you d i al zero plus a number and hit another zero at the tone.. The system asks you for your name at that point. One problem we find is the shortness of the customer account code (four digits? I). though temporary. the system won ' t accept a response that begins before it finishes asking the question. "For collect calls. The plan calls for 14 digit credit card numbers. It all could happen as B ellcore develops a new. The system uses voice recognition when a s k i n g the c a l l e d p a rt y i f the y accept. That would be different for every company. Also. It's fun to play with.. which says. It wouldn 't be the first time . The first six digits would be k n o w n as the C ard I s s u e r I dentifier (CIID) . The whole thing will be reevaluated in 1 99 1 . The caller' s mouthpiece i s c u t off during thi s procedure. Now. dial the Page 8 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90 (continued on page 42) . The rates haven ' t gone down.news and happenings the Sprint operato r will actu ally a c c e p t a S p r i n t c al l i n g c ard ! Imagine not being confused. even though it ' s pretty obvious that this system will save New York Telephone a bundle. pul se c u s ­ tomers must s i t through the entire menu before the system finally con­ nects them to an o p e rato r. for person-to-person and other calls. The advantage here is that your nam e can be anything you w ant. but once again. But the worst part of all is for those people who have resisted getting a touch tone phone (and p a y i ng the u n fa i r m o nthl y and "installation" fees). like "Call Me B ack" . ultimately a ripoff for the average consumer. The waiting time for an operator under the old system: three seconds after And Things To Play With New York Telephone has a new toy that allows them to fire even more employees . to charge this call to another number. The plan is being developed as a quick and tempo ­ rary way of allowing alternate long distance companies to use calling c ard s to proce ss local c alls. complete billing number now. Th i rd party billing is only verified when you place the call from a payphone.

NCXB. Remote) V & H . ( XB . There is usual­ by-step offices tend to be good for blue boxing. C r o s s b a r . Manhattan. This is Bell system shorthand for the location and type of the switch. ISXS. DlOO. this infonnation could come in handy. D . 42nd street. Since step­ inter-office and billing center (i. DlO.St e p b y Step. l ESS.one Sect:CLLI Code:S.n}JnBX by The Plague NYNEX (New York & New England Telephone) tele­ The following information and data relates to the (Special thanks to Kornflake Killer) divided by sector. DMSlDigital. Any entries in the following databases which have the same V & H are in the same building!loca­ ly more than one switch per central office. You may need a magnifying glass to read all of this but it was the only way we could fit it in the issue. 2B ESS. A CIL! code consists of II Rew York relepb. SXS . R . and the last 3 the building sub­ division. This information is very handy in social engineering. plotting network switching maps. 350ASXS. Example: NYCMNY42CGI is New York City senting a I.this is Nynex terminology for a large Companies to represent Vertical and Horizontal loca­ tion. lA. All switches throughout NYN EX are cormected to one of these main centers. Fields are separated by the : symbol. This artide should be used as reference material. You should read Bell Labs and Bellcore literature to f"md out more about V & H and netwOlk planning. 3556ASXS. 360ASXS. the next 2 characters define the state abbreviation.e. 1 8 2 0: TCNDNY'l'ID S O A L B Y: F"RHONYFHRS 1 :RDGT: U N K:UNI<: C T S KNYCTD S O ALBY: FRHDN'fFR S G l :OOH: <1 7 2 0 : 1 6 2 8 ALBY: FTANNYFARS 1: R S S: 4 4 8 1 : 1 6 9 9: G L F LN YGFCGO ALBY: FTCVNYFC3 5 8:arH: 4 3 0 2 : 2 0 3 6 ALBY: FTCVNYFCDS O: DGTL : U N K: U N K ALBY:GLFLNYGFCGO: I A E S : 4 5 1 4 : 1 7 0 5 ALBY:GLWYNYGWCGO: 3 E S: <1 6 03: 1 7 1 4 ALBY: GNWCNYGW 6 9 2 :arH: 4 5 3 9: 1 6 5 7 Winter 1989-90 2600 Magazine Page 9 . the next 2 the building ID. This field is simply the CLL! code of the host switch that connects to the remote switch.T h e s e are n u mb e r s u sed by Bell tion. and finding out particularly useful infonnation about your Central Office.t Switch ALBY: CMBRNYCMRS 1 : RDGT :UNK :UNl<: TROYN Y 0 3 D S O A L BY : CNBRNYCo8 6 8 :arH: 4 68 6 : 1 7 1 2 A L B Y: CN BRNYCDRS 1 : RDGT :UNK :UNK: S SC H N Y S OD S O ALBY:CMBRNYCM 6 7 7 arH: 4 5 3 7 : 1 6 3 3 ALBY:GNWCNYGWR S I :ROGT:UNK:UNl<: TROYN Y 0 3 0 S 0 ALBY :GRCTNYGC8 93 :OTH: 4 5 6 4 : 1 7 0 6 ALBY :GRCTN YGC R S 1: 5 RSM: U N K: UNK: TROYN Y 0 3 OS 0 ALBY:GRVGNYGVRSI :RDGT:UNK:UNK: CTSKNYCTDSO ALBY:GRVGNYGVSGI :OTH: 4 7 0 7: 1 633 ALBY :GRV I N YGEMGO : 5XB: 4 4 6 0 : 1 6 7 0 AL BY :GRV I N YG E R S I :RDGT: UNf<: UNK: SRSPNYSRDSO ALBY: HAGUNYHQRS1 : RDGT: 4 4 2 4 : 1 7 4 5 : TCNDNYT I D S O ALBY : HDFLNYHURS 1 :RDGT: UNK: UNK: SRSPNYSROS 0 ALBY:HDFLN '! H U S G I :SXS : 4 5 1 0 : 1 6 9 6 ALBY: R D S N N YHDD S O : DGTL: 4 7 13 : 1 5 8 1 ALBY: HNTRNYHNCGO :3ES: 4 7 6 1: 1 6 31 ALBY :HRFRN YHRRS1 : R S S : 4 4 8 4 : 1 6 8 0 : GLFLNYGFCGO ALBY : H S F L N YH S 6 8 6: SXS : 4 5 5 6: 1 6 1 2 ALBY : H S F LN Y H S R S 1 :RDGT:U N K :UNK: TROYN Y 0 3 D S O ALBY: JNVLNYJVCGO :3ES : 4 6 0 1: 1 6 7 3 ALB'!: JNVLNYJVR S I :RDGT: UNK: UNf<: SRSPNYSRDS O ALBY : f<NVYNYKVRS 1 :RDGT: 4 3 7 3: 1 8 4 2 : ALBY : KTBAN YKBRS 1 : R S S : <1 4 8 8: 1 7 2 3: TCNDNYT I D S O GLFLNYGFCGO ALBY :LKGRNYLRCGO :3ES : 4 5 0 1: 1 7 2 9 AL B Y: L K P CN YLACGO :3£S : 4 3 7 7: 18 7 9 ALBY: LTHMNY'l'SCGO : 1 E S : 4 6 2 3: 1 6 4 4 MBY:ALBYNYGDCGO : lES : 4 6 4 0: 1 6 5 3 MBY :ALBYN YS S C G O : l AE S: 4 6 4 0 : 1 630 ALBY :AL B YN Y S SCGl : l AE S : 4 6 4 0 : 1 630 ALBY:ALBYN Y S S D S I :DGT1. HOST Switch . RSM.Common Lang uage L o c a tion Identification.T: UNK: UNK: MBYN Y S S D5 0 ALBY :BAL S N YBACGO : 2 B E S: 4 5 8 8 : 1 6 8 9 ALBY :BERNNYBRMGO : 5XB: 4 6 7 7: 1 6 6 7 AL B Y:BERNNYBRRS1 :RDGT: UNK: UNK: S S CH N Y S OD S O ALBY :BLLNNYBGRS 1 : R S S : 4 4 7 2 : 1 7 3 9: GLFLNYGFCGO ALBY:BRNVNYBW4 25 :OTH: 4 28 2: 1 9 6 1 ALBY :CAIRNYCACGO : 3 £ S : 4 7 2 5: 1 6 1 5 MBY :CBLSNYZB234 :S X S : 4 7 0 6 : 17 2 7 ALBY :CBLSNYZBRS1 : ROOT: UNK: UNK: S S CH N Y S OD S O ALBY:CHTGNYZH4 9 7 :OTH: 4 2 7 5: 1 9 7 6 ALBY:C L P KN YC P D S O : DGTL: UNK: UN K MBY:CLPKNYCPMGO : 5XB: 4 6 0 9: 1 6 5 9 ALBY:CLVLN Y C K R S 1 : R S S : 4 6 7 2 : 1 6 4 6 : ALBYNYGDCGO ALBY :CLVRNYCVCGO : 3 E 5 : 4 7 13: 1 5 7 0 ALBY: E L D P N Y E U 5 9 4 :arH: <1 2 53 : 1 9 4 a 1: 5 R S M:UNK :UNK: ALBY: E S P R N Y ER 8 7 5 :arH: 4 6 6 9 : 1 7 0 9 ALBY: EZTWNYEZRS 1: RDGT: 4 3 5 2 . You can refer to Bell Labs and Bellcore literature or the October 1987 issue of 2600 for more details.:UNK:UNK ALBY:ALBYNYWACGO : lAES: 4 63 9 : 1 6 4 0 ALBY:ALMTNYALCGO :3 E S : 4 6 5 7: 1 6 7 2 ALBY:AMS TNYP E D S O :DGTL: UNK: U N K ALBY:CSTNNYCs732:cYrH: 4 6 60 : 1 613 ALBY: CTBRNYCBRS 1: 5RSM :UNK :UNK: TROYNYO 3 0 S 0 ALBY: C T S K N Y CT D S O: DGTL: U N K :U N I< ALBY: CT S KNYCTMGO: 5XB: 4 7 2 6: 1 5 4 7 ALBY: OLMRNYDMCGO : 2 B E 5 : 4 6 5 2: 1 6 3 6 ALBY: O L S N N Y DL 8 9 5 :ar R : 4 6 6 6: 1 6 9 7 ALBY: DNMRNYDNRS 1 : ROGT: 4 2 7 7: 1 9 0 5 : P LB GN Y P B D S O ALBY: EGLVNYGLCGO: 2 B E S : 4 613: 1 6 8 3 A L B Y: EGNBNYEG4 7 7: SXC: 4 6 4 5 : 1 6 1 5 ALBY: EGNBNYEGRS ALBYN Y S S O S O A L B Y:AMSTNYPEMGO : 5 XB : 4 6 3 2: 1 7 2 5 MBY :ARGYNYAYR S I : R S S : 4 5 11: 1 6 7 5 : GLFLNYGFCGO ALBY:AVP KNYAV 6 7 4 :OTH: 4 6 2 3: 1 6 0 2 ALBY:AVPKNYAVR S 1 :RIX. and doesn't go into explaining any detail s about switching. It contains useful information on every switch in the NYNEX system. El e c t ronic Switching Sy s t e m . 3ESS. The f"lfSt 4 characters define the town. 5XB. Most of the artide is a huge database of New York Telephone centers further suI>­ the following : A E SS. 355ASXS. Control Group I (repre­ phone switching system. 356ASXS.This field is shown only for those switches which are remote in nature (RSM and RSS). 2. These are integers which are offsets from a fixed point on the earth designated by the phone company. ESS . These n u m bers are used in calculating distances between central offices as well as for network plan­ ning. Williamsburg or White Plains). can be one of characters. If there is a HOST switch present.. Refer to other artides and Bell literature for that infonnation. NY. or 3ESS switch). In the database the following fields exist: data SWITCH TYP E .The switch type.. The following New York sectors are estabished by NYN EX: (Sector:Switching Type:Location) A LBY:D200:A lbany BUFF:D200:Buffalo BING:IAES:Binghamton C!SP:4ESS:Central Islip S E C TO R . it appears on the following line indented. GDCY:4ESS:Garden City NY 21:4ESS:Soho NY38:4ESS:East 38th St POUG:5ESS:Poughkeel"'ie SYRA:D200:Syracuse WHPL:4ESS:White Plains WLMG:4ESS:Williamsburg C L L! c od e .Typ:V:&: Bo. 2B. D5E. R SS.

VNYVI\CGO: 3ES : 4 65 6: 1652 ALBY :NEllLNYlfLRSI : RSS: 4692: 1654: ALBYNYGDCGO ALBY:NBTHNYUBMGO :5XB :4448:1108 ALBY:NLBaiYUB963 :OTS:4308: 1815 ALBY:WLBaiYUBIlSl :RooT:UNK:UNI(: PLBGNYPBDS0 ALBY:WNBHN�GO: 5 XB :4148:1648 ALBY:WNRHNYWHRSI:RDGT:UNK:UNK: Page 1 0 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90 .RNLNYBLMGO:5XB: 506S:2091 BING:RRNLNYBLRS1:ROGT :UNJ(:UNK: CRHGNYCGDSO BING: BRWKNYBW293:arB: 4162: 1191 BING: RRNKNYBWOSO:ooTL:UNK:UNK BING: HSBONYHSRS 1: SRSH:UNK :UNK: CRNGNYCGOSO BING: HSBONYRBSG1: SXS: 50 11: 1965 BING: JRCYNYJCCGO:1ES: 4945:1831 BING: JRCYNYJCOSO:DGTL :UNK:UNK BING: LNDYNYLN523 CRNGNYCGDSO BING:MAINNYMECGO: 3ES: 4940:1869 BING:MLFRNYHUOSO:DGTL :4765: 1115 BING:NCBLNYNLOSO:DGTL :UNK: UNK BING:ONNTNYOAMGO: 5XB: 4199:1112 BING:OOEGNYOOOSO: OOTL: UNK: UNK BING: OWEGNYONOSO:DGTL: UNK: UNK BING:RXBYNYRX32 6: OTH: 4182: 1685 BING: SAVNNYSN583:OTH: 5032:2033 BING: SCBVNYQN638:ora: 4160: 115 4 BING: SCBVNYQNOSO:ooTL :UNK:UNK BING: SHFRNY'CJlJCGO: 3ES: 4165 : 1108 BING:WRCSNY'Uc397 BING: WRCSNYUCDSO:DGTL:UNK:UNK ALBY:PEllUNYPECGO:31:5:4282:1861 ALBY:PBMTNYPHSGI :OTH:4699:1563 ALBY :PLBGNYlBOSO .ALBY:LXTNNYLXRS) :1\ooT: UNK:UNK: every Dent ral offioe CTSlCNYCTDSO BUFF :ATTCNYATS91: SXB :UNK :UNK CTSKNYCTDSQ ALBY:LXTNNYLXSGI :OT8:4T10:1653 ALBY:LYH'l'NYLORSl:RDGT: 4292 :1929: PLBGHYPBDSO ALBY :MALNNYMMDSO:DGTL:UNK: UHK ALBY:NRBGNYWURS 1: RSS: 44 95:1146: GLFLNYGFCGO BING:ARPTNYAR295 CRNGHYCGOSO BING: AVOCNYAC566:arB: 5029: 207 5 BING:AVOCNYACltS 1: RDGT: UNK :UNK: CRNGNYCGDSO BUFF :ATTCNYATDSO :DGTL:UNK:UNK BUFF:BATVNYBTDSO :DGTL:UNK:UNX BUFF :BATVNYBTHGO :5XB:4993: 2249 BUFr :BFLONYBACGO: lES :5065: 2322 BUFr:SFLOHYBADSO:OG'lL: UNK: UNK BUFF:BFLONYBAMG9: 1XB: 5065: 2322 BUFF :BFLONYELCGO: IMS: 5010 :2331 BUFF:BFLOOYFIlCGO: lAES: 5016: 2321 BUFF:BFLaiYHEOSO:DGTL: 5064 :2335 BUFr:BFLaiYMACGO:1AES: 5061:2329 BUFF:BFLOOYMAHGO :5XB : 5061: 2329 BUFr:BFLOHYSPCGO: ItS:5011: 2316 BurF:BFLONYSPOSO:DGTL:UNK:UNK BUFF:BFLONYSPMG9: 1XB:5011: 2316 BurF:BLFSNYBZRS1:RSS : 5104:2159: OLENNYBACGO BUFr :BLMTNYBHRS1 :ASS :511 9: 2134: OLENNYHACGO BUFF :BLSSNYBSDsO :DGTL:UNK:UNK Burr:BLVRNYBX928:5XB:5158: 2132 BUFF:BRKRNYBKRS1:RSS: 4966:2340: LCPTNYLKCGO BUFF:BSTNNYBNCGO: 3ES:5108: 2218 BUFF: BYRNNY8YDSO :DGTL: UNK: UNK BUFF :CHCKNYCEDSO :OGTL: UNl<: UNK BUFF :CHKTNYFRCGO: ItS :5063: 2303 BUFr :CLCTNYMACGO :3£S :5031: 2311 BUFF :CLNCNYBACGO :3ES:5032: 2301 BUFr :CTRGNYSODSO :DGTL: UNK:UNK BUFF :CUBANYEM968:5XB: 5141: 2166 BUFF :DNXRNYO}(MGO:5XB:518 9: 2339 BUFr : DRBYN'lDBCGO :3ES : S120: 23 22 BUFF :EAURNYEAMGO :5XB : 5011: 2219 BUFF :EDENNYEDCGO :3ES :5119: 2301 BurF: £LBl\NYEBDSO :DGTL:UNX:UN1< BUrr :ELCVNYEVDSO :DGTL: UNK: UNl< BUFF :ELCVNYEVJlS1: RSS : 516'1: 2225 : OLENNYHACGO BUFF : FKVLNYFJ(JtS1:RSS: 5136: 2204: OLENNYHACGO BUFF :FRSBNYFSRS 1:RSS:5130: 2145 : OLENNYHACGO BUFF:rSVLNYFLDSO :OGTL: UNK:UNK BUFF :GDISNYGICGO : 2BES: 50 61 :235 4 BUFF :GSPTNYGPRS1 :RSS :4991 :2321: LCPTNYLKCGO BUFF :GWNONYGOCGO :3ES :515 '1: 2284 BUFF:BLLONYBOCGO : 3ES :508 9: 2253 BUFF:BLL YNYHECGO :3tS :4 931: 225'1 BUrl' :HMBGNYHBDSO :DGTL: UNit: UNK BUFr :HMBGNYHBMGO :5XB: 510 2: 2301 BUFF:BNDLNYBIRS 1:RSS :5158: 2115 : OLENNYHACGO BUFF:JAVANYJACGO : 3tS :5015: 2241 Burr:KENDNYKDDSO:DGTL:UNK: UNK BUFF: LCPTNYLKCGO :1AES:5008:2338 BurF :LMSTNY'LMRS1:ltSS:5208:2188 : OLENNYHACGO BUFF:LNCSNYLCDSO :DGTL: URK: UNK BUFF :LNCSNYLOo'IGO :5XB : 505 4: 2302 BUFF :LNCSNYLCMG1 :5XB :S054: 2302 BUFF :LSTNNYLNCGO :3ES : 5031: 2384 BUFF: LTVYNYLIRS1 :RSS :5183: 2239: OLENNYHACGO BurF: L YVLNYLLRS1 :RSS :4953: 2316: LCPTNYLKCGO BUFF :HCHSNYMARS1 :RSS :5124: 2219: OLENNYHACGO BurF:HDPTNYMPCGO :3ES :4980: 2315 BurF :HEDNNYPAMGO: 5XB:4 9'12: 2304 BUFF:NCLNNYNOCGO :3£5 :UNK :UNK BUFF :NGFLNy16CGO : 2BtS: 5050 :2364 BUFr :NGFLNYPOCGO:lAES:5053 :23'15 BUFF :NGFLNYWOOSO :DGTL: UNX:UNK BUFF :NGrLNYNCliGO :5XB:5043: 23 69 BUFr : NWFNNYMACGO :3£s:4988: 2354 BUFF :OKrDNYOKQSO :DGTL: UNK:UNK BUFF :OLENNYHACGO:1AES: 5180:2169 BUFF :ORPKNYSTCGO :2BES: 5085:2296 Burr:PRTVNyPV933:5Ax-B: 51 79:2150 BUFr:RSFRNYRFRSI :RSS :5 108: 2184 : OL£NNYHACGO Burr : ItSVLNYRVRSl:RSS:5014: 23 '15 : BING:ARPTNYARRS 1: ROGT: UNK :UNK: :ars: 5051 :2110 ALBY:MALNNYMI'I1GO:5XB:4308: 1992 ALBY:MAll VN'iMV864:OT8:4644: 1699 ALBY:MCRVNlMCRS) :SllSM:UNX:UNK: TRQYNY03DSO ALBY:HIVLNYNVllS ) :RooT: 4361:1192: TCNDNYTIOSO ALBY:HOIRHYMYS29:OT8:4336:2020 ALBY:HOI1UfYMYllSl :RDGT:UNK:UN1C: MALNNnt4DS 0 ALBY :NGRNNYNGDSO:DGTL:UNlC:UHK ALBY':NGRNNYNQ!GO:5XB:4625:1624 CTSKNYCTDSO ALBY :O KHLHYO BRS I :IlDGT:UNK:UNl(: ALBY :OKRLNYOBSGI :OT8:4120:1649 BING:BATHNYBB176: SXS: 5032:2052 BING: BATHNYBHRS1:RDGT:UNK :UNK: BING: BGFLNYBF562:OTH:5033: 1916 BING: BGFLNYBFRS 1: RDGT:UNK :UNI(: CRNGNYCGOSO BING:BNGSNYBYCCO: 1AES :4943: 1831 CRHGN YCG OSO BING:BNGBNYBYDSO:DGTL :UNK :UNK BING:BNGBNYROMGO: 5XB: 4935: 1824 BING:CANSNYCZ698 :orB: 5011: 2082 BINC: CANSNYCZRS 1: RDGT:UNK :UNK: CRNGNYCGOSO BING:CSVYNYZV264 :OTH: 4711:1171 BING: CBVYNYZVDSO:ooTL: UNK: UNK BING: CliPBNYCP 521:ora: 5040: 2023 BING: CliPBNYCP RS 1: ROGT: UNK : UN!C: CRHGNYCGOSO BING:CliRHNYCF695: ara: 50 65: 2041 BING:CNSRNYCX545:OTB: 5052:2129 BING: CNSRNYCXltS 1: 5RSM:UNK:UNK: CRNGNYCGDSO BING:CPTWNYZNCGO: 3ES: 4144: 1186 BING:CRNGNYCGOSO: 5ES: UNK: UNK BING:CTONNYZN524 :orH: 5056: 1979 BING: CTONNYZNRS 1: RDGT: UNK : UN!C: CRNGNYCCDSO BING: DVPTNYDTOSO:OGTL :UNI(: UNI( BING:EOTNNYET965 :OTH:4174: 1821 BING: EOTNNYETOS0:ooTL : UNK: UNK BING:EMIRNYEMCGO: 1AES :5029: 1954 BING: ENDCNYENOSO: DGTL :UNK :UNK BING:GRGltNYGGS88:ors: 4162: 1681 BING: GRGRNYGGDSO: ooTL :UNK :UN)( BING: HBRTNYSZOSO:ooTL :UNK :UNK BING:B.BY:PRVINYlIlRSl:IlDGT:UNX:UNK: CT KNYCTOSO S ALBY:PRVINYPRSGI :OT 8:476 3:1612 ALBY:PTBWNYPORSI:RooT: 01368:1181: TCHDHYTIDSO ALBY:PTNMNYl)(RS1 :RDGT: 4414:1132: TCHDHYTIDSO ALBY:P'M'WNYl IRS1:RSS: 4585: 1621: TROYHY04CGO ALBY:IlCVLHYll8 294:008:4121:1131 ALBY:IlCVLHYllfl1l S1:IlOGT: UHK:UHK: S S CBNYSODSO ALBY:RNLlCNYllLCGO:3E5 :4592:1614 ALBY:RHLKNYR.LIlSI :1l00T:UHK:UHK: ALBY:SALMNYS H85:4 :OTH :4501:1646 SIl5PNYSAOSO TROYNY03DSO ALBY:SBTBNYSBCGO:3ES: 4663: 1623 ALBY:SCBHHYSCCGO:lAES: 4629:1 615 ALBY:SCLKHYQXRS1 lRSS :4433:1191: GLFLNYGFCGO ALBY :SBSPNYQS284 :OOB:4699:1160 ALBY :SBSPNYQSRSI :ROGT: UNK!UHI(: SSCRNYSODSO ALBY: SHVLNYS VllS 1:5RSH: UHK: UNK: ALBY:SALMNY5H1lSI :AooT: UHK:UHK: TROYNY03DSO ALBY:SRFLNYQR856 :OTS:4362: 2000 ALBY:SRFLNYQIUlSI :ROGT:UNK:UHK: HALNNYM"IDSO ALBY:SRLlCNYQLDSO:DGTL:UNK:UNK ALBY:SRLKNYQLHGO:5XB:4384: 1902 ALBY:SRNCNYQCRSI :RooT: 4288: 1898: PLBGNYPBDSO BING:LNDYNYLNRS 1: RDG'!':UNK:UNK: :arR: 5065:1993 ALBY:SRS PNYSRDSO:DGTL:UNK:UNK ALBY:SRSPNYSRHGO :5XB:4568: 1691 ALBY: SSCBNYSOOSO :DGTL: UNK: UNK ALBY:SSCBNYSCMGO :5XB:4 631: 1613 ALBY:TCNONYTIDSO :OCTL: 4401: 1751 ALBY:TNVL'NYTNMGO: 5XB: 415 6: 1618 ALBY:THVLNYTNASI :RDGT:UNK:UNK: CTSKNYCTDSO ALBY:TPLlCNYTL359 :SXS: 4434:1930 ALBY :TPLlCNYTLDSO:DGTL:UNK:UNK :01'S: 4146: 1150 ALBY:TIlOYNY030S0:5ES :UNK :UNK ALBY:TROYNY04CGO: lES:4 620: 1632 ALBY:VLFLNYVF753:OTS:4518:1639 ALBY:VLFLNYVl'RSI:ROOT:UNK:UNK: BING: WTGLNYHG535:SXS: 4983: 1999 BING:WVR1NYWVS65:SXS: 5020:1 901 BING:WVRLNYWVDSO:DGTL :UN1<:UN1< BUFF: AKRNNYA1(CGO: 3ES: 50 1 '1 :2 294 BUFF:ALBNNYAIDSO: DGTL:4 94 9: 2282 BUFF:ALDNNYADCGO: 3tS: 5039:2219 BurF:AHHRNYHPCGO: lES: 5040:2329 BUFF:AMBRNYHPDSO:DGTL:UNK:UNK BUFF :J.OGTL: 42 S5:1869 ALBY:PLVLMYlLRS) :ROGT:UNK:UNX: CTSKNYCTOSO ALBY:PLVLNYPLSGI :OTB :4148:1601 AI.NGENY'AGRS 1: ItSS: 5102: 214 2: OLENN YRACGO BUFF:ANGLNYA054 9: 5XB: 5133 :2318 BUFF:ARCONYAEDS0:DGTL �UN1<:UNK BUFF:ARCONYAEHGO: 5XB: 5099:2225 TROYNY03DSO ALBY :VRB.

