The League of Nations
Submitted to: Sir Shahid M. Amin Submitted By:
Muhammad Mohsin Javed
to ensure that war never broke out again. one of her punishments was that it was not considered to be a member of the international community and. Such a country could not be allowed to take its place in the League. The two most powerful members were Britain and France .America refused to join it. she was not invited to join.was murdered. Switzerland. No one could dispute this choice especially as an international organization such as the Red Cross was already based in Switzerland. whose president. This choice was natural as Switzerland was a neutral country and had not fought in World War One. As Germany had started the war. and the Russian royal family . However. The League of Nations was to be based in Geneva. global health. disarmament.the Romanovs . As America was the world’s most powerful nation. Many saw it as an international police force. arms trade. It was expected that major nations would disarm and League of Nations would take collective actions. this was a serious blow to the prestige of the League. After the turmoil caused by the Versailles Treaty. trafficking in persons and drugs. three of the world’s most powerful nations (potentially for Russia and Germany) played no part in supporting the League. it had a communist government that generated fear in Western Europe and in 1918. many looked to the League to bring stability to the world. The League of Nation's task was simple . had dreamt up the idea of the League . and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration. The League's primary goals as stated in its Covenant included preventing war through collective security. Therefore. Wilson wanted the league to be like a world’s parliament. Woodrow Wilson.both had suffered financially and militarily during the war .and neither was enthusiastic to get involved in disputes that did not affect Western Europe. therefore. according to the Treaty of Versailles. just treatment of native inhabitants. Other goals in this and related treaties included labor conditions. and protection of minorities in Europe.
The League had weaknesses
The country. prisoners of war. Russia was also not allowed to join as in 1917. This was a great blow to Germany but it also meant that the League could not use whatever strength Germany had to support its campaign against aggressor nations. fitted in with her desire to have an isolationist policy throughout the world. America’s refusal to join the League. Germany was not allowed to join the League in 1919.The League of Nations
The League of Nations came into being after the end of World War One.
thus preventing American participation in the League. Brazil. 6. the periodical election on non-permanent Members of the Council. Other Organs of The League of Nations were: International Labor Organization Permanent Court of International Justice Mandate Commission (to administer former German colonies)
. Each Section was responsible for all official secretarial work related to its particular subject and prepared and organized all meetings and conferences held in that connection. Discourage aggression by any state To preserve against external aggression to territory of all members through collective action To encourage nations to disarm To improve working conditions of all To encourage co-operation in trade etc To Uphold and enforce the Treaty of Versailles
Organs of League of Nations
The Council: The League Council acted as a type of executive body directing the Assembly's business. and the control of the budget. after its initial sessions in 1920. 2. Social (Opium and Traffic in Women and Children). The United States was meant to be the fifth permanent member. The Council began with four permanent members (Great Britain. Each state was allowed up to three representatives and one vote. Disarmament. Minorities and Administration (Saar and Danzig). France. Intellectual Cooperation and International Bureau. Greece and Spain. The Secretariat: The Permanent Secretariat. but the US Senate voted on 19 March 1920 against the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles. The special functions of the Assembly included the admission of new Members. Financial and Economics. and Japan) and four non-permanent members which were elected by the Assembly for a three year period. 5. Transit. Health.Covenant:
Stated the aims of League of Nations to: 1. The Assembly: The Assembly consisted of representatives of all Members of the League. provided a majority of the Members concurred. sessions were held once a year in September. the election with the Council of the judges of the Permanent Court. The first four non-permanent members were Belgium. In practice the Assembly had become the general directing force of League activities. comprised a body of experts in various spheres under the direction of the General Secretary. 4. established at the seat of the League at Geneva. Mandates. The principle Sections of the Secretariat were: Political. and Information. 3. Italy. The Assembly met in Geneva and. A special session of the Assembly might be summoned at the request of a Member. Legal.
