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L. R. Associates Pvt. Ltd. Management Educators & Organisation Consultants Bldg. G/17A, 2nd Floor, Nootan Nagar, Guru Nanak Road, Bandra (W), Mumbai - 400050. 26442116 / 26451731 Email : Website : www.lrconsultants.com
…People transform Organisations, We transform People.
Training for Trainers
Contents Page No.
“The mediocre trainer tells. The good trainer explains. The superior trainer demonstrates. The great trainer inspires” ......................................................................................3 Role of Training and Development...................................3 Areas of Training - Knowledge, Skill and Attitude.............5 Principles of Learning ..................................................5 Identifying Training Needs - Training Need Analysis.........8 Designing a Training Program........................................10 Factors to be considered in the Selection of Training Methods.......................................................................12 Methods and Techniques of Training..............................20 Use of Audio Visual Aids................................................28 Evaluation of Training ..................................................29 Conclusion....................................................................35
…People Transform Organisations, We Transform People. L. R. Associates Pvt. Ltd. 2
Training for Trainers
“The mediocre trainer tells. The good trainer explains. The superior trainer demonstrates. The great trainer inspires” William Arthur Ward
Role of Training and Development
Training is concerned with the acquisition or development of knowledge, skills, techniques, attitudes and experiences which enable an individual to make his most effective contribution to the combined efforts of the team of which he is a member. The objective of training is to prepare the individual to carry out his present job satisfactorily, or to prepare him for greater responsibility. The fundamental aim of training is to help the organisation achieve its purpose by adding value to its key resource - the people it employs. Training means investing in people to enable them to perform better and to empower them to make the best use of their natural abilities. The particular objectives of training are to: • Develop the competences of employees and improve their performance; • Enable people to grow within the organisation in order that, as far as possible, its future needs for human resources can be met from within; • Reduce the learning time for employees starting in new jobs, transfers or promotions, and ensure that they become fully competent as quickly and economically as possible. Benefits of Training Effective training can: • Improve individual, team and corporate performance in terms of output, quality, speed and overall productivity; • Attract high-quality employees by offering them learning and development opportunities; • Increase employees’ levels of competence and enhance their skills thus enabling them to obtain more job satisfaction, gain higher rewards and progress within the organisation; • Increase the commitment of employees by encouraging them to identify with the mission and objectives of the organisation; • Help to manage transformation by understanding the basis of change and provide people with the knowledge and skills they need, to adjust to new situations; • Facilitate to develop a positive culture in the organisation, one, for example, that is orientated towards performance improvement; • Provide higher levels of service to customers. Management Development. Management development on the other hand is a systematic process of growth and development by which the managers develop their abilities to manage. So it is the result of not only participation in formal courses of instruction but also of actual job experience. It is
…People Transform Organisations, We Transform People. L. R. Associates Pvt. Ltd. 3
Management development in an organisation contributes to business success by enabling the managers to meet its present and future needs. • Identifies managers with potential. • Understands the problems of human relations and improves human relation skills. Associates Pvt. • Enhances versatility of the management group. and technical areas. The role of the company is to provide conditions that accelerate the growth. assignments and the like does not guarantee that they will learn. The role of the company in management development is to establish the program and the development opportunities for its present and potential managers. and provides for management succession. Ltd. • Understands the conceptual issues relating to economic. • Provides for management succession. • Improves thought process and analytical ability. social. Role of the Organisation. • Increases morale of members of the management group. Just exposing the employees to lectures. training and experience to be equipped to face more demanding responsibilities within their own locations and elsewhere in the organization. And these conditions should be part of the organisational climate itself. Each individual has to contribute to his development. as others can only create opportunities. • Broadens the outlook of the executive regarding his role. • Stimulates creative thinking. in …People Transform Organisations. gives them development opportunities. creating a system to keep this under review. Professional development processes may be anticipatory (so that managers can contribute to long-term objectives). L. • Creates successors who can take over in case of contingencies. readings.Training for Trainers concerned with improving the performance of the managers by giving them opportunities for growth and development. case studies. Objectives of Management Development • Ensures that managers understand what is expected of them. • Keeps executives abreast with the changes and developments in their respective fields. • Improves the performance of the managers. What is more important is the effort of the individuals. position and responsibilities. encourages them to prepare and implement personal development plans. The saying “We can take the horse to the water but we cannot make it drink” cannot be forgotten here. We Transform People. • Makes certain that they receive the required development. R. reactive (intended to resolve or pre-empt performance difficulties) or motivational (geared to individual career aspirations). job rotation. It improves their performance. 4 . • Agrees with the objectives against which their performance will be measured and the level of competence required in their roles.
Learning is a complicated process. Associates Pvt. Thus. operating an adding machine. prejudice. ignorance or whether it is the product of the social group to which the individual belongs. Frequently this is achieved by means of job rotation and sometimes by exchanges between companies. One of the training officer’s many tasks is to “arrange” the experience of trainees on an organised basis. however not all attitudes can be altered. we are never too old to learn. account must be taken of the relationship between knowledge and skill. If “undesirable” attitudes based upon ignorance need to be changed then there is a reasonable hope of achieving this in an industrial training situation. As soon as possible after he acquires the necessary knowledge he should have the opportunity to put it to practical use. It takes place more readily in some circumstances than in others. Examples are shorthand writing. Principles of Learning Learning has been described as a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as result of insight. Areas of Training . Skill and Attitude Knowledge can be imparted. Technique usually involves application in a dynamic situation of both knowledge and skill.Knowledge. Skill is a physical act or action. We Transform People.Training for Trainers order to be away from the unrealistic expectation that we can create and develop managers only in classroom. salesmanship. are examples of techniques. People often talk about …People Transform Organisations. information and principles. Driving a car. L. the situation is much more complex. When the training material is being put in the order in which it will be presented to the trainees. This will reinforce what he has learned. It is the result of practicing use of knowledge. Experience differs from the four previous items that is it cannot be taught in a classroom. Practicing the job skill will help him to remember what he has learned. Trainees are helped to learn. practice or experience. Attitudes can be changed to some extent. or it may be a modification (adjusting new knowledge to old). skills and techniques over a period of time and often in a number of different situations. but we are frequently resistant to change. commanding troops in battle. Relationship between Knowledge and Skill. to understand and to remember facts. it may be a subtraction (unlearning a bad habit). It is a way of behaviour or thinking. Learning as change may be for the better or for the worse: we learn bad habits as well as good ones. It is a life-long activity. playing a trumpet. It has to be decided whether the attitude is based upon superstition. Ltd. R. Learning may be simply an addition (new information). and it can to a great extent be influenced. The trainee is given knowledge to enable him to do his job. 5 . a manager learning the skill of selection interviewing needs to practice as soon as he has acquired sufficient knowledge. In case of attitudes based upon the other elements outlined above. fear.