TL:UNK:UNK GOCY:GRNKNYGHDS 0: 5ES: 49 62 :1377 GDCY:HCVLNYHVCGO:IMS:4 94 6:1348 GDCY:HCVLNYHVDSO: [x.TL :4 961:1359 GDCY:MINLNYMIMG2:5XB: 4961:1359 CISP:BBYLNYBNDSO DGTL: 4939:1314 CIS? :BRWDNYBWDSO SES :4912:1311 CISP:BYSHNYBYDSO DGTL:UNK:UNK CISP:CALVNYSPRSO 5RSM:UNK:UlH(: RVRDNYRVDSO CISP:C!ofo1KN'fCMDSO 5[5:4911:1327 CISP:C�KNyC�GO 5XB:UNK:UNK CISP:CTCHNYCUOSO DGTL:UHK:UHK CISP:CTCHNYCUMGO 5XB:4191:1246 CISP:DRPKNYDPCGO 1AEs:4928:1321 CISP:DRPKNYDPMGO CISP:ENPTNYENCGO 5XB:4928:1321 lES:4906:1331 CISP:EBTNNYEHMGO 5XB:4185:1200 CISP:ENPTNYENDSO DG'I'L:UlU(:UHK CISP:ENPTNYENMGO 5XB:4906:1331 CISP:GPTSNYGPMGO 5XB :4112: 1243 CISP:GPTSNYGPRSO ROGT:UHK: UNK: CTCBNYCUDSO CISP:BMB'fNYBBOSO DG'l'L:UNK:UNK CISP:HMB'fNYBBMGO 5XB:4836:1232 CISP:HNSTNYHUCGO lAES:4920:1344 CISP:HNSTNYHUDSO CISP:HNSTNYBUMGO CISP:BNSTNYBUMGI 5ES:UNK:UNK 5XB:4920: 1344 5XB:4920:1344 N'f21:N'lCMNYl3CGO:1MS:4998:1404 NY21:NYCMNY 13DS0: 5ES: 4998:1404 NY21:NYCMNYI3DS1:DGTL:UNK:UNK NY21: NYCMNY13MGl: lXB: 4998:1404 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5RSH:UNK :UNK.SO:5RSM:UN K : UNK: NYCXNYGCDSO NYl8:NYCXNYTBCGO:1MS: 4961 :1409 NY38:NYCXNYTBDSO:DGTL:ONX:UNK NYl8:NYCXNYTBMGO:1XB:496'7: 1409 NY38:NYCXNYTllCGO:1ES:4966:1400 NY38 :NYCXNYTRDSO:DGTL:UNX:UNK NY38:NYCXNY'rRHGO:1XB:4966:1400 NY38 :NYCXNYTRMG1:5XB:4966:1400 POUG :AMENNYAN RSO:511SM:UNX:UNK: PGBKNYSBDSO POUG :AMENNYANSGI :OTB:4761 :149'7 POUG:BECNNYBr.4560:2077 SYRA :PRLANYPFR.CNYSUCGO SYRA :PTSDNYP5DSO 5ES :UNK :UNK SYRA :PTSDHYFSHGO 5XB:4403:2054 078:4895:2011 SYRA :PllISNYPARSO RSS :UNK :UNK : SYRA :RCSPNYRSMGO 5XB:4723:181S SYRA:RCSPNYRSllSO RDGT:UNK:UNK: Page 12 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90 .BaiYWBDSO SYIlA :BRPTNYBP633 :OTH : 4760: 1977 SYRA: BRPTHYBPDSO :DGTL :t'HK : UHK SYIlA: CICRNYCJCGO : 2BES :4 772 :2003 SYRA:CLAYNYOSCGO : 1ES : 4'785 :2016 SYRA : CLEVNYCEllSO : llSS : UNK : UNK : SYRCNYSUCGO SYRA :CLTNNYZIDSO : OOTL :UNK :UNK SYRA :CLTNNYZISGl : SXS : 47 25 : 1891 SYRA : OfDNNYZHDSO :DGTL :UHK : UHK SYllA: CL YDHYCY923 : OTR: 4857 : 2088 SYRA :CMDNNYZMMGO : 5XB : 4709: 197 6 SYRA :CMLSNYIDRSO : RSS : UNK : UNK : SYRCNYSUCGO SYRA:CMLSNY�CGO : IES : 4806: 2002 SYRA :CNSTHYZADSO : DGTL :4756: 1942 SYRA :CNTNNYZORSO: 5RSM :UNK : UN"': SYRA :CNTNNYZOSG 1 : OTE: 4434 : 206 7 PTSDNYFSDSO SYR. : NNBRNYNNOSO POUG : NNPLNYNPHGO: 5XB: 4830: 1552 POOG:NWWNNYNWRSO: 5RSH:UNK :UNK : NNBRNYNNDSO �ou knOm SYRA : FABSNYFBltSO :ltSS :ONK:UNK: SYRCNYSUCGO SYM :FYTTNYFY5 49:OTH:4900:2046 SYRA :FYTTNYFnSO :ROOT:UN K : UNK : GENVNYGHDSO SYRA:FYVLNYFVDSO :DGTL : 4188 :1969 SYRA :GENVNYGNDSO tDG'rL :4907 :20'76 SY:RA :GRTNNYGTRSO :RDGT:4900 :1959 : CllLDNYCRDSO SYRA :GVRNNYGCI4GO :5XB:4501 :2070 SYRA :GVRNNYGORSO :5RSM:UNX :UNK : PTSDNYFSDSO SYRA :BMI'HNYRAMGO :5XB:4780 : 1883 SYRA :Sa.RNYBHDSO:DGTL : UNK:UNK SYRA:HRKMNYBCDSO:DGTL: UNK: UNK SYRA :BRKMNYBC1GO :5XB :4692 :1838 SYRA :HRVLNYBV543 :OTH :4525:2028 SYRA :HVTNNYHXl44 :OTH :4452 : 2100 SYRA:BVTNNYHXRSO :5RSM:UNK:UNK : PTSONYPSOSO SYRA: ILINNYILRSO:ROOT :UNK : UNK : HRKMNYHCDSO SYRA :ILINNYILSGI:SXS :4 699: 1842 SYRA :ITHCNYIBDSO :DGTL : 4938 :1957 SYRA :ITHCNYFGMGO :5XB :4931 :1958 SYRA :J1lDNNYJDCGO :3ES :4825: 2034 SYRA :LFRVNYLE658 :OTH :4580 : 2115 SYRA :LFRVNYLERSO :ROOT: UNK : UNK : WTTWNYUNDSO SYRA :LFYTNYLFRSO :RSS:UNK :ONK : SYRCNYSUCGO SYRA :LNNGNYLG533 :OTH:4923 :1976 SYAA :LTFLNYLSMGO :5XB:4671 : 1823 SYRA :LYNSHYLYCGO :3ES :487 3 : 21 02 SYRA:MACDNYHCCGO :2ES :4903 : 2145 SYRA :MARNNYHR926 :OTH :481'7 : 2137 SYM :HCDGNYHD585 :OTH : 4910 : 205'7 SYRA :MCGRNYMGRSO:llOOT : 4872:1924 : CRLDNYCRDSO SYRA :MCLNNYHZRSO :RDGT :4899:1945 : CRLDNYCRDSO SYRA :MDRDNYHK322 :OTH : 4403:2081 SYRA :MEXCNYMXRSO :llSS :UNK :UNK : SYRCNYSUCGO SYRA :HINONYMIDSO :DGTL: UNK :UNK SYRA :HORVNYHc:JoIIGO :5XB :4883 :1982 SYRA :MRTKNYMW315 :OTB :4483: 2119 SYRA :MRTNNYHNRSO :5RSM : UNK :UNK : PTSDNnSDSO SYRA :MSSNNYMQDSO :OGTL : 4349 :2077 SYRA :NRFLNYN0384 :OTH :4382 :20/2 SYRA :NRFLNYNORSO :5RSM : UNK : UNK : PTSDNYPSDSO SYRA :NROSNYNR581 :OTH :4841 :2104 SYRA:NROSNYNRRSO :RDGT :UNK : UNK : GENVNYGHDSO SYRA :NRWDNYND353 :SXS : 43 90: 20 66 SYRA :NRNDNYNDRSO :5RSM :UNK : UNK : PTSDNYPSDSQ SYRA :NSYRHYNSMGO 5XB :UNK :UNK SYRA:NNFONYNF564 SYRA :NWRKNYNKMGO SYRA :OGBGNYOGHGO SYRA :OGBGNYOGRSO PT50NYFSDSO SYRA :ONEDHYODMGO 5XB:4143:1931 0'1'8:4961:1960 5XB:4886:2113 5XB:4445:2120 5RSM:UNK:UNK: POUG : PGBKNYSHDSO: 5ES: 4822 :1525 POUG : PGBKNYSPDSO : OOTL :UNK:UNK POUG : PGBKNYSPHGO : 5XB : 4828 : 1518 POOG : PRNCNYPBRSO : RSS:UNK: UNK : LDTNYLKCGO POOG:PVYDMnDCGO : 3r.oSO:DGTL:UNK: UHK POUG:BECNNYBEHGO:5XB:4861 :15C4 POUG:CLCNNYCNMGO:5XB:4921:1681 POUG :CLClUiYCCRSO:5ltSH : UNK: UNK: PGHKNYSBDSO POUG :CNDLHYCLCGO :3ES :483 5 : 1541 POUG:CRNWNYCWCGO:3ES :4879:1504 POUG:CRNWNYCNRSO :RDGT:UNK :UNK: NNBRNYNNDS0 POUG :DVPLNYOPRSO:5RSH: UNK:UNK: PGflXNYSRDSO POUG :DVPLNYDPSGI:OTB:4181:1486 POUG :ELVLNYELHGO:5XB:4866: 1588 POUG:FLBGHYFBMGO : 5XB:4888 : 1618 POUG :FLBGHYFBRSO :ROOT:UNK : UNK: MNTINYHTDSO POUG :FLSCNYFM'4GO :5XB:4802: 1665 POUG :FLSCNYFHRSO :ROOT: UNK : UNK: KGTNNYKGDSO POUG:FSBKNYLDDSO :DGTL:UNK : UNK POUG:FSRKNYLDHGO:5XB:4844 : 1491 POUG :GHVLNYGHSGI : OTH :UNK :UNK POUG:BG1.S: 4804 :151 '7 POOG : PWNGNYSSRSO : 5RSH:UNK :UNK : PGBKNYSBDSO POOG : RODLNYRDRSO : RDGT :UNK :UHI< : PG8KNYSHDSO POUG:RODLNYRDSGI:arB: 4813:1564 POUG: SGRTNYSGRSO: 5RSM :UNK :UNK : PGBKNYSBDSO POOG: SGRTNYSGSGl : SXS : 4'759 : 1579 POUG : SBKNNYSKCGO:3ES : 4802 :1598 POUG : STNVNYSTCGO :3ES : 4770 :1518 POOG : NDSTNYNSRSO : RDGT:UHK:UHK : PGHKNYSRDSO POUG: NDSTNYNSSG1 :OTB: 4'782 :1595 POOG:NBLKNYNRt«.O:5XB: 4914:1640 POUG: NNDLNYNDCGO: 3ES: 41 96:1471 POOG:NPFLNYNFCGO : 2BES :4839 : 1510 SYRA.

