# 4.

9 The Joukowski mapping: circles to ellipses
A particularly useful application of the mapping idea concerns the ﬂow around bodies. We
have solved the problem of the ﬂow around a cylinder. Thus if we can ﬁnd a conformal
mapping between the unit circle and any given shape, we have solve the ﬂow problem
around this shape.
z
ζ
R
2c
2d
z = ζ +
b
2
ζ
Consider the (inverse) mapping
z = ζ +
b
2
ζ
, (30)
called the Joukowski mapping. Consider a circle of radius R, whose surface in the ζ-plane
is described by the polar representation ζ = Re

. Under the Joukowski mapping,
z = Re

+
b
2
R
e
−iθ
=
_
R +
b
2
R
_
cos θ + i
_
R −
b
2
R
_
sin θ = c cos θ + id sinθ
is an ellipse with axes length 2c and 2d.
The semiaxes come out to be
c = R +
b
2
R
, d = R −
b
2
R
.
Now consider the uniform ﬂow past an ellipse. To model an arbitrary angle α between
the direction of the ﬂow and the semi-major axis, we consider the ﬂow around a cylinder
that approaches the x-axis under an angle α:
w
1
(ζ) = U
_
ζe
−iα
+
R
2
ζ
e

_
.
In principle, one can ﬁnd w(z) using the inverse of the Joukowski mapping
ζ = f(z) =
1
2
(z +

z
2
−4b
2
),
so that w(z) = w
1
(f(z)).
However, the resulting expressions are often not so useful. For example, to ﬁnd the
streamlines, it is much easier to ﬁnd the streamlines of the w
1
(ζ) in the ζ-plane, and then
to transform them using (30). This is how the pictures were produced. If one wants to
calculate the velocity, one uses
u −iv =
dw
dz
=
dw
1

1
dz/ dζ
=
U(e
−iα
−R
2
e

2
)
(1 −b
2

2
)
.
On the cylinder, ζ = Re

, so
u −iv =
U(e
−iα
−e

e
−2iθ
)
(1 −(b
2
/R
2
)e
−2iθ
)
=
2iU sin(θ −α)
(e

−(b
2
/R
2
)e
−iθ
)
.
This means there are stagnation points at θ = α and θ = −π + α. This point is where
a streamline leaves the surface. In other words, this streamline (plotted in red) has the
same value of the streamfunction ψ then the surface of the ellipse.
4.10 Lift
Now we want to ﬂy! In principle, we know how to construct the ﬂow around a wing of
arbitrary shape, we only have to ﬁnd the transformation, starting from a circle. We have
seen already that the key ingredient is to have circulation around the wing. We have
calculated the lift in the case of a cylindrical cross-section, but what is it for an arbitrary
shape?
4.10.1 Blasius’ theorem
C
t = (cos χ, sin χ)
n = (sin χ, −cos χ)
χ
x
y
We now calculate the force on a ﬁxed body in a stream, using complex notation. This
is a close relative of the calculation done in section (3.6), leading to (25). Suppose a ﬁxed
rigid body, boundary C is in a steady ﬂow, generating a potential w(z). We know
dw
dz
= u −iv = qe
−iχ
so |u| = q (reminder: χ is the angle the ﬂow direction makes to the horizontal). So,
according to Bernoulli (no gravity):
p = p
0

1
2
ρq
2
,
where p
0
= p
atm
+ ρU
2
/2 is a constant.
Let s be the arclength along C, which we use to integrate over the surface of the body.
Now the line element along C can be written in complex notation as
dz ≡ dx + idy =
_
dx
ds
+ i
dy
ds
_
ds.
Since the surface of the body is a streamline, the velcocity vector (u, v) is parallel to
the tangent on the surface. Thus using the angle χ we have dz = dx + idy = e

ds =
(cos χ + i sin χ) ds. Multiplying by −i we achieve a rotation by ninety degrees in the
clockwise direction, which gives the direction of the outward normal: n = (sin χ, −cos χ).
Now we are in a position to write the total force F = (F
x
, F
y
)
F = −
_
C
pnds
in complex form, deﬁning a complex force F = F
x
−iF
y
. Then
F = F
x
−iF
y
= −
_
C
p(sin χ + i cos χ) ds = −i
_
C
pe
−iχ
ds
= −i
_
C
p
0
(dx −idy) +

