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Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering V Taylor & Francis Routledge 9780203293096 9780203215944 English Soil dynamics--Congresses, Earthquake engineering-Congresses, Soils--Mechanics 1991 TA711.A1I57 1991eb 624.1/5136 Soil dynamics--Congresses, Earthquake engineering-Congresses, Soils--Mechanics

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Page i Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering V

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Page ii FIFTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOIL DYNAMICS AND EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING SDEE 91 KARLSRUHE, GERMANY, SEPTEMBER 23–26, 1991 LOCAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE, UNIVERSITY OF KARLSRUHE G.Borm J.Brauns J.Eibl K.Fuchs G.Gudehus E.Keintzel O.Natau E.Plate B.Prange R.Scherer P.Vielsack INTERNATIONAL ADVISORY BOARD H.Antes C.A.Brebbia A.S.Cakmak W.D.L.Finn G.Gazetas D.V.Griffiths V.A.Ilyichev K.Ishihara J.M.Roësset F.J.Sánchez-Sesma S.Savidis G.Schmid G.Schneider G.Schuëller P.Spanos G.Waas R.V.Whitman J.P.Wolf R.W.Woods SPONSORING ORGANIZATIONS German Science Foundation (DFG) International Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (ISSMFE) International Journal of Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering (JSDEE) German Geophysical Society (DGG) Alfred Wegener Foundation (AWS) German Committee of the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) Swiss Committee on Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics (SGEB/SIA) Acknowledgement is made to H.Takemiya et al. for the use of Figure 5.2 on p. 147, which appears on the front cover of this book.

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Page iii Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering V Edited by: IBF, Institut für Bodenmechanik und Felsmechanik, Universität Karlsruhe, Germany

Computational Mechanics Publications Southampton Boston Co-published with

Elsevier Applied Science London New York

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Page iv IBF Institut für Bodenmechanik und Felsmechanik Universität Karlsruhe W-7500 Karlsruhe 1 Germany This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2006. To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk. Co-published by Computational Mechanics Publications Ashurst Lodge, Ashurst, Southampton, UK Computational Mechanics Publications Ltd Sole Distributor in the USA and Canada: Computational Mechanics Inc. 25 Bridge Street, Billerica, MA 01821, USA and Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd Crown House, Linton Road, Barking, Essex IG11 8JU, UK Elsevier’s Sole Distributor in the USA and Canada: Elsevier Science Publishing Company Inc. 655 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10010, USA British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A Catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 0-203-21594-X Master e-book ISBN ISBN 0-203-29309-6 (OEB Format) ISBN 1-85166-699-0 (Print Edition) Elsevier Applied Science, London, New York ISBN 1-85312-153-3 (Print Edition) Computational Mechanics Publications, Southampton ISBN 1-56252-081-4 (Print Edition) Computational Mechanics Publications, Boston, USA Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 91-74078 No responsibility is assumed by the Publishers for any injury and/or damage to persons or property as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the material herein. ©Computational Mechanics Publications 1991 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

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Page v PREFACE Despite considerable advances having been made in the fields of Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering during the last two decades, earthquakes still continue to cause loss of life and property. In addition, dynamic excitation due to heavy industry, construction machinery, pile driving, high speed traffic, etc. can cause severe damage to existing structures, especially to those of historical importance. The 5th International Conference on Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering (SDEE ’91) was aimed at a better understanding of the dynamic ground-structure-interaction, to exchange experience and knowledge of the participants and to enhance the efforts of geophysics, soil-, rock- and structural dynamics in the mitigation of risks to people and structures in civil and mining engineering. It provided a forum for the presentation and discussion of new ideas and innovative approaches in Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering in theory and practice. The proceedings, in two volumes, contain selected papers from those submitted to SDEE ’91, and are intended to serve as a permanent reference and as a brief survey of the theoretical, experimental and applied methods and their predictive powers, which are available at the present time to deal with dynamic problems in geotechniques. The scope of the conference is reflected by the following topic areas covered in the proceedings: engineering seismology, earthquake hazards, wave propagation, dynamic soil properties, liquefaction, dynamic response of dams and earth structures and of foundations and piles, earthquake engineering of structures, vibrations, impacts and rock dynamics. The conference was further emphasized on contributions to the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR). It offered an opportunity for intensive discussions, particularly on the recent advances in European seismic standards which are relevant in view of the continuing integration of the European Community and the progressive opening of the East European countries. The organizers are grateful to the authors for their contributions and for having shared their knowledge and experience. Acknowledgement is also made to the support given by the German Science Foundation (DFG) and the University of Karlsruhe. O.Natau Head of the Institute for Soil Mechanics and Rock Mechanics G.Borm Coordinator of SDEE ’91 Karlsruhe, July 1991

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Page vii CONTENTS

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SECTION 1: ENGINEERING SEISMOLOGY, EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS Urban Earthquake Hazards, Risk and Mitigation M.Erdik Probabilistic Method in Maximum Earthquake Assessment V.Schenk, P.Kottnauer Study of an Assessment for Site Effect of Seismic Strong Motion E.Kuribayashi, T.Jiang, T.Niiro, H.Nagasaka, S.Kuroiwa, S.Nishioka Site-Response at Foster City and San Francisco Airport—Loma Prieta Studies M.Çelebi, A.McGarr SECTION 2: STRONG GROUND MOTIONS Effects of Earthquake Characteristics on Ground Response Spectra A.M.Ansal, A.M.Lav The Artificial Wave in Earthquake Safety Analysis for Nuclear Plant Shield X.Shen, J.Yu Site Dependent Simulations of Earthquake Time Histories O.Henseleit, M.Kostov Spatial Coherency of the Strong Ground Motions on the SMART 1 Seismic Array I.A.Beresnev SECTION 3: WAVE PROPAGATION Comparison of 2-D and 3-D Models for Analysis of Surface Wave Tests J.M.Roësset, D.-W.Chang, K.H.Stokoe, II

3 15 23 35 49 61 73 99

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127 139 151 163

Page viii Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Dispersion Curve for SASW Test N.Gucunski, R.D.Woods Transient Response of Certain Topographical Sites for SH-Wave Incidence H.Takemiya, C.Y.Wang, A.Fujiwara Surface Wave Propagation in Stiff Top Layer Half-Space W.Haupt Wave Transmission at a Multimedia Interface R.S.Steedman, S.P.G.Madabhushi SECTION 4: DYNAMIC SOIL PROPERTIES In-Situ Dynamic Property Evaluation of Gravelly Soil T.Kokusho, Y.Tanaka, Y.Yoshida Characterization of Material Damping of Soils Using Resonant Column and Torsional Shear Tests D.-S.Kim, K.H.Stokoe, II, J.M.Roësset Effect of Triaxial Stresses on Shear Wave Propagation H.-C.Fei, F.E.Richart, Jr. Stiffness Degradation of Weathered Marl in Cyclic Undrained Loading J.A.Little, N.Hataf Measurements of Material Anisotropy by Ultrasonic Technique S.V.Jagannath, C.S.Desai, T.Kundu Elastic Attenuation in Non-Homogeneous Porous Materials B.Gurevich, S.Lopatnikov SECTION 5: LIQUEFACTION Liquefaction of Gravelly Soil at Pence Ranch During the 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho Earthquake R.D.Andrus, K.H.Stokoe, II, J.M.Roësset Validation of Procedures for Analysis of Liquefaction of Sandy Soil Deposits J.H.Prevost, C.M.Keane, N.Ohbo, K.Hayashi

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Page ix Liquefaction of Sands Under Undrained and Non-Undrained Conditions J.Chu The Characteristics of Liquefaction of Silt Soil H.-C.Fei Evaluation of Liquefaction Susceptibility A.M.Ansal Post Initial Liquefaction Behaviour of Soils K.Talaganov Liquefaction Associated with Manjil Earthquake of June 20 1990, Iran S.M.Haeri Countermeasures Against the Permanent Ground Displacement due to Liquefaction S.Yasuda, H.Nagase, H.Kiku, Y.Uchida Soil-Pile Interaction in Liquefied Sand Layer K.Kobayashi, S.Nakamura, K.Sato, N.Yoshida, S.Yao SECTION 6: DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF DAMS AND EARTH STRUCTURES Dynamic Behavior of Embankment on Locally Compacted Sand Deposits S.Yanagihara, M.Takeuchi, K.Ishihara Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analyses of the Natural Frequencies of Non-Homogeneous Earth Dams P.K.Woodward, D.V.Griffiths Lumped-Parameter Model of Semi-Infinite Uniform Fluid Channel for Time-Domain Analysis of Dam-Reservoir Interaction J.P.Wolf, A.Paronesso Earthquake Resistant Design of Earth Walls—A Probabilistic Approach D.Genske, H.Klapperich, T.Adachi, M.Sugito Passive Earth Pressure Coefficients in Seismic Areas by the Limit Analysis Method A.H.Soubra, R.Kastner

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Page x SECTION 7: SOIL-STRUCTURE-INTERACTION, FOUNDATIONS, PILES Dynamic Stiffness of Unbounded Soil by Finite-Element Multi-Cell Cloning J.P.Wolf, C.Song Application of the Hybrid Frequency-Time-Domain Procedure to the Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis of a Shear Building with Multiple Nonlinearities G.R.Darbre Dynamic Soil-Structure-Interaction of Nonlinear Shells of Revolution in the Time Domain W.Wunderlich, B.Schäpertöns, H.Springer, C.Temme Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction of Rigid and Flexible Foundations L.Auersch Experimentally Determined Impedance Functions of Surface Foundations B.Verbi•, S.Meler Stiffness and Damping of Closely Spaced Pile Groups B.Boroomand, A.M.Kaynia Chaotic Motions in Pile-Driving M.Storz SECTION 8: EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING OF STRUCTURES Seismic Damage Assessment for Reinforced Concrete Structures A.S.Cakmak, S.Rodriguez-Gomez, E.DiPasquale Reduction of Linear Elastic Response Spectra due to Elastoplastic Behaviour of Systems S.E.Ruiz, O.Díaz Problems in the Determination of Input Data for the Seismic Design of Structures in Regions of Low Seismicity J.Eibl, E.Keintzel

429 441 455 467 479 491 503

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Page xi Determination of the Behaviour Factors for Brick Masonry Panels Subjected to Earthquake Actions V.Vratsanou Statistical Study of Nonlinear Response Spectra for Aseismic Design of Structures E.Miranda Shear Transfer and Friction across Cracks in Concrete under Monotonic and Alternate Loads C.Karakoç Tests on Upgrading Dynamic Properties of Existing Damaged Structures for a Better Seismic Performance O.Yuzugullu Helical Springs in Base Isolation Systems G.K.Hueffmann Damage Reduction with Controlled Seismic Pounding S.Govil, A.Singhal On-Line Hydraulic Servodrives to Protect Serviceability of Antiseismic Structures—Pre-Design Criteria A.Carotti SECTION 9: VIBRATIONS Shielding of Structures from Soil Vibrations G.Schmid, N.Chouw, R.Le Vertical Vibration of a Rigid Plate on a Continuously Nonhomogeneous Soil S.Savidis, C.Vrettos, B.Faust The Influence of Thickness Variation of Subway Walls on the Vibration Emission Generated by Subway Traffic R.Thiede, H.G.Natke Vibration Isolation by an Array of Piles B.Boroomand, A.M.Kaynia Numerical Modelling of Stability Cases for Caisson-Type Breakwaters without Through-flow E.Stein, M.Lengnick SECTION 10: ROCK DYNAMICS Explosion Effects in Jointed Rocks—New Insights F.E.Heuzé, T.R.Butkovich, O.R.Walton, D.M.Maddix

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Page xii Numerical Analysis and Measurements of the Seismic Response of Galleries H.-J.Alheid, K.-G.Hinzen Dynamic Solution of Poroelastic Column and Borehole Problems of Soil and Rock Mechanics D.E.Beskos, I.Vgenopoulou Fundamentals of a Practical Classification of Mining Induced Seismicity (Rock Bursts) P.Knoll Authors’ Index

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Page 1 SECTION 1: ENGINEERING SEISMOLOGY, EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS

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Page 3 Urban Earthquake Hazards, Risk and Mitigation M.Erdik Bo•aziçi University, Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute 81220, Çengelköy, Istanbul, Turkey ABSTRACT The hazard assessment, microzonation, vulnerability, risk and mitigation issues involved with urban centers prone to earthquake disasters are covered. The mitigation efforts should concentrate in the preparedness phase. The microzonation maps and the land use requlations are important long-term tools in the mitigation of earthquake risk. The weak areas in the urban infrastructure and the critical structures may need to be retrofitted. The treatment is supported with case studies from . INTRODUCTION With the recent 19.9.1985 Mexico (M8.1), 7.12.1988 Armenia (M7.0), 17.10.1989 Loma Prieta (M7.1), 21.6.1990 Iran (M7.7) and 16.7.1990 Philippines (M7.8) earthquakes the earthquake hazards and the attendant risk in urban areas gained focused attention. Urbanization in earthquake prone countries create an associated increase in the earthquake vulnerabilies and the risk. Assessment of the earthquake hazard is one of the preliminary steps towards the mitigation of the risk. In urban centers the earthquake hazard is usually quantified and portrayed in terms of microzonation maps. The microzonation maps and the land use requlations are important long term tools in the mitigation of earthquake risk. The vulnerabilities and the damage statistics of lives, structures, systems and the socio-economic structure are the main factors influencing the earthquake risk in the urban areas. The mitigation efforts should concentrate in the preparedness phase with emphasis on awareness building and training. The weak areas in the urban infrastructure needs to be retrofitted. The earthquake performance of the critical structures and systems may also need strengthening. This report will review these critical issues with case studies from and suggest solutions.

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Page 4 ASSESSMENT OF THE EARTHQUAKE HAZARD IN URBAN AREAS A rational earthquake hazard assessment methodology should provide for the uncertainties associated with the input parameters and be based on appropriate stochastic models. The purpose of such probabilistic earthquake hazard analysis is to provide a basis for decision making about the design basis ground motions applicable in a metropolis. Probabilistic Assessment of Ground Motion The earthquake hazard is usually depicted as annual probabilities of exceedance for given ground motion (or intensity) levels. The probabilistic earthquake hazard assessment, in a rigorous way, were probably first initiated by Cornell [9]. Although the basic elements of his methodology remained the same, in the recent decade several researchers have tried to improve by addressing to the issues associated with high uncertainties. The development of criteria for the interpretation of alternative source zones and seismicities, and expert systems have been the focus of these efforts. Earthquake Hazard in The probabilistic hazard assessment methodology that will be employed for will be an updated version of the one incorporated in [13]. It involves: Acquisition of geotectonic and seismologic data and seismic source modeling; Construction of recurrence relationships; Development of intensity based local attenuation relationships; and Use of a proper stochastic model for recurrence forecasting. For the computational part a computer program entitled SEISRISK III [6] will be utilized. Figure 1 shows the active tectonic elements to be considered for the earthquake hazard assessment for . The epicentral distribution of earthquakes are indicated in Figure 2. For the attenuation of intensities the relationships of Erdik et al. [13] will be used. For the attenuation of peak ground acceleration (PGA) the relationship developed by Campbell [7] are found to be appropriate on the basis of comparisons with Turkish data [13]. Figures 3 and 4 provide the variation of MSK Intensity and the PGA (at competent rock outcrops) for the northern and southern for different return periods. Modification of the Ground Motion by Site Conditions: Due to urbanization the reclaimed land near the coast has been spread rapidly. The earthquake response of the reclaimed land and the soft alluvium can be much more amplified than that of the consolidated deposits, as observed in 1985 Mexico (great damage in the lake bed region) and 1989 Loma Prieta (collapse of the I–880 Cypress viaduct at the north end founded on bay mud) earthquakes. Several researchers have shown that for layers of given thickness, the relative shaking response will be greatest where the surface layers have the lowest impedance values and where the impedance contrast between the surface layer and the underlying one is the greatest. Joyner and Fumal [18] have incorporated the local shear wave velocity of near surface geologic material in the assessment of site effects for the attenuation of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and velocity (PGV). Their results indicate that, contrary to PGV, the site dependence of the PGA is not statistically significant. However this finding is not shared by others. For example, Fukushima et al. [17] have computed, on the basis of a worldwide strong

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m.. In the 0. These two maps are merged to depict the liquefaction potential [26].3 for <75m and 3.6 for Om. 2. sewage and buildings): (1) Saturated alluvial sandy layers within 20m from ground surface.. (3) D50 values between 0. Quaternary thickness: 1.html12/05/2010 06:29:41 a. have correlated the gelogic structure with the mean spectral amplification of ground motion in the Los Angeles region. Lateral Spreads (lateral displacement of surficial soil layers over a liquefied layer).3–2Hz frequency range the mean ground response on crystalline rock has the following values relative to: Age of surficial material: 3. As evidenced by in several earthquakes. 1.page_5 < previous page page_5 next page > Page 5 motion data set. Liquefaction involves [10]: Flow Failures (massive displacement of completely liquefied soil). Experience show that most earthquake induced landslides involve mate- < previous page page_5 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20inge. water supply. and subsidence.7 for <4km and 3.7 for Pliocene/Miocene and 1. [23] using a collection of nuclear test explosion recordings. but the differences are insignificant for other soil sites. medium—and soft-soil ground).4 for Mesozoic.1 for Okm. (2) Ground water level within 10m from ground surface.l_Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_5. Depth to basement rock: 1. elongated crests. and (4) Standard penetration test blow count N≤30. Tokida [25] lists the following criteria for liquefaction susceptibility (a conglomerate of Japanese criteria for bridges. buoyant rise of underground structures). loss of strength and densification. Roger et al. Loose unsaturated sands.2 for Holocene/Pleistocene. the immediate vicinity of lateral discontinuities and contact zones between highly contrasting formations are also usually the zones of amplification. Techniques to evaluate the liquefaction potential are well established and generally involve the preparation of two types of maps: one showing the liquefaction susceptibility and the other expressing the opportunity for critical levels of shaking. the residuals between the observed and the predicted PGA’s and the mean values for each ground classification (rock. 2. Earthquake induced terrain movements include landslides. rockfalls.02 and 2mm in grain size acccumulation curve.6 for >75m. Amplification due to topography has been identified in theoretical as well as empirical studies. saturated sand and gravel with layers sensitive clay. Materials that are susceptible to earthquake induced landslides are: weakly cemented. Liquefaction tends to begin at an intensity threshold of about MMI V–VI. Celebi [8] has observed the topographical amplification phenomena in 1985 Central Chile and in 1983 Coalinga earthquakes. hard-. Soil liquefaction occurred and caused much damage in 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (Marina district in San Francisco) and in 1990 Philippines earthquake.8 for >4km. . The observed PGA’s are about 40% lower at the rock site and about 40% higher at the soft soil site than those predicted. weathered or fractured rocks. Slumps (in steep banks underlain by liquefied sediments). The top of isolated hills. edges of plateaus and cliffs are usually zones of amplification due to diffraction and focusing. Loss of Shear Strength (tipping or bearing failure of above ground structures. Earthquake Induced Soil Failures and Terrain Movements: The most important earthquake induced soil failures are liquefaction.

One method attempts to delineate the four soil zones on the basis of the largest period and the mean period of the microtremors. and existing landslides are seldomly reactivated [10]. Analytical procedures range from simple one-dimensional calculations to threedimensional. Transportations are blocked and lifelines are damaged disrupting the community services. . empirical and experimental approaches. Strength loss in sensitive clay in strong earthquakes may involve failures similar to liquefaction and specifically can initiate large landslides as is the case in 1964 Alaska earthquake. time/frequency domain and finite difference/element computations.. soil slides. According to Newmark [21] one of the measures of slope stability under seismic shaking is the acceleration required to initiate an irreversible displacement of the soil mass.m. Microzonation maps have been prepared using one-dimensional non-linear analytical procedures. linear/non-linear. Prudent siting. [19] discovered that the time and frequency domain wave shapes of microtremors are distinctly different in different soil conditions and proposed two methods for the purpose of microzoning. The necessary information that should be conveyed by an earthquake hazard based microzonation map are: (1) Modification of the strong ground motion by site conditions.html12/05/2010 06:29:41 a. For massive landslide problems the risk can be accepted with appropriate emergency response preparedness. The probability that a landslide will occur on a particular slope during a particular earthquake is a function of both the pre-earthquake stability of the slope and the severity of the earthquake ground motion. It is generally regarded to be appropriate to consider faults that show evidence of Quaternary motion as active with a possibility of rupture. and (3) Tectonic surface ruptures. The critics of this method claim that the microtremors originate at shallower < previous page page_6 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20inge. Urban area landslides (rock falls.l_Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_6. Site Specific Ground Motion For the incorporation of the “Site-Specific” ground motion in the microzonation maps there exists several analytical. The other one does the same using the largest amplitude and the predominant period of the microtremor measurements.. involving adequate setbacks from steep slopes. (2) Earthquake induced soil failures and terrain movement. Tectonic Ruptures (Surface Fault Ruptures): The information about the movements and the surface expressions of possible active faults should be included in the microzonation maps to avoid (or to accomodate) their effects on structures and systems. These maps yield the input-motionamplitude-dependent predominant periods and the peak surface accelerations [24]. From analyses of microtremor records obtained at over 1000 locations in a wide variety of soil conditions. lateral spreads and slumps) can cause massive property damage.page_6 < previous page page_6 next page > Page 6 rials that have not previously failed. flattening cut slopes and avoidance of instability areas can mitigate the hazard. MICROZONATION MAPS Seismic microzonation maps can be defined as maps providing estimates of parameters needed for the siting and the earthquake resistant design of civil engineering structures and systems. Kanai et al.

The zone of mud and fill (MSKI IX–X) delineates potential of ground failures such as liquefactions..page_7 < previous page page_7 next page > Page 7 depths. the area within the ancient city walls. geology. I=VIII) most damage took place on the Fatih-Beyazit ridge and slumping observed in Eminönü. in some places the ground opened up.html12/05/2010 06:29:42 a. A preliminary damage zone map for the 1509 and 1894 earthquakes is presented in Figure 8. < previous page page_7 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20inge. Similar to the Mevedev’s method. An additional intensity increment of 1 unit are considered for cases where the water table lies directly below the structural foundation level. Every single house had some degree of damage. Romania. For California the relative intensity values for different ground characteristics vary from −3. the distribution of artificial fills and other geophysical and geotechnical data [15]. and clay and marl. Erdik et al. The semi stable zone (MSKI VIII–IX) represents mostly late Miocene sand and gravel. [15] have compared the microzonation map of Bucharest with the intensity observations of this earthquake and found a negative correlation between the predicted and the observed intensities. had the opportunity of being tested by the 1977 (M 7. . fault and joints) and ground shaking may increase depending on the thickness of the weathering zone. Microzonation for The preliminary microzonation for the Central part of .l_Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_7. in the stable rock zone there might be local problems due to fracture planes versus slopes (e. fissuring and slumping. sand ejected and a 6m high sea wave occurred. Figure 7 illustrates the four identified earthquake hazard zones.m. The intensity increments for the basic categories of the ground with respect to bedrock (granite) is found to vary from 1 (firm ground) to 3 (loose fills).000. It should be noted that. The microzonation of Bucharest.2) Romanian earthquake [4].g. The 1509 earthquake [3] was one of the largest in istanbul.. in western USA tables providing changes of intensity has been used for microzonation purposes [16]. Medvedev [20] attempted to relate the increments of seismic intensity to seismic site rigidity (product of the longitudinal seismic wave velocity by the density of the geologic layer) and to the elevation of the water table. The stable rock zone (MSKI VIII) defines some part of the Carboniferious rock (where the artificial cover is little or none) and the late Miocene Mactra Limestone. which is based on the Medvedev’s method.0 for Granite and methamorphic rocks to 0.7. In this zone ground shaking hazard is somewhat increased and slopes are prone to land sliding. The zone encompassing the thick artificial cover (MSK IX) will be subjected to increase in the ground shaking. killing about 5000 and injuring 10. In Figure 7 the locations of potential earthquake induced landslides are also illustrated. is based on the morphology. Both earthquakes were in the Marmara Sea and related to the movement of the North Anatolian Fault.5 for saturated Quaternary sedimentary deposits. In the 1894 earthquake [22] (M=6. The Grand Bazaar had heavy damage due to its “loose fill” type ground condition. may be nonstationary over different periods of the day and can provide information only on the low-strain behavior of the medium.

m. Seismic risk analysis attempts to calculate the probability of adverse socio-economic effect of an earthquake or series of earthquakes in a given urban center. to a lesser degree. The vulnerability of the engineered structures depends on the siting. The process of rapid urbanization. Earthquake vulnerability is defined as the degree of loss to a given element(s) at risk resulting from the occurrence of an earthquake. The following vulnerability functions for three different classes of urban buildings have been obtained on the basis of damage and casualty data obtained from these events [5].. < previous page page_8 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20inge. The death rate is 0. 1. Indirect damage due to the disruption of industry. the losses caused by earthquake disasters have completely cancelled out any growth in the GNP [11]. women.g. For low rise (2–5 story) reinforced concrete buil-dings. For low-rise unreinforced masonry buildings. in some instances. The death rate being 0. Vulnerability of Turkish Buildings In this century only a limited number earthquakes in Tükiye have effected urban areas. governmental and commercial buildings. Several developing countries spend about 2% of their gross national product for post-earthquake reconstruction [14] and. bridges. A probabilistic seismic risk analysis takes into account the uncertainties inherent in the earth sciences and the engineering information. physical damage and socio-economic). 10±5% (heavy damage). Several researchers have provided deterministic vulnerability functions for different structures [e. 12]. In many developing countries with increasing populations and inadequate housing the increase in the number of such buildings will bound to aggravate the earthquake related casualties and economic losses over the coming years. the percentage of the building stock to experience damage in an MSKI VIII are: 28±12% (no damage).page_8 < previous page page_8 next page > Page 8 EARTHQUAKE VULNERNERABILITY AND RISK In technical terms earthquake risk is the probability of expected earthquake losses (such as: lives. the social vulnerability of urban population needs to be assessed for a comprehensive earthquake risk assessment. large scale constructions and the provision of infra-structural services will expose larger populations and valuable elements to earthquake hazards and risks. Vulnerability of Buildings In urban areas the vulnerability assessments for engineered structures (e.e. dams.g. 37% (heavy damage) and 27% (collapse). injuries.77 persons per building. residential. lifelines and utilities) and non-engineered structures (mainly squatter settlements) needs to be differentiated. The past earthquake disaster experience indicate that single parent families. Generalizations can be made on the earthquake vulnerability of different building classes of non-engineered construction.l_Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_8. design and construction essentials and defies generalizations. cost of repair divided by the cost of rebuilding) unreinforced adobe and brick masonry structures are at least 4 to 5 times more vulnerable to receive damage than properly designed reinforced concrete and steel structures under the same earthquake exposure.. children and the elderly constitute the most vulnerable social groups. handicapped. on analytical investigations (predicted). Vulnerabi1ity assessments are usually based on past earthquake damages (observed). 32±6% (slight damage).45 persons per building. the percentages are 36% (medium damage). . port and harbor structures. on laboratory testing and. 3±3%(collapse). Worldwide data [1] indicates that the average damage ratios (i. 26±9% (medium damage). In addition to these physical vulnerability.. commerce and services should also be considered as losses.html12/05/2010 06:29:42 a. the attendant socio-economic development.

Damage to cutand-cover type tunnels has been caused mainly by increased lateral pressure from the backfill. Telecommunications The anchorage of switching and battery racks against lateral displacement and toppling is the essential measure to avoid earthquake damage. loss of bearing strength and liquefaction have seen to cause damage to the retaining structures. life-lines and services are vulnerable to the effects of earthquakes. Ductile pipes and flexible connections have the best earthquake performance. . Bridges Slope instability. Electrical Transmission and Distribution Systems High voltage porcelain insulators. liquefaction and landslide.m. Liquefaction can cause failure of port and harbor structures. rock falls and fault ruptures can block highways and railways or damage pipelines. Seismic restrainers that tie the adjacent simple spans prevent the fall off of the girders. < previous page page_9 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20inge.page_9 < previous page page_9 next page > Page 9 Vulnerability of Other Structures Many other engineered urban structures. infra-structures. The continuous span bridges should be tied together at the expansion joints. liquefaction and ground failure the foundation failure due to strong shaking is very rare. Damage generally occurs in improperly anchored electrical equipment. consequently. However the following observations acquired from past urban earthquakes can be used as a guide to assess their earthquake performance [10]. The earthquake vulnerabilities of these structures and systems are not generally known in explicit formats. Landslides. the superstructure. Building Foundations Outside the zones of faulting..l_Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_9. with the exception of friction piles set in soft clays. The bridge girders can fall off of their supports. Strong shaking can cause transmis-sion lines and bridges to fail. the tunnels generally perform well during the earthquakes. In 1985 Mexico earthquake the penetration and/or poll out of such piles caused the tilting of the pile cap and.. Water Supply and Sewage Greatest damage to pipeline occurs in zones of faulting.specific and defy the general use. Retaining Structures The increased lateral soil and water pressures. settlement can move the abutments of bridges and tilt the piers causing extensive damages to bridges.html12/05/2010 06:29:43 a.and site. bushings and supports are most vulnerable to earthquakes. liquefaction. In any case these vulnerabilities are highly case. Liquefaction phenomena can start at intensities as low as MMI V–VI. Tunnels Outside the zones of faulting and landslide.

It is an unbroken chain of concerted actions involving: disaster. airports and bridges etc.html12/05/2010 06:29:43 a. rehabilitation. MITIGATION OF URBAN EARTHQUAKE RISK Earthquake risk in urban areas can be reduced by either not building or moving away from the hazardous areas. . health services etc.page_10 < previous page page_10 next page > Page 10 Gas and Liquid Fuel Lifelines These lifelines are vulnerable to large differential ground movements. preparedness and (if possible) warning. Nicaragua earthquake endangered the fire fighting.) should be designed with lowest vulnerabi1ity levels. utilities and. information dissemination and the training of personnel constitutes the fundamental ingredient of success [14]. The facilities provided by the metropolitan governments that are essential for the operation of the socio-economic system (sanitary services. Ports and harbors Large scale liquefaction and sliding of the soil (or between the blocks) can lead to damage in port and harbor structures. and the much needed ambulances were damaged under the collapsed canopy in Olive View Hospital in 1971 San Fernando.. microzonation and appropriate construction technologies The pre-earthquake restrengthening and retrofitting of critical urban infrastructure. facilities and hazardous buildings is an important physical measure for earthquake risk mitigation. Ruptured gas lines lead to leaks and fire hazard. Most of these issues can be addressed through proper planning. hospitals and offices the nonanchored equipment are highly vulnerable to earthquake damage.m. California earthquake. What remains is then the reduction of vulnerability. the process of anticipating and planning for damage that a major earthquake would eventually create is termed as “earthquake disaster management”. which in either case is unrealistic. Especially in research laboratories. railroads. the < previous page page_10 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. For any earthquake disaster management program. mitigation. In urban areas. Metropolitan governments should also be responsible and take necessary measures to protect the cultural heritage through the maintenance and retrofitting of monuments and museums. risk reduction.) are vital for rescue and recovery efforts. relief. The earthquake disaster preparedness and the mitigation constitute the two of the important activities of the earthquake disaster management. Redundancy in transportation networks is essential for rapid restoration. Building Contents Modern buildings can suffer major functional and economic loss by damage to the equipment and furniture it houses even though the structure experiences little damage. Major losses of life in the past earthquakes in urban areas have occurred due to the collapse of buildings with insufficient earthquake resistance or with inappropriate siting considerations. The same also applies to the exhibited pieces in museums and in art galleries. In this respect. in terms of casualties. material losses and socio-economic losses. Transportation facilities (highways.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_10.. port and harbors. For example: the collapse of the central fire station in 1972 Managua. the public awareness building. response. Quality of weld is the important factor for the earthquake performance of steel pipes. reconstruction.

Planning and coordination of rehabilitation and reconstruction assistance. Debris removal.T. Mobile command and communication operations. education and training. Considerations on Assessment of Earthquake Resistance of Existing Buildings. for Hous. and Finkel. resettlement and rehabilitation. Damage assessment. public information.Sci. Institutional framework. C. Akkas. restoration and condemnation. Retrofit of design codes and construction standards. Algermissen. Human response and information management. Assessment of earthquake hazard (seismo-tectonic mapping). and H. Training and education programs.Erdik (1984). and M.html12/05/2010 06:29:44 a.F. in 1981. Law enforcement. N.“Estimation of Earthquake Losses to Buildings”. Creation and strengthening of programs and organizations for the prevention of earthquake disasters. Disaster accounting.. The Marmara Sea earthquake of 1509. 4. co. resources and needs.Stinbrugge.and post-earthquake phases: Preparedness (Pre-earthquake) Planning and Activities Installation of earthquake data acquisition and monitoring stations and services. Terra Motae. programs and the activities can be listed as follows under the pre-. Hazardous material management.Cristescu and I. Emergency (Mid-disaster) Planning and Activities Emergency rescue.. Pre-disaster planning and management activities and techniques. Recovery and disposal of dead bodies.V. evacuation. Response readiness. Resource management and stockpiling. Ambraseys. K. Noting that “the pre-1934 unreinforced masonry buildings represent the greatest single threat to the life and limb in Los Angeles in the event of a major earthquake”. Editura Academiiei. Jour. Planning and coordination of disaster assistance. For mitigation of urban earthquake disasters the necessary plans. Quick assessment socioeconomic losses.page_11 < previous page page_11 next page > Page 11 action taken by the city of Los Angeles should serve as a model. S. REFERENCES 1. N. Reconstruction. transportation and communication. food and utilities.N. v. Measures and policies for relief. 3. (1990). Re-establishment of government services. the Los Angeles City Council passed an ordinance (No:154.Lagorio (1978).8. Development of methods for retrofitting hazardous buildings and facilities. 167–174. shelter. 807) requiring the strengthening or removal of pre1934 buildings that have bearing walls of unreinforced masonry.. .. Int. Legislative and regulatory measures. Development of earthquake resistant design codes and construction standards. Assessment of socioeconomic conditions. Siting of new settlements and communities. Open File Report No: 78–441. Post Earthquake Planning and Activities Detailed surveys regarding repair. V.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_11. Logistical support. USGS.Cornea (1982). Disaster awareness. Emergency provision of health care. Development of appropriate techniques for repair and strengthening of non-engineered low-strength constructions. Bucharest. 2. demarcation and condemnation of dangerous buildings and zones. Balan. < previous page page_11 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.J.m. implementing agencies.. Hazard abatement. S. Curemurul de pamint din Romania de la 4 martie 1977.

pp. Cornell. Roger. 48p. 17. S. On Microtremors-X. Seismic Microzonation of Tokyo Area. 19. H. US Gov. Seism. Earthquake Disaster and Approach to Damage Reduction. in Sismic Risk Assessment and Development of Model Code for Seismic Design. J.Bayülke (1990). on Earthq. Bull. USGS Prof. Kanai. USGS Circ. E..Tanaka. J. . Celebi. in Evaluating Earthquake Hazards in the Los Angeles Region..721-728. (1987). Japan.T. (1984). Predicting Relative Ground Response. 6. P. (1990). Proc. pp 11-459.Thomson(1985).139.page_12 < previous page page_12 next page > Page 12 5. Inst. (1982). San Francisco.WCEE. K. Joyner. (1965). No.W. pp.Tinsley and R. Washington. 8. Soc. J. Seismic Zonation Studies in Türkiye: an Overview. 22pp. Disaster Affairs. Sugimura.Perkins (1987). IDNDR International Conference 1990. Bayülke.160. 12. USGS Prof. 15. 25. Erdik. and N.Ohkawa.C.F. 828843.King and R.9. A. Proc.E. Regional Development Dialogue. D. US Government Printing Office. Japan. Medvedev.Tanaka.... No: 86-02. Am. Zonation.Suzuki (1966). M. US Gov.W. California. Ministry of Public Works and Settlement. and D.2. K. Eng.A.S.S. Japan. 26.. Printing Office. Engineering Seismology.S.(1990). (1965). 7. Predicting Seismic Intensities. A New Attenuation Relationship for Peak Ground Acceleration Derived from Strong Motion Accelerograms. Newmark. Bull. Japan 18. General Directorate of 22. EERI (1986).Tinsley.. Fukushima. Soc. and S. (1988). Tokyo.M. Bangkok. Japan. p. 68. Geotechnique. Bull. and T. USGS Professional Paper No:1360. 20. U. pp. Einhaus. Tokyo-Kyoto.. Reducing Earthquake Hazards: Lessons Learned From Earthquakes. Training and Education for Disaster Preparedness.Gülkan (1985). v.Borcherdt (1985).B. N. A.D.F. Disaster Management Education on Earthquakes.15. (1988). Erdik.B. L. and I. 117. 24. 13. Earthq. 16. Seism.807 < previous page page_12 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Submitted to 4th Conf. Tokyo. 9th World Conf. Bender. Erdik. Bulletin 1772. N. 10.A Reality?. in Progress on Seismic Zonation in the San Francisco Bay Region..M.1583. EERI Publ. M. Proc.J. Washington.(1981). ESCAP/UNDRO Regional Symposium on the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. M. Seism.. v. Printing Office. v. K. Proc. Emergency Planning and Management for Disaster Mitigation. Youd.383-388. v.Doyuran. No. Washington. 23. Japan.Ücer(1991). 21..Kataoka(1988).Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_12.C.T.M.M. Tokida.Akkas.. SEISRISK III: A Computer Program for Seismic Hazard Estimation. Predictive Mapping of Earthquake Ground Motion. M. Engineering Seismic Risk Analysis.m. Building Types in Bolu Turkey and Their Predicted Earthquake Damages.58.9.Preston (1979). 8th.. Paper No:1360. California.44.. UNCRD. Yokohama.html12/05/2010 06:29:44 a. Sofia. Kayseri and Elazig. San Francisco. California 11. Campbell. Tectonophysics. Am. Translated from Russian. Y. San Francisco. 9WCEE. Effects of Earthquakes on Dams and Embankments. No.. Jerusalem.Fumal (1985).Osada and T.M. Turkey.Barka and B. Historical Earthquakes of .Perkins. Erdik. A Probabilistic Assessment of the Seismic Hazard in Turkey. 1965.K. Israel Program for Scientific Translations. C. Paper No:1360. Proc.l. N. (1971). v. in Evaluating Earthquake Hazards in the Los Angeles Region. UNOP/UNESCO Project RER/79/014. Topographical Amplification . Res. and J. M. UNCRD. Regional Development Dialogue.G.Y. V. Liquefaction Potential Map of San Fernando. 14. in Evaluating Earthquake Hazards in the Los Angeles Region.l. Near-source Attenuation of the Peak Horizontal Acceleration. T. Evernden. Ankara. 9. v..

.amics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_13.page_13 < previous page Page 13 page_13 next page > Figure 1. .m. Epicentral Distribution of Damaging Earthquakes in the Marmara Region.. Active Fault Segments in the Marmara Region South of (After Barka and Kadinsky-Cade. file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20. 1988) Figure 2. South of .html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:29:45 a.

.amics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_13.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:29:45 a.m.. probabilistic MSK intensity for North and South Figure 4 probabilistic PGA(Rock Outcrop) for North and South < previous page page_13 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.page_13 Figure 3. .

Figure 6.html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:29:46 a.amics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_14... solid contour is for 1509 earthquake) (after [15]). . Approximate damage zonation map for the 1509 and 1894 earthquakes in contours is for 1984.m. Preliminary Microzoning Map of (after [15]).page_14 < previous page Page 14 page_14 next page > Figure 5. (Dashed file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.

amics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_14.. .m.page_14 < previous page page_14 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20..html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:29:46 a.

The time series of observations of T years has to be divided into intervals of a certain duration (one year. Czechoslovakia INTRODUCTION The “maximum possible (or expected) earthquake” is one of the most important input parameters in seismic hazard calculation techniques.Czechosl. 21/91.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_15. Sci. a sequence of “maximum observed earthquakes”. Among the different probabilistic approaches usually used in the determination of the “maximum possible earthquake” is the method of extreme values.. 5 years. then the obtained estimate of the maximum earthquake (the asymptotic value of the 3rd Gumbel distribution) is assumed to be a representative value..page_15 < previous page page_15 next page > Page 15 Probabilistic Method in Maximum Earthquake Assessment* V. CS-141 31 Praha 4—Spo•ilov. Czechosl Acad.Inst. Geoph. No.html12/05/2010 06:29:47 a. in our case.Schenk.. frequently called the Gumbel method. < previous page page_15 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 3 months. Inst. 10 years. If there is a sufficient amount of intervals for which the maximum earthquake is known.m. APPLICATION OF THE THIRD GUMBEL DISTRIBUTION An application of the method of extreme values [1] requires a relatively long sequence of observations of “extreme values”..Kottnauer Department of Seismology. P.Sci. The application of the third Gumbel distribution and a method of determining the accuracy of the maximum earthquake estimate are presented and discussed on a few examples.g.).. etc. * Contribution of the Geoph.Acad.. . From each interval a single extreme value is taken into the calculation: that of the maximum earthquake having occurred in the interval. e.

. In this way we obtain ten different more or less similar sets of the maximum earthquake values: seven sets of 28 values of maximum earthquakes and three sets of 27 values of maximum earthquakes. then we will obtain fourteen sets with 28 values of maximum earthquakes and six sets with 27 values of maximum earthquakes. i.1). but in some cases it has to be proved and the accuracy of the maximum earthquake determination assessed. Each interval can be further subdivided into shorter and shorter time intervals. etc.html12/05/2010 06:29:47 a. their overlapping being given by the shifting interval. to another dimension: for an assessment of the approximation of this distribution.page_16 < previous page page_16 next page > Page 16 We do not doubt that the value is representative indeed.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_16. for an application of the Gumbel statistics an interval of a certain duration (years. Such a combinatory approach extends the standard way of the application of the Gumbel statistics.m. It is understandable that the subdivision cannot be applied without a restriction. Of course if the shifting interval is half a year. For this case we shall have a sequence of 28 values of maximum earthquakes.) has to be defined. for which the maximum earthquake has to be found. 286 years. These combinations were created under the shifting interval of one year. < previous page page_16 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. It means that for the first interval of 1700–1709 we obtain one value of the maximum earthquake. However. and similarly the other values of maximum earthquakes up to the last one the for interval of 1970–1979.e. and apply a 10-year interval. It is evident that for one time series of observations there could be a great number of combinations of applied intervals. weeks. It is obvious that the number of observed earthquakes and their frequency of occurrence in a given area act controversially. months. especially its 3rd Gumbel distribution.. for the second interval of 1710–1719 the second value of the maximum earthquake. As an example let us take the time series of earthquake observations for the period of 1700–1985. As mentioned above. the original time series of earthquake observations can be divided into other nine possible combinations of 10year intervals: we can start with the interval of 1701–1710 or with the interval of 1702–1711 and sequentially we can reach the last possible interval 1709–1718 (Fig..

Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_17. For a better explanation of this approach the following example is demonstrated.. ACCURACY OF THE MAXIMUM EARTHQUAKE DETERMINATION For the whole time series of observations let us introduce for example a shifting interval S equal to one year and divide the time series into one-year intervals D in which the values of maximum earthquakes are determined.m. We obtain only one Gumbel approximation. If the same (one-year) shifting interval S is applied to the time series which is divided into two-year intervals D. .page_17 < previous page Page 17 page_17 next page > Figure 1. for the one-year shifting interval S applied to the time series which is divided into ten-year intervals D gives us ten different Gumbel approximations. Using the catalogue of < previous page page_17 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Likewise. then we obtain two Gumbel approximations..html12/05/2010 06:29:48 a. in which the values of maximum earthquakes are determined.

It gives evidence that our idea concerning the “representativeness” of the 3rd Gumbel approximation need not be necessarily always valid. Figure 3 shows the changes of the MPE values in dependence on the thirty different positions of the beginnings of intervals D with respect to their first positions. Figure 2 shows the distribution of all approximations (23 cases) for which the 3rd Gumbel extreme value distribution has a convergent character. We can see that for return period of 120 years minimum values of MPE were obtained for cases in which the beginning of interval < previous page page_18 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. In this catalogue the earthquake size is given in epicentral intensity of MCS. . The values of the maximum possible earthquakes (MPE) of all 23 convergent Gumbel approximations were analyzed for three different return periods of 120. The Friuli region under study was delineated by geographic coordinates from 45°50’N to 46°36’N and from 12°50’E to 13°50’E .. The subcatalog of observed earthquakes contains 1764 events from the period of 1700–1980 with the maximum observed earthquake of 9.. The fact that for 7 cases the statistical process had not a convergent solution was rather surprising and has to be explained in the near Figure 2. future. 1290 and 15500 years and then they were compared with their asymptotes. In our calculations we applied only one combination of shifting interval S equal to 1 year and interval D equal to 30 years.html12/05/2010 06:29:48 a.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_18. we selected the subcatalogue for the Friuli region (northern Italy).5°MCS. This finding is very important from the point of view of practical applications.page_18 < previous page page_18 next page > Page 18 Italian earthquakes [2].m.

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Page 19 D is situated approximately in the centre of the original interval D, i.e. for the total shift equal to 10≈18 interval S. This conclusion is not very important because the original beginning of the earthquake time series could be shifted and then we can obtain quite easily an opposite result. But what is extremely important is the fact that for the same cases we obtain quite opposite results for higher return periods, and consequently, for the asymptotes too, e.g. for these cases the maximum values of the MPE are determined. An explanation of this feature does not seem to be very simple and probably special tests have to be made in order to clarify it.

Figure 3. For each set of the MPE values obtained for selected return periods the “mean value of the maximum possible earthquake MMPE” and its “standard deviation MSD” were determined. These quantities obtained for the Friuli seismogenic region by the application of the 3rd Gumbel extreme value distribution are drawn in Figure 4. Such a chart informs us immediately about the representativeness of the 3rd Gumbel approximation for the given subcatalogue of earthquakes. We can see that the best approximations and thus the MMPE value with the highest degree of a representativeness, because of the lowest values of the MSD, belongs to the return periods which are close to the middle of the observation period; in our case about 350 years. For higher return periods the standard deviations increase and the degree of the representativeness of the resulting MMPE values becomes slightly lower. Numerically, the MSD for the return period of 350 years is around 0.5% of the MMPE, but for the return period of 15500 years it is as much as 6.5%, at-

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Figure 4. taining 9% for the asymptote of the MMPE value. We assume that the obtained accuracy of the MMPE can be accepted as a general degree of representativeness for the maximum possible earthquakes determined by the 3rd Gumbel approximations. CONCLUSION The described statistical approach allows us to estimate the accuracy of the approximation obtained by the 3rd Gumbel distribution in a prediction of the maximum earthquake for given return periods of earthquake occurrences. These estimates do not only define the resulting predicted values but also give their possible variance. Such characteristics are quite important from the economic point of view, because for example, in tasks of the earthquake hazard assessments the determination of the maximum possible earthquake directly affects the total cost of seismic resistant structures. Such predicted values of maximum earthquakes also help in calculations of the seismic risk and can make a contribution in some questions of earthquake mitigation.

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Page 21 REFERENCES 1. Gumbel E.J., 1954: Statistical Theory of Extreme Values and Some Practical Applications. Nat.Bureau of Standards, Appl.Math.Series 33, U.S.Govt.Print. Office. 2. Postpischl D., Ed., 1985: Catalogo dei terremoti italiani dal’anno 1000 al 1980. CNR, PFG, Quad. Ric. Scie. 114–2B, Graficoop, Bologna.

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Page 23 Study of an Assessment for Site Effect of Seismic Strong Motion E.Kuribayashi (*), T.Jiang (**), T.Niiro (*), H.Nagasaka (***), S.Kuroiwa (****), S.Nishioka (*) (*) Dept. of Civil Engineering/Regional Planning, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Japan (**) Dept. of Geotechnical Engineering, Tonji University, Shanghai, The Peoples Republic of China (***) Kumagai-gumi Co., Ltd., Toyokawa, Japan (****) Nagano Prefectural Government, Japan ABSTRACT Effects of sediment-filled valley on seismic ground motions have become of major interest in earthquake engineering throughout this decade. This paper presents interesting phenomena of both analytical and experimental approaches. INTRODOCTION Disasters caused by earthquakes are generally complicated. The earthquake damage strongly depends on the subsoil conditions and topography from the past experience of severe earthquake damage. In order to prove the effects of topographical and geological conditions in behavior of ground motions, a strong motion observation network so called TASSEM, Toyohashi University of Technology Array System for Strong Earthquake Motions, has been developed since 1989. They are located around Toyohashi city, east part of Aichi prefecture, that is regarded as one of the most vulnerable areas to destructive earthquakes designated by many seismologists. Several records of the strong motion observation have brought a reasonable results among analytical results using one and two dimensional analyses and consequences in microtremor and strong motion observations. From analytical results, amplification would not be influenced very much by the direction and angle of incident wave, but by the topographical conditions.

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Page 24 In addition, it is clear that Boundary Element Method is an effective tool to estimate the behavior of responses in symmetric valleys subjected to incidental waves. PAST EARTHQUAKES AND THEIR DAMAGE IN AICHI PREFECTURE [1] [2] [3] [4] There are no large-scale mountains in Aichi prefecture. The crustal movement in the area is very complicated and active in Honsyu (the mainland of Japan). In this area, Median Tectonic Line that divide the south-west part of Japan into two areas called Inner Zone and Outer Zone, is lying from direction of N.E. to S.W. Many active faults exist in inland and off or along the ocean coast. This area has suffered great disasters many times caused by great earthquakes and is one of the most vulnerable regions to destructive earthquakes. Fig. 1 shows distribution of the epicenters of past major earthquakes. The earthquakes brought destructive damage to this area in historical time are classified into two types. One is the earthquakes off or along the Pacific coast. Another is the inland earthquakes. In recent decades, typical earthquakes which caused major damage are, the earthquake off or along the Pacific coast, 1944 Tonankai earthquake with magnitude of 8.0 in Richter scale, the inland earthquake, 1945 Mikawa earthquake with magnitude of 7.1 in Richter scale. In Tonankai earthquake, the damage caused by liquefaction was concentrated in alluvial plain. In Mikawa earthquake, the damage was concentrated the south side of Fukouzu fault which continues for 28km from seabed of off Gamagouri in Mikawa Bay to Yahazu River as shown in Fig. 2. In these two earthquakes, severe damage was observed in the 5 or 6th degree on Japan Meteorological Agency scale in Aichi.

Fig. 1 Distribution of the of Past Major Earthquakes

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Fig. 2 Epicenters of Tonankai and Mikawa Earthquake

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Page 25 In the area around the western half of Suruga Bay, or the Tokai area, there have been no earthquakes since the one which occurred in 1854. This is the only place along the Pacific coast where no large scale earthquake has occurred in the past 100 years. The Japanese Government has prescribed Large-scale Earthquake Countermeasures, and has designated the Tokai region as one of the Areas Under Intensified Measures Against Earthquake Disaster. ARRAY SEISMIC MOTION OBSERVATION SYSTEM In order to prove the effects of topographical and geological conditions in behavior of ground motions, a strong motion observation network so called TASSEM has been developed around Toyohashi city, Toyohashi University of Technology as a center station, that is regarded as marginal area near one of the most vulnerable areas to destructive earthquakes. Geological and Topographical Aspects [5] [6] The object area of seismic observation is Toyohashi city located east part of Aichi. Topographical aspects of Toyohashi is generally classified into three areas; (1) the hilly land and the terrace area, (2) the alluvial plain and (3) high lands. The geological feature is made up of the Paleozoic, the Quaternary and the alluvium. The sedimentary layers are consisted of marines without any igneous and metamorphic rocks. Paleozoic This area is composed of the Paleozoic Chichibu zone. It is the base of the diluvial formation widely distributed most part of Toyohashi and reveal at the highland of east of Toyohashi. Paleozoic is composed of chart, mudstone, sandstone, etc. and runs generally in direction from east-north-east to west-south-west and has a tendency to incline towards the north or south vertically. Around the object area, it exists about 200m under sea level. Diluvium Diluvial formations mainly consist of gravel, sand and silt and form the hilly land and terrace distributed most part of Toyohashi. These are almost horizontally laid on. Caused by the crustal movement called “Atsumi upheaval movement” by Kuroda [7], they incline slightly from south to north. Alluvium Alluvium mainly consist of gravel, sand and silt, they have not harden enough yet, and is widely distributed the basin of river. Location of the Observation System The arrangement of the observation points is shown in Fig. 3 and 4. Fig. 5 shows the distribution of standard penetration values, N, at each observation point. Table 1 shows site information.

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Page 26 Accelerometers were installed in December, 1989 ground surface, actually one meter below the surface, of three sites which geological and topographical features are different respectively. POINT 1 is at Hongo Junior High School located on the center of the valley, Umeda River runs east-west and the ground surface is covered with the soft alluvial deposit. Two points locate in the left side of the river, terrace area composed from diluvial layers and called Tempaku-hara Terrace, Tempaku Elementary School as POINT 2, Toyohashi University of Technology as POINT 3. Moreover, as a POINT 4, at Toyohashi Fire Department located in the right side of the river, terrace area composed from diluvial layers and called Takashi-hara Terrace, supplemental observation is being done. From Fig. 5, it is clear that the thickness of soft layer.

Fig. 3 Arrangement of the Observation Points

Fig. 4 Cross Section of the Observation Site

Fig. 5 Distribution of N values at Each Observation Point Table 1 Site Information of the Observation Points

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Location POINT 1 POINT 2 POINT 3, 3B POINT 4 N34º42.7′ E137°24.0′ N34°42.5′ E137º24.9′ N34°41.9′ E137°24.7′ N34°43.4′ E137°24.3′

Specific Height 6.2m 21.0m 39.7m 25.0m

Surface Layer Silt, Gravel Clayey Sand, Gravel Sand Clayey Sand, Gravel

Depth of Accelerometer GL-1m GL-lm GL-1m, −60m GL

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Page 27 Observation of base rock motion has been carried out at the layer composed of gravely sand under ground -60m at T.U. T. as POINT 3B since January, 1991 in present system. Specifications of the Observation System By employing an advanced electronic technology, seismological recording techniques have made remarkable progress. TASSEM has been ordinarily composed to obtain the fairly distinctive data and easy data management. Table 2 shows the specifications of the system. As a practicable means, the observation center at T.U.T. controls the branch observation points by using of telephone line. Fig. 6 shows outline of TASSEM. TASSEM is provided with the following remarkable functions. 1) By an advanced technology, wide dynamic range and frequency range can be acquired in the system. 2) By watching the state of system operation constantly, the center can get the certainty and reliability of total system operation. 3) Recorded data can be sent to main computer at TUT through the telephone line directly and made visible easily. 4) All seismic observation parameters such as trigger level, record length, sampling frequency, delay time, and correction of time can be easily controlled from the center. 5) As a counterplan against the power failure, the observation can be continued for three hours or more by use of backup battery. Table 2 Specifications of the System Accelerometer Triaxial Force Balance Servo Type Frequency Range Measurement Range Dynamic Range Low Pass Filter A-D Converter Internal Memory Telemetering 0.02–30 Hz overall ±1000 gal 84 dB overall 30 Hz, −18 dB/oct. 14bits, Sampling Rate 100 Hz IC memory: 1.25 Mbyte, Froppy Disk: 1.25 Mbyte Public Telephone Line, Data Transfer Rate 4800bps

Fig. 6 Outline of the system

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Page 28 Observation Results At present time, several ground motion records have been obtained. Max. acceleration of ground motions observed by TASSEM is shown in Table 3. As one of the largest records, 06:13:07 Sep. 24, 1990, Fig. 7 shows Fourier spectra calculated and smoothed by using Hamming type window. From the Fig. 7, peculiar peaks are shown in each observation point. The Fourier spectra in POINT 1 and 2 which thickness of soft layer is similar have a flat and wide peak in a short period range. In POINT 3 which thickness of soft layer is comparatively thick, the spectra has the peculiar peak around 3Hz. Up to now, strong motion data have never been obtain at POINT 3B (GL-60m at TUT). Spectral ratio between the surface and the base, POINT 3B, for microtremor data observed by TASSEM in each observation point is shown in Fig. 8. In case of POINT 3/POINT 3B, peaks are shown in range from 2 to 3Hz and in case of POINT 1/POINT 3B and 2/3B, large amplification is shown in high frequency range more than 5Hz. Table 3 Max.Acceleration Observed by TASSEM (gal) Date Feb. 20, 1990 Apr. 13, 1990 May 17, 1990 Sep. 24, 1990 Sep. 24, 1990 Epicenter N34º46' N35º9' N34°45' N33º6' N33º8' E139º14' E136º31' E137°37' E138º38' E138º36' Depth 6km 40km 33km 60km 42km Magnitude Direction POINT 1 POINT 2 POINT 3 EW – 5.5 – 6.5 NS – 5.2 – UD – 2.5 – EW 4.1 3.7 – 4.4 NS 4.2 3.7 – UD 1.7 2.0 – EW 4.3 7.1 4.0 3.4 NS 10.5 6.5 2.2 UD 2.6 4.4 1.7 EW 11.2 14.9 11.1 6.6 NS 15.1 14.7 15.9 UD 3.9 6.7 5.4 EW 2.3 4.1 3.3 6.0 NS 3.2 3.7 4.0 UD 1.1 1.5 1.3

Fig. 7 Fourier Spectra of the Observation Points

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Fig. 8 Spectral Ratio

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Page 29 ANALYSES OF LOCAL TOPOGRAPHY AND GEOGRAPHY [8] In order to confirm the effects of topographical and geological conditions in amplification characteristics of ground motions, linear response analyses are carried out by one-dimensional Multiple Reflection Method and two-dimensional Finite Element Method. Soil properties needed in one and two dimensional analyses are obtained from field tests, soil types and N values, of each observation point and shown in Table 4. Damping ratio 5% is used in analyses. S-wave velocity is induced by following equation. [9] Two-dimensional model is shown in Fig. 9. The model is formed of 7000 nodal points. Viscous boundary as its side boundary and rigid base as its base are regarded to the boundary conditions of the model. Calculated transfer functions in each point of observation are shown in Fig. 10. All results between one and two dimension show difference obviously on account of influence of the surface configration. Peaks of natural frequency of two-dimensional analyses tend to be lower than the one-dimensional’s. As compared with the spectral ratio of observed data, value of magnification is differ in absolute ordinate, similar tendency is however shown in frequency domain. Besides, two-dimensional analyses are carried out with the different incident angles, θ=0°, ±5°, ±10°, ±15°, in order to prove the effects of the direction and angle of incident wave in amplification characteristics of ground motion. The sign +stands for the incident direction from left side of model. Fig. 11 shows the transfer function with different incident angles. From the Fig. 11, the amplification was not influenced very much by the direction and angle of incident wave in any of point within the incident angle ± 10°, but by the topographical conditions.

Fig. 9 Two-dimensional Analytical Model

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Page 30 Table 4 Soil Properties Used in Analyses (a)POINT 1 Layer (m) Thickness No.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (b)POINT 2 Layer (m) Thickness No.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (c)POINT 3 Layer (m) Thickness No.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 2.5 0.6 0.6 1.3 7.0 7.0 7.1 5.5 1.6 2.2 2.2 2.0 2.3 1.7 2.7 0.8 1.8

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Soil Type Silt Gravel Sand Gravel Sand Gravel Soil Type Sand

υ 0.49 0.49 0.46 0.47 0.47 0.46 0.44 0.48 0.44 υ 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.44 υ 0.48 0.48 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.46 0.48 0.44 0.49 0.46 0.49

γ (t/m3) 1.60 1.65 2.10 2.00 2.00 2.10 2.10 1.85 2.10 γ (t/m3) 1.60 1.95 1.80 1.75 2.10 2.10 2.10 2.10 (t/m3) 1.75 1.75 1.60 1.60 1.70 2.00 2.00 2.00 1.80 2.10 1.95 2.10 1.80 2.10 1.75

Vs (m/s) 145 130 300 315 315 350 450 350 450 Vs (m/s) 170 220 205 220 400 400 400 450 Vs (m/s) 180 190 145 155 180 255 210 235 200 350 280 450 200 270 200

G (t/m2) 3450 2850 19300 20250 20250 26250 43400 23125 43400 G (t/m2) 4700 9650 7700 8650 34300 34300 34300 43400 G (t/m2) 5800 6450 3450 3900 5600 13250 9000 11250 7350 26250 15600 43400 7350 15600 7150

Silt Gravel

2.5 2.5 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 1.9 2.0 0.7 1.5 1.8 1.1 1.3 0.6 0.7

Soil Type Sand

Clay Gravel Sand Gravel Sand Gravel Clay

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16 17 18 19

7.1 7.1 7.1 5.5

Gravel

0.45 0.45 0.45 0.44

2.10 2.10 2.10 2.10

400 400 400 450

34300 34300 34300 43400

Fig. 10 Result of Response Analyses Fig.11 Results of Response Analyses with Different Incident Angles

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Page 31 ANALYSES OF SIMPLE MODEL OF MEXICO VALLEY BY BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD Based on Ref. [10] (Kuribayashi et al.), the boundary element method using the half space fundamental solution is used for the response analyses of symmetric valleys subjected to incident SH waves and the vibration amplification characteristics. Analytical simple model took the case of Mexico Valley and adopted parameter are shown in Fig. 12 and Table 5. Response analyses are carried out with the different incident angles, 0°, 30°, 60°, in both cases that the soft layer exists or not. Fig. 13 shows analysed amplitude ratio between surface and base. As results; (1) because of being with the soft layer, amplitude ratio is distinctly larger than the case without the soft layer, (2) in both sides of valley, amplitude ratio is larger than the other parts of valley, (3) effects of different incidental angle are only a little. These results are equivalent to actual disaster in Mexico Valley in 1985.

Fig. 12 Analytical Model SL: Soft Layer ML: Middle Layer BL: Bed Layer Table 5 Soil Parameters Layer γ (t/m3) SL ML BL

Vs (m/s) 1.40 1.80 2.16 70 500 1250

h (%) 5 0 0

Fig. 13 Amplitude Ratio

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Union. 1988. Dec. is an earthquake observation network and has the sufficient specifications as the highfidelity observation system. but by the topographical conditions. 1975. 527–532. Geophys. it is clear that Boundary Element Method is an effective tool to estimate the behavior of responses in symmetric valleys subjected to incidental waves. Kuroda. Ltd. Proc. Barkley.. Vol 2. Yamashita. “Damage Caused by Major Earthquakes in Japan—New Edition”. [11] From analytical results. Based upon Seismotectonics”. J. University of Tokyo Press. Earth Science Shizuhata.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_32. 4. “Specification of Soon-to-occur Seismic Faulting in the Tokai District. 1990 2. Lysmer. et al. An International Preview.. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research was supported by a grant from subsidy of Science Research Fund. REFERENCES 1. 1958 8. Secretariat of Conference for Preservation of Subterranean Water in Toyohashi. amplification would not be influenced very much by the direction and angle of incident wave. N. Washington D. Aug. Kyoritsu Press Co.m. EERC. pp13–19 3.html12/05/2010 06:29:58 a.. Univ. Geology of Japan 5. 16.C. Ishibashi.. 1987 4. Central Japan.. 1981. “Tyubu Region II”. Usami. K. et al. [11] The amplification characteristics in frequency domain around TASSEM are proved from analytical results and consequences in microtremor and strong motion observations. In addition.... 1988 6. “FLUSH—A Computer Program for Approximate 3-D Analysis of Soil-Structure Interaction Problems”. T. Asada. 1988 Tokyo-Kyoto. TASSEM developed in Toyohashi. east part of Aichi. “Diluvium and Tectonics of Atsumi Pen.. Conference on Prevention of disasters in Aichi Prefecture. Ministry of Education. 1972 < previous page page_32 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. “Subterranean Water of Toyohashi”. “Earthquake Prediction Study in Japan”.of California. Amer. Japan. Science and Culture through 1989 to 1990 fiscal year: this support is gratefully acknowledged.... .”. Earthquake Prediction.page_32 < previous page page_32 next page > Page 32 CONCLUSIONS Aichi prefecture is regarded as one of the most vulnerable area to destructive earthquakes. 9th WCEE. 5. “Anti-disaster Plan in Aichi Prefecture”. 1986 7. pp38–45. K. T. 2–9.

6.. 4.. 7. Dec. T. Soil and Foundations. 28. ASCE. 1991 *A11 references are written in English except 1. “The Three-Dimensional Resonance of Axisymmetric Sediment Filled Valleys”. Jiang. 3.page_33 < previous page page_33 next page > Page 33 9. E. Vol.. et al. and Kuribayashi. The Japan Road Association. 9 < previous page page_33 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Proc.1988 11.m. “Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges Part 5. “Engineering Tactics on Lifelines Safety Against Earthquakes”. Kuribayashi. pp130–146. 1980 10. 3rd Conference on Lifeline Earthquake Engineering. 5.. No.html12/05/2010 06:29:58 a. . E..Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_33.

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1].page_35 < previous page page_35 next page > Page 35 Site-Response at Foster City and San Francisco Airport—Loma Prieta Studies M.html12/05/2010 06:29:59 a.. U. ABSTRACT Strong motions recorded during the Loma Prieta earthquake and aftershocks recorded thereafter are used to quantify the amplification at several locations within a 20-km strip of the bay side of mid-peninsula.S.Çelebi. the commercial strip south of SFO. 1989 [Ms=7. In this paper. CA 94025.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_35.McGarr U. The damage sustained in the study area during this earthquake. The area includes an important lifeline such as SFO. California. The area.. INTRODUCTION The peninsula south of San Francisco experienced significant variation of ground motions during the Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17. Redwood Shores and vicinity. we present evidence of such variation within a 20-km strip of the bay side of the mid-peninsula covering the San Francisco airport (SFO) and extending south to Foster City and Redwood Shores (Figure 1) within the boundaries of San Mateo County (at epicentral distance of 75km or more).m. A. MS/977.S. . The amplifications are calculated for frequency ranges of engineering interest and are shown to exceed 2 (the maximum site factor in the code) in most locations. and the urban areas of Foster City. south of San Francisco. in San Mateo County. presents a unique opportunity to quantify the amplification of motions at soft soil sites as compared to hard rock sites and compare them with the recent code site factors and maps based on these factors.A. Menlo Park. Geological Survey. by most < previous page page_35 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. extending from San Francisco International Airport southward to Foster City and Redwood Shores.

23-J : “Site Coefficients” of the Uniform Building Code (UBC) [5]. [3]). Available strong-motion records from the main shock and records of two aftershocks are used to document and discuss the features of the varying ground motion within the described mid-peninsula strip. specific site factors (S1–S4) are assigned to each station using a recent zoning map by Hensolt and Brabb [2]. residential homes within the study zone were not damaged. Epicentral distances.5 for S3 to 2.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_36.. latitudes. The factors S1 through S4 assigned in their map are adopted from Section 2312 (Table No. Therefore. Ramplification(ω)=A2j (ω)/A1j (ω) where Aij(ω) is the jth component Fourier amplitude spectrum at recording station i. unless special dense arrays are deployed prior to an earthquake. In addition.2 for S2. the recorded peak accelerations) are provided in Table 1. A two-story structure within the airport grounds built according to pre-1960 codes was extensively damaged and later razed.m. AP2 and AP9 stations are maintained by the United States Geological Survey (Maley and others. Structural damage occurred in the Fluor Building at Redwood Shores. longitudes.. The scope of this paper is limited to assessing the engineering implications of the variation of the recorded strong-motion main shock and its aftershocks. It should be recognized that. we have relied on temporarily deployed dense arrays to record aftershocks. decimated to 50sps).page_36 < previous page page_36 next page > Page 36 standards. Two hotels in Burlingame were damaged extensively. The site factors are 1. This relationship is valid assuming the differences in distances can be neglected.0 for S4. There are several other aftershock records from these stations. as in this case. [4]) and the MAL (Foster City). The strong-motion stations SF1 and AP7 (Figure 1) are maintained by the California Division of Mines and Geology (Shakal and others. elevations. Particular attention is given to impact on structural shaking and therefore zonation as a result of the variation of motions within distances < previous page page_36 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. . 1.html12/05/2010 06:29:59 a. Figure 1 shows the locations of temporary aftershock stations as well as the strong-motion stations discussed throughout this paper. due to space limitations. In the majority of cases. The amplitude spectra are calculated using 25 seconds of each record (originally 200 samples per second. strong-motion stations in general are sparsely deployed. however. These are intended to correspond to amplification factors and are to be compared with the spectral ratios found in this work. was moderate to minimal. 1.0 for S1. depths to bedrock and relevant descriptions of all stations (and for only the strong-motion stations. The spectra and ratios are smoothed with a hanning window of 10 points. only two are presented and utilized herein. A 22-story steel structure in Foster City was reported to have received minor structural damage.

09. 335 Menhaden Ct.** SF2 79 37.25 1 S3 117 Co-sited with USGS #1002 strong-motion recorder.page_37 < previous page page_37 next page > Page 37 that are close to one another.. vertical.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_37.[0.[0.[0.47 122. Situated close to bedrock outcrop.35 1 S4 107 Near east end of Runway 28R on concrete slab.. [0. 0. < previous page page_37 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.33.25 1 S2 50 Fox & Carskadon Office.69 122.61 122.52 122.39 121.. 75 Shoreway Rd.55 122. SF3 79 37. rural San Mateo County.11. N Long.55 122.12]. Deg. W Elev. Crystal Springs Reservoir.24 1 S4 107 Same conditions as MAL. 0. Foster City. AP7* 63 37. Across from Hyatt (Burlingame).62 122. Portside Park.12]. MAL* 66 37. Canada Rd.48 122. 0. 0.08.39 2 S2 92 Engineering Building. FOX 64 37.32 106 S1 0 USGS strong-motion station (#1161).20.39 2 S3 37 Inside Butler Aviation Building on concrete floor of hangar.11.23. Deg. Recording site information.12.16]. free field.09.28].51 122. SF4 78 37. San Carlos.26].45 100 S1 0 Near San Bruno Mountain AMF 72 37. **Note 2: Another strong motion station (AP1) in Redwood Shores recorded peak accelerations of [0. Table 1. 0. 0.m.12. CRA 66 37.06.24]. 0. No aftershocks recorded. AP2* 63 37. (D epicentral distance) Station D (km) Lat.29.html12/05/2010 06:30:00 a. AP9 62 37. 0.05.62 122. 0. 0.. Redwood Shores [0. 0. horizontal (EW)—in g’s) recorded during the Loma Prieta earthquake. 0. Burlingame. .95 5 S3/S4 107 1492 Old Bayshore Highway. [0.11].06. free field.63 122.24 1 S4 107 Co-sited with USGS #1515 strong-motion recorder.31 108 S1 0 Co-sited with CSMIP #58378 strong-motion recorder. 0. (m) Site Factor Depth to Bedrock Comments (* Co-sited (m) Stations) SF1* 79 37. SBM 80 37. *Note 1: Numbers in brackets are peak accelerations (horizontal (NS).. Only the horizontal motions are quantified in this work.39 2 S1 0 On pavement 25 m east of northeast corner of United Overhaul Shop. San Francisco Airport Co-sited with CSMIP #58223 strongmotion recorder. 0.

An important objective of this work is to relate variations in ground motion from site to site to corresponding differences in the alluvial column above bedrock. Other rock sites. are also used as reference sites to calculate the spectral ratios that follow. SF4 was sited at the end of runway 28R. [1]). 2–3 for MAL and 3–5 for SF1. RECORDED MOTIONS Strong-Motions. including man-made fill. The AP7 spectrum is superimposed in each spectral plot for easy comparison.page_38 < previous page page_38 next page > Page 38 GEOLOGY AND BACKGROUND SFO is situated on low-velocity alluvium. chosen as one reference site. The site. The ratios reach as high as 7. AP2. No aftershocks were recorded at CRA. .Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_38. Figure 3 shows both the Fourier amplitude spectra and spectral ratios for the N-S and E-W components of the strong motions shown in Figure 2.0]). Amplitude Spectra and Ratios In Figure 2. Only the velocity seismograms will be used < previous page page_38 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. uncorrected horizontal acceleration time-histories recorded at the strong-motion network stations of both CDMG and USGS that are in the immediate area of concern within the mid-peninsula are shown. Aftershocks. in the case of AP2. is next to the northern boundary of the airport. of varying thickness. SF3 was sited as close as possible to the severely-damaged building at SFO (Figure 1) to find out whether this location might have experienced greatly enhanced levels of ground motion.html12/05/2010 06:30:00 a.m. partly because of the wooden trestle damage but also owing to the substantial thickness of man-made fill beneath this portion of SFO. The spectra from the strong motions indicates clearly that the energy of the motions practically dies out after approximately 4Hz and. SF2 (Figure 1). and is nominally on an outcrop of bedrock. SBM and AP7.. Stations AMF. after 2Hz.9 for AP2. Stations AP7. The spectral ratios are calculated with respect to station AP7. AP9 are rock stations and are located at or in the vicinity of Cystal Springs Reservoir.8] and 3112342 [Ms=4. a Jurassic or Cretaceous sandstone and shale formation (Bonilla. covered with compacted engineered surficial fills (sand mixed with sea-shells). The equiscaled velocity seismograms of these two events are provided in Figure 4. The higher ratios are for frequencies that are less than 4Hz.. Amplitude Spectra and Ratios We make use of two aftershock records (events 3091337 [Ms=3. CRA and MAL are on varying thicknesses of bay mud (soft clay).

Conservatively ignoring the attenuation due to distance.33 for the E-W direction.09) is 3. Figure 5 shows the spectral ratios calculated from Fourier amplitude spectra of the horizontal components for the 7 stations that recorded event 3091337 and normalized to SF2 for the SFO stations and AP7 for all stations. for larger distances to SBM. the ratios reach as high as 6 (for SF3) and all have prominent peaks at frequencies less than 2Hz.html12/05/2010 06:30:01 a. This is not apparent from the amplitude of the seismograms of AP7 and SBM which. We note first that for those stations for which there are ratios with respect to SF2 and AP7.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_39.. . This maximum is followed by that for AP2 to AP7 and is approximately 3. The minimum ratio corresponds to MAL versus AP7 and is actually 0.67 for the N-S direction and 1. the ratios with respect to SF2 are larger for frequencies less than 4 because of the low energy at SF2 for the frequencies that are less than 5–6Hz. therefore. the higher ratios with respect to SBM.2. and the dependence of the motions on frequency. we note that the ratios with respect to AP7 are smaller than those with respect to SBM.m. The Hensolt and Brabb map classifies MAL as having a site factor S4 which corresponds to 2. we conclude that with respect to AP7. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS The peak accelerations of the main shock compiled in Table 1 are recorded at epicentral distances between 62km (AP2. Therefore. The ratios are significant in all cases for frequencies less than 4Hz. < previous page page_39 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.page_39 < previous page page_39 next page > Page 39 throughout this work as they give the best signal-to-noise ratio. give comparable seismogram amplitudes.. This is surprising as the Hensolt and Brabb map [2] classifies SF1 as being a site which best fits the description of site type S2 which corresponds to a site factor 1.0. the ratio of peak accelerations at SFl to that at AP7 (0. The amplitude spectra for SF2 (not provided here) also exhibits significantly higher energy at higher frequencies (4–6Hz).33/0. AP7 and AP9) and 79km (SF1). The Fourier amplitude spectra of both AP7 and SBM (not shown here) are similar in frequencies but an order higher for AP7. Figure 6 shows the spectral ratios calculated from Fourier amplitude spectra of the horizontal components for the 6 stations that recorded event 3112342 and normalized to SBM for AMF and SF4 and AP7 for all.67 in the east-west direction and is the maximum ratio for any component of strong-motion within the study area. In this case. These two events provide at least one seismogram for each one of the temporary deployments described previously (except for CRA).

therefore.0–4.page_40 < previous page page_40 next page > Page 40 The frequency-dependent spectral ratios from strong motions show that the AP2/AP7 is as high as 7. Furthermore. Such buildings are in the region and may be vulnerable due to the amplification of the motions at these sites. < previous page page_40 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The ratios from the aftershock motions are not as high as those from the strong-motion. However we need to add that those amplifications occur particularly at frequencies less than 10Hz and in most cases between 1. the largest site factor in the current codes.9. . In this study. specifically the ratios clearly indicate significant amplification of motions at those sites where the recent zonation maps provide site factors between 1 and 2. It is noted herein that the AP2 site is at a green area (public park) within 10 meters of the Belmont Slough in Redwood Shores. particularly within the frequency ranges of engineering interest. zonation maps such as those of Hensolt and Brabb [2] are very useful.0Hz which correspond to the frequencies of 2–10-story buildings. CONCLUSIONS The spectral ratios calculated from strong motions or aftershocks are comparable. The quantified values of amplification at different sites of the mid-peninsula tell us that for the soft sites of the region. The results presented herein would have been better characterized with borehole logs and pertinent geotechnical data including shear wave velocity values.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_40.. and (2) will these ratios change for future large earthquakes with epicentral distances that are closer than was the case in the Loma Prieta earthquake. Therefore. we quantified amplification in various soft soil sites of the peninsula strip that were larger than the 2. the consolidation of the site may not be as good as that of MAL in Foster City. the code provisions with site factors are more than justified and may not be conservative enough.html12/05/2010 06:30:01 a. This then raises two questions: (1) what are realistic factors with which the motions should be amplified at these sites that will make them both economically feasible and at the same time provide the necessary strength and stiffness to the structures.. We are reminded once again that such documentation of strong-motion station sites is needed and essential for better evaluation of the data sets recorded during earthquakes.m.

W. Hensolt..Bonilla and E. E.. R.. Open-File Rep. Surv. U. M. 1989. 4. Bonilla. Preliminary Geologic Map of the San Francisco South Quadrangle and Part of the Hunters Point Quadrangle.Brabb provided critical comments. M. is acknowledged. 90–496. Geol. Maley. Geological Survey Strong-Motion Records from the Northern California (Loma Prieta) Earthquake of October 17. Shakal.Andrews. Report OSM 89–03. The International Conference of Building Officials.E. 1988.F. 1985.Brabb provided the requisite geological information and the maps. U. REFERENCES 1. A. Geol. Howard Bundock (USGS) helped with the maps and Carol Sullivan with typing. California. California Earthquake of October 17.G. Uniform Building Code (UBC).S. CSMIP Strong-Motion Records from the Santa Cruz Mountains (Loma Prieta). Geological Survey.m.G.. Maps Showing Elevation of Bedrock and Implications for Design of Engineered Structures to Withstand Earthquake Shaking in San Mateo County. . Whittier. 5. 3. 1989. CA..S. U. California.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_41. 1989.S. 1989. Open-File Rep. et al. and Brabb.page_41 < previous page page_41 next page > Page 41 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Use of the computer program MATLAB by MathWorks Inc.S. U. J.H. Miscellaneous Field Studies Map MF-311. Surv. et al.Bonilla and E.html12/05/2010 06:30:02 a. 1971. 89–568. 1990. 2.. < previous page page_41 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. M.

General map of the San Francisco peninsula with insets showing details of SFO and Foster City-Redwood Shores stations..page_42 < previous page Page 42 page_42 next page > Figure 1.html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:30:03 a..amics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_42. .m. Figure 2. Unprocessed equiscaled acceleration time-histories for the main shock recorded by the strong-motion stations file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.

page_42 that are used in this study (SF1 and AP7 are CDMG stations and AP2. < previous page page_42 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.amics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_42.m. . MAL AP9 are USGS stations)...html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:30:03 a.

amics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_43.m..html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:30:04 a.page_43 < previous page Page 43 page_43 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20. ..

.amics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_43. . Fourier amplitude spectra and spectral ratios calculated from strong-motion records..page_43 Figure 3.m. < previous page page_43 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:30:04 a.

Equiscaled velocity seismograms from two aftershocks of the Loma Prieta earthquake. < previous page page_44 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.html12/05/2010 06:30:04 a.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_44.m..page_44 < previous page Page 44 page_44 next page > Figure 4.. At least one event triggered the temporary stations deployed (except for CRA). .

page_45 < previous page Page 45 page_45 next page > Figure 5.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_45. at 13:37 GMT).. .html12/05/2010 06:30:05 a. Spectral ratios calculated from velocity (north-south and east-west) seismograms of (Ms=3. 1989.. < previous page page_45 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.m. November 5.8) event 3091337 (Julian 309.

1989.0) event 3112342 (Julian 311. November 7.m. at 23:42 GMT).Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_46. < previous page page_46 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing..html12/05/2010 06:30:06 a. . Spectral ratios calculated from velocity (north-south and east-west) seismograms of (Ms=4.page_46 < previous page Page 46 page_46 next page > Figure 6..

Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_47.m. ...html12/05/2010 06:30:06 a.page_47 < previous page Page 47 SECTION 2: STRONG GROUND MOTIONS page_47 next page > < previous page page_47 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.

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Turkey ABSTRACT A parametric study was carried out to estimate the effects of statistical variation in the characteristics of an input earthquake. the influence of these factors are on more macro level and would not be sufficient to explain the variations in structural damage that may be observed within relatively short distances.page_49 < previous page page_49 next page > Page 49 Effects of Earthquake Characteristics on Ground Response Spectra A. and structural features. The earthquake source characteristics represents the effects of geology and tectonic formations of the region. Civil Engineering Faculty.. The statistical distribution of the calculated peak ground accelerations. A. Therefore it is necessary to study and evaluate response of soil layers during earthquakes. within the old sector of Istanbul. Strong motion records from California and Turkiye were scaled to different peak acceleration levels and a number of soil profiles.html12/05/2010 06:30:07 a.. the local soil conditions which can be very different due to changes in the thickness and properties of soil layers. were selected to study the influence of input earthquake characteristics on the response of different types of soil profiles. and response spectra were evaluated leading to a probability analysis that can be utilized in the selection of a design earthquake for site response analyses and microzonation studies. earthquake source characteristics. would also be affected by them and may cause important instabilities as in the case of liquefaction and slope failures. local soil conditions. Soil layers as well as modifying properties of earthquake excitations. Istanbul. predominant soil periods. However. even in the case of a widespread city like Istanbul.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_49. INTRODUCTION The factors controlling structural response during earthquakes may be considered in three groups as. On the contrary.Ansal. depth of bedrock and water table would have a more dominant impact on damage distribution. Department of Geotechnical Engineering. Ayazaga.m. . < previous page page_49 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.M.Lav Istanbul Technical University.M.

This aspect of the problem introduces an uncertainty into the engineering design. However. magnitude. this type of data is very scarce if not completely unavailable. neither epicenter location. Therefore a statistical evaluation of this aspect of the problem could introduce a probabilistic interpretation enabling the design engineers to base their decision on better defined risk levels.. there is a very unstable balance between the required safety and financial capabilities. However. .m.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_50. In cases where the outcome of an analysis would necessitate large spending people are inclined to ignore the situation completely. Therefore the use of statistical and probabilistic analysis would also allow to establish a relationship between risk levels and corresponding financial investment to < previous page page_50 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. In some countries due to the limited financial sources and due to the difficulties in applying more sophisticated technologies. Therefore one of the important stages in site response studies is the selection of an appropriate and realistic design earthquake. In this situation the results obtained will be directly dependent on the characteristics of the input earthquake motion. In these cases one the problems is the selection of a realistic strong motion record that would not yield overconservative and uneconomical results. and time of an earthquake can be controlled nor can be predicted. Experience and observations during the past earthquakes have shown that due to regional differences each earthquake would normally possess unique properties representing the local tectonic formations and earthquake source mechanisms. This type of attitude would be much more detrimental in comparison to even limited implementation of preventive measures. In some cities like Istanbul which has lived through many strong earthquakes and was demolished severely many times in its history..page_50 < previous page page_50 next page > Page 50 From an engineering perspective it appears possible to investigate the properties of local soil layers to implement necessary preventive measures and to design structures minimizing the vulnerability. In studying this phenomena to estimate the effects and behavior of soil layers during a possible earthquake.html12/05/2010 06:30:08 a. It was observed in some cases that even earthquakes occurring in the same fault zone with epicenters close to each other could have important differences. at the present age. one alternative is to use numerical models developed for site response analysis [6]. One logical way to approach this natural randomness is to adopt a statistical analysis in estimating the probabilities and for selecting risk levels with respect to the importance of the structures and the corresponding financial investment. there may be no representative strong motion record since no major event has taken place during the last century. An ideal way to perform such a statistical evaluation of earthquake variability is to utilize strong motion records taken at same locations during different earthquakes [3].

Figure 1. The differences are partly due to the differences in the source mechanisms and partly due to the site conditions where these records were obtained.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_51. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of randomness in strong motion records on site response analysis for different soil profiles. In this way it would be possible to understand the range of the influence of earthquake source characteristics. 7 from California. All of these strong motion records were scaled to peak acceleration levels of 0. and 1 synthetic) were used to determine the effects of different earthquake characteristics.page_51 < previous page page_51 next page > Page 51 decide on the level of allowable risk depending on the availability of the sources and the importance of the structures that are being analyzed.15. 1 from Yugoslavia...45g to study the influence of the earthquake magnitude.html12/05/2010 06:30:08 a. 0.m.30. And depending upon the statistical distribution of these factors a better defined criteria can be adopted for selecting the design earthquake for soil amplification and microzonation investigations. . 0. SELECTED STRONG MOTION RECORDS A total of 25 strong motion records (8 from Turkiye with their two components. The predominant periods for the selected strong motion records < previous page page_51 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Such broad range of variation in the characteristics of the selected earthquake records is believed to cover all the possibilities concerning a probable earthquake that may affect the city of Istanbul. The predominant periods for all of the selected strong motion records and the acceleration response spectra for the Turkish earthquakes are shown on Figure 1 and Figure 2.

