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Emilio Aguinaldo

Personal details

Born

March 23, 1869 Cavite El Viejo, Philippines (now Kawit)

Died

February 6, 1964 (aged 94) Plaridel, Bulacan, Philippines

Resting place

Aguinaldo Shrine, Kawit, Cavite, Philippines

1st President of the Philippines


President of the First Republic President of the Supreme Government President of Republic of Biak-na-Bato Dictator of Dictatorial government President of the Revolutionary Government

Political party

Katipunan

Spouse(s)

Hilaria del Rosario


(18961921)

Mara Agoncillo
(18821963)

Profession

Soldier, Manager, Teacher Revolutionary

Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (March 22, 1869 February 6, 1964) was a Filipino general,politician, and independence leader. He played an instrumental role during
Religion

Roman Catholicism

the Philippines' revolution against Spain, and the subsequent Philippine-American War or War of Philippine Independence
[3]

that resisted American occupation.

Aguinaldo became the Philippines' first President. He was also the youngest (at age 29) to have become the country's president, the longest-lived president (having survived to age 94) and the president to have outlived the most number of successors.

Manuel L. Quezon
Personal details

Born

August 19, 1878 Baler, Philippines

Died

August 1, 1944 (aged 65) Saranac Lake, United States

Resting place

Quezon Memorial Circle,Quezon City, Philippines

Political party

Nacionalista Party

2nd President of the Philippines


1st President of the Commonwealth

Other political Democratic Party affiliations

Manuel Luis Quezn y Molina (August 19, 1878 August 1, 1944) served as president of theCommonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the Philippines.(Note: Govt. relating only to the Philippines, and not any other states that have existed centuries ago)

Spouse(s)

Aurora Aragn

Alma mater

Colegio de San Juan de Letran University of Santo Tomas

Religion

Roman Catholicism

Quezn is considered by most Filipinos to have been the second president of the Philippines, after Emilio Aguinaldo (18971901). Quezn was the first Senate president elected to the presidency, the first president elected through a national election, and the first incumbent to secure re-election (for a partial second term, later extended, due to amendments to the 1935 Constitution). He is known as the "Father of the National Language".

During his presidency, Quezn tackled the problem of landless peasants in the countryside. Other major decisions include reorganization of the islands military defense, approval of recommendation for government reorganization, promotion of settlement and development in Mindanao, tackling foreign strangle-hold on Philippine trade and commerce, proposals for land reform and the tackling of graft and corruption within the government. Quezn established an exiled government in the US with the outbreak of the war and the threat of Japanese invasion. During his exile in the US, Manuel Quezn died of tuberculosis in Saranac Lake, New York.

Jos P. Laurel
Personal details

Born

March 9, 1891 Tanauan City, Philippines

Died

November 6, 1959 (aged 68) Manila, Philippines

Resting place

Tanauan City, Batangas,Philippines

Political party

Nacionalista Party (Before 1942; 19451959)

3rd President of the Philippines


President of the Second Republic

Other political affiliations

KALIBAPI (19421945)

Jos Paciano Laurel y Garca (March 9, 1891 November 6, 1959) was the president of theRepublic of the Philippines, a Japanesesponsored administration during World War II, from 1943 to 1945. Since the administration of President Diosdado Macapagal (19611965), Laurel has been recognized as a legitimate president of the Philippines.

Spouse(s)

Pacencia Hidalgo

Alma mater

University of the Philippines College of Law University of Santo Tomas Yale Law School

Profession

Lawyer

Religion

Roman Catholicism

Sergio Osmea
Personal details

Born

9 September 1878 Cebu City, Spanish East Indies(now Republic of the Philippines)

Died

19 October 1961 (aged 83) Quezon City, Philippines

Resting place Manila North Cemetery, Santa Cruz, Manila, Philippines

4th President of the Philippines


2nd President of the Commonwealth

Political party

Nacionalista Party

Spouse(s)

Estefania Veloso (19011918) Esperanza Limjap (19201961)

Sergio Osmea y Suico (9 September 1878 19 October 1961) was a Filipino politician who served as the 4 President of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946. He was Vice President underManuel L. Quezon, and rose to the presidency upon Quezon's death in 1944, being the oldest Philippine president to hold office at age 65. A founder of Nacionalista Party, he was the first
Religion Profession
th

Alma mater

University of San Carlos San Juan de Letran College University of Santo Tomas

Lawyer

Roman Catholicism

Visayan to become President of the Philippines.

Prior to his succession to the Presidency in 1944, Osmea served as Governor of Cebu from 19011907, Member and Speaker of the Philippine House of Representatives from 19071922, and Senator from the 10th Senatorial District for thirteen years, in which capacity he served asSenate President pro tempore. In 1935, he was nominated to be the running-mate of Senate President Manuel Quezon for the presidential election that year. The tandem was overwhelmingly re-elected in 1941. Osmea is the patriarch of the prominent Osmea family, which includes his son (former Senator Sergio Osmea, Jr.) and his grandsons (senators Sergio Osmea III and John Henry Osmea), ex-governor Lito Osmea and Cebu City mayor Tomas Osmea.

Manuel Roxas

Personal details

Born

January 1, 1892 Capiz, Philippines (now Roxas City)

Died

April 15, 1948 (aged 56) Clark Air Base, Philippines

Resting place

Manila North Cemetery, Santa Cruz, Manila, Philippines

5th President of the Philippines


3rd President of the Commonwealth 1st President of the Third Republic

Political party

Liberal Party (19451948)

Other political affiliations

Nacionalista Party (Before 1945)

Manuel Acua Roxas (January 1, 1892 April 15, 1948) was the first president of the independent Third Republic of the Philippines and fifth president overall. He served as president from the granting of independence in 1946 until his abrupt death in 1948. His term as president of the Philippines was also the shortest, lasting 1 year 10 months and 18 days.

Spouse(s)

Trinidad de Leon

Alma mater

University of Manila University of the Philippines College of Law

Profession

Lawyer

Religion

Roman Catholicism

Elpidio Quirino

Personal details

Born

November 16, 1890 Vigan, Philippines

Died

February 29, 1956 (aged 65) Quezon City, Philippines

Resting place 6th President of the Philippines


2nd President of the Third Republic

Manila South Cemetery, Makati City, Philippines

Political party

Liberal Party

Elpidio Rivera Quirino (November 16, 1890 February 29, 1956) was a Filipino politician, and the sixth President of the Philippines. A lawyer by profession, Quirino entered politics when he became a representative of Ilocos Surfrom 1919 to 1925. He was then elected as senator from 1925-1931. In 1934,

Spouse(s)

Alicia Syquia

Alma mater

University of the Philippines College of Law

Profession

Lawyer

Religion

Roman Catholicism

he became a member of the Philippine independence commission that was sent to Washington, D.C., which secured the passage of Tydings-McDuffie Act to American Congress. In 1935, he was also elected to become member of the convention that will write the draft of then 1935 constitution for the newlyestablished Commonwealth. At the new government, he served as secretary of the interior and finance under Quezon's cabinet. After the war, Quirino was elected vice-president in 1946 election, consequently the second and last for the Commonwealth and first for the third republic. After the death of the incumbent president Manuel Roxas in 1948, he succeeded the presidency. In what was claimed to be a dishonest and fraudulent
[1]

1949 presidential election, he won the president's office under Liberal Party ticket,

defeating Nacionalista vie and former president Jos P. Laurel as well as fellowLiberalista and former Senate President Jos Avelino.

The Quirino administration was generally challenged by the Hukbalahaps, who ransacked towns and barrios.
[1]

Quirino ran for president again in the 1953 presidential election, but was defeated

by Nacionalista Ramon Magsaysay. After his term, he retired to his new country home in Novaliches, Quezon City, where he died of a heart attack on February 29, 1956.

Ramon Magsaysay
Personal details

Born

August 31, 1907 Iba, Philippines

Died

March 17, 1957 (aged 49) Balamban, Philippines

Resting place Manila North Cemetery, Santa Cruz, Manila, Philippines

Political party Nacionalista Party (1953-1957) 7th President of the Philippines


3rd President of the Third Republic

Liberal Party (1946-1953)

Spouse(s)

Luz Banzon

Ramn del Fierro Magsaysay (August 31, 1907 - March 17, 1957) was the third President of the Republic of the Philippines (and seventh president overall) from December 30, 1953 until his death in a plane crash in 1957. He was elected President under the banner of the Nacionalista Party.