2
_
C
q
2
e
−2iχ
e

ds
=

2
_
C
(qe
−iχ
)
2
dz =

2
ρ
_
C
_
dw
dz
_
2
dz
(the term proportional to p
0
vanishes because the integral of a total diﬀerential over a
closed loop is zero). This is Blasius’ theorem.
Example A cylinder in a stream with circulation:
w(z) = Uz + U
R
2
z

log z
so
dw
dz
= U −U
R
2
z
2

2πz
So Blasius around the circle C says
F
x
−iF
y
=

2
_
C
_
U −U
R
2
z
2

2πz
_
2
dz
=

2
_
C
_
U −
iUΓ
πz
+ terms {z
−2
, z
−3
, z
−4
}
_
dz
Now use Cauchy’s residue theorem
_
C
dz
z
= 2πi,
_
C
dz
z
n
= 0, n = 1 and
F
x
−iF
y
= iρUΓ,
which is the same as in 4.3.
4.10.2 The Kutta-Koukowski lift theorem
From the previous example one appreciates that Blasius’ theorem yields a much more
general result, since only the residue of the integral comes into play. Consider a body of
arbitrary cross-section C, in a uniform stream, U, which generates circulation of strength
Γ. Far away from the body,
w(z) →Uz −

log z
(origin inside C) so
dw
dz
≈ U −

2πz
, z →∞
and it must be analytic outside C and so
_
C
_
dw
dz
_
2
dz = lim
R→∞
_
|z|=R
_
dw
dz
_
2
dz
since there are no singularities in between C and |z| = R, a circle of large radius (basic
theorem from C.F.T). So
_
C
_
dw
dz
_
2
dz =
_
|z|=R
_
U −

2πz
_
2
dz = 2UΓ,
using the same reasoning as for the cylinder. Hence we have shown that
F
x
−iF
y
= iUρΓ.
So the drag on an arbitrary body is zero and the lift force is F
lift
= −UρΓ. This is the
Kutta-Joukowski lift theorem. Note that the lift force is by deﬁnition the force in the
direction normal to the ﬂow.
4.11 Oblique ﬂow past plates
.
We have developed a wonderful theory for lift. The only problem is that we don’t
know how to determine the value of Γ which determines the lift. Indeed, the wings of an
airplane do not have circular cross section: if cylinder is placed in a uniform stream (left
side of the Figure), there is no reason why the ﬂow should turn either way, and thus there
is no circulation. The secret is to fashion the shape so as to induce lift. Namely, the tail
of wing is shaped to have a sharp corner, so as to force the ﬂow to separate at that point.
As the simplest possible model for such a situation consider the ﬂow around a ﬂat
plate, which is placed in a uniform stream at an angle α. A ﬂat plate is obtained from an
ellipse by letting d →0, that is putting b = R in the Joukowski transformation (30):
z = ζ +
R
2
ζ
.
The the width of the plate is 2c = 4R. As is seen from the Figure, the ﬂow separates from
the plate beyond the trailing edge, so that ﬂuid particles very close to the plate have to
go around the sharp corner before leaving the plate.
This situation is reﬂected by the velocity on the surface of the plate, which is
u −iv =
U sin(θ −α)
sin θ
,
and so u →∞as θ →0, π (at the sharp edges of the plate). This is a physically untenable
situation; ﬂuid particles are not likely to make such a sharp turn without leaving the plate
altogether, especially not at inﬁnite speed! The same conclusion can be drawn from the
concept of “adverse pressure gradient”, introduced earlier. The speed is very great at the
trailing edge and decreases as one moves up the plate. According to Bernoulli, this means
that the pressure increases, in other words ﬂuid particles experience an adverse pressure
the body, producing a point of separation at the trailing edge. This requirement is known
as the Kutta condition.
As we have seen in our calculation of the ﬂow around a cylinder with circulation, the
w
1
(ζ) = U
_
ζe
−iα
+
R
2
ζ
e