: C RHONYCBO S O WHP L : CRHLNYCLCGO WHPL : C RM LN YC L R 5 0 YRTWNYYT O S O WHPL : C 5 P PN YC SCGO WH P L : OBFYNYD F D S O WBPL : GNBGNYFVD 5 0 WBPL : GNBGNYFVMGO WHP L : GNWCCTGNCG1 WBP L : GRLKN YGLR S O NNCYNYN C D S O WBP L : GRLKNYG L S G 1 NHPI. U N K : U N K W8P L : RYE-NY RYMGO : 5 X B : 4 9 2 3 : 1 3 9 9 W HP L : SCDLNY S R D S O : DGTL : 4 93 4 : 1 4 1 4 W HP L : S F RN N Y S U D S O : DGTL : U NK : U N K WBP L : S F R N N Y S U HG O : 5 X 8 : 4 9 4 6 : 1 4 1 5 WRP L : S L T S N Y S L R S O : RDGT : 4 9 4 4 : 1 4 8 1 : N NC YN YN C O S O N HP t : S P vY N Y SVCGO : 2 B t S : 4 93 8 : 1 4 6 2 WBP L : S P VY N Y S VD S O : DGTL : U NK : U NK WHP L : S P VYNYSVMGO : 5 X B : 4 9 3 8 : 1 4 6 2 WHP L : S S LHNY 5 5 D S O : DGTL : U NK : U NK W HP L : TKHON Y TUC GO : I t S : 4 9 4 4 : 1 4 1 2 W8P L : TRTWNYTT O S O : DGTL : 4 92 5 : 1 4 3 4 WBP L : T U XONYTXRS O : RDGT : U NK : U N K : P RRVNYN P D S O WHP L : TUXDNYTX S G 1 : S X S : 4 9 3 6 : 1 4 9 4 W 8P L : WHPLNYWPCGO : 1AtS : 4 9 2 4 : 1 4 1 6 W HP L : WHP LNYWP D S O : 5 E S : UN K : U N K W BP L : WHPLNYWPMG O : I X ! : 4 9 2 4 : 1 4 1 6 W BP L : WBPLNYWPHG 1 : 5 X B : 4 9 2 4 : 1 4 1 6 WHP L : NHVRNYWBDS 0 : OGTL : UNK : U N K W RP L : WHVRNYNHMGO : 5 X B : 4 9 1 4 : 1 4 6 8 NBP L : YN KRNYYN C G O : 1AES : 4 95 4 : 1 4 2 0 W H P L : YN KRNYYN D S O : DGTL : U NK : U N K WHP L : YNKRNYYNMG2 : 5 X B : 4 9 5 4 : 1 4 2 0 W 8P L : YRTWNY'fT D S O : DGTL : U NK : U NK W 8P t : YRTWNYY'I'MGO : 5 X B : 4 8 7 9 : 1 4 5 5 5XB : 4 93 8 : 1 4 4 0 DGTL : 4 9 1 1 : 1 4 4 5 3ES : 4 8 2 3 : 1 4 5 9 DGTL : U N K : U N K DGTL : 4 8 9 3 : 1 4 1 0 DGTL : U NK : U NK SXB : 4 9 2 1 : 1 4 6 9 2£ S : 4 8 6 1 : 1 4 4 0 5 E S : UN K : U N K 5 XB : 4 9 4 9 : 1 4 4 1 RDGT : U N K : U N K : WLMG : N YCKNYFAMGO WLMG : N YC KN Y F AM G 1 WLMG : N YC KN YFTCGO WLMG : N YC KN YFTD S O WLMG : N YC KN YFTMGO NLHG : N YC KN YKPCGO WLMG : N YC KN YKPMGO WLMG : N YCKNYLACGO WLMG : N YC KN Y L AD S O WLMG : N YC KN YLAHGO WLMG : N YCKNYRACGO WLMG : N YC KN YRAD S O WLMG : N YC KN YRAMGO WLHG : N YC KN YT'lCGO WLMG : N YC KN YTYD S O WLMG : N YC KN YTYMGO WLHG : N YCKNYWMCGO WLHG : N YC QN YASCGO WLMG : N YC QN YA S D S O WLMG : N YC QN YASMGO WLMG : N YC QN YB AD S O WLHG : N YCQNYBAHGO WLMG : N YCQNYBAMG 1 WLM:. : G R S NNYGACGO NB P L : BHFLNYBFO S O NB P L : BRSNN YBND S O WHP L : HRSNNYBNHGO WHP L : KTNHNYl<AD S O WHPL : L RMTNYLAD S O WBP L : LRMTNYLAHGO NBP L : MBPCN YM P C G O WHP L :MMRNN YMAD S O WHP L : MMRNNYMAMGO WB P L : MTKSN YMKCGO WBPL : M T K SN YM KD S O WB P L :MTVRN YMVO S O WHP L : N NC YN YN C D S O WH P L : N NRCN YN RC G O WHPL : N WRCN YNRO S O WHP L : N WRCN YN RH G 1 WBPL : N YACN YN KD S O WBPL : N YACNYNKMGO OTB : 4 9 4 2 : 1 5 1 0 3 ES : 4 8 8 1 : 1 4 8 4 OGTL : 4 8 8 4 : 1 4 8 6 OGTL : UN K : UN K 5 XB : 4 92 2 : 1 4 0 8 OGT L : 4 8 1 6 : 1 4 3 5 5 E S : UNK : U NK 5 XB : 4 8 4 0 : 1 4 0 1 2ES : 4 864 : 14 5 6 D GT L : UN K : U N K 5 XB : 4 93 3 : 1 4 0 1 2BES : 4 8 8 8 : 1 43 3 5 E S : UN K : UNK DGTL : 4 9 5 2 : 1 4 0 9 DGT L : 4 9 2 6 : 1 4 5 9 1 E 5 : 4 94 8 : 1 4 0 1 D GT L : lIN K : U N K 5 XB : 4 9 4 8 : 1 4 0 1 DGTL : UN K : UN K 5 XB : U H K : U NK 3 £5 : 4 8 1 4 : 1 4 9 1 OGT L : 4 9 3 6 : 1 4 2 6 OGT L : UN X : UN K 5 XB : U N K : U N K 1 £S : 4 9 1 1 : 1 3 9 6 RDGT : UN K : UN K : 5 XB : 4 90 2 : 1 4 2 1 OGTL : UN K : UN K 2BES : 48 4 5 : 1 44 4 OGTI.m h a t t h e � kno m RRl<MNYHC D S O WhP L : ORBGNYOB D S O OGTL : U NK : U N K S Y RA : R DC KN YR.C 1 5 4 : OT H : 4 8 1 S 5 Y RA : RCMENYRMD S Q : DGTL : UN K S Y RA : RCMENYRMMGO : 5 XB : 4 1 0 4 SYRA : SALKNYQT8 4 8 : OT H : 4 4 9 S S Y RA : 5 CBRNYQHR S O : R DGT : UN K tfTTWNYUN D S O S Y RA : S KNTNYS E 6 8 5 : S XS : 4 8 4 2 : 2 0 1 3 S Y RA : S KNTNYS E R S O : DGTL : UN K : UN K 5YRA : S N F LN Y S L 5 6 8 : S XS : 4 8 8 2 : 2 0 5 1 5'/RA : S N F LN Y S L D S Q : DGT L : U N K : UN K SYRA : S O O S N Y S D 4 8 3 : OTH : 4 8 4 8 : 2 1 3 3 S Y RA : S OD S N Y S O D S O : DGT 1 : UN X : UN K S Y RA : S YBHNY0Y1 6 2 : OTH : 4 7 3 3 : 1 9 5 4 S Y RA : S YBBNYQYD S O : DGT L : UN K : UN K SyItA : S YRCN YO D D S O : DGTL : UN K : UN K SYRA : S YllCNYE P D S Q : DGTL : UN K : UN K S Y RA : S YRCNYEPMGO : 5 XB : 4 1 9 2 : 2 0 0 2 S Y RA : S YRCNYG S D S O : DGT L : 4 1 9 1 : 1 9 8 3 S Y RA : S YRCN YJSCGO : I E S : 4 7 8 9 : 1 9 8 1 S Y RA : S YRCNYSACGO : I E S : 4 8 0 5 : 1 9 8 3 S Y RA : S YRCN Y S UCGO : l AE S : 4 1 9 1 : 1 9 9 0 SYRA : S YRCN Y S U C G l : 1 M S : 4 1 9 1 : 1 9 9 0 SYRA : T HR S N Y"I' H 6 2 8 : OTH : 4 S 5 9 : 2 0 9 6 5 Y RA : T HR S N Y T llR S O : & OOT : UN K : UN K : WTTNNYUN D S O SYRA : T LLYN Y'l' Y ll S O : R S S : 4 8 3 8 : 1 9 5 2 : SYRCNY S U C G O S Y R A : U N S P N YU S 8 8 9 : OTH : 4 8 8 5 : 2 0 3 4 SYRA : U N S P N YU S R S O : R DGT : UN K : UN K : AUBNNYAU D S O S Y RA : U T I CNYUTCGO : 1 A E S : 4 1 0 3 : 1 8 1 9 SYRA : WD P TN YWT8 3 4 : OTH : 4 8 3 1 : 2 0 4 3 S Y RA : ltDTNN YW Y3 8 8 : OTH : 4 3 9 1 : 2 1 0 6 SYRA : lt HBOOYWBD S O : OG'lL : 4 1 0 4 : 1 8 8 9 SYRA : WLCTNYWC S 9 4 : OTH : 4 8 2 9 : 2 0 9 9 S Y RA : wLCTNYWCR S O : RDGT : UN K : UN K : GENVNYGNDS 0 SYRA : WMSNNYWN 5 8 9 : OTH : 4 8 6 2 : 2 1 4 1 S Y RA : WMS NNYWN R S O : RDGT : UN K : UN K : NWllKNYNKDS 0 S Y RA : N'I'RLNYWT 5 3 9 : S XS : 4 8 8 9 : 2 0 6 5 SYRA : WTRLN YWTD S O : D GTL : UN X : UN K SYRA : WTT tlH YU N D 5 0 : OG'l L : 4 6 1 2 : 2 0 8 0 SYRA : NWVLNYltW1 3 1 : OTH : 4 1 1 9 : 1 8 1 6 SYRA : NWVLNYWQ50 : RDG T : UN K : UN K : ltBBONYWBOS 0 HBPL : ARVGNYAVMGO WHPL : B OVGNYBVD 5 0 WH P I. : B RW S N Y B NC G O WHP I. : 4 9 0 1 : 1 4 3 3 DGT L : 4 9 1 9 : 1 4 5 2 DGT L : 4 9 0 5 : 1 4 5 5 2£5 : 4 8 4 4 : 1 4 5 8 RDGT : UN K : UN K : WLMG : N YCKNY 1 4 CG O : 1 E S : 5 0 1 0 : 1 3 9 6 WLMG : NYCKN Y 7 1 CGO : 1 E S : 5 0 1 9 : 1 3 9 1 WLMG : NYCKN Y 7 1 D S O : 5 E S : UN K : UN K NLHG : N YCKN Y 1 1 MG O : 1 X B : 5 0 1 9 : 1 3 9 1 WLMG : NYCKN Y l 1 CG O : 1 E S : 5 0 2 0 : 1 3 9 6 WlJo!G : NYCKNY 1 1 Q S O : OGTL : UNK : UNK WLMG : N YCKN Y 1 1MGO : 1 X B : 5 0 2 0 : 1 3 9 6 WLHG : N YCKN Y 1 1 MG 1 : 5 X B : 5 0 2 0 : 1 3 9 6 W LH G : NYCKNYA I D S O : DGTL : 5 0 0 9 : 1 3 8 3 WLMG : NYCKHYA I MG O : 5 X B : 5 0 0 9 : 1 3 8 3 WLMG : NYCKN Y A I MG 1 : 5 X B : 5 0 0 9 : 1 3 8 3 WLMG : NYCKNYA I MG 2 : 5 X B : 5 0 0 9 : 1 3 8 3 WLMG : N YCKNYALCG O : 1 A E S : 5 0 1 0 : 1 3 8 9 WLHG : NYCXNY ALDS 0 : DGTL : U N K : UNK WLHG : N YCKNYALMGO : 1 X B : 5 0 1 0 : 1 3 8 9 WLMG : N YCKNYARCGO : 1 E S : 5 0 1 8 : 1 3 8 4 WLMG : NYCKNYAR D S O : DGTL : UNK : U NK WLHG : NYCKNYARMGO : 1 XB : 5 0 1 8 : 1 3 & 4 WLMG : NYCKNYAUC GO : 1 E S : 5 0 2 1 : 1 3 8 6 WLHG : NYCKNYAU D S O : OOTL : U N K : U N K WLMG : NYCKNYAUMGO : 1 X B : 5 0 2 1 : 1 3 8 6 WLMG : NYCKNYAYCGO : l E S : 5 0 1 9 : 1 3 8 1 W!. : N YC QN Y B AR S O NYCQNYFL D S O 1 XB : 4 9 9 4 : 1 3 9 0 5 XB : 4 9 9 4 : 1 3 9 0 1AES : 5 0 1 4 : 1 3 9 2 OGTL : UN R : UN R 1 XB : 5 0 1 4 : 1 3 9 2 1AES : 5 0 1 3 : 1 3 8 7 l XB : 5 0 1 3 : 1 3 8 1 lES : 4 99 1 : 1383 DGTL : UN K : UN K 5 XB : 4 9 9 1 : 1 3 8 3 1£5 : 5002 : 1385 OGTL : UN K : U N K 1 XB : 5 0 0 2 : 1 3 8 5 1AES : 5 0 0 5 : 1 3 8 9 DGT L : 5 0 0 5 : 1 3 8 9 1 XB : 5 0 0 5 : 1 3 8 9 1AES : 5 0 0 2 : 1 3 8 5 1 AE S : 4 9 8 5 : 1 4 0 1 DGTL : UN K : UN K 1 XB : 4 9 8 5 : 1 4 0 1 DGT L : UN K : U N K 1 XB : 4 9 1 1 : 1 3 8 0 5 XB : 4 9 7 1 : 1 3 8 0 R DGT : UN K : UN K : WLMG : N YCQN YBHD S O : 5 E S : 5 0 0 5 : 1 3 6 2 WLMG : N YC QN YB HM G O : 1 XB : 5 0 0 5 : 1 3 62 WLMG : N YC QN Y B HR S 1 : 5 RS M : UN K : UN K : NYCQNYFRD S O WLMG : N YCQN Y C OO S O : 5 E S : U N K : UN K WLMGl : N YCQN YCCMGO : 5 XB : 4 9 8 4 : 1 3 8 9 WLMG : N YCQN YFHCGO : 1 E S : 4 9 8 6 : 1 3 8 4 WLMG : N YC QN YF H D S O : DGTL : UN X : UN K WLMG : N YC QlN YF BMGO : l XB : 4 9 8 6 : 1 3 8 4 WLMG : N YC QN YFHM G 1 : l XB : 4 9 8 6 : 1 3 8 4 WLMG : N YC QN YF HM G 2 : 5 XB : 4 9 8 6 : 1 3 8 4 WLMG : N YCQNYFLD S O : 5 E S : U NK : U N K WLMG : N YCQNYFLHG1 : S XB : 4 9 1 1 : 1 3 8 8 WLMG : N YCQHYFLHG2 : 5 XB : 4 9 1 1 : 1 3 8 8 WLMG : N YCQNYFRD S O : 5 E S : 4 9 9 7 : 1 3 5 1 WLHG : N YC QN Y F RMGO : l XB : 4 9 9 1 : 1 3 5 1 WLMG : N YCQN Y H S D S O : D GT L : 4 9 7 8 : 1 3 7 2 WLMG : N YCQNYHSMGO : l XB : 4 91 8 : 1 3 1 2 WLMG : N YC QN Y H S M G 1 : 5 XB : 4 91 8 : 1 3 1 2 WLMG : N YC QN YB S R S O : RDGT : UN K : UN K : NYCQNYLN D S I WLHe : N YC QN Y H S R S 1 : RDGT : UN !': : UNK : N'lCQNYLNDS WLMG : N YCQN Y I AC G O : 1 E S : 4 9 9 2 : 1 3 6 9 WLMG : N YCQN Y I AQ S O : DGTL : U N K : UNK WLMG : N YC QN Y I IIM GO : 5 XB : 4 9 9 2 : 1 3 6 9 WLMG : N YC QN Y JAD S O : DGT L : 4 9 8 4 : 1 3 1 6 HLMG : N YCQN Y L I C GO : 1 E S : 4 9 9 2 : 1 4 0 1 WLMG : N YCQNYL I O S O : DGTL : U N !': : UN K WLMG : N YC QN Y L I M G l : 5 XB : 4 9 9 2 : 1 4 0 1 WLMG : N YCQNYLN D S I : D GTL : UN K : U N K WLMG : N YCQNYLNMGO : 1 XB : 4 9 8 6 : 1 3 67 WLMG : N YCQN YLNMG1 : 5 XB : 4 98 6 : 1 3 6 1 W L HG : N YC QN YN JD S O : OGTL : UN K : U N K WLMG : N YC QN YN JHGO : 5 XB : 4 9 8 0 : 1 3 8 0 WLMG : N YCQNYNWCGO : 1 At S : 4 9 8 6 : 1 3 9 2 WLHG : N YCQNYN WO S O : 5 E S : U NK : U N !': WLMG : N YC QN Y N WM G l : 5 XB : 4 9 8 6 : 1 3 92 WLMG : N YCQNYOPCGO : 1 E S : 4 9 9 1 : 1 3 1 5 WLMG : N YCQNYOP D S O : DGTL : UN K : U N K WLMG : N YCQNYOPMGO : l XB : 4 9 9 1 : 1 3 1 5 WLMG : N YCQN 'lOPMGl : 5 XB : 4 9 9 1 : 1 3 1 5 WLMG : N YCQNYRHD S O : D GT L : 4 9 90 : 1 3 8 0 WLMG : N YCQNYRHMGO : 1 XB : 4 9 9 0 : 1 3 8 0 WLHG : N YCQNYRHR S O : RDGT : UN K : UN K : NYCQNYLNDS 1 WLMG : N YC QN Yli S C G O : 1 ES : 4 9 1 1 : 1 3 8 8 1 Too risky to mail ? Too paranoid t o speak i t s name? Then FAX it! 5 1 6-751-2608 Page 13 Winter 1989-90 2600 Magazine .MG : NYCKNYAYDS 0 : DGTL : U N K : U N K WLMG : NYCKNYAYMGO : l X B : 5 0 1 9 : 1 3 8 1 WLMG : NYCKNYBRCGO : 1 E S : 5 0 0 5 : 1 3 9 9 WLHG : NYCKNYBRCG 1 : 1 E S : 5 0 0 5 : 1 3 9 9 WLHG : N YCKN Y B R D S O : 5 E S : 5 0 0 5 : 1 3 9 9 WLMG : NYCKNYBRDS 1 : DGTL : U N K : UNK WLMG : NYCKNYBRMG O : 1 X B : 5 0 0 5 : 1 3 9 9 WLMG : NYCKNYBRMG 1 : 5 X B : 5 0 0 5 : 1 3 9 9 WLMG : NYCKNYBUCGC : 1 E S : 4 9 9 9 : 1 3 9 0 WU4G : NYCKNYBU D S O : OOTL : U N K : UNK WLHG : NYCKHYBUMGO : 5 X B : 4 9 9 9 : 1 3 9 0 WLMG : NYCKNYCLCGO : 1 E S : 5 0 0 S : 1 3 9 5 WLMG : NYCKNYCL D S O : 5 t S : UN K : U N K WLHG : NYCKNYCLMGO : 1 X B : 5 0 0 5 : 1 3 9 5 WLHG : NYCKNYC L R S O : 5 R SM : 5 0 0 5 : 1 3 9 5 : N YC KN YSRD S O W111 G : NYCRNYFACGO : 1 E S : 4 9 9 4 : 1 3 9 0 NLHG : NYCKNYFAO S O : OGTL : U H K : U N R 2 0 90 UN K 1 922 1 9 94 ON K : W HP L : ORBGNYOBMGO WHP L : OSNGNYOS D S O W HP L : P A S N N Y P T C G O WHP L : P A S H N Y P T D S 0 W HP L : P K S K N Y P S O S O W 8P L : P OHN N Y P O D S O NBP L : P QMN N Y F OHG O W HP L : P RD Y N Y P D C G O WBP L : PRRVNYN P D S O WHP L : P RRVNYNPMGO W BP L : P RRVNYN P R S O N NC Y N YN C D S O WHP L : P S VLNYPVO S O : DGTL : U NK : U N K WBP L : PTCBNYPCCGO : 1 E S : 4 9 1 8 : 1 3 9 8 WHP L : PTVYN Y P YCGO : 2 E S : 4 8 1 3 : 1 4 6 8 W BP L : RYE-NYRY D S O : DGTL . : C B P QN YC P 0 5 0 WH P L : CNGRN"YCND 5 0 WHP!.

Be sensible. There is no need to add three or four users. " t h o s e acc o u n t s before wantonly add i n g u se r accounts. What do I d o ? I obtain a full u s e r/ p roj e c t l i s ti n g for f u t u re h a c k i n g pu rpose s . I t is s i milar to the VAXIV M S A U T H O R I Z E u t i l i ty . serial n u m ber. You will learn about the D S M ( D i stributed S y s t e m M a n ag e m e n t) u t i l i ti e s . type thi s : OK. and m odify u sers on a Prime computer running PRI MOS. The only way I have d iscovered aro u n d th i s is to re move the l o g g i n g p roc e d u r e s from the code a n d r e co m p i l e i t o n l i n e . and that i s after I g e t in. E D I T_PROFILEi s the utility that is used to add . the m ethods w h ich you m ust u se are beyond the scope of t h i s tu torial . It will log all successful and failed com mands. delete. U n fortunately. The best you can do at m aintai n i n g y o u r p r e s e n ce o n t h e s y s t e m i s n o t to u s e E D I T_P ROF ILE overly m uch . don't use i t u n l e s s you m u st . Exam ples appear in italics. Before I get d e e p in how to u s e E D IT_P ROF I L E properly I should mention that I h ave the source code to this wonder­ fully useful prog ram and a secu rity audit feature was added in during the last few years (circa 1 986) . The mode message will b e one o f these : If you are in SA mode then the account you are using has SYS 1 privi leges (that's the best you can do from a remote stand­ p o i n t ) . a L ) a s well as knowledge o f t h e appropriate system calls t o make. SA mode will allow you to p e rf orm w h o l e s a l e u s e r m o d i fi c a ti o n s . I n fact. Y o u might just get lucky. I n this part I w i l l detail the several u s e f u l a p p l i catio n s y o u are likely t o fi nd on P ri m e compu ters . And if you m u st add a u ser. but you can obtain a full u ser and project l ist­ i n g . When you decided to try out E D I T_ P R O F I LE o n the s y ste m that y o u have hacked i nto. Page 14 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90 . i t a l lows you to i n voke E D I T_P RO FI LE then it will display the uti l ity's herald ( revision n u m ber. Get a l l that you can before adding a u ser. t h e E D I T_P RO F I L E util ity (the P RI MOS u s e r editor). Y o u can 't obtain an accou nt's password from within E D I T_P ROF I L E . m o d i f y . as w e l l as add . o n the other h a n d . D o lots of research and experiment. D o n ' t g i ve u p h o p e . h oweve r. No n eed at all . FORTRA N-77. One u s e r is easier to h i de than three o r more . b u t t h a t ' s p re tty advanced stuff and not advised at any rate. thou g h . a s there are ways around thi s . If. and these are : System Initialization (SI) mode System Admin istrator (SA) mode Project Ad ministrator ( PA) mode Y o u w i l l p ro b a b l y n e v e r be u s i n g E D I T_P R O F I LE i n S y s te m I n i t i a l i zati on mode as that mode is used for initial sys­ tem user setu p . edit_profile If it g ives you an erro r m e s sage then you obviously don't have g ood enough priv­ i le g e s . whereas P A m ode w i l l o n l y allow you to perform modification s to u sers in the same project as you . U se com mon sense here . guys. a n d several others. a n d d e lete u sers. try and hack at In system administrator mode In project adminis trator mode EDIT PROFILE "One user is easier to hide than three or more. and copyright i n formation ) and a by Violence m e s sage s tati n g w hat m ode y o u are i n . I t involves program m i n g in a h i g h level lan­ g uage (FORTRAN IV. P U 1 Subset G. j u st add one. I f you get a user list. I g e n eral l y u s e E D I T_P ROFI L E once p e r hack. Bold italics i n dicate user input. reg u l ar italics indicate com puter output. There are t h re e m o d e s of E D I T_ P RO F I L E access.M O RE H A C K IN G This is the second part of a series on the P RI MOS operating syste m . e t . This w i l l e nable you to make the most of any Prime com put­ er you happen to vi sit.