Regardless of individual differences and whether the trainee is learning a new skill or acquiring knowledge of a given topic.Training for Trainers problems as if they safeguarded their position. Adults learn what they perceive to be useful in their life situations. the employee might begin to come on time to avoid criticism/ reprimand from his boss. Ltd. the probability is that the behaviour will be repeated and strengthened. Practice is a must after the individual has been successfully trained. Motivation alone is not enough. 6 . adults do not typically see themselves as learners. e. Their attention spans are a function of their interest in the experience. The individual must also have the ability to learn. the individual exhibits the desired behaviour to avoid something unpleasant. They are capable of taking responsibility for their own learning and they gain through two way communication. However. Distinction may be made between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. Training and Development programs are more likely to be effective when they incorporate the following principles of learning: Motivation to learn is the basic requisite to make training and development programs effective. …People Transform Organisations. Learning is reflected on their and others’ experience.. Associates Pvt. Adults are internally motivated to develop increased effectiveness. he should be given the opportunity to practice what is being taught. They learn when they feel supported in experimenting with new ideas and skills. They learn better in a climate that is informal and personal. The learner is a partner with the instructor in the learning process. do not remove the problems or I might have to change. L. increase in the strength of response or induced repetitions of the behaviour that preceded the reinforcement. Ability varies from individual to individual and these differences must be considered while organizing the training programs. Reinforcement may be understood as either. What they mean is. They learn to react to the differential status of members of the group. In negative reinforcement. We Transform People. They are most receptive to instruction that is clearly related to problems they face daily. “There are so many problems I cannot change”. Adult learners apply learning that they have been influential in planning. It comes from the awareness that training fetches some rise in status and pay. They filter their learning through their value systems. Learning is best when they are treated with respect. if an employee does something well and is complimented for it by the boss.g. Learning is change. For example. Positive reinforcement strengthens and increases behaviour by the presentation of desirable consequences. For example if an employee who had the habit of coming late to work. R. Adults are likely to have somewhat fixed points of view that make them closed to new ways of thinking and behaving.
Feedback about the performance will enable the learner to know where he or she stands and to initiate corrective action if any deviation from the expected goal has taken place. Probably one of the most well established principles of learning is that distributed or spaced learning is superior to continuous learning. We Transform People. A definite relationship has been established between learning and meaningfulness of the subject learnt. Goals that are too difficult or too easy have little motivational value. 2. 5. Often what is learnt in a training session faces resistance back at the job. Associates Pvt. particularly when it is accompanied by knowledge of results. Learning is aided by active practice rather than passive reception. 4. opportunities to implement new behaviour on the job. Schedules of learning involve (i) duration of practice sessions. Further. by the trainee’s supervisor. 8. 3. The rate of forgetting tends to be very rapid immediately after learning. and (iii) positioning of rest pauses. R. Transfer of Learning What is learnt in training must be transferred to the job. Knowledge of results leads to increases in learning. The capacities of learners are important in determining what can be learned and how long it will take. The learning process is better & faster when the material is more meaningful. The order of presentation of materials to be learned is very important. This may be possible for training skills such as maintaining a cash register. Techniques for overcoming resistance include creating positive expectations. …People Transform Organisations. Ltd. Commitment from top management towards the training program also helps in overcoming resistance to change. All the three must be carefully planned and executed. L. 6.Training for Trainers Knowledge of Results is a necessary condition for learning. Transfer enables to maximize the identical elements between the training situation and the actual job. and ensuring that the behaviour is reinforced when it occurs. Ten Simple Rules of Learning 1. but not for training leadership or conceptual skills. 7. 7 . (ii) duration of rest sessions. There are certain tasks for which such feedback is virtually mandatory for learning. Repetition of identical materials is often as effective in getting things remembered as repeating the same story but with variations. goals will have better motivational value if the employee has scope for participation in the goal-setting process. A message is more easily learned and accepted if it does not interfere with earlier habits. Goal Setting can also accelerate learning. particularly if they are specific and reasonably difficult. Showing errors in how to do something can lead to increase in learning. Individuals generally perform better and learn more quickly when they have goals.
Ltd. promotion): Based on the advance information made available about changes in content/context of the job of an individual. 8 . There are eleven possible techniques for determining training needs. The …People Transform Organisations. transfer. Major sources for identifying Training & Development needs of individuals are: • Performance appraisal • Career plans and • System introduction / improvement. Performance Appraisal: In the performance appraisal system there is scope to identify the difference between the organisation’s expectations and the individual’s performance.Training Need Analysis Identification of training needs is the first element and a critical one in the training activity. They are: (a) Observations (f) Questionnaire Surveys (b) Management requests (g) Tests of examinations (c) Interviews (h) Merit or performance ratings (d) Group Conferences (i) Personnel records (e) Job or activity analysis (j) Business and production reports (k) Long-range organisational planning Some people believe that indications of training needs can often be obtained from a study of the sort of things people say at the exit interviews. 10.Training for Trainers 9. L. Learning something new can interfere with the remembering of something learned earlier.“belongingness” and “satisfaction”. Success of the training function depends greatly on the correct identification of needs. can be specifically assessed in the system. Such interviews should continue but we must be very careful about accepting all that is said by employees at an exit interview at its face value. the training manager organises suitable inputs to prepare the individual for the change. R. Areas relating to knowledge. The identification comes from the employee himself or out of a discussion between the employee and his superior who prepares the appraisal. which need change. Associates Pvt. skill. attitude and behaviour on the job. System Introduction: New systems and procedures. Two things are necessary . Identifying Training Needs . when introduced. Career Plans (Job enrichment/enlargement. call for intervention from the Training & Development function. The details of inputs to be given to an individual emerge from discussions between the Training Manager. if all individuals/groups concerned are explained in advance about the change and how to make the best use of the same. Implementation of new systems becomes much easier. The mere repetition of a situation does not necessarily lead to learning. We Transform People. the concerned employees and his superiors.
It is sad. but true. R. Tests of various types are often used for this purpose. reliable. Test must be valid. L. Ltd. Identification of Training Needs Identification of Training Needs Develop Training Objectives Measure Training Results Design Training Curriculum Conduct Training Programs Design/Select Training Methods Design Training Evaluations Methodology …People Transform Organisations. This is a highly specialized field.Training for Trainers information which is given at an exit interview is usually highly subjective. Questionnaires are sometimes used to help in the determination of training needs. The reasons are many and complicated. they will not always tell you. If you want to use questionnaires you are strongly recommended to do some study of the literature available. objective and standardized. Associates Pvt. often so incomplete as to be worthless and sometimes untrue. People often really do not know what they think or believe and there is much evidence to show that even if they know it. Those who have not been trained in the administration of tests and the interpretation of test results and who cannot get professional advice from someone who has. Questionnaires and opinion surveys can be extremely unreliable and misleading. 9 . would be well advised not to use them. that many ‘tests’ are used which fail to meet one or more of these basic requirements. We Transform People.
• The level of proficiency required. a training program will be judged adequate to the degree that it appears likely to: • Provide for the learner’s active participation. R. We Transform People. A training program should set forth goals or objectives in terms of: • The job to be performed. The trainee himself may learn more effectively when he has clearly defined goals toward which to work. • Provide for practice and repetition when needed. L. The first rough breakdown is into component knowledge. Thus.Training for Trainers Designing a Training Program Steps involved in designing a training program: The first step is to use the training strategy (or. In this situation it is essential that a teacher clarify precisely what learning and unlearning he wants to facilitate and let these objectives serve as a clear focus for his whole training program. 10 . The second step is to break the general training objectives into constituent parts. experiences are organized to accomplish specific learning (changes) within a restricted period of time. The more a trainer can arrange the learning situation so as to utilise these principles of learning. …People Transform Organisations. usually. In formal procedures of instruction. • Provide some means for the trainee to be reinforced for appropriate behaviour. Specifically enumerated objectives (in knowledge. Ltd. • Assist the trainee in his willingness to change. Setting Training Objectives. The fourth step is to decide on different packages in which this program could be offered and to ask the organisation to select one. • The conditions under which it is to be performed. • Provide the trainee with knowledge of results about his attempts to improve. The third step is to use specifications of different training methods in order to arrive at the total time and facilities required for meeting an objective. a combination of strategies) that the organisation and system have settled on together for “roughing out” an overall design. • Motivate the trainee to improve his own performance. The fifth step in designing a training program is to dovetail detailed training events into training sequences and. the more likely the learner is to learn. • Promote a meaningful integration of learning experiences that the trainee can transfer from training to the job. Associates Pvt. understanding and skill. into the shape of the total program package. finally. skills and attitudes) should indicate what material must be taught and will also affect the choice of training method.