The Greek army invaded Bulgaria as a result. After a six-week inquiry.000 refugees had been created by this war with 80% of them being women and children. Typhoid and cholera were rampant.000. The League sent doctors from the Health Organization to check the spread of disease and it spent £10 million on building farms. Money was also invested in seeds.000 voted for Germany and 500. the League decided to split Upper Silesia between Germany and Poland.000 for Poland. Both countries accepted the decision and it remains in force to this day. wells and digging tools and by 1926. Neither Sweden nor Finland could come to a decision as to who owned the islands and in 1921 they asked the League to adjudicate. 700. Upper Silesia (1921)
The Treaty of Versailles had given the people of Upper Silesia the right to have a referendum on whether they wanted to be part of Germany or part of Poland. The Bulgarians asked the League for help and the League ordered both armies to stop fighting and that the Greeks should pull out of Bulgaria. sentries patrolling this border fired on one another and a Greek soldier was killed. 1. The League was asked to settle this dispute. This close result resulted in rioting between those who expected Silesia to be made part of Germany and those who wanted to be part of Poland. homes etc for the refugees. In this referendum. was whether war was avoided and a peaceful settlement formulated after a crisis between two nations. work was found for 600. They had traditionally belonged to Finland but most of the islanders wanted to be governed by Sweden.
.The successes of the League of Nations
In view of the League’s desire to end war. In 1925. The League’s decision was that they should remain with Finland but that no weapons should ever be kept there.
The League experienced success in:
The Aaland Islands (1921)
These islands are near enough equal distant between Finland and Sweden. Both nations accepted the decision. A member of the League called this work "the greatest work of mercy which mankind has undertaken.400.000 people. The League’s decision was accepted y both countries and by the people in Upper Silesia. The League then sent experts to the area and decided that Greece was to blame and fined her £45. the only criteria that can be used to classify a success. Turkey (1923)
The League failed to stop a bloody war in Turkey (see League failures) but it did respond to the humanitarian crisis caused by this war." Greece and Bulgaria (1925)
Both these nations have a common border.
under British leadership. and thus prevented World War II. The league obviously commanded no military power of its own. joined the League of Nations. Direct negotiations between the major European powers during the tense crises of 1938 and 1939 bypassed the machinery of the league. or the avoidance of American responsibility to keep the world secure from aggression. To this was added the widespread belief that the United States should have followed Wilson's vision. And the dishonor of the 1938 Munich "appeasement" did not prevent war the following year. it was impotent. In much of the literature on the origins of the war. tried to organize economic sanctions against Italy in 1935. which ended in a British-French retreat from high principles to offer Italy a compromise deal (the Hoare-Laval proposals). This fiasco. which was
. The league might at most supply convenient machinery or a meeting place. This was followed by the Italian campaign in Ethiopia in 1935 and Adolf Hitler's demands that the "fetters of Versailles" be smashed and that the German nation be allowed lebensraum (living space) for expansion. did much to diminish enthusiasm for collective security through the League of Nations. but that did not prevent the Italian conquest of Ethiopia and probably helped move Benito Mussolini closer to Hitler's side.The failures of the League of Nations
The international disturbances of the troubled 1930s began with the Japanese extension of military control over Manchuria in 1931. which joined the league in 1934. sought to make the machinery of the league an effective tool of war prevention by means of collective action against "aggression. Germany reoccupied the Rhineland (where. Although Japan received a verbal rebuke from the league in 1933 for its behavior in Manchuria. American opinion shifted dramatically toward the view that isolationism. Between 1938 and 1941." The attempt was not successful. which may even have been stimulated by what was construed in Japan as a hypocritical insult. Czechoslovakia followed in 1939. Italy. If they would not help the league. the league. If Great Britain. upheld collective security. collective security appeared as the opposite of "appeasement. The lesson that one should never appease (yield to) the demands of an aggressive "criminal" nation became deeply engraved in the public mind during the grim years when Hitler's appetite only grew with eating. The embargo was not sufficiently enforceable to be effective. was a similar thesis applied to Japan's expansion in the Pacific. but what really mattered was the will to resist. Faced with this determined assault on the post–World War I boundaries. In 1936. Popular. diplomats in western Europe and in the Soviet Union. France. too. had been a fearful blunder. and Germany and prevented World War II. as a matter of national interest. Critics were to cast doubt on this interpretation insofar as it involved the assumption that the league represented anything more than the sum of its parts. by the terms of the Versailles Treaty. it was not supposed to have armed forces) and in 1938 annexed Austria." which had gambled on winning the goodwill of Germany by yielding to its demands. Following the eloquent appeal of Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie for aid. and the United States could not see their way to thwarting Hitler's goals at the risk of war. the league could not help them. But many came to believe that a more vigorous and less selfish support of the league might have checked the aggressions of Japan. it simply resigned from the league and did not end its forward policies in China. the Soviet Union.