You c a n list individual system attributes by substituti ng new arg u ­ m ents i n place of the . To g e t full info rmation about t h e system you are on (projects. T h e D S M u t i l i ti e s a l l ow P r i m e s y s te m administrators and senior operators to per­ form system management tasks from any point on a network. try to follow the naming conventio n s used on the syste m . then when you add a user make sure that your n ew user's User I D is a first name . Ta da. E nter the pass­ word that you wish to u se . Adding s u per-users i s not alway s a g ood idea. N o w . Before atte m pting t o add a u ser on any Prime system you s h o u l d always l i s t the sy stem attri b u t e s s o that you w i l l k n ow what projects and groups are in u s e . t o add a u ser. Occasionally u pon addi ng a user you may have to add y o u r U s e r I D to a file called LOG U F D located in one of the U F D ' s off of MFD O. If it does. When you decide to add a s uper-u ser. Likewise . O P E R A TO R S $ . Gro u p s always s tart with a period ( . u sers. Now. type: Where "u sername" is the U ser I D y o u w i s h t o u s e . This mean s no addi ng of super-users . . Try thi s : >sdd_user username -like system >lisL system -sll >sdd _user usernsme Agai n . make sure that you add y o u rself to the common pro­ ject (u sually D E FA U LT) and all of the high­ access g roups (examples I have seen are : . al so a u ser of the s u per-user class) and add the copy as a new u se r b u t w i t h a different name. I ' l l discuss the procedures for pulling user li sts and similar informati o n . s e t your pas sword w i th the C H A N G E_US E R com mand. j u st type H E LP and press R ETU R N . You are advised not to wantonly delete u sers or edit them. N ET_MGT$ . An easier method to add users is to u se the -LI K E arg u ment. You now have a U ser ID with the same stats as the U ser ID "SYSTEM". only delete u sers from that project. you s h o u l d u s e t h e " L I S T _" c o m m a n d s t o s e e w h at gro u p ( s ) are i n u s e . Then you will be as ked for your g ro u p ( s ) and your defa u l t log i n project. . Make s u re that you keep track of the changes that you make so that i n case you mess something u p you can fix it. Also try not to u se the C H A N G E_SYST E M _A D M I N I ST RATOR command. Basically . To obtai n help. If u sers have thei r first name as a U ser I D . etc) you simply need to type : You can abbreviate the LIST_SYST E M com m and with LS. This arg u ­ m e n t o f t h e A D D_U S E R c o m m a n d w i l l make a copy of t h e u s e r cal led SYSTE M (found on all P rimes that I have see n . Th u s you can on l y add u sers to that pro­ ject. After y o u type thi s you will be asked for your password. If you find yourself in PA m ode you can do most of the above . u sually s uffice. but can a l s o b e u s ed on s i n g l e P ri m e s y s te m s (those lacking networking capabil ity ) . DSM's main faci lities Winter 1989-90 2600 Magazine Page 15 . but only regarding t h e project that y o u are adm i n i strat i n g . . ) . ) Give you rself the adminis­ trator g ro u p s and you will be doing good. To see what LS arg u ments are available . Type : >change_ user usernsme -pw You will be prom pted for your new pass­ word. The Distributed System Management ( DSM) Utilities The DSM utilities is a set of com m ands and services that help with the administra­ t i o n a n d day-to-day o p erati o n of P r i m e computer syste m s . etc. if all users have their ini­ tials as their U ser I D then make sure that your new u ser has a U ser ID with i n itial s . Before I get i nto adding u sers . As for p roject. then simply correct i t with one of your other accounts. type H E LP and start to experiment (but be careful of what you do). " u sername" is th e name of the U se r ID that you wish to use.O N P R IM O S O n c e E D I T_ P R O F I L E h a s b e e n invoked you will b e dispatch ed merci lessly to the ">" pro m pt. N ever add m o re than 1 or 2 u se rs on a syste m . Th is will generally not happe n . P ROJ E C T_A D ­ M I N I STRATO RS$ .A L L arg u me n t. an en try of D E FA U LT will . Y o u s h o u l d ex peri m e n t w i t h t h e avai l a b l e in " L I ST " commands E D I T_PRO F I L E . Get you r feet wet. etc . A D M I N I S T RA TO R S $ . etc. type H E L P . Also. Li ke I said . I t i s i n tended primarily for use with networked s y s te m s .

S I M ( S y s t e m I n f o r m a t i o n/ M e t e r i n g ) Com mands System statu s a n d resource m o n i toring of local and remote s y s te m s from any point within the network. If -ON Page 1 6 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90 . i n a single configuration file. -START [-ON node name] This is the means by which an autho­ rized user of RESUS may invoke REmote System USer facilities on a system. d i splay i n g and printing log s .DSM creates a new DSM con­ figuration file. take the sy stem down ( y o u m u s t be STU P I D t o d o s uch a thing ) . I t will let you force other users off the system (not a good idea to u s e this capabil ity u n less you M U ST) . For more information on any of the DSM commands. STOP_DSM stops DSM system console commands. including system and network event logs. As you can see. What this basically mean s is that. DSM Configurator Commands : CONFIG. etc. Unfortunately . i n c l u d i n g P R I MO S and n e twork e ve n t s . however . with RES US enabled. and I h ave even m e n ti o n e d s o m e of t h e m i n oth e r parts o f th i s serie s . Collection and collation of event mes­ sages. t h r o u g h D S M ' s U n s o l i c i ted Message Handling (UMH) and logging ser­ vices. type: HELP command-name or command-name -H ELP The R ESUS Utility R E S U S is the R E m ote Sy stem U Se r facility . are the RESUS and log utilities.E N A B L E d . all users with administra­ tor acce s s w i l l be able to execute com­ mands that are normally o n l y executable from the system console . I t i s o n l y v a l i d f r o m t h e supervisor terminal. a n d allows remote operation o f the physical supervisor console from any termi­ nal. with commands for adm ini steri n g . Generalized logging of DSM messages in private or system logs. After this list will be fu ll discourses on the RESUS uti lity and the SIM commands. the DSM utilities can be a v e r y u se f u l a s s e t to h a v e . Event M es s a g e Handling and Redirection : CON FIG_UM c o n fi g u re s DSM U nsolicited Message Handling. Allows u se of console-only com­ mands from a remote terminal . I n a n utshell h ere are the basic DSM commands. STATUS_DSM di splays the currently active configuration. Facil i ties for defining users' access to DSM commands throughout the network. Ad ministering Logs: ADMIN LOG creates and administers DSM 109 files. T h e F O R C E o p t i o n m u s t be s u p p l i e d if the RESUS is actually i n use. SYS1 privileges (administra­ tor) are requi red to use the most exciting aspects of the D S M u t i l i ti e s . I t i s only val id from the supervisor terminal. DSM Startu p and Shutdown Com mands : START_DSM starts DSM system con­ sole commands. RESUS s u p p o rt s the f o l l ow i n g co m m a n d l i n e option s : -ENABLE -DISABLE [-FORCE] -START [-ON node name] -STOP -STATUS [-ON node group] -HELP [-NO_WAIT] -USAGE - -ENAB LE Thi s option enables RESUS to be used o n a s y s te m . R ESUS ( R Emote System USer) Facility Control of remote Prime systems from any termi nal . - DlSTRIBUTE_DSM distributes a new DSM configuration file. with redirection of event messages to log files or u sers throughout the network. -DISABLE This option i s used to prevent RESUS from being u sed on a system on which it has p re v i o u s l y b e e n . W h at i s really useful to us. Displaying and Printing Logs: DIS PLAY_LOG displays and prints the contents of log files . Remote System Control : R ES U S I n v o k e s P r i m e ' s R E m o te System USer facility. A l l normal u sers can u tilize the SI M commands.M O RE are summarized below.

For th i s com mand to be suc­ cessfu l . -N ) -SYSTEM_LOG. -STATUS [-ON n od egroup] T h i s d i s p l a y s the current stat u s o f RESUS o n all node s i n a s pecified node g roup.lists synch ronous line config­ u ration LIST_UNITS . User DSMASR (the DSM a p p l i catio n server) m u s t h ave ALL access to the directory that co ntains the log . -NW] Displays command-specific Help text. -NW -FR EQ integ er -TI MES integ er -START. -H [-NO_WAIT. or nodegroup to which the com­ mand i s to be di rected . User acce s s to S I M co m m a n d s on local and re mote nodes is co ntro l l e d by D S M security. -H [-NO_WAIT. -PRIVATE_LOG. or periodically at specified time interval s . -PLOG path name [NTTY. it i s created automatically for you. -STOP This o ption terminates remote control of the s u p e r v i s o r t e r m i n al .lists com ms contrOl lers configuration LIST_CON FIG . SI M commands are i n vo ked fro m the P R I M O S c o m m a n d l i n e . the status of the local node is displayed. The -SYSTEM_LOG option allows you a ·similar facil ity using logs that are main­ ta i n e d on the s y s tem l o g g i n g d i rectory D S M * > LOGS. -N ] The -PRI VATE_LOG option allows you to specify a standard P R I MOS path name as a DSM log file to wh ich all mes sages from the target nodes are to be logged. -ON {node. -N] -SYSTEM_LOG.lists u sers open file units L1ST_VCS . -S LOG path name [­ NTTY.lists P R I MOS coldstart configuration LIST_DISKS . -N) -NO WAIT.li sts active virtual circuits - General SIM options are: -HELP. n odegroup} This option allows you to specify the tar­ get node . A l ist of S I M com mands and descri p­ tions of the general SIM options follows .DEVICES . It is o n l y valid from the remote terminal in control o f the supervisor terminal through RESUS.l ists active semaphores LIST_SYNC .lists nodes on LAN300 local networks LIST_M EMORY . The defau lt i s to direct the com mand to the n ode on wh ich the com mand is invoked.PRI M E H A C K I N G n ode name i s o m itted . They can be invoked once. -S LOG path name [ -NTTY. -PLOG pathname [ ­ NTIY. -NW] -USAG E -ON {node. If the log does not already exist. -USAGE Di splays command line syntax. n odegroup} -PRIVATE_LOG. If a n ode group is not specified. l e a v i n g t h e REmote System USer facilities available for u se by other auth orized u se rs . T h e y can be invoked from any terminal to d isplay infor­ mation about any system on the network. LIST ASSIGNED.lists assigned P R I M E N ET ports LIST_PROC ESS . -S date+time -STOP date+time .lists assign ed devices L1ST_ASYNC .lists active system pro­ cesses LIST_SEMAPHORES . Output displays are pag inated for screen di splay and can be recorded i n private or system log files . Sy stem log s o n l y exi st o n 2 600 Magazine Page 1 7 Winter 1989-90 .lists disk partition names L1ST_LAN_NODES . -HELP.lists active P R I M N ET links E L1ST_PRIM EN ET_PORTS .lists physical memory u sage L1ST_PRIMEN ET_NODES . RESUS must previously have been -ENABLEd at the s upervi sor terminal .lists asynchronous termi­ nals LIST COM M CONTROLLERS . The DSM SIM Com mands The DSM SIM (Sy stem I n formation/ Meteri n g ) c o m m a n d s g ather and display information about system/net­ work status and resou rce usage from any point on the network.lists PRI M E N ET configured nodes LIST PRIM ENET LINKS . the defa u l t is the local node .

t h e co m m and i s executed once. It's not too diffi­ cult to figure out how to use. type: H ELP command-name or command-name -HELP PRIMOS Electronic Mail Capabilities PRI MOS. However.HH :MM :SS) or in USA standard : (MM/DDIYY . -START.speci­ fied options are : -FR EQ . I n t h e a b s e n ce of any of t h e s e f o u r optio n s . -TI MES is u sed i n association with the FREQ option . like any other operating sys­ tem worth its beans. pri n ted and displayed using the D ISPLAY LOG command. Inc. -S -STOP These o ptio n s can be u sed to i m ple­ ment periodic execution of a command. date to current date . -F REQ option provides periodic execu­ t i o n of a c o m m a n d . and n ot the i nterval between com pletion of the com mand's display and the next execution . to set a limit on the number of times that a command i s to be executed. for the associat­ ed command. the next execution is delayed u ntil the display is com plete. has also created a P R I M OS i m p l e m e n tation of the U N I X XMAIL system. type Q. -S sets the date and ti me that e x e c u t i o n starts . -H [NO_WAIT. -HELP. To see more output press the carriag e retu r n . and immediately . -NW] This option overrides all other options to display help i nformation about the associat­ ed command. and time to zero.'s old mail system ( i n voked by typ i ng MA I L) is y o u r ty pical run-of-the-mill mail system . the mail system u s e d will vary from system to syste m . and frees your terminal. -F R EQ -TIM ES -START. -STOP sets the date and ti me execution stops . the c o m m a n d s p awn s a phantom which e x e c u t e s t h e c o m m a n d o n y o u r behalf. w i t h t h e i n te rv a l between executio n s d e te r m i n e d i n s e c­ onds.infi nite -START . . I won't discuss how to u se the mail sys­ tem s due to lack of space.Immed iate reexecution -TI MES . and after every 2 3 lines ( 1 page) of output displays "-More-" and waits for your respon se.INFILTRATING this directory or its subdirectories. suppo rts full electronic mail capabilities. Prime Computer. A lack of standards? Perhap s . y o u are p ro m p te d b etwe e n e a c h targ e t n o de ' s response. and must be created with the A D M I N_LOG command prior to use. -NW Th is option indicates that you are not to be p rom pted or q u e ried during the com­ mand output display. Lo g g e d d ata can s u b s e q u e n tl y be retrieved. as all of them have online help available . I nc. If FREQ 0 i s s pecified . Quit. But I find it enjoyable learning the differences between the many mail systems available. N . -NO WAIT. format and defaults are the same as for -START. The interval is corrected to the n earest m u l t i p l e of fo u r seco n d s below that s pecified . The i nterval you s pecify i s the inter­ val between two s uccessive executions of a com mand.now -STOP . Prime Computer. W h e n t h i s o p t i o n i s u s e d .N . T h e fo r m a t can be i n either ISO standard : (YY_M M_DD. I f t h i s o p t i o n is n o t u s e d . but that should pose no proble m . If Page 18 the i n terval elapses before com pletion of the previous display . the defaults applied to the ur. I n the presence of any of t h e s e four option s. Any other response will display more output.HH:MM :SS) Defaults are : year to current year.never For more information on any of the S I M commands . or No. -NTTY. the com mand is re-executed i m mediately on completion of the previous execution. To s u p p re s s further output and return to com mand level. and i n d i cates t h a t n o d a t a i s to be d i s ­ p l a y e d to the u s e r . can be u sed with the -PRI­ VATE_LOG and -SYSTE M_LOG optio n s . Th is seem s to b e their pre- 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90 . -USAGE This option overrides all other options to display usage information .

press the RETU RN key). To switch between I N P U T and E D I T "You are advised not to wantonly delete users or edit them. When the receivers read their mai l . issue a null line (that is to say . This brings a new prob­ lem into mind. comes with P R I MOS and it is always available. Most. To illu strate what we have learned so far. D o n ' t forg e t ! O n l i n e h e l p files. .) OK. (Since this magazine is not an 80-column en vironment. A nice text (continued on page 34) Winter 1989-90 2 600 Magazine Page 19 ." prompt. A s s u m e I w rote a memoran­ d u m . M y favorite el ectro n i c m a i l s e rver i s N ETMAI L . Take note that both I N PUT mode and E D I T mode use no prompt. To edit an existing filesystem object. Everyth i n g y o u ty pe h e re w i l l be taken as input into the file you are creating. Don't want them to get the sources . we 'll use the H> H symbol a t the beginning of lines tha t are actually part of the preceding line in an 80-column setting.e. To create a "n ull" line. eel INPU T Hey. not to mention very powerfu l . I t i s very easy to use. this is p retty nice. I f you tell E D to load a file and edit it (i. " mode. P r i m e ' s answer to U N IX's F T P uti lity ) . this i s a s h o rtco m i n g for P R I MOS u sers who are used to standard text editing syste m s . If I wanted all t h e p e o p l e on the " Board of Tru stees" to get a copy I j u s t send cc ' s (courtesy copies) t o them. N ot only do you get the normal features of sending u ser-to-user mai l locally and to similarly confi g u red sites on the network. now do we? So we encapsu late the executable fi le (com­ piled p rogram) and mail it out as an encap­ su lated file. T h i s w i l l e n t e r E D w i t h a n e m p ty workspace. E D . i t comes with its own i nteractive tutorial . type : ed at the "OK. R U N OF F i s another separately priced product. Very nice! Some sites use custom-written mail utili­ t i e s . y o u m i g h t p l a y a r o u n d w i t h the E MACS full -screen editor.A PRIME ferred e l ectro n i c m a i l syste m . I t a l l d e pe n d s . N ETMAI L is the mail server with the most u seful feature s . To i nvoke the P R I MOS ED itor. w ritten b y those c u n n ing pro­ g rammers at Bramalea Software Systems (th e same firm that created LOGI N_S E N ­ TRY) . ED filename) then you will be dum ped into E D I T mode . are rather u ser-friendly and easy to learn with­ out docu m e n tati o n . Everything you type will be taken as ED editing com mands. type: ed filename W h e n y o u e n t e r E D w i t h a n e m pty workspace you will be dumped into I N PUT m o d e . b u t I won't b e discussing E MACS here . It looks nUll. Anoth e r rea s o n w h y I wo n ' t b e d i s c u s s i n g i t i s because n o t a l l P rime sites have i t online (it i s a separately priced product) . ED . you can also send : Courtesy copies to other users Enca psulated non-SAM files Courtesy copies is basical ly message fo rward i n g . on the other hand. If you are using VT . The file encapsu lation featu re m ake s N ETMAI L a pseudo-file transfer application l ike FTS ( F i l e Tran sfe r Service. After all . How do you m ake a blank line if when you press R ET U R N alone it switches betwee n modes? Ye s . You are creating a new file. consider th is "pretend" session with the ED line editor. but it is real ly treated as a line one character i n length by ED. I t i s a fu lly equipped word processor. Say I wrote a u seful public domain program and want to distribute it to some u sers on the local sys­ tem and some remote systems. if not a l l .1 00 or a similar emula­ tio n .The PRIMOS Text Editor ED is the P R I MOS text editor and it is line-orie nted as opposed to full-screen . they will be able to tel l N E TMAI L to save it as a file to thei r di rectory . type a space and then p ress RETU R N .