e. availability of instructors and availability of training material. R. on-the-job performance). Content of the Training Program. including the state at which the trainee is to be tested and the standard to be attained. broken down into stages. • How this standard will be tested (e. The statement should include the following: • For whom the program is written (Training Specification). urgency. • What the trainee is expected to be able to do at significant stages of the program. • The situation in which these standard will be tested (e. than the program will have failed. Where limitations exist the program should first be written to the highest possible standard and then adjusted to meet the practical situation. Ltd. Practical Considerations Affecting the Design of Training Programs.g. The objectives of the program must be clearly set down. Statement of Objectives. Ordering the Material to be Learned. The material to be learned has been identified during the preliminary analysis and preparation of the syllabus.g. fully experienced worker). For example a program on “safety” may provide full knowledge of the work hazards and the rules to be observed but if it leaves trainees with the attitude that “It will never happen to me”. • The standard of performance to be achieved (e. Associates Pvt. The most common practical considerations which may limit the training program are cost. A statement of objectives. in the order in which it is to be presented to trainees and indicating the skills and knowledge (including attitude) to be learned. formal written test.g. We Transform People. L. The next step is to look at the breakdown of skills (what the trainee must be able to do) and knowledge (what the trainee needs to know to be able to do his job) to see in what order they should be arranged to best meet the needs of the trainee (i. This will help ensure that only those items are included which help the trainee to achieve the learning or the standard required. It is sometimes possible to provide the necessary facilities to run the desired training program. Once the objectives have been set the training program must be designed to meet those objectives. availability of space. in classroom or at place of work). A statement of the material to be learned (the syllabus). The “logical learning order” means that each item of the program makes sense to the trainee because of what has previously been learned.Training for Trainers When identifying the knowledge element of a job it is important to take into account the attitude of the employee when he comes to apply that knowledge. 11 . …People Transform Organisations. the logical learning order).
the impact he hopes to make. Associates Pvt. and his personality has to be acceptable to the students or trainees so that effective communication links can be established quickly and easily. etc. and • The social and cultural environment. unfortunately the method may become an end in itself. to make a rational appraisal of his abilities and to try to employ methods likely to enhance . But eventually each trainer has to assume personal responsibility for choosing the best methods for his particular training assignment. and participants with practical experience. managerial and training experience. Methods of training must respect: • The intellectual level and educational background of the participants. these students are open-minded and often more receptive to new ideas than the latter group. If these conditions are fulfilled. who first learn about management in a university or other type of school. much of the information is new to the students. middle managers or small entrepreneurs who have had only a basic education and who have been away from school for a long time. We Transform People. lectures should be replaced by short talks using visual aids extensively. In the former case. and personality are all factors of primary importance. a well-chosen and properly used method is likely to ease and stimulate learning. He ought to be able. might give preference to the case study method. However. either from managerial functions or from specialist work in various functional departments. 12 . The Participants and Environment from which they come. Ltd. for example.Training for Trainers Factors to be considered in the Selection of Training Methods Human Factors. in training programs intended for supervisors. In regard to the participants’ practical experience. R. concrete examples should be given and no high level theories presented. in special “training methods” courses. Trainers are advised on training methods by senior colleagues. Role playing. a lot of experience with various types of human problems in management and the ability to react quickly in discussions. L. The Trainer: The trainer’s knowledge. simplified case studies should be used instead of long and complex cases. simple programmed books should be recommended instead of the usual textbooks. The trainer has to have a clear and significant message to pass. is an exercise requiring some knowledge of psychology. but has an analytical mind and experience in solving business problems. if they are not fulfilled. only additional …People Transform Organisations. • The participants’ age and practical experience. For example.not reduce . That is why a trainer who does not possess these qualities. and it is difficult to link the training process with any previous experience. In training people with experience. therefore. through manuals. a distinction must be made between young people with little or no management experience.
Ltd. case study discussions or simulation exercises are more likely to help the participants realize that they have gaps in knowledge and skills and that training may be the answer. A preliminary analysis of needs will help to identify what objectives a particular program ought to have. Objectives of Training. in many cases. the trainer’s main problem may be how to change their air of self-complacency and make them aware of what they need to learn to do their jobs better. Let us take the example of using specialist knowledge and experience in the preparation of management decisions on complex business matters. Practical assignments. Training needs and objectives of educational training program in management are defined in terms of changes to be effected in knowledge. Knowledge. communication abilities. However. It is of little use to lecture about the value of specialists to manager who overestimates his own individual judgment and is not willing or perhaps able to use the specialist services which are available to him. attitudes and skills . We Transform People. in this group some of the participants with practical experience may take the attitude of “knowing better in advance”. If training is intended to improve multiple skills (which is usually the case). Various training situations will be concerned with various types and levels of knowledge. Associates Pvt. attitudes and skills. In such cases it is rarely sufficient for the trainers to talk about new methods and techniques of management. His interest in new knowledge and skill will undoubtedly be awakened. participation in business games or practical projects might make such a manager aware of his drawbacks so that he will begin to change his attitudes towards team work and the importance of specialists. Furthermore. Methods will then be selected with regard to their ability to impart new knowledge. a combination of training methods must be used. L. To determine which methods are most likely to affect the manager’s attitudes or impact a specific kind of knowledge. and behaviour in general. 13 . a manger may get more direct and stronger feedback from other participants in sensitivity training or as a member of a team working on a group project than in years of work in a managerial position. if so. to multi-functional situations and inter-disciplinary problems. Team work in syndicates. …People Transform Organisations. skills and attitudes are inter-related and this must not be overlooked when setting the objectives of training and choosing training methods.Training for Trainers knowledge has to be imparted. influence attitudes and develop practical skills. R. On his leadership style.which should afterwards lead to improved managerial action. they are related to certain specific management functions or subject areas or. and it is not only possible but absolutely essential to make an appeal to the participants’ experience by relating the training to it.
Time and Material Factors. etc. and to combine and co-ordinate the various functions of management. the main thing from the management point of view is not to know the technique itself. and at the same time directly influence the attitudes and behaviour of the participants themselves. These programs use case studies dealing with the “human side of the enterprise”. sensitivity training and various other forms of group discussions. business games. a combination of case study with role playing. In programs concentrating on the behavioural aspects of management. Associates Pvt. role playing. R. if we want to deal with a particular subject or problem. but to know when and how it can be used.) have their own specific features. Preparation time (which affects the cost of the training material as well) varies for the different training methods. for example. We Transform People. It should be noted that it is often possible to choose from several methods. in management education and training the principal problem is not how to deal with specific subject areas and functions. which essentially lie in an interdisciplinary approach to management. However. L. business games emphasizing communication and relations between participants. the analysis of a balance sheet can be taught through the case study method. assignments and exercises. Ltd. However. simulation exercises. communication. 14 . In certain cases lectures may be replaced or supplemented with programmed books. complex case studies …People Transform Organisations. personnel. Lecture. case studies. • Help the participants to avoid a one-sided and oversimplified approach to multi-dimensional situations. operations research. This ability can be developed through practical projects. This is possible because the principal methods are versatile enough to be used in training for a number of different subjects. Various subject areas (finance. Thus. etc. as a classroom exercise or by reading a text or a programmed book on the subject. It is much more important to: • Explain the relationship between various sides and functions of the enterprise and show the highly complex character of the management process. leadership and motivation. This may be supported by reading assignments. general management. • Promote general management skills. discussion and case studies are used in virtually all subject areas. Decisions about the choice of training methods are not independent of time. training methods may be selected and combined in ways which give the participants numerous opportunities to analyse human behaviour. financial resources and other factors. operations research techniques are based on the extensive use of mathematics and statistics. It is usually taught through a combination of lectures (using audio-visual aids) and exercises during which the technique is practiced.Training for Trainers Subject Area. a lecture. As a rule.