_

log ζ.
Then the velocity is
u −iv =
U sin(θ −α)
sin θ

Γ
4πRsin θ
Let us focus on the trailing edge, corresponding to θ →0. (assume for example that the
front of the plate is slightly ‘rounded’, so that separation is not as important there). Thus
we want u − iv to be ﬁnite for θ →0, a requirement which is another incarnation of the
Kutta condition. This can be achieved by choosing
Γ = −4πRU sin α,
which is the case shown in the above Figure. Now the singularity cancels and the velocity
becomes
u −iv =
U
sin θ
(sin(θ −α) + sin α) →U cos α, as θ →0.
This means that the ﬂow leaves the plate smoothly in the direction of the orientation of
the plate, as seen in the above Figure.
The wonderful thing is that we have now determined the circulation uniquely, so we
can calculate the lift using Blasius’ theorem:
F
lift
= −UρΓ = 4πRρU
2
sin α,
where 4R is the width of the plate. Once more, note that this is the force acting normal
to the ﬂow, so it is at an angle α relative to the orientation of the plate. It is customary
to deﬁne a lift coeﬃcient c
L
by
F
lift
= c
L
A
w
ρU
2
2
,
where A
w
= 4R is the area of the wing (per unit length), also called the chord. Thus we
have found that for the plate
C
(plate)
L
= 2π sin α ≈ 2πα
In the Figure, this result is compared to experiment, and it works really well, as long as
the angle of attack α is small. If however α becomes too large the theory fails abruptly.
The reason is clear from the two photographs below. As long as α is small, the ﬂow
remains laminar and attached to the wing. As α is too great, the ﬂow separates and a
completely diﬀerent type of description must be sought.
Finally, we comment on the presence of circulation around the wing, which is the
crucial ingredient needed for ﬂying. In the ﬁrst instance, there is nothing wrong with that
from the point of view of a potential ﬂow description. However, where is this circulation
coming from when one imagines starting up the ﬂow, with zero circulation. Since the
net circulation in a large circle around the wing must vanish initially, and the Kutta
condition requires a circulation Γ < 0 around the wing, this means that in the process
of the point of separation moving to the trailing edge, vortices of positive circulation
(rotating counterclockwise) are shed from the wing. Eventually the vortices are convected
downstream, and no longer matter for the problem.
4.12 Joukowski wings
wing
ζ
R
R
−R −2λ
λ
Now we try to model a wing in a slightly more realistic fashion, as proposed by
Joukowski. In particular, we account for the fact that a real wing will be rounded at the
leading edge (for the oncoming ﬂow to go around it smoothly) and to be very sharp at
the trailing edge (for the ﬂow to separate).
Mapping an ellipse, we have seen that if b < R, the Joukowski transformation maps
a circle to an ellipse; If b = R, the ellipse degenerates to a ﬂat plate. Now let us take the
Joukowski transformation
z = ζ +
R
2
ζ
,
but shift the circle by λ to the left, and with radius R + λ. The equation of the circle in
the ζ-plane is
ζ = −λ + (R + λ)e

, θ = 0..2π.
Thus it touches the circle of radius R at the right, but lies inside it everywhere else. In
other words, the aerofoil is described by the equation
z = −λ + (R + λ)e

+
R
2
−λ + (R + λ)e

.
It is clear that this shape is rounded everywhere, but sharp at the trailing edge to the
right, where it has a cusp (it looks locally line the sharp end of a plate), as seen in the
Figure. The length of the wing in the horizontal is called the chord. From the above
mapping, back and front ends are at ζ = R and ζ = −R − 2λ, respectively. Thus the
chord is
A = 2R + R + 2λ +
R
2
R + 2λ
=
4(R + λ)
2
R + 2λ
.
Now the complex potential around the shifted circle is evidently
w
1
(ζ) = U
_
(ζ + λ)e
−iα
+
(R + λ)
2
(ζ + λ)
e