and D. I f y o u r p h o n e is a n e w e r t o u c h t o n e a n d d o e s not h ave f e a­ t u r e s s u c h a s c a l l sto r a g e o r r e d i­ a l . T h i s arti c l e s h ows two ways to m o d if y t e l e p h o n e e q u i p m e n t o n t h e m a rket t o m ak e s i l v e r b o x t o n es a n d t h e n g i v e s a s c h e m at i c of a d e v i c e t h at w i l l p r o d u c e a l l 1 6 DT M F t o n e s . F i r st . U psetter E v e ry d ay p e o p l e u s e t o u c h to nes to sig n a l betwe e n t h e i r p h o n e a n d t h e p h o n e co m p a n y's s w i tc h i n g e q u i p m e n t . O n c e y o u h ave i d e n t i f i e d t h e c h i p . B . B e f o r e y o u s t a rt t h i s s i m p l e m o d i f i c at i o n y o u m u st h av e a p h o n e w i t h a 5 0 8 7 c h i p . a n d D to n e s i s u n u s e d . b ut t h i s m o d i f i c a­ t i o n is f o r p h o n e s u s i n g t h e 1 6 p i n T C M 5 0 8 7 to n e e n cod e r . T h e c h i p s h o u l d h av e t h e n u m b e r s 5 0 8 7 o n t h e back a l o n g w i t h s o m e oth e r n u m­ b e r s . t h e co l u m n 4 p i n . T h i s c h i p i s s p e c if i c a l l y d e s i g n e d t o g e n e r­ ate t h e e i g h t d iff e re n t t o n e s u s ed Page 20 2 600 Magazine i n d u al t o n e t e l e p h o n e d i a l i n g sys­ t e m s . c u t t h e t r ace o n t h e P C B g o i n g f ro m p i n 5 o f t h e 5 0 8 7 t o t h e k e y p ad . W h at t h e av e r a g e m a n o n t h e s t r e et d o e s n 't k n o w i s t h at t h e r e a r e f o u r o t h e r t o u c h t o n e s t h at a r e n 't u s e d i n r e g u l a r t e l e p h o n e s i g n a l i n g . B. w h i c h i s u s e d t o m ak e t h e A . a n d to co l u m n 3 of t h e k e y p ad . so it w i l l r e a d s o m et h i n g l i k e " T 9 5 0 8 7 " o r " T C M 5 0 8 7" . As a l l g o o d p h o n e e x p e ri m e nt e rs k n o w . T h e f o u r to n e s a re 8 n ab l e d by i nstalling three wires and a s w i t c h . pin 9. O n e i s a row p i n a n d o n e i s a co l u m n p i n . T h at i s . b u t y o u m i g ht a l r e a d y o w n a s i l v e r box . He r e ' s h o w t h e 5 0 8 7 wo r k s . T h e s e D T M F t o n e s a r e known as A. U s e a razo r b l a d e o r a s m a l l f i l e . C. i f i t h a s t h e r i g h t c h i p . T h i s c a u s e s a 7 7 0 Hz a n d 1 4 7 7 Hz t o n e to be e m i t t e d .HO W TO BUILD by Mr. M o d i f i c at i o n f o r Te l e p h o n e s Y o u m ay n o t k n o w i t . W h e n a k e y i s p r e s s e d . t h e D T M F e n c o d e r I C i n s i d e yo u r t o u c h to n e p h o n e m ay be c a p a b l e of p ro d u c i n g s i lv e r box t o n e s . y o u m u st g a i n acce s s to t h e s o ld e r side of the PCB. T h e r e m ay a l s o b e a d ot o n t h e c a s e above p i n 1 . s o l d e r separate wires to pin 5 . it co n n ects two p i n s o n t h e I C t o g et h e r . t h e mod p res e n ted h e re w i l l wo r k . ( O n a n I C t h e f i r st p i n is t h e o n e i n t h e l o w e r l e f t co r n e r w h e n y o u h o l d t h e c h i p s o the letters are rig ht side up. i f a 6 is p ressed . F o r n o r m a l p ho n e u s e . a s i l v e r b o x i s a d e v i c e t h at c a n c r e at e t h e f o u r e x t r a D T M F ( d u a l ­ t o n e m u l t i . On t h e n ew trim l i n e sty l e p h o n e s t h i s c h i p i s l o c a t e d i n t h e c e n t e r of t h e l a rg e r p r i n t e d c i rc u i t b o a rd ( P C B ) i n t h e h a n d s et . It is q u it e e a s y t o g e n e r at e t h e s e DT M F t o n e s b e c a u s e the sta n d a rd 1 6 t o n e fo r m at i s u s ed i n m a n y p o p u ­ l a r DT M F to n e g e n e rato r IC's . T h e r e a r e m a n y d i ff e r e n t ty p e s o f DTM F c h i ps .f r e q u e n c y ) t o n e s t h at a r e n ot u s e d i n n o r m a l t e l e p h o n e s e rv i c e . F o r i n st a n c e . T h i s i s the p o i n t o n t h e k e y p ad Winter 1989-90 . ) N e x t . t h e row 2 pin is c o n n ect e d t o t h e c o l u m n 3 p i n o n t h e 5 0 8 7 . C . S e e F i g u r e s 1 a n d 2 for a l i s t o f t o n e s a n d a s s o c i a t e d f r e­ q u e n c i e s .

Th e n d es o l d e r t h e two speaker w i res a n d t h e b att e ry w i r e s f ro m t h e P C B . N o w . 6 . t h e s w i t c h co n n ects t h e p r ev i o u s l y u n u s e d p i n 9 . 9 . It u s e s t h e T C M 5 0 8 9 OTM F e n cod e r I C to p ro d u ce a l l 1 6 Winter 1989-90 2600 Magazine Page 21 . N o w t h e s w i t c h m u st b e i n st a l l e d . s o l d e r a w i r e f ro m p i n 9 to one s i d e of the s w i t c h and a w i r e f r o m p i n 5 t o t h e ot h e r . B . Th e i r "eco n o m y pocket t o n e d i al e r" ($ 1 5 . y o u c a n b u i l d y o u r o w n t o u c h t o n e e n cod e r u s i n g t h e s c h e m at i c i n F i g u r e 4 . f i n d a p l ac e to s e c u r e l y i n st a l l t h e s w i t c h . T h e r e i s r o o m to i n st a l l a switch i n s i d e the e n c l o ­ s u r e i n t h e g a p to t h e l eft of t h e d i o d e at th e top of th e P C B . 95 ) u s e s a 5 0 8 7 c h i p a n d c a n b e co n v e rted fo r s i l v e r b o x t o n e s . O n a t r i m l i n e t y p e p h o n e it i s e a s i e st t o m ak e a l l co n n e ct i o n s t o t h e s o l d e r s i d e of the P C B . t h e co l u m n 3 p i n . B ef o r e y o u p u t e v e ryt h i n g back tog et h e r d o u b l e c heck y o u r w o r k . C . t o t h e k e y p ad . s o ld e r t h e w i re f ro m t h e k e y p a d t o t h e m i d d l e t a b of an S P O T s w i t c h . A n ot he r M o d i f i c a t i o n I f t h e a b o v e m o d w o n 't w o r k o n a n y o f y o u r phones. T h e f i r s t s t e p o f t h i s m o d i s to r e m o v e the P C B . Cut t h e t race g o i n g f r o m p i n 5 o f t h e I C t o co l­ u m n 3 of t h e k e y p ad . L a st l y . F i n d a t i n n e d ro u nd pad m a rked C3 i n t h e u p p e r l eft of t h e co m po n e nt s i d e of t h e P C B a n d s o ld e r a w i re f r o m h e re to t h e m i d d l e t a b of a n S P O T s w i t c h . t h e co l u m n 4 p i n . S e e F i g u r e 3 f o r t h e s c h e m at i c o f t h e m o d i f i c at i o n . Be s u re you h av e i d e nti­ f i e d t h e p i n s on t h e IC c o r r e c t l y b e f o r e y o u s t a rt s o l d e r i n g . A s u s u a l . T h i s d e v i c e i s ve ry s i m i l a r t o t h e o n e s o l d b y R a d i o S h ack. M ake s u re t h e w i r e s you i n st a l l ed d o n 't c a u s e a n y s h o rt s . T h e m od i f i c at i o n i s n o w co m p l e t e . Yo u m ay a l s o w a n t to r e m ov e t h e key­ p ad a n d the k e y s . a n d # n o w b e co m e A . A l s o o n t h e co m p o n e nt s i d e . S o l d e r t h e w i r e f ro m p i n 9 t o o n e s i d e o f t h e switch and t h e w i r e f ro m p i n 5 t o t h e o t h e r . Fo r s i l v e r b o x to n e s . yo u w i l l h a ve a n i c e po rt a b l e 1 6 to n e O T M F g e n e rato r .A SIL VER BOX t h at w a s co n n ected to p i n 5 of t h e I C b e f o r e y o u c u t t h e t r ac e . you can do a s i m i l a r m o d o n a p ro d u ct s o l d by R ad io S h ac k . C a r ef u l l y p o p off t h e b a c k o f t h e u n it a n d r e m o v e the power switch and the six screws i n t h e P C B . c h e c k f o r s h o rts c a u s e d by the wi res o r the switch . T h i s is t h e o u t e r mo st of t h e t h ree t races g o i n g f ro m t h e I C t o t h e k e y p a d . To g g l e t h e s w i t c h a n d m ak e s u r e a l l t h e t o n e s w o r k . The s w i t c h w i l l o p e r at e e x act l y as d e s c r i b e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s m o d i f i­ cat i o n . Fo r n o r m a l OTM F to n e s t h e switch s i m p l y con n ects t h e k e y p a d t o p i n 5. as b e f o r e . O n c e co m p l et­ ed . a n d 0 r e s p e ct i v e l y . T h e k e y s 3 . be s u re to i d e nt ify the p i n s c o r re c t l y . T h e m o d i f i­ c at i o n u s e s t h r e e w i r e s a n d a switc h . Altern ative 1 6 Tone DTMF Generator If y o u d o n 't h ave t h e r i g h t p ho n e a n d d o n 't w a n t to s p e n d $ 1 6 at R ad i o S h ack . T h i s s w it c h m u s t b e a very small togg le o r slide switc h . As befo r e . N o w l o o k at t h e k e y p ad s i d e o f t h e P C B ( n ot t h e co m po n e nt s i d e ) .

B e l m o nt . 1 35 5 S h o re w ay Ro ad .2 . P . O . S e e w h at h ap p e n s w h e n y o u d ro p a s i l v e r b o x t o n e o r two down your local exchange or t h ro u g h d i ff e r e n t l o n g d i sta n c e c a r r i e r s . I f y o u b u y t h e k e y p ad f r o m T h e E l ectro n ic G o l d m i n e . it i s a n ot h e r t o o l w i t h w h i c h to e x p l o r e t h e p h o n e syste m . l o o p s . J : co l u m n 1 .68 o h m .3 . H : co l u m n 2 . y o u s h o u ld e x pe r i m e nt w it h t h e v a l u e s of C 2 . c i rcu it board. A s i lv e r box i s n 't a t o l l avo i d a nce d e v i c e l i k e a b l u e o r r e d bo x . t h e p i n o u t i s as fo l lo w s : 0 E 0 F G 0 H 0 J K 0 0 L M 0 0 N 0 T h e s e are t h e n i n e pi n s o n t h e back o f t h e keypad . A n d t h at m e a n s y o u h av e to d o t h e e x p e r i m e nt i n g . As a r e s u l t . Vary i ng t h e v a l u e s of C 2 . B o x 5 4 0 8 .2 2 u f .o f .TCM5089 DTM F e n co d e r R1 . C3 . p ower switch . 5 V but t h e 5 0 8 9 can h a n d l e u p to 1 2V. C 3 . 1 0 N X X and 9 5 0 n u m b e r s . e n c l o s u r e . T h e I C r e q u i re s a s i n e wave i n p u t s u p p l i e d by a TV c o l o r . a n d R 1 w i l l c h a n g e t h e vo l u m e a n d a u d i o q u a l ity of t h e s i g n a l . T h e t o n e o u t p u t f ro m p i n 1 6 g o e s to a 32 o h m s p e a k e r . w h i l e t h e 5 0 8 9 p ro d u c e s a to n e w h e n a row and c o l u m n pin are c o n n e ct e d to g r o u n d . T h e c r y s t a l i s av a i l a b l e f ro m R a d i o S h ack o r J a m e co . N: row 1 . G : co l u m n 3 . 2 u f . c e l l u l a r V M S . A 2 of . 5 7 9 5 4 5 M H z c o l o r­ b u rst c r y sta l Ot h e r parts : 2-of-8 keyp a d . t h e 5 0 8 9 m u st b e u s e d w it h a s p e c if i c t y p e of k e y p a d . F : co l u m n 4 . a n sw e r i n g m ac h i n e s . etc. pay p h o n e s . P a r t s L i st a n d S u p p l i e r s C 1 . T h e 5 0 8 9 i s c l o s e l y r e l at e d to t h e 5 0 8 7 i n bot h f u n ct i o n a n d p i n o u t . b atte ry h o l d e r . Tot a l c o s t o f e l ect ro n i c p a rts s h o u ld be a r o u n d $ 6 . O n e i m p o r t a n t d i ff e r e n c e i s t h at t h e 5 0 8 7 p r o d u c e s a t o n e when a row and col u m n pin are co n n e ct e d t o g et h e r . o r a n yw h e re e l s e y o u t h i n k t h e to n e s s h o u l d n 't b e l o n g . L : row 3. C 3 .8 k e y p ad i s a v a i l a b l e f ro m T h e E l e ct r o n i c G o l d m i n e . c a l l e d a 2 . I f y o u e x p e r i m e n t s y s­ t e m at i c a l l y a n d k e e p g o o d r e c o rd s . batt e r i e s . K : r o w 4 . 1 6 V e l e ct r o l y t i c C2. If y o u u s e a s p e a k e r of h ig h e r a n d l o w e r i m pe d a n c e . T h e d ev i c e i s p o w e r e d by 4 . t h e o ut p u t . CA 94002.8 k e y p ad . a n d m an y oth­ e rs . 5 7 9 5 4 5 M H z ( X 1 ) t o g e n e rat e e ig ht d iff e r­ e nt a u d i o s i n u s o i d a l freq u e n c i e s . Page 22 2 600 Magazine Winter 1989-90 . 1 6V e le ctro lytic C 3 . E x p l a n at i o n of t h e s ch e m at i c is as f o l lo w s : p re s s i n g a k e y c a u s e s a r o w a n d c o l u m n p i n to g o l o w . M : row 2 . speaker. A Z 8 5 2 6 1 . a n d R 1 fo r the best audio vol u m e and q u a l i t y . a n d R 1 .7 . C 2 . Now W h at? S o m e of y o u m a y b e wo n d e r i n g w h at t o d o w i t h y o u r n e w t o y . yo u w i l l s u re l y u n co v e r s o m et h i n g i nt e r e st i n g . Try b e e p i n g s i l v e r b o x t o n e s i nto v o i c e m e s s a g e s y st e m s . One is J a m eco E l ectro n ics .b u r s t c ry s t a l a t 3 . t h u s p ro d u c i n g a D T M F to n e a t p i n 1 6 . E : g ro u n d . T h e T C M 5 0 8 9 i s ava i l a b l e f ro m many sources.1 u f.USING THOSE t o n e s . 1 6 V e l e ct r o l y t i c I C 1 . t e st e x c h a n g e s . 1 /4W X 1 . S c ott s d a l e .

.. c i '" .FOUR EXTRA TONES ! i i .e... r l g u r p 4.. i I . ose 'N 1 H. k d e ll i t e 1 ·1.1 f I 3 2 0 speaker 7' Winter 1989-90 2 600 Magazine Page 23 .. 1 1 1 1 .. . "J '" . l I I ft r t o t h p R e d i D S h a r. COL 3 COL 4 cnl 2 [Ol I Up .6 � � 6� " [2 l ).... " = = = . I N . ROW 1 ROW 2 ROW ] C=:J M 2-0F-8 KEyrRD n olO 4 GNO lONE OUT . Q I I -[ I- I co l I i .1 r e.1 I I I" ::! I . S U I 1 2 J. = : z � 1: i: " N iI e 1 '-' 1 "' I " N - I ".. s t h e rn n t l c h s l "...

Sysop of Charlotte 2 600 Magazine Winter 1989-90 . they will be tracked down. US Sprint issues a com­ plete rundown of who c alled an 800 number. especial­ ly those of you who like to call 800 numbers. I h ave heard that there exists phones or boxes that can pick up the number calling you from a sig­ nal trans mitted with any call and display it. Look in our Spring 1 989 i s s ue to find out w h ic h 8 0 0 exchanges are owned b y Sprint. We know of the following: 4 1 0-4 1 00 : downtown Pittsburgh and suburban. And it won't work at all if your local p hone company isn't o ering a caller-ID type of ser­ ff vice. file a complaint with your phone compa­ ny. But t hen there are those w ho a b use t he anony m it y fea t ure. Nobody (including the phone Page 24 The AN I ' s fo r the 412 (Pittsb urgh) are a code are scat­ t e r e d i n t h e 4 1 0 exchange . calls outs ide your local calling area. Do you know where I could buy one . one that would probably be a w hole lot less jim and a great deal more intimi­ dating. Also. or reg­ ular people) has the right to harass you on the phone if they're told to stop. Your 80 0 number w ill work all over the country and the monthly fee is only $ 1 0. but it will be some time before they can tell you the phone number o ANY call. We'd like to know if the other com­ p a n ie s p ro v ide s uc h de t a i led billing. There's currently no startup f to ee obtain an 800 number and you can attach it to any existing phone number. Removing this would make using the phone a complete­ ly different experience. Something to think about. f that is. The per call fee is rather steep. I am in a position where several times people I do not know have tried to trick me into saying illegal things on the phone. though. By the way. except the numbers on it are the numbers t h a t ca l led you. you'd be wise not to remain on the line when these people call if indeed they are trying to trick you. If they continue to call. law en forcement. or how I could build one? Concerned Syracuse . What do we do with them? In your case.w o rd s a n d HeZp Needed Dear 2600: I am hoping you may be able to help me. If you're determined enough. We got our 800 bill and surprisingly it showed every number that called us. Sprint's FONLine 8 0 0 s e r v ice isn ' t a b a d dea l . 4 1 0-663 3 : east suburban. get one. C a l ler-ID is becoming a very controversial top ic. Interesting Facts Dear 2600: Yes. I need a way to be able to tell their phone numbers as they call me . It averages about 22 cents a minute. The Renegade of Pittsburgh (4 12) 829-2767 The copy o the bill you sent us f looks exactly like a regular Sprint bill. NY company. such boxes exist. Anonymity on the phone is something we all take for granted.

454.950. and other important business people calling home . Still. but it won't go through. 454. so I need some way of finding a valid c ard n u m b e r that works . 3) to make use of any broad cast information for ille gal p u rp o s e s or to commit a crime. 72 5 . " MM Rutherford. 825. MC Van Nuys. 454. in. set­ t i n g a p p o i n tm e n t s . I don't have a compute r .975. that isn't easy t o d o a t ran­ dom because AT&T is difficult to hack without a computer. Any such violations may be investigated by the FBI and prose­ cuted by the US D e partme n t of Justice. It's basically the same thing. 4 54 . w here Cong res s decided that the best (and only) protection would be to simply make listening in i l leg a l . From w h a t I 'v e r e a d in o n e of yo u r books . 454. 775.c h a ra c t e rs But it·s one way to virtually guar­ antee not getting ripped off by an AOS somew here. 454.800. 454. P l e a s e n o t e : " I t is a fe d e r a l c ri m e w i t h s eve re p u n i s h m e n t and/or fines t o 1 ) divulge what you hear to anyone who is not a party to the broadcast. CA What you want to do really has not hing to do w it h hack ing or phreaking.900. this is better than the cellular fiasco.925. but it is no longer valid. 4 5 4 . 454. 7 0 0 . 2) to make use of any broadcast information for your own personal gain. o ften perpetuated by manu­ facturers w ho would rather their customers not know how non-pri­ vate their conversations really are. or t a l k i n g about other things: 454 . I used to have a calling card number that worked and billed to someone else . 454. 850. 454. NJ Numbers Needed Dear 2600: We wonder if those same penal­ ties apply to anyone w ho over­ hears a conversation on a bus. you can only dial one number. These fre­ que ncies usually h ave senators. 454. Of course. 750. I've tried using my oid card and changing the last four digits . The only difference is that the people talking on the phone often aren't aware o f how easy it is for others to listen I am writing to inqu ire a s to whether any issue of your maga­ z i n e h a s i n formation regarding access to long distance telephone calling card codes using AT&T or Sprint services without a comput­ er. The crime in that case is igno­ rance. Who w o u l d be foo l enough to listen to something ille­ g a l in t he privacy of their o w n home? More Frequencies Dear 2600: In your Autumn 1 989 issue a re a d e r p o i n t e d o u t t h e M o b i l e Telephone Assignments. There are lots of ways Winter 1989-90 2 600 Magazine Page 25 . Th e read­ er however left out an important set of frequencies which are used for phones on airplanes . 6 7 5 . please let m e know. congressmen. If you have anything on this or know of a publication that doe s . 875.