…People Transform Organisations. (This is appropriate when each complete part is so large or complex that the relationship of one part to another may be lost if each part is dealt with separately in depth). This is the most common pattern. which includes testing with experimental groups. the whole of the material to be learned is first covered in broad outline and then each item or subject is dealt with in depth. The length of the course predetermines the kinds of methods which can be used. We Transform People. each time at increased depth. The training model is view as an interdependent and interrelated process in which the five phases form sub-processes which are highly interrelated and interdependent on all other sub-processes as well as on the total process. or in courses given outside the institute. The training facilities may be a limiting factor in some institutes. Ltd. For example. This model is the traditional model composed of the phases assessment. 15 . Associates Pvt. The conception of the training model as an interrelated process leads to a set of consequences quite different from those of the traditional conception. during training is more important. and making necessary revisions. e. objective setting. It is important that the subjects covered by the program are developed to a pattern which helps the trainee to learn. It is used when it is important for the trainee to discover for himself the relationship between the different items or subjects. answers. The whole of the material to be learned may be covered several times over.00) it is more desirable to have enjoyable and attractive sessions which require active involvement. implementation and evaluation.00-16. The consequences which result from using it as a process are in general (1) the results of each sub-processes do not become final statements but are continually reworked and reconceived. L. Factors such as the number of rooms available for group discussions or syndicates or the accessibility of audio-visual aids should be anticipated and the methods altered in advance. and actions in each sub-process which results in (3) a functional utility in terms of training results. in the postlunch period (14. design. The Need for a Pattern. there are three ways of structuring a training program. the better are the chances that the trainer will be able to use business games.g. Broadly. Each item or subject may be presented separately and the “parts” brought into a “whole” at the end of the program. The training literature frequently refers to a particular model which is commonly used in training. It is used when there are no special considerations which make an alternative pattern more appropriate. (This is suitable only when each item or subject is in itself a complete piece of learning. A Systems Concept of Training. resulting in (2) increasingly specific questions. e. R. complex cases and practical projects. in small towns. The time of day. The longer the course.Training for Trainers and business games require long and costly preparation.g.
• There are too few trainees to warrant the setting-up of an in-company course. 16 . In-Company. Depending on the type of job for which the trainee is being prepared. Associates Pvt. The mixture will depend on the nature of the job. there will be elements of the training which are best done off-the-job (either in-company or externally) and some which are best done on-the-job (either supernumerary or as part of the normal labour force). In-Company. • In-company. • External courses. Supernumerary. off-the-job. • When tasks which the trainee will face in his job do not occur in any coherent order (i. For example. The place where the training is to be carried out. This understanding of the structure will help them to learn and remember what they have learned. …People Transform Organisations. We Transform People. a management trainee will need knowledge of a number of jobs and the environment in which they are performed. On-the-job training may be applicable to more complex jobs which can be broken down into a series of simple steps but it is usually difficult in the production situation to keep the steps in logical learning order. Off-The-Job. In-Company. Supernumerary training is also suitable when the trainee needs broad experience of several types of work. The choice of where each part of the training is best carried out must be made from the following: • In-company. R. • The company has no comparable facilities internally to give the training required. • The company does not have suitable lectures or instructors available. Ltd. when there is no logical learning order possible at the place of work).e. This training is suitable when off-the-job training (in-company or external) is to be followed by a period during which the trainee will develop skill at the place of work. Off-the-job training is used: • To establish the self-confidence of the trainee before he is introduced to the production situation. On-The-Job. on-the-job ( part of the normal labour force) • In-company. supernumerary.Training for Trainers supervisory training). The training facilities of external bodies are used when: • The skills and knowledge learned internally need to be supplemented by external courses. • When the trainee needs a lot of knowledge to be able to do the job ( it is hard to put over information at the place of production) External Courses. L. the in-company facilities and the availability of external courses.
Instructors vary in the speed at which they promote the learning and conditions under which learning takes place vary from day to day ( e. He may either suffer a feeling of frustration or expand his responsibility beyond that expected by management.the average trainee will be unable to learn. R. When the material to be learned is at a very high level . • Each four-day unit is made the “target” for a five-day week. He will not suffer a sense of failure. be “tailor-made” to meet the exact requirement of an individual company. Ltd. The above-average trainee may be able to understand the subject matter. The Level of Instruction. A training program which covers the right items or subjects may fail to achieve its objectives because it is pitched at the wrong level. therefore. Timing The Program. The stages at which the rate of learning slows down. the mood of instructors and trainees). The following simple procedure will help to achieve timing which is both realistic and flexible: • The time needed by an average trainee is estimated for each item or subject of the program. This may mean a slow start to acclimatize the trainees. 17 . Fitting Together In-Company and External Training. A point of difficulty with external course is that they will generally cater for a wide range of trainees from different companies and cannot. Pace of the Program. L.Training for Trainers There is an advantage to be gained by the trainees in mixing with the employees of other companies. Flexible because: Trainees vary in the speed at which they learn. The trainees’ level of ability will to some extent determine the general pace at which skill and knowledge can be fed to them but there are other considerations: The length of time elapsed since the trainees were in a last formal training situation. We Transform People. Timing must be realistic and flexible. • These estimated times are built into four-day units. A Simple procedure. noise level. • The four-day units are then spread over the five-day week in the way which best suits the subject matter and the trainees. When the training program involves a mixture of in-company and external training it is important that the in-company part is first put on a systematic basis and that the external part is then fitted to the in-company part. Realistic because: The trainee needs sufficient time in which to learn and time costs money.g. Associates Pvt. • …People Transform Organisations. temperature. The level of instruction must be matched to the trainees’ abilities. but he will find the job demands less of him than he was led to expect from the training program.
role play. The trainee needs to know whether: • He has correctly understood the information he has been given ( knowledge). projects. The training sessions which provide most knowledge of progress are those which simulate the work situation e. syndicate and group exercises. The Need For “Feedback”.trainees often reject the whole of the program even when some parts are at the right level. R. business games. The trainer needs to know whether: • The items to be learned are being learned. • The place at which the test is to be set. • The standard expected of the trainees. 18 . Whatever the form of the test it must be carefully devised with the following points in mind: • The objective of the part of the program being tested.g. Ltd. • There are gaps in his instruction or in the program. Associates Pvt. • He can use the information on a job of work (Skill). Choice of a Training Technique. • There are quicker trainees who need extra work to keep them interested. • Special attention is required to some slow trainees. • The ease with which the test can be marked or judged. • The type of trainee. At frequent intervals during the program both the trainer and trainee need to know how they are progressing. The choice of techniques should be made with the following points in mind: • The end result to be achieved • The person who is to give the particular session • The type of trainee • The time of day • The technique used for other items of the program Tips of Lesson Preparation and Presentation …People Transform Organisations.. A program which envisages all knowledge being put across in the form of “telling” and all practice of skill being done at the place of work will not be as successful as one which employs the different available training techniques to advantage.Training for Trainers When the material to be learned is at a very low level . We Transform People. To complete even a short training program before checking whether the trainees have acquired the necessary level of knowledge or skill would create a position where any false learning or omissions could not be rectified within the time allocated to the program. How to Provide for “Feedback”. L. The choice of training techniques is important to a successful training program.