_

log(ζ + λ),
and the complex velocity around the aerofoil is
dw
dz
=
_
U
_
e
−iα

_
R + λ
(ζ + λ)
_
2
e

_

2π(ζ + λ)
_
_
1 −
R
2
ζ
2
_
−1
Once more, there are potential singularities at ζ = ±R. However, the singularity
ζ = −R lies inside the wing, and is therefore harmless. On the other hand, the point
ζ = R lies on the surface, and will lead to a singularity, unless Γ is chosen appropriately.
At ζ = R, the term in braces becomes
U
_
e
−iα
−e

_

2π(R + λ)
= −2iU sin α −

2π(R + λ)
,
which vanishes for
Γ = −4πU(R + λ) sin α.
In other words, using Blasius’ theorem, the lift coeﬃcient for the Joukowski wing is
F
(wing)
lift
= 4πρU
2
(R + λ) sin α.
and the lift coeﬃcient is
c
(wing)
L
=
2π(R + 2λ) sin α
R + λ
.
wing
ζ
R
R
λ
µ
β
It is seen from the above formula that there is no lift if the angle of attack vanishes.
In reality, wings are cambered: the top is rounded, and the bottom is hollowed out. This
can be achieved by shifting the center of the circle to the position −λ+Iµ in the ζ-plane.
To produce a sharp trailing edge, the circle still has to touch the point ζ = R, and thus
its equation is
ζ = −λ + iµ +
_
(R + λ)
2
+ µ
2
e

.
For future convenience, we deﬁne the angle
β = arctan
_
µ
R + λ
_
(see Figure). The chord is the same as for the proﬁle without camber.
The resulting cambered proﬁle is shown as the green outline above. To compute the
ﬂow, we note the complex potential in the ζ-plane:
w
1
(ζ) = U
_
(ζ + λ −iµ)e
−iα
+
(R + λ)
2
+ µ
2
(ζ + λ −iµ)
e

_

log(ζ + λ −iµ),
and the velocity is now
u −iv =
_
U
_
e
−iα

(R + λ)
2
+ µ
2
(ζ + λ −iµ)
2
e

_

2π(ζ + λ −iµ)
__
1 −
R
2
ζ
2
_
−1
.
As before, the term in braces has to vanish for ζ = R for the velocity to remain ﬁnite, so
this condition gives
U
_
e
−iα

(R + λ)
2
+ µ
2
(R + λ −iµ)
2
e

_

2π(R + λ −iµ)
= 0.
Noting that R + λ + iµ =
_
(R + λ)
2
+ µ
2
e

, we ﬁnd
Γ = −4π
_
(R + λ)
2
+ µ
2
sin(α + β)
as the Kutta condition. The lift coeﬃcient becomes
c
(wing)
L
=

_
(R + λ)
2
+ µ
2
(R + 2λ) sin(α + β)
(R + λ)
2
,
and so indeed there is lift for α = 0. As a result, the angle of attack can be kept small,
and stall is less likely.
The theoretical result for such a cambered proﬁle is compared to experiment in the
Figure. The pressure distribution over the wing as well as the total lift predicted by
Joukowski theory is in good agreement with experiment.

If one wants to calculate the velocity. it is much easier to ﬁnd the streamlines of the w1 (ζ) in the ζ-plane.10 Lift Now we want to ﬂy! In principle. 2 /R2 )e−2iθ ) (1 − (b (e − (b2 /R2 )e−iθ ) On the cylinder. starting from a circle. we know how to construct the ﬂow around a wing of arbitrary shape. to ﬁnd the streamlines. For example. ζ = Reiθ . the resulting expressions are often not so useful. so u − iv = This means there are stagnation points at θ = α and θ = −π + α.1 Blasius’ theorem C y t = (cos χ.Now consider the uniform ﬂow past an ellipse.10. ζ In principle. but what is it for an arbitrary shape? 4. In other words. sin χ) n = (sin χ. We have calculated the lift in the case of a cylindrical cross-section. However. This is how the pictures were produced. we consider the ﬂow around a cylinder that approaches the x-axis under an angle α: w1 (ζ) = U ζe−iα + R2 iα e . we only have to ﬁnd the transformation. 4. this streamline (plotted in red) has the same value of the streamfunction ψ then the surface of the ellipse. dz dζ dz/ dζ (1 − b2 /ζ 2 ) 2iU sin(θ − α) U(e−iα − eiα e−2iθ ) = iθ . and then to transform them using (30). − cos χ) χ x . We have seen already that the key ingredient is to have circulation around the wing. one uses u − iv = dw1 1 U(e−iα − R2 eiα /ζ 2 ) dw = = . This point is where a streamline leaves the surface. one can ﬁnd w(z) using the inverse of the Joukowski mapping √ 1 ζ = f (z) = (z + z 2 − 4b2 ). 2 so that w(z) = w1 (f (z)). To model an arbitrary angle α between the direction of the ﬂow and the semi-major axis.