I find the articles on the t e le p h o n e sy s t e m m u c h m o re interesting. we'll do w ha t we c a n . The o n ly b a s ic requirements we insist upon are user anonymity and p ri vate mail t h a t cannot be read by s y s te m operators. the telephone information is a bit too advanced for me. since I've found very little of interest in the last few issues. If you j w an t to exp lore and manipulate the system. I would appreciate it if sometime you could publish a bibliography of above. In many cases . there 's never been a better time. wasn't it? We were responding to our read­ tire o hearing. Using someone else 's calling card is not the way to go. Don't misunderstand.i n o t h e r w o rd s . In time. BBS Question Dear 2600: What are putting up a Amiga a n d board. to make telephone calls. It W AS a good issue. there are no 2600 boa rds .and under­ ground information. We need a continu­ j ing flow o more articles. however. in general. But. And I especially like the information on threats to pri­ vacy (and would appreciate more about "practical" ways to counter­ act these threats) . particular. Anyone interested in running boards has our bless­ ings. I do have one question . We've got our priori­ t ies and t hey center around t he magazine itself. j in order to keep issues l ike that one coming. from which I could learn the basics. you'll have to wait in line. I read those all day. I do like the artic le s on c omputers when they pre sent something fresh. If you simply want to steal. again. Your Fall issue was superb. What I use? the requirements for 2600 BBS? I have an I want to p u t u p a BBS program should Greg New York As it stands right now. It was working out J airly well J or a while but then we J ound ourselves devoting more and more time to the boards when we s hould have been working on the magazine. You v ictimize an innocent person and you also run a tremen­ dous risk o getting caught. maybe you could put it altogether into a ·primer" which you could offer for sale . and if they want to spread the word through 2600. We've had our eye on others Page 26 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90 . You dis ­ c o v e r t he m t hro ug h ind i v id u a l experimentation. which may otherwise be hard to find. the articles about the c o m m a n d l a n g u a g e s of s eve ral ( c o m m o n ) o p e ra t i n g sys t e m s seemed n o more than a reprint of what was easily available in users' manuals. which we never I had not intended to renew this time. thanks for the last issue . so I'd like to renew. The pro ject you suggest is one w e ' ve had our eye on Jor some He Phoenix Comments/ Suggestions Dear 2600: ers ' suggestions. however. as I am only a beginner. which was golden. As you may h ave m o s t o f t h i s i n fo rm a t i o n already. In closing.

. As a general rule I avoid these pri­ v a t e ly own e d p ayp h o n e s a n d whenever possible g o for genuine Bell . Recently Modern Electronics had a device that would give an actual voice of the various touch tone dig­ its . Its construction was fairly sim­ p l e .i t couldn't tell you a rapid string like you'd ge t from an auto speed dialer or even from normal hand dialing. I t would b e fun to hang a n FM trans ­ mitter on the line and eventually get all the codes to activate its var­ ious information modes. The re 's a b o u t a 2 0 second pause . Ohio The COCOT (Customer Owned Coin Op erated Te lep hone) you investigated is a very common one. could a knowledgeable 2600 reader submit a s c h e ma t i c fo r a d evi c e t h a t would display a digital readout o f a string of touch tones applied to its input? The NSA uses such devices in th e ir s u rve i l l a n c e w o r k . I enjoy your periodical a great deal (the phone articles are by far the best since access is universal). I was then able to get the payphone's number from my friend's phone bill. This is not a billable number. May b e someth ing w il l materialize soon. . MThis is a public payphone. etc . As an open suggestion. you could proba­ bly splice into them leaving extra connections to hook up a conven­ tional telephone. And finally. ( I would guess the payph o n e owners e n t e r a c o d e from a tou ch tone phone on their e n d to d e t e rm i n e h o w m u c h money has been collecte d . b u t t h e t o n e s h a d to b e entered very slowly . and it's not loud a t all. No phone number is listed on it so I made a short long distance collec t call to a friend . When you pick up the handset it simply says MOne moment please" four or five times but it s imply will not con­ nect you through to the caller. one question: is it possible to call a 900 number from a payphone using a red box some ­ where in this country? It doesn't work in my area.even the person I phoned could hear it. Th i s d ev i c e would b e gre a t fo r monitoring cellulars or the 46/49 Mhz cordless porta phones .t h e l e t t e rs as well. A choppy woman's digitized computer voice said . " It repeated this ab out four or five times as the call was being initiat­ ed . Some others Jor our readers to 2 600 Magazine Page 2 7 Winter 1989-90 . it simply hangs up. Keep up the good work! Akron. . I called the payphone and after two rings the same voice answered by j u st s aying MThank you" fol­ lowed by a series of four tou c h ­ tones (I assume) in rapid s u c ce s s io n . I then took my cordless phone over to it and d ialed it u p . The p h o n e wires corning out o f i t ar e exposed and unprotected.) Without entering a chain of touch tone s it recognizes . COCOT Hacking Dear 2600 : A n o n B e l l Sys t e m l o o ka l i ke payphone was re c ently installed outside in the parking lot of a con­ ve nience s tore across the street fro m my r e s i d e n c e . The payphone produces a soft chirping sound instead of a ringing b e l l .

I waited a few make wonder ful things happen. future. I j us t area if nobody 's caug ht it. Nothing. up. even if it's "useless" . w hat these p hones can do. etc. Once we pany is the infamous GTE . Then I'm dis conne cted and errors in the centra l of fice can just dead silence . it'll be easi­ f recently. We call conferencing. what ESS is in u s e here . Just have that in ormation. Let us know prise. You pushed more tones. Not knowing charge. Anyway. D) new. Then may find a C OC OT t hat allows the nasty "line off the hook" tone this. ObViously. they f l[Jure out what's wrong pret­ Are you familiar with an inci­ ty quickly.5 5 5 . for what­ their areas. Currently. I love your publicaulace can't share that realization. h ow . I am a about falling for that crap in the novice at phone hacking. not even 9 0 0 . to see what happens or j ust the 'Thank you� sound suspicious­ for the sake of knowing something ly like silver box tones (A. seconds . What I got instead were four short Regarding 900 numbers from beeps (sounding just like "conver­ payp hones: generally it doesn't s a t i o n b e i n g r e c o rd e d " b e e p s ) work. It's too bad the general pop­ By the way. But softwar each. get their numbers. You may find this in your why. call ever reason. If you And then you won't have to wony have n't already guessed . comes blasting through.1 43 0 .the 2600 play w ith are at 602-820 .1 2 1 2 spaced apart about a half second which is a free call. pushed assorted buttons. There was a time w hen q uite a nothing. and much to my sur­ them. we don't know what their pur­ that's how I stumbled upon this pose is. what youf md. Mysteries - � Page 28 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90 . call waiting. C. B. or what to d o . But don 't expect it to last. so I hung Usually a fter the first bill rolls in. I the diff erent types o payphones in f dialed my own number. GTE It may take a good ten rings f or Dear 2600: them to answer with the computer I'm the kind of guy that likes to voice and it might be hard to keep j u s t try things for the hell of it curious humans from p icking up (wha t ' s this button for??) . 5 1 6-467-9 1 83 . If you are lucky enough dent such as this? Is this related to find one o these holes. Yo u when you call. I did not get a busy signal . e ven for free. I had the "Smart Pack" er to crack and we can see just features (call forward. Then a nice s teady tone f ew payphones in New York City like one would get calling a long would call ANY 900 number free o f distance 800 number. we have no idea as of Los Angeles and my phone com­ to w hat the f ormat is . and speed call­ encourage our readers to evaluate ing) added to my service. you 'll f to the Smart Package? GTE? Freak soon discover how boring most o f of nature? Sorry I can't tell you these services are. a nd 2 1 4-286-3334. waits f you to enter the right dig­ or I live in the "south bay� region its. the phone then little telephone episode . experiment. 1he f our tones a fter know. Anyway.

H. GTE has a lot o oddities j and we'd love to hear about some more o them. is it possible . Calling an extender to reroute your call to a comp u ter system won ' t do y ou much good if the extender peop le p ut a trace on THEIR sys tem! But don 't let us mislead you. and if so. It is not wise to call any system direct­ ly Jrom your home Jor just that rea­ son. W h e n h a c ki n g o n to a sys t e m . For instance. WHAT j "nice steady tone like one would get call ing a long d is tance 800 number " ? We in non-GTE l a nd have never heard o such a thing. eve rybody always wants t o know "Who does the system belong to?" and "Does this system trace?" The answer to the first one should be obvious. filled with neat stuff I may never use but still fun to read. On Being Traced Dear In fonnation Dear 2600: 2600: KS Pittsburgh. 87. Hope jUlly by the time the Spring issue comes out. 85. 86. how likely do you think it is that they will ob tain s u c h fa cilities? Not at the moment. We don 't know why you were disconnected. That couId explain the Jour beeps. determ ined . we'll have a new nm . j which you probably take Jor grant­ ed. We've covered this many times. Comp u ter C haos S c h w e ncke s tr 85. But what about the second question? How common is it for a mainframe to have tracing eqUipment on it. There are always ways to g e t in a nd STA Y in if you ' re g oo d . Manhattan Beach . and parts of 88 Winter 1989-90 2600 Magazine Page 29 . Phone number Jrom the S tates : 0 1 1 -49-40-4903 75 7. if the company detects you . Any system. be it a phone system or a computer system. however. can install a trace if abuse is suspected. NY C lub. D . DS Rocky Point.w i n t e r l e t t e rs tion. CA The reason I ask this is that I often scan exchanges looking for com­ puters to hack and I often wonder h ow " s a fe " a sy s t e m t h a t I am playing with is . for t h e m to obtain tracing eqUipment to catch you . Dear 2600: To c o m p l e t e my c o l le c tion of 2600 Magazine I have back issues for 84 . and after hacking it for some time . a n d I 've b e e n told 1 2 2 3 does likewise for PAC-TEL. Some thank you info: 1 1 4 in my GTE area gets the computer voice readout of the number you're call­ ing o n . Dear 2600: I was wondering what the a d d re s s wa s fo r t h e C h a o s Computer Club i n West Germany. PA Do you still have 2600 t -shirts? There' s a question that every hacker has asked at least once in his life and I am surprised that you h ave not as yet c overed i t . CNA's have always proven to be very useful here . and smart.2000 Hamb urg 2 0 . The CPU Raider It sounds like you came in on your own call waiting. We s t Germany .

It was hatched by our group of Sigma Pi Sigmas here on cam­ pus. we 're i n t here) a n d g ives y o u a good idea o the d i vers ity that 's j availab le. We don 't sell individual back issues be ore J 1 988 because we were a monthly publication and the space needed to keep a ready supply o EVERY j individual issue is beyond our abil­ ities. 5 0 overseas. $7 elsewhere. Th is is so w h e n J o h n Q . A s ing le copy costs $3 in North America. Fortunate . So far we have lost only the bottom half of a Southwestern B e l l Fre e d o m P h o n e a n d t h e breakpoint relay (we hid i t better this time) . o r if it s t i l l exists? AG San Bernardino. the head master of which was Honest Abe of Kentucky. The idea was born when MA bought our local wire chef a new refle ctascope+spe ctrum analyzer. For 1 988 and J 1 989. The only s a d p a r t is w h e n we h e a r t h e screams o f the sysops o n the other end of the voice line. $ 7. Page 3 0 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90 . It is a real dream machine and we have all had phun playing "footsy" with h im .ly/unfortu­ nately he missed the part about capacitive reactance i n his I C S c o u rs e s . That's why we o er only the ff Dear 2600: your Life's Little Moments Although I have only re ce ntly come in from the cold to what I feel to be old friends at 2600. The best or w ay to Ji nd o u t is by re a d ing Factsheet Five. CA 1 984 was our f irst year o publi­ j ca tion and so there are no back issues be ore then. Our old network was Cloud Nine (it went down in November of 1 978) . I want to ask the pro­ letariat for their best shot at our new " system" here at the old sin din. . Public goe s o ff h o o k to u s e the payphone it drops us off automati­ cally (we work the BBS's at night anyway) . NY 1 2 1 44-4502 or call 5 1 8-4 79-3 707. it is poss ible to buy single back issues J $6. Our link is a cordless phone tapped in through a mer­ cury wetted reverse current break­ p o i n t to t h e p ayp h o n e u p t h e block.send us and 89 to d at e . What issues in 88 preceded these? Are they available? What is the cost? Would anyone out there happen to know the c u rrent a d d re s s to WORM M agaz i n e . Is MA work- pack ag e dea l Jor 1 98 4 throug h 1 98 7. I would want you to know I 've had great re s p e c t for your work ove r the years. You can w rite to them c a re oj M i k e G u nd e r loy a t 6 A r izo n a A v e . It app e a r s that WORM Magazine doesn't exist. Aro und here MA has never been into Radio D ire ction Finding (until Cell Phones) so we have had it pretty easy. Now that we have put "old blue" on the shelf. R e n s s e l a e r . 25 each domes­ or tically. as mail to t he address w e p ub l is hed has been coming back combined w ith the J act that we haven 't seen an issue J quite some time. a mag azine that re v i e w s other m ag az ines (ye s . What I n e e d to know is: Are there other back issues of 2600 beyond January 84? In 88 I started with the Summer issue.

so I don't h ave that much to lo se . Either at home or on a payphone the call costs you nothing. to ping with his new reflectascope so we use a good tight notch pass bridge filter with H pad resonant coupling to let him go by. The wire chef uses 2 Re. It 's not often we hear from your particular universe. If you want a list of all of the topics . all of w h ich are toll-free. NY We en joyed reading your letter. The neat thing about this number is that it is fre e to call.l e t t e rs a n d c o m m e n t s i n g o n t h e m w i t h c a tt l e p ro d s these days? I n the past our RF link was 2 meter HAM band but if you lose one of them it can be quite a bit more expensive than the loss of half a Freedom Phone 1 70 0 . you c a n e n t e r three d igit codes and get medi cal info rmation on over 3 00 topics. The tie point can we use at the pay phone happens to be a regu lar rats nest and this h e l p s hide things. you can call 2 1 2 -439-2980 to request a brochure. you won't be charged. I greatly e nj oyed re a d i n g the back issues of 2600 and will order the re st of them when I get time and cash. We also have a drop weight fixed just out of sight so when he lifts up the can lid it rips out our tap lines and sligshots the bypass filter and H pad resonant LC cou­ pler (both together are about the size of a Tootsy Role) over the top of the pole into the next county. The Seeker New York City. 890 is gen­ erally routed to the 3 1 5 area code in upstate New York. That's the Lenox Hill Hospital health hot­ line . Another interesting number can be found at 2 1 2-439-3200. Also w e u s e #32 wire for the physical tap (he wears tri­ focal glasses and hasn't seen any­ thing that small in about five years now) . A human answers now. M . and Winter 1989-90 2600 Magazine Page 31 . but we're sure that that person 's job won't last much longer. but if you call the one in your area code. Your Bastard Stepchlld and Friend . Another oddity: up until recently. You might even see a call show up on your phone bill that says "TEST CALL " instead o the phone nwnber. F . In a d d i t ion to 9 5 9 . We use most anything to punch our modems through the top half of the cordle ss phone (I use my oid "TRASH" -80 4/P with a Teletrends Corp . ) I u s e Omniterm with B I G RED (quarters only) o n board . Don't wony. the 8 9 0 exchange is jUll o test nwnbers for f the phone company . "Cordless " Fun Numbers Dear 2600: Here in New York City the whole 9 5 9 p r e fix is d e d i c a t e d to t e s t numbers and lots o f other interest­ ing stuff. Using a touch tone p h on e . A good way to avoid the annoy ing repair service com­ p uter at 6 1 1 is currently 8 9 0 66 1 1 . f no charges w il l app ly . Each message is b e twee n three and five minutes and has been approved by Lenox Hill H o s p ital physi cian s . TT5 1 2P 1 2 0 0 baud . 890 -1EST connected you to a strange service­ order type of voice computer.

f B ut w hat we get out o it is the f kno w ledg e of ho w t he s y s tems operate and that's an invaluab le Words of Thanks Dear 2600: Thank you very much for both 2 6 0 0 and for the C e ntral Office B B S . This hotline is yours f or the price o a phone call.using info de rived from them. f know ledge and informat ion are always advantageous and should never be stifled. They could have meetings similar to the ones you have once a month on Fridays . Sometimes the systems are changed. . there really wouldn't b e a way f or tool which leads to our figuring out stal more o them. I agree. but you w ill be billed if you call them direct. MO vide a service. If you print this .we want to hear 8 9 0 . There has to be a desire Page 32 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90 . w o uld there? How? Dear 2600 : That hospital health hotline is a great service and it s hows w hat slimebags the 900/dia l . but or we can ' t w a ve our w a nds and expect it to occur just because we want it to. Hacker Clubs Dear 2600: In your Autumn 1 9 89 edition you mentioned that you thought the hack/phreak spirit in the USA was dying. In other words. w h e r e xxxx is any fo u r d i g i t s .) Ringback is 970-xxxx. in a city where all the cops are cor­ rupt. where they only work some­ times. You don't need to charge a dollar a minute to pro­ H ow is it possible to publish hacking and phreaking informa­ tion without those in authority c h a n gi n g t h o s e sys t e m s y o u expose? WAFB Knob Noster. . We don't know what they're f or. B o t h of t hose numbers are unreach a b le no w . . sometimes some o them are changed. Let's f hope f more o them. some­ f times none o them are changed.it service people really are. p lease don't use my namel l l I have good reason n o t to b e c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e above. us to p r i n t y o u r n a m e . ( 1 1 1 1 works in most of the City. Thank you very much. but I fee l justified (to say the least) i n using extreme measures against a gang of out-and-out criminal hackers. NY We'd likef that to happen. Perhaps you would not agree with my methods. but would there b e a way to s t art an o p e n h a c k / p h r e a k gro u p s i m i l ar t o C h a o s C o m p u t e r C l u b ? I f you want you could call it 2 600 and advertise in the Marketplace for people to start the clubs in their areas . Th e ANI fo r t h e S a c ra m e n t o area (9 1 6 area code) is 830-xxxx. BK Syracuse. unless you dial them i n area code 3 1 5 .TONE hooked y o u i n t o a modem of s o rt s . or f Good question. 171 As your letter came uns ig ned and w it hout a re turn addres s . I was able to gain vengeance against some sleazy Arizona com­ puterniks who got me fired from my j ob .

professional steps to obtaining customers for US Sprint before beginning their Ne twork 2 0 0 0 b u s i n e s s . a n d i n smaller print. Th e method of obtai n i n g c u s tomers used by a probable Network 2000 IMR which you described in your letter is totally against Network 2 0 0 0 policy. The representatives really down­ played that fact. Dr. etc. you can (continued on page 46) Winter 1989-90 2600 Magazine Page 33 . Eastern time. s o I declined on the deal. 2 1 2-223 -8927. flea markets. I wa s n ' t about t o let these bums see it. We l l . At one of the booths at the fa i r . by signing that slip of paper. " By the way.tog e t hers on t he fi rs t Friday o t he mont h. this kind o rip-o would soon f J[ disappear. and 2 1 2-308-8 1 84. but the part which stated that Sprint would be made the long distance carrier was not h i ghlighte d . is 4 1 1 . Ours have f been going quite well and recently we 've been ha ving hackers from Europe call us on the payphones at Citicorp. 2 1 2 -308-8 1 62. there was a group o f Sprint repre s e n tatives asking people to sign up for a free FON card. malls . We 're there on the fi rs t Fr i d a y of e ve r y m on t h between t he hours o 5:00 PM and f 8:00 PM. an independent marketing company that is authorized to sell US Sprint services to re sidential and s mall business customers. All the person had to do was sign a slip of paper. they highlighted with a p e n all the phra s e s that contained "FON card". I asked if I could have a FON card without making Sprint my primary long distance carrier. We can inspire that but we can 't control it. I wrote a let­ ter to the BBB complaining about their tacti c s . I re c e n t ly attended a State Fair. Unf ortunately. It would be nice if people all over the world had meet­ ing s / g e t . We guarantee nothing. Wash ingto n . and they said that I would need a cred­ it c a r d fo r t h a t . You may even get a reg ular person who knows not hing about 2600. Network 2 000 representatives are required to attend a thorough training pro­ gram to learn proper. if we deter­ mine he acted unprofessionally. the person also agreed to make Sprint their primary long distance carrier. 2 1 2-308-8044. Here is part of their reply: "A large majority of customers that Network 2 0 0 0 Independent Marke ting Representatives obtain for US Sprint are acquired at fairs . which is s e rve d by GTE. so y o u m a y g e t an unpredictable response w hen you call.fro m y o u ! from v a rious peop le in v a r ious places. My complaint was fo rwa rd e d to N e tw o r k 2 0 0 0 Communications C orporation. We invite anyone to do t h i s . Once we determine the name of the IMR. However. we will take swift action in terminat­ ing the individ ual's status as a Network 2 000 IMR. Williams Washington State I more peop le did w ha t you f did. the ANI for Everett. A warning: many s trange people come to our meet ing s . Tho se p ayp hone numb ers are: 2 1 2-223 -90 1 1 . Another Rip-O Story ff Dear 2600: I thought the following might be i n t e re s t i n g to y o u .