. The acceleration response spectra for the Turkish strong motion records scaled to peak acceleration of 0..m.45g file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.amics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_52.page_52 < previous page Page 52 page_52 next page > Figure 2. .html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:30:09 a.

m.amics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_52.. .html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:30:09 a.page_52 < previous page page_52 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20..

for soil profile S1 and S4 respectively. As observed by various researchers [2. as demonstrated on Figure 4 which shows the acceleration response spectra for the same soil profile and for the same strong motion records scaled to the peak acceleration of 0. the response of the soil layers given in terms of absolute acceleration response spectra show much larger variation in terms of spectral amplification and predominant soil periods. 0. However..page_53 < previous page page_53 next page > Page 53 The site response analysis adopted in this study is based on the procedure developed by Schnabel. In this case all of the Turkish strong motion records were scaled to have peak acceleration of 0. 0.30.45g) and different soil profiles representing the soil conditions at various parts of the old sector of Istanbul. . the properties of such a design spectrum is also very dependent on the magnitude of the earthquake or more specifically on the level of peak acceleration.m.15. A parametric study is conducted using 25 strong motion records scaled to 3 different peak acceleration levels (0. An effort is made to choose soil profiles with different characteristics. In the case of stronger earthquake input the predominant soil periods increasès. The influence of the characteristics of input earthquake and its magnitude is also reflected in the calculated soil predominant periods as shown on Figures 7 and 8 for the same soil profiles. 4]. Since the earthquake induced stresses and resulting strains are larger in the second case. again this phenomena is very dependent on the properties of the soil layers.45g.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_53. < previous page page_53 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. On the other hand the degree of amplification in terms of peak accelerations is very dependent on the level of the base rock peak acceleration which in a way represents the magnitude of the earthquake input. As shown on Figures 5 and 6. for one of the selected soil profiles.html12/05/2010 06:30:10 a. However. et al.. with the increase in the earthquake magnitude the calculated soil amplifications decrease as shown on Figures 5 and 6. [5]. One other way of demonstrating the effects of earthquake characteristics is to consider the variation of the calculated peak accelerations on the ground surface. One alternative under this condition is to draw an outer envelope as a possible design spectrum such that sufficient safety can be achieved in the design and construction of structures against all probable variations in earthquake characteristics. EFFECTS OF EARTHQUAKE CHARACTERISTICS The results of the site response analyses conducted indicate the importance of the earthquake characteristics on the response of soil layers as shown on Figure 3.15g. the normalized peak acceleration values for different earthquakes and for the selected base rock peak acceleration levels have a significant scatter.

amics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_54.. .html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:30:11 a..m.page_54 < previous page Page 54 page_54 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.

m. Response spectra for soil profile S1 for Turkish strong motion records scaled to peak acceleration of 0.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:30:11 a.page_54 Figure 3. .15g < previous page page_54 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20..amics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_54..

page_55 < previous page Page 55 page_55 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20..amics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_55.m.. .html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:30:12 a.

m.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:30:12 a.45g < previous page page_55 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.page_55 Figure 4.amics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_55.. .. Response spectra for soil profile S1 for Turkish strong motion records scaled to peak acceleration of 0.

Calculated normalized peak accelerations at ground surface for the soil profile S1 for all of the selected strong motion records Figure 6.. In order to make a more realistic evaluation of earthquake induced forces on structures. Figure 5. As a result the effects of earthquake input are significantly different. It is clearly evident that structures located on these layers would experience different earthquake forces. it is very essential to take into account the properties of local soil conditions..Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_56.page_56 < previous page page_56 next page > Page 56 The thickness of soil deposit in the selected soil profiles are approximately same but the geotechnical properties of the soil layers encountered at both locations are different.html12/05/2010 06:30:13 a. .m. Calculated normalized peak accelerations at ground surface for the soil profile S4 for all of the selected strong motion records < previous page page_56 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.

.. In this way it is believed that the effect of the < previous page page_57 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Calculated predominant soil periods for the soil profile S4 for all of the selected strong motion records PROBABILITY ANALYSIS An attempt is made to conduct a preliminary statistical analysis based on the calculated variations in peak accelerations at ground surface and predominant soil periods.m.html12/05/2010 06:30:14 a. Calculated predominant soil periods for the soil profile S1 for all of the selected strong motion records Figure 8.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_57. .page_57 < previous page Page 57 page_57 next page > Figure 7.

.html12/05/2010 06:30:14 a.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_58. The magnitude of a possible earthquake in a region should be estimated based on available seismological data with relation to adopted risk levels or return periods.page_58 < previous page page_58 next page > Page 58 differences in the input earthquake characteristics can be taken into account with respect to the safety level required for structures located on these layers. Figure 9.m. At this stage it is justifiable to consider the variations in the probability separately with respect to the selected base rock peak acceleration levels since they represent approximately the seismicity of the region. Under these circumstances.. in order to be consistent in the final evaluation of the earthquake characteristics at the investigated site. Probability of exceedence for the calculated predominant soil periods and peak ground accelerations for the soil profile S4 < previous page page_58 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. However. it is relatively simple to calculate the probability of exceedence in terms of peak ground accelerations and predominant soil periods as shown on Figure 9. It appears realistic to assume that the selected strong motion records represent the range of possible earthquakes that may take place in the near vicinity of Istanbul and the variation of peak ground acceleration and predominant periods can be modelled statistically by a normal distribution. the probability level selected for the peak ground acceleration and predominant soil period should match the risk level adopted in the seismicity study. After these analyses have been conducted then the above mentioned probabilities concerning the characteristics of possible earthquakes can be taken into account..

and Seed. XXII (3).Div. Vol. 1973. pp. E. Rio de Jenerio. 12th ISMFE Conf. Infuence of Local Soil Conditions on Seismic Response. and Seed. Rivista Italiani di Geotechnica. Vol. REFERENCES 1. 1984.. pp. ASCE.5th World Conf. and Tibaldi.. and Shah. H. Earthquake Engng..m. 1978. J.Shake—A Computer Program for Earthquake Analysis of Horizontally Layered Sites. it is evident from this study that earthquake characteristics also may play an important role.. Idriss. 5. if not impossible. Microzonazione Sismica di Un’Area Campione di Napoli. 58(6). Vol. P. < previous page page_59 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Trans.page_59 < previous page page_59 next page > Page 59 CONCLUSIONS An attempt is made by conducting an analytical study to evaluate the effects of input earthquake characteristics on response of soil layers. I. Iwasaki. Vol. 106(ST1). Organo della Associazione Geotecnica Italiana. Lysmer.. T. 1972. a statistical approach can be utilized to estimate the range of input earthquake effects and to calculate the corresponding probabilities. Struc. Statistical analysis of earthquake acceleration response spectra. 2013–2032. A. C. Japanese Soc.M.of California. 1980. Schnabel. 7.B. pp. Incorporation of uncertainties in seismic response of soils. 69–86.B. Brazil. M. Battistella.Eng. Rome. Although the dominant factor controlling the response of structures located on the ground surface is local soil conditions. Kiremidjian. 1. Bull. Proc. J. F. H. 311–313.B.. Seismic Microzoning and Soil Dynamics Studies in San Salvador.141–162. From an engineering perspective. 3. 6.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_59. 1989.. D. I. Probability Site-Dependent Response Spectra..E. 2.C. to make a deterministic evaluation concerning the earthquake characteristics. An Analysis of Ground Motion During the 1957 San Francisco Earthquake.. J. Valera.. pp. 21–36.C.html12/05/2010 06:30:15 a. Uni. Seismological Soc.. EERC Report No. 4. since it appears rather difficult. 10. 1969. A. Berkeley. Faccioli.. Katayama. H. . Vinale. Lo Presti. Alemani. 72–12. pp. and Seaiki. N. and Donovan. America.Civ.. Vol. pp370–379. P.

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Shanghai. 10 groups of time history curves of the artificial earthquake wave are proposed and used in practice.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_61. wave propagation and local site effect. Siping Road 1239. Finally. such as source mechanism. A simple way to obtain these input signals is to find a real acceleration history whose parameters are similar to that of the real < previous page page_61 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. the earthquake ground motion may involve some uncertainties.Yu Institute of Structural Theory. For that reason. 200092 China ABSTRACT Usually.Shen.60 design criteria of USA . J. it is appropriate to treat earthquake signals as a random process. Comparing the 10 groups of curves with the 3 curves from USA. INTRODUCTION The nuclear plant shield is an important protective structure which protects the environment from leakage of nuclear materials in case of an accident. In the earthquake resistance design for the nuclear plant shield. the results are satisfactory for the earthquake reliability analysis of the Nuclear Plant Shield. it is necessary to calculate the dynamic response of the structure with acceleration time history inputted in its base.m.page_61 < previous page page_61 next page > Page 61 The Artificial Wave in Earthquake Safety Analysis for Nuclear Plant Shield X. .. Tongji University.. In this paper the authors’ basic idea about the design of the artificial earthquake wave is introduced. the artificial earthquake waves used for the earthquake safety analysis of Nuclear Plant Shield are determined by fit technique based upon the frequency spectrum of NRC RG—1. Affected by various factors.html12/05/2010 06:30:16 a. An earthquake safety analysis is also needed for the structure. a certain amount of ground motion waves is needed. With such an assumption . The best input signal to the structure is the acceleration history measured at the site where the structure is situated.

Certain low frequency noises are introduced in the mathematical model which makes the displacement of ground motion unreasonably large at the end of the earthquake. [8]. it will cause a serious side effect that the response spectrum of final artificial wave no longer meets the target spectrum since the linear function may contain various frequency components.page_62 < previous page page_62 next page > Page 62 site. In this way. In 1960s. a practical acceleration history is modeled by superposing some cosine functions with an evenly distributed random phases.. other condition are not controlled. and the theory for stable process can be used. [5]. The calculation shows the maximum displacement is still large because the final displacement is forced to be zero at the last stage.. ARTIFICIAL EARTHQUAKE WAVES SATISFYING THE DESIGN RESPONSE SPECTRUM Up to now. Recently. [2]. Artificial earthquake waves produced by using the computer are a number of acceleration time histories . In doing so. the non-stable characteristics of earthquake are reflected. time duration and frequency characteristic [4]. the artificial wave method has developed rapidly due to the development of computer technology and the advantages of this artificial method. .Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_62. the artificial earthquake wave method was first adopted [1]. From the engineering point of view.html12/05/2010 06:30:16 a. there have been various ways in the artificial wave method. which can easily meet the requirements of the target spectrum in magnitude. it is very difficult to have these real acceleration histories. Unfortunately. the baseline correction method is followed to remove the linear drift of the baseline. frequency characteristic and duration) and in the meantime. and make some modifications of the magnitude. which will satisfy some requirements (such as ground peak acceleration. [6]. [3]. [7]. The magnitude of every cosine function is determined in such a way that the response spectrum of artificial waves should meet the requirement of the target response spectrum. These uncontrolled factors are just the right random characteristics of the earthquake motion. In the artificial earthquake wave method the earthquake is usually regarded as the product of a certain time function and a stable Gauss process. time duration and frequency components according to the local conditions. Analysis indicates that the large displacement of the artificial wave is caused by a small amount of low frequency components in accele- < previous page page_62 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. To avoid such a problem.m.

. (1) where a(t) is the desired artificial earthquake acceleration.html12/05/2010 06:30:17 a. ψ(t) is the envery function a(t).Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_63. The first step of the filtering process is the low—pass filtering. The criterion of the digital filter design is to rule out the frequency components outside of the target spectrum introduced during the calculation.. To solve this problem better. T is the time duration of the acceleration. THE ARTIFICIAL WAVE IN THE EARTHQUAKE SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR NUCLEAR PLANT SHIELD < previous page page_63 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. These low frequency components in acceleration are greatly amplified in integration. 2). Omsby filter is used. this is also done by a low-pass filter to pick out the low frequency noise a3(t). 1 The common shape of ψ(t). No matter how to choose An and Fn.m. The common shape is shown in Fig. In fact.page_63 < previous page page_63 next page > Page 63 ration. whose band width and cut off frequency can easily be changed to meet the requirement of the target spectrum. The upper limit frequency of the target spectrum is used as the high cutoff frequency of the filter with the input acceleration a1(t) and the output acceleration a2(t). The baseline correction technique is also used before filtering . The desired acceleration function is modeled as follows. It is expressed as (2) The computing flow chart is as follows (see Fig. it enables a(t) to have the same shape . 1. . It is also called shape function. we use the digital filter to filter out these low frequency noises during every iteration. N is the sampling points of the acceleration. Then we remove a3(t) from a2(t) to obtain the desired acceleration a(t). The second step is called the high-pass filtering which is used to filter out low frequency noises. Fig.

page_64 < previous page Page 64 page_64 next page > Fig. a certain amount of artificial waves file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20. 2 flow chart for artificial earthquake wave The shield of a nuclear plant is a cylindrical structure with a dome.html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:30:17 a. It is made of pre-stressed rein forced concrete as shown in Fig.. Three modified EI Centro earthquake accelerations are provided by the design institute for one direction as well as three direction input..amics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_64.m. . Since the earthquake safety analysis needs more accelerations to input. 3.

3 The sectional sketch map of shield of a nuclear plant..amics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_64. .page_64 Fig. < previous page page_64 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.m.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:30:17 a..

To meet the above requirement.Their displacements are reasonably small due to the use of baseline correction and filtering technique. Fig. 5).Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_65. 0. One of the results is shown in Fig. T3. 8 gives the comparison between the average response spectrum of 10 horizontal and vertical artificial accelerations and the target spectrum. 7. 6. Fig.The results are satisfactory since we control the iteration numbers according to the criterion that the difference between calculated response spectrum and the target spectrum should be smaller than a given value. The requirements for the artificial waves are as follows.. 4 The horizontal design reponse spectra of US NRC RG-1. T2 . The corresponding response spectrum and the target spectrum are shown in Fig. 1.m. Must meet US NRC RG-1. . The corresponding horizontal ground peak acceleration is 150gal. 20. The sample interval is chosen to be 0.0.0. 12.01 second. 10 groups of artificial free ground motion are calculated. are 2. The bottom plate of the structure is built on tuff.60 Fig. 3. 5 The vertical design response spectra of US NRC RG-1. From the results shown in the above figures we can conclude 1.html12/05/2010 06:30:18 a.. α1. the vertical ground peak acceleration is 100gal according to SSE criteria. 9. < previous page page_65 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. α2 in shape function ψ(t).0.60 2. 2. Total numbers of sampling points is 2048. 4 . A typical displacement curve is shown in Fig.8 respectively. 2. The earthquake magnitude of the location is degrees of earthquake intensity. The parameters T1.0.60 design spectrum (Fig.page_65 < previous page page_65 next page > Page 65 is produced.

7 The corresponding response spectra and target spectra .amics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_66.m. unit: cm/s/s Fig. 6.html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:30:19 a. three directions.page_66 < previous page Page 66 page_66 next page > Fig. 6 A typical free ground artificial earthquake wave .. . corresponding to Fig. file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20..

.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:30:19 a.m. < previous page page_66 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.page_66 Fig.. .amics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_66. 8 The comparison between the average response spectrum of 10 horizontal and vertical artificial acceleration and the target spectrum.

10. It has been found that these points in different groups are not falling into the same frequency range. Most of the control points of the artificial wave response spectrum. The response spec- < previous page page_67 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 3 and 4 show the maximum main stresses of these area.42kg/cm which is smaller than the standard compress-resistance stress 230 kg/cm of the concrete. The responses are in three directions with six freedoms (Tab.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_67. The artificial free ground acceleration is used as the input of earthquake excitation. this means that the safety of plant shield under SSE excitation is guaranteed.. Boundary Element Method is adopted to calculate the response of the bottom plate of nuclear plant shield. The maximum main compress stress is 101. CONCLUSION From the above.5kg/cm of the concrete. The analysis shows that the stress-concentrating areas are at the joints of the bottom plate and the cylinder and at the boundary of equipment hole. Next. A typical acceleration response of the bottom plate is shown in Fig. except a few.87 kg/cm which is smaller than the standard pull-resistance stress 25. whose peak values are shown in Tab.html12/05/2010 06:30:19 a. The maximum main pull stress is 16. the interaction between the structure and rock foundation is also considered.. Tab. 1). 9 A typical displacement curve of artificial earthquake wave.page_67 < previous page Page 67 page_67 next page > Fig. 2. we use these accelerations as the input of the shield structure to calculate the dynamic responses of the structure with Finite Element Method. To include the existence of rock foundation and the local topography. it is appropriate and feasible to use artificial earthquake wave by linear superposition of a certain amount of cosine functions with evenly distributed random phases. . are in good approximation to the target spectrum. It is possible for us to avoid these points fall into the interested frequency range by changing the random numbers in iteration. From the table we can see that the stress responses excited by modified EI Centro earthquake waves and by artificial waves are close to each other. 3. The total number of structure inputs is fourteen. [9].m.

7 138. 3 103. 0223 0. 3 99.0053 149 .8 108.. 0 0 .5 142.0424 0. 0 100. 1 98. 0232 0. 4 0 .amics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_68. 5 85.0353 0.49 13. unit: degree .m. UNIT : TRANSLATION cm/s/s TURN rad/s/s INCIDENT ANGLE 30 degrees No. 3 0 .5 0 30 150.0221 0.0230 0.6 167. 3 0 .3 0 30 0 30 * L ---.54 19. 8 97. 4 121.00570 .0052 162.0116 138 .incident angle.0330 0. . 4 110.7 186. 4 0 .0338 0.html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:30:21 a.7 145.8 98. 7 107.85 4. 0264 0. 3 109. 2 107. 3 93. 0 112.7 146.8 147. 00 Y Z 2.0382 0.2 150.0 104.4 146. 5 0 . 9 125.5 0 30 143.0 139.1 106. 6 0 .0456 0. 0220 0.9 0.0 149.1 105.4 147.7 0 30 150. 3 0 . 9 0 . 1 99. 2 0 .0122 130 .0146 131 .00273 .0221 0.0 94.0043 157 . 1 0 .9 112.5 0 30 148. 1 131. 0186 0.8 183.0393 0.49 . 3 116. 1 The peak values of the artificial free ground accelerations and these responses in three direction with six freedoms.9 144. 6 0 .3 128.0110 ( MEAN SQUALE DEVIATION ) 7.08 4. 0273 0.93 UNIT: TRANSLATION cm/s/s TURN 1/100 rad/s/s THE BOTTOM OF THE SHIELD STRUCTURE X Y Z XX YY ZZ 146 . 9 0 .0059 197 .7 0 30 150.0 103. 0274 0. 0304 0.0054 158 .0121 150 . 3 0 .0331 0.5 100.2 146.0053 189 . 4 108.0286 0. 0255 0.8 94 .0045 145 ..0 143.62 0.7 0 30 148. 4 125.8 95.1 98.0287 0.9 150. 0 0 . 0238 0.1 153. Tab.0312 0.0250 0.0355 0.8 0 30 150. 4 126.37 4.3 145.98 . .9 150. 5 0 .7 0 30 150.4 146. 0220 0.0144 150 . 0253 0. 0 0 .0232 0.0052 166 .0345 0. 0221 0. 1 2 3 X 150. 9 102.0306 0. 0259 0.0047 147 .0050 156 .0 97.0 149.0055 159 .6 129.0085 (MEAN VALUE) 140. 1 0 . 0197 0. 0234 0.00171 θx θy θz file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.9 146.7 154.00040 16.0119 140 .2 168.page_68 < previous page Page 68 page_68 next page > FREE GROUND X Y Z L* 143.0293 0.0111 144 .0 150.0300 0.2 147.0113 139 .4 0 30 150. 1 0 .2 150. 0250 0.0281 0.0101 128 .0252 0.00565 .3 141.0189 0.7 154.0 139. 0 0 . 0229 0.0 143.0289 0.00280 .0367 0.1 0.4 0 30 148.

2 125.3 128. .0118 0 . 00 10 156 . 0293 0..0456 0.7 146. 9 125.0300 0. 0 99. 10 14 197.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:30:21 a.0424 0.page_68 4 150 .0 150.0085 < previous page page_68 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.amics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_68. 00 5 147 . 06 Tab.0146 0 .0113 0 . 0304 0.2 147. 0234 0 .0101 0 . 63 11 166 . 0 131.m.6 186.0306 0.0121 0 .0122 0 . 4 116.0144 0 .2 146. 10 12 158 . 2 103.0382 0. 0221 0.7 145. 0 100.. 30 8 149 . 0274 0.0281 0.0229 0.0355 0. 2 14 peak values of acceleration to input to the shield structure . 20 7 158 . 0238 0.6 167.0120 0 .7 183.0289 0.0345 0. 0255 0. 0 106. 10 13 189 .6 129. 0221 0.0111 0 .0393 0. 7 85. 40 9 157 . 2 121.9 102. 0. 80 6 145 . 0253 0.2 168.

.page_69 < previous page Page 69 page_69 next page > Fig. 6. 10 A typical acceleration response of the bottom plant (three directions with six freedoms).m.html12/05/2010 06:30:22 a. < previous page page_69 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.. .Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_69. corresponding to Fig.

72 0.36 −47.42 89.19 −73.78 −42.69 −51. 3The stresses concentrated area at the joints of the bottom plate and cylinder.38 −82.64 −35.39 −16.13 −85.49 −46.42 −37.25 4.73 −37.05 −3.08 −37.29 −40.47 −0.02 0.67 4.37 −43.13 −85.37 −43..21 −1.30 −47.77 −83.13 −38.26 Tab.86 −5.html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:30:23 a.53 −3.page_70 < previous page Page 70 page_70 next page > UNIT: kg/cm/cm No.92 1.89 −5.48 −1.66 −82.68 −1.01 −48. 1 2 3 49.73 89.41 −18.71 3.22 −48.51 −47.57 −43.93 −83.11 −46.92 −37.59 −40.15 −39.48 −37.49 −86.24 70.30 0.84–101.71 48.13 −2.43 −36.03 2.71 −80.58 −73.00 −0.06 87.75 −50 −37.48 −47.24 −58.02 −45.25 −3.37 −0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 max rain max min max min max min max min max min max min max min max min max min max min max min max min max −36.04 0. UNIT: kg/cm/cm No.94 −37.96 −1.14 −47.04 −16.13 −48.06 −16.89 −46.36 3.54 −1.91 −1.09 −63.88 −37.96 −22.95 86.15 2.93 −49.98 −47.40 5.65 −48.69 −70.11 −37.43 0.40 −48.99 89.29 −46.79 −11.94 2.41 −34..34 83.02 −5.34 −2.71 −48.90 −1.21 −0.86 −83.12 0.81 0.46 −0.39 −43.11 −89.82 −39.54 1.32 −79.94 −37.19 −69.05 −5.96 2.88 −37.50 2.89 −86.20 −0.51 1.16 −0.95 −11.07 −1.11 3.14 −88.70 −79.49–101.amics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_70.76 −50.69 −47.15 −48.26 −0.65 −0.97 −63.37 −50 −1.74 15.96 −38.50 −83.61 −73.m.75 −2.66 −39.91 −49.49 2.37 −48.50 −46.03 −85.39 −50.63 0.68 −83.32 −88.46 .47 88.76 −4.02 −6.75 −2.15 −84.50 file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.14 −5.87 86.19 −3.10 −37.60 −0. .29 33 0.47 −0.41 −4.53 −37.26 −22.36 −48.22 6.50 0.62 −1.93 −85.90 −16.59 −37.10 −49.19 −42.51 16.11 −84.81 −39.34 −0.18 −71.36 −80.87 min −46.68 0.28 −5.82 −84.66 .

The use of the method is simple and one needs only to change one parameter-phase to have a variety of artificial waves having the same characteristics. < previous page page_70 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.03 −2.71 00.88 −38.49 −3.37 86.25 −18.33 −18.14 Tab.06 −53.16 −41.93 −45.04 −8. time duration and acceleration peak value.m.80 −44.22 −39.05 1.86 −6.59 −41.58 −2.55 −39.79 −40.99 −2.10 −6.91 −46. This method can easily meet the design criteria which require artificial waves to have a certain spectrum.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:30:23 a.84 −0.53 −45.66 68.amics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_70.04 −2.04 1.72 −42. To avoid the interference of low frequency noises which cause unreasonably large ground displacements.76 14 −38. trum of artificial waves should be in good approximation to the target spectrum.45 −1.57 −2.09 −13.68 68.48 80.42 2.59 −6.58 76. .41 −1.06 −38. 4 The stresses at the boundary of equipment hole.47 −8.02 10.07 −3.02 −40..97 5.27 −40.94 −73.11 −40.40 10.55 79.17 −1.24 −5.54 −4.92 76. This example of application shows that the method is practical and satisfactory.55 −39.43 −53.20 −2.11 −45.page_70 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 −58.17 77..68 −7. it is necessary to use baseline correction and digital filtering technique. The method is acceptable to engineers who are familiar with spectra method.92 15.54 −4.00 −72.76 −61.58 5.75 16.

Vol. 59. 1163–1188.Sachs: Earthquake Time Histories and Response Spectra . J. Am. [8] [9] < previous page page_71 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Chilean Association on Seismology and Earthquake. Engng Mech.m.html12/05/2010 06:30:24 a. 2. Earthquake Engng. [2] P. Div.Tsai: Simulated Earthquake Motions for Deign Purposes. University of Pittsburgh..H.. 98.Abrams and J. eds. Jan–Mar. [3] R.Jennings. J. 1969.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_71. ASCE. Div. Vol. Dec.N.page_71 < previous page page_71 next page > Page 71 REFERENCE [1] G. Proc. 100. No. Aug. Engng Mech. 113– 150. Soc. J.C. 1. EM 4.C. 3. Department of Civil Engineering.. J.Jennings: Generation of Artificial Earthquakes.. 4th Wld Conf.R. Engng Mech. 1974. No. [6] Chang Chen: Some Considerations in the Aseismic Analysis of Nuclear Power Plant.Housner and P. Seis.W. ASCE...Hart: Simulation of Artificial Earthquake.C. Vol.Iyengar and K.Iyengar: A Nonstationary Random Process Model for Earthquake Acceleration. Engineering and Structural Dynamics.Scanlan and K. [4] G.T. 145–160. [7] Nien-Chien Tsai: Spectrum-compatible Motions for Design Purpose. A-1. 90. Bull. Vol. G.Stevenson. Vol. 1964. Div. 1972. Pa..Housner and C. No. Vol. April 1972.W. 1974 [5] R. ASCE. of Symposium on Structural Design of Nuclear Power Plant Facilities. . EM 2. Proc.Saragoni and G.

.m..html12/05/2010 06:30:25 a. . page_72 page_72 next page > next page > < previous page file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.page_72 < previous page Page 72 This page intentionally left blank.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_72.

Henseleit. time histories of destructive earthquakes— complete accelerograms for example—adapted to site conditions.Kostov University of Karlsruhe.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_73. site dependent data.m. Destructive quakes in various regions have been registered during the past twenty years and collected in data bases. Hence. it is also necessary to predict correctly. Sofia. This requires an analysis by nonlinear methods taking plasticity into account.. All these accelerograms contain. M. resp. Therefore our codes allow the elastic limit to be exceeded in design. of course.html12/05/2010 06:30:25 a. . The enormous progress in numerical mathematics in the last two decades has resulted in methods like “finite elements”. “boundary elements” etc. the geophysical data of the layers crossed by the propagating waves and the subsoil conditions at the site must be considered. “finite differences”. Haskell matrices were used for wave propagation from the source to the building foundation.page_73 < previous page page_73 next page > Page 73 Site Dependent Simulations of Earthquake Time Histories O. Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. all the seismological data describing the source process.. < previous page page_73 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The transient part of the time function is modelled by a time dependent intensity function. However. Therefore they cannot be used without problems for other sites. The main issue of our research was to provide a method for the generation of artificial time histories which correspond to the measured ones containing all significant site dependent properties. assuming a horizontally layered elastic medium with vertically propagating SH-waves. INTRODUCTION Destructive earthquakes have very long return periods. Bulgaria ABSTRACT In cooperation with the Geophysical Institute of the University of Stuttgart [1] a method was developed to simulate accelerograms approximating German earthquake conditions. Germany.

m. (2) transfer function of the geology. .ωc) source spectrum (3) ωc p(ω.ωc)p(ω.html12/05/2010 06:30:26 a. He proposed to generate an acceleration spectrum by the following relation (1) A(ω)=CMoS(ω.ωm)G(ω) where C is a constant.. ωm) corner frequency high cut filter p(ω.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_74.page_74 < previous page page_74 next page > Page 74 METHOD We used a method published by Boore [2]. ωm)=[1+(ω/ωm)2s]−1/2 15 Hz as proposed by Boore (4) ωm < previous page page_74 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.. assuming a horizontally stratified viscous-elastic medium and inclined propagating SH-waves radiation pattern reduction factor that accounts for the partitioning of energy into two horizontal components mass density shear wave velocity attenuation factor for shear waves site distance G(ω) PR ρ β Qβ R S(ω.

other magnitude types could be used also.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_75. For ωm.7 (7) M moment magnitude A transient accelerogram is generated by filtering a gaussian white noise process. such that a(t)=W(t)·x(t) (8) where a(t) is the accelerogram and x(t) is a realisation of a shot noise process. Therefore we also used a value of 2 for s.html12/05/2010 06:30:28 a. That leads to a model controlled by two parameters: the seismic moment Mo.or intensity. < previous page page_75 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Focal depth is considered in the analysis. Regarding M. Because of the relations between different magnitude scales. ωm is the frequency at which the amplitude decay starts. Starting from a point source at depth h. The time dependent window.m. and the corner frequency ωc. Ms.9 106β(" σ/Mo)1/3 (5) fc corner frequency [Hz] β " σ Mo shear wave velocity [km/sec] effective stress drop [bar] seismic moment [dyn·cm] ωc=fc2π (6) If the effective stress drop " σ is known.page_75 < previous page page_75 next page > Page 75 where s controls the decay rate at high frequencies.. According to our experience. the angle of incidence required for the seismic wave to strike a site at distance R on the surface is determined iteratively using Snell’s law. The stationary process has a spectrum given by the filter function (1). M=2/3 log Mo−10. a weaker decay rate is more appropriate. ML…. It can be determined with the following relation. we have used only M—a moment magnitude. These two parameters can be related by fc=4. The window proposed by Sargoni et al [7] was used. the model is controlled only by the seismic moment Mo. we used frequencies significantly higher than the eigenfrequencies of the structures.. Boore suggested a value of 4.function represents an envelope of the accelerogram. .

. The focal parameters and the geological data of the layers crossed by the seismic waves were supplied by the Geophysical Institute of the University of Stuttgart. the computer code “Simul” provides the possibility to adjust the generated simulations by means of the best approximation to the local seismological and geological conditions. sites with the short epicentral distances of 5. The generalised geological section and the focal parameter can be seen in tables 6 and 7. Station San Rocco) • Coalinga California (USA) aftershock 1983 • The earthquakes used by Keintzel [3] and Hoeflich [4] These earthquakes are well documented.m. The second data set contains selected accelerograms of the Coalinga earthquake (Jul. In the final version. The ranges of these distributions.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_76.0 were preferred. Because of the significance. 1983 2:39 UTC Tab. The complete set of input data used for the simulation of the artificial earthquakes is listed in tab. . 22. A Monte Carlo simulation has been applied to all data which are assumed to be equally distributed. With respect to magnitude and epicentral distance they are comparable to German conditions. whereas San Rocco is built on rock.. geophysical and geological data are well known.page_76 < previous page page_76 next page > Page 76 All geological and source data have been considered as independent model parameters. All relevant seismological. were selected. because the subsoil of Forgaria Cornino consists of layers of soft soil. Only stations with short epicentral distances. The geophysical parameters of the earthquakes used by Keintzel and Hoeflich are listed in [12]. Furthermore. 10 and 17km were chosen. The first data set was chosen from the numerous registered time series of the Friuli Italy 1976 earthquake. The parameters are presented in tables 3 and 4.html12/05/2010 06:30:28 a. 6). where the direct S-waves govern the character of the ground motions. mean values and variance. 1 to 5. are given in the tables. earthquakes with magnitudes of M>5. These accelerograms of older American earthquakes were modified in the frequency content and scaled in the Fourier spectrum < previous page page_76 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The geological data can be found in [5]. The stations Forgaria Cornino and San Rocco were chosen. VERIFICATION Data Base For the verification we used three different sets of data containing measured time histories of three different earthquakes • Friuli Italy 1976 (Station Forgaria Cornino.

(9) with the velocity and integrating (10) or Ekin+Evis+Eel=Einp where (12) (11) (13) < previous page page_77 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. We started with the maxima of the displacements. velocities and accelerations. The simulations made with this third data set are not used for verification. . The simpliest way is to use linear elastic response spectra. They were only used to check the computer code in comparison to the results by Keintzel and Hoeflich.page_77 < previous page page_77 next page > Page 77 to correspond to German conditions. Starting with the differential equation (9) where ω D eigenfrequency damping acceleration of the soil it is possible to obtain an equation of equilibrium of energy by multiplying Eq.html12/05/2010 06:30:29 a.. The detailed procedure is described in [3]. However. Therefore also energetic expressions were analysed.. For the simulations a geological section and focal parameters typical for a site in the Swabian Jura with an epicentral distance of 7. It is also well known that the duration of the strong motion phase is very important. Linear elastic response spectra The main purpose of the research project was to examine statistically the parameters of the measured and simulated earthquake time histories. 5km were used. it is well known that the maxima of the response do not always describe the seismic load significantly.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_77.m.

page_78 < previous page Page 78 page_78 next page > (14) (15) Time series of these integrals can be seen in the addendum A 2 of [12] for different eigenvalues of the single degree of freedom oscillator. all the results of the previous chapter are also valid for multi degree of freedom systems. The results are similar spectra but they reflect the characteristics of the nonlinear oscillator. For multi degree of freedom systems the mode superposition method can be used.html12/05/2010 06:30:30 a. . Elastic multi degree of freedom systems Linear response spectra show the reaction of a single degree of freedom system due to base acceleration. For the verification of the simulation procedure we used max a maximum acceleration maximum velocity max ν max d maximum displacement max Einp maximum input energy An example can be seen in Fig..Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_78. Nonlinear response spectra For the nonlinear system of Fig. 2 the same analysis is made as for linear elastic response spectra. (16) where with < previous page page_78 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 6. Maxima shown in a diagram are similar to the well known response spectra. In the differential equation (9) the term with the spring constant is now replaced by the elastic plastic resistance of the system. Therefore it is not necessary to treat this problem separately. Hence.m..

: Is the nonlinear performance of a building with respect to its plastic deformations in critical regions comparable for real (measured) and artificial (simulated) earthquakes? To obtain relevant results we have chosen two types of typical structures consisting of moment resisting frames or of shear walls with 5. It was appropriate for our analysis to divide the potential energy in two parts as shown by the following equations (17) (18) (19) xpl(t)=x(t)−xel The elastic energy Eel is restored to the system and is available for future oscillations. We used only computer codes with reliable and experimentally verified nonlinear models. The response is reduced. g. max a maximum acceleration maximum velocity max ν max d maximum displacement max dpl maximum plastic displacement max Einp maximum input energy max duc maximum ductility factor max Ehys maximum hysteretic energy max Evis maximum dissipated energy The detailed results are given in tab. as for example. The yield load was defined by 80% of the ultimate load and the critical value xel by the elastic displacement at that load.m. Possible strain hardening was neglected as a horizontal yield plateau was assumed. e. 10 or 20 stories.. the Takeda model. 13 and 14 of [12]. < previous page page_79 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The hysteretic energy Ehyst is dissipated and therefore not available for future oscillations.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_79.html12/05/2010 06:30:30 a. VERIFICATION (BUILDINGS) An engineer does not ask for simulated earthquake time histories fitting given spectra. The following values are compared for verification.page_79 < previous page Page 79 page_79 next page > Rel=max R=xelk=const. . He is interested in other questions..

the moment curvature relation for the different reinforcement was calculated with the computer code ZAEH 1 [3]. The sections are given by tables 15 and 16 of [12]. For all relevant sections. In tables 17 and 18 of [12] the three lowest eigenvalues are presented.23 or n≤0. 5. 4 types of frames were obtained. These frames had already been designed by Hoeflich [4] for a distributed load of 10 kN/m2. 3) were analysed. The nonlinear analysis was made with the computer code SAKE [9] especially developed for moment resisting plane frames with degrading stiffness according to Takeda [10] as shown in Fig.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_80.page_80 < previous page page_80 next page > Page 80 Moment resisting frames Regular and symmetric frame type structures with two bays and five or ten storeys (Fig.html12/05/2010 06:30:31 a.. The frames were loaded with the base accelerations of the measured and simulated earthquake time histories. Strain hardening was not taken into account. The earthquake loads corresponded to the earthquake zone 4 of the German code DIN 4149 [8]. The German earthquake standard DIN 4149 sets two limits for the axial load in columns (20) (n≤0.5 is only allowed in connection with special requirements for a higher ductility..5) (21) where n nondimensional axial load N axial load in the column Ac concrete cross section Rc nominal concrete strength n≤0. . Damping is considered as < previous page page_80 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.m. The constitutive laws for concrete and reinforcing steel were assumed according to German standards.23 can be used without restrictions while n≤0.

However. The results can be seen in tables 19 to 22 of [12] and for one example in Fig. the increase of moments due to large deflections is taken into account. 4). i..page_81 < previous page page_81 next page > Page 81 Rayleigh-damping so that the damping of the two lowest modes is D=0. 4 with constant section and mass distribution were assumed.m.4s. Therefore only the overturning moment with earthquake loads according to the German standard DIN 4149 was calculated.05.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_81. .8s. For the verification.4s were obtained. It was assumed that the shear reinforcement remains in the elastic range so that only linear elastic shear deformations need to be considered. The systems shown in Fig. The stiffness of the wall was determined so that periods of 0. 10 and 20 stories were considered (Fig. 7. The distributed load of 10kN/m2 (including dead and life load) for one storey yields to a storey mass of 60kN s2/m. 1. This assumption can always be realized in design by using adequate shear reinforcement. < previous page page_81 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. the structural response of real and simulated earthquakes corresponds very well to each other. shear deformation was included in the analysis. Due to the slenderness of the walls the predominant part of the elastic and plastic deflections are caused by bending deformations.6s and 2.html12/05/2010 06:30:32 a. inner and outer columns. Shear wall structures Only two-dimensional systems with uncoupled shear walls and 5.e. 0. we compared the following values: • maximum storey acceleration • maximum storey deflection • maximum bending moment at the base of columns • maximum base shear • maximum ductility factors required for girders. P-" -effect.. Generally. Maximum stresses and strains of slender shear walls under horizontal load always occur near the base.

It is obvious that the stresses and strains in the structure of most of the real earthquakes agree well with the simulated ones. However. 5). Second. However. which cannot be assumed as a point source. CONCLUSION Nowadays a great number of measured strong motion data of earthquakes exist.05 in the first two modes. So it is possible to simulate the earthquakes with the highest damage potential. < previous page page_82 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. focal depth can be chosen arbitrarily. . The results can be seen in tables 23 to 25 of [12] or in Fig.page_82 < previous page page_82 next page > Page 82 For the verification. all geometrical parameters concerning properties of soil or rock layers. With our site dependent simulation model it is possible to close these gaps in two different ways. the following values were considered: • required ductility factor at the base • accumulated plastic hinge rotation at the base. it is surely possible to extrapolate up to Ms=7. 8.0. Further on. Therefore it can be safely assumed that the proposed simulation model covers nearly all cases occurring in Germany.5. First.html12/05/2010 06:30:32 a. the complete plastic deformation is concentrated in one single hinge at the base of the shear wall. the model does not allow to simulate earthquakes with • surface faulting because of the importance of the neglected surface waves • magnitudes higher than Ms=6. Contrary to frame type structures.or underestimated.m. it is possible to interpolate over all magnitudes up to about Ms=6. Earthquakes of this type are not important for German conditions. This tendency for poorer results is not surprising. In this hinge all inaccuracies resulting from the basic assumptions of the earthquake simulation up to the approximations in the structure. epicentral distance. But it can also be seen that sometimes the results are over.. These results show very clearly the equalizing and compensating effect of statically indeterminate structures where the plastic deformations are distributed over many plastic zones in the structure. Damping was assumed as Rayleigh damping corresponding to a damping ratio D=0. are expressed in an offset from the true value. these databases must contain gaps.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_82.0 because of the enormous dimensions of the focus. They are collected in databases.5–7. The analysis was made with the nonlinear finite element program DRAIN-2D [11] with the degrading stiffness as in the Takeda model (Fig..

< previous page page_83 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.html12/05/2010 06:30:33 a. such as accelerations. velocities. however. The advantages of this method can be summarized as follows: q Generally. focal depth and epicentral distance can be prescribed arbitrarily q The simulation covers earthquake magnitudes from microseisms up to M≥6. In principle. duration of the strong motion phase and all the related statistical data can be calculated. it is also possible to include surface waves. The method is not appropriate for earthquakes with surface faulting or for great epicentral distances. displacements. the response of real buildings can be well predicted.. energies. .page_83 < previous page page_83 next page > Page 83 In detail.5 and includes the possibility to extrapolate up to q All current data normally derived from earthquake measurements. subsoil properties. good results can be expected q Input data is relatively simple q Individual site data such as geological layers. The disadvantages of the method in the present version are the following: q The influence of surface waves is not taken into account.m. q The model is completely linear.. different types of magnitudes.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_83. we found the following degree of agreement between real and simulated earthquakes: q linear response spectra: good agreement q nonlinear response spectra: relatively good agreement q frame type buildings: good agreement q shear wall buildings – mean value: agreement – maxima: poorer agreement If the plastic hinges are distributed more or less uniformly over the structural system. Nonlinear effects are not regarded but are approximately considered by equivalent linearisation.

m. 1865–1894. 1982 2. Nov. G. This means that the focal process is physically modelled in a statistical sense. 354/23.G. Nr. and Structural Dynamics..: Friuli Earthquake Sequence of 1976.: Simulation of Artificial Earthquakes. G.. May 1985 6. Am.: Intensity of Ground Shaking Near the Causative Fault. The seismic moment is used for scaling on a geophysical basis. Hart. pp. 249–267 8.. 73/61. the energy transmission by waves through the geological layers up to the surface is physically modelled with all reflections and refractions at the layer interfaces.. December 1983 3.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_84. Scherbaum.: DFG-Forschungsvorhaben “Erdbebengrundlagen”.J. D. G.Schneider. 81–94. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The scientific support of Dr. DIN 4149 Bauten in deutschen Erdbebengebieten Lastannahmen. 1983 5. G. Bericht zum 1. Earthquake Eng. Scherer.: Nichtlineares Verhalten von Stahlbetonbauten unter Erdbebenbelastung. Proceed. 1965 7..I. Schueller. Records and Power Specta of Corrected and Integrated Strong Motion Earthquake Data.R. 1981 4. 2. Seism. Keintzel.C. REFERENCES 1. S. Sargoni. Bemessung und Ausführung üblicher Hochbauten (German earthquake standard). . G. Dissertation. University of Stuttgart. < previous page page_84 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Schneider. Soc. Universität Karlsruhe (TH). Bull. 1974 pp. F. Universität Karlsruhe (TH).: Zähigkeitskriterien für Stahlbetonhochbauten in deutschen Erdbebengebieten. This work was sponsored in parts by DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) and DAAD (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst).page_84 < previous page page_84 next page > Page 84 It should be mentioned that the proposed simulation model is not a phenomenological but a physical one. Vol. Boore. Dissertation. Hoeflich.html12/05/2010 06:30:33 a. Housner.: Stochastic Simulation of High-Frequency Ground Motions Based on Seismological Models of the Radiated Spectra. E. III WCEE. Insbruck-Munich. G. pp. Also.W. R.Scherbaum and Prof.. in the computer program arrangement and in selecting data for model verification is highly appreciated. F.