We know dw = u − iv = qe−iχ dz so |u| = q (reminder: χ is the angle the ﬂow direction makes to the horizontal). − cos χ). Thus using the angle χ we have dz = dx + idy = eiχ ds = (cos χ + i sin χ) ds. which gives the direction of the outward normal: n = (sin χ. Suppose a ﬁxed rigid body. using complex notation. Since the surface of the body is a streamline. generating a potential w(z). boundary C is in a steady ﬂow. So. Example A cylinder in a stream with circulation: w(z) = Uz + U so R2 iΓ − log z z 2π R2 iΓ dw =U −U 2 − dz z 2πz So Blasius around the circle C says Fx − iFy = iρ 2 iρ = 2 iΓ R2 − dz 2 z 2πz iUΓ U− + terms {z −2 . v) is parallel to the tangent on the surface. Now the line element along C can be written in complex notation as dz ≡ dx + idy = dy dx +i ds ds ds. This is Blasius’ theorem. z −3 .6). Let s be the arclength along C. deﬁning a complex force F = Fx − iFy . Now we are in a position to write the total force F = (Fx . which we use to integrate over the surface of the body. according to Bernoulli (no gravity): 1 p = p0 − 2 ρq 2 . Multiplying by −i we achieve a rotation by ninety degrees in the clockwise direction. Then F = Fx − iFy = − C p(sin χ + i cos χ) ds = −i = −i iρ = 2 pe−iχ ds C C p0 (dx − idy) + (qe −iχ 2 iρ 2 q 2 e−2iχ eiχ ds C C iρ ) dz = ρ 2 C dw dz 2 dz (the term proportional to p0 vanishes because the integral of a total diﬀerential over a closed loop is zero). leading to (25). z −4 } πz U −U 2 C dz C . where p0 = patm + ρU 2 /2 is a constant. This is a close relative of the calculation done in section (3. the velcocity vector (u.We now calculate the force on a ﬁxed body in a stream. Fy ) F=− pn ds C in complex form.

So the drag on an arbitrary body is zero and the lift force is Flif t = −UρΓ. Hence we have shown that Fx − iFy = iUρΓ. z C dz = 0.3. which is the same as in 4.11 . z→∞ dz 2πz and it must be analytic outside C and so dw dz 2 dz = lim C R→∞ |z|=R dw dz 2 dz since there are no singularities in between C and |z| = R. which generates circulation of strength Γ. n = 1 and zn Fx − iFy = iρUΓ.Now use Cauchy’s residue theorem C dz = 2πi. Consider a body of arbitrary cross-section C. iΓ log z w(z) → Uz − 2π (origin inside C) so iΓ dw ≈U− . Note that the lift force is by deﬁnition the force in the direction normal to the ﬂow.10. since only the residue of the integral comes into play. using the same reasoning as for the cylinder.T). So dw dz 2 dz = |z|=R C U− iΓ 2πz 2 dz = 2UΓ. 4. in a uniform stream.F. Far away from the body. This is the Kutta-Joukowski lift theorem. a circle of large radius (basic theorem from C. U. 4. Oblique ﬂow past plates .2 The Kutta-Koukowski lift theorem From the previous example one appreciates that Blasius’ theorem yields a much more general result.

Instead of following a path of adverse pressure. the ﬂow separates from the plate beyond the trailing edge. the tail of wing is shaped to have a sharp corner. Namely. This requirement is known as the Kutta condition. so as to force the ﬂow to separate at that point. This situation is reﬂected by the velocity on the surface of the plate. there is no reason why the ﬂow should turn either way. ﬂuid particles prefer to leave the body. producing a point of separation at the trailing edge. As the simplest possible model for such a situation consider the ﬂow around a ﬂat plate. and thus there is no circulation. This is a physically untenable situation. π (at the sharp edges of the plate). A ﬂat plate is obtained from an ellipse by letting d → 0. so that ﬂuid particles very close to the plate have to go around the sharp corner before leaving the plate. The only problem is that we don’t know how to determine the value of Γ which determines the lift. in other words ﬂuid particles experience an adverse pressure gradient. As is seen from the Figure. which is placed in a uniform stream at an angle α. the wings of an airplane do not have circular cross section: if cylinder is placed in a uniform stream (left side of the Figure). especially not at inﬁnite speed! The same conclusion can be drawn from the concept of “adverse pressure gradient”. ζ The the width of the plate is 2c = 4R. The secret is to fashion the shape so as to induce lift. The speed is very great at the trailing edge and decreases as one moves up the plate. According to Bernoulli. that is putting b = R in the Joukowski transformation (30): z=ζ+ R2 . ﬂuid particles are not likely to make such a sharp turn without leaving the plate altogether. . introduced earlier. Indeed. this means that the pressure increases. which is u − iv = U sin(θ − α) . sin θ and so u → ∞ as θ → 0.We have developed a wonderful theory for lift.

Thus we want u − iv to be ﬁnite for θ → 0. the point of separation can be made to move by adding circulation: w1 (ζ) = U Then the velocity is Γ U sin(θ − α) − sin θ 4πR sin θ Let us focus on the trailing edge. This can be achieved by choosing u − iv = Γ = −4πRU sin α. corresponding to θ → 0. as seen in the above Figure. u − iv = sin θ This means that the ﬂow leaves the plate smoothly in the direction of the orientation of the plate. 2π . Now the singularity cancels and the velocity becomes U (sin(θ − α) + sin α) → U cos α. (assume for example that the front of the plate is slightly ‘rounded’. ζe−iα + R2 iα e ζ − iΓ log ζ. as θ → 0.As we have seen in our calculation of the ﬂow around a cylinder with circulation. so that separation is not as important there). which is the case shown in the above Figure. a requirement which is another incarnation of the Kutta condition.

this means that in the process of the point of separation moving to the trailing edge. the ﬂow remains laminar and attached to the wing. If however α becomes too large the theory fails abruptly. Finally. this result is compared to experiment. there is nothing wrong with that from the point of view of a potential ﬂow description. Thus we have found that for the plate CL (plate) = 2π sin α ≈ 2πα In the Figure. It is customary to deﬁne a lift coeﬃcient cL by Flif t = cL Aw ρU 2 . so it is at an angle α relative to the orientation of the plate. and no longer matter for the problem. In the ﬁrst instance. However.The wonderful thing is that we have now determined the circulation uniquely. note that this is the force acting normal to the ﬂow. 2 where Aw = 4R is the area of the wing (per unit length). vortices of positive circulation (rotating counterclockwise) are shed from the wing. as long as the angle of attack α is small. Since the net circulation in a large circle around the wing must vanish initially. Once more. Eventually the vortices are convected downstream. with zero circulation. also called the chord. . where 4R is the width of the plate. so we can calculate the lift using Blasius’ theorem: Flif t = −UρΓ = 4πRρU 2 sin α. The reason is clear from the two photographs below. As α is too great. where is this circulation coming from when one imagines starting up the ﬂow. we comment on the presence of circulation around the wing. the ﬂow separates and a completely diﬀerent type of description must be sought. and the Kutta condition requires a circulation Γ < 0 around the wing. and it works really well. which is the crucial ingredient needed for ﬂying. As long as α is small.