I prefer SAVE to FILE becau se SAV E i s a l so u sed on my m icroco m p u ter. ok? Now.. What we don't know is how to edit the text with i n an existing file or h ow to i nsert/delete text from an existing file (which is really easy). To restore your ED session .H w h e re i t s a y s "<Ctrl-H>". let's test it out. Oh n o ! H ow do we save this new C P L program we just creat­ e d ? S i m p l e ! U si n g tech n i q u e s t h at y o u have j u s t learned. Remember. A " will simi larly erase the previous character. Normally. Your text is still floating around i n P R I MOS' memory. type : OK. start 1 00 1 EDI T file sample text _ q OK. Substitute whatever charac­ ters you feel most comfortable with on you r m icrocomputer. ty pe : P re s s C O N T R O L . when done with a docu ment you would FILE the text away and then QUIT. get i nto E D I T mode and QUIT the E D itor. append text to existing files. press >RETURN at the end of each 79 characters. ) will force a linefeed (as if you had pressed RETU RN in stead) . N ow FI LE your text. start 1 00 1 (resume in E DIT mode) So . If you try and QUIT without saving new text or changes made to text. EDIT wow BAD WOW INPUT oops! "wow" is not an ED command! I'll >discuss ED's EDIT mode commands in a few minutes. F rom the P R I MOS co m m an d line (O K . Voila! A nice trick for the forgetful .(continued from page 19) U S I N G A N D A B U S IN G SA) . lets see what Damn ! No wordwrap. however. We n o w know the very b a s i c s o f the P R I MOS line E Ditor. You can end a l i n e with either RETU R N or a se m icolon ( u seful if your RETURN key is broken?). From the P R I MOS command line. shall we? OK. we are back at the P R I MOS com­ mand l i n e . you can move to a differ­ ent U F D (one that you have W access in) and save y o u r text th e r e . So read on ! P R I M OS n o r m a l l y u se s t h e ? a n d " (double quote) as the kill and erase charac­ ters . Say you are moving around U FD's and you end up trying to cre­ ate a file in a directory that you don't have W (Write) access i n . U s e whichever y o u prefer. u se the OR com­ m a n d to g e t to y o u r " h o m e " U F D o r ATTACH to a different one and then issue the START 1 00 1 com mand. Heh. The fix? Simple. Ok. Okay . The two E D I T mode commands w e have just learned are : FILE (abbreviated FIL) files your text to the cu rrent U F D QUIT (abbreviated 0) exit E D t o the P RI­ MOS command line An alternate command to save your text i s the S A V E co m m an d ( a b b reviated by - Page 34 2600 Magazine Winler 1989-90 . start 1 000 (continues from break) or OK. Should you make a "boo-boo · you can save your text by u sing one of th e STA RT com ma n d variation s . We can create new files from scratch . ) . The semicolon character at the end of a line ( . you will be told that the file has been modified and asked for verification to quit. respectively. If you enter a line of text con tai n i n g se m i term -erase <Ctrl-H> term -kill >edltor. D am n ! We forgot to save o u r newly-created text! What d o we do now ! Don't panic. A great feature of the START command will now be illu strated. Let's q uit! EDIT q FILE MODIFIED OK TO QUIT? Y OK. A few co m m e n t s are n o w i n o r d e r . lets go to EDIT >mode. Th is will make the erase charac­ ter a backspace and the kill character the D E LETE key . First. and recover our text if we accidentally quit or hit the BREAK key (or send a BREAK signal).. I find the ? and " characters integral in my documents and you probably will too. So typing a ? in I N PUT mode will kill the entire line. save or abort our modification s .

Type : Winter 1989·90 2 600 Magazine Page 35 . It marks a place where you can insert text. BOTTOM This exam ple u sed . I will change this file around so that you >will see how to edit! add/ delete text In a file. BOnOM indicates that you are at the bottom of the file. To get to t h e top o r botto m of a f i l e . E D will tell you that you are at line 2 by displaying l i n e 2 on your screen . For example. type : S i n ce we d i d that P R I N T 9999 co m ­ mand we are a t the BOTTOM o f th e fi le. I told ED to PRI NT the first 9999 lines of the file in it's buffer. the new poi nter line will be displayed. ed example file _ EDIT ("n" being a whole number) com m and will cause E D to di splay the file backwards. You can type P R I N T (or P) by i t s e l f without a n u meric argu ment. Type : w LINE 2 Now let' s view the enti re file: p 9999 . but rather a marker. The . This is the text of the file we are using >In our example. N U LL. is not a part of the file. ·P" is the abbreviation for the PRI NT com mand. P R I N T h a s a default value of 1 .W ITH PRIMO S colons such as th i s : line one. To f i n d t e x t i n t h e b u f fe r . Th u s . Now try the W H E R E com mand (it also has a n abbreviated form . . will switch you from I N P U T mode i nto E D IT m o de . Conversely. NULL. u s e t h e LOCATE c o m m a n d (abbreviated L) . the line of text: This is a ca veat. I w i l l detail the m ethod you will have to use to get arou nd this if you want to have sem icolons in you r fi le . S h o u ld you type PRINT (or P) again it will si mply say : . Avoi d h aving se m icol o n s at the end of a l i n e of te xt. type : top (Abbreviation is T) or bottom (Abbreviation is B) Very simple. You can abbrevi ate the PO I N T c o m m a n d by ty p i n g PO in stead. I'll ass u m e that you have loaded a file into E D and are in E D I T m o d e . which is W) . NULL.p 9999" to display the contents. Let' s go to l i ne 2 . To see what the line num­ ber of the cu rrent line you are pointing to i s .. a P R I N T -n We now know how to move around in a file and display some or all of the lines of text it contai ns. n ·2 This is the text of the file we are using in >our example. Type : point 2 where BOTTOM This will set the ED pointer to line num­ ber 2. Here are two exam ples : n 1 to edit/add/delete text in a file. N egative n u m bers will m ove the pointer u p . The N EXT command (abbreviated by N ) w i l l move t h e pointer down the s pecified n u m ber of lines toward s the BOTTOM of the file (assuming that the s pecified n u m ber is positive ) . As per the PO com mand. P R I N T displays the s pecified n u m ­ b e r of l i n e s (9999 i n t h e e xam p l e ) a n d makes t h e last l i n e displayed the ·current" line. The basis of our exam ple: OK. N U LL.line three ED will take it and output it as thi s : line one line three D e p e n d i n g u po n t h e l ocati o n of t h e sem icolon it m a y produce a l i nefeed or a mode switch. to find the stri ng ·change this file" type : I change this file I will change this file around so that you >will see how Now look and see where you are. So you see . Should you wi s h to edit! insert! delete lines of text within an existing file you will have to learn how E D addresse s text i n its buffer.

The format for this option is displayed below: f(8) change this file I will change this file around so that you >will see how The parentheses are requ ired and there Cl:' nnot be any spaces between the co m­ mand and the (#). . S i m ilar to LOCAT E is the F I N D com ­ mand (abbreviated F ) . " As with LOCATE. u se the A P P E N D command (abbrevi­ ated with A). top. The new pointer is BOTTOM. N F I N D only finds the first line that does not start with the s peci­ fied string. "Read people 's word processing documents. see what's in their databases. In the following example. You can also F I N D and N F I N D stri ng pattern s on a line starting at a column posi­ tion other than 1 . Type : I Aunt Jemima BOTTOM ED could not find the string in the text. N F I N D ( a b b reviated N F) w i l l locate t h e first line below t h e current l i n e which does not beg i n with the specified string. As you can see. NULL. F I N D o n l y checks to see if the s pecified string is at the begin­ ning of a line ( i . 02124/89. meaning that you are at the last line in the file . This is the text of the file we are using in >our example. you would have gotte n : t o edit/add/delete text in a file." to the end of the last line. 02/24189. F I N D returns with BOTTOM and sets the pointer to the bot­ tom of the file. Also note the use of the comma as a command delimiter when issuing the TOP and N F I N D commands. You m u s t h ave a space between the A P P E N D command and the string you wish to append. F I N D displays the line and resets the pointer to its new location. N ow. but sets the point­ er to the new line. H ere is an exam ple : find to edit/add to edit/add/delete text in a file. N F I N D is a s i m i l a r co m m a n d w h i ch works in the o p posite manner of the F I N D com m a n d . I 'll display u se of the N F I N D com mand as well as dis­ play the method you may use to have multi­ ple ED commands on one line. If the string i s not fou n d . type : p03 to edit/add/delete text in a file. To append text to the end of the current line. I f you had instead typed : a 02/24/89. To append · 02124/89 .T H IN G S T O K N O W w LINE 2 EDIT p3 . a 02/24189. try and LOCATE the string "Aunt Jemima". the second in column 2 . U se the CHANGE com mand (abbreviat- Page 3 6 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90 . Just like with LOCATE and F I N D . the first character is in column 1 . I will change this file around so that you >will see how to edit/add/delete text in a file. N F I N D will also return BOTTOM and set the pointer to the end of the file if it cannot find a line not starting with the string you specify . to edit/add/delete text in a file. and so forth) . n find This Is I will change this file around so that you >will see how Aha! The LOCATE command not only finds the specified stri ng . e .

/g9999 Last Line -> to edit/add/delete text in a >file. text in a file. top. b u t rath e r the c u r re n t l i n e . option is not in u se). 24-Feb-89. If it is 0 or 1 (defau lt val u e s ) then the change w i l l be made to the current line (assuming the G . 0 1124189. Let's fix this grammatical error. The last E D command I will go over is the RETYP E command (abbreviated with R). ·n" is a pointer value. DELETE 1 will not delete the first line o f t h e fi l e . NULL. Let's delete i t . text in a file. 241@ 241 Last Line -> to edit/add/delete text in a >file@ 24-Feb-89. The first character after the C HANGE com­ mand i s used as the d e l i m iter. I believe I don't l ike the second line of our exam p l e file. Remember our dilemma with the semi­ colon character ( . Should you wish to change a string con­ tai n i n g slashes (I) . As with other ED com­ mands. As usual . D E LETE deletes from the current line. Should the file con­ tain fewer than "n" lines. ED will reset the pointer to the last line inspected. NULL. To i nsert characters at the beginning of a line. 24-Feb-89. C H A N G E ' s d e l i m i te r character. Examples : f 02 to edit/add/delete change:021:0 11: to edit/add/delete c#lll-# to edit/add/delete c/0 1 -24124-Febl to edit/add/delete po 3 Last Line -> to edit/add/delete text in a >file. c//Last Line -> 1 Last Line -> to edit/add/delete text in a >file. text in a file. cl@l.1 will be changed . Format: CHANGE/strlng-1 /strlng-21[G] [n] · s t ri n g . 24-Feb-89. Th i s i s a more com p l i cated c o m m a n d t h a n m o s t other E D commands. then substitute a new del i miter character. RETY P E will delete the current line and replace it with the specified stri n g . ) ? Say you want to have semicol o n s in y o u r fi l e . 02124189. type : po2 d top p9999 . c/. . Last Line -> to edit/add/delete text in a >file. To delete commands from a file. ED will make the specified changes in all the lines of the file and end by saying BOnOM. G spec­ i fies a g lobal change. If "n" is a value other than 0 or 1 then ED will inspect and make changes on ·n" lines starting at the current line. u se the D ELETE command (abbreviated with D). use CHANGE l ike this : po3 to edit/add/delete text in a file.O N A PR I M E ed C) to change a stri ng in the current line. If you know where you want your semi­ colons from the start then just use a char­ acter that y o u don ' t p lan o n u s i n g elsewhere i n the file (like the @ character) and place them where you desire. To d o t h i s . 24-Feb-89. 24-Feb-89. Voila! I n stant semicolons when you thought it couldn't be done. You should always i ssue the TOP com­ mand prior to making global file changes. N otice that the text of our example is now nonsen­ sical . let's mark where we want ED to put the sem icolo n . D o thi s : No more line 2. po2 Last Line -> to edit/add/delete text in a Winter 1989-90 2600 Magazine Page 3 7 . If G is o mitted then only the first occurance of string. This is the text of the file we are using in >our example. text in a file. 0 1-24-89. The second line is a sentence frag­ ment.1 " i s t h e o ri g i n a l s t r i n g a n d ·string-2" is the replacement string. 24-Feb-89. Then perform the above procedure . First. DE LETE 5 will delete the fifth line from the current line (with starting line being the cur­ rent line).

Experiment! It is best to experiment with available applica­ tions to see if they can be u seful . 2. The most u seful means of using E D i s t o u pload text (documents or sources) t o t h e h o s t P ri m e . WAR N I N G : I f the filename you specify E D to save your text as exists in the current U F O then ED will overwrite the file with the text in its buffer. _ . Some of them u se­ ful and i nteresting. Read people's word processing docu ments . # will insert tabs where the \'s are . 24-Feb-89. some of no use whatso­ ever to the hacker. Now you will learn how to edit/add/delete >text in a file. CURR ENT: 3. I can't begin to describe them here . 1 . Filename can be u p to 32 characters long. All characters are mapped to U P P E R CASE b y P R I MOS. so I am going to have to end it here. Be careful not to u se an exi sti ng filename when you save files or you might be sorry. To tell ED to use a TAB. N ow ente r ED and upload your file via the ASC I I protocol . You never know what you might find ! Just be careful not to delete or change anything! • Page 38 2600 MagaziM Wilfler 1989-90 . This is the text o f the file we are using in >our example. Legal Filenames MYFI LE TODAYS·SYSTEMS $MONEY TEXT FILE PRIMES&VAXEN Illegal Filenames MY FILE SYSTEMS? 4MONEY ACCTS@P RIM E "COOL" NOTE: ED does not like TABs! Do not use your term inal ' s TAB key ! ED will not u nderstand the m . C h a n g e all occu­ ran c e s o f a n u l l l i n e to a s p ace and a RETU R N . 5. Example : tsblfhis louflfor me. The fi rst character can not be a num­ ber. Now for some i mportant notes on P R I ­ MOS filenames. 4 . Type H ELP ED to obtain a l ist of them and a brief statement of each one's fu nction . E D i to r h a s m a n y o t h e r c o m m a n d s . You might need to lower the sending speed (the line delay) if you seem to be sending text too fast for ED to get it. This can be u sed as an alternate method for creating "null" lines (to d e l i m i t p a r a g ra p h s in y o u r text) as opposed to maki ng the line a blank space. 0-9. This will make a "null" line. R E TY P E followed b y a space and a RETURN will delete the curren t line. Filenames can only contain the fol ­ lowing characters: A-Z.PRIME H A C K I N G >file. Experimentation With Other PRIMOS Applications and Utilities There are many other appl ications that you will find on Primes. No embedded blanks or special char­ acters (like [ 1 ( ) { } etc) .$ . S i m p l y load i n t h e f i l e on your microcomputer and go into your termi­ nal p ro g ra m ' s e d i t o r . Here is a very incom­ plete list of applications commonly found on Prime computer systems : PRIME INFORMATION · A database sys­ tem PRIME WORD · A word-processing system M I DAS · A graphics design utility TELL·A·GRAF A graphing utility O RACLE · A database system There are tons more applications sys­ tem s to be found on Primes . I will change this file around so that you >will see how to edit/add/delete text in a file. When done with the send. just enter E D I T mode and SAV E or F I L E the text. r Now you will learn how to >edit/add/delete text In a file. & . see what's i n their databases. Now you will learn how to edit/add/delete >text in a file. This part of the series is already larger than I had planned. u se the backslash (\) character. Let's look at both the original example file and its present form : ORIGINAL: This is the text of the file we are using in >our example.

Sigh.[.'l( C!Jl!l('lJ PL'Dt5'E I cringe to think what he's going to do to the propeny values.{.5'EP{IYO'U'l( 'l3!Jl!J. \ \ think our clientele are stupid enough to fall for your sleazy rate structure ? ! Gimme a break! II I'J. \ \ 'l3'ELC}{ / \ Winter 1989-90 2 600 Magazine Page 39 . Maybe they'll appreciate us i n Eastern Europe.Where do you come off even Someone must have put in one of those weird payphones last night. posin g as a payphone? You're nothing more than a slot machine! Do you honestly think people will choose you over real payphones like us? Hey you ! Pinball machine ! You Yo Fred! Look what we got here..

K E E P THOSE FAXES COM I N G ! 5 1 6-751 -2608 Page 40 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90 .

P O B 1 1 2 8 2 . former editor of the TAP newsletter. This is the best source for VMS knowl­ edge a n y w h ere ! C o n t a c t me for more i n fo .. $ 1 00 postpaid. $ 1 5 or trade for Applecat Tone Recog n i ti o n program. FOR SALE: DEC V AX/VMS manuals for VMS 4. status lig h ts .2. ask questions. Rochester. shrink-wrap. R I 029 1 9. theory.O. $ 1 5. 2600 MEETINGS. Box 702. Pete G . Box 99 . documents. NJ S chematic and/or block diagram for G . 1 5 3 E 53rd S t. Payphone n u mbers at Citicorp: 2 1 2-223 . Fox x . CA 90045. First Friday of the month at the Citicorp Center--from 5 to 8 pm in the NY. N E E D E D : I n fo o n s p e e c h e n c r y p t i o n (Digicom. $ 8 . Laurel. e x t e n d e r s c a n n ers . $ 1 5 ppd . has dates avail­ able to lecture in Europe in late August and early September. Middle Island. Ohio 44240. Please send infor­ mati o n a n d pri c e s t o : T J . 2 1 2-223 -8927. The Li be rT e c h P roj e c t . 08054. 24062.talk. Washington 98227-25 1 1 . and Generally Naughty Peopl e: Protect your data ! Send me a buck and I ' l l send you an I B M PC fl oppy with some nifty s h are w are encryption routines and a c o p y o f m y paper " C r o s s b o w s to Cryptography : Techno-Thwarting the S tate . .9 1 . The best of TAP. Orange w/tone. 2 1 2-308. WA 98227-25 1 1 .. Have p h o to c o p y machine self-serve k e y counter. Mt. C all 5 1 6 -75 1 -2600 fo r more i n fo . PO B ox 463. T h e b e s t war d i al e r s . complete set Vol 1 -9 1 o f QUALITY copies from originals. and prac tical hints. case s tudies. lobby near the payphones. no businesses. " C h uck. listen. v o l u me s 1 . between Lex & 3rd. etc . Via U P S or Firs t C l a s s M ai l . NY 1 4627.. com­ pl e te set. Pete Haas. THE C HES H I RE C A TA L Y S T . Box clip and bel t clip included. M a k e payable to Tim S. P H R E A K S . Johnston . P O B 3 1 45 1 .O. For educational purposes only. $60.. N Y 1 1 953. 2 1 2-308 . prosecutors' guides. Fully functional. 9 1 4 N. drop off articles. Bellingham. 1 1 0 0 DL. Do y o u have somet h i n g to se l l ? Are some s ti l l i n the FL. We are the Original ! H A C K I N G A N D P H R E A K I N G SOFT­ WARE for the I B M and Hayes compatible Winter 1989-90 2 600 Magazine Page 41 . Deadline for Spring Marketplace: 3/1/90. Kurt P. Cordova St. Only peop l e p l ease.1 1 4 B . Include $ 3 handling per book. E . This is a true collector's item. TDM. B ox 2 2 9 5 3 . B urbank. Crypto). Computer crime. Send t o Hack Tic.8 1 84. mo d e m s . 2 1 2308-8044. P . All P. . VA. a n d hacki n g pro g ra m s . including how it's done. 2 1 R o s e m o n t Avenue. River Station. P. . Box 25 1 1 . C opy of 1 9 7 1 Esquire article "The Secre t s of the Little Blue Box" $5 & large SASE w/45 cents of stamps . i n c l u d i n g s hippi ng a n d h a n d l i n g . E l e c tronic surv ei llance and wiretapping . Los Angeles.2 600 Mark etpl a c e W ANTED : Red box kits. wri te to : Richard Ches hire. over 1 00 pages o f their best. $40. CA 9 1 505-2925 .a nuts and bolts guide. CY BERPU N K S . I n c l u d e you r add ress labe l . Sepulveda Blvd. B o x 6 4 1 . Make payment to Ti m S. Kent. Suite B-25 3 . Come by. and assem­ bled units. P l e a s e post to S . Complete 7 i s s u e 1 1 4 page s e t . F O R S A L E : Genuine B ell phone handset. FOR SALE : Manual for stepping s wi tches (c) 1 964. plans.O. you looki ng for somet h i ng to buy? O r t rade? T h i s Is t h e place ! T h e 2600 Market p l ace i s free to su bsc ribers ! Send your ad to : 2600 Marketplace. Watch this space. ------. other unique products..1 282. PO Box 25 1 1 . TAP BACK ISSUES. RARE TEL B AC K ISSUE SET (like TAP but s trictly telephones ) . P.O. mute. with detailed explanations. Riley. $ 8 0 .8 1 62. For lecture fees and infor­ mation on s e mi n ars to be given. Libertari an s . Would like to trad e for red box mi n u s i t s I e ' S . TENTATIVE D A TES for S u m ­ mercon 90: J u n e 22-24. 8 7 2 6 S . C ape C a n a v e r a l . O . A m s terd a m . The Netherlands. B l acksburg. I ncludes schematics and indexes.1 3 data set. Bellingham. pulse. diagrams. U SA 3 2920.W A N T E D : Soldiers of Fortune. $90 O B O . H A C K E R S . John B . 00 . P.90 1 1 . Also. ____ man u a l s are i n mi n t c o n d i t i o n . U N D E R G R O U N D B O O K S : TAP. D i s c o r d i a n s . over 400 pages from the best of government publications..

you will s o o n have to dial ten. don ' t you? what ' s happening *** New York State o ffi c i al s are warning lottery players that a tele­ phone hotline for winning numbers is charging more than three times the cost of a lottery ticket for each call. Under the new system : thirty seconds after the tone. . b u t i n s i d e London it' s another sto ry . according to the New York Publi c S e rv i c e C o m ­ mission. To give you an example of where NTS is coming from . they refused to give us their rates until we gave them our card number. If you dial a z e ro plu s c al l o n a l i n e t h a t ' s selected Cable and Wireless as its long distance company.50 to find out nothing more than the pre­ v ious night ' s w i nning number s . To get ripped off.l i k e t o n e . When we have m anaged to get rates from them . s o the code will be changing from 1 to either 71 or 8 1 . And ITT has been using the ITI company to pro­ cess its operator assisted calls. Is nothing sacred? Page 42 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90 . but you ' ll wind up being connected to NTS. info rmation readily available for fre e . ITT processes calls on both 10488 and 1 0999 regardless of whether or not you 've signed up with them . On May 6th. You know where this company' s priori­ ties are. Not much of a hassle from over h e re in the S t at e s . MCI did the sam e thing about a year ago . they were often more than double those of AT&T ' s . B ut the best part of it is that. just dial a zero plus the number you ' re calling after enter­ ing one of the above codes. the city code of 01 will be split in half.(continued from page 8) the tone . the leading zero i s always droppe d . If you n e e d to c al l fro m one p a rt o f London to another. The company al so d o e s n ' t bother mentioning the price during the course of the call . Inner London will change to 07 1 and the rest of the present 0 1 area will change to 08 1 . instead of dial­ ing seven d i g i t s . you 'l1 hear an AT&T . Ripoff City Add Cable and Wireless (TDX) to the list of long distance compa­ n i e s rippi ng o ff thei r customers with AOS operators. B u ffal o Audiotex Inc. but they ' re confusing them with the similar sounding names! Cable and Wirel e s s w on ' t proc e s s any c al l s on i t s 1 02 2 3 c o d e unl e s s you ' v e signed u p with them . Calling London London is bracing for a maj o r catastrophe : a city code change. bills callers $3. then s uddenly stopped afte r the media got wind of it. it ' s al l completely legal. According to a representative o f the S t ate L o t t e r y . For people calling in from outside the country . Not only are they ripping people off.