Alma mater

Jos Rizal University

Profession

Engineer

Religion

Roman Catholicism

Carlos P. Garcia

Personal details

Born

November 4, 1896 Talibon, Philippines

Died

June 14, 1971 (aged 74) Tagbilaran, Philippines

Resting place

Libingan ng mga Bayani,Taguig City, Philippines

Political party

Nacionalista Party

8th President of the Philippines


4th President of the Third Republic

Spouse(s)

Leonila Dimataga

Alma mater

Silliman University

Carlos Polestico Garca (November 4, 1896 June 14, 1971) was Profession a Filipino teacher, poet, orator, lawyer, public official, political economist and guerrilla leader. He became the eighthPresident of Religion the Philippines known for his "Filipino First" policy, which put the interests of the Filipino people above those of foreigners and of the ruling party.

Lawyer

Roman Catholicism

Diosdado Macapagal
Personal details

Born

September 28, 1910 Lubao, Pampanga

Died

April 21, 1997 (aged 86) Makati, Metro Manila

Resting place

Libingan ng mga Bayani,Taguig City, Philippines 143111N 121239E

Nationality

Filipino

Political party 9th President of the Philippines


5th President of the Third Republic

Liberal Party

Spouse(s)

Purita de la Rosa
(19381943)

Diosdado Pangan Macapagal (September 28, 1910 April 21, 1997) was the ninth President of the Philippines, serving from 1961 to 1965, and the sixth Vice President, serving from 1957 to 1961. He also served as a member of the House of Representatives, and headed theConstitutional Convention of 1970. He is the father of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, who served as the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010. A native of Lubao, Pampanga, Macapagal graduated from the University of the Philippines andUniversity of Santo Tomas, after which he worked as a lawyer for the government.
Religion Profession Alma mater Children

Eva Macaraeg
(19461997)

Arturo Cielo Gloria Diosdado

University of the Philippines University of Santo Tomas

Lawyer Professor

Roman Catholicism

He first won election in 1949 to the House of Representatives, representing a district in his home province ofPampanga. In 1957 he became vice president in the administration of President Carlos P. Garcia, and in 1961 he defeated Garcia's re-election bid for the presidency. As president, Macapagal worked to suppress graft and corruption and to stimulate the Philippine economy. He introduced the country's first land reform law, placed the peso on the free currency exchange market, and liberalized foreign exchange and import controls. Many of his reforms, however, were crippled by a Congress dominated by the rival Nacionalista Party. He is also known for shifting the country's observance of Independence Day from July 4 to June 12, commemorating the day Filipino patriots declared independence from Spain in 1898. His re-election bid was defeated in 1965 by Ferdinand Marcos, whose subsequent authoritarian rule lasted 20 years. During the Marcos administration, Macapagal was elected president of the Constitutional Convention which would later draft what became the 1973 constitution, though the manner in which the charter was ratified and modified led him to later question its legitimacy. He died ofheart failure, pneumonia and renal complications at the age of 87.

Ferdinand Marcos

Personal details

Born

September 11, 1917 Sarrat, Ilocos Norte, Philippines

Died

September 28, 1989 (aged 72) Honolulu, Hawaii, United States

Resting place

Marcos Museum and Mausoleum, Batac, Ilocos Norte,Philippines

Political party

Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (19781989)

10th President of the Philippines


6th President of the Third Republic 1st President of the Fourth Republic

Other political affiliations

Liberal Party (19461965) Nacionalista Party (19651978)

Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. (September 11, 1917 September 28, 1989), was a Filipino dictator who held the title of President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He was a lawyer, member of the Philippine House of Representatives (19491959) and a member of the Philippine Senate (19591965). He was Senate President from 1963-1965. His regime implemented wide-ranging programs of infrastructure development and economic reform, but was marred by allegations of authoritarianism corruption, despotism, nepotism, political repression, and human rights violations.
Religion Roman Catholicism, formerlyIglesia Filipina Independiente or Philippine Independent Church Profession Lawyer Alma mater University of the Philippines College of Law Spouse(s) Imelda Romuldez (19541989)

In 1983, Marcos and his circle of intimates were implicated in the assassination of Benigno Aquino, Jr., an outspoken critic of his regime. Public outrage over the assassination served as a catalyst for the People Power Revolution in February 1986 that led to his removal from power and eventual exile in Hawaii. It is believed that that he and his wife Imelda Marcos moved billions of dollars of embezzled public funds to the United States, Switzerland, and other countries.

Corazon Aquino
Personal details

Born

January 25, 1933 Paniqui, Tarlac, Philippines

Died

August 1, 2009 (aged 76) Makati, Metro Manila, Philippines

Resting place Manila Memorial Park,Paraaque, Metro Manila, Philippines

Political party

Liberal Party UNIDO PDP-Laban

11th President of the Philippines


2nd President of the Fourth Republic 1st President of the Fifth Republic

Spouse(s)

Benigno S. Aquino, Jr.


(1954-1983)

Alma mater

College of Mount Saint Vincent

Maria Corazon Sumulong CojuangcoAquino (January 25, 1933 August 1,


Profession Housewife

2009) was the11th President of the Philippines and the first woman to hold that
Religion Roman Catholicism

office in Philippine history. She is best remembered for leading the 1986 People Power Revolution, which toppled Ferdinand Marcos and restored democracy in the Philippines. She is considered an icon of democracy, and was titled by TIME Magazine in 1986 as its 'Woman of the Year'.

A self-proclaimed "plain housewife", Aquino was married to Senator Benigno Aquino, Jr., the staunchest critic of then President Ferdinand Marcos. Senator Aquino was assassinated on August 21, 1983 upon returning to the Philippines after three years in exile in the United States. After her husband's assassination, Aquino emerged as the leader of the opposition against the Marcos administration. In late 1985, when President Marcos called for a snap election, Aquino ran for president with former senator Salvador Laurel as her vice-presidential running mate. After the elections were held on February 7, 1986, and the Batasang Pambansa proclaimed Marcos the winner in the elections, Aquino called for massive civil disobedience protests, declaring herself as having been cheated and as the real winner in the elections. Filipinos enthusiastically heeded her call and rallied behind her. These series of events eventually led to the ousting of Marcos and the installation of Aquino as President of the Philippines on February 25, 1986 through the People Power Revolution. As President, Aquino oversaw the promulgation of a new constitution, which limited the powers of the presidency and established a bicameral legislature. Her administration gave strong emphasis and concern for civil liberties and human rights, and peace talks with communist insurgents and Muslim secessionists. Aquino's economic policies centered on bringing back economic health and confidence and focused on creating a market-oriented and socially-responsible economy. Aquino's administration also faced a series of coup attempts and destructive natural calamities and disasters until the end of her term in 1992. Succeeded by Fidel V. Ramos as President in 1992, Aquino returned to private life although she remained active in the public eye, often voicing her views and opinions on the pressing political issues. In 2008, Aquino was diagnosed with colon cancer and, after a one-year battle with the disease, died on August 1, 2009. Her son Benigno, III became president on June 30, 2010.

Fidel V. Ramos
Personal details

Born

March 18, 1928 (age 83) Lingayen, Pangasinan,Philippines

Political party

Lakas-Kampi-CMD (2009present)

Other political affiliations

Lakas-CMD (1991-2009) LDP (1991)

Spouse(s) 12th President of the Philippines


2nd President of the Fifth Republic

Amelita Martinez

Alma mater

United States Military Academy Ateneo de Manila University Mapa Institute of Technology

Fidel "Eddie" Valdez Ramos (born March


University of the Philippines High School

18, 1928), popularly known as FVR, was the


Silliman University

12thPresident of the Philippines from 1992


National Defense College of the Philippines

to 1998. During his six years in office,


University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign

Ramos was widely credited and admired by many for revitalizing and renewing international confidence in the Philippine economy. Prior to his election as president, Ramos served in the Cabinet of President Corazon Aquino first as chief-of-staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) and, later on, as Secretary of National Defense from 1986 to 1991. During the historic 1986 EDSA People Power Revolution, Ramos upon the invitation of then Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile, was hailed as a hero even though he was not part of the plan by many Filipinos for his decision to break away from the administration of the late strongman Ferdinand Marcos and pledge allegiance and loyalty to the newly-established revolutionary government of Aquino,
Religion United Church of Christ in the Philippines Occupation Soldier Civil engineer

following the downfall of Marcos from power in February 1986. Previously, he was the AFP vice chief-ofstaff, chief of PC/INP under President Marcos. Under Ramos, the Philippines experienced a period of political stability and rapid economic growth and expansion, as a result of his policies and programs designed to foster national reconciliation and unity. Ramos was able to secure major peace agreements with Muslim separatists, communist insurgents and military rebels, which renewed investor confidence in the Philippine economy. Ramos also aggressively pushed for the deregulation of the nation's major industries and the privatization of bad government assets. As a result of his hands-on approach to the economy, the Philippines was dubbed by various international magazines and observers as Asia's Next Economic Tiger. However, the momentum in the economic gains made under the Ramos Administration was briefly interrupted during the onset of the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. Nevertheless, during the last year of the term, the economy managed to make a rebound since it was not severely hit by the crisis as compared to other Asian economies. He is the only Filipino to receive an honorary British Knighthood from the United Kingdom, the GCMG or the Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of St Michael and St George. This was bestowed to him by Queen Elizabeth II in 1995 for services to politics and government. To date, Ramos is the first and only non-Catholic President of the Philippines. He belongs to the Protestant United Church of Christ in the Philippines. President

Joseph Estrada
Personal details

Born

April 19, 1937 (age 74) Tondo, Manila, Philippines

Political party

PMP (1991-present)

Other political affiliations

Nacionalista (19691987) Liberal Party (19871991)

Spouse(s) 13th President of the Philippines


3rd President of the Fifth Republic

Luisa Pimentel

Alma mater

Ateneo de Manila University, Mapa Institute of Technology

Joseph "Erap" Ejercito Estrada (born Jos Marcelo Ejercito on April 19 1937) was the 13th President of the Philippines, serving from 1998 until 2001. Estrada was the first person in thePostEDSA era to be elected both to the presidency and vice-presidency. Estrada gained popularity as a film actor, playing the lead role in over 100 films in an acting career spanning 33 years. He leveraged his popularity as an actor to make gains in politics, serving as mayor of San Juan for seventeen years, as Senator for one term, then as Vice President of the Philippines under the administration of President Fidel Ramos.
Religion Roman Catholicism Profession Actor Businessperson Politician

Estrada was elected President in 1998 with a wide margin of votes separating him from the other challengers, and was sworn into the presidency on June 30, 1998. In 2000 he declared an "all-out-war" against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front and captured its headquarters and other camps.
[1][2]

However,

allegations of corruption spawned an impeachment trial in the Senate, and in 2001 Estrada was ousted from a power grab after former Chief Justice Hilario Davide, Jr.allowed the prosecution to walk out of the impeachment court when the Senator Judges voted no in the opening of the second envelope which is not part of the impeachment complaint. In 2007, he was sentenced by the special division of the Sandiganbayan to reclusion perpetuafor plunder, but was later granted pardon by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. He ran for president anew in the 2010 Philippine presidential election, but lost to then Senator Benigno Aquino III.

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo

Personal details

Born

April 5, 1947 (age 64) San Juan, Rizal, Philippines

Political party

Lakas Kampi CMD (2009present)

Other political affiliations

LDP (Before 1998) KAMPI (19972009) Lakas-CMD (19982009)

Spouse(s)

Jose Miguel Arroyo

14th President of the Philippines


4th President of the Fifth Republic

Alma mater

Georgetown University Assumption College Ateneo de Manila University University of the Philippines

Maria Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (born April 5, 1947) is a Filipino politician who served as the14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010, as the 12th Vice President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001, and is currently a member of the House of Representativesrepresenting the 2nd District of Pampanga. She was the country's second female president (afterCorazn Aquino), and the daughter of former President Diosdado Macapagal.
Religion Roman Catholicism Profession Economist

She was a former professor of economics at Ateneo De Manila University where Noynoy Aquinowas one of her students. She entered government in 1987, serving as assistant secretary and undersecretary of the Department of Trade and Industry upon the invitation of President Corazn Aquino. After serving as a senator from 1992 to 1998, she was elected to the vice presidencyunder President Joseph Estrada, despite having run on an opposing ticket. After Estrada was accused of corruption, she resigned her cabinet position as Secretary of Social Welfare and Development and joined the growing opposition to the president, who faced impeachment. Estrada was soon forced from office by the EDSA Revolution of 2001, and Arroyo was sworn into the presidency by Chief Justice Hilario Davide, Jr. on January 20, 2001. She was elected to a full six-year presidential term in the controversial May 2004 Philippine elections, and was sworn in on June 30, 2004. Following her presidency she was elected to the House of Representatives, making her the second Philippine presidentafter Jose P. Laurelto pursue a lower office after their presidency. She is currently residing at La Vista Subdivision in Quezon City.

PROJECT IN ENGLISH
Submitted by: Kimberly Sanchez

Submitted to: Mrs. Felicidad B. Balimbin