Rate of reaction of magnesium with hydrochloric acid Magnesium reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid in a conical flask which

is connected to an inverted measuring cylinder in a trough of water. The volume of hydrogen gas produced is measured over a few minutes, and the results are used to plot a graph. Read our standard health & safety guidance Lesson organisation This is intended as a class practical. It is best if the students work in pairs because setting up and starting the experiment requires more than one pair of hands. One student can add the magnesium ribbon to the acid and stopper the flask, while the other starts the stopclock. During the experiment, one student can take the readings while the other records them. The experiment itself takes only a few minutes. But allow at least 30 minutes to give students time to set up, take readings and draw graph. Hydrogen gas (Extremely flammable) is generated in the experiment. Students should not have access to any source of ignition. Apparatus and Chemicals Eye protection Each group of students will need: Conical flask (100 cm3) Single-holed rubber bung and delivery tube to fit conical flask (see note 3) Trough (or plastic washing-up bowl) Measuring cylinders (100 cm3), 2 Clamp stand, boss and clamp Stopclock Graph paper Each group of students will need access to: Magnesium ribbon (Low hazard) cut into 3 cm lengths (see note 1) Dilute hydrochloric acid, 1 mol dm-3 (Low hazard at this concentration) (see note 2) Below is a diagram of the set-up Technical notes Magnesium ribbon (Low hazard) Refer to CLEAPSS Hazcard 59A Hydrochloric acid (Low hazard at concentration used) Refer to CLEAPSS Hazcard 47A and CLEAPSS Recipe Card 31 Hydrogen gas (Extremely flammable) Refer to CLEAPPS Hazcard 48

e Record the volume of hydrogen gas given off at suitable intervals (eg 10 seconds). But these are very expensive and are probably best used by the teacher in a demonstration. add a 3 cm strip of magnesium ribbon to the flask. . Each experiment run will need 50 cm3. and that there are no other sources of ignition available to students. and make sure that it stays filled with water when you turn it upside down. Though low hazard. b Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram. Pour the acid into the 100 cm3 conical flask. Teaching notes The equation for the reaction is: magnesium + hydrochloric acid → magnesium chloride + hydrogen Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) → MgCl2(aq) + H2(g) Students follow the rate of reaction between magnesium and the acid. Procedure SAFETY: Wear eye protection throughout. c Fill the other measuring cylinder with water. 4 Gas syringes can be used instead of troughs of water and measuring cylinders. by measuring the amount of gas produced at 10 second intervals. d When you are ready. a Measure 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid using one of the measuring cylinders. put the bung back into the flask as quickly as you can. Continue timing until no more gas appears to be given off. Clean if necessary by rubbing lengths of the ribbon with fine sandpaper to remove the layer of oxidation. or the plungers will stick inside the barrels. and start the stopclock. eye protection is necessary as you may get a spray as tiny bubbles burst. The tube through the bung should be a short section of glass. 5 Ensure that all naked flames are extinguished.1 The magnesium ribbon should be clean and free from obvious corrosion or oxidation. 2 The hydrochloric acid should be about 1 mol dm-3 for a reasonable rate of reaction. Half fill the trough or bowl with water. Syringes should not be allowed to become wet. Corks are too porous and will leak. and then a flexible rubber tube can be connected. 3 The bungs in the flasks need to be rubber. Ensure that there are no naked flames.

04 g and yields 40 cm3 of hydrogen when reacted with excess acid.3 cm of magnesium ribbon typically has a mass of 0. the slope of the graph is steepest at the beginning. so it is mainly the loss of magnesium (surface area becomes smaller) that causes the change in the rate. The reaction is exothermic. the rate falls. the magnesium and acid are gradually used up. Some students might notice the flask becoming slightly warm and they could be asked how this would affect the rate of reaction. As the magnesium is used up. .5˚C. There is some acceleration of the reaction rate due to the rise in temperature. 50 cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid is a six-fold excess of acid. This can be seen on the graph. but the dilute acid is in excess and the rise in temperature is only of the order of 3. If a graph of volume (y-axis) against time (x-axis) is drawn. In this reaction. This shows that the reaction is fastest at the start. However the acid is in excess. and how they might adapt the experiment to make it a ‘fair test’. as the slope becomes less steep and then levels out when the reaction has stopped (when no more gas is produced).

Materials plastic bin rubber hose glass bend 1. assigned at random or by the professor. To facilitate speedy collection of data. Wear goggles at all times.Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid Purpose To develop a method for measuring the volume of gas generated in a reaction between Mg and HCl. one as a computer operator.01 g to 0.01 g to 0. One member of the group will be assigned as a project manager. To acquire an understanding of limiting reactants.1 g. Use an analytical balance to record the masses. one or two as a laboratory technician.5 g Mg ribbon ringstand and clamp 1-hole rubber stopper pipet filler tap water Safety Avoid skin contact with hydrochloric acid. and make a note if any magnesium metal remains. See the group work page for more information. try to spread the masses of magnesium evenly over the entire range 0. your group may choose to set up two separate sets of equipment. Groups You will work in groups of 3-4. Rinse skin thoroughly if contact is made. then record the mass of Mg you used and the volume of hydrogen generated. Check your system(s) for leaks or cracks. Repeat any suspicious trials Questions Using Excel. plotting only the points (do not connect the dots). React eight different masses of magnesium in the range of 0. .0 M HCl in eight separate trials. Procedure Design an apparatus that will enable you to collect and measure the volume of hydrogen gas generated using only materials found in the list above. Hydrogen gas is flammable. the mass of the magnesium used. For each trial. To the extent possible.00 mL pipet 0.10 g with exactly 5.0 M HCl 100 mL graduated cylinder test tube (25 x 200 mm) 5. To develop a relationship between the mass of magnesium reacted and the volume of hydrogen generated. collect the hydrogen gas until there is no more than one bubble produced per minute. prepare a graph of the volume of hydrogen gas generated vs.00 mL of 1.

plot a trendline for the portion of the graph that is not "level". Consult your text. if necessary. Using the necessary data from your results. The answers to the other questions should be incorporated into your results or discussion. Using your balanced equation. How could you design a future experiment to eliminate these? Laboratory Report (Review the Guidelines for Writing Laboratory Reports) The laboratory report for this experiment will be a group report.00 mL of 1. Best matches for mg hcl experiment Reaction of Magnesium with Hydrochloric Acid. Follow your instructor's directions for submitting the lab report. in mL. You will need to include a title.0 M HCl? What if 0.0400 g of Mg been reacted with 5. Explain some actual causes of error and/or inaccurate measurements. You may be allowed to submit this report by paper. Purpose To develop a method for measuring the volume of gas generated in a reaction between Mg and HCl. After the references.0400 g of Mg in Question #4 above? How would your results and your graph change. As this is a group report. How does this result compare to the volume calculated for 0. and references. Hint: This is a single replacement reaction. or by email (using a filename convention of Lastname1 Lastname2 Etc Limiting and a subject line in your email of "Chem 1061: Limiting Reactant Lab"). Jump to text » . a detailed procedure. as appropriate. results. also include the answers to questions 4 and 6 above. including the report.Which reactant. calculate the theoretical volume of hydrogen gas. please include a table at the end showing the percent contribution of each group member on the entire lab. if either. Note: 1 mol of any gas at a temperature of 0°C and a pressure of 760 mm Hg has a volume of 22.4 L. All members of the group should contribute in some way to the writing of the report.0800 g of Mg had been used? 0. including phase labels. of the reaction that took place in this experiment. by the D2L dropbox. discussion and conclusion. how many milliliters of H2 would be produced had 0. Note: Use only the points that make an approximately straight line. that should be produced at at temperature of 0°C and and a pressure of 760 mm Hg when 0.120 g? Write a balanced chemical equation. some "uncertainties" in this lab.0400 g of Mg reacts. if the concentration of HCl was twice as large as was actually used in the experiment? There were. Based on your experiment. as in all experiments. If there is more than one linear portion on your graph. if at all. is the limiting reactant when smaller masses of magnesium are used? when larger masses of magnesium are used? Use the concept of limiting reactants to explain the shape of your graph. use Excel to develop a mathematical relationship between the grams of Mg reacted and volume of H2 produced.

0400. how many milliliters of H2 would be produced had 0..Based on your experiment.. Jump to text .

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