Powell. A.S. Henseleit.: DFG-Forschungsvorhaben “Erdbebengrundlagen” Nr. Nielsen. Eibl. A General Purpose Computer Programm for Dynamic Analysis of Inelastic Plane Structures.H. and Kostow. Takeda.. J. Otani.E. 1970 11..m..: DRAIN-2D.. 1973 12. 0. 96.html12/05/2010 06:30:34 a. 73–6 and 73–22. a Computer Program for Inelastic Response of R/C Frames to Earthquakes.page_85 < previous page page_85 next page > Page 85 9..A. University of Illinois. Bericht zum 31.: SAKE. T. Kanaan. Berkeley. California. ASCE. Sozen. . Journal of the Structural Division. M. Dezember 1986 < previous page page_85 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.: Reinforced Concrete Response to Simulated Earthquakes. S. Urbana. Mu 354/23 Teil 2. 1974 10. M. G. N. Vol. EERC. University of California.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_85. Rep..

15 6.5404 3.21.11 5.4557 2.1185 Page 86 Tab. 1.3382 2.11 5.6 16. .1934 3.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_86.6 19.09. Friuli Earthquake 1976.15 5.11 5. a [g/10] 1.6 22.09.3 6.10 2 76.09. NS WE NS WE NS WE NS WE NS WE NS WE next page > max.18 5 77.6367 2.60 < previous page page_86 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.31.html12/05/2010 06:30:34 a.07 6 76.15.1429 1.09.0 15.48.09.0000 1..8 09.16 5.9192 3.0 7.05.1 23.0139 1.01 3 76.4 16.m.19 4 76.3 20.9 03.43.35..3505 2.page_86 < previous page page_86 h[km] 6 6 5 7 8 6 comp.3131 2. Station Forgaria Cornino N time ML R[km] 1 76.9 15.

18 Tab.6 6 16.3 20.9555 0. Station San Rocco N time ML R[km] h[km] 1 76.09.6045 1.31.09.3403 1.10 2 76.21.0 15.15.35.15 6.8 7 09. Friuli Earthquake 1976.5106 quality-factor Page 87 Tab.8024 0..01 3 76. . Geological Cross Section. Forgaria-Cornino layer no.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_87.page_87 < previous page page_87 comp.11 5.3556 1. NS WE NS WE NS WE NS WE density [kg/m3] σ 50 100 100 — σ 100 100 100 — next page > max.html12/05/2010 06:30:35 a.19 4 76.9 5 03.7151 0.15 5.11 5.4 6 16.09. 2. 3.m.9 15.3092 2.. layer thickness S-wave velocity [m] [m/s] σ 1 2 50 — 1 2 3 4* *half space 5 21 500 9000 200 600 900 2500 1800 2100 2100 2500 20 50 100 200 σ 5 5 10 — < previous page page_87 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.6 19.09. a [g/10] 0.

85 6.5 0.8 0.5 0.11 22.25 0.1 0.5 1..7 0.48. Friuli Earthquake N earthquake date/time focal depth [km] 600 2500 3000 100 200 — 2000 2200 2400 200 100 — 50 100 200 5 10 — radiation pattern stress drop [MPa] moment magnitude 1 2 3 4 5 6 76.7 1.5 1.5 1.15 < previous page page_88 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.11 16.15.5 1.05.10 76.15 03.7 0.11 16.5 0.25 0.18 77.5 5.1 0.5 0.7 0. layer thickness [m] page_88 S-wave velocity [m/s] density [kg/m3] next page > quality-factor 1 30 5 2 2000 200 3* 9000 — * half space Tab. 5.0 0.21.09..7 0.60 6 6 5 7 8 6 0.html12/05/2010 06:30:37 a.1 0.35.09.09.01 76.16 23.7 0.page_88 < previous page Page 88 Tab.2 5.09.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_88.m. .25 0.5 5.19 76.07 76.25 0. Geological Cross Section.0 5.43.1 0.5 0.15 09.2 5.7 0.1 1. San Rocco layer no. 4.31. Focal Parameter.25 0.1 0.09.

42 2.40 17.20 5.71 3. Basement 7 Pleasant Valley.m.20 −15. Oil Fields.76 189.65 419. Skunke Hollow 9 Coalinga.70 34.39 −9.73 −834.59 −2..54 1.88 −16.35 270 2 Coalinga.32 −13. acceler.91 −21.33 1145.99 −230.82 46.10 6.86 16.38 430.23 −46..40 6. velocity max.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_89.13 38.94 −141.48 17.12 −3. Basement 8 Coalinga. max.62 15. Oil Fields. displacement [km] [cm/s2] [cm/s] [cm] 1 Coalinga.0 17.0 9. Pad 5 Coalinga Palmer Avenue 6 Pleasant Valley.45 −212.99 −4.39 −3. Oil city 3 Coalinga. 4 Coalinga.44 14. Pump Plant. 6.4 9.40 11.84 365.58 2.78 −16.76 −16. max. Fire Station.45 −6.90 360 270 360 270 360 270 360 270 135 095 360 270 360 270 360 270 −251.93 −21. .22 −3.05 215. Freef. Dataset Coalinga.58 −454. Pump Plant.95 312.52 −3. Transmitter Hill 5.61 −25.22 −1.3 360 330.84 19.4 10.72 −920.15 < previous page page_89 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.55 229. Characteristics of the Accelerograms no.50 3.page_89 < previous page page_89 next page > Page 89 Tab.52 283. station distance comp. Fire Station.64 −209.65 −3. Burnett Construction 11.63 4.27 −4.html12/05/2010 06:30:38 a.

page_90 < previous page page_90 density [kg/m3] next page > quality-factor Page 90 Tab.html12/05/2010 06:30:39 a. Coalinga. Californien layer no.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_90. Geological Cross Section. layer thickness S-wave velocity [m] [m/s] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 500 500 1150 850 1000 900 2400 100 100 150 150 100 100 — 600 850 1750 2050 2300 2650 2800 100 200 200 200 200 200 — 1800 1800 2100 2200 2300 2300 2600 100 100 100 100 100 100 — 50 50 150 150 200 200 200 5 5 50 50 50 50 — < previous page page_90 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.. 7. .m..

Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_91.html12/05/2010 06:30:40 a..page_91 < previous page Page 91 Fig. . Flow chart of computer code “SIMUL” page_91 next page > < previous page page_91 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.. 1.m.

. Numerical model for SAKE < previous page page_92 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing... Plane frames for numerical comparisons with computer code SAKE Fig.page_92 < previous page Page 92 page_92 next page > Fig.html12/05/2010 06:30:41 a. 3.m. 2.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_92.

.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_93.page_93 < previous page Page 93 page_93 next page > Fig. Determination of accumulated plastic deformation < previous page page_93 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Deformation and numerical model of a horizontally loaded shear wall Fig.m..html12/05/2010 06:30:42 a. 4. 5. .

SIMULATED DATA file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20. . FORGARIA CORNIND RESPONSE SPECTRA... 6.m. FRIULI EARTHQUAKE..amics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_94.. DAMPING 0.page_94 < previous page page_94 next page > Page 94 Fig.html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:30:43 a..10 ———REAL DATA . AND 0..

.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:30:43 a.amics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_94.. .m.page_94 < previous page page_94 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.

N.. FRAME A.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_95..html12/05/2010 06:30:43 a. FORGARIA CORNINO SOLID LINE: REAL DATA STRUCTURAL RESPONSE ENVELOPES DASHED LINE: SIMUL DATA < previous page page_95 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. .-0. 2 BAY.GT.m. 5 STOREY.23 BASE MOTION: FRIULI EARTHQUAKE.page_95 < previous page page_95 next page > Page 95 Fig. 7.

page_96 < previous page page_96 next page > Page 96 Fig. 8.html12/05/2010 06:30:44 a.Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_96.m...SIG AND PEAK-HOLD ACCUMULATED PLASTIC ROTATION SOLID LINE: REAL DATA DASHED LINE: SIMULATED DATA < previous page page_96 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. FORGARIA CORNIND SINGLE SHEAR WALL 20 STOREY MEAN. . MEAN+1. BASE MOTION: FRIULI EARTHQUAKE.

SAN ROCCO SINGLE SHEAR WALL 5 STOREY MEAN..page_97 < previous page page_97 next page > Page 97 Fig..Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_97.m. MEAN+1. . BASE MOTION: FRIULI EARTHQUAKE.SIG AND PEAK-HOLD REQUIRED DUCTILITY SOLID LINE: REAL DATA DASHED LINE: SIMULATED DATA < previous page page_97 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.html12/05/2010 06:30:45 a. 9.

page_98 < previous page Page 98 This page intentionally left blank. .html12/05/2010 06:30:46 a...Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_98.m. page_98 page_98 next page > next page > < previous page file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.

Dynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_99. We show that the period is increasing as magnitude increases.html12/05/2010 06:30:46 a. Bolshaya Gruzinskaya 10. the geology of the site and characteristics of most significant recordings can be found in [1]. USSR ABSTRACT The SMART 1 Seismic Array data are used to study characteristics of spatial coherency of strong ground motions such as. and hypocentral distances are -from < previous page page_99 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Thus. correlation coefficients and differences between traces. The detailed information about the array design. We used in our analysis a collection of the first 24 events recorded by the SMART 1 Array. USSR Academy of Sciences.Beresnev Institute of Physics of the Earth. the explanation of the strong motions spatial coherency increase with magnitude lies in the fact that the wave field period is also increasing with magni tude. INTRODUCTION The SMART 1 Seismic Array is located in the north-east corner of Taiwan. and there is no such evidence of its dependence on nypocentral distance.page_99 < previous page page_99 next page > Page 99 Spatial Coherency of the Strong Ground Motions on the SMART 1 Seismic Array I. To explain this fact a dependence of the predominant period of seismograms on magnitude and hypocentral distance is analyzed.. The local magnitudes in this data set are ranging from 3.4 to 7. It is shown that these characteristics are clearly dependent on earthquake magnitude.. There are twelve equally spaced stations on each ring and a central station. It is specially designed for a threecomponent recording of the strong local seismic motions.m. Moscow 123810.2. 1000m and 2000m. The array consists of 39 accelerometers configured in three concentric circles of radii 200m.A. .

. as a function of local magnitude and hypocentral distance. [1]. This indicated the increase of the spatial coherency of strong motions with magnitude. Let us consider two records of the same event recorded by two different stations. The study of the spatial coherency of strong ground motions and the factors governing it was in the spotlight of this work.m. ANALYSIS OF DATA We calculated the correlation coefficients between records of central station COO of the array and the stations in the inner and middle rings. Previous investigators have noted the dependence of the spatial coherency on the local magnitude of earthquake. The procedure was the following. That is why we used the origin of the time series equal to the time of the latest triggering among two stations.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_100. Abrahamson [2] Studied the standard deviation of the natural logarithm of peak ground accelerations as a function of magnitude.. because of the delay in the same wave arrivals to the neighboring stations due to their finite propagation velocity we successively shifted two series one with respect to another to better fit the waveforms. The correlation coefficients were calculated for each individual shift.5s for “central station—inner ring” pairs and 1. Moreover. We give new evidence of the coherency increase with magnitude and associate this fact with a frequency content of the wave field radiated by the earthquakes with different magnitudes.html12/05/2010 06:30:47 a.8 to 120.5km.. The frequencies of the Fourier acceleration spectra maximum values are also analyzed in order to account for the spatial coherency dependence on magnitude.page_100 < previous page page_100 next page > Page 100 1. In this investigation we analyze the other characteristics of spatial coherency such as the correlation coefficients and the relative differences between records of pairs of stations in the array. < previous page page_100 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The shift was within the limits of 0. and the maximum value was taken as a result. Abrahamson et al. The peak recorded acceleration is about 250Gals. They observed that the standard deviation decreases as magnitude increases. Because of the triggering mode in which all accelerometers operate the time origins of these records are generally different.0s for “central station—middle ring” ones.

1 was calculated is 200m.. separately for inner and middle rings. The conclusion is that neither high coherency nor its dependence on magnitude are observed as distance between stations increases up to 1km. this number depending on the total number of stations triggered.1 satisfying the equation rav =−0. We mentioned before that a number of values of correlation coefficients have been calculated for a single event on each ring. We averaged all these values thus obtaining the only one coefficient for an individual event. For a single event we obtain at most 12 values of the correlation coefficients on each ring.8 for magnitudes about 7. It can be seen that in this case there is no systematic distribution of points with respect to magnitude. 1 and 2 show the behavior of their average values.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_101. The correlation coefficients increase rapidly as magnitude increases. For each event we also calculated the ratio rmax/rmin of maximum and minimum values in < previous page page_101 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The linear regression is also shown in Fig. . The Fig. the standard deviation of the coefficient at ML being σcoeff=0. 1 shows the average correlation coefficient rav as a function of the local magnitude ML for an EW horizontal component of accelerations (all data shown below are calculated for this component:) . and the absolute values of the coefficients rav are approximately half as large as in the previous case. The Figs. we see that almost linear dependence exists. depending on the number of triggered stations.page_101 < previous page page_101 next page > Page 101 Note that in all following calculations the full records were used: the separate analysis of individual wavetrains in corresponding time windows has not been performed.. 124 ML. The Fig. 2 shows the correlation coefficients vs magnitude for the “COO—middle ring” pairs with a distance between stations equal to 1000m.html12/05/2010 06:30:47 a.m.0167.205+0. We remind that the distance between stations for which the Fig. reaching the values of 0.

ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_102.3. < previous page page_102 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 2. The dependence of the average correlation coefficient on the local magnitude for “central station—middle ring” pairs. where rmax and rmin are the maximum and the minimum values. of the correlation coefficients calculated for all stations on the ring triggered by a single event. Fig.m. . Fig. The “central station—inner ring” pairs have been used.html12/05/2010 06:30:48 a. 1.page_102 < previous page Page 102 page_102 next page > Fig.. respectively. The dependence of the average correlation coefficient on the local magnitude for “central station—inner ring” pairs. The dependence of the rmax/rmin ratio on magnitude. The straight line is a linear regression..

the calculation being continued up to physical end of the shortest trace.. A clear dependence like in Fig. At low magnitudes (up to 5) the scattering of data is rather high.m.page_103 < previous page page_103 next page > Page 103 this range and looked how it depends on magnitude. The previously given results clearly prove that the spatial coherency of the ground motions strongly depends on earthquake magnitude. To account for the observed statistical dependence of the spatial coherency of strong ground motions on magnitude let us consider the relation < previous page page_103 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. We tried to arrange data versus hypocentral distance "H of the events in order to look for correlation. The last step is averaging all obtained single values of MD/COO (maximum difference/maximum value at the central station) ratios over the whole ensemble of stations triggered in the ring. 1 are plotted vs "H. 1 is not observed here because of the greater scattering of data points. 3. At the same time the tendency is evident to decrease of the normalized AMD. This ratio describes in some way the dispersion of the correlation coefficient values for a single event caused by different local effects. At each moment the difference between the corresponding samples of the central station record and the station in the ring is taken.1–1. giving an AMD/COO (average max difference/COO) . Then the maximum difference is selected. We also investagated the absolute differences between accelerations in the “central station—inner ring” pairs.6. the ratios rmax/rmin varying from 1. approximately. The example is given in Fig.html12/05/2010 06:30:48 a. divided by the maximum acceleration at the central station for normal ization.5 to 4. The data are shown in Fig.. so that it increases as magnitude increases. The data obtained are shown in Fig. The average difference can be calculated as follows. The pattern similar to the previous one can be observed: the dispersion of the data points tends to decrease with increasing magnitude. But at larger magnitudes (above 6) there is far less scattering. 4. and the ratios rmax/rmin are in the range of 1. 5 where rav as in Fig. scattering.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_103. .

page_104 < previous page Page 104 page_104 next page > Fig. 4.. 5.m. Fig.html12/05/2010 06:30:49 a.. as a function of magnitude. averaged over all triggered pairs. The dependence of the average correlation coefficient on the hypocentral distance for the “central station—inner ring” pairs < previous page page_104 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_104. The normalized maximum differences between records of central station and inner ring. .

7. The correlation is much less clear than in Fig. 6 and 7 show: the local magnitude and the hypocentral distance. which results in the increasing coherency. In Fig.page_105 < previous page page_105 next page > Page 105 between the predominant period Tmax of the seismograms and magnitude. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The SMART 1 data are made available by the Seismographic Station of the University of California < previous page page_105 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.6. The predominant periods were calculated from the Fourier acceleration spectra at every single station. The data distribution shows that the systematic relationship exists between these quantities consisting in the obvious increase of Tmax with magnitude. Hence.html12/05/2010 06:30:49 a. . 6). 6 the Tmax’s are plotted vs ML for the central station.m. The result is given in Fig. Two factors determine the predominant period as Figs. The effect of the first one is connected with the focal mechanism of earthquake and is much more significant (Fig. the influence of the local inhomogeneities ties of the medium within an array becomes weaker. 6 is simply explained by this fact: larger magnitude events are more distant and have therefore the longer periods because of the trivial attenuation of short periods.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_105. There is also some weaker influence of the second factor acting through the attenuation of high frequencies with distance. Note that it is typical with strong motion data sets that the correlation exists between magnitude and distance because the large magnitude events trigger the stations at larger distances than smaller events [2]. To avoid such misinterpretation we plotted Tmax together with hypocentral distance "H.. Thus. DISCUSSION It is evident that the mechanism of the strong motions coherency dependence on magnitude lies in the fact that the increase of magnitude is accompanied by the substantial increase of the predominant period (and wavelength) of seismic field. 1 and 5. as we see reflected in Figs. It can be naturally supposed therefore that the result obtained in Fig. the spatial coherency is more clearly related with magnitude than with hypocentral distance..

Bolt for delivering data and the benevolent correspondence. The predominant period of the seismograms at central station as a function of hypocentral distance.V..A.m. . 7.Nikolaev for his numerous discussions and support of this work. 6..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_106. The predominant period of the seismograms at central station as a function of magnitude. < previous page page_106 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.html12/05/2010 06:30:49 a. Fig. at Berkeley and the Institute of Earth Sciences of the Academia Sinica in Taipei. and Professor A.page_106 < previous page Page 106 page_106 next page > Fig. I would like to thank Professor B.

26–41.m. Vol. Abrahamson. B. Statistical properties of peak ground accelerations recorded by the SMART 1 Array.B.. 1988. .. < previous page page_107 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Am. 2. and Tsai.page_107 < previous page page_107 next page > Page 107 REFERENCES 1. pp.. J..A.. 263–287.A. Earthquake Spectra. R.html12/05/2010 06:30:50 a. Seism.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_107. Vol. N. The SMART 1 accelerograph array (1980– 1987): a review. 1987. Penzien. Darragh. pp. Abrahamson. 3.. Bull. Soc.A. N.B. Y. 78. Bolt.

ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_108.. page_108 page_108 next page > next page > < previous page file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.m. ..page_108 < previous page Page 108 This page intentionally left blank.html12/05/2010 06:30:50 a.

.page_109 < previous page Page 109 SECTION 3: WAVE PROPAGATION page_109 next page > < previous page page_109 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.html12/05/2010 06:30:51 a.m.. .ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_109.

.html12/05/2010 06:30:51 a.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_110.. page_110 page_110 next page > next page > < previous page file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.m. .page_110 < previous page Page 110 This page intentionally left blank.

M. Heukelom and Foster (1960).S. It was not however until 1938 that his theoretical and experimental work found an application in the studies of foundation vibrations conducted by the German Society of Soil Mechanics (DEGEBO). 1990.page_111 < previous page page_111 next page > Page 111 Comparison of 2-D and 3-D Models for Analysis of Surface Wave Tests J. This solution is sufficient when dealing with soil profiles where properties vary smoothly with depth. The University of Texas at Austin. al. With the development of portable and sophisticated electronic equipment capable of performing accurate high frequency data acquisition and complex mathematical manipulations rapidly in the field and with the establishment of a theoretically sound basis for data analysis the surface wave test has been improved and simplified as the Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) method (Heisey. In nearly all of these studies the excitation consisted of a steady state harmonic vertical force and the method became known as the steady state Rayleigh wave technique. K.A.m. to evaluate the material properties at a site.html12/05/2010 06:30:51 a.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_111.Stokoe. Traditional seismic methods such as the crosshole or downhole methods are expensive and often difficult to use because of the need to drill boreholes. operates entirely from the surface. Van der Poel (1951) and Nijboer and Van der Poel (1953).. GENERAL BACKGROUND Evolution of the Surface Wave Test The existence of surface waves was reported by Rayleigh in 1887. Rix 1988. Roesset et. In recent years a considerable amount of theoretical and experimental research work has been conducted at the University of Texas at Austin in order to understand better and improve the applicability of the method (Shao 1985. The Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) technique. Kang 1990). 1962). As a consequence. al.Roësset. D. . In this early work the equipment was bulky and the interpretation of the data was based on relatively simple empirical rules which could result in erroneous results for complicated but realistic material profiles. 1982. Sheu 1987. II Department of Civil Engineering..-W. when there are sharp charges in the properties of the layers which give rise to wave reflections or refractions. Sanchez Salinero 1987. The inversion process needed to estimate shear wave velocities and their variation with depth from the measured data is normally based on a two dimensional solution in which only plane Rayleigh waves are considered. < previous page page_111 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. U. TX 78712. Stokoe and Nazarian 1983). Ballard (1964) and Fry (1965). on the other hand. Further studies of the dispersion curves for soil and pavement profiles were conducted by Jones (1958. directly or indirectly. the method failed to gain widespread acceptance. In this paper the results of both types of solutions are presented and discussed for a number of cases. Applications to pavements were performed next by Bergerstorm and Linderholm (1946). however. A more accurate three dimensional solution must be used. et.Chang. ABSTRACT In situ measurement of wave propagation velocities can be used.H.

the travel time is < previous page page_112 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.. is usually kept equal to D but may also be increased by the operator to minimize destructive interference from body wave reflections. instead of using a steady state vibrator at a fixed frequency. as shown in Figure 1. The distance.page_112 < previous page page_112 next page > Page 112 Equipment and Field Testing The general arrangement of the source. . A vertically oriented sensor was moved away from the source until the recorded motion was in phase with the excitation. which provides also automatically the cross spectrum and the coherence function of the two records. as shown in a number of analytical studies. A variety of sources can be used to generate the impact. by a dynamic spectral analyzer.html12/05/2010 06:30:52 a. and D is the distance between the two receivers. In the SASW method. for a frequency ω (in radians/sec). between receivers (see Fig. from hand held hammers of different sizes (small hammers are sufficient for high frequency excitation). located also on the surface. The phase difference between the signals is obtained directly from the cross spectrum as a function of frequency. or f (in Hz).m. No boreholes are required because both the source and receivers are placed on the surface. So. The vertical accelerometers and source are arranged in a linear array. to drop weights (heavier weights for low frequency excitation). d1. using a Fast Fourier Transform algorithm. A piezoelectric shaker can be used effectively as a source to generate surface waves over frequencies ranging from about 1kHz to 50kHz. The electrical signals recorded by the receivers are digitized and transformed to the frequency domain. Such a plot is known as a dispersion curve. The passage of the wave train generated by the impact is monitored by two vertical receivers. If is the phase difference in radians at a frequency ω. the phase velocity of the surface wave would be ν=Lf=Lω/2π (1) Repeating this process for different excitation frequencies f a plot of velocity versus frequency (or wavelength) was obtained. 1) may be varied by the operator to optimize the test results for a particular site. 1. d1/D=1. D.0 is normally a good arrangement. receivers (accelerometers). However.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_112. A digital waveform analyzer coupled with a microcomputer is used to capture and process the output from the receivers. an impulsive or random-noise load is applied at the surface of the soil deposit. Surface Wave Dispersion In the original technique. a steady-state vibrator acting vertically on the surface of the soil produced a harmonic excitation at a known frequency. and recording equipment in a SASW test is shown schematically in Fig. The distance between the source and the first receiver. The high frequencies are necessary to sample the surface layer of stiff pavements. The distance between any two of these successive positions was assumed to correspond to one wavelength L of a Rayleigh wave propagating along the surface..

The main objective of this paper is to discuss two alternative ways in which the analytical determination of the dispersion curve can be performed. and short wavelengths. 2).135–0.182v (6) then (7) where G=shear modulus.874 to 0. For values of Poisson’s ratio ν larger than 0. to introduce appropriate modifications to the profile and to repeat the process until a satisfactory agreement is reached.. .page_113 < previous page Page 113 page_113 next page > (2) and the velocity of propagation is (3) The corresponding wavelength is then (4) The shape of the dispersion curve depends on the variation of soil properties with depth.955 Vs depending on Poisson’s ratio.html12/05/2010 06:30:53 a. al. With the development of the SASW method. to compare this theoretical curve with the experimental one. < previous page page_113 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. A more accurate and more sophisticated procedure to backcalculate the material properties from the experimental dispersion curves is to assume a given soil profile. In the past decade this procedure has been modified to account for the relationship between the shear wave velocity and the Rayleigh wave velocity for a half space. γ=total unit weight. (1982) who considered that the propagation velocity was the Rayleigh wave velocity of the material at a depth of 1/3 of the wavelength. This approach has been used recently by Vrettos and Prange (1990) in the study of dispersion curves at various sites where the material stiffness increased gradually with depth with excellent results. E=Young’s modulus. the phase velocity reflects thus the properties of the soil near the surface and as the frequency decreases the properties of deeper and deeper layers get into play (Fig. For a given frequency and wavelength the particle motion is restricted to a soil depth of the same order of the wavelength and the velocity of propagation of the surface waves depends almost exclusively on the soil properties over that depth.m. to conduct an analytical study to obtain the dispersion curve corresponding to that profile. and g =acceleration of gravity. an additional modification was made to this procedure by Heisey et.1 we can write approximately Vs=C Vr (5) with C=1. For high frequencies.. The Rayleigh wave velocity Vr varies from 0.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_113. To estimate the soil properties from the experimental dispersion curve the original steady state Rayleigh wave method assumed that the measured propagation velocity was equal to the shear wave velocity of the soil deposit at a depth of one or half a wavelength.

The stiffness matrices of the individual layers (as well as that of a half space) can be assembled following the normal rules of matrix structural analysis leading to a system of equations of the form (9) where K is the dynamic stiffness matrix of the complete soil deposit. The mathematical model consists thus of a horizontally layered half space with homogeneous properties within each layer. . To have nontrivial displacements without any external loads the determinant of K must vanish. Alternatively the tractions at the top and bottom of each layer can be expressed in terms of the displacements at the same levels through a dynamic stiffness matrix (Kausel and Roesset 1981). The terms of this matrix are function of the frequency ω and the wave number k. For each value of k one can then find a phase velocity ν=ω/k and a wavelength λ=2π/k.. With no excitation (zero stresses) at the top and no waves propagating upward from the bottom the amplitude of the waves travelling down is given by a system of homogeneous equations TA=0 (8) To have any waves and therefore nontrivial motions the determinant of the 2×2 matrix T must be equal to 0.page_114 < previous page page_114 next page > Page 114 ANALYTICAL MODELING Modeling of the SASW test to obtain theoretical dispersion curves for a given soil profile can be accomplished with two approaches: considering only plane generalized Rayleigh waves (a two dimensional solution) or accounting for three dimensional wave propagation effects and attempting to model exactly the actual experimental set up.. Haskell 1953).ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_114. For a fixed ω the values of k that make the determinant zero (eigenvalues) are the wave numbers of the generalized Rayleigh waves.m.html12/05/2010 06:30:53 a. It < previous page page_114 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Imposing compatibility of displacements and equilibrium at the interfaces between layers and multiplying the transfer matrices of the different layers a relationship is obtained between the stresses and displacements at the free surface and those at any depth. Two-Dimensional Analyses The objective of these analyses is to obtain the theoretical dispersion curve for plane Rayleigh waves propagating in a horizontally layered deposit with known properties. or the amplitudes of the waves travelling up and down in an underlying half space. are the amplitudes of the displacements at the various layer interfaces (starting at the free surface) and P is the vector of applied loads at these interfaces. The solution of the differential equations of motion for each layer allows the stresses and displacements at the top of the layer to be related to those at the bottom as a function of the frequency of vibration and the wave number (or wavelength) through a “transfer” matrix (Thomson 1950. The first method provides a simple and expedient basis to understand the results of the test. The terms of K are again function of ω and k (frequency and wave number). while the second simulates more realistically the physical process including possible reflections and/or for refractions when there are abrupt changes in properties.

1981. In most cases in fact there will be many real eigenvalues. 10. < previous page page_115 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 1985). For application to cases with an axisymmetric loading. .. A question may then arise as to which one corresponds to the wave propagation velocity that would be measured in the field. Three Dimensional Analyses To simulate the dynamic response of a soil profile to a vertical disk load applied on the surface the solution can be expressed in cylindrical coordinates. Typically. however. whichever alternative is used. When soil properties vary in a more complex way. Two different approaches can be followed: Continuous Formulation The solution of the problem requires assembling the dynamic stiffness matrix of the soil profile. R is the radius of the disk and q is the magnitude of the uniformly distributed load. W can be expressed as (10) where J0 and J1 are the zero and first order Bessel functions. u and w are functions of k and can be obtained finding the solution to Eq. Neuman or Hankel functions) in the radial direction as shown by Kausel and Roesset. third or fourth eigenvalue. In any case. and the radial and vertical displacements U. 9 for a harmonic load at the surface with wavelength 2π/k. Displacements and stresses (or tractions) on a horizontal surface can be expanded in Fourier series in the circumferentical direction and in terms of cylindrical functions (Bessel. leading also to complex phase velocities. A simpler alternative often used is to assume that the half space is made of air (plate theory) which will yield again real roots (Jones 1962. Another alternative is to select as an approximation real values of k that make the real part of the determinant of the matrix K equal to 0 (Shao. this type of solution can be very efficient. When the modulus of the underlying half space is smaller than those of the upper layers (typical situtation for a pavement profile) there will be a maximum frequency above which there are no real wave numbers.html12/05/2010 06:30:54 a. a small amount of material damping is always assumed for computational purposes. For a simple layered system with few layers (n≤3) or a half space. r is the radial distance from the source.page_115 < previous page page_115 next page > Page 115 should be noticed that K is a tridiagonal matrix in terms of 2×2 submatrices and the determinant can be easily evaluated for any value of k and a fixed ω When dealing with a soil profile with properties increasing with depth there will always be at least one real eigenvalue (wave number) k. the question of whether the smallest eigenvalue or a higher one is the appropriate one remains open and can only be answered by modelling the actural three dimensional problem. The computation is relatively time consuming when there is a large number of layers and the integration requires special precautions if there is no damping in the soil. only one term of the Fourier series is needed (the 0 term). this may not be always the case and one may find that the measured propagation velocities are in better agreement with the phase velocities of the second.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_115. solving it for various values of k (wave number) and evaluating the integrals of Eq.. When the soil properties increase smoothly with depth the first eigenvalue (smallest value of k) is the one of interest. A proper solution in this case would require the determination of the complex eigenvalues. k is the wave number. Nazarian 1984).m.

owing to the assumption of linear variation of the displacements within a layer. Substituting Eq. D is the distance between the two receivers. there are two ways to compute the corresponding dispersion curve: 1) Phase Spectrum in Spatial Domain For a given excitation frequency. the integral can be evaluated analytically in closed form (Kausel. the phase of the response can be plotted versus distance to the source leading to what may be referred to as a spatial domain phase spectrum.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_116. 10. and is the difference of the phases (in radians/sec) at the two receivers (values of the spatial phase spectrum at the two points). This is equivalent to the assumption that the displacements have a linear variation with depth over each layer. a large number of sublayers must be used to obtain satisfactory results. C and M can be founded in Waas 1972. In this case one will obtain both real and complex wave numbers and the analysis could be stopped at this point with the determination of the 2-D dispersion curve. However.m.. 1981). < previous page page_116 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Kausel has shown that the displacements .html12/05/2010 06:30:54 a. Determination of Dispersion Curve Once the complex response at the surface of the soil deposit has been obtained. This solution is particularly convenient when dealing with a large number of layers as is the case when it is desired to obtain a detailed variation of soil properties with depth. where ui1 and wi1 denote the horizontal and vertical displacements at the surface in the ith mode and can be found from the corresponding mode shape.page_116 < previous page page_116 next page > Page 116 Discrete Formulation An alternative to the continuous model can be obtained by expanding the terms of the dynamic stiffness matrix of a layer in terms of k and keeping only up to second degree terms. The question still remains.. as to which eigenvalue is the most appropriate one. Kausel 1974. B. The wave numbers and in-plane modes of propagation are now the solution of a quadratic eigenvalue problem. in Equation 10 can be expressed as (12) for a system of n layers over a halfspace. Shao (1985) suggested both static and dynamic rules to divide the physical layers into finer sublayers to provide appropriate thicknesses. The apparent velocity of propagation of the waves between any two point is (13) where v is the wave velocity. however. and of the total profile can then be expressed in the form K=Ak2+Bk+C−Ω2M (11) where the expressions for the matrices A. f is the excitation frequency. 12 in Eq. The stiffness matrices of each layer. .

computing the theoretical dispersion curves. Examples To show the dispersion results obtained from the 2-D and 3-D analyses. The corresponding 2-D and 3D dispersion curves are shown in Fig. the phase spectrum between two receivers at a given distance from the source is used to calculate the propagating velocities over a certain frequency range. et. two artificial profiles were studied.1 has a shear wave velocity increasing gradually with depth up to 80m as shown in Fig. 2) Phase Spectrum in Frequency Domain Instead of computing the phases at various distances from the source for each frequency. 5b. Excellent agreement between the two solutions is obtained taking the 1st mode of the 2-D solution. 4a. The predictions are still very good up to a depth of 20m. Even beyond this point the error is small. a varying number of receivers must be simulated within an appropriate distance from the source and the analytical setup does not truly reflect the in-situ arrangement of the SASW test. which is the main controlling parameter. is of the order of two wavelengths. Further parametric studies were conducted by Sanchez-Salinero. These studies indicated that the best agreement between the two dispersion curves is obtained when the distance between receivers is equal to the distance from the source to the first receiver and when this distance. A comparison of the results obtained using the 2-D dispersion curves of generalized Rayleigh waves and the 3-D solution was initially performed by Shao in 1985.m. For each site. 4c shows the variation of properties with depth that would result from the use of the simplified inversion procedure with 1/3 of the wavelength and the actual properties. but the errors are important between 20 and 50m. Fig. the experimental dispersion curve was obtained using the SASW method. 2 has a shear wave velocity decreasing with depth over the top 40 m as shown in Fig. The difference between the two solutions is more apparent in this case particularly for wavelengths between 15 and 65m. < previous page page_117 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. investigating the application of the SASW method to pavements. Fig. 1990. and modifying the assumed properties to improve the fit. In a typical SASW setup. Profile No. It should be noticed that the predictions are very good in this case particularly up to a depth of 40 m.. B and C (pavements) were studied. 3.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_117. 4b.html12/05/2010 06:30:55 a. Artificial profile No. 5c shows the predicted properties from the simplified inversion. comparing them to the experimental data. three actual sites A (soil deposit). Approximate soil properties were computed using the simplified procedure and iterative analyses assuming a profile. 5a and its dispersion curves obtained from 2-D and 3-D analyses are plotted in Fig.. since the solution is based on the spatial information. the phase information can be obtained for a fixed distance between receivers as a function of frequency. 1987 and Roesset. Several receiver spacings are used to cover the complete frequency range of interest yielding a composite dispersion curve as illustrated in Fig. On the other hand.page_117 < previous page page_117 next page > Page 117 This procedure allows to observe the variation in the wave propagation velocity with distance. CASE STUDIES To illustrate further the difference between the 2-D and the 3-D solutions and to verify the applicability of the simplified inversion procedure. al. .

Fig. . The 3-D solution reproduces very well the experimental data. Similar results for the material profile at site C are shown in Fig. 6a shows the soil properties obtained by the simplified and the analytical procedures. < previous page page_118 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Fig. It is however much better than that of Fig. Fig. Site B represents an asphalt concrete pavement. Fig. It should be noticed that the results of the 2-D analysis with the first mode appear to be in better agreement with the experimental data for wavelengths up to 3 m.5m. The agreement is very good up to 10 or 12m but deteriorates for larger depths. Differences between the dispersion curves of the approximate profile and the experimental data as shown in Fig.html12/05/2010 06:30:55 a.5m. The phase velocities obtained with the 3-D solution are larger than the experimental data. In this range. 7a shows the material properties obtained with the simplified and the iterative procedure.5m to 1. The 3-D solution.5 and 3m. the experimental data show a sharp change in slope instead of the smooth behavior of the 2-D solution. Dispersion results for the profile with analytical fitting are shown in Fig. CONCLUSIONS The results of the cases shown here and a large number of other studies conducted in recent years indicate that the simplified inversion procedure based on assigning a Rayleigh wave velocity at each depth equal to the phase velocity for a wavelength of 3 times that depth will produce very good results when dealing with a soil profile where the properties increase smoothly with depth.page_118 < previous page page_118 next page > Page 118 For a soil deposit with stiffness gradually increasing with depth like site A. but the theoretical results are noticeably smaller than the experimental ones beyond that point. Fig. Fig. 7b shows the theoretical dispersion curves corresponding to the simplified profile. The 2-D solution is a smooth curve which matches very well the experimental data except for the range of wavelengths between 35 and 50m. 7b. The use of the first mode in the 2-D solution is again inappropriate for the this site. 8c. 6c compares the experimental dispersion curves to the 2-D and 3-D theoretical curves corresponding to the fitted profile. 7c shows the corresponding results for the fitted profile. a set of properties which gave an excellent agreement with the experimental dispersion curve could be easily obtained with very few iterations. The two profiles have now some marked differences. Even in this case for the number of iteration performed. on the other hand. reproduces very well this abrupt change in slope. the procedure can be used to obtain a preliminary estimate but must be refined through a series of analyses.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_118. as in the case of pavements. 8b are viewed at wavelengths from . 8a. 6b shows the theoretical dispersion curves corresponding to the soil profile obtained with the simplified inversion procedure.. When there are layers of soil with very abrupt and marked changes in properties or when the properties decrease with depth. The agreement with the experimental data is very good up to a wavelength of approximately 30 m. It is apparent that the approximate profile obtained from the simplified inversion is significantly different from the fitted one for depths below 0..m. the agreement between the theoretical dispersion curves and the experimental data is not perfect particularly for wavelengths between 1. although they are in fact less accurate.

This is due to the fact that the results of the 3-D analyses depend on the actual position of the points at which the phases are computed.. 1946. R. 4. May 1983.S. 4–666.S.. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station.” Journal of Soil Mech. C. August 1987 15. Mercury. 1–21.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_119. Bergstorm. “In-Situ Measurement of the Dynamic Properties of Soil by Vibration Methods.. Svenska Forsknings-Institutet for Cement och Betong Vid. Even so some smoothing of the experimental data.-Y. Berlin. S. 21–29. 3. and Found. Vol.“Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Bodenmechanik. Heisey. 2. 1962. and even of the theoretical curves.” Proceedings. Heukelom. MS. Helsinki. Van der Poel.“Analytical Investigation of Seismic Methods Used for Engineering Applications”.C. U. January. Ph. may be necessary to get good fits with a reasonable amount of work. Vol.” Handlinger No. 1951. I.. 1938. .. Vicksburg. DEGEBO. G.C. March. pp. The University of Texas at Austin. May 1987. Kungl.H. Finland. 1.page_119 < previous page page_119 next page > Page 119 The use of the 2-D solution with the dispersion curve corresponding to the first mode of propagation (smallest eigenvalue) is reasonable for soil deposits with gradual variation of properties but cannot reflect sudden jumps and discontinuities in the slope of the curve caused by wave reflections or refractions. and Nazarian.” Transportation Research Record. II..J. “Effectiveness of Ground Improvement from Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves. 4–691.H. 1953. For more complicated soil profiles and most pavement systems.“Dynamic Soil Investigations Project Buggy. J. MS.” Miscellaneous Paper No.. 8. II.D.. 7. 10.“Dynamic Method att Utrona Ultiga Marklagers Genomsnittliga Elasticitetsegens Kaper. and Linderholm.. Dissertation.S.. 9. S. “Dynamic Testing of Pavements. Springer. February. the use of the more accurate three dimensional solution is recommended since this approach can reproduce the true wave propagation phenomena involved in the test. “Moduli of pavement Systems from Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves. 12.” Proceedings. December 1985. Sheu.. Z. Proc.R. and Meyer. Tekniska.D. K.” Journal of Applied Chemistry. “Applications and Limitations of the Spectral-Analysis-of-Surface-Waves Method”. The University of Texas at Austin. The University of Tcxas at Austin.F. Jones. 6. and Van der Poel. 4... 13. Falling Weight Deflectometer and Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves Tests on Pavement System”. < previous page page_119 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.. No. The University of Texas al Austin. K. August 1988. 13. C. 1964. U. “Dynamic Interpretation of Dynaflect.. REFERENCES 1. Neveda. Shao.D. 11.” Miscellaneous Paper No.H. Vol. which is not without error or noise. 1982. pp. Vol. Jones. Vicksburg.“Surface Wave Technique for Measuring the Elastic Properties and Thickness of Roads: Theoretical Developement. No. A. “Dynamic Testing of Road Construction. 14. pp.. D.G. ASCE. J. No. Association of Asphaltic Pavement Technology. 281–290. 1965. Washington. Slokoe. the position of the receivers should thus be similar in the field and in the analyses. “Determination of Soil Shear Moduli al Depth by In-Situ Vibratory Techniques. Nijboer.. K. pp. SM1. 1958.” Vol. Dissertation. Hogskolan. Buckboard Mesa Neveda Test Site. Ph. 1. W. R.. 7. Dissertation. Rix. C. and Foster. Fry. Ph. 852. 86.html12/05/2010 06:30:56 a. R. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station.” British Journal of Applied Physics. Part 1. 197–231. Stokoc. Ballard.D.B. 1960... 8. 8th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineerin. “Experimental Study of Factors Affecting the Spectral-Analysis-of-Surface-Waves Methods.. L. 5.m. To obtain a reasonable agreement. Varying these points will introduce modifications in the dispersion curves. Div.” Geotechnique. S.W. Dissertation. Sanchez-Salinero.“A Study of Vibration Phenomena in Asphaltic Road Construction. Ph.