See that the order of presentation is logical from the group’s point of view. Prepare discussion questions and test questions if necessary. to reinforce the lesson. Estimate the length of time to be used for each section of the lesson. etc. Review films or other supplementary material for suitability. How much time do you have to prepare? What is the total time available for the lesson (including time for out-of-class reading and/or problem-solving)? What time of the day or evening is the lesson to be given? Consider the Resources Available. Prepare a Lesson Plan. special film or any other assistance required for the lesson? Have prior arrangements been made to have any of these available? Plan and Schedule the Subject Matter. what do you want their “terminal behaviour” to be? Consider the group. Prepare handouts. resource person. therefore it is always advisable to ‘grade’ the subject matter carefully so as to ensure that the more essential ingredients of the lesson are put over and understood within the time allocated for instruction. plan chalkboard notes. R. Develop the Lesson Material. • Is the necessary equipment available for any special demonstrations? • Is there time to obtain it and set it up? • Is time available for the class to do preparatory reading? • Is a guest speaker. We Transform People. Arrive in advance to check the physical arrangements in the classroom …People Transform Organisations. Classroom Arrangements. Ltd. 19 . Note down in the plan where you will use prepared exercises or special demonstration (including visual aids) or a discussion or question period. Associates Pvt. from the simple to the complex and from the particular to the general. or what do you want them to know or understand as a result of your instruction? In other words. Prepare suitable exercises. Proceed from the known to the unknown. Most instructors have at their disposal only a limited time in which to give their lesson. L. sample problems or illustrations (including visual aid displays) as appropriate. How much do they already know about the subject? What is their general attitude toward the subject likely to be? What is their intellectual level? How fast will they be able to work? Is the group homogenous from this point of view? Does the group have any particular learning difficulties that must be taken into account? What is the size of the group? Consider the Time Available. What is the objective of this particular lesson in relation to the total course? What do you want the group to do better or to do differently. demonstrations.Training for Trainers Consider your overall objective.
These can be used to provide wide range of realistic examples of job conditions and situations in a condensed period of time. Deal tactfully with incorrect answers. Start the lesson punctually. case studies. Methods and Techniques of Training Training techniques represent the medium of imparting skills and knowledge to employees. memory is helped by repetition. Use questions and answers to check understanding. while the employee is actually working. films. audio-visuals. A virtue of this method is that it can be used for very large groups. Announce the subject of the lesson briefly and concisely.visuals. and hence the cost per trainee is low. Among the most commonly used techniques are lectures. role plays and simulations. Use your lesson plan throughout. programmed instruction. Put the group at ease. Important techniques of training viz. Make sure that questions are not ambiguous. We Transform People. Often. Make sure that questions. on-the-job training. computer-aided instruction. Ltd. On-the-job methods refer to methods that are applied at the work place. Recapitulation. leave time for note-taking or other administrative matters. Review briefly the ground you have covered. Use questions reveal misunderstanding and clear them up. as when an experienced worker shows a trainee how to perform …People Transform Organisations. Follow a logical sequence. The trainees should have a reasonable chance of answering the questions or completing the task in the time available. OJT is conducted at the work site and in the context of the job. Lecture Method: A verbal presentation of information by an instructor to a large audience is commonly known as a lecture. overheads. They are the means applied in training methods. Test. if the trainer wants the participants to remember what he said.Training for Trainers Introduction. problems or exercises selected for testing purposes adequately cover the material which has been taught. Body of the Lesson. simulation and sensitivity training have been elaborated below. lectures. On-the-Job Training (OJT): Majority of industrial training is of the OJT type. L. A handout is a must. audio cassettes. video-tapes and films comprise the audio . Keep track of the time. Audio-Visuals: Television slides. Relate the lesson to previous instruction and to the program as a whole. Go over the areas of weakness revealed by the test. The lecturer is presumed to possess a considerable depth of knowledge of the subject at hand. 20 . Try to get the interest of the group. Off-the-job methods are used away from the work place. R. Associates Pvt. and motivate them to do what they want to learn. it is informal.
real problems that managers have faced. analyse causes. L. Simulation: A simulator is any kind of equipment or technique that duplicates as nearly as possible the actual conditions encountered on the job. Case study and role playing are used in management development programs. R. Simulation is an attempt to create a realistic decision-making environment for the trainee. either in book form or through a training machine. Information is provided to the trainee in blocks. Role Playing generally focuses on emotional (mainly human relations) issues rather than actual ones. as in the case study. Ltd. Case Study is a written description of an actual situation in business which provokes the reader to decide what is going on. the learner must answer a question about it. Taken from the actual experiences of organisations. as well as excellent opportunities for individuals to defend their analytical and judgmental abilities. Programmed Instruction: This is a technique where training is offered without the intervention of a trainer. We Transform People. Associates Pvt. usually fewer than 12 in a group. these cases represent attempts to describe.Training for Trainers the job tasks. Feedback in the form of correct answers is provided after each response. Trainees study the cases to determine problems. what the situation really is or what the problems are and what can and should be done. Sensitivity Training: This type of training includes a small number of trainees. as accurately as possible. The results of those decisions are reported back to the trainee with an explanation of what would have happened had they actually been made in the workplace. this method is least expensive since no formal training is organised. They meet with a passive trainer and gain insight into their own and others’ behaviour. develop alternative solutions. Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI): This is an extension of programmed instruction. memory and data manipulation capabilities of the computer permit greater utilization of basic programmed instruction concepts. and implement it. Simulations present likely problem situations and decision alternatives to the trainee. and then have the trainees assume the parts of specific personalities in the situation. The speed. Role playing helps promote interpersonal relations. Further. Case study can provide simulating discussions among participants. After reading each block of material. 21 . The essence of role playing is to create a realistic situation. OJT is the most effective method as the trainee learns by experience and becomes more competent. The trainee learns from this feedback and improves his subsequent simulation and workplace decisions. select the best one. Attitude change is another result of role playing. Meeting have no …People Transform Organisations.
Ltd. the training philosophy of the instructor or training centre. Apart from the fact that sixty minutes of unrelieved talking is not easily assimilated or remembered. The Lecture Method. The use of lecturing depends on the subject matter. …People Transform Organisations. A certain amount of informal lecturing is inherent in the conduct of any course. attitudes are changed best when people convince themselves. or T-group (training groups). and the over-all learning situation. the major disadvantage of the lecture comes from the fact that it is a one-way communication. and the feelings and emotions generated in the interaction process. Formal lecturing has been used largely to build up basic theoretical knowledge which must be gained before practice or participative training sessions will not be of any use. greater sensitivity to the behaviour of others. We Transform People. scarce training resources. Associates Pvt. Unless the speaker is sensitive to his audience.laboratory training.” The objectives of sensitivity training are to provide the participants with increased awareness of their own behaviour and how others perceive them. and increased tolerance of individual differences accompanied by better conflict resolution skills. 22 . and increased understanding of group processes. to set out the course objectives. R. how they perceive one another. He has little opportunity to clarify meanings. L. for the most part. Discussions focus on “why participants behave as they do. lecturing may be the only alternative. It is also of limited value in promoting behavioural or attitudinal changes. Specific results sought include increased ability to empathise with others. it is largely unsuited to the training of skills. The Lecture Method. It is very difficult to convince anyone by merely talking at them. The Case Study Method. The listeners remain passive. or few hours available for instruction. the lecture method has its limitations. improved listening skills. greater openness.Training for Trainers agenda. Role Playing and Games being the most common have been elaborated below. to check on whether or not the trainees really understand what is being presented. or to handle the wide diversity of abilities and attitudes which they represent. Sensitivity training can go by a variety of names . provide explanation and analysis relevant to study exercises. are held away from workplaces and questions deal with the “here and now” of the group process. which require practice. motivate trainees. Nevertheless. encounter groups. he has no way of knowing whether or not they are taking in what he is saying. Since it does not demand the active involvement of participants. If there are large numbers of people to be trained. which is a large part of management development. Participative methods are better for such purposes.
etc. We Transform People. R. Associates Pvt. level and nature of education. What is the total time available? How much of it will be taken up by formalities? How much time will you leave for questions and discussion? A good instructor respects the clock by narrowing down or adjusting his lecture to suit the time available.How Long • What is the subject matter? .What The Audience. likes. …People Transform Organisations. Planning the Lecture. Are they used to listening to lectures? How fast will they be able to take in what you say? This may also involve their knowledge of languages. 23 . Ltd. you must be able to answer four basic questions: • Who is your audience? . cultural features. humor.Who • What is the purpose of your talk? . Is their attitude likely to be friendly? Curious? Indifferent? Hostile (or skeptical)? Know the characteristics of your audience: their background. Purpose of Talk. or an appreciation of. What do you want the audience to do or understand better as a result of your talk? Your approach will certainly vary depending on whether you wish to: • Give general information on. L. dislikes. by the use of interesting examples.Why • What is the time available? . Time Available.Training for Trainers Basic steps in improving the instructional value of the lecture. a subject • Gain acceptance for a new point of view • Change basic attitudes • Give detailed information • Train a particular skill With a clearly-defined purpose in mind. This approach will give you some idea about the knowledge of the group and allow you to make some last minute adjustments if necessary. A “sag-point” in the audience’s interest occurs after about twenty minutes. What does your audience know about the subject? What can you assume that they know before you start the lecture? It may be helpful to start with a general discussion or ask questions to get opinions. Before starting to prepare your lecture. A trainer should thus plan his talk and deliver so that interest is reawakened and passive listeners are reactivated from time to time. rhetorical questions. and audience participation through discussion or question period. it will be easier to select appropriate material and to decide on the most effective way to present it.
Associates Pvt. Such as layout of the chairs and tables. provision of chalk and eraser.requires a certain confidence and dignity to gain and hold the attention of the group. finalize plans for their arrangement. Try out your visual aids. The speaker has an opportunity to check his speed and his delivery of it. Even experienced lecturers suffer from stage fright on occasions. Appearance. 24 . Start punctually and speak from your notes if necessary. and other errors that can creep into even the best planned lecture. training aids. Whatever type you use .Training for Trainers Subject Matter. Make sure that you arrive at the appointed place a few minutes ahead of time so that you can check the physical arrangements which have been made. Deliver the Lecture. Any kind of leadership .they should be easily readable and sequentially numbered to avoid possible confusion. speak from a position that is comfortable for you but appropriate to the situation. organizing a discussion . Poor choice of subject or lack of sufficient knowledge about it may mean death for a lecture. but at the same time your topic and approach must be relevant to the needs and interests of the audience. Some speakers prefer to use a lectern because it holds notes at standing height. transitions that are made too abruptly for his listeners to follow. Manner.talking before a group. pause and look at the audience. Read a phrase. This may reveal points at which he is unintentionally unclear. It is important to speak from your own knowledge and experience. L.cards. Position should also be convenient to manipulate most visual aids. Posture. ensuring that they are readable and clearly visible in the training room. Rehearse. Do not read all your lecture or you will have no audience left by the time you finish. paper sheets . Speakers should make sure that there is nothing about their personal appearance which is out of harmony with the occasion or which is likely to irritate the audience or distract their attention. R. If you have a choice. One should look confident and friendly (even if nervous) as audiences are very susceptible to first impressions. Careless choice of language or humor …People Transform Organisations. Ltd. even for most experienced lecturers. The chief value of the rehearsal is in familiarizing the speaker with his speech. lectern. Preparing The Lecture. Covering the Material. Plan and prepare visual aids. Prepare the notes from which you will speak. Be courteous. The fact of having to make them often forces the lecturer to clarify and organize his thoughts. One or two dry runs through a lecture can build a speaker’s confidence. Rehearsing the lecture is an essential step. Clothes should be neat and suitable for the occasion. Various training aids may be employed to make the lecture more interesting and more easily assimilated by the listeners by engaging their sense of sight. We Transform People.
familiar words and keeping sentences short. especially in the longer cases. Any actions and gestures must be natural and spontaneous. We Transform People. as they are distracting and sometimes extremely annoying. One of the foremost tasks of any effective management education. Audience is quick to judge speakers . can the manager have access to unlimited information and he often has to make decisions on incomplete information and under conditions of uncertainty. Vocabulary. The rigorous analysis required.jiggling coins. Mannerisms . preferring short. L. It is best to use everyday language. emphasis and indignation. These decisions are. The Case Study Method. The tone of the voice can be altered to convey confidence. Rehearsal helps. Voice. Pace and volume should be varied occasionally to avoid monotony. Choose stories that are relevant to the point you are trying to make.they are not misled by cleverness and they don’t like insincerity. or if the audience is unknown to you. Be enthusiastic. avoiding slang. Say what you mean and say it as if you meant it. Try to avoid leaning on the table or the lectern or putting your hands in your pockets. One of the fundamental tasks of a manager is to make and to implement decisions. therefore. Be very careful with “funny” stories . is said to develop habits of logical thinking and searching for as complete information as possible before reaching conclusions. if they are forced then it is best to do without them. Rarely. Gestures must be purposeful and not just flapping of the hands. Avoid smoking before your lecture. based on analysis of such facts and other information as may be available. R. Gesture. In essence. Ltd. Be yourself . Almost inevitably the businessman is compelled to decide on a course of action before he can obtain all the facts he would like to have. it takes away some of the strangeness and novelty of the actual lecture. playing with the chalk. Be Sincere. for the most part. contemplation and discussion of actual situations.Training for Trainers or a thoughtless gesture may create barriers to communication which will be difficult to overcome later. Associates Pvt.especially if you are not a born story teller. which could be misunderstood. walking about the platform for no apparent reason should be avoided. the case method in management education aims at developing skills in discovering and defining the vital questions that need to be answered and then to learn how to set about finding the answers.don’t try to imitate anyone else. The case study technique is based on the belief that the trainee can best attain managerial understanding and competence through the study. 25 . however. emotion. must be to improve the ability to mangers and next in line managers to take wise decisions and make plans for their successful implementation. let your talk reveal and convince the audience of your own interest in the subject. …People Transform Organisations.
one taking the role of manager. Role playing is a training technique in which participants assume an identity other than their own. the other of a subordinate. Either of two approaches is generally used: Structured Role Playing: A leader selects both the situation and the role to be enacted. For example. for example. R. Roles can be selected which are in contrast to the real-life situations of the player so as to provide vicarious experience and widen the insight of the trainee into the real meaning and possible implication of the behaviour of other persons with whom he comes into contact. the trainer might assume the role of the leader in the role-play. The leader or group planning the exercise may determine the degree of spontaneity desired and adjust how much the players should or should not be told in advance. Associates Pvt. in this way. in which the manager is responsible for evaluating the job performance of the subordinate. and specifies the goals of the activity. role playing permits experimentation with different ways of behaving in a given situation. the goal for the group is to study different leadership patterns. …People Transform Organisations. in some cases. Major Aims. The simulated situation is presented to the group first. if. eliminates many of the risks and accountability inherent in real life while retaining may other aspects of the interaction. and orally assign the other roles. We Transform People. the role requirements. followed by the enactment. Since the role-playing exercise permits practice in reaching to conflict situations without the risks normally inherent in real organisational life. Simulation of reality. or interpreting a report. and elicit complex responses from the observers. Role playing allows a player to practice reacting in conflict and other stressful situations. to exploit a wide range of reactions which the trainee may believe to be appropriate to the role. A variation of this approach consists of having the role playing planned in advance by members of the group itself rather than by the leader. In playing their roles. to cope with real or hypothetical problems in human relations and other areas. participants undertake to act out behaviour patterns they believe are characteristic of those roles in specific social situations. Major variables. the social situation presented to the person playing the role. Role Playing. This would be appropriate when trying to communicate information. In more simple cases. The social situations which are presented to the participant playing a given role can be varied. that is the specific behaviour patterns the player builds into the role. setting and studying a social problem. and the participant’s own personality. This type of pre-planned role playing provides. thus. mistakes can be tolerated. very elaborate written materials that describe the roles and situation.Training for Trainers Experience in arguing a viewpoint before one’s peers also develops ability to communicate clearly. L. In other words. include the role itself. Ltd. Design and Methodology. two trainees might act out an interview. 26 .
perhaps before and after a particular management principle or technique has been discussed. (c) observation and feedback. Four to seven members is the usual size of teams though some games have teams as large as fifteen members. (2) the inter-relatedness of the functions and parts of an organisation and its relation to its environment. Both structured and spontaneous role playing relate to learning through (a) doing. (4) the problems of working in a team. They can be used more than once. R. and (d) analysis. In other games. The number of decision activities in a game run should be great enough to permit the teams to establish a working organisation. The purpose of management games is to increase a person’s understanding of: (1) Specific organisational problems (marketing. (3) the problems of organisation policy and decision making. the decisions which are made by the participants are processed to produce a series of hypothetical actions in the form of performance reports. which may be defined as a sequential decision-making exercise structured around a hypothetical model of an organisation’s operations. Design and Methodology. to become involved in …People Transform Organisations. games should be used only with a clear understanding of the objectives to be attained. grouped into teams. Most games. We Transform People. It’s most crucial aspect is the attempt to reproduce the social psychological and economic dynamics of organisational behaviour in an artificial setting. the enactment itself serves as the “briefing” to the group on the problem and situation. are designed for each participant to represent an individual decision-making unit. Ltd. Games. The number of teams in a game is largely predetermined by its purpose. Games can be incorporated into training courses in many ways. (b) imitation. However. Role playing represents a form of experiential learning. production. Games may be extremely simple or complex and of considerable depth. in which participants assume roles in managing the simulated operations. Major Aims. Manual games are generally restricted to a dozen teams or less.Training for Trainers Spontaneous Role Playing: This approach relies on the problem situation arising from a group discussion. It is a training technique in which participants. for greater effectiveness. The maximum number of members per team depends largely on the complexity of the game and the time available for an effective organisation effort and intra-team communication in decision making. L. In this instance. consider a sequence of problems and organize themselves to make decisions. Using a set of relationships built into a skeletal model of an organisation. Associates Pvt. 27 . etc). They can be used at the beginning of training courses as an orientation device. without advance planning by the group or leader. notably at the functional and sub-functional levels. group decision making is the rule. It is a form of simulation.
Proper use of visual aids requires a considerable investment of time and thought. In practice. Associates Pvt. the games are played to provide quite deliberately too little time for participants to analyse the situation and to assess the information available to them before reaching the next decision. one finds in use periods ranging from a few minutes to two hours or more. but by engaging more than one of the senses. 28 . in: • Selecting the points to be visualized. In addition. At other times. • Choosing the most appropriate medium. Ltd. Deciding which device to use. the following are among the factors which must be considered: • Circumstances • Subject • Cost …People Transform Organisations. they also facilitate listening and remembering. Visual aids will not automatically increase training effectiveness however. • Designing layout and choosing colour.Training for Trainers planning and to see the results. • Making the aid. The time available for making decisions within each period of play during a game run is normally related to the complexity of the game. • Evaluating its effectiveness and revising for future use. and adequate rehearsal and other preparation required to use the visuals properly. In choosing the best device for use in a particular presentation. • Translating ideas into suitably visual forms. they must be carefully designed to support a lesson and to suit a particular audience and situation. thought and imagination. R. This can produce a situation of strain and tension between members of the group which not only adds to the general excitement of the session. visualization can be essential to understanding. Use of Audio Visual Aids Research and experience have shown that audio-visual techniques can significantly increase and reinforce learning. Not only do they add interest to a presentation. No one device is the best answer to all visual aid situations. provision may be made for periodic review sessions involving comparison with other teams as a part of the game. but produces what in some quarters is regarded as an approximation of the actual strain which is involved in the real world in making administrative decisions. L. and continuous review of decisions is usually a component of the game. It is better not to use any device unless you are prepared to give the time and attention that is required in designing your talk and the visuals which are to be used. We Transform People. The planning and preparation of such aids requires time. Post-play evaluation sessions are important. In the teaching of abstract concepts or unfamiliar subjects.
• To introduce new and unfamiliar objects and concepts. movable ribbons. etc. • To show in outline form the growth of a complex idea. The things that can be visualized include ideas. R. Methodology. material. • Use the image area as a form: to present accounting reports. concepts. Ltd. • Use colour as often as possible (see section below on uses of colour) for coding. L. • Use pictures wherever possible . • Use unusual devices: lines. and similar matters. Associates Pvt. • Use the image area as a graph: to present statistics and statistical processes. idea by idea. chemicals). to present mathematics. stressing key facts.supplemented as necessary by words and figures. Designing visuals is a good thing because many talks are too complex or are organized in a confusing way. • Chalkboard • Flip Chart or Newsprint Pad • Plastic Writing Board or White board • Magnetic Board • Flannel Board • Overhead Projector Designing the Visuals. • To bring out points which need to be emphasized. • To attract attention through unusual devices or colour. arrows. • To show relationships which exist among facts or objects. • Use words (singly or in phrases) as a second choice. To start designing visuals go through your talk sentence by sentence. and the process of developing visuals will improve many talks. and decide what needs to be visualized and what can be visualized. statistical tabulations. multiplelayer images. elastic. 29 .Training for Trainers • Availability Devices Available. processes. relationships. We Transform People. Visuals can be used: • To bring out a series of facts and the conclusion to which they lead. • Use your imagination! Evaluation of Training …People Transform Organisations. • To present complex processes (industrial. and then start thinking of ways and means. or the treatment of a subject so as to enable people to see readily which are the major and which are the subordinate points.
30 . Evaluation of the training program must be based on the following principles: • Evaluation specialist must be clear about the goals and purposes of evaluation. • Realistic target dates must be set for each phase of the evaluation process. L. Training programs should be evaluated to determine their cost effectiveness. A sense of urgency must be developed but deadlines that are unreasonably high will result in poor evaluation. Why Evaluate? Evaluation has two purposes. and their products. • Evaluation must provide the means and focus for trainers to be able to appraise themselves. credibility of training and development is greatly enhanced when it is proved that the organisation has benefited tangibly from it. Evaluation helps to determine the results of the training and development program. A second reason of evaluation is to ensure that any changes in the trainee’s capability are due to the training program and not due to any other reason. R. we affect the nature of their learning. We Transform People. Ltd. In practice. …People Transform Organisations. we change the nature of their reactions. this is usually impossible. If we set trainees with an examination at the end of a course. Principles of Evaluation. Secondly. For example. Many trainers hope to obtain completely objective information on the results of training. since any evaluation exercise affects the nature of the situation studies. • It must be continuous and specific. it can itself be used as a training aid. their practices. The main objective of evaluating the training program is to determine if it has corrected performance deficiencies. if we ask trainees for information about their reactions to training. it can be used for assessing training effectiveness. First. Associates Pvt. Training and development requires a huge economical investment thus it is necessary to judge how far the program has been useful.Training for Trainers The last stage in the training and development process is the evaluation of results. Evaluation also is useful to provide explanation incase of program failure. • It must be based on objective methods and standards. The primary purpose of evaluation is to improve training by discovering which training processes are successful in achieving their objectives (to “sort out the good training from the bad”). Finally. Need for Evaluation.
Its effects are likely to be beneficial. Since evaluation affects learning. …People Transform Organisations. Trainees learn (acquire knowledge. words typed per minute. The Learning Level.g. A variation of this method is to measure the knowledge/skills that employees possess at the commencement and completion of training. the method of presentation. Trainees apply this learning in the form of changed behaviour back on the job. Associates Pvt. 1. Techniques of Evaluation. since it is a primary principle of the psychology of learning that knowledge of results facilitates good learning. Levels of Evaluation The process which occurs as a result of a successful training program can be divided into four levels. This changed job behaviour affects the functioning of the firm (or the behaviour of individuals other than the trainees). Another method of evaluation is to pass out a questionnaire to the trainees after the completion of the program to obtain their opinions about the program’s worth. If the measurement reveals that the results after training are satisfactory. Evaluation at the reactions level provides: • A short-term subjective assessment of the trainee’s reactions to the course. We Transform People. Trainees react to the training (form opinions and attitudes about the trainer. The Job Behaviour Level. quality pieces produced per hour) before and after training for both groups. The Functioning Level (Efficiency and Costs). One approach towards evaluation is to use experimental and control groups. Each group is randomly selected. 3. Several techniques of evaluation are used in organisations. skills and attitudes about the subject matter of the training. which they are capable of translating into behaviour within the training situation). 31 . Evaluation can help trainees to learn more effectively. one to receive training (experimental) and the other not to receive training (control). These changes can be measured by a variety of indices. Evaluation can be carried out at any of these levels. then the training may be taken as successful. The Reaction level. L.) 2. • An indication of those parts of the course which need immediate alterations. Ltd. Their opinions could also be obtained through interviews.Training for Trainers This leads us to the second purpose of evaluation. etc. Measures are taken of the relevant indicators of success (e. their own enjoyment and involvement. the usefulness and interest of the subject matter. random selection helps to assure the formation of groups quite similar to each other. the training program is labeled as successful. If the gains demonstrated by the experimental group are better than those of the control group. 4. it can be put to use as a training aid (an aid to learning). many of which can be expressed in terms of costs. R.
• How: depending on complexity of job . We Transform People. where the skill components of the job have been …People Transform Organisations. Associates Pvt. Evaluation at job behaviour level discovers whether or not trainees have applied their learning in the form of changed behaviour on the job measures effectiveness of training programs in terms of on-the-job behaviour. Sometimes referred to as the level of immediate outcomes. • Benefits: evaluates training program directly in terms of results desired. reduce costs. 32 . or he may change his job behaviour. The chain can be broken at any of its links: a trainee may react correctly but fail to learn. • How: reduce turnover. R. • Benefits: enables trainer to establish base data. reduction in grievances. but unless we had evaluated at the reactions and learning levels. time-consuming for the trainer. we would not know why this had happened and so would not be able to improve the training). • For simple forms of training with clearly defined objectives (e. provides trainee with knowledge of results which helps him to identify his own area of need. training an operator to work a machine. ideally we should evaluate at every level. increase in quality and quantity of production. but fail to apply his learning on the job.Training for Trainers Evaluation at learning level obtains information on the amount of learning that trainees acquire during the training program .g. we are in danger of being unable to explain any changes that we discover. e. we will only discover the more superficial change. If we ignore the more distant levels. gets top and senior management involved. If we ignore the immediate levels (reactions and learning).g. or he may learn.systematic appraisal on a before-and-after basis. • How: usually through examination or testing systems. (For instance. it may be impractical or undesirable to evaluate at every level. Sometimes referred to as the level of longterm or ultimate outcomes. • Benefits: indicates whether or not training program was effective. These four levels can be seen as a chain of cause and effect. but this may have no effect on the functioning of the firms. Sometimes referred to as the level of intermediate outcomes. In many cases. because we have not followed through every link in the chain. Thus. however. • Drawbacks: difficult to know how much of the improvement can be directly attributed to a specific training program .measures increased knowledge. • Drawbacks: more difficult to evaluate than “reactions” and “learning” levels. we might discover the trainee’s job behaviour had deteriorated after the training. L. trainer’s observations through involvement in job situation. Ltd.depends partly on how specific the objectives of the training are. Evaluation at functioning level measures the effects of the trainee’s job behaviour on the productivity of efficiency of the trainee’s department or on the morale of his subordinates. • Drawbacks: measurement of increased knowledge alone is unsuitable does not indicate manager’s ability to use or apply it to his work.
For instance. Objective Setting and Evaluation. with wide or ill-defined objectives (e. We Transform People. unsystematic. What makes a successful instructor? The following bullets simply point out what are considered the basic minimum requirements for a successful instructor. Or we may know too little about the trainees’ job content to be able to evaluate job behaviour. and other factors. He must: • Want to instruct. many forms of supervisory and management training) it may be impossible to evaluate at the more distant levels. quantified data should never be taken at its face value. it is doubtful whether a man can perform successfully as an instructor unless and until he can meet the minimum specification set out below. Some instructors can meet all these requirements and many more. Associates Pvt. but should be interpreted in the light of un-quantified data. …People Transform Organisations. The level at which training is evaluated should be the level at which the objectives of training are set. The two types of data have complementary advantages and disadvantages. the finance available.g. the relationship between trainers. numerical) or un-quantified (descriptive. Ltd. or at a specified time (or times) after the end of training. 33 . the design of training and the training methods. we may be training supervisors to improve their communication with their subordinates (Job Behaviour Level) but we may have no idea how to measure the effect of these changes on the functioning of the firm. Therefore. Because of its narrowness and specificity. Quantified or Un-quantified? Evaluation data can be either quantified (measured. There is a wide range of possible techniques at each level of evaluation. immediately after training. and to set objectives at these levels only. R. and we may therefore have to concentrate on the Reactions and Learning Levels. In each case. The more precise the objectives. trainees and their superiors. verbal). All evaluation techniques (with the exception of some at the “functioning” level) are variations on the two themes of watching and asking (observation and questionnaire/interview). post-training evaluation is intimately connected with the pre-training investigation of training needs and the establishment of training objectives. the more precisely can training be evaluated.Training for Trainers • precisely defined) it is possible to evaluate directly at the job behaviour and functioning levels. The choice of evaluation criteria depends on the objectives of the training. The selection of the correct technique (or combination of techniques) for a particular situation depends on the nature of the training objectives. Techniques of Evaluation. L. systematic. it should if possible be compared with information on the before-training situation. For very complex form of training. Evaluation should be tailor-made to fit the needs of the situation.the four levels) can be obtained during training. On the other hand. When to Evaluate? Evaluation data (at any .
…People Transform Organisations. R. Know how people learn. Ltd. L.Training for Trainers • • • • • Know how to instruct. Be able to communicate. We Transform People. Associates Pvt. Have the right personality. Be flexible. 34 .
Ltd. • A combination of training methods should be selected so that variety is permitted and as many of the senses as possible are utilized. 35 . It should be made clear why changes are needed. • Attempt should be made to determine if the trainee has the intelligence. • The training program should be planned so that it is related to the trainee’s previous experiences and background. • Attempts should be made to create organisational conditions that are conductive to a good learning environment. • The trainee should be motivated to see the need for training by making him aware of the personal benefits he can achieve through better performance. maturity.Training for Trainers Conclusion The trainer can make his training programs effective and successful by keeping the following in mind: • Specific training objectives should be outlined on the basis of the type of performance required to achieve organizational goals and objectives. and motivation to successfully complete the training program. • He should be provided with opportunity to practice the newly needed behaviour norms. …People Transform Organisations. R. Associates Pvt. • Flexibility should be allowed in judging the rates of progress in the training program. • Personal involvement or active participation of the trainee should be got in the training program. We Transform People. L.