because public opinion at times. nothing need be done by the separate nations. Many of the groups that work for the United Nations now grew out of what was established by the League. was simply informing the world at large that these problems did exist and that they should be tackled. These social problems may have continued but the fact that they were now being actively investigated by the League and were then taken onboard by the United Nations must be viewed as a success. Evidently. Drug addiction and drug smuggling were also attacked. No organization had done this before the League. Work was done in the Third World to improve the status of women there and child slave labor was also targeted. Teams were sent to the Third World to dig fresh water wells. some people thought that if only the problem of stopping the dictators could be turned over to Geneva. tended to look upon collective security and the league as a substitute for national power. The greatest success the League had involving these social issues.
. This clearly was a dangerous illusion. Some argued that the idea of collective security was even an obstacle to a firm policy. These problems are still with us in the C21st .of wiping out from the world a disease was taken up by the United Nations with its smallpox campaign. as in England in the mid-1930s.so it would be wrong to criticize the League for failing to eradicate them. the League had a far more difficult task then with more limited resources. This idea .notably lacking in the democracies in these years. If we cannot do this now.
The social successes of the League of Nations
At a social level the League did have success and most of this is easily forgotten with its failure at a political level. the Health Organization started a campaign to wipe out leprosy.
Teams were sent to the Third World to dig fresh water wells. it spent £10 million on building farms. Only Germany was disarmed. and lust of power was not kept in mind. At a social level the League did have success and most of this is easily forgotten with its failure at a political level. aggression against Germany was not shown by the two major powers France and Britain. The greatest success the League had involving these social issues. if balance of power would have kept. China appealed to League of Nations. homes etc for the refugees. Russia was also not allowed to join as in 1917. Japanese Aggression: Manchuria and Spanish Civil War lead to World War II. Factors such as disarmament and severe punishment to Germany lead the rise of leaders such as Hitler. reduced the number of army and artillery. but the commission arrived in China after 1yr. If act of reducing or depriving of arms was accepted by every country then maybe The League of Nations may have succeeded. This shows that League of Nations was only concerned with Germany. The League of Nations was dominated by France and Britain.
. The main reasons were that Germany was not allowed to join the League of Nations in the start. was simply informing the world at large that these problems did exist and that they should be tackled. Many of the groups that work for the United Nations now grew out of what was established by the League. On the other hand. the incident in Turkey. and if USA would have joined the League. the Health Organization started a campaign to wipe out leprosy. In my opinion. and its colonies were taken away. These social problems may have continued but the fact that they were now being actively investigated by the League and were then taken onboard by the United Nations must be viewed as a success. It’s a fact that in the Mukhdan incident League of Nations did nothing. and Great Powers such as USA didn’t join it. being optimistic League of Nations did things to help the world. then maybe the League of Nations must have succeeded. Germany was not treated harshly. The League of Nations solved the Greece and Bulgaria border issues. but the main fact was kept that to keep peace in the world and avoid war. for example. No organization had done this before the League. but due to the weaknesses of the League of Nations they were failed to do so and the events such as Italian invasion of Ethiopia. it had a communist government.Conclusion
In my opinion The League of Nation was the beginning to the peace settlement in the world and to prevent and another devastating war. who was against the League of Nations and wanted revenge from Britain and France. and wanted to Italy to be by there side against Germany.