19. 1972. Research Report S81–13. January 1990. < previous page page_120 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. October.D. 1981. Ph. Vol. Dissertation. N. No. “Modulus and Thickness of the Pavement Surface Layer from SASW Tests.-W. “The Effect of Finite Width on Dynamic Deflections of Pavements”. Haskell. D. Research Report R74–11. “Stiffness Matrices for Layered Soils. pp. Nazarian. 1743–1761. Dissertation. 17–34.” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America.“Evaluation of In Situ Effective Shear Modulus from Dispersion Measurements.. Thomson. May 1990. 25.T.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_120. K. “Forced Vibration of Circular Foundations on Layered Media”. J. February 1950. Vol.. Department of Civil Engineering.m. Stokoe. Chang.. pp. 22.I.A. 116. Y. August 1984. Vrettos. 20.H. “An Explicit Solution for the Green Functions for Dynamic Loads in Layered Media”.D.. 1581–1585.” Journal of Applied Physics. II and Aouad. G. Waas. Kausel.. C. “In Situ Determination of Elastic Moduli of Soil Deposits and Pavement Systems by Spectral-Analysisof-Surface-Waves Method”. E.“The Dispersion of Surface Waves on Multilayer Media. “Linear Two-Dimensional Analysis of Soil Dynamics Problems in Semi-Infinite Layered Media.D. 24. Ph..” Transportation Research Record. 1990.. 18.” Ph. Vol.I..M.. and Prange. Department of Civil Engineering.. and Roesset. 1953..page_120 < previous page page_120 next page > Page 120 16. 23. Vol. “Transmission of Elastic Waves Through a Stratified Soil Medium.T.T.html12/05/2010 06:30:56 a. 1981. Vol.. . 1260. 10. 21. 71. 17. Kausel.” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. S. pp. Kausel. The University of Texas at Austin...” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. Kang. The University of California at Berkeley. Roesset. pp. 53–63. The University of Texas at Austin. M. pp.. M.. W. M. E. 89–93. 1974.V. Dissertation. B.. J. 43.M. E... 21.

.m.page_121 < previous page Page 121 page_121 next page > Figure 1 General configuration of equipment used in SASW test Figure 2 Approximate distribution of vertical particle motion with depth subjected to various excitation frequencies (or wavelengths) Figure 3 Composite dispersion curve from data of individual receiver spacing < previous page page_121 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. .html12/05/2010 06:30:57 a..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_121.

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a) material property..mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_122.page_122 Figure 4 Artificial profile No.1. . c) comparison of profile and solution from simplified inversion < previous page page_122 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20..html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:30:58 a. b) 2-D and 3-D dispersion curves.m.

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page_123 Figure 5 Artificial profile No.m.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:30:58 a. a) material property..mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_123..2. . c) comparison of profile and solution from simplified inversion < previous page page_123 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20. b) 2-D and 3-D dispersion curves.

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a) approximate profile and computed Profile.m.. b) dispersion curves of approximate profile.. .page_124 Figure 6 Site A.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_124.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:30:59 a. c) dispersion curves of computed profile < previous page page_124 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.

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a) approximate profile and computed Profile. b) dispersion curves of approximate profile.. c) dispersion curves of computed profile < previous page page_125 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_125.page_125 Figure 7 Site B..m. .html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:31:00 a.

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b) dispersion curves of approximate profile.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_126.. a) approximate profile and computed profile. c) dispersion curves of computed profile < previous page page_126 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20. .html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:31:01 a.page_126 Figure 8 Site C.m..

and • A harder layer trapped between a softer surface layer and a half-space. Box 909. The cases include: • A softer layer trapped between a harder surface layer and a half-space. Rutgers University. MI 48109–2125. U.html12/05/2010 06:31:01 a. The University of Michigan. like soils and pavements. R. < previous page page_127 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. NJ 08855–0909.S. INTRODUCTION The Spectral-Analysis-of-Surface-Waves method is a seismic technique for measuring in situ elastic moduli and thicknesses of layered systems. The major deficiency of the method at this moment is the process of inversion of the dispersion curve.m. Piscataway. • A hard surface layer.S. Results of the study of Rayleigh wave dispersion in soil profiles where a softer layer is trapped between a harder surface layer and a harder half-space have indicated (Gucunski and Woods.. The goal of the study is to explore alternative ways for the improvement of the inversion process and to provide guidelines for identification and interpretation of results in the field. and it utilizies a simple procedure and test setup with the prospect of being fully automized.Woods (**) (*) Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering. Ann Arbor.O.A. The advantages of the method are: it is performed from the surface and therefore does not require boreholes. . is that the inversion process can be an ambiguous process.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_127.A. Experience which the authors have from SASW measurements in which lower velocity layers were found below higher velocity layers by a complementary crosshole test. it is nondestructive. U. (**) Department of Civil Engineering.Gucunski (*). 1991) that the uniqueness of a derived soil profile is attributed to a strong influence of higher Rayleigh modes on the overall wave propagation pattern. P.. it is in most cases highly accurate. The inversion process is a simple task and provides reliable results in cases of regular soil profiles where the shear wave velocity increases with depth. This paper presents results on Rayleigh wave dispersion for several cases of soil layering which can be characterized as irregular patterns of soil stratification.page_127 < previous page page_127 next page > Page 127 Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Dispersion Curve for SASW Test N.D.

Sheu et al. Heisey et al. contains information on quality of the recorded signal. X (see Fig. 1)..page_128 < previous page page_128 next page > Page 128 THE SPECTRAL-ANALYSIS-OF-SURFACE-WAVES METHOD The SASW method is based on the dispersive character of Rayleigh waves in layered media. . and based on the collected data the determination of a shear wave velocity profile. Figure 2 presents the commonly used Common Receivers Midpoint Geometry. detected by a pair of receivers. (1982). 1987) and defined that the usable < previous page page_128 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. as described by Nazarian and Stokoe (1983). The method can be viewed as an extension of a steady-state technique which has principally solved problems of efficient simultaneous generation and detection of a broad spectrum of surface waves. suggested the following filter criteria λph/3<X<2λph (1) where λph is the phase wavelength. where β represents the phase in degrees and f frequency in Hz. For the source to near reciver spacing. 2) evaluation of the Rayleigh wave dispersion curve. Schematic of experimental arrangement for SASW test.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_128. Based on the relationships presented in figure 4. Surface waves are generated by an impact source. S. based on an experimental study. The test is repeated for several receiver spacings to cover a desired range of wavelengths. Figure 1 shows a schematic of the current testing configuration.m. shown in figure 3b.. shown in figure 3a. (1986) combined experimental results with results of a theoretical study (Sanchez-Salinero et al. The phase of the cross-power spectrum. and recorded on an appropriate recording device. Among several spectral functions the phase of the cross power spectrum and the coherence are of the greatest importance. the dispersion curve for a single receiver spacing can be constructed. The dispersion curve needs to be filtered. Figure 1. The SASW testing procedure can be divided into three phases: 1) collection of data in the field. while the coherence.html12/05/2010 06:31:02 a. equal to the receiver spacing. and in two directions to cover effects of dipping layers and any internal phase shift due to receivers and instrumentation. contains information on the frequency-phase velocity relations. and 3) inversion of the dispersion curve to obtain the shear wave velocity profile. A very convenient device for the spectral analysis is a Wave Form Analyzer which can perform operations either in the time or the frequency domain.

the problem can be. presented in the frequency-wave number domain in the form (2) where represents the system stiffness matrix. A currently used inversion process is based on the comparison of theoretical dispersion curves for an assumed profile with the experimental dispersion curve. A perfect match between the experimental and the theoretical first Rayleigh mode is marked by zeros. Figure 5b respresents an experimental dispersion curve marked with asterisks and theoretical dispersion curves for the first two Rayleigh modes marked by crosses. it can be found from the solution of an eigenvalue problem < previous page page_129 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Because the Rayleigh wave represents a natural mode of wave propagation.html12/05/2010 06:31:02 a. the vector of layer interface displacements. This problem was identified previously by Nazarian (1984). Once a good match between those is achieved the assumed shear wave profile is accepted as a solution.page_129 < previous page Page 129 page_129 next page > Figure 2. Nazarian and Stokoe (1986) and Sanchez-Salinero et al. The question that was raised at the beginning of this study was whether the inversion process should be guided solely by the comparison of the experimental dispersion curve with the theoretical first Rayleigh mode or should higher Rayleigh modes be considered. 1984. wavelength should be less than 1. as shown in figure 5a. As described in Gucunski (1991) and Gucunski and Woods (1991). Results for several receiver spacings and both directions are finally statistically combined to derive an average dispersion curve.. . Inversion of the Rayleigh wave dispersion curve is a process of determination of the shear wave velocity profile from the wavelength-phase velocity relationship.5 receiver spacing.m. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE SASW TEST The SASW test can be described as an axisymmetric problem in which the impact source is represented by a circular loading at the center of the system.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_129.. Common Receivers Midpoint Geometry. (1987). and the vector of external layer interface loadings. by utilizing Fourier and Hankel’s transforms. as described by Nazarian.

. modal displacements and the comparison of the “simulated” dispersion curve and the curves for several modes of plane Rayleigh waves. • Modal displacements in the frequency-wave number and the spatial domains. The results presented later include only some of the above elements.html12/05/2010 06:31:03 a. and Vs1 and Vs2 represent the thicknesses and the shear wave velocities of the first and the second layer. (b) The coherence.page_130 < previous page Page 130 page_130 next page > (3) in which the eigenvalues represent phase velocities of the Rayleigh wave while the vector u represents its shape as a function of depth. d1 and d2. Figure 6 represents displacements in the frequency-wave number domain for frequencies 20 to 50Hz. < previous page page_130 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.m. • Rate of energy transmission in the horizontal direction.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_130. CASE 1: A SOFTER LAYER TRAPPED BETWEEN A HARDER LAYER AND A HALF-SPACE Rayleigh wave dispersion in a system where a softer layer is trapped between a harder surface layer and a half-space will be illustrated by displacements in the spatial domain.. Figure 3. . • Dispersion curves of several lowest modes for plane Rayleigh waves according to equation (3). An extensive numerical study of the influence of soil stratification on Rayleigh wave dispersion was conducted which included evaluation of: • Wave propagation field due to three-dimensional simulation of the SASW test. and • Mode shapes. (a) The phase of the cross power spectrum. R0 represents the radius of the loading plate.

The sharp peaks represent Rayleigh waves.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_131. respectively. ν and ξ are the Poisson’s and damping ratios of the soil. and the third mode at 50Hz. calculated by applying the inverse Hankel’s transform with the interval of integration over the vicinity of each of the modes. The figure cofirms the transition of dominant influence from the < previous page page_131 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The figure clearly indicates the dominant influence of the first mode at 20Hz. and p the intensity of loading. Displacements for the first three modes in the spatial domain. (b) Inversion of the experimental dispersion curve.page_131 < previous page Page 131 page_131 next page > Figure 4. ρp is the mass density of the plate. the second mode at 30 and 40Hz.html12/05/2010 06:31:04 a. respectively. Figure 5. Evaluation of the phase velocity of a R-wave. (a) A typical set of dispersion curves for a soil site and an average dispersion curve. are shown in figure 7.. ..m.

The results presented include modal displacements. The “simulated” curve represents the total solution for all the waves. Figure 9 represents modal displacements for the first five modes. A clear transition of dominant influence from the first towards higher modes as frequency increases can be observed. The dispersion curves for plane Rayleigh waves are evaluated according to equation (3).ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_132. The rate represents the amount of energy propagating through a layer and averaged over a period 2π/ω. or where soil is naturally frozen or dessicated.. and afterwards moves towards the second and the third mode curves. Figure 8 represents the comparison between the dispersion curves of the first three modes of plane Rayleigh waves and the “simulated” dispersion curve. and between 40 and 50 Hz. rates divided by the rate for the entire < previous page page_132 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. first to the second and the third mode.. Vertical surface displacements in the frequency-wave number domain. the rate of energy transmission in the horizontal direction. Figure 10 presents normalized rates. respectively. and the comparison of the “simulated” dispersion curve and the curves for several modes of plane Rayleigh waves. compaction or freezing. slightly modified by the presence of the underlying softer layer.html12/05/2010 06:31:04 a. The “simulated” curve follows well the first Rayleigh mode from 0 to about 20Hz. CASE 2: A HARD SURFACE LAYER A surface layer stiffer than soil below can exist in situations where soil improvement measures were applied like: grouting.m. and therefore is calculated by applying the inverse Hankel’s transform over the entire frequency-wave number domain. between 20 and 30. Zones of transition of the “simulated” curve from one two another mode are characterized by localized approaches of dispersion curves for plane Rayleigh waves. This was confirmed by the results on the rate of energy transmission in the horizontal direction. Peaks of the second and higher modes match well corresponding natural frequencies of vertical oscillations of the surface layer. .page_132 < previous page Page 132 page_132 next page > Figure 6.

This contradicts the known fact that the phase < previous page page_133 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.m..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_133. Vertical surface displacements in the spatial domain at the distance r=2Vs1/f from the source. Frequency at which peaks of the rate for the surface layer occur correspond well to the energy is transmitted completely by the underlying softer layer. Figure 8. The other important fact is that at high frequencies the dispersion curves approach the shear wave velocity of the underlying layer.html12/05/2010 06:31:05 a. . As a comparison to the case presented in figure 8. Theoretical curves of the first three modes for plane Rayleigh waves and the “simulated” dispersion curve.page_133 < previous page Page 133 page_133 next page > Figure 7. The comparison of the “simulated” dispersion curve and curves for the plane Rayleigh waves is shown in figure 11. for the first four Rayleigh modes. system. as by the change in curvature. points of transition are not characterized as strongly by the approaches of dispersion curves. The “simulated” curve follows very well the “valleys” created at dispersion curves..

while the phase velocity of higher modes should approach the shear wave velocity of the surface layer. where the second mode has a dominant amplitude in the same frequency range. It can be observed also from modal displacements presented in figure 13. velocity of the first mode should approach the Rayleigh wave velocity of the surface layer.. In the case of a thick soft layer energy of the first mode is transmitted through the surface layer. A localized transition of the “simulated” curve from the first to the second mode in the range 8 to 16Hz is characterized by the approach of two curves.page_134 < previous page Page 134 page_134 next page > Figure 9. These results are in an excellent agreement with results on the rate of energy transmission presented in figure 10. or can be artiffically created in cases where a system with a stiff surface layer was covered by a fill. Surface vertical displacements in the spatial domain at the distance r=2Vs1/f from the source.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_134. Results from several tests have indicated that only in cases where a stiff layer is underlain by a much thicker softer layer higher Rayleigh modes can have a significant role.. This is in good agreement with the rate of energy transmission for the first mode. while energy of all the other modes it is transmitted through the underlying layer. which indicate propagation within the second layer only.html12/05/2010 06:31:06 a. Results from all the cases studied indicate that at higher frequencies transmission of energy occurs completely either through the surface softer layer or the layer below the stiffer layer. This is illustrated in figure 14 for the first four modes. Dispersion curves for all higher modes approach the shear wave velocity of the third layer. CASE 3: A STIFF LAYER BETWEEN SOFTER LAYERS A stiffer layer trapped between softer layers can be a result of natural soil deposition.m. < previous page page_134 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. This is again in good agreement with the rate of energy transmission and indicates behavior similar to the one in the case of a stiff surface layer. Dispersion curves in figure 12 indicate that the phase velocity of the first mode approaches the Rayleigh wave velocity of the surface layer as frequency increases. Therefore the results presented include only a case in which a stiff layer is underlain by a four times thicker soft layer and a half-space. Figure 12 shows a comparison of the “simulated” dispersion curve and dispersion curves for the plane Rayleigh waves. .

mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_135.5Hz and of the surface layer around 15Hz. .. It is obvious from the first mode plot that below the fundamental frequency of the third layer. Both the modal displacements in figure 13 and the rate of energy transmission for the second mode in figure 14 indicate that the stronger participation of the second mode was initiated by the fundamental frequencies of vertical oscillations of the third layer around 7.page_135 < previous page Page 135 page_135 next page > Figure 10. Normalized rate of energy transmission for the first four Rayleigh modes. the stiff layer does not allow significant transmission of energy to the system below. Theoretical dispersion curves for the first five modes for the plane Rayleigh waves and the “simulated” dispersion curve. Figure 11..m.html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:31:06 a. Slightly pronounced displacements of the fourth file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.

.page_135 < previous page page_135 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20..mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_135..html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:31:06 a.m.

html12/05/2010 06:31:07 a. Figure 13. Surface vertical displacements in the spatial domain at the distance r=2Vs1/f from the source.m.. can be attributed to the excitation of the first mode of vertical oscillations of the surface layer.. Theoretical dispersion curves for the first five modes for the plane Rayleigh waves and the “simulated” dispersion curve. and the fifth mode (not shown). < previous page page_136 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. . Influence of higher Rayleigh modes should be considered through evaluation of the modal displacements. ALTERNATIVE INVERSION PROCESSES From all the above results it is obvious that the inversion process must not be guided solely by the comparison of the experimental dispersion curve and the dispersion curve for the theoretical first Rayleigh mode.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_136.page_136 < previous page Page 136 page_136 next page > Figure 12. the rate of energy transmission or mode shapes.

page_137 < previous page Page 137 page_137 next page > Figure 14. Two procedures at this moment seem to represent the simpliest approaches.. with an equivalent numerically simulated one. 3) The presented results suggest that the inversion process should be based on the direct comparison of the experimental either with the “simulated” or with the “average phase velocity” dipersion curve. The first one is based on the direct comparison of the experimental and the “simulated” dispersion curves. The second approach is based on the comparison of the experimental dispersion curve and the “average phase velocity” dispersion curve. Therefore the inversion of the experimental dispersion curve should not be guided solely by the theoretical first Rayleigh mode. CONCLUSIONS Conclusions from the study on Rayleigh wave dispersion in soil profiles where the shear wave velocity does not generally increase with depth are: 1) Higher Rayleigh modes provide a significant. in which the weighting factors are represented by modal displacements.html12/05/2010 06:31:08 a. in which Rayleigh waves are contaminated by body waves.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_137. . 2) Transition of influence from one Rayleigh mode to another is characterized either by localized approaches or by significant changes in curvature of the corresponding dispersion curves. < previous page page_137 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. and in many cases.. The “average phase velocity” curve represents a weighted average of the phase velocity of several modes. The “simulated” and the “average phase velocity” dispersion curves are compared to the theoretical dispersion curves for the plane Rayleigh waves in figure 15. Normalized rate of energy transmission for the first four Rayleigh modes. a dominant influence on the overall wave propagation pattern along the surface of a system. This approach provides a comparison of the experimental dispersion curve.m.

. Theoretical dispersion curves for the first four modes for plane Rayleigh waves. March 11–15. pp. Gucunski. The University of Texas at Austin.J. (1991). 1136. W. N. K. Dissertation. Hudson. (1982). Center for Transportation Research.S. Generation of Low Frequency Rayleigh Waves for the Spectral-Analysis-of-Surface-Waves Method. In Situ Determination of Elastic Moduli of Soil Deposits and Pavement Systems by SpectralAnalysis-of-Surface-Waves Method.page_138 < previous page Page 138 page_138 next page > Figure 15.. 123 pp. Stokoe. pp. 256–2. 256–4. The University of Texas at Austin. pp.M. Research Report No. S. “Use of Rayleigh Modes in Interpretation of SASW Test. Research Report No. 1070. J. Ann Arbor. N.... Ph.D. The University of Texas at Austin. Roesset. December. Center for Transportation Research.H.” Transportation Research Record.II (1983). G. S. “Analytical Evaluation of Variables Affecting Surface Wave Testing of Pavements. 277 pp.II and Rix. (1987). Department of Civil Engineering. St. Dissertation. R. (1984).html12/05/2010 06:31:08 a.. S. and Woods. K.II. Nazarian. < previous page page_138 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Shao.II (1986). 86–95.. Stokoe. Ph. K. and Stokoe.H. REFERENCES Gucunski. Sanchez-Salinero. No.H.. A.H. Nazarian.m. and Stokoe. Evaluation of Moduli and Thicknesses of Pavement Systems by SpectralAnalysis-of-Surface-Waves Method. No. Louis. 1399–1408. II. I. Determination of In Situ Shear Wave Velocities from Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves. December.-Y. K. J. the “simulated” and the “average phase velocity” curve.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_138. K. Missouri.D. (1991). and Meyer.D. “Use of Surface Waves in Pavement Evaluation. 132–144. Nazarian. Heisey. Civil Engineering Department. Vol.” Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering in Soil Dynamics. The University of Michigan.R.H.” Transportation Research Record.

. In view of the surface/subsurface irregularities like a canyon or an alluvial valley.Takemiya.The time domain boundary element method is applied with use of elementwise analytical double integrals over space and time domains. INTRODUCTION Observations of past earthquake damages are very indicative of the seismic wave amplification by alluvium from the rock-like base level. the boundary element method (BEM). The amplification/reduction due to such topographies in comparison with the far field without it has been investigated with respect to type of the incident wave.. C. The vertical shear wave propagation (1-D theory). et al. The investigation on the in-plane motion was then followed by many researchers. Okayama University. the time history response of canyon/ alluvium surface are computed and interpreted from the engineering viewpoint. angle of the incidence.. This response characteristic gives a meaningful interpretation of the topographical effect on seismic waves. depending the complexities of the topography (e. the so-called Aki-Larner method which assumes the discrete wave number expansion.Fujiwara Department of Civil Engineering. Extensive reviews of the topic are seen in the works by Sanchez-Sesma.page_139 < previous page page_139 next page > Page 139 Transient Response of Certain Topographical Sites for SH-Wave Incidence H. This paper is concerned with the analysis of the wave propagation and scattering through a certainly topographical-shaped alluvium. A.Wang. Takemiya [1]). Frequency domain analysis was first started on the antiplane motion for its simplicity. < previous page page_139 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. and the hybrid method of the FEM and the BEM.html12/05/2010 06:31:09 a. The methodologies for these studies are a series of expansion by wave functions. The steady state harmonic analyses for certain topographical site condition have extensively been conducted.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_139. Mossessian and Dravinski[3].g. For the SH wave incidence. has been dominantly employed for evaluating such surface soil amplification. the 2D modeling should be made at least to interpret the scattered wave field. [2]. . and nondimensional frequency such defined as the ratio between the width of the site and the incident wave length. the finite element method (FEM). Okayama.m.Y. Japan ABSTRACT In view of the past seismic damages the soil amplification with modified predominant period is pointed out as a crucial factor.

The Fourier synthesis method was the straightforward approach to get it from the above steady state solution through the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm as Mossessian and Dravinski [6] showed. See Fig. Discretization both in space and time for the boundary integral equation needs the elementwise double singular integrals over these domains. the finite difference technique was taken by Ohtsuki [4]. The direct time domain BEM analysis is a promising approach for transient response problems. The author succeeded in getting such an explicit solution (Wang and Takemiya [7]). Reviewing past works concerned. interested is the soil amplification for sinusoidal incident wave function to compute until the would-be steady state response is attained.m. FORMULATION Superposition of wave fields The soil domain which includes a certain topographical alluvium is substructured into the surface soil deposits and the surrounding far field.html12/05/2010 06:31:09 a. 1 Wave field for an alluvium desposit < previous page page_140 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 1.. reflecting the incident waves at the interface with the far field. The presence of the subsurface of soil deposits.page_140 < previous page page_140 next page > Page 140 Another important aspect is the response time history or the transient response. The input seismic motion is prescribed as an incident wave to be defined at the far field (denoted by superscript F). Herein.. generates scattered waves (denoted by the superscript S) in the far field. The point of interest is placed on the wave scattering to be characterized by the phase by taking the Ricker wavelet as an incident wave function. Also.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_140. However. Fig. the discrete wave number boundary element method was developed by Kawase [5]. . The time stepping algorithm facilitates the transient response computation for a prescribed incident wave. The near field is composed of the transmitted waves and the reflected waves from the free surface. which gives the phase characteristic for wave propagation and scattering due to the presence of the surface/subsurface soil irregularities. care should be taken for the phase variation since the FFT presumes a certain periodic duration. the out-of-plane motion of a canyon/alluvium on a uniform elastic halfplane base is analyzed for the SH wave incidence.

∫( ) is interpreted by the Cauchy’s principal value and c(x)u(x) is the so-called free term. uI(αI)=[2(πλcαI)2−1] exp{−(πλcαI)2} for Ricker wavelet (2.html12/05/2010 06:31:10 a. elastic solid. The argument αI indicates the phase to be specified at location (x0.2) with dimensionless frequency η=2a/λ (2a=width of the soil deposit.t)=a f(αI) H(αI) (1) in which f(αI) denotes a certain function to describe the wave form. The displacement is prescribed by uI(x.. Spatial and Temporal Discretization The boundary is discretized into the E linear segments within each the (M+1) < previous page page_141 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. n(y) is the outward normal of the boundary S(y) for the concerned domain. Then. homogeneous. The integral p. H() stands for the Heaviside step function and a is a constant. the fundamental solution. (6) in which u and t are the displacement and traction of the concerned body.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_141. For a 2dimensional full space of an isotopic. the symbol (*) denotes the convolution integral operator with respect to time. . z0) at time to as αI=Vs(t−t0)−sinθ(x−x0)+cosθ(z−z0) (3) The reflected wave at the free surface keeps the wave form but changes the phase αR=Vs(t−t0)−sinθ(x−x0)−cosθ(z+z0) (4) The total free field response is then UF=uI+UR (5) Boundary Integral Equation for Wave Scattering The scattered wave propagation of the far field is computed by the BEM.m. The boundary integral equation representation in time domain for elastic waves scattering is formulated from the reciprocal theorem. Herein. r=|x-y|.. the Ricker wavelet of representative wave length λc=VsT in which Vs denotes the shear velocity and T is the representative period is used.1) uI(αI)=1−cos(2πηαI) for sinusoidal wave (2. (8) in which τ=Vst. u* and t* are the Green functions (or the fundamental solutions) for displacement and traction at field location y at time t due to a unit impulse force at location x at initial time equal to zero.z.v.page_141 < previous page page_141 next page > Page 141 Free field motion The SH wave incidence is considered. λ=wave length). is given by (7). when the out-of-plane motion is concerned.

The analytical solution has < previous page page_142 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Eq. K refers the current time). (15) with δk=1 for k=0 and δk=0 otherwise.(11) into Eq. in which ξ is the local coordinate within the element...(6) yields (9) (10) or in a matrix form CU(t)=G(t)*T(t)−H(t)*U(t) (10)′ The time axis is divided into a sequence of equal increment "t so that the time tk= k"t (k=1. The time variation of response is also approximated by use of the interpolation function φNu for displacement and φNt for traction as (11) Substitution of Eq. Substituting this into Eq.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_142. The displacement and traction in the e-elment can be expressed approximately in terms of the nodal values with the aid of the assumed interpolation function. In the above formulation the crucial part lies in the execution of the elementwise double integral operation as defined by (16) which is singular about t* when xl is at the e-element.(13) is solved stepwise for the unknown quantities based on the known quantities at previous times.. . K..m. which spans "t only.(10) results in (12) Time Stepping algorithm Under the assumption of an identical interpolation function for every step.page_142 < previous page page_142 next page > Page 142 nodes exist. . Eq..(12) is rewritten as (13) in which (14).html12/05/2010 06:31:11 a.

(21) The continuity condition is claimed to make an original total couped domains such that (22). the substructure procedure is effectively used. Substructure formulation For the wave field analysis for an alluvium on a uniform halfspace. the separated alluvium deposits are characterized by the discretized form of the boundary equations. (23) Fig.. (20). . the governing equations for the respective domain are expressed with the interface variables as unknown quantities. 2.page_143 < previous page page_143 next page > Page 143 been obtained for a combination of representative space and time interpolation functions by use of the Cagniard-de Hoop method (Wang and Takemiya.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_143. The simplest case is for the 0-th order element or the constant element whichleads (17) For other elements the reader refer to the above publication. 1991). 2 Substructure formulation < previous page page_143 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.html12/05/2010 06:31:12 a. Referring to the illustration in Fig. so that it is governed by (19) Condensing out other variables than those related to their interface. (18) The exterior halfspace should be treated only for the scattering wave.m.. not including waves as the free field.

(35) < previous page page_144 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.m. 3 Wave field in two-layered halfspace (24) in which (25).html12/05/2010 06:31:13 a. (26) (27).page_144 < previous page page_144 next page > Page 144 VALIDATION FOR TWO-LAYERED HALFSPACE A two-layered halfspace is treated analytically for the purpose to give a validation to the present BEM numerical solution. The displacement in the top layer (denoted by 1)/ halfspace base (denoted by 2) is expressed as the sum of up-going wave and down-going wave . The closed form solution can be obtained by considering the multiple wave reflections both at the free surface and the bottom of the top layer together with the transmission across it upward and downward. Fig. (28) with the Tij giving the transmission coefficient from the j-th layer into the i-th layer and Rij the reflection coefficients into the i-th layer due to the presence of the j-th layer. See Fig. 3. (34). Thus. (32) and those for waves in the base halfspace by (33). . (30) The phases indicated by the superfix U for the up-going and by D for the down-going waves in the top layer are specified by (31)..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_144.. which are defined respectively as (29).

page_145 < previous page Page 145 page_145 next page > Fig. .ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_145.html12/05/2010 06:31:13 a. SH Ricker wavelet incidence. λc=1 < previous page page_145 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.m.. 4 Transient response for two-layered halfspace..

We note that the first wave arrival time is determined by the distance from the incident wave front to the free surface. Transient responses: In Figs. the more complex waves are generated within it. The outside going waves are no more significant as for the canyon..page_146 < previous page page_146 next page > Page 146 Fig. The outside-going waves lasts for longer distance while the inside-going waves diminish and vanish after they meet from both sides. . As an input wave to the far field. the inside-going waves turn out to be the outgoing waves after they meet.html12/05/2010 06:31:14 a. The triangle section (not shown here) gives rise to the most remarkable such late arrival waves. The difference by the canyon configuration is appreciable. Due to the successive wave reflections at both the free surface and the bottom of the alluvium layer. a Ricker wavelet is used to investigate the wave propagation at transient state and a sinusoidal one is to know the amplification at steady state. do no show such sharp overlapping of waves. 4 shows the comparison of the above solution for the Ricker wavelet incidence with the BEM numerical one for a flat rectangular soil deposit configuration. The difference of alluvium configuration leads to significantly different response features.. and the longer wave duration results. The cross sections considered are a triangle. followed by the nearby surface outside the canyon. The outside-going waves are observed appreciably. We note that an excellent agreement was attained for the surface location far from the boundary while some difference is observed near the boundary due to the wave diffraction. The trapezoidal section tends to confine such a wave diffraction at the nearby of the edges so that the late arrivals diminish at the middle part as the canyon width becomes wide. The late arrivals appear. and propagate outward and inward the canyon.m. resulting in a comparable peak response after a certain time elapse from the first Ricker wave arrival. Figs. The angle of incidence is varied for both cases. 6 give the scattering wave field for alluviums for the numerical models attached. The size of elements is determined by analyzing first a uniform halfplane.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_146. The biggest peak appears at the canyon edge. which is characterized by the up-going and down-going waves assorted by the surface traveling waves. The trapezoidal section yield a very remarkable response. on the other hand. and the smallest peaks inside of it. However. We observe that the response features are quite different from those for canyons. so that relatively smaller peaks appear at a certain time after the first Ricker wavelet arrival. 5. Significantly amplified peak responses are attained at the alluvium center. a half-circule and a trapezoid. like originating from the edges of the canyon. The effect of angle of incidence results in amplified peaks of late arrival waves at the front surface and the reduced peaks at the rear surface of the canyon. are shown the scattering waves due to the wave reflection and refraction at the half-circle canyon surface. The triangle and the half-circular sections. NUMERICAL COMPUTATION AND DISCUSSION Numerical computation was conducted on different site topographies. canyons and alluvium deposits. < previous page page_146 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The models for the numerical computations are illustrated in the same figures. Almost no outside-going waves directly from the edge of the alluvium exist.

html12/05/2010 06:31:15 a.2 Transient response for a trapezoidal canyon. Vertical incidence of SH Ricker wavelet. Vertical incidence of SH Ricker wavelet λc=1 Fig.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_147... λc=1 < previous page page_147 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.page_147 < previous page Page 147 page_147 next page > Fig. . 5.1 Transient response for a half-circle canyon.m. 5.

6.html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:31:16 a.page_148 < previous page Page 148 page_148 next page > Fig.1 Transient response for a half-circle alluvium.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_148. .2 Transient response for a trapezoidal alluvium Vertical incidence of SH Ricker wavelet. Vertical incidence of SH Ricker wavelet. λc=1 file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20... 6.m. λc=1 Fig.

.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_148..page_148 < previous page page_148 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.m. .html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:31:16 a.

. after several cycle for a sinusoidal SH wave incidence. < previous page page_149 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_149.. .1 Maximaum response amplitude of a half-circle canyon.m.page_149 < previous page Page 149 page_149 next page > Fig.html12/05/2010 06:31:17 a.2 Maximaum response amplitude of a half-circle alluvium. Fig. 7. 7. after several cycle for a sinusoidal SH wave incidence.

. For the third case. H. & Struc. (to appear) 8) Trafunac. 5) Kawase.. Steady state responses: The steady-state harmonic response is of interest to understand the amplification of seismic waves by the site topography. this is imporved by taking a longer distance for free field nodes. 7) Wang. 1983. M. H. Part 2: Transient response. and Dravinski. Bull. 1. Scattering of plane SH waves by a semi-cylindrical canyon. al. The amplification at the steady state response gives a good agreement with the available frequency domain solution. Eng. That of the trapezoidal is modest..4. The comparison between these results indicates an excellent agreement for deep angle of incidence while some small discrepance appears at the rear free surface for shallow angle of incidence. 4) Ohtsuki. Struc. The 2-dimesional frequency domain studies have extensively been made [1]. CONCLUSION The transient time domain analysis in constrast to the frequency domain analysis made clear the response features of the topographical site condition like canyon or alluvium on a halfspace with respect to the phase for wave propagation besides the amplification. Conf. Am. 2) Mossessian. Methd. M.D. F. Vol. For canyons. Soc. 1985. K. and Soil Dyn. Bull. Seis. Louis. 2nd Int. USA.. Am.m.. Seis. St. 1973. and Suda.. and Rayleigh waves calculated by discrete wavenumber boundary element method. A. Eng.Y. and Takemiya. 1755–1770. 1990. . M. 267– 281.Through the numerical results with use of a Ricker wavelet for representative sectional configuration.. from which we note the significance of the site topography on the seismic amplification with respect to the incident wave type. 78. & Struc. Am. Ono. 6) Mossessian. Earthq. Am. Surface motion of topographical irregularities for incident P. Time domain response of a semi-circular canyon for incident SV. SV... Bull. Seis. Eng. 75. most remarkably for triangle section. 61. Bull. Vol.. T. Soc.K.. BEM-FEM hybrid analysis for topographical site response characteristics.. Dyn. 441–462. on Recent Advances in Geot. 1991. J. Earthq. M. Soc.11. 19. Surface Motion of a semi-cylindrical alluvial valley for incident plane SH waves. 1987. 77. et. 1784–1803. Seis. Analytical elements of time domain BEM for Two-dimensional scalar wave problems. 681–691. Earthq.. the longer duration of waves is observed for trapezoidal section than others and comparable peak value is noted for the late arrival waves. 7. M. 9) Trafunac. and Rayleigh waves. Dyn.. C. Dyn.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_150. K. Eng. the would-be steady state responses after several cycles are compared with the previous results [8. Application of a hybrid method for scattering of P. Numr. and modestly for the trapezoidal section.K. the following findings are pointed out. 3) Sanchez-Sesma.. For alluviums. 263–269.html12/05/2010 06:31:17 a.. Amplification of elastic waves by a three dimensional valley. Earthq. REFERENCES 1) Takemiya.. 1971. SV and Rayleigh waves by near-surface irregularities. Proc. Int. 1988.J. Soc. 9] to check the transient period and the associated accuracy. 1415–1432.page_150 < previous page page_150 next page > Page 150 The biggest amplification of the first Ricker wavelet arrival is noted for the triangle section and followed by the halfcircular section. and Harumi.P. Effect of topography and subsurface inhomogeneities on seismic SV waves. H...D. Eng.. and Dravinski.6. the comparison of the results with those for the horizontally layered situation makes clear the zone where the diffraction waves exist from the alluvium edge. angle of incidence and the dimensionless frequency 11=2a//λ. In Figs. However. the scattering waves going outside are seen from the edge of it. T. < previous page page_150 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing..

Different situations are consid- < previous page page_151 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The magnitude of the vibrations does not only depend on the dynamic forces and on the kind of excitation. analyzing the propagation of vibrations in a half-space with a stiff top layer. The reason for this behaviour might be radiation of energy from the top layer into the half-space. becomes increasingly an environmental problem. Also. Germany ABSTRACT The propagation of surface waves in a half-space with a stiff top layer is investigated by FE-analyses as a plane.. Very often. there are cases where a stiff layer is situated at the surface. 8500 Nürnberg. are dealing with such conditions.. but the dynamic properties of the subsoil do also play an essential role. The investigations reported in the present paper. such vibrations can impair the proper function of sensitive installations in the neighbourhood.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_151.page_151 < previous page page_151 next page > Page 151 Surface Wave Propagation in Stiff Top Layer Half-Space W. INTRODUCTION The propagation of vibrations in the ground generated by a dynamically loaded foundation.html12/05/2010 06:31:17 a. This condition is typically encountered in frozen soil over long periods of the year near the arctic regions of the earth. that the top layers are causing only a relatively small increase of the wave velocity. The results show. the soil is more or less stratified. for instance a machine foundation. Landesgewerbeanstalt Bayern. The attenuation of the vibration amplitudes with distance at the surface is much greater than it can be due to material damping only. steadystate problem.m. .Haupt Grundbauinstitut. and usually the wave velocity increases with depth. However.

However.. 8]. at the surface to near to the lower < previous page page_152 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Nevertheless. 1).fer half-space. a layer with smaller wave-velocity is located above a stif. PERFORMANCE OF INVESTIGATIONS Description of calculations The investigations were performed by means of FE-analyses for plane strain conditions. these investigations are treating systems where a soft layer.html12/05/2010 06:31:18 a.g. Investigations were performed by Vinson [6] and others [7. Among the experimental investigations. This is a common situation.m. In general. it can be concluded that the wave velocity increases with an increasing degree of freezing and with decreasing temperature. this observation indicates the influence of the viscous behaviour of ice. Rao measured the wave propagation characteristic of an air-field pavement.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_152. The dynamic stiffness of frozen soil is also influenced by the frequency of the cyclic loading. for example [1–4]. The dimensions are 48 m ×6 m which corresponds to about 8λr×2λr.page_152 < previous page page_152 next page > Page 152 ered. The soil was assumed to be a linearly visco-elastic material. the upper boundary of which represents the free surface of the half-space. a Voigt-Kelvin-body. that the stratification of the subsurface soil is of extreme importance to the wave propagation. The results indicate a distinct increase of the wave velocity with increasing ratio of d/λR (d=thickness of layer. However.. e. at Rao’s measurements the values of this ratio were not in the range that is analysed in the present study. λR =R-wave length).g. and the homogeneous half-space is included in the study for comparison. Analytical and numerical solutions for the propagation of waves at the surface of a layered half-space can be found in various publications. the one reported by Rao [5] is of special interest. λr being the Rayleigh-wave length of the half-space material. from all these publications it can be concluded. . a system with a stiff top layer above a relatively soft subsoil. The dynamic properties of frozen soil depend to a great extent on the soil type and on the degree of saturation. 1. The system containing 5680 triangular elements is shown in fig. e. The considered cross section is a rectangular vertical plane. The element density decreases from boundary (fig.

5m acts as the wave source. Since the excitation is steady-state. the problem was solved by the so-called InfluenceMatrix boundary condition (IM-BC) which consists essentially of a virtual lateral extension of the FE-field by about 6 Rayleigh-wave lengths. .page_153 < previous page Page 153 page_153 next page > Figure 1.html12/05/2010 06:31:18 a.8m/0. this condition can not be applied. because the longitudinal and the transverse displacements due to Rayleigh-waves are coupled. To simulate the infinite half-space at depth and at the sides of the considered FE-mesh.6m with the center at x=1.. the analytically calculated Rayleighwave boundary condition can now be used without the initiation of any reflections. The properties of the virtual area with respect to the propagation of waves are represented by the influence-matrix.. which < previous page page_153 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. that the theoretical far-field Rayleigh-wave can be developed. the R-wave boundary condition will initiate reflections if this boundary is not located far enough away from the wave source.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_153. For the vertical boundaries at the sides however. the calculation is performed for quasi-static conditions with complex unknowns. appropriate boundary conditions have to be applied. FE-mesh with boundary conditions and levels. On the other hand.m. At the left upper corner of the FE-mesh a concrete strip foundation of width/depth=1. It is excited to steady-state harmonical vibrations in vertical direction by a force P=Po eiωt (1) with the amplitude po=333 kN/m2. At the outer vertical boundary of this virtual area. At the lower horizontal boundary this is best accomplished by the well-known “dash-pot” boundary condition by Lysmer/Waas [9]. For the calculations presented here.

m..0 1 .0 2. to take into account variations in the degree of freezing and temperature.25 0.0048 0. < previous page page_154 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.5 1.page_154 < previous page page_154 next page > Page 154 can easily be calculated by standard FE-procedure.0 2.33 density ρ R-wave velocity CR R-wave length λR Damping D t/m3 m/s m % 1 . is calculated from: (2) with f=frequency and cs=shear-wave velocity.937 240 6.937 600 15. 0m in a homogeneous half-space of soil type A. The material properties and the resulting dynamic quantities are listed in table 1.548 1800 45. which is given in the table 1.0 2..937 1200 30. easy handling and considerable advantages with respect to calculation performance of this boundary condition are described in detail by Haupt [10.5 2. For the frozen soil types B and C two different shear moduli were selected. . If the IM-BC now is applied to the lateral boundaries of the original FE-grid it perfectly simulates the surrounding half-space.html12/05/2010 06:31:19 a.25 0. The good results.5 1.0241 0. 11]. The frequency of the exciting force being f= 40Hz yields a Rayleigh-wave length of λr=240/40= 6.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_154.0 0. Material properties Three different types of soil are considered.0096 The coefficient of attenuation for the shear-wave αs. Table 1: Material properties quality dimension soil type concrete A B C unfrozen frozen frozen Gdyn MN/m2 132 3300 825 9500 Poisson ratio – 0.25 0. The type A material represents the unfrozen soil and is used as reference material.0013 αs 1/m 0.

ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_155.m. the wave number k is not a constant but it depends on x: the phase function < previous page page_155 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Four different depth profiles of the wave velocity are considered. t=time and x=horizontal coordinate..html12/05/2010 06:31:20 a. The profil 0 represents the homogeneous half-space of soil type A and is used as reference system. Velocity profiles in terms of R-wave velocity.. . The last term represents a harmonic vibration. whereas the first two terms are functions of the distance. in this study the degree of damping D was assumed to be the same for all soil types. Figure 2. In the case of a wave generated by a wave source at the surface. This assumption allows to observe the influence of the stiff top layer on the wave propagation without any additional effects of other parameters. For the same reason the density was taken the same in the frozen and unfrozen soil respectively. The profiles with a stiff top layer number I to III are shown in fig. 2. RESULTS Presentation of the results The function of an elastic wave propagating in x-direction in a soil body is generally given by the expression: (3) with ω=2πf.page_155 < previous page page_155 next page > Page 155 Although damping is presumably much smaller in a frozen soil than in a non-frozen soil.

again < previous page page_156 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. the wave velocity. in this diagram the curves k(x) for profile III are presented. the smaller the wave length. 1) No. in profile II the level 2 is situated at the interface between the top layer and the half-space below.. e.0m depth) respectively for the four considered profiles are together presented in fig. Since in reality these two lines almost coincide.2m 3.html12/05/2010 06:31:21 a.0m 0. Figure 3. Amplitude and phase functions at profile III and amplitude at reference profile 0. The slope of the phase function is a scale for the wave length: the steeper the slope.0m Hence.6m 1.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_156. Wave length A typical result of the calculations is shown in fig. In the following presentation and discussion of the results the considerations are focussed on the amplitude function vo(x) and on the phase function k(x) at the surface of the half-space and at horizontal levels at different depths below the surface. These levels are (fig.g. Furthermore.m. 3. 4. 1 2 3 4 depth below the surface 0.page_156 < previous page page_156 next page > Page 156 k(x). The amplitude function vo(x) at levels 1 and 2 for profile III and the corresponding curve at level 1 (surface) for the reference case (homogeneous half-space.. The curves k(x) at the levels 1 (surface) and 4 (3. they are plotted separately for clearness. material A) are plotted. in the profiles I and III this applies for level 3. .

< previous page page_157 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing..6 314.g.2 317.. the wave lengths. the increase is even smaller. Figure 4.2m the increase in surface-wave length at profile I by a factor of 9.86 CR [m/s] 243. The effect of the reduced wave velocity in the top layer at profile III equals about the smaller thickness of this layer at profile II.page_157 < previous page page_157 next page > Page 157 they are plotted separately. Phase functions k(x) at all profiles. The following wave lengths and wave velocities of the surface-wave ar resulting from the average slopes of the curves in fig. If one takes into consideration that in the homogeneous half-space about 36 % of the energy of the Rayleigh-wave is transmitted within a surface layer of thickness of 20 % of the Rayleigh-wave length—which in this case corresponds to 1.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_157.m. at least at some distance from the wave source [12]. e. 4: prof ile 0 I II III λ [m] 6.23/6.html12/05/2010 06:31:21 a.94 7.2 369. It may be seen that the slopes of the curves for each case.08=1. are the same at the surface and within the half-space. It can be shown that this is true also for greater depth. . levels 1 and 4.52 is surprisingly small.4 The slight increase of the Rayleigh-wave velocity for the reference case as compared to the value in table 1 is due to the stiffening of the system by reducing the infinite number of degrees of freedom to a finite one in the FE-calculation.23 7. At the two other profiles.08 9.

Hence. the amplitude at some point x is (4) < previous page page_158 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. but it is due to the damping only. The amplitude functions in the cases of a half-space with stiff top layer do not show these interference pattern or at least they do to a much smaller extent. levels 1 and 2.. In a plane strain system the attenuation of the amplitude of the Rayleigh-wave or surface-wave with distance is not caused by the propagation of the wave away from the source.html12/05/2010 06:31:22 a..m. This phenomenon has been dealt with in detail in [10]. Normalized amplitudes at profiles I to III. if far enough from the wave source. if a reference point xo is defined.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_158.page_158 < previous page Page 158 page_158 next page > Figure 5. . Amplitude functions In fig. 3 it can be observed that the amplitude at the surface of the homogeneous half-space (profile 0) does not decrease monotonously with distance but that it shows some variation due to the interference of the Rayleigh-wave with bodywaves.

However. Since all results of this study were obtained under the same conditions concerning damping. 5 can be plotted. a reduction is found by a factor. < previous page page_159 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_159. This value is considerably smaller than that given in table 1 for the shear-wave. Furthermore. at equal values of D.68 (profile II) and 0. the index r to the reference profile 0. attention is drawn to the attenuation of the normalized surface-wave amplitudes with distance. The ratios vf/vr are 0.. This can be explained by two reasons: – It has been assumed that damping takes place only at shear deformations. the coefficient of attenuation a decreases with increasing wave length.45 (profil I). It follows from this. First of all it is to state that the vibration amplitudes of the foundations at the stiff top layer profiles are considerably reduces as compared to the reference case. The index f refers to the profiles I to III.2 times greater than the one corresponding to the above assessment.html12/05/2010 06:31:22 a.6–3. the attenuation of the amplitudes found from the FE-calculation is about 2. The values of a.. If again an averaging exponential function is plotted through the normalized amplitude curves and the values of this functions at xo=12m and x =48m are considered. Hence. the curves in fig. they can be compared with each other. – The stiffening of the system due to the reduction of the degrees of freedom implies also a reduction of the energy dissipation. 3) from the values of this function at xo=12m and x=48m the coefficient of attenuation of the Rayleigh-wave is found to be a=0. 0. . This reduction is easy to understand by keeping in mind the stiffening of the foundation-subsoil system due to the top layers. that the normalized amplitudes should increase between the two points by the factor given in line 4 of table 2.m.0139.59 (profile III).page_159 < previous page page_159 next page > Page 159 If at profile 0 an averaging exponential function is drawn through the amplitude curve at the surface (fig. which is given in line 1 of table 2. which means that at pure compression no dissipation of energy occurs. calculated by equation (2) and using surface-wave lengths found at the velocity profiles I to III are presented in line 3 of the table. Normalized amplitudes If the curves vo(x) in the cases of profiles I to III are normalized on the corresponding amplitude functions of the reference case 0.

html12/05/2010 06:31:23 a.39 1. is the case as may be seen from fig. It shows the amplitude of the vertical vibration component depending on depth at x=42m and x=48m respectively for profile I. < previous page page_160 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. On the other hand. There are also indications that in the stiff top layer the horizontal vibration component is transferred as a body-wave rather than as a surface-wave [12].2 2.0108 1.0092 0.m. material A) is presented as it is obtained from the FEcalculation.19 1.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_160. the amplitudes in the subsoil then should be increased as compared to theory. For comparison the amplitude in the reference case (profile 0.12 5 Zeile 4/ Zeile 1 3.35 1. By this the amplitude at the surface is more attenuated than it should be expected from pure material damping effects.1 3. It coincides very closely with the analytically calculated function. this amplitude is much greater. 6..page_160 < previous page page_160 Profile II next page > Profile III Page 160 Table 2: Attenuation of surface-wave amplitudes with distance Profile I 1 2 3 4 λf/λr αf 0.0106 0. The different scales of the plots should be noticed. by a factor of about 10.6 This unexpected result may possibly be explained by the following process: Part of the energy transferred by the top layer is continuously emitted downwards into the half-space. This. In reality. However. the damping in the frozen soil will be much smaller than assumed in this study. .. The discussed result is not necessarily in contradiction to the experience that vibrations are transmitted better and to a greater distance in a frozen soil than in an unfrozen soil.13 1.31 0.29 0.44 1 .52 0. in fact.

Amplitude of the vertical component depending on depth.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_161.. However. The findings will help for a better understanding of wave propagation processes in the soil. profiles 0 and I.m..html12/05/2010 06:31:24 a.page_161 < previous page Page 161 page_161 next page > Figure 6. < previous page page_161 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. – the attenuation of the wave amplitudes with distance at the surface. the detected phenomena still demand for more detailed explanations and further investigations will be necessary. . CONCLUSION The investigations described in this report are dealing with: – the influence of a stiff top layer on the propagation velocity of surface-waves.

4. Parameter Effects on Dynamic Properties of Frozen Soil. 12.. Grundlagen und Anwendung.. Albuquerque. R. Sept. 1986. Finn.A. New York. 11.L. R. W. 1957. No.A. 1980. R. H.page_162 < previous page page_162 next page > Page 162 REFERENCES 1.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_162. G. 1990. Rep. J. 7. Heft 43. Kuhlemeyer. ASCE. Proc. Yong. in Soil and Rock Mech.N. Vol. 1978. Haupt.m. Wiesbaden. Elastic Waves in Layered Media. London. T. Toronto. Schmied.B. Verhalten von Oberflächenwellen im inhomogenen Halbraum mit besonderer Berücksich-tigung der Wellenabschirmung. Haupt.. Oct.. EM 4. Haupt. 1978. Proc. Bautechnik 66. des Inst. ASCE. 1978. No.html12/05/2010 06:31:24 a.D. Rücker. No. McGrawHill.. W.. Czajkowski. 9.. Ausbreitung von Wellen im Boden.. 1989. Dyn.L. Proc.S. Haupt.S. ASCE. 1969. 3. 1971. Press.Balkema.. Chow. Proc. Techn. Schwingungsausbreitung im Untergrund. Bodenmech. Rao.M. Meth. Aug. I. Proc. Bauingenieur 65. R. Universität Karls-ruhe. Dynamic Properties of Frozen Silt under Cyclic Loading. No. Ausbreitung von Erschütterungen im inhomogenen Boden. Oct. T. ASCE. Bodendynamik. 2. 10. No. W. Seismic Response of Frozen Ground. Rotterdam. Air Force Weapons Lab. Nondestructive Evaluation of Airfield Pavements (Phase I). Erschütterungsabschirmung in gefrorenem Boden. N. 1985. W. GT 10. 1978. < previous page page_162 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. ViewegVerlag.. AFWLTR-71–75. Vinson. f.L. W. Finite Dynamic Model for Infinite Media.. . GT 9. Lysmer.S..M. (DMSR 77). W. Ewing. W. W. N. Braunschweig. Jardetzky. 6. Series on Earth Science. Veröff. Intern. 8. GT 10. Numerical method for the computation of steady-state harmonic wave fields. F.. A. Le. Heft 74. Chapter 3. Veröffentlichung des Grundbauinstituts der LGA. und Felsmech. Vinson. 5.

this can be achieved using an energy absorbing boundary made from a clay-like material.G. (**) Cambridge University Engineering Department. Science Park. In this paper a relation for achieving complete transmission of the incident stress waves into any number of media connected by the interface is derived. INTRODUCTION The tectonic plate movements during an earthquake induce stress waves in the overlying soil layers. In the physical modelling of a dynamic problem.Steedman (*). often termed as the Smith-Cundall boundary. .K.m. for example using a geotechnical centrifuge.P. involves an interface between three media. This scheme.page_163 < previous page page_163 next page > Page 163 Wave Transmission at a Multimedia Interface R. These stress waves. U.S.Madabhushi (**) (*) Geotechnics and Special Projects Division.html12/05/2010 06:31:24 a. CB4 4 WE. In dynamic centrifuge tests the technique of using an energy absorbing boundary made from a clay-like < previous page page_163 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.. The validity of this relation is demonstrated for interfaces joining three and five elastic media. U. In the numerical modelling using finite element techniques the free field condition of the soil deposit can be simulated by superposition of two solutions carried out in a narrow boundary region with ‘Neumann’ and ‘Dirichlet’ boundary conditions.. Cambridge. ABSTRACT In the physical or numerical modelling of a dynamic soil structure interaction problem the semi-infinite extent of the soil medium must be simulated. Stress waves impinging on such an interface are partially reflected back into the main mesh and are partially transmitted into the connecting boundary regions. Cambridge. BEQE. Trumpington Street.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_163.K. CB2 1PZ. usually in the form of compression waves (P waves) and shear waves (S waves) are propagated through the soil medium in all directions. In analysing soil-structure systems subjected to earthquake vibrations it is important to simulate the semi-infinite extent of the soil medium. S.

1983) and has now been widely adopted.. Figure 1 Two independent overlapping boundary zones connected to main mesh (after Wolf. This technique. In this paper a relation between the properties of the main medium and the boundary media is derived for complete transmission of stress waves to occur. In numerical analyses using the finite element method non reflecting boundaries need to be used to simulate the semiinfinite extent of the soil. often termed as the Smith-Cundall boundary involves an interface between three media as shown in Figure 1. FORMULATION The mathematical formulation is first established for an interface between two elastic media and then it is extended for an interface connecting more than two media.page_164 < previous page page_164 next page > Page 164 commercial sealant (Duxseal) to simulate the free field conditions has been developed at the Princeton University (Coe et al. Cundall et al (1981) have suggested that multiple analyses and superposition can be carried out in two narrow boundary regions attached to a main mesh. . < previous page page_164 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.html12/05/2010 06:31:25 a.m. The performance of duxseal as an absorbing boundary was evaluated recently by Steedman and Madabhushi (1991). the reflected portion may interfere with the oncoming stress waves in the main mesh resulting in erroneous solutions.. Continuity of stress conditions and displacement conditions along the interface must be assumed.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_164. This can be avoided if the incident waves are completely transmitted into the two boundary regions. Smith (1973) proposed the superposition of two solutions for the same boundary value problem with ‘Neumann’ and ‘Dirichlet’ boundary conditions. However. 1988) Stress waves impinging on such an interface will be partially reflected back into the main mesh and are partially transmitted into the boundary regions.

m. Let the displacement amplitude of the incident wave be unity and those of the reflected and the transmitted waves be ‘A’ and ‘B’ respectively. Let the incident wave be a harmonic which can be represented as (1) u(t)=exp (−i ω t) where u(t) is the displacement at any time t and ω is real.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_165. The displacement amplitude of the reflected wave in the region y<0 is given as (2) and the displacement amplitude of refracted wave in the region y>0 is given by Figure 2 Reflection and Refraction of Sh wave incident on an interface (3) where < previous page page_165 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 2. ..page_165 < previous page page_165 next page > Page 165 Incident Sh wave Consider an incident Sh wave impinging on an interface between two media as shown in Fig..html12/05/2010 06:31:25 a. Let the velocity of this wave be VSa and VSb in the two media.

page_166 < previous page Page 166 mx=sin(θs) page_166 (4) next page > (5) (6) (7) Continuity of displacement and stress at the interface leads to the following equations for A and B 1+A=B (8) (9) where µa and µb are the elastic moduli of rigidity of the two media. more than two media are connected by the interface then equation 12 for ψ has to be modified. For an interface connecting medium a with media l.html12/05/2010 06:31:26 a. n the equation for ψ can be written as (12) (13) < previous page page_166 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 2...….ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_166. . the solution of these two equations gives (10) (11) where and ρa and ρb are the densities of the two media. Following Hudson (1980).m. If however.

15 can be obtained by cross multiplying the terms in Eq. 13. 13 reduces to (14) In order to achieve the complete transmisson of a wave at the interface.m. the value of ψ should be unity. a condition for the complete wave transmisson can be written as ρaVs=ρ1VS1+ρ2VS2+…ρnVsn (15) This implies that the impedence of medium a must be equal to the sum of the impedences of the media connected by the interface for complete transmisson of the wave to occur. For a normal incidence of the SH wave Eq.page_167 < previous page page_167 next page > Page 167 The amplitudes of the reflected and the refracted waves can be computed using equations 10 and 11. Figure 3 Reflection and Refraction of Sv wave incident on an interface < previous page page_167 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Equation 14 in this case can be modified to take into account the additional P-wave components...ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_167. 3. This will reduce the reflected wave amplitude to zero. For any general angle of incidence.html12/05/2010 06:31:27 a. Thus. Incident Sv wave If the incident wave is an Sv wave then the reflected wave and refracted wave will have P wave components in addition to the Sv wave components as shown in Fig. an equation similar to Eq. .

. VP2. < previous page page_168 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. for a normally incident Sν wave. The analyses were carried out using a finite element program called ‘SWANDYNE’.html12/05/2010 06:31:28 a.m..Vpn are the P wave velocities in media 1.2.. Eq.page_168 < previous page Page 168 page_168 next page > (16) where (17) (18) However. Chan (1988). which is a general purpose program for static and dynamic problems in Geomechanics.n respectively.. 4.….ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_168.. INTERFACE CONNECTING THREE ELASTIC MEDIA The transmission of a shear wave at an interface connecting a main mesh to two or more boundary zones has been studied. The condition for the complete wave transmission of a wave into the media connected by the interface can be written in this case as ρa(VPa+VSa)=ρ1(VP1+VS1)+ρ2(VP2+VS2)+…. The finite element discretisation of the case of three media connected at an interface (as in the Smith-Cundall boundary) is shown in Fig. . 15 is here checked initially for the problem of an interface connecting three elastic media and then for a interface connecting five media..ρn(VPn+VSn) (20) The validity of Eq. 16 reduces to (19) where VPa is P-wave velocity in medium a and VP1.

0 1.0 1.8 7024.8 6593.6 +I1 is not equal to I2 < previous page page_169 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.5 1...0 Modulus 0.0E8 1.5E8 0.5 0.5E8 0.0E8 2.8 6593.5 0.5E8 0.5E8 0.8 6593.0E8 1.page_169 < previous page Page 169 page_169 next page > Figure 4 Schematic representation of the finite element discretisation Table 1 Material properties of zones A.8 7022.334E8 0.0 Modulus 0.8 6593.0E8 Zone B Density 0.301 0.27E8 1.0 Modulus 1.25 0.5E8 0.5E8 6593.75 0.709E8 0.0 0. B and C CASE 1 2 3 4 5 6+ Zone A Density 1.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_169. .8 6593.5E8 0.5 0.9 13187.8 6593.835 0.7E8 0.4 2.html12/05/2010 06:31:28 a.4 2.0 1.5 0.m.709E8 0.0E8 1.8 6593.5E8 Zone C Density 0.8 6593.

. A single pulse S wave excitation is given at node 8 and its propagation is monitored at various nodes in the main mesh as well as the boundary zones as shown in Fig. Figure 5 S wave propagation in the horizontal sand layer file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20. 4.page_170 < previous page page_170 next page > Page 170 Standard four noded quadrilateral elements were used..m. .html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:31:29 a. In the analyses shown here a general isotropic elastic constitutive law was used. The end conditions of the boundary zones B and C are maintained as ‘fixed’ and ‘free’ respectively.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_170.

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.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_171. in case 6. In this paper six different analyses were carried out varying material properties as shown in Table 1. The length of the sand bed from the point of excitation to the interface was 75.. For cases 1 to 5 the impedence of the main mesh is equal to the sum of the impedences of the boundary zones. 4.m. .html12/05/2010 06:31:30 a. Figure 5 presents the results of the analysis using the first set of material properties (case 1). a mismatch of the impedence of the main mesh and the boundary zones was considered. Finally.page_171 < previous page page_171 next page > Page 171 Material properties Equation 15 was then investigated by modifying the impedences of the three zones shown in Fig. The shear wave velocity Figure 6 Displacement time history at node 92 (case 1 to case 5 parameters) < previous page page_171 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 4. Results of the analyses The propagation of the Sh wave through the horizontal sand bed (Zone A) is monitored by observing the displacementtime histories at the nodes shown in Fig.0 metres.

8 and 9.1 milliseconds. In all the cases there is an impedence match between the main mesh and the boundary zones and as a result complete stress wave transmission at the interface was achieved. Further more. 11 and 14 it is possible to predict the ratio of the amplitude of the reflected Sh wave from the interface to that of the incident wave and to compare it with the observations of the < previous page page_172 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 5 it can be seen that no portion of the incident wave was reflected back from the interface.0m) may be estimated as 2. The arrival time of the Sh wave at nodes 8. 92 and 152 (each seperated by 15. 62. 7 Figure 7 Reflection from the interface results of the analysis without an impedence match (case 6) are show.0ms). 4. From Fig. 6 the displacement time histories at node 8 for each of cases 2 to 5 in Table 1 are presented. any reflection from the interface should show up on the time history as a second pulse as the reflected wave arrived back at the node. 6.page_172 < previous page page_172 next page > Page 172 is computed as 6593. 5 it can be seen that the arrival time at these nodes is indeed close to these values. In Fig.html12/05/2010 06:31:30 a.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_172.. this should have occured at node 8 around 20 ms. using equations 10.5. However.m. . In Fig.. arriving at node 8 after 20. a portion of the incident wave is reflected back from the interface (for example.3. For example. Clearly.8m/s for the three zones from the material properties. From Fig.

For the parameters of case 6 this ratio was computed as 33. The density and modulus of rigidity of the main mesh Figure 8 Schematic diagram of an interface joining five media Figure 9 S wave transmission at an interface joining five media < previous page page_173 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. . 8.3 %. From Fig...m. the same ratio at any node as INTERFACE CONNECTING FIVE ELASTIC MEDIA An interface connecting four boundary zones to the main mesh is considered next. The finite element discretisation of such a configuration is shown in Fig.html12/05/2010 06:31:31 a.page_173 < previous page page_173 next page > Page 173 numerical model.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_173.6 it is possible to estimate which is close to the computed value.

1991. P. S. Proc.0 and 1. Vol. Smith. University of Glasgow. 2. 1988.25 and 0. REFERENCES 1.. and for the case of an interface connecting five elastic media.. J. Cundall.P. Int.. Chan A... P. . The validity of this relation was demonstrated using a general finite element code for Sh wave transmission at an interface joining three elastic media as in the case of the Smith-Cundall boundary. Institute for Numerical Methods in Engineering.. The S wave was completely transmitted into the four boundary zones and no reflection from the interface was observed at node 92. University College of Swansea. Div.. J. and Structural Dynamics. and Madabhushi. Jnl.. 2nd Int.0E8.. W.C. 4. 8. < previous page page_174 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Earthquake Eng. Dynamic stress waves/attenuation: Earthquake simulation in Centrifuge soil models. on Seismic Zonation.L. 3. For each of the boundary zones these values were 0. R. Stanford University.A.R. J. 1985. on Applied Numerical Modelling.. Madrid.H. and Lysmer. Prevost. Vol.page_174 < previous page page_174 next page > Page 174 are chosen as 1.. CONCLUSIONS A relation for complete stress wave transmission at an interface joining one medium to any number of boundary zones has been derived for any combination of P and S waves at any incident angle..m. Solution of infinite dynamic problems by finite modelling in the time domain. Vol. 13. In the specific case of normal incidence this result can be interpreted as requiring an impedence match between the main mesh and the sum of impedences of the boundary zones. Prentice Hall Inc. Kuhlemeyer. Wave propagation in sand medium.. Marti. R.H. 413 and 584 are shown in Fig. Carpenter.S. ASCE Jnl.J. J. and Scanlan.1973. 6.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_174.. The excitation and propagation of elastic waves. Wolf. 1969. R..25E8 respectively so that the impedence of the main mesh is equal to the sum of the impedences of the four boundary zones.G. Conf. 1980 5. R.P. EM4. 9. Department of Civil Engineering. 15... Coe. Conf. Standford. User Manual for DIANA SWANDYNE-II. C. J.C. Steedman. Kunar.. Mech. of Engg. Hudson. Finite dynamic model for infinite media. A non reflecting plane boundary for wave propagation problems. of Computational Physics. also. Cambridge University Press. 7. 1978. Soil-Structure interaction analysis in time domain.html12/05/2010 06:31:31 a.A. The displacement-time history at node 92.H. 1989.D.

ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_175. .page_175 < previous page Page 175 SECTION 4: DYNAMIC SOIL PROPERTIES page_175 next page > < previous page page_175 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.m...html12/05/2010 06:31:32 a.

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Page 177 In-Situ Dynamic Property Evaluation of Gravelly Soil T.Kokusho, Y.Tanaka, Y.Yoshida Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Japan ABSTRACT A new evaluation method; in-situ freezing sampling and laboratory testing, has been developed in order to evaluate reliable in-situ dynamic properties of gravelly soil which are of considerable importance to the seismic safety of a nuclear power plant to be located on Pleistocene gravelly soil. The undrained cyclic strength based on this method has given much higher value than that based on conventional sampling or reconsituted samples, thus demonstrating the importance of recovering a sample as intact as possible to adequately evaluate the in-situ strength. These reliable strength data have led to a correlation allowing one to estimate the in-situ undrained cyclic strength from the result of dynamic penetration tests without resorting to the costly sampling method. INTRODUCTION Nuclear power plants which are currently on rock base are expected to situate themselves also on Pleistocene soils in the near future in Japan. In this case, the seismic stability of the foundation ground is of utmost importance despite its relatively high stiffness because very large seismic motions are employed for the design compared to normal civil engineering structures. The Pleistocene layers which are widespread as subsurface layers in plain areas normally consist of stiff gravelly soils. The dynamic properties; the dynamic shear modulus, the hysteretic damping and the undrained cyclic strength, which determine the seismic stability of the soils under a given seismic motion have

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Page 178 scarcely drawn engineers’ attention. In the past decade, lots of research efforts have been made to evaluate in-situ dynamic properties for various kinds of soils, demonstrating the significant effect of sample disturbances introduced during sampling, transporting and laboratory handling procedures on the properties measured in laboratory tests. Kokusho1 pointed out that this effect is more pronounced for stiffer soils like dense sands and may sometimes reduce the undrained cyclic strength evaluated in the lavoratory to one half or one third. In the light of these previous studies, it is essential to develop special procedures for sampling and laboratory testing in order to evaluate as reliably as possible the dynamic properties of the stiff Pleistocene gravelly soils. A new technology; in -situ freezing sampling and laboratory testing, has therefore been developed in this research. This has been applied to several gravelly soils in the field to measure reliable dynamic properties to be used for seismic stability evaluations of foundation soils under strong design earthquake motions. IN-SITU FREEZING SAMPLING TECHNIQUE FOR GRAVELS Gravelly soils often pose a great problem for evaluating reliable soil properties because of the difficulty of obtaining their intact samples. The only probable way for taking an intact sample may be the in-situ freezing technique which has been successfully employed for dense sands. In this technique freezing pipes are first installed into gravelly soil as illustrated in Fig. 1 with as small disturbance effect on the soil as possible. Then, the liquid nitrogen or other coolants is circulated through the double-walled pipes, eventually making saturated ambient soils into a frozen soil column of approximately 180cm in diameter. If the soil is above the ground water table, special steps are needed to saturate the soil for successful freezing. The temperature in the frozen soil to be sampled is kept below about −10ºC at the highest for a successful sampling. A triple tube sampler with an inner tube diameter of either 10cm or 30cm specially developed for gravelly soils is used to core out the frozen soil as shown in Fig 2. The outer tube tip is equipped with a diamond bit and lubricated with cooled mud flow of −10°C in temperature. With the larger sampler, samples of

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Fig. 1 Arrangement of freezing pipes and casing pipes for coring

Fig. 2 A core obtained by In-situ freezing sampling 30cm in diameter and of 150cm in maximum length are cored, which are stored in ice boxes and transported for the laboratory test.

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Page 180 SITE INVESTIGATIONS FOR GRAVELLY SOILS In order to establish a geotechnical data base for the gravelly soils, site investigations have been conducted at four different sites of Pleistocene grounds in Japan. The soil profiles of these sites are available in Fig. 3 along with the data of dynamic penetration tests and the depths where soil samples were recovered by the in-situ freezing technique.

Fig. 3 Soil profiles at four sites

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Page 181 Two kinds of the penetration test were conducted in this investigation; the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and the Large Penetration Test (LPT), the specifications of which are shown in Fig. 4. The latter developed by Kaito2 employs a larger probe diameter and a larger hammer, providing larger driving energy per unit area to overcome the short-comings of the SPT in dense gravelly soils. The number of blow counts N and Nd for the SPT and the LPT respectively are roughly correlated to each other as N=2Nd for gravels and N=1.5Nd for sands (Yoshida et al.)3. The N and Nd values in Fig. 3 obviously indicate that the gravelly layers at the four sites are very stiff and the LPT seems to reflect the soil density more reliably than the SPT which may fluctuate due to the strong locality of gravelly soils.

Fig. 4 Concept of dynamic penetration test Fig. 5 summarizes the typical grain size curves obtained from the cored samples. Since the maximum grain size reaches 50 to 100mm and the fines content finer than 0.074mm in particle size is less than 10% and nearly zero in most soils, it is concluded that, the unfavorable effect due to freezing may be insignificant.

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Fig. 5 Typical grain size distributions of gravelly soils sampled by in-situ freeze sampling at four sites

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Page 183 THE CYCLIC TRIAXIAL TEST The frozen column-shape samples of either 10cm(for Site A only) or 30cm in diameter were cut with a special saw to make the length -to-diameter ratio two or four-thirds(Tanaka et al.)4. Fine sand particles were first attached to the specimen side and then trimmed to leave a thin sand layer at the surface in order to reduce the membrane penetration effect in the undrained cyclic strength (Tanaka et al.)5. The frozen specimen was gradually thawed under a prescribed confining pressure by circulating the pressure-chamber water. Two kinds of cyclic triaxial tests were carried out; firstly, a small to medium strain test to obtain the shear modulus and the material damping and a lso their strain -dependent variations and secondly, a large strain test to obtain the undrained cyclic strength. The former test method initially proposed by Kokusho et al.6 has been extensively used in Japan for soil properties measurements for the strain level as small as 10’5 to substitute the resonant column test especially for large size specimens. SMALL TO MEDIUM STRAIN PROPERTIES OF PLEISTOCENE GLAVELS In Fig. 6 representative results of the shear modulus and the damping ratio for Pleistocene gravels calculated from the hysteresis curves measured in the cyclic triaxial test are shown for the cyclic strain amplitude of the order of 10−6 to 10 −3. Evidently seen is a continuous variation of the properties along the strain amplitude for both small and medium strain levels, indicating this triaxial test can fully substitute the resonant column test which may be difficult to perform for such large specimens. The small strain modulus measured in this test is compared in Fig. 7 with in-situ modulus calculated from the in-situ shear wave velocity test. The laboratory modulus undershoots the in-situ modulus by 50%, despite that all the data are based on the intact specimens obtained by the in-situ freezing sampling. However, it is also noted that the modulus is measured farther smaller for stiff sands and clays based on similar cyclic triaxial tests and resonant column tests for conventionally sampled specimens. Obviously the gap between the field and the laboratory still exists even with the help of the new sampling technique, implying other causes may also be responsible for the gap.

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Fig. 6 G/Go~γ, h~γ relationships of gravelly soils at two sites

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Fig. 7 Comparison of small-strain shear moduli obtained from in-situ shear wave velocity tests and laboratory tests

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Page 185 UNDRAINED CYCLIC STRENGTH Typical results on the undrained cyclic strength measured for gravels sampled from one of the sites are shown in Fig. 8 against the number of loading cycles. The undrained cyclic strength defined here means the stress ratio τ d/σc’, corresponding to the double amplitude strain of 2%, where τd is the cyclic shear stress and the σc’ is the effective confining stress. It is noted that the strengths based on the freezing sampling are much higher than those of soil specimens taken from the same layer with the conventional non-freezing sampling. Fig. 8 also indicates that the strengths of the intact specimens are greater than those of specimens remoulded in the laboratory having the same density as the frozen sample. Thus the importance of the seismic stability evaluation based on the in-situ freezing sampling technique has been fully demonstrated to make a rational seismic design.

Fig. 8 Undrained cyclic strength of gravelly soils at A-site sampled by different methods

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Page 186 However, a high cost associated with the in-situ freezing sampling may allow its application only to representative points, leaving the rest to a more simplified evaluation method of the in-situ strength. In order to meet this purpose, an ernpirical correlation between the undrained cyclic strength (in terms of the stress ratio, τd/σc’, corresponding to the double amplitude strain of 2% or 2.5% in 20 cycles of loading) and the LPT blow counts, Nd,, modified for the confining stress σc’=98kPa has been developed as shown in Fig. 9 based on this research results as well as others including stiff sands and gravels. The LPT blow counts were derived from the SPT blow counts whenever necessary based on the previous research (Yoshida et al.)3. Obviously a unique curve can be drawn as shown in the graph to estimate the undrained cyclic strength from the LPT blow counts, although it may be effective only for the effective confining stress, σc’, not far from 98kPa, for which the data collected here are justified.

Fig. 9 Empirical correlation between undrained cyclic strength and LPT blow counts

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Page 187 To be noted here is that the stress ratio for the Pleistocene stiff soil is not almost constant like loose sands but quite variable depending on the applied confining stress. Fig.10 indicates the stress ratios for the two kinds of tests with two different confining stresses for the same intact sample. It is easy to understand the importance of taking this effect into consideration to evaluate the dynamic soil stability whenever cutting or banking is involved in the design. Therefore, a similar correlation between the LPT blow counts and the undrained cyclic strength which can take account this effect has also been proposed, which is available in another 1iterature (Tanaka et al.)7.

Fig. 10 Effects of confining pressure on undrained cyclic strength of gravelly soils SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS In this research newly developed in-situ freezing sampling and laboratory testing methods have been applied to Pleistocene stiff gravelly soils to be used for their seismic stability evaluations Dynamic properties; the small to medium strain modulus and the damping as well as the undrained cyclic strength have been measured by means of the cyclic triaxial test, demonstrating an effectiveness of the new sampling method especially for evaluating the undrained cyclic strength. These reliable strength data using the sophisticated sampling along with the dynamic penetration tests in the same soil have led to a simple correlation between the two variables. This correlation may allow one to estimate the in-situ undrained cyclic strength from the penetration resistance without. resorting to the costly sampling method.

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Page 188 REFERENCES 1. Kokusho,T., In-situ dynamic soil properties and their evaluations, Proc. 8th Asian Regional conf. on SMFE, Vol. 2, pp. 215–240, 1987. 2. Kaito,T., Large penetration test, Tsuchi-to-Kiso, Vol. 19, No.7, pp. 15–21, 1971, (in Japanese). 3. Yoshida,Y., Ikemi, M. and Kokusho,T., Empirical formulas of SPT blow-counts for gravelly soils, Proc.ISOPT., Vol.1, pp. 381–387, 1988. 4. Tanaka,Y., Kudo, K., Yoshida,Y., Kataoka,T. and Kokusho,T., A study on the mechanical properties of sandy gravel, —Mechanical properties of undisturbed sample and its simplified evaluation, Report. No.U88021, CRIEPI, 1988, (in Japanese). 5. Tanaka,Y., Kokusho,T., Yoshida,Y., and Kudo, K., A method to evaluate system compliance in dynamic strength tests of gravelly soils, Report No.U89040, CRIEPI, 1989, (in Japanese). 6. Kokusho, T., Cyclic triaxial test of dynamic soil properties for wide strain range, Soils and Foundations, Vol. 20, No.2, pp. 45–60, 1980. 7. Tanaka,Y., Kudo.K., Kokusho,T., Yoshida,Y., Dynamic strength of gravelly soils and i ts relation to the penetration resistance, Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soi1 Dynamics, St. Louis Vol.1, pp. 399–406, 1991. 8. Yasuda, S., Yamaguchi, I., Dynamic shear modulus obtained by laboratory and in-situ tests, Proc. of Sym. on Evaluation of Deformation and Stability of Sand and Sandy Ground, pp. 115−118, 1984, (in Japanese). 9. Yokota, I., Imano, M., Comparison of soil properties obtained by laboratory and in-situ tests, Proc. of Sym. on Evaluation of Deformation and Stability of Sand and Sandy Ground, pp. 111–114, 1984, (in Japanese).

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Page 189 Characterization of Material Damping of Soils Using Resonant Column and Torsional Shear Tests D.-S.Kim, K.H.Stokoe, II, J.M.Roësset Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, TX 78712, U.S.A. ABSTRACT A common assumption is that material damping in shear of soils measured by hysteresis loops is zero at small strains, strains less than about 0.001%. To investigate this assumption, a torsional shear/resonant column device was modified so that damping measurements could be made over strains ranging from about 10−4 to 10−1%. A metal specimen was used to calibrate the device and showed that system compliance contributed to material damping measurements above about 1Hz. Damping measurements made on a dry sand and a compacted clay showed nonzero values at small strains in both the torsional shear and resonant column modes (after accounting for system compliance). The effects of frequency, strain amplitude and number of loading cycles on material damping of these soils were also investigated. INTRODUCTION Material damping can be evaluated in the laboratory using torsional resonant column and torsional shear tests. A number of studies have been conducted in the past to compare the results of the two methods for different strain amplitudes (4, 5, 7, 8) and to study the effect of number of loading cycles (5, 7, 8). The accuracy of the damping measurements with the torsional shear test was relatively poor for shearing strains below 0.01% because of difficulties in accurately measuring the hysteresis loops (3). In this study, a single piece of equipment is used for both the resonant column (RC) and torsional shear (TS) tests (Figure 1). The motion monitoring system in the TS test has been improved so that both tests can provide accurate results for the range of strains from 10−4 to 10−1% (2). A metal specimen was first tested to calibrate the equipment over a wide range of frequencies. Material damping in shear for a dry sand and a compacted clay were then obtained by varying the strain level, frequency of the excitation and number of loading cycles in order to investigate the importance of these effects.

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Fig. 1. Configuration of Simplified Resonant Column and Torsional Shear (RCTS) Test Equipment (without Outer Confinement Chamber) (After Ref. 1)

Fig. 2 Determination of Material Damping Ratio from the Hysteresis Loop Measured in the Torsional Shear Test
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4 are no longer valid.5-cm outside diameter and 0. Hysteresis loops from the TS test for a frequency of 0. on the other hand. On the other hand. one can approximate damping as: (4) where f1 and f2 are the two frequencies at which the amplitude is times the amplitude at the resonant frequency (fr).05 Hz to 100Hz).4% from both measurement methods. The free-vibration decay curve is recorded by hutting off the driving force after the specimen has been vibrating for a large number of cycles in steady-state motion at the resonant frequency (Figure 3a). On the other hand.page_191 < previous page page_191 next page > Page 191 MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES In the torsional shear test.. EVALUATION OF RCTS EQUIPMENT WITH A METAL SPECIMEN To evaluate the RCTS equipment. The tube was welded to the top cap and bottom plate of the equipment. It was assumed that the tube should have zero damping over the complete range of frequencies used in these tests (from about 0. The logarithmic decrement (δ) is then defined as: δ=Ln (z1/z2)=2πD/(1−D2)1/2 (2) where z1 and z2 are the amplitudes of two successive cycles and D is material damping. Hz).5Hz are shown in Figure 4a.81-mm wall thickness) was used. and serious errors can be induced in the half-power bandwidth method. a metal specimen made of a brass tube (2. The results for various < previous page page_191 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. material damping is determined from the hysteresis loop (Figure 2) as the ratio of the energy dissipated in one cycle of loading (AL) to the peak strain energy stored during the cycle (At) times a factor of 4π: D=A/(4πAt) (1) In the resonant column test. but only the free-vibration decay method was applied for large strains. background noise can be a problem with the free-vibration decay method. Figure 3 shows the results with the RC test that predict a damping of 0. Material damping can then be expressed as: D=[δ2/(4π2+δ2)]1/2 (3) The half-power bandwidth method is based on measurement of the width of the frequency response (amplification) curve near resonance (Figure 3b). For small values of damping..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_191. the stress-strain curve is linear resulting in no damping as expected. However. For very small strains (less than 10−3%). at large strains the assumptions implied in the derivation of Eq.m. .html12/05/2010 06:31:41 a. background noise has less effect on the frequency response curve. material damping is evaluated from the dynamic response using either the free-vibration decay curve or the half-power bandwidth. In this study both methods were used at small-strain levels.

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nonzero damping values are obtained. with at least 1000 cycles of steady-state response before the free vibration and from the TS test performed afterwards. are nevertheless very similar. Both tests were then performed in sequence for increasing strain amplitudes. Figure 7a shows the actual measured values. for frequencies less than or equal to 1Hz.035% obtained from the first ten cycles of torsional shear test (Figure 6a) and from the ten cycles applied after the RC tests (Figure 6b). It is interesting to notice that once this correction is applied. ten cycles of torsional shear were applied at a very small strain amplitude and a frequency of 0. Figure 7b incorporates the corrections at each frequency by subtracting the damping obtained for the metal specimen. but the loop eventually stabilizes after a large number of cycles. The variation of the damping ratio with number of loading cycles is further illustrated in Figure 5b where the solid symbols at 103 cycles are the results from the RC tests and the other points correspond to TS tests. At strains below 0. To begin testing. At each strain amplitude.. however. . the damping predicted by the TS test is zero as expected.. These values are considered to be due to a compliance problem with the equipment and are. MATERIAL DAMPING OF DRY SAND Typical results for dry sand are shown in Figure 5a. the damping ratio is basically independent of the number of cycles as stated earlier.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_193. material damping is essentially independent of frequency as one would expect for dry sand. Figure 6 shows the hysteresis loops for a strain level of 0. At higher strains.page_193 < previous page page_193 next page > Page 193 frequencies are plotted in Figure 4b. another ten cycles of torsional shear were applied after the RC test to check how the deformational characteristics had changed after the numerous cycles (about 1000) applied during RC testing at each strain level. The RC test at the same strain level followed the TS test. the values of damping decrease with increasing number of cycles.html12/05/2010 06:31:43 a. For a strain level of 10 −3%. the damping values are nearly identical for both tests and independent of the number of loading cycles. the effect of cycling becomes more and more apparent as the strain level increases. It can be seen that. It should be noticed that nonzero values of damping are obtained from both tests for very small strains (smaller than 10−3%) even for a frequency of 0. The shift in the hysteresis loop is accompanied by a decrease in its area.05Hz to 10Hz) was used in the TS test to investigate frequency effects.5Hz for which the metal specimen yielded zero damping. The results from the RC test. The effect of frequency on damping is shown in Figure 7. therefore. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE USED TO TEST SOILS Both RC and TS tests were performed on the same soil specimen. When the strain amplitude in the TS test had exceeded the level at which the stiffness started to decrease. However. For larger frequencies. a range of excitation frequencies (typically 0.002%.m. < previous page page_193 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.5Hz. subtracted from the damping measurements at the same frequencies with soil specimens. however.