In particular. as proposed by Joukowski. θ = 0. Thus it touches the circle of radius R at the right. we account for the fact that a real wing will be rounded at the leading edge (for the oncoming ﬂow to go around it smoothly) and to be very sharp at the trailing edge (for the ﬂow to separate). −λ + (R + λ)eiθ It is clear that this shape is rounded everywhere. Now let us take the Joukowski transformation R2 . the ellipse degenerates to a ﬂat plate. but sharp at the trailing edge to the right. In other words. the aerofoil is described by the equation z = −λ + (R + λ)eiθ + R2 .2π.. The equation of the circle in the ζ-plane is ζ = −λ + (R + λ)eiθ .4. we have seen that if b < R. The length of the wing in the horizontal is called the chord. z=ζ+ ζ but shift the circle by λ to the left. the Joukowski transformation maps a circle to an ellipse.12 Joukowski wings ζ wing R −R − 2λ λ R Now we try to model a wing in a slightly more realistic fashion. Mapping an ellipse. From the above . If b = R. and with radius R + λ. where it has a cusp (it looks locally line the sharp end of a plate). as seen in the Figure. but lies inside it everywhere else.

In reality. the circle still has to touch the point ζ = R. back and front ends are at ζ = R and ζ = −R − 2λ. and thus its equation is ζ = −λ + iµ + (R + λ)2 + µ2 eiθ . the term in braces becomes U e−iα − eiα − which vanishes for In other words. using Blasius’ theorem. 2π and the complex velocity around the aerofoil is dw = dz U e −iα − R+λ (ζ + λ) 2 e iα iΓ − 2π(ζ + λ) R2 1− 2 ζ −1 Once more. and is therefore harmless. On the other hand. and the bottom is hollowed out. = 4πρU 2 (R + λ) sin α. and will lead to a singularity. This can be achieved by shifting the center of the circle to the position −λ + Iµ in the ζ-plane. At ζ = R. the singularity ζ = −R lies inside the wing. R + 2λ R + 2λ Now the complex potential around the shifted circle is evidently w1 (ζ) = U (ζ + λ)e−iα + (R + λ)2 iα e (ζ + λ) − iΓ log(ζ + λ). . To produce a sharp trailing edge. wings are cambered: the top is rounded. unless Γ is chosen appropriately. there are potential singularities at ζ = ±R. R+λ = ζ wing λ µ R R β It is seen from the above formula that there is no lift if the angle of attack vanishes. respectively. the point ζ = R lies on the surface. However. 2π(R + λ) 2π(R + λ) Γ = −4πU(R + λ) sin α. 2π(R + 2λ) sin α . the lift coeﬃcient for the Joukowski wing is Flif t and the lift coeﬃcient is cL (wing) (wing) iΓ iΓ = −2iU sin α − .mapping. Thus the chord is R2 4(R + λ)2 A = 2R + R + 2λ + = .

To compute the ﬂow. we deﬁne the angle β = arctan µ R+λ (see Figure). so this condition gives U e−iα − (R + λ)2 + µ2 iα e (R + λ − iµ)2 − iΓ = 0. (R + λ)2 . The lift coeﬃcient becomes cL (wing) = 2π (R + λ)2 + µ2 (R + 2λ) sin(α + β) . 2π and the velocity is now u − iv = U e −iα (R + λ)2 + µ2 iα e − (ζ + λ − iµ)2 iΓ − 2π(ζ + λ − iµ) R2 1− 2 ζ −1 . 2π(R + λ − iµ) Noting that R + λ + iµ = (R + λ)2 + µ2 eiβ . The chord is the same as for the proﬁle without camber. we ﬁnd Γ = −4π (R + λ)2 + µ2 sin(α + β) as the Kutta condition. we note the complex potential in the ζ-plane: w1 (ζ) = U (ζ + λ − iµ)e−iα + (R + λ)2 + µ2 iα e (ζ + λ − iµ) − iΓ log(ζ + λ − iµ). The resulting cambered proﬁle is shown as the green outline above.For future convenience. the term in braces has to vanish for ζ = R for the velocity to remain ﬁnite. As before.

The pressure distribution over the wing as well as the total lift predicted by Joukowski theory is in good agreement with experiment. As a result. and stall is less likely.and so indeed there is lift for α = 0. . the angle of attack can be kept small. The theoretical result for such a cambered proﬁle is compared to experiment in the Figure.