2 600 Magazine Page 43 German Democratic Phones According to i ndustry experts. T h e ne t w o rk h a s b e e n i n place since before World War II. The total bill cam e to around $12. turned into a debating ground between homosexuals and funda­ mentalists . only has 4 million phone lines . it w as � ' t gen� rating fact that the board generated far more traffic than m any of the other "successful" boards. has gotten rid o f something it apparently doesn ' t w ant : contro­ . Equal Acces s For All P r i s o ners at the S tate Corre c ­ tional Institute in Dallas . E a s t G e rm an y . an a c q u a i n t a n c e at t h e . the I B M . When an inm ate called o ne of the numbers c o l l e c t . v e rs y . That was too much for Prodigy. Since Sprint is able to determine wh� re from. who di scontinued the ser­ vice in December because . the network virtually collaps e d .S e a rs j o i n t v en t u re fo r p e r s o n al c o m p u te r users . H o w e v e r . � gives u se rs access to shoppmg ser­ v ic e s . they ' re more than willing to d i s c l o s e t h i s i n fo rm a t i o n . calls. B ut i t also has bulletin boards that let subscribe rs communicate with each other. The $10 a m onth e rv I ce �elephone service at a remote locatIon. d u ri n g the e v e n t s o f November 9. B usinesses using US Spnnt repair and needs a complete over­ can h au l . and airline reservations. m o st of East Germ any ' s severely strained phone network i s beyond enough interest. Several West G e � an companies have expressed an mter­ est in rebuilding the system . U s i n g thi s i nfo rmation. and "self-dial­ ing" i s vi rtually u nknown outside of East B erlin. in central o ffices to id enti fy the c alls to their network are commg � with 1 7 million people . The quality of service is al so poor. stock m ark e t repo rts . accord­ ing to them . They obtained cred i t info rm ation o n a num ber of prison correctional o ffi ­ cers . Welcome to the nmetles. West Germ any has about 40 million tele­ phone l i n e s and a p o p u l ati o n o f about 6 0 m illi o n . U S S p ri n t u s e s N o r t h e r n T e l e c m DMS .000. they had lines installed in those names at a house in Phi l adelphi a. known as Health Spa.Sprint Is Watching . house would three-way them mto the number they wanted to call . P A m an­ aged to install and use Too Much Chatter Prodi g y . One of these boards. ThIS despIte the Winter 1989-90 .2 S 0 s w i tches coupled wIth Feature Group D access capabili ty o riginating numbers o f all �etwork . now get a free service to help them track down people who use their PB X ' s without authorization.

65 0 : 660 : 662 : 67 1 : 769 : 615 714 206 501 703 216 604 602 215 202 416 4 03 512 415 205 313 919 4 04 212 301 201 213 214 312 This info comes from the Telecom Digest. area codes will n o longer ha ve to ha ve a 1 or a 0 as the middle digit. the effects could be q uite traumatic. Page 44 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90 . 201 : 2 02 : 203 : 204 : 205 : 2 06 : 207 : 208 : 209 : 2 12 : 213 : 2 14 : 215 : 216 : 217 : 218 : 219: 301 : 302 : 303 : 304 : 305 : 3 06 : 307 : 308 : 309 : 3 12 : 660 566 445 334 583 510 325 263 297 624 662 67 1 555 521 34 1 268 329 650 97 468 315 422 426 137 189 250 769 313: 314 : 315: 316: 317: 318 : 319: 401: 402 : 403 : 404 : 405 : 406: 407 : 408 : 409: 412: 413: 414 : 415: 416: 417: 418: 419: 50 1 : 502 : 503 : 586 4 94 246 345 378 321 319 120 3 92 575 611 475 323 333 266 2 63 408 126 420 580 5 73 1 B9 348 319 5 12 328 4B1 504 : 505 : 506: 507: 50 B : 509: 512: 513: 514 : 515: 516: 517 : 518 : 519: 60 1 : 602 : 603 : 604 : 60 5 : 606: 60 7 : 60 8 : 60 9 : 61 2 : 613 : 614 : 61 5 : 306 2BB 157 251 339 224 576 44B 445 3B9 339 303 236 326 379 552 219 523 320 256 15B 226 250 4B2 262 379 494 616: 617 : 618 : 619: 701 : 7 02 : 7 03 : 704 : 705 : 706 : 707 : 708 : 709 : 712 : 713 : 714 : 715 : 716 : 717 : 718 : 719 : 801 : 8 02 : 803 : 8 04 : 805 : 806 : 349 330 311 433 34 1 247 513 310 253 15B 163 415 240 264 474 504 294 347 453 365 146 300 171 467 446 250 236 807 : 808 : 809: B12 : 813 : 814 : B1 5 : B16: B1 7 : 818: B19: 90 1 : 902 : 904 : 90 5 : 90 6 : 90 7 : 912 : 913 : 914 : 91 5 : 91 6 : 91 B : 101 226 449 259 449 250 271 428 443 312 295 205 246 4 64 2 60 108 337 306 417 311 275 371 274 603 tlJt ups touu t()OWU 919: Now here's the same list showing the least-populated area codes followed b y the most-populated. Depending upon how this is implemented. 97 : 101 : lOB : 120 : 126: 137 : 146 : 1 57 : 158 : 15B : 1 63 : 171 : 1 89 : 189: 205 : 219: 224 : 226 : 226 : 236 : 236 : 240 : 246 : 246 : 247 : 250 : 250 : 302 807 906 401 413 307 719 506 607 706 707 802 308 417 901 603 509 608 80B 518 806 709 315 902 702 309 609 250: 250 : 25 1 : 253 : 256: 259: 260 : 262 : 263 : 263 : 264 : 266: 268 : 271 : 274 : 275 : 288 : 294 : 295 : 297 : 300 : 303 : 306 : 306 : 310: 311 : 311 : 805 814 507 705 606 812 905 613 208 409 712 408 218 815 918 915 505 715 B19 209 801 517 504 912 704 618 914 312: 315: 319: 319: 32 0 : 32 1 : 323 : 32 5 : 32 6 : 328 : 329: 330 : 333 : 334 : 337 : 33 9 : 339 : 34 1 : 34 1 : 34 5 : 34 7 : 34 8 : 349: 365 : 37 1 : 37 8 : 379: 818 304 319 419 605 318 406 207 519 502 219 617 407 204 907 508 516 217 701 316 716 418 616 718 916 317 601 379 : 389 : 3 92 : 408 : 415 : 4 17 : 420 : 422 : 426 : 42B : 433 : 443 : 445 : 445 : 446: 448 : 449 : 449: 4 53 : 4 64 : 467 : 468 : 4 74 : 4 75 : 481 : 4 82 : 4 94 : 61 4 515 402 412 708 913 414 305 306 B16 619 B17 203 514 B04 513 809 B13 717 904 803 303 713 405 503 612 314 494 : 504 : 510: 512 : 513: 52 1 : 52 3 : 552 : 555: 566: 573 : 575: 576: 580 : 583 : 586: 603 : 61 1 : 62 4 . Delaware (302) has the fewest with only 9 7 1n use.From a recent Bellcore V&H Tape. Both 2 1 2 and 2 1 3 area codes are nearly full enough to split for the second time. Format is n umber of exchanges: area code. here is a list o f all North American area codes and the number of exchanges being used in each. The area codes at the bottom of the lis t are the ones most likely to split off in the near future. A few are already In the process of doing this. In a couple of years. Format is area code: n umber of exchanges within.

What's even better is that you can con­ nect at up to 2400 baud and use the term i n al e m ulation of your choice. You w i l l n otice that UA PC only asks for User 10 and Passwo rd. H owever the folks at UAPC d i d not. The oth er two are opti onal. that's not a big pro b l e m . The a l m i g hty s c h o o l s y s t e m got v e r y angry and decided to take s e cu r i ty m e s s u res . which greatly reduced the amount of i n accuraci es i n the story . Certain ind ividu als took i t upon them se lves to crack UAPC at any cost. t h e next few paragraphs will show you how to get around that. you can sti ll access i t via UCC. For o n ce . For i n stance. and 2400 baud using 7 E 1 ( seven data bits . that h as n ' t h appene d . is thi s the U A PC Help Desk? Yeah? Well you certai nly do need h e l p ! ! " and things of that sort. P F 1 is the same thing as h i tting E SC and then 1 . which I'm willing to bet it will not . At least one g r o u p of hackers was abl e to get access to m ore th an a dozen accou nts. then type DIAL VTAM and hit return. They contacted people at 2600 who ale rted the media. You don't h ave to worry about that at al l . As a side note on UCC. U A P C i s li nked via t h i s high-speed n et­ w o r k . s ocial engineering and tras h i n g were key elements used in cracki ng the syste m . . Here is what you ca n d o . You can h i t retu rn t o see the avai lable term i n al ty pes. Needless to say . You w i l l then s ee the UCC open i ng s cree n . T h ey claimed that they were g o i n g to p u t UA PC o n leased l i n e s by Jan u ary 1 990 . A pparently. And for the first ti me i n America. So now you can see that even if UA PC does go on leased lines. you can get the Project 1 0 in the same way . Once conn ected. I myself enjoyed r u b b i n g it in to U A P C . . a n d t h e r e is m u c h l e s s s e c u r i ty w h e n accessi n g UAPC v i a UCC. so I m i g h t as well g i ve it o u t . It also m ad e those in charge of the system look like utter fool s . A s I predicted . you h i t RETU R N a few ti mes. the P roject I D ' s are only used when UAPC is accessed via UAPC's own dial-up l ines. there was a big media scandal here i n N ew York when 2600 hit the stands last fal l . a n d e v e n i f it does h appen . • _ . _ oc. The first is requ ired . hackers were t h e ones t o b reak a story about hacki n g . One th i n g that UA P C d i d w h i c h was very nasty was to place a Project 10 on every s i n gle account. "Hello. I t p rovides h ig h -s peed network l i nks (SNA) to many comp uters throughout the CU N Y system . one stop bit) . UCC i s a p u b l ic n u m ber. It should ask for te rminal ty pe. At that point you h i t the TAB key until the cursor i s at the COMMAND l i n e . 10 � -- ' II' l -" ' . the second is for the password you want to change it to (if the password i s valid) .. A p parently . You are now co nn ected to U A P C . But.. t- � A 2600 staffer demonstrates the ease of changing high school grades in a report aired over WNBC-TV in New York. even parity . by placing certain foul stickers on their door as well as having some fun engi neering their Help Desk wh i le they were in a state of secu rity alertness .UAP C UP DAT E by The Plague I certainly h o pe you enjoyed my article i n the last issue. I'm constantly hearing ru mors abo ut people w i l l · i n g to p a y c a s h for g rade c h a n g e s a n d p e o p l e who can fil l that parti cular service need . Winter 1989-90 2 600 Magazine Page 45 . U A P C hacking and a b u s e has become a rath er popu lar ho bby here i n New York. You keep h i t­ ting TAB (also known as Ctrl . . The first input area is for the password . 1 200. the h ackers had the u p per hand. one day I stumbled o nto someth i n g i n teresti n g . UCC is a c o m p u t i n g s e r v e r l o c a t e d i n Manhatten . > " . Wel l . If you can get the password. and then choose one th at your software can em ulate. It does not ask for P roject 10. Now. You will then see a menu screen of the computers that you can connect to. However. The password i n p u t area is divided i n to th ree areas.U n i versity C o m puter Center) . the third i s to verify the chang e . the very best th i n g about it i s that y o u don't have t o provi de a Project to UA PC if you conn ect via UCC. you can e m u l ate the P F key s on yo u r te r m i n al by using the ESC key .I ) u n til your cu rsor is at UA PC and then you h i t retu r n . The reason that I th i n k leased l ines are out of the q u estion is becau se it will severe ly h i nder access for legiti­ mate users all throu g h o u t the Board of E d and CUNY .. It's 2 1 2974-8600 and connects at 300. I fou n d o u t that you can co nnect to UAPC thro u g h the C U N Y/UCC (City U n i ve r s i ty of New Y o r k . t. You can just type the user name foll owed by return and then the password fol l owed by return .

dialing 5 1 1 from many phones there w ill dis­ able the p hone Jor a t least two minutes. what's the point? 2600 Magazine Winter 1989-90 . The media once again let u s down by not doing enough to educate themselves. While Network 2000's response seems to indicate that they 're concerned. s a i d c a l l e r s Page 46 shouldn't try u sing any o f the other compa­ n i e s . They decided that incoming calls weren't as i m p o rtant as outgoing calls to the people there. refused to tell customers how they could place their calls over other long dis­ tance companies. they were making a categorical assumption that sim­ ply doesn 't hold up to i ndividual reasoning . Also. NY 1 1953 .sf.ca. but the failure of AT&T's enti re struc­ tu re. We know you have someSo write us a letter now before it slips 2600 Letters. l e t t e rs t hing to say to usl your mind. This. 8 1 8' 1 (continued from page 5) network if someth i n g strang e and u n p re­ dictable starts occurri n g . The news h e re isn't so much the failure of a computer pro­ g ram . AT&T made a decision for u s . D u ri ng the California earthquake last October. let alone the public. hours after the crisis began. For those of us who knew the alternative way s to route our call s . Our FAX number is 5 16-75 1-2608. P o s session of this l i st i s really the only way consumers will find alternative long di stance com pa­ nies that could be a life-saver in a situation like this. A nyone in v o l v e d in s im i l a r escapades? Let's hear about them. an A T & T s p o ke s p e rs o n .us. There obviously have to be more alter­ native s . N obody had to be inconvenienced on that day . Our new network address is 2600@Well. It's also hard to b e l i e v e that o n e p erson is responsible J reducing the size o or j the p r int o n a key p a r t o t he j advertisement. Breaking up the Bell system was essen­ tial i n the name of fairness.(continuedfrom page 33) f l1ld these con-artists almost every­ w here y o u look tod a y . The general public has to be educated on h ow to u se the new system to their advantage. But so few of us knew this . But you said it was a group o rep­ j resentatives which would seem to indicate that what they were doing was company policy. Many of them now realize belat­ edly the usefulness of that system . Our address is Middle Island. The Non-Tech nical Problems In the height of the crisis. " I f you don't get through the first ti m e ." AT& T operators. so that there are more choices for each of u s . But there has to be a level of awareness among the end-users. They were probably rig ht. the J act remains that they're blam­ ing one person Jor this violation. But. or else. thinki ng that somehow it will generate more bills. despite the fact that most long distance companies tell the customer how to access AT&T if he/she needs to . try 1 -200 J ol­ lowed by almost any seven num­ bers in the 3 0 5 and 4 0 7 area codes in Florida. The carrier access code list we printed in o u r last i s s u e s h o u l d be ava i l able to everybody i n the cou ntry . calling i n was no problem. y o u ' l l get th ro u g h the second time. A nd to add to the l is t oj ANI (ANAC J or those w ho want to be technical) numbers. PO Box 99. What good i s a fair system if most people don 't know how to use it? Why are people so afraid to do this? Why are they discouraged? M a n y i n s t i t u ti o n s a n d b u s i n e s se s choose t o block access t o the 1 0XXX sys­ tem . It went against company policy. by blocking virtually al l atte m pts . All that had to be done was to alert the public as to h ow to make a long distance call using another company. Laura Abbott. But it doesn't e n d there . She recom m e n d e d repeated tries over AT&T.

J OV E R S EAS S U B SC R I PT I O N .1 1 9 8 8/$25 T OT A L A MO U N T E N C LOS E D : I� __� __ __ __ .:.1 $260 (yo u ' l l neve r have to deal wi th th i s an y m o re ) B A C K I S S U E S ( n e v e r O U ! o f sty l e ) 1 984/$2 5 .J � 3 years/$4 8 3 ye ars/$ 1 2 5 C O R P O R AT E S U B SC R I P T I O N .1 1 year.1 .J 2 years/$33 2 years/$8 5 . I N D I V I D U A L S U B S C R I PT I O N .1 .1 1 9 8 7 /$25 .1 :.1 1 98 5/$2 5 .w e a dd r e s s e d 2 600 can as mak ing as it good a nd i n f o rmat ive get . if If the i r it is sub ­ or s c r i pt i o n be l ow if ( your You the form s hou l d b e o n t h e o t h e r s i de ) out on (also just fi l l i t t o o u r a dd r e s s get se l f f r om go 2 60 0 . c o n c l u de . nag g l o s sy our THA T of our way to we d o n ' t e x a c t l y g o o u t y o u a b o u t when y o u r s ub s c r i p t i o n i s g o i n g Y o u won ' t f i nd y ou r s e l f ge t t i n g t h o s e r e m i n de r s with free pen s .1 1 9 86/$25 .NO W HEA R At to 2 60 0 . corpo rate/$65 L I F ET I M E S U B SC R I P T I O N . i n divid u al/$30 1 year. s t op . and dig ita l qua r t z c l o c k s a n d a l l that j un k We b e l i e v e s ub s c r i b e r s a r e i n t e l l i g e n t e n o u g h t o l o o k t he i r addre s s is to about extend l abe l don ' t want s e nd at y ou and l ab e l a n d s e e to it .1 1 year/$ 1 8 1 ye ar/$45 c. s a ve e nv e l ope s wil l s t a mp e d B u t t h e t i me a n d m o n e � . t ow a r ds t he other p a ge ) .

'w W u Ket N )' Pt�r il l l t P A I D d t I 1 133 2600 Magazine I S S N 0 7 � g .) - r---------the I our at& t . part t-vvo I buil d i n g silver box I l e tters 2 6 0 0 Ina rket l)l a ce I area code / exch a nge co u n t I uapc u pd a t e L.J S E C O N D CLASS POST AGE E a s t . e a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .A. 4 I � I 14 I 20 24 I 41 I 44 45 I . F o rw a rd i n g a n d A d d re s s C o rre c t i o n R e q u e s t e d . but we wanted to wait for the AT&T story to break Sorry.what' s inside (WE KNOW This issue should have been out in December.J85 1 PO BOH 152 Middle I sland.S. NY 1 1 953 U.story ever c hanging worl d I nynex central o ffic data prirno s .

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