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7 Variations in Uncorrected and Corrected Damping Ratios of Dry Sand with Loading Frequency file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.m.html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:31:45 a... .page_197 < previous page Page 197 page_197 next page > Fig.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_197.

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Values of material damping of about 0. In fact. Values of damping are again nonzero for very small levels of strain. respectively. However.5Hz while the RC tests were conducted at frequencies above 40Hz. damping ratios obtained from resonant column and torsional shear tests match well at shearing strains below about 0. 4. Material damping measurements using RCTS equipment were evaluated using a metal specimen.1Hz) were measured in the torsional shear test for both soils.m. This frequency effect explains the large differences between the two tests. the small-strain values are substantially larger than those measured for the sand. damping ratios obtained from the TS and RC tests are different over the complete strain range (from 0. At higher strains. Damping ratios of soils measured at frequencies above 1Hz were corrected taking this compliance into consideration. the effect of frequency in the torsional shear test does not begin to increase material damping until the frequency exceeds about 5Hz. Damping values obtained from the first TS cycle are much larger than those computed from later cycles or from the RC test. Figure 8b shows the variation of damping with frequency after applying the correction for system compliance. In these strain and frequency ranges.page_198 < previous page page_198 next page > Page 198 MATERIAL DAMPING OF COMPACTED CLAY Figure 8a shows the values of material damping for a compacted clay obtained with the RC and TS tests.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_198. with the measured values of material damping being much larger in the RC test. Below a loading frequency of 1Hz. CONCLUSIONS 1. damping ratios from TS and RC tests are essentially equal at the same strain level and the same number of cycles. Above 1Hz. However..9% and 2.05%).2% were measured for the dry sand and compacted clay. Contrary to what was observed for the sand specimen. damping ratios of the metal specimen were zero as expected. The TS tests reported in Figures 8a were conducted at 0. It can be seen that in this case the results are independent of the number of loading cycles but are quite different for each test.002%. This difference results from the difference in frequencies used in the two methods of testing. damping ratios greater than zero were measured because of system compliance.001%) and low frequencies (less than 0. The effect of number of loading cycles on material damping is negligible in this compacted clay. the values of damping increase markedly with frequency. Material damping ratios at small strains (less than 0. < previous page page_198 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. For a dry sand.0004 to 0. 2.. particularly for frequencies higher than 5Hz. The effect of frequency on material damping is negligible for this dry sand.html12/05/2010 06:31:46 a. damping is independent of both strain and frequency. . damping ratios are sensitive to number of loading cycles. 3. For compacted clay.

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Isenhower. pp. “Hysteretic Damping of Sands Under Cyclic Loading and Its Relation to Shear Modulus. and Woods. pp. and Woods.. and Allen. 10.” Ph. Vol.m. Japan. K. J. II. M. GTJODF.. J. 114..M. June. and Hsu. and Takagi.P.. ASCE.. R.-H. 1978. Ni.E. S. Tatsuoka.html12/05/2010 06:31:47 a. Y.-S. Hall. 861–876. This support is gratefully acknowledged. “Modulus and Damping Due to Uniform and Variable Cyclic Loading. Vol.. “Vibration of Soils and Foundations. pp. Ray.” Proceedings 1980 Offshore Technology Conference.D. D. Jr. T. W.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_200.. 1988.” Ph.” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division. Isenhower. II. New Jersey.L. 414 pp. Vol. December. The University of Texas at Austin. . 1987. W. Jr. 2.. 1991. 1989. “Instrumentation for Torsional Shear/Resonant Column Measurements Under Anisotropic Stresses. 1987.R. Englewood Cliffs. II.H. J. R. 3.H. 4... No. Houston.O.G. 18. F. Kim.. Project 2/3/10-888/0-1177. No. No. Tokyo. Dissertation. 6. 1980.. < previous page page_200 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. and Stokoe. S.” Proceedings of the Ninth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. 5. Iwasaki.. 25–40. Lin.R. Texas. The University of Texas at Austin (in progress).page_200 < previous page page_200 next page > Page 200 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was partially funded by the Texas State Department of Highways and Public Transportation. S. 8.. K..H. Stokoe. OTC 3771. 421 pp.. 1970. 289–302.D. 183– 191.” Geotechnical Testing Journal. “Characterization of Material Damping in Soil. Richart. REFERENCES 1. “Deformational Characteristics of Subgrades at Small to Intermediate Strains from Cyclic Tests.. Dissertation. Stokoe.. Wight.M.” Soil and Foundations. R.. August.C.H.D. “Dynamic Properties of Offshore Silty Samples. Ni.” Prentice-Hall Inc.. pp. J. 4. 8. 7. K.. “Dynamic Properties of Sand Under True Triaxial Stress States from Resonant Column/torsional Shear Tests.. 2.

Tongji University. For wave propagations at an angle to one or more principal stress. It is usually evaluated in the laboratory or in the field by measuring the velocity of propagation of the shear wave. and in the plane of particle motion governed the wave velocity. The third principal stress had no influence. the stresses in the direction of wave propagation. < previous page page_201 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.Richart. as had been found previously. F. For shear wave propagations in one of the principal stress directions. is a basic parameter for establishing the dynamic response of foundations. University of Michigan. Jr. Shanghai. People’s Republic of China (**) Department of Civil Engineering.. Fei (*).E. all three principal stresses contribute. Ann Arbor.html12/05/2010 06:31:47 a. ABSTRACT Cross-Hole Tests were run in a “Quicksand” tank in which the principal stresses could be controlled separately. (**) (*) Department of Geotechnical Engineering. INTRODUCTION The low-amplitude shear modulus. ρ is the mass density of the soil.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_201.-C.m. Michigan. .A. (1). Go. which is related to the shear modulus by Go=ρ vs2 (1) In Eq. designated by Vs. U.page_201 < previous page page_201 next page > Page 201 Effect of Triaxial Stresses on Shear Wave Propagation H..S.

The third principal stress. They found results similar to those of Roesler. Roesler presented a modification of Eq. Roesler’s “cross-correlation pulse tests” were carried out in a cubic box (30cm.3) by using σo2=( σa +σp)/2 .107)(σs0) (4) In 1985.) to 16N/cm2 (23. σo(lb/ft2)=( σ1+σ2+σ3)/3 (3) and In 1979. when the the stress ratio (σa/σp) was greater than about 2.149)(σp0. and IN THE DIRECTION OF PARTICLE MOTION. therefore the prime markings will be dropped. σo’.m.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_202..2 psi). Yu and Richart [5] reported on resonant column tests using dry sands subjected to anisotropic static stress conditions.25. et al.html12/05/2010 06:31:48 a. Stokoe. This discussion will treat only unsaturated sands for which σo’=σo.(2) in the form vs ~ (σa0. σp. and noted that σs did not influence the results. < previous page page_202 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. e. σo. and the effective confining pressure. did not influence the shear wave propagation velocity. dry sands was primarily a function of the void ratio. The resonant column tests used to establish empirical relationships between these parameters utilized only hydrostatic confining pressures.8 psi.1m) cubical triaxial steel chamber under stress conditions from 10 to 40 psi (6. Furthermore.on a side) filled with dry sand and subjected to pressures ranging from 4N/cm2 (5.2 e) (σo)m (2) in which m=0. (2.[4] evaluated shear wave propagations in a 7 ft.page_202 < previous page page_202 next page > Page 202 In the early 1960’s [1. σa. Subsequent interpretations of these results included the mean effective principal stress. the value of the shear wave velocity (or shear modulus) was reduced.. for situations in which the field conditions were not hydrostatic.9 to 27.6N/cm2). They concluded that it is reasonable to modify the Hardin Equation (Eq. The empirical equation thus became: vs(ft/sec)=(170–78. Roesler [3] found that only TWO of the effective principal stresses were important: those IN THE DIRECTION OF WAVE PROPAGATION. σs. . 2] it was established that the low-amplitude shear wave velocity for clean.

FIG. and the location of the pulse source. Cu=1.71).44. as shown in Fig. D10=0.52 m) long. . (2.1. (3m) high quicksand tank which contained Muskegon Dune Sand (rounded quartz sand.1 are the locations of the two pickup transducers. and two pairs of air bags were inserted vertically into the sand (while it was in the liquefied condition) to provide controllable horizontal pressures.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_203.3m) dia.. TEST SET-UP IN QUICKSAND TANK < previous page page_203 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.page_203 < previous page page_203 next page > Page 203 It was the purpose of this investigation to study the effects of the three principal stresses on shear wave propagation. Rubber “air bags” were used to load the top surface of the sand (see ref 7). by use of the cross-hole test (see refs.5ft. Each vertical air bag was 3ft. Also shown in Fig.18mm. TESTING EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURES All tests were run in a 7.m..(1. 6 and 7) including controlled stress conditions.(0. 1.html12/05/2010 06:31:49 a. ×10 ft. e=0.9m) high and 5ft.

. and the third principal stress was varied for each cross-hole test. In each test two of the principal stresses were held constant. to determine the influence of this third stress on Vs. 2. FIG. ARRANGEMENTS OF TESTS IN QUICKSAND TANK < previous page page_204 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.. and the measured time for the pulse to travel the known distance between the pickups permitted evaluation of the shear wave velocity. or a torsional impulse (to generate horizontally polarized shear waves) was applied to the sand bed.m.page_204 < previous page page_204 next page > Page 204 A vertical impulse (to generate vertically polarized shear waves). .ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_204.html12/05/2010 06:31:49 a.

. FIG. ..page_205 < previous page page_205 next page > Page 205 Before each test sequence. which also permitted installation of the pickups and the impulse exciter. after downward flow had returned the bed to a uniform state.html12/05/2010 06:31:50 a. CASE SV I < previous page page_205 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. the sand bed was reconstituted by making it “quick” by upward water flow. Then.m. a new test series could begin. and the pressure system on the surface was reinstalled.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_205. Resonant column tests have determined that no significant capillary effects exist in this sand at the drained water content. 3.

the levels of confining pressures developed. is shown in Fig. while Fig. In Fig. The results shown in Figs.13 power. . the type of sand. shows the test set-up used for the vertically polarized wave propagating along the σ2 direction.12.m. Note that Vs no longer follows the straight line relationship when σmax/σmin becomes greater than about 2. Figure 4 (a) shows that Vs changes according to σ2(=σa) to the 0. the stress in the plane of particle motion) cause Vs to vary according to σp0. variations of σ2(=σa. The test data illustrated in Fig. Fig.page_206 < previous page page_206 next page > Page 206 WAVE PROPAGATION ALONG PRINCIPAL STRESS DIRECTIONS Figure 2 (a). 3 (c) shows essentially no changes in Vs as σ3 (=σ3. et al.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_206. 2 (b). the method of placing the sand.3 is shown numerically in Table 2. The test arrangement for the tests. while Fig. and that σs has no effect.10 power. Case SH 1. and the shear wave velocities were calculated from the measured distances and time differences < previous page page_206 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.3(a).. Undoubtedly.lt is evident that the influences of σa and σp are essentially equal. Figure 3 shows the effects on Vs caused by variations of one principal stress while holding the other two principal stresses constant.html12/05/2010 06:31:50 a.. Figure 4 (b) shows no changes in Vs with variations in σ1(=σs). Table 1 contains a brief summary of these test results. 3 and 4 are consistent with those obtained by Roesler and by Stokoe.16.. The first four columns include the basic data from the tests in which the pressures were measured.3 (b) shows that changes in σ1(=σp. Here the horizontally polarized shear wave is in the σ2-σ3 plane. and other testing parameters contribute to the differences in absolute values.4(c) shows that Vs changes according to σ3(=σp) to the 0. CASE SV 1. the stress in the direction of wave propagation) cause changes in Vs according to σa0. for wave propagations along principal stress directions. the stress on the plane perpendicular to the plane containing the directions of particle motion and wave propagation) is changed.

4. CASE SH 1 < previous page page_207 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Columns (5) and (6) of Table 2 are values of σo and σo2 which have been calculated from the measured pressures..html12/05/2010 06:31:51 a.m. and we usually anticipate about 5% variations—even in repeated tests. the values of shear wave velocities as shown to three significant figures are calculations.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_207. .page_207 < previous page page_207 next page > Page 207 between signal arrivals at the first and second pickups.(2) to calculate shear wave velocities shown in Columns (7) and (8). Consequently. except for the third group of data based on variations FIG.. and which have been used with Eq.These values are quite similar.

16 (Vert.) σ20.page_208 < previous page page_208 next page > Page 208 TABLE 1. m (which is 0.. which corresponds to +/−6. but they do affect the calculated values of Vs Finally. 2.(2)..25. .6ft/sec.13 SH Wave σ1=σs σ2=σa σ3=σs σ3=σp of σ3.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_208.3ft/sec.2 % of the average shear wave velocity. the calculated value of m is less than 0.) σs0(Horiz. This is close to the +/−5 % that we usually anticipate from repeated tests.10-0.10 σc0 SH & SV Waves σ10.). In these tests.(2)) as calculated using Vs (meas.25 which come from Eq. and the average m was 0.10 σ30. or +/ −2S=28.) SV Wave σ1=σp σ2=σa σ10 σ20. there were 16 tests in which the three principal stresses were all very close to 1.7 psi.09-0.) SH Wave σa0.) and σo or σo2.and m=0.. EFFECTS OF PRINCIPAL STRESS CHANGES ON SHEAR WAVE VELOCITY Roesler Stokoe et al Fei and Richart σa0.25 in Eq.m.html12/05/2010 06:31:52 a. Columns (9) and (10) show values of the exponent.12 (Horiz. < previous page page_208 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.149(Vert.107(Horiz.) σ30(Horiz.—which produced isotropic stress conditions. the variations in σ3 have no influence on the measured values. Note that when the calculated value of Vs is greater than Vs (meas.) σp0. WAVE PROPAGATION UNDER ISOTROPIC STRESS CONDITIONS From the five test conditions shown in Fig. which compare quite well with the values of 454ft/sec. the standard deviation was S=14.. while holding σ1 and σ2 constant. and vice versa. the average measured shear wave velocity was 459ft/sec. From these 16 tests.252. Therefore we may conclude that the cross-hole tests in the quicksand tank are in good agreement with the test results obtained from resonant column tests.11 σb0. From these tests.

69 1.258 0.69 1.69 1.69 1.19 2..236 0.40 1.69 1.69 1.251 0.256 0.22 2.69 1.27 3.69 1.248 0.69 1.54 1.69 1.92 1.256 0.69 1.69 1.82 1.18 1.249 0.page_209 < previous page page_209 (7) vs(σo) (calc.69 1.93 2.69 1.69 1.252 0.249 0.58 1.69 1.45 2.97 3.252 0.05 2.69 1.35 3.260 0.256 0.69 2.10 2.255 0.248 0.67 4.69 1.69 1.69 1.254 0.30 1.35 1.254 0.34 1.249 0.69 1.46 1.260 0.69 1.69 1.69 1.49 1.69 1.69 1.69 1.42 2.56 2.243 0. TEST RESULTS FOR CASE SV 1 (σ—psi.69 1.) 424 436 444 467 476 481 501 506 467 427 441 444 449 463 470 486 501 515 458 469 448 465 465 452 452 448 441 420 390 σo 1.14 1.93 3.254 0.248 0. vs—ft/sec.69 1.39 2.251 0.253 .90 1.69 1.12 2.253 0.69 1.69 σ2 (=σa) 0.67 σo2 1.44 1.64 1.69 1.69 1.07 2.88 2.69 1..48 1.01 1.69 1.46 1.35 2.00 1.69 1.51 1.251 0.256 0.69 1.07 2.249 0.69 0.250 0.69 1.240 0.69 1.69 1.56 1.69 1.21 3.69 1.81 2.69 1.78 4.248 0.254 0.69 1.) 413 428 435 451 461 474 497 509 519 428 439 446 453 453 465 476 491 502 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 453 next page > (9) m (σo) 0.94 1.62 vs (meas.69 σ3 (=σs) 1.70 1.69 1.71 2.69 1.77 1.70 1.238 0.69 1.69 1.69 1.69 < previous page page_209 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.248 0.69 1.66 1.246 0.69 1.256 0.69 1.68 2.19 3.) 427 437 442 451 458 467 484 492 500 437 444 448 453 453 461 468 479 487 435 453 453 461 466 471 479 483 485 494 508 (8) vs(σo2) (calc.247 0.250 0.249 0.69 1.m.26 1.81 1.62 1.206 (10) m (σo2) 0.69 1. .251 0.69 1.69 1.69 1.69 1.92 2.232 0.254 0.255 0.69 1.91 2.255 0.html12/05/2010 06:31:53 a.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_209.) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) σ1 (=σp) 1.69 1.222 0.69 1.69 1.255 0.69 1.33 2.237 0.69 1.233 0.44 1.69 1.35 1.69 1.250 0.69 1.69 1.222 Page 209 TABLE 2.53 1.67 1.62 1.02 2.254 0.256 0.248 0.98 2.69 1.69 1.245 0.17 1.256 0.253 0.31 2.20 2.257 0.69 1.255 0.

ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_210.(4). . for which σa and σp were obtained by Mohr circle relationships.(2) The results of these calculations.html12/05/2010 06:31:53 a. For both sets of calculations. are shown in Table 4. if the results had been expressed as shown by Eq.. Note that the sum of the exponents would be high. The relationships are summarized in Table 3. when the wave is propagating at an angle to one or more principal stress.m.page_210 < previous page Page 210 page_210 next page > FIG. the calculated exponent. CASE SV 2 WAVE PROPAGATION AT AN ANGLE TO THE PRINCIPAL STRESSES Figures 5–7 illustrate the effects on the shear wave velocity caused by varying one principal stress while keeping the other two principal stresses constant.25. < previous page page_210 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.. Another way of interpreting the data is to calculate σo and σo2 and evaluate the “m—values”. m. using the measured values of the shear wave velocities in Eq. was very close to 0. 5.

.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_211.. 6.246 0.243 0.253 0.245 0.12 σ20.247* 0. CASE SH 2 TABLE 3.252 0.html12/05/2010 06:31:54 a. m(σo)= 0.254 0.261 SH—2 σ10.05 σ30.m.08 σ30.09 Horizontal σ30. INFLUENCE OF VARYING ONE PRINCIPAL STRESS Test Series Vertical Horizontal SV—2 SV—3 σ10. SUMMARY OF AVERAGE EXPONENT “m” VALUES Test Series No.14 σ20.259 m(σo2) 0.240 < previous page page_211 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.244 0.085 σ20.16 σ10.13 m(σo) 0.10 TABLE 4. .page_211 < previous page Page 211 page_211 next page > FIG. Tests SV—1 29 SV—2 22 SV—3 11 SH—1 27 SH—2 10 * For variations in σ3.

.page_212 < previous page Page 212 page_212 next page > FIG. For conditions in which the shear wave propagated along a principal stress direction. 7. .ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_212.m. CASE SV 3 CONCLUSIONS The tests in the quicksand tank using isotropic stress conditions gave results comparable to those obtained before in resonant column tests.. and had particle motions < previous page page_212 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.html12/05/2010 06:31:55 a.

The Wang Educational Foundation has provided funds for Prof. from Eq. the average shear wave velocity was 459 ft/sec. as had been pointed out previously. From 16 tests under isotropic stress conditions. using σo and m=0. which might explain some of the differences between these test results and those noted in refs. the results from cross-hole tests in the quicksand tank were comparable to those obtained by resonant column tests in the laboratory.Kevin Hoppe and Mr.Woods for his help and advice in preparing the test program. (4).252.33 for SV-2. For example. the exponents indicated very high values. under isotropic stress conditions.(2)) tended to be larger at low pressures than at higher pressures.html12/05/2010 06:31:55 a.(2) was reasonably close to 0. because of the pressure capacity of the air bags involved. only these two stresses influenced the value of propagation velocity.D.25.25. Thus. (2).. [3] and [4]. and to Mr. “m”.315 for SH2. and their support is appreciated < previous page page_213 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.31 for SV-3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. Fei to attend the SDEE’91. The third principal stress had no influence. the exponent.25 when calculated using either σo or σo2. the sum of the exponents shown in Table 3 would amount to: 0. when the results were expressed in the form indicated by Eq. 0. it appears satisfactory to calculate shear wave velocities from Eq.page_213 < previous page page_213 next page > Page 213 in a second principal stress direction. .(2) of 454ft/sec. and 0..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_213.Kevin Scmidt who assisted in the tests. and the average “m”value was 0. It had been noticed previously [2] that the “m”-values for (Eq. R.m. However. For this kind of wave propagation. It should be noted that the pressure levels were considerably smaller for these tests in the quicksand tank. which compared well with the values calculated from Eq. For the three series of tests in which the wave propa-gated at an angle to one or more principal stress. Thanks are extended to Prof. and 0.

Woods. II. Geotechnical Div. “Seismic Techniques in the Laboratory.SM1. No. ASCE.ASCE. Stokoe K.. Soil Mechanics & Foundations Div. 5.3. ASCE. No.H.. Geotech Div. pp.m.. R. pp. (1984).” J.O... D. v. “Anisotropic Shear Modulus due to Stress Anisotropy. Proc. 7.. Soil Mechanics and Foundations Div.. pp.” J.D. GT7. pp. of a session sponsored by the Geotech.by V. May. 1309–1325– < previous page page_214 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.” J.. (Ed. Geotechnical Eng. SM5. “Shear Moduli Measurements under True Triaxial Stresses... in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the PhD. B. “Stress Ratio Effects on Shear Modulus of Dry Sands. Proc.98.871–880. No.. v.. and Henke. Peiji.” Advances in the Art of Testing Soils Under Cyclic Conditions. 2. 443–460. (1963). “In Situ Shear Wave Velocity by Cross-Hole Method..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_214. B. Stokoe. F.E.. 89. No. GT10. Proc.H. S. and Knox.page_214 < previous page page_214 next page > Page 214 REFERENCES 1.. “Study of Elastic Wave Propagation and Damping in Granular Materials. Hardin. Feb.” J. 105. Yu. R. 331–345. Oct. Div.(1979).P. v. v.H. Eng.. Hardin. ASCE. (1985). v. 166–185. Jr.ASCE. ASCE Convention in Detroit.. Proc. pp. and Richart.H.. and Richart. Jr. R.107. No. K. Roesler.(1981)..24. 4. Proc.Div.” J. F..K. Lee. . “Elastic Wave Velocities in Granular Soils.. Proc. Mar. 6...Khosla)..33–65 3.O. II. July.” dissertation presented to the University of Florida. pp. (1961).D.html12/05/2010 06:31:56 a. Mich. and Woods.110.E. Oct. S. (1972).

Knowledge of soil behaviour underlying structures. (e. and offshore structures subjected to cyclic shear loading is therefore significant for engineering purposes. N. Previous investigations on the effects of cyclic loading on both granular and cohesive soils under simulated earthquake and wave loading have demonstrated reductions in both soil stiffness and strength.g. Vucetic and Dobry [4]). Heriot. INTRODUCTION The imposed stresses on elements of soils due to earthquake and wave loadings are cyclic in nature.Watt University.m. built-in seismically active areas.. cyclic strain amplitude and number of cycles on the cyclic secant modulus degradation of weathered Keuper Marl.Little. The difference between undisturbed specimens’ behaviour with the reconstituted samples’ characteristics have been used to investigate the effect of remoulding on the cyclic properties of the marl. Edinburgh. U.Hataf Department of Civil Engineering.page_215 < previous page page_215 next page > Page 215 Stiffness Degradation of Weathered Marl in Cyclic Undrained Loading J. It is shown that the rate of stiffness degradation is a function of number of cycles and cyclic strain amplitude. Riccarton. Differences in dynamic characteristics of reconstituted and intact spec- < previous page page_215 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. ABSTRACT The results of a study on the effect of remoulding. Idriss et al [3]. An automated triaxial system especially developed for this research has been used to conduct the tests.A. stress-history.. Seed and Lee [1]. a calcareous mudstone formed mainly from clay minerals. are presented. Seed and Chan [2].ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_215.K.html12/05/2010 06:31:56 a. The research is based on a series of monotonic and low frequency undrained strain-controlled cyclic triaxial tests on undisturbed and reconstituted specimens with overconsolidation ratios 1 to 30. .

formed from clay minerals.72 Liquid Limit (%) 45 Plastic limit (%) 30 The conditions of deposition of Keuper Marl were complex. strain measurements were made using high resolution..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_216. There are very few published findings describing the effects of cyclic loading on the stress-strain behaviour of weathered rocks.page_216 < previous page page_216 next page > Page 216 imens of soils subjected to cyclic loading have also been reported by a number of researchers.14 Specific gravity 2. (e.. quartz dust.96 2. A depositional mode for Keuper Marl has been described by Chandler and Davis [6]. MATERIAL TESTED The word marl is used to describe calcareous mudstones. . Ke- < previous page page_216 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.html12/05/2010 06:31:57 a. TEST EQUIPMENT An automated triaxial system. consisting of an IBM microcomputer and modified conventional strain-controlled laboratory equipment. consists usually of red-brown mudstone with subordinate siltstone and sandstone. displacement transducers. a Triassic sediment. were used to perform strain-controlled monotonic and cyclic loading tests. Keuper Marl. Table 1: Basic engineering properties of reconstituted and undisturbed Keuper Marl Property reconstituted undisturbed Bulk density (Mg/m3) 1. This paper therefore describes the results of a series of undrained cyclic strain-controlled triaxial tests conducted on reconstituted and undisturbed specimens of a weathered marl. Vrymoed et al [5]). The cyclic strain-time pattern was of a triangular form. Keuper Marl has been subjected to different degrees of weathering at different depths. The difference in weathering conditions has resulted in different mechanical behaviour of the material.g. Pore pressures were measured at the mid-plane using miniature transducers implanted in the soil.m. submersible. Since its deposition. which are clayey rocks. in conjunction with in-house software. fine dolomite crystals and gypsum aggregates. Keuper Marl outcrops throughout central and south western England and it has formed the foundation for many important civil structures in that area.

0 %. The maximum strain amplitude used was 3. at least equal to 200kPa. The programme of work consisted of: (i) preliminary tests. Birch [7]. Reconstituted specimens were obtained by crumbling tubed samples into small lumps.01Hz was used. The dried soil was then ground by pestle and passed through a 0. All specimens underwent saturation before triaxial testing and were consolidated and overconsolidated against a back pressure.425mm sieve. SAMPLE PREPARATION Undisturbed specimens were recovered from 100mm tubed samples and trimmed carefully to the prespecified diameter and height. with overconsolidation ratio (R0) ranging from 1 to 30. The paste was then wrapped in ‘Cling film’ and sealed in a plastic bag and kept in a humid box for at least 24 hrs to allow equilibration. (ii) monotonic tests. The tests were carried out undrained and strain-controlled. TESTING PROGRAMME The testing programme was designed to examine the behaviour of the weathered marl in its undisturbed state and in its reconstituted remoulded state under monotonic and cyclic. Chandler and Davis [6]. (iii) cyclic loading tests and (iv) post-cyclic monotonic loading tests. for which a ratio of one was used (Rowe and Barden [8]). during cyclic loading.. Samples were divided into six types depending on stress-history.m.. These were then air dried. six days to complete. STIFFNESS DEGRADATION DURING CYCLIC LOADING The behaviour of normally consolidated reconstituted and intact speci- < previous page page_217 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Chandler and Davis [6]. The number of cycles applied to the test sample varied according to the cyclic strain amplitude selected to prevent sample failure during cyclic straining. except those with lubricated ends. The length to diameter ratio for specimens was two. To allow pore water pressure equalization within the specimen. strain-controlled. undrained loading conditions. a frequency of 0.page_217 < previous page page_217 next page > Page 217 uper Marl has been divided into different zones relating to the degree of weathering in different ways. Table 1 shows some physical properties of the Keuper Marl examined. . Each test took.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_217. For cyclic testing the specimens were initially isotopically consolidated and overconsolidated. having previously undergone incremental back saturation. The specimens of Keuper Marl used in this study were considered as partially weathered. The powder was then mixed with distilled water to produce a workable paste with a water content close to the natural water content. on average.html12/05/2010 06:31:57 a.

It has been < previous page page_218 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 1 and 2. εc.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_218.m. For Keper Marl the higher cyclic strength of the undisturbed specimens might also be related to inter-particle cementing or aggregating.. Vrymoed et al [5] reported that the lower cyclic strength of reconstituted specimens can usually be attributed to the absence of any bonding at the particle contacts due to cementation. defined as the ratio of the maximum cyclic devia- Figure 1: Variation of secant modulus with number of cycles for normally consolidated reconstituted specimens toric stress over the corresponding cyclic shear strain. When Figure 2: Variation of secant modulus with number of cycles for normally consolidated undisturbed specimens to the undisturbed specimens usually showed higher cyclic strength at a given cyclic strain amplitude and number of loading cycle han the reconstituted specimens. . Secant modulus (Es).html12/05/2010 06:31:58 a.page_218 < previous page page_218 next page > Page 218 mens under strain-controlled cyclic loading is illustrated in Figs. It can be observed that there is a similar trend of reducing normalised with respect with increasing N for both types of specimens. normalised with respect to the initial consolidation pressure is plotted as a function of number of cycles (N) in these diagrams..

This is in agreement with published test results on undisturbed normally consolidated clays reported by others (e. Lees [11]). . the data indicate that the soil reached constant modulus values under high cyclic shear strains and “softening” was continuing more slowly with increasing number of cycles for the lower cyclic strain applied. For the undisturbed specimens the data show linear but different relationships corresponding to the different cyclic shear strains employed (Fig. 2). a process which the reconstituted soil has already been subjected to during its preparation. that the undisturbed Keuper Marl has larger grain size due to aggregation of the clay particle into larger silt-size units by some cementing or aggregating agent.page_219 < previous page page_219 next page > Page 219 shown (Sherwood [9]. Idriss et al [3]. Figure 3: Cyclic stress-strain behaviour of overconsolidated reconstituted specimens The results of the cyclic loading on overconsolidated specimens are < previous page page_219 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_219. Davis [10]...html12/05/2010 06:31:58 a. This would indicate that steady state values had not been reached under the applied number of cycles.m. g. Procter and Khaffaf [13] also observed a decreasing rate of softening with increasing number of cycles toward a limit. Vucetic and Dobry [4]). This may be due to the local remoulding which the undisturbed material undergoes during load reversals. It would appear that the undisturbed Keuper Marl has to experience more strain cycles to reach an equilibrium state than does the reconstituted Keuper Marl. Taylor and Hughes [12] observed the same phenomenon and indicated a lower limit for soil strength (and therefore modulus) below which the strength of the soil at a given moisture content cannot fall. Such bonding would be broken down in the process of reconstitution. For reconstituted specimens. however. termed the fully-weakened state.

SM6. Higher stiffness at a given cyclic strain amplitude and number of loading cycles was observed for more overconsolidated specimens indicating the overconsolidation effect on soil behaviour. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to thank Wykeham Farrance Engineering Ltd. R. H. 1988. Div. In this figure the normalised stress-strain curves obtained from cyclic loading tests on reconstituted normally consolidated and overconsolidated specimens are presented.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_220. 1427–47. K. and Lee. No. 92. Geotechnical Eng. and Singh.L. 1966.. Soil Mech. N=1. The pattern of stress-strain behaviour for cyclic loading is similar to that observed during monotonic loading.. 1966. for provision of laboratory equipment used in this study. Degradation of marine clays under cyclic loading. Idriss. Liquefaction of saturated sands during cyclic loading conditions. H. C. CONCLUSIONS Undrained strain-controlled cyclic loading tests have been carried out on reconstituted and undisturbed specimens of weathered Keuper Marl. ASCE....m. 53–78. Similar behaviour was observed for intact specimens.B. Seed.. Div. 2. and Dobry. < previous page page_220 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Vucetic. GT12. M. 1978. Vol. Bucks.. 3. 3. Geotechnical Eng.. R. 105–34. The test results have shown differences in cyclic behaviour of reconstituted and intact specimens which are attributed to inter-particle bonding. and Chan. J. Dobry. for both intact and reconstituted specimens. The higher was the overconsolidation ratio the larger was the stiffness. and Found. The normalised deviatoric stresses related to cyclic loading tests are those corresponding to the first cycle. Div. . on cyclic strain amplitude for both types of soils. This degradation of stiffness was found to be strongly dependent. 2.page_220 < previous page page_220 next page > Page 220 illustrated in Fig. 114. pp. ASCE. The peak strength loss due to cyclic loading has been found significant even for the limited number of cycles applied. Vol. Clay strength under earthquake loading conditions... Nonlinear behaviour of soft clays during cyclic loading.. 4. 104. No. A reduction in stiffness due to cyclic straining is shown.B. ASCE. 92. J. I. Soil Mech. pp. Seed. R. pp.html12/05/2010 06:31:59 a. Div. Proc. No. ASCE. J. No.D.M. pp. Slough. SM2. and Found. Vol. REFERENCES 1. Vol.K. 133–49. J..

Vol. pp. Dynamic properties of foundation subsoils as determined from laboratory tests. 1964.G. Lees. and Shen.. Vol. J..W. 6. D. Soc. Vol. 8.C. Proc. 1984. Swansea. Keuper Marl...1621. G. Birch.. pp. Chandler. Geology of the Keuper Marl. Geotechnical Eng. 25–38. SM1. 196–211. 1973. pp.m. ASCE. Cyclic triaxial tests on remoulded clays. Rowe. Midland Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering Society. Proc. 90. S. 110. Classification tests on African red clays and Keuper Marl. 1967. N. 11. pp. Soil Mech. 12. No. Taylor.K. A. 1.O. Symp. 1966. and Hughes. and Khaffaf. Vol.1 pp. Proc. Q. P. No. Geol. 7. A. P.G.H. No. Vrymoed. Soils under Cyclic and Transient Loading. Q.. Sherwood.. Div. Further work on the engineering properties of Keuper Marl. J. No. J. Proc. Auckland and Wellington Vol.M. W. Earthquake Eng.. Davis.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_221. and Davis. and Barden. 47–55.. Jafroudi.... R. L. 1967. The mineralogy and phase equilibrium of Keuper Marl. Engng Geol... . Engng Geol. Bennett.31. pp. J. 1–27. Importance of free ends in triaxial testing. P. 3rd World Conf. 13. Vol.. London. Cyclic strength and shear modulus as a function of time..html12/05/2010 06:31:59 a. C. 135–142. Procter. 10.W. 47. 1965.J. J. 10. 6.. CIRIA Report No. 46. J. 41– 84. and Found. 1431–1445.T. 9.page_221 < previous page page_221 next page > Page 221 5. 1980. Int. 1.J. 1965. pp. < previous page page_221 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.

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html12/05/2010 06:32:00 a. data acquisition system and test results on a cemented sand under hydrostatic stress path of loading. an experimental procedure has been developed.m.Jagannath. T. Tucson. The paper describes the experimental scheme. exhibit anisotropic (stress-strain) response.. Examination of the stress-strain. unloading and re-loading. [3]) and to the formation of micro-cracks < previous page page_223 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. experiences induced anisotropy. .g.Desai. Herein. Arizona 85721. The University of Arizona.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_223. due to factors such as microstructural changes and damage.A. Arthur et al. C. various constitutive models have been proposed (Desai and Siriwardane [1]).Kundu Department of Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics. U.. It is observed that some geologic materials when subjected to sequences of loading.V. Casagrande and Carillo [2]. and correlation between mechanically defined anisotropy and non-destructively measured anisotropy. it is often called stress induced anisotropy and is attributed to reorientation of particles (e.. which enables multi-axial mechanical (destructive) and ultrasonic (non-destructive) testing of geologic materials. In the past. its quantification. In the literature. emphasis has been given to the development and verification of such models by performing laboratory (destructive) tests.S. ABSTRACT Many geologic materials when subjected to sequences of loading.page_223 < previous page page_223 next page > Page 223 Measurements of Material Anisotropy by Ultrasonic Technique S. An important area which requires further study is the development of Non Destructive Testing (NDT) procedures and toward correlation of mechanical and nondestructive behavior. unloading and reverse loading. unloading and re-loading. stress-velocity and stress-attenuation data provides insight into the material anisotropy. INTRODUCTION For realistic modelling of the response of geologic materials under cyclic (dynamic) loading.S.

This unit has two-pole. [4]). it enables on-line monitoring of the entire experiment. It consists of the truly triaxial device. In this paper.m. Y and Z directions in the through-transmission mode. The oscilloscope is connected to the central data acquisition and control unit.. Desai et al.html12/05/2010 06:32:01 a. Ultrasonic Device: This device is a broadband ultrasonic pulser/receiver unit supplied by the Panametrics Inc. Ultrasonic P-waves pass through a sample of a geologic material in the X.g.. Some of the constitutive models such as Hierarchical Single Surface (HISS) models based on the phenomenological approach ([4]. The proposed mechanical and ultrasonic measurements. detailed description of the experimental scheme and testing procedure is given. as described subsequently. unloading and re-loading are given elsewhere (Jagannath et al. an ultrasonic unit and a data acquisition system. alternative testing procedures are desirable. Also. stress-velocity and stress-attenuation data are examined to define stress-induced anisotropy. . can account for these effects. The material presented herein is a part of ongoing research on correlation between mechanical and ultrasonic responses for anisotropic behavior of geologic materials. threeposition manual coaxial switch and ports for transducer connections. are performed while test samples are subjected to loading under various stress paths in the modified truly triaxial device. for better understanding and to quantify induced anisotropy. HP 54501A Oscilloscope: The received pulse from the pulser/receiver unit can be viewed on an oscilloscope. The stress-strain.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_224. which needs to be modified. preliminary results pertaining to anisotropy from cyclic hydrostatic loading tests are presented. Very few studies have been performed for the characterization of highly attenuating (geologic) material. [9]). The oscilloscope is portable and programmable. [5]). [8]. Test results corresponding to shear stress paths of loading. Thus. ULTRASONIC AND MECHANICAL TESTING Figure 1 shows the setup for ultrasonic and mechanical testings.page_224 < previous page page_224 next page > Page 224 and damage (e. and the received signals are recorded. However... brief descriptions of the instrumentation and the procedure for the sample preparation are given: 1. In the following sections. The output signature is digitized and stored in the HP 300 computer. Ultrasonic technique is one such NDT technique to measure induced anisotropy (Varadarajan and Desai [6]). using the ultrasonic technique (Krautkramer and Krautkramer [7]). < previous page page_224 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The unit provides a digital output of the transit time (in µsec) of P-waves through the sample.

html12/05/2010 06:32:01 a.. In order to make the ultrasonic measurements. during the deformed state. The deformations of the sample are measured using Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDTs) in three principal directions. (15.m.63in. The sample is stressed in three principal directions using air pressure. [9]).25 in. . contained by rubber membranes.75mm. The transducers are pressed against the face of the specimen on all the six faces. material grain size effects etc. in which the cubical specimen is placed. (100×100× 100 mm).) diameter and 0.25mm. Modification of the Multi-Axial Device: Existing truly triaxial device has a cavity of 4×4×4 in.) thick. transducers of 1. with a frequency of 0. Figure 2 shows the schematic for installing the transducers in the cubical device. near-field effects. < previous page page_225 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. and the contact is ensured by applying copious supply of vacuum grease (Dow Corning grease).ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_225. This device needs to be modified for performing the ultrasonic testing in combination with the mechanical testing.page_225 < previous page Page 225 page_225 next page > Figure 1 Setup for Ultrasonic and Mechanical Testing VT—101 Transducers: In the present study. such as.. ([8]. (31.5MHz are used. the transducers are housed in a special device. This transducer is found to satisfy the requirements. 2. and through connection to a pre-compressed spring.

The base of the core is supported by a pre-compressed spring of very low stiffness..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_226. The outer sleeve is connected to the base plate of the cubical device by screws and is placed concentric with the other three (existing) LVDTs on each face.html12/05/2010 06:32:02 a. . A special connector is used to carry the co-axial cable of the transducer through the end cap of the LVDT protection cylinder.m. The core houses the transducer and moves inside a frictionless sleeve during the specimen deformation.page_226 < previous page Page 226 page_226 next page > Figure 2 Exploded View of the Cubical Device and Details of Mounting This device consists of a core and a sleeve made up of a smooth material.. < previous page page_226 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. so as to ensure proper contact between the sample and the transducer.

which is related to relative orientation of the < previous page page_227 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. After travelling through the sample. Y. respectively. Figure 3 Schematic of Ultrasonic Testing Figure 3 shows a schematic of the proposed ultrasonic testing. digitized waveform from the oscilloscope and transfers the data on to the computer. respectively. First is the velocity (Vi m/sec). the controller takes the voltage readings from the power supply. Figure 3 also shows the schematic output wave signatures in the three directions as recorded by the oscilloscope.. and Z directions. the pulse is received by receiving transducers Rx. Rz. a HP 3852A mainframe controller and a power supply for 18 modified Schaevitz GCA-121–250 LVDTs. In this investigation. A cubical sample of the material of dimensions Lx×Ly×Lz is enclosed within the modified truly triaxial device.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_227.Tz are the transmitting transducers which send in a negative spike pulse of known amplitude.Ty.. Data Acquisition System: The data acquisition system consists of a HP 9000 model 300 series computer.m. Ry.html12/05/2010 06:32:03 a. .page_227 < previous page page_227 next page > Page 227 3. by running the data acquisition program (written in BASIC). we use two parameters to study anisotropy. through the sample in the X. Tx. All the instruments are communicated through the computer. During a test.

and (b) a cemented sand imparts cohesion which keeps the sample stable and intact and permit passage of the waves with very little scattering.. (37. The inner surface of the mold is greased before adding the mixture.m. Deformations of the sample are measured by means of LVDTs. The mixture is then compacted in four equal layers using a compacting rod. the principal directions of loading and deformations are defined to coincide with each other.) (100×100×100mm) size and consists of Leighton-Buzzard sand. to insure a smooth surface for ultrasonic testing.. pressure regulators and Bourdon tube gages. The applied pressure in each of the three directions is controlled independently. 5% by weight of Burke stone (quick setting cement) and 14% by weight of water. Dry sand. < previous page page_228 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. A uniform (normal) stress on each face of the soil sample is applied by pneumatically pressurizing the membranes.html12/05/2010 06:32:03 a. The air pressure system consists of an air compressor. 4. The cemented sand has been selected for two reasons: (a) a purely granular material enclosed in a rubber membrane causes scattering of ultrasonic waves.Y and Z directions. as displayed by the pulser/receiver unit is matched with the exact transit time. respectively.5mm) dia. for which the exact transit time of the P-wave is known. Here. The loading is quasi-static. The mold is removed after 24 hours and a thin coat of quick cement paste is applied on all faces. TESTING PROCEDURE Calibration of the Ultrasonic Device A steel test piece (4 in. The sample is (4×4×4in. An unique feature of the data acquisition unit is that at the end of the experiment. the subscript i corresponds to X.5 in. .ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_228. (100mm) long and 1. Specimen Installation and Testing The prepared sample is installed in the cubical cavity of the reaction frame with flexible membranes on each side. by adjusting the zero adjustment knob. The test piece is placed between a pair of transducers and the test is performed in the throughtransmission mode. The resulting transit time. and the second is the attenuation (Ai=20 log (Output voltage /Input voltage)). Material and Sample Preperation: The geologic material used in this investigation consists of a cemented sand. cement and water are mixed thoroughly in a tray and the mixture is placed in a cubical mold. Further. related to the energy of the Pwave. both mechanical (stress and deformation) and ultrasonic (wave signatures and velocities) data are available in respective files for further analysis. The sample is transferred to the apparatus in such a manner that the vertical direction during sample preperation coincides with the vertical Z-direction of the apparatus.).page_228 < previous page page_228 next page > Page 228 particles. is selected.

stress-velocity and stressattenuation data. and the velocity and the attenuation of the P-wave through the sample are recorded. the velocities and the attenuations in the three directions. At any given stress state.page_229 < previous page page_229 next page > Page 229 TEST RESULTS In this section. the strains in the material. wave signatures at these points are recorded. the incremental change in the values of strain. the ultrasonic anisotropy is a physical measure. each of these value is different in the X. 207.. This is attributed to the material anisotropy. velocity and attenuation in each direction are almost same. However. However. . indicating convergence toward the isotropic state.html12/05/2010 06:32:04 a.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_229. 414. at any given stress level. we identify two forms of anisotropy. While. Figures 4. indicating that the material approaches the isotropic state. and 621kPa) along the virgin loading curve. namely. (0. at that stress state. related to the variations in the values of attenuation and velocity due to the applied stress. It is observed that the strains. Also. let . Further. are different (for the same input wave) in three principal directions. It is evident that the sample is initially anisotropic (due to sample preperation procedure) and the magnitude of anisotropy decreases with the applied hydrostatic stress. Figures 7 and 8 show the wave signatures at stress levels of 0. the velocities and the attenuations change with the applied confining stress. In this test. The mechanical anisotropy is a function of (plastic) strains developed within the material due to the application of stress. at very large confining stress. At each stress level. Let . 5 and 6 show the stress-strain. During the test. the sample is subjected to two cycles of loading. Any definition leading to the quantification of anisotropy should consider this effect. unloading and re-loading. the confining pressure is applied in small increments up to a maximum of 120 psi (827kPa). It is observed that the received wave signatures at lower values of confining stress. typical test results on cemented sand under hydrostatic loading are presented. 60 and 90 psi. Y and the Z directions. and be the average values of the strains. respectively. respectively. the velocities and attenuations. mechanical and ultrasonic anisotropy.. Vi and Ai be the strains.m. QUANTIFICATION OF ANISOTROPY In order to quantify the material anisotropy. < previous page page_229 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. respectively. 30. they tend to become similar in three directions at high confining stress.

page_230 < previous page Page 230 page_230 next page > Figure 4 Stress—Strain Plot Figure 5 Stress—Velocity Plot Figure 6 Stress—Attenuation Plot < previous page page_230 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_230.m.html12/05/2010 06:32:04 a. ..

Y and Z directions at Confining Pressures of (a) 0 psi and (b) 30 psi (207Kpa) < previous page page_231 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.. .html12/05/2010 06:32:05 a.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_231..m.page_231 < previous page Page 231 page_231 next page > Figure 7 Wave Signatures along X.

html12/05/2010 06:32:06 a.m.page_232 < previous page Page 232 page_232 next page > Figure 8 Wave Signatures along X...ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_232. . Y and Z directions at Confining Pressures of (a) 60 psi (414 Kpa) and (b) 90 psi (621 Kpa) < previous page page_232 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.

It is seen that all the three measures of anisotropy show similar trends and provides a guideline for the development of suitable correlation functions. the velocity anisotropy (Vanis) and the attenuation anisotropy (Aanis) as follows: (1) (2) (3) Figure 9 shows the variations of Manis..page_233 < previous page page_233 next page > Page 233 We define the mechanical anisotropy (Manis).. . Development of correlation functions between the two is therefore feasible and a subject of continuing investigation. The quantification of material anisotropy suggests that the mechanical anisotropy (due to strains) compares very well with the ultrasonic anisotropy. The magnitudes of these measures are larger at low value of confining stress and they decrease and attain constant values at large values of confining stress. < previous page page_233 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.m. Figure 9 Variation of Mechanical and Ultrasonic Anisotropies with Confinig Prssure CONCLUSIONS A combination of mechanical (destructive) tests and ultrasonic (NDT) provides information about enhanced understanding of the material anisotropy. Vanis and Aanis with the applied confining stress.html12/05/2010 06:32:06 a.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_233.

2nd ed. Induced Anisotropy in A Sand.J. Desai.S. 1..S. 1980. Inc. Geotechnique. Desai. Krautkramer. C. H. < previous page page_234 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. N.S. Correlation Between Mechanical and Ultrasonic Responses For Anisotropic Behavior of Soils Under Cyclic Loading.S. Desai.S. H. JI. Washington. Desai.html12/05/2010 06:32:07 a. Somasundaram. pp. (Under Preperation). and Desai. Vol.. 9. and Dunstan. pp.. 1977.. 225–257. Numer. Desai C. D. 1984. 1986.. A.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_234.. 6. Inc. 1990. 74–87. Ph. 8. S and Frantziskonis. Varadarajan. C. Numer.S.A Hierarchical Approach for Constitutive Modelling of Geologic Materials. New York. Ultrasonic Testing Materials.. Anal.. . J.. Arizona. pp.C. S.m. pp..S. Failure and Potential Functions in Plasticity. 4. pp. 5. Casagrande.. Shear Failure of Anisotropic Material. 361–375. Report to National Science Foundation. J. 10. Vol. C. Theory and Applications. Anal. D. C. 29.V. Washington..). S. Multi-axial Testing and Constitutive Modelling of a Rock Salt. Int. 31. A. Constitutive Laws for Engineering Materials. Vol.. 13–30. and Kundu. K. (Edt. Jagannath. Elsevier Science Publishing Co.. 1987. G. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Civil Engineers. T. C. JI. I. and Siriwardane. 1977. 1991. Arthur.page_234 < previous page page_234 next page > Page 234 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The research results presented herein were supported through Grant No. Methods Geotech.F. Jagannath. Dec. 1944. 3. Prentice-Hall. Springer-Verlag. Correlation Between Mechanical and Ultrasonic Responses For Anisotropic Behavior of Soils Under Cyclic Loading. Int.R.C. Tucson. et al. Methods Geotech. D thesis submitted to the University of Arizona.V. New Jersey. Vol. Constitutive Laws for Engineering Materials. T. REFERENCES 1. and Carillo. 465–473. Vol. 2. and Krautkramer. Chua. A General Basis for Yield. 7. No. CES 8711764 from the National Science Foundation. 4.

page_235 < previous page page_235 next page > Page 235 Elastic Attenuation in Non-Homogeneous Porous Materials B.Gurevich.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_235. Comparison with experimental data for frequency dependence of attenuation is also presented. However. Varshavskoe shosse. USSR ABSTRACT Elastic wave attenuation due to the Biot slow wave generation on inhomogeneities in saturated porous media is studied both theoretically and numerically. while in low-frequency dynamics it is used rather rarely. S. Concrete calculations are made for two kinds of inhomogeneities: random (with exponential autocorrelation function) and periodic.Lopatnikov Laboratory of Mathematical Modeling. VNIIGeoinformsystem. 8. Moscow. the majority of applications appears to be concerned with ultrasonics. INTRODUCTION The most often used theory of elastic waves in fluid-saturated porous media was proposed by Frenkel [1] and Biot [2. Theoretical results for one-dimensional case show essential dependence of the attenuation on the autocorrelation function of the inhomogeneities.html12/05/2010 06:32:07 a. The numerical results show good agreement with the theoretical predictions. For the numerical calculations the standard matrix technique is extended to the waves in poro-elastic media... 113105. . mainly because of its wrong predictions < previous page page_235 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.m. 3] forty years ago.

page_236 < previous page page_236 next page > Page 236 for the compressional and shear waves attenuation. . For the theoretical calculations the Biot theory is applied to non-homogeneous (random and periodic) porous media leading to the Biot equations with variable coefficients. Our approach to the problem is based on the idea (first proposed by White et al [7]) that the discrepancy between measured and theoretically predicted attenuation might be related to the energy transfer from the ordinary elastic wave to the Biot slow wave on the inhomogeneities.matrices instead of (2×2) for classical elastic situation. The extended matrix procedure takes into account both fast and Biot slow compressional waves leading in 1-d case to (4×4). For low frequencies Biot theory predicts the attenuation coefficients a of the fast compressional wave to be proportional to f2. Keller [12]).html12/05/2010 06:32:08 a. while laboratory measurements commonly show much larger values of α and less steep frequency dependence (α∝fn.g. Karal.6).m.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_236. Allard et al. 1<n<1. The effect of stratification is studied both theoretically and numerically. Several attempts have been made to study the effect of stratification of porous media on attenuation for certain particular cases [8–11]. The simplest and most important kind of non-homogeneity is stratification. Thomson-Haskell matrix technique for elastic layered medium was extended to the waves in saturated porous materials.. [14]) our algorithm is applicable < previous page page_236 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Unlike the former approaches to the problem (Barzam. These equations are analyzed by means of the statistical perturbation technique widely used for the waves in random media (see e. The numerical calculations were carried out to verify analytical results. [13].. Here we propose a systematic approach to this problem based on the low-frequency version of the Biot model [2] and the statistical wave theory.

that is why the formerly proposed solutions become unstable. but also to the lower frequencies.. The parameters of the medium are assumed to depend on x coordinate only.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_237. The results of these computations are presented together with the theoretical predictions. For compressional waves propagating along x axis these equations can be written in the form [16]: (1) < previous page page_237 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.html12/05/2010 06:32:08 a. 15] for a saturated porous medium. but also takes into account the dissipation effect associated with the energy transfer into the Biot slow wave. .page_237 < previous page page_237 next page > Page 237 not only to comparably high frequencies (in terms of Biot [2.. We also compare our theoretical results for the frequency dependence of attenuation with the corresponding laboratory data. THEORY Basic Equations We start with the low-frequency Biot equations [2.m. 3]). This procedure is similar to the classical elastic one. To overcome these difficulties the new approximate interface conditions for the fast wave have been derived resulting in new efficient (2×2) matrix procedure. By means of these algorithms effective attenuation coefficients for both random and periodic sequences of porous layers are computed. In this case the Biot slow wave is non-propagating and appears only within a thin boundary layer near the interface.

i. the relationship between solid and fluid velocities in each wave respectively. indicated by the corresponding subscript. (4) The characteristic equation of the matrix C is a familiar dispersion equation for the compressional waves in a saturated porous medium [1. and the eigenvectors e1 and e2 define the “polarization” of these waves.m. i=s. η—fluid viscosity. k—permeability.. β1. ρ1. (2) where the elements of the matrix B2 depend on the constant medium parameters and frequency ω. Here and below we assume for simplicity that ρs. m—porosity. φf= vf exp(−iωt)) for vector-function v={vf. f are the densities and compressibilities of each phase. The eigenvalues of C are squared wave numbers k1 and k2 of the fast and slow Biot compressional waves. (3) Premultiplying the equation (2) by form: and introducing the notations . . Considering monochromatic situation (φs=vs exp(−iωt). vs} we can rewrite the equation (1) in the form: B1(x)vxx+B2v=0. θ.html12/05/2010 06:32:09 a. k and η are constants. The components of the eigenvectors the wave type and i indicates (j—denotes < previous page page_238 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. ρf.e.. 15]. Let’s express B1(x) as a sum of the constant and fluctuating terms: B1(x)=Bo+ε(x)B′. 2. m. βo and µo denote tortuosity. we introduce the displacement potentials φs and φf: .page_238 < previous page page_238 next page > Page 238 Here the components uf=m(uf—us) and us of the vector-function u are defined by the displacements us and uf of the fluid and solid phase respectively. . we rewrite (2) in the vxx+Cv+ε(x)Bvxx=0. Furthermore. .ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_238. while elastic properties of both phases and dry skeleton may depend on x. compressibility and shear modulus of the dry (unsaturated) solid matrix respectively.

page_239 < previous page page_239 next page > Page 239 its component) form a matrix R. For the general situation the third term in the left-hand side of the equation (5) describes the effects associated with the inhomogeneity of the medium and is responsible for the energy exchange between the fast and slow waves. In other words.html12/05/2010 06:32:10 a. Statistical approach For the study of the effect of the medium inhomogeneity on the attenuation we assume that inhomogeneities are distributed uniformly along x axis.m.. (5) while v=w1e1+w2e2 =Rw. For a homogeneous medium (ε(x)≡0) the equations (5) describes the independent propagation of the fast and slow compressional waves (6) where in the low-frequency limit k1 and k2 may be expressed in the form: . . we consider ε(x) to be a stationary random function with the autocorrelation function ψ(x)=<ε(x′+x)ε(x′)> Then the equation (5) may be interpreted as a stochastic equation L0w+L1w=0 (7) Here L0=<L> is the operator of the “homogeneous” system (6) and L1 is a random operator with a zero average (L1 is of the same order as ε(x). Then in Bourret approximation [12] an equation for the mean field <w> can be written in the form: < previous page page_239 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_239. which enables to transform the first two terms of the equation (4) to the diagonal form wxx+Kw+ε(x)Swxx=0..

In particular. G1 and G2 are Green’s functions for the Helmholtz equation with the coefficients (10) Seeking the solution of (9) in the form <w1>∝exp(ikx).. an equation for the normal (fast) compressional wave is (9) where and respectively s2=s12s21.html12/05/2010 06:32:10 a. In the case of the sufficiently small fluctuations for the attenuation coefficient α=Im k and inverse quality factor (13) (c=ω/Re k1) we finally obtain (14) 1/Q=soσ2g(ω) (15) (12) < previous page page_240 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.m.page_240 < previous page Page 240 page_240 next page > [L0—<L1L0L1 >] <w>=0. (8) where angle brackets denote averaging over the set of realizations. we obtain the following dispersion relation for the fast wave (11) where σ2=ψ(0) is the dimensionless dispersion of the fluctuations.. .ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_240.

From (18) for the limits of the thin and thick layers respectively we deduce: (19) (20) Another typical situation corresponds to the periodic layering of the medium. while is a frequency which makes wavelength of the Biot slow wave equal to the mean inhomogeneity size (1/k2(ω0)=b/2).. that seem to be of natural interest.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_241. Results for random and periodic fluctuations The first case to be considered is concerned with the exponential correlation function (17) Such correlation properties are common for the Markov random functions that are considered to represent a satisfactory description of the real rocks stratification [17] from theoretical point of view as well as from empirical data.m. Substituting (17) into (16) we get (18) where δ=ω/ω0 is dimensionless frequency. This situation leads to the “serrate” correlation function (21) < previous page page_241 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing..page_241 < previous page Page 241 page_241 next page > (16) Therefore we see that the frequency dependence of Q−1 is defined by the form of the autocorrelation function . In the next section we consider two particular correlation functions. .html12/05/2010 06:32:11 a.

.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_242. (18) dashed line—periodic layering (eq.. 1.html12/05/2010 06:32:12 a.page_242 < previous page Page 242 page_242 next page > Fig. (22) Fig. Comparison of two theoretical models of attenuation in porous media with laboratory data (o—Tittmann et al [5]) solid line—present work (eq. 18)..m. dashed line—O’Connel [19] < previous page page_242 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 2. Normalized transformational attenuation as a function of dimensionless frequency solid line—random layering (eq.

. Such difficulties can be overcome when all the layers are thick compared to l2. For the calculations in such problems matrix methods [13.html12/05/2010 06:32:13 a. In this case the Biot slow wave exists only near each interface. which deals with the normal P-waves with the help of interface conditions modified with the view of the Biot slow wave generation at the interface.. This effect is used in the numerical procedure. at high frequencies. Their goal was to calculate numerically the apparent attenuation as a function of frequency for the stratified porous medium by means of the computer program designed for synthesis of compressional wave seismograms in a given sequence of homogeneous porous layers. 14. Therefore. .ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_243.m. 1) one can see that the structure of the porous medium inhomogeneity (random or periodic) plays an important role at the low frequencies and doesn’t influence the attenuation Q−1 at the higher frequencies. NUMERICAL EXPERIMENTS Algorithm To verify the theoretical results derived we’ve performed a number of numerical experiments. 18] are widely used. that is why it doesn’t influence the processes at any other interface. the algorithms available appear to be unstable. when the Biot slow wave attenuation length l2=1/Im k2 is less than layer thicknesses.page_243 < previous page Page 243 For such fluctuations the equation (16) gives: page_243 next page > (22) Asymptotic relations for the low and high frequencies similarly to (19) and (20) are (23) (24) By comparing these results with the relations (19) and (20) (fig. < previous page page_243 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. However. This procedure will be refereed to as a reduced algorithm. in order to calculate precise acoustic properties of the real rocks it is necessary to study common laws of the stratification.

One can see sufficiently good agreement between the theory and the numerical experiments. we must emphasize the importance of the asymptotic result (19). First. . which gives quite a unique frequency dependence of attenuation in the low-frequency limit(α ∝ ω3/2) This result as well as more general relation (18) seems to be in conformity with common knowledge concerning frequency dependence of attenuation at frequencies 10–1000Hz.103 kg/ m3.. (18) and (22).10−3 Pa. βf=4. DISCUSSION AND COMPARISON WITH EXPERIMENTAL DATA We are now ready to discuss certain questions concerning applicability of the theoretical results obtained. we want to point out that from the two types of the stratification considered (random and periodic) only the first one is valid for natural rocks.8. ηf=1. ρf=1.103 kg/m3. .ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_244..html12/05/2010 06:32:13 a. To make more definite conclusions we need to compare our theoretical results with the measured data for the rocks with the given statistical parameters. µs=2. If we assume a rock to fit < previous page page_244 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. pa.m. Here we’ve also plotted the curves corresponding to our theoretical results (15). In particular.7·1010 Pa.3.page_244 < previous page page_244 next page > Page 244 Results of computations In fig.s. ρs=3. 1 we show the individual and average results of the calculations for both random and periodic sequences of 100 layers with a total thickness of 10m and the following parameters: m=0.10−10 Pa. K=10−12 m2.

< previous page page_245 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. At higher frequencies it is necessary to take into account the Biot correction function [3] and higher terms in the expansion of and in powers of ω. [21]).html12/05/2010 06:32:14 a. The agreement obtained seems to be quite good. In any case. 2]. who gave proof of our results by using a rigorous mathematical asymptotic procedure known as homogenization (e. Finally. No data is now supplied with such information. .m. However. but unlike our result it seems not to follow the main tendency of the data in the low-frequency limit. fig. 2). this result also fits the data.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_245.page_245 < previous page page_245 next page > Page 245 the correlation function (18). we want to refer to Yegorov [16].g. In general case total attenuation is the sum of the usual Biot attenuation and the transformational component Q−1 caused by medium inhomogeneity. 2 demonstrates that our theoretical predictions on the frequency dependence of attenuation are quite reasonable. CONCLUSIONS The analytical formulae and numerical results obtained above show frequency dependence of the normal (fast) compressional wave attenuation due to its energy transfer into the strongly dissipative Biot slow wave at each interface inside a porous medium (transformational attenuation mechanism)... Here we also show the theoretical result of O’Connel [19] obtained on the basis of a particular version of the general theory of a local fluid flow [20]. The dynamics of the porous medium was considered under the conditions of the low-frequency limit of the Frenkel-Biot theory [1. we must know at least two parameters—σ2=ψ (0) and the correlation radius 2b. we tried to make at least qualitative comparison by seeking the best agreement of our result (18) with the laboratory data of Tittmann et al [5] (fig. As was reported [19].

pp. I. USSR. 1988. Bulau. Acoust. 8. Izvestiia Academy of sciences USSR.A. No 3. Yumatov. II. pp..H.. pp.L.E. S. 24.). Tittmann.Ju. M. and Lopatnikov. 151–154. No 1.G. Transformational Mechanism of Elastic Waves Attenuation in Saturated Porous Media. Markov. Pore Fluids and Seismic Attenuation in Rocks. 131–143. J. M.I. 681–690. 115–119. Dissipation of Elastic Waves in Fluid Saturated Rocks. 1975. 1987. F. Attenuation of Longitudinal Waves in Saturated Porous Medium with Random Inhomogeneities. 9. Mech. 28. B. Attenuation of Seismic Waves in Dry and Saturated Rocks. S. Propagation of elastic waves in a fluid-saturated porous solid. B. White. 28. M.A. Johnson. Soc. M. Acoust. 168–178. No. Frenkel. pp. A. Jones. B.G.m. A. Physics of the solid Earth. and Yumatov. 179–191. American Institute of Physics. and Lyakhovitsky. Izvestiia Academy of Sciences USSR. 5. Ya. Mikhaylova.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_246. 1986. pp. < previous page page_246 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Töksöz. Johnston. J. On the theory of seismic and seismoelectric phenomena in moist soil. P. and Sen. Proceedings of AIP Conf. Doklady Earth Science Sections. Physics of the Solid Earth. 1939–1953. 44.. Acoustic Properties of a Layered Porous Medium. 3. 1988. Laboratory Measurements. of Appl. Low-frequency Seismic Waves in Fluid Saturated Layered Rocks. and Markov. and Gurevich. 51. in Physics and Chemistry of Porous Media (Ed. 654–659. pp.G. 1956. Soc. Gurevich. 4. 1956. Higher frequency range. Low frequency range. J. 8. pp. 11. . 2. 133–150. Geophysics. Geographical and geophysical series. Soviet Geology and Geophysics. N. Izvestiia Academy of Sciences. and Tech. 1979.N. Geophysics. 10. 47–50. A.L. pp. Biot. M. pp.N. Elastic Waves in Periodically Stratified Saturated Porous Medium. T. 93–104. pp.page_246 < previous page page_246 next page > Page 246 REFERENCES 1. 281. 1985. Lopatnikov. I. Vol.html12/05/2010 06:32:14 a.Ju.L. 1944 (in Russian)...D.. M. 1984. pp. J.M.R. and Timur. Phys. D. Am. 6. Propagation of elastic waves in a fluid-saturated porous solid. Biot. Am.. and Abdel-Gawad. 2. 7. New York.. J. on Physics and Chemistry of Porous Media. D.R.

O’Connel. 13. J. 19. New York. 1977. 20.. New York. 1989. Res. J. 25. Waters. T. J. Attenuation of Elastic Waves in Finely Laminated Saturated Porous Media. Calculation of the Dynamic Characteristics of Waves in Finely Stratified Porous media. P.. Phys. V. 14. E.). O and Zinszner. Izvestiia Academy of Sciences USSR.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_247. pp. < previous page page_247 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 5719–5736. 1076–1082. 1980.. Barzam. 1926–1929. 15.page_247 < previous page page_247 next page > Page 247 12. Gulf Publications. Coussy. R. J. 1984. J. 1961. 60. C.m. New York. B. A Viscoelastic Model of Anelasticity of Fluid Saturated Rocks. Karal. 16. On Reflection of Sound Waves from Layered Two-Component Media.Ya. Applied Mathematics and Mechanics. Geophys. Bourdier. and Sen. K. 1986. Yegorov. 18. 82. D. 166–175. and Keller. Bourbie. Non-homogeneous Media and Vibration Theory..A. Elastic.. Sanches-Palencia. 911–918. Reflection Seismology. . 5. Applied Mathematics and Mechanics. Johnson. pp. on Physics and Chemistry of Porous Media.G. pp. 1979.. Appl. O’Connel.html12/05/2010 06:32:15 a. 17. R.J. pp. 1987. Phys.L. Proceedings of AIP Conf. Electromagnetic and Other Waves in Random Media. in Physics and Chemistry of Porous Media (Ed.J. Houston. Allard.N. 15. Physics of the Solid Earth.B. Wiley & Sons. pp. A. Kosachevsky. Viscoelastic Properties of Fluid Saturated Cracked Solid. 1964. Math. Springer-Verlag. 53. R.-F. B. 21.C. pp. Acoustics of Porous Media. No 12. F. L. American Institute of Physics. 537– 547. 1981. and Budiansky. and Depollier.. Biot Waves in Layered Media.

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html12/05/2010 06:32:15 a.page_249 < previous page Page 249 SECTION 5: LIQUEFACTION page_249 next page > < previous page page_249 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_249..m. ..

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As illustrated in the map shown in Fig.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_251. J. and disruption of farm roadways. The earthquake created a 37-km-long surface rupture along the Lost River Fault and caused many of the saturated granular sediments in the lower areas of the Big Lost River and Thousand Springs Valleys to liquefy. Stokoe. generally accepted guidelines have not been developed for assessing the liquefaction susceptibility of gravelly soils.D. As a result. The wire fence enclosing the hay yard was pulled apart about 75cm by the lateral movement. Large curved fissures and gravelly sand boils marked the head of the lateral spread.3m.m. . U. The University of Texas at Austin. A low permeablity cap appears to have aided in the development of high pore water pressures.. Liquefaction assessment methods for sands directly applied to SPT. 1. Investigations were conducted at Pence Ranch where liquefaction had occurred during the 1983 Borah Peak. Sediments in the loosest layer range from clean gravelly sand to sandy gravel. with scarps as high as 0. The fissures were as wide as 0. II.page_251 < previous page page_251 next page > Page 251 Liquefaction of Gravelly Soil at Pence Ranch During the 1983 Borah Peak. a susceptibility boundary based on the CPT was constructed for gravelly soils. described liquefaction-induced lateral spreading of a terrace at the Pence Ranch. BPT and Vs measurements in these gravelly soils agree well with observed field behavior.M.3 (Ms) earthquake occurred in the Borah Peak area of central Idaho on October 28. Damage included the distortion of the house and steel-frame barn shown in Fig.3m.A. In their reconnaissance report. Little information has been gathered on the characteristics and field performance of gravelly soils. Idaho Earthquake R. By extending the relationship between qc/N60 and D50 into the gravel range. located approximately 8km southeast of the southern terminus of the surface rupture. Horizontal movement was northward into the marsh. Youd et al. ABSTRACT Efforts in evaluating the liquefaction susceptibility of soils have been directed towards sands. 1983.html12/05/2010 06:32:16 a. Idaho earthquake. This terrace lies about 2m above and 300m away from the present-day channel of the Big Lost River. INTRODUCTION A magnitude 7. Liquefaction susceptibility was then correctly predicted with this new boundary.Andrus.S. < previous page page_251 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. K. liquefaction beneath the terrace generated a zone of lateral spreading over 240m long and 30m wide. Reported liquefaction effects included numerous sand boils and lateral spreading failures (Youd et al.H. [19]). 1.. Roësset Department of Civil Engineering.

. 1 < previous page page_252 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 2—Location of testing and sampling near the hay yard shown in Fig.html12/05/2010 06:32:17 a. .ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_252.m. Fig..page_252 < previous page Page 252 page_252 next page > Fig. 1—Map of the Pence Ranch site showing liquefaction effects.

dropped weights and a bulldozer were used as sources. Procedures described by Stokoe et al. the time delay between receivers was calculated as a function of frequency from the phase of the cross-power spectrum between the two receivers. The results from all receiver spacings along a test line were assembled together into a dispersion curve. sampling and seismic testing. Although different SPT and CPT equipment was employed in 1985 and 1990.7-cm inside diameter. Hammers. field investigations were conducted across the the lateral spread at Pence Ranch (Stokoe et al. a trench was excavated across the major fissure. The SASW method requires no boreholes and thus is well-suited for undisturbed testing of gravelly soils. The investigations conducted by the authors in 1985 have been briefly summarized in earlier publications (Stokoe et al. including the recent studies conducted in 1990. Finally. Soundings made with the 15-cm2 cone were performed by the U. SPT boreholes were advanced with hollow-stem augers. [15] were followed. The trench was used to log the sediment profile. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) in 1985. [10] to this conference. In-situ density tests in the gravelly sediment were conducted using a 1. < previous page page_253 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. FIELD INVESTIGATIONS Sampling and testing locations near the hay yard are shown in Fig. the penetration data agrees well.page_253 < previous page page_253 next page > Page 253 In 1984. Beneath this mantle lies a complex sequence of braided. . Shear wave velocity.S. The field work consisted of trenching. Two principals of the SASW method are that the velocity of propagation of a surface wave depends on the frequency (or wavelength) of the wave and that waves of different frequency sample different parts of the the layered medium. For each receiver spacing. continuous hollow-stem augers. Drilling included standard penetration tests (SPT).. Vs. 1985 and 1990. SPT tests were conducted using a 5-cm (2-in.2-m diameter ring following procedures outlined by the U.) outside diameter splitspoon tube following the procedures outlined in ASTM D-1586–67. 2. Harder [6]). A more complete discussion of the investigation performed in the vicinity of the hay yard is present in this paper. In situ seismic testing was performed by the Spectral-Analysis-of-Surface-Waves (SASW) method. to describe fissures. profiles were then obtained through an iterative process of matching the assembled dispersion curve to theoretical dispersion curves using a two-dimensional computer model discussed by Roesset et al. Andrus and Youd [2]). FIELD RESULTS The Pence Ranch is covered by a thin mantle of loess consisting of fine silty sand. fluvial sediment. [14 and 16].ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_253..html12/05/2010 06:32:17 a. Bureau of Reclamation [18]. [14]. BPT soundings were made with the Becker drill AP-1000 following procedures outlined by Harder [6].S. Bulk samples were collected in test pits just below the trench with the aid of a backhoe. and to perform in-situ densities.5-cm inside diameter splitspoon sampler and 12. Soundings made with the smaller cone were pushed behind the drill rig employed in 1990.m. The surface wave phase velocity was determined by dividing the distance between receivers by the time delay for various frequencies. Sampling was attempted in the boreholes using a 3. drilling. cone penetration soundings (CPT) and Becker penetration soundings (BPT) at three principal test areas. CPT soundings were made with 15-cm2 and 10-cm2 electric cone penetrometers following procedures outlined by ASTM D-3441–79.

The amount of sand contained in these samples suggests the gravel to be predominantly clast-supported (stone-on-stone). penetration. loose to dense sandy gravel. are tabulated in Table II.html12/05/2010 06:32:18 a.page_254 < previous page page_254 next page > Page 254 A simplified profile of sediments exposed in the trench near the hay yard is shown in Fig. Grain-size distribution curves of bulk samples collected in unit C are shown in Fig. Trench sediments can be divided into silty sand facies (units A and A1) and clean sandy gravel facies (units B and C). The occasional high fiction ratios in the cone soundings suggest thin lenses of silty material within unit C. and varies from 0.4m thick. and σ′m is the mean effective stress. the cap is thin and is underlain by clean. 3. saturated sediments just below the trench developed very high pore water pressures and liquefied. 3. Based on the low penetration resistances and low shear wave velocities. CPT and SASW profiles along the test alignment are included in the cross section in Fig. During the 1983 earthquake. As pore water pressures dissipated. CPT tip resistance is lowest just below the water table. A qualitative estimate of in situ density has been suggested by Seed et al.5 (1) where Gmax is the low-amplitude shear modulus. . Sediments within unit C range from gravelly sand (SP-GP) to sandy gravel (GP) containing less than a few percent fines. also shown in Fig. Loss of shear strength within the liquefying material caused part of the ground to move northward. Uncorrected Becker blowcounts within unit C range from 7 to 13 blows per 0. it is proposed that liquefaction occurred within unit C. the coarser particles segregated out during upward transport. Since Gmax is directly related to shear wave velocity. Units A and A1 form a cap of relatively low permeability and of varying thickness over the site. Water carrying sand and gravel was ejected up through the major fissure onto the ground surface. Minor amounts of water and sand also flowed up to the ground surface through much smaller cracks. located so close to the water table and lying above very loose gravelly material. At the north and south ends of the trench. Values of K2. < previous page page_254 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.5 MPa.. SPT N-values within unit C range from 6 to 16. the major fissure filled with some of the ejecting sand and gravel. unit C. Grainsize.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_254. K2 is an empirical constant which reflects the density of the material. Descriptions of each unit are summarized in Table I. 5). shear wave velocity was used to estimate the qualitatively in situ density. 4. determined for unit C range from 15 to 38. 3. Although the sediment of unit C is much coarser than the gravelly sand boil deposits in the hay yard area (as shown in Fig. Many of the SPT. Shear wave velocities range from 90 to 158m/sec. In the central portion of the trench.4 to 17. Sediments beneath unit C (units D and E) have much higher penetration and velocity properties.m. These very low values of K2 indicate that unit C is composed of very loose material. and velocity data for the loosest layer. appears to have made test area 2 the most vulnerable to liquefaction and provides an explanation for the location of the major fissure. the cap is as much as 1.3m. 5. Further evidence to support this segregation was observed in the trench. opening the major fissure shown in Fig.. Unit A1. [12] using the following relationship: Gmax=1000 K2(σ′m)0. Similar Becker blowcounts were recorded by Harder [6] within the enclosed hay yard.

Gravels are sand matrix-supported to clast-supported. and appear to have more than one mode of imbrication. less than 1% dark grayish brown (10 YR 4/2) fincs.html12/05/2010 06:32:18 a. maximum dimensions 100mm. This unit is a sandy gravel (GP) consisting of about 56% fine to coarse. non-plastic. Color of dry specimen is generally two value units higher. Gravels are hard.19g/cm3 and moisture is 3%. and does not react with HCl. hard. planer forsets having a higher sand content. b Unified Soil Classification System. Deposit grades upward from a sand with trace of silt (SW) to a silty sand (SM) with occasional charcoal fragments.75 to 4. cobbles are 75 to 300mm. defined by very low angle (about 2 degrees) planar beds with few planar crossbeds.. The finer faction in the upper few feet reacts weakly with HCl. hard. ASTM D2487–83.99g/cm3 and moisture is 5 to 14%. with strong to moderate reaction with HCl. c Color based on wet specimen and Munsell color chart.75 to 75mm. less than 1% subrounded cobbles. In-situ density of the gravelly sand is about 1. Contact with lower unit A1 is gradational.3m thick. 3—Sediment profile exposed in trench at Pence Ranch. and silt and clay (fines) are <0. characterized by beds. subrounded gravel with low sphericity. The finer fraction is very dark grayish brown (10 YR 3/2)c. sand is hard and subangular. Unit A1. Gravels are clast-supported (stone-on-stone) with a filled framework of sand to sand matrix-supported (gravel floating in sand).75mm.. which react weakly to HCl. This unit is a dry to slightly damp siltya sand with gravel dispersed throughout (SM)b. Contact with upper unit B is sharp. a Particle size defined according to ASTM D2487–83. < previous page page_255 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Contact with lower units B and C is sharp. subangular sand.65 g/cm3 and moisture is 11 to 16%. Unit B. Deposit grades from a gravelly sand (SP) to sandy gravel (GW-GP). Table I: Description of Trench Sediments at Pence Ranch Unit A. (huc value/chroma). non-plastic. of more densely packed gravel and by thin (2cm). gravel is from 4.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_255. sand is from 0. low angle (0 to 14 degrees). . less than about 0. Internal stratification is crude. Unit C.m.75mm (<200 mesh). Internal stratification is crude. Insitu density is about 2. clongated axis of several gravel particles is oriented in an east-west direction.page_255 < previous page Page 255 page_255 next page > Fig. less than 1% dark grayish brown (10 YR 4/2) fincs. The finer fraction is dark grayish brown (10 YR 4/2). In-situ density is about 1. contact with lower unit C is sharp to gradational. 43% fine to coarse. subrounded with low sphericity.

page_256 < previous page Page 256 page_256 next page > Fig.html12/05/2010 06:32:19 a. and Becker penetration logs have been omitted for clarity. surface wave test SA A. . < previous page page_256 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_256..m. Cone penetration sounding CPA. 4—Cross section of the lateral spread near the hay yard.

CP2.4 SPB 7 SAA 132 SPD 9 BP2 5 3 4. short rods. and rd=a stress reduction coefficient. 0. therefore.1 CP3 6. Stress-Based Approach The most widely used approach for assessing liquefaction susceptibility of sands is the simplified procedure developed by Seed and his colleagues based upon SPT and CPT test results (Seed et al.4 11.0 9 15. x 0.html12/05/2010 06:32:20 a. CPT tip resistance. SPB. Overburden pressures were estimated from the densities given in Table I. SPD with “pin hammer”. average based on between water table and unit D. estimated at the center of unit C range from 0.3g was used in the analysis. .D. SPA. BP N-values are equivalent SPT N60-values based on BPT and procedures by Harder [6] ANALYSIS At present. Analytical studies suggest (Bierschwale and Stokoe [3]) that amax on top of sites which liquefy is less than on top of stiff sites.4 SP2 6 SA2 92 CPB 5. Bulk—test pit sample b Tests performed in 1985: CP1. qc. rd. [10]. 1 ton/ft2=96 kPa.6 SP1 8 SA1 103 CPA 6. < previous page page_257 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. SPC. amax was estimated to be 0. there are no generally accepted procedures for evaluating the liquefaction susceptibility of soils containing gravel. .6 BP3 5 aSPT—5-cm (2-in. The cyclic stress ratio is calculated using the following expression: τav/σ′o=0.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_257... based on SPT load cell measurements made in 1990. σo=total overburden pressure. energy ratio approximately 60%.35g. To use this method.2 SPA 7 BP1 5 2 6.99 and 0.0. CP3 with 15-cm2 cone and SP1. auger. the in situ cyclic stress ratio and the modified penetration resistance are calculated. Based on several predictive approaches for stiff soil sites. Auger—127-mm I. Corrected N-value based on procedures of Seed et al.75 (testing depths < 3m). SP2 with safety hammer. CPC with 10-cm2cone.5 CP2 6.0 (loose sand) and x 1.) I. x 1.m. splitspoon barrel without liner. [11]. Penetration and Velocity Data for Unit C Test Meana PENETRATION DATAb VELOCITY Area Grain-Size DATA (mm) Average Test Average SPT Auger Bulk Cone Average Drill Hole qc Hole N60 Array Vs (MPa) (blows/ft) (m/sec) 1 4.15 (medium dense sand). x 1. Therefore.page_257 < previous page page_257 next page > Page 257 Table II: Summary of Grain-Size.65 (amax/g) (σo/σ′o)rd (2) in which amax=maximum ground acceleration.4 5.3 CP1 5. CPB. tests performed in 1990: CPA. Seed and de Alba [13]). splitspoon.8 7.6 SPC 9 SA3 97 CPC 6. Stress reduction factors. simplified procedures developed for clean sands were initially used and evaluated.D.97.

8. Any effect of gravel on the normalizing overburden coefficient. no abrupt irregularities occur in plots of penetration verses number of blows. 8) and the relationship between qc/N60 and mean grain-size (Fig. as shown in Fig. By applying the criteria of Seed and his colleagues directly. 9 for sands with a mean grain-diameter of 0. Such an extension was proposed by Andrus and Youd [1] and later modified by Stokoe et al. 9 are cyclic stress ratios versus the average normalized tip resistance. 8 for each test area. can be generated from the assessment chart based on (N1)60 (Fig. a possible susceptibility boundariy could be constructed for gravelly soil by extending the relationship between qc/N60 and mean grain-size into the gravel range.html12/05/2010 06:32:21 a. Cyclic stress ratios are plotted versus the average modified SPT and BPT penetration resistance in Fig. the influence of gravel on the SPT was ignored. Based on this boundary for mean grain-size of 12mm.6 times for loose to medium dense gravelly soils. By applying the criteria of Seed and de Alba directly and using the boundary for mean grain-size of 0. the presence of small quantity of gravel can increase greatly the penetration resistance without having much influence upon the susceptibility to liquefaction. qc1. [11] for sands was used directly to modify the SPT N-value (see footnote of Table II). In addition. Finn [5] has pointed out that the correlation between SPT and BPT may be dependent on grain-size.. just as the correlation between SPT and CPT is dependent on mean grain-size for sand (Seed and de Alba [13] and Robertson et al. Liquefaction assessment charts based on modified cone tip resistance. The low blowcounts in unit C suggest a lack of significant influence of gravel particles and could not have been increased much due to gravel content.m. the susceptibility boundary for a mean grain-size of 12mm has been added to the assessment chart of Fig. [8]) and for gravelly materials as shown in Fig. 6. 104): “It is not possible to evaluate the liquefaction susceptibility of [soils containing gravel] using the SPT. . where unit C is predicted to < previous page page_258 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Harder [6] suggested that gravel will increase the SPT N-value by 1. [14] using 15-cm2 cone data and borehole samples. unit C is predicted to have a marginal liquefaction potential. 6). However. Further sampling in test pits has shown that the sediment beneath Pence Ranch is somewhat coarser than was previously assumed based on borehole samples. Seed and de Alba [13] proposed the susceptibility boundary shown in Fig. A similar difference exists between the SPT N-values and equivalent Becker N-values presented in Table II. Also shown is the liquefaction potential curve for sands containing less than 5 percent fines. The simplified procedure of Seed et al. However. 9. 6. qc1. unit C is predicted to liquefy and has significant shear deformation potential. an assessment similar to the assessment based on N-value can be made. Cn. and the cyclic stress ratio was also ignored. According to the National Research Council (p. With this extended relationship and neglecting any effect of gravel on the assessment chart in Fig. Subsequent testing with a 10-cm2 cone has shown little variance in tip resistance with the 15-cm2 cone soundings (see Table II).” Based on SPT and BPT data at both sand and gravel sites.. [7].8mm.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_258.8mm. Also plotted in Fig. Finn. The relationship of Seed and de Alba has been extended into the gravel range through these coarser samples. 7. for unit C. Based on these findings and without established guidelines to correct for gravel.page_258 < previous page page_258 next page > Page 258 The SPT has not been recommended for liquefaction assessment in gravelly soils (National Research Council. as shown in Fig. [5]).

6—Relationship between qc/N60 and mean grain size with data from Pence Ranch and Whiskey Springs (modified from Stokoe et al. Fig..page_259 < previous page Page 259 page_259 next page > Fig. 5—Grain-size distribution curves of test-pit samples taken from unit C and a gravelly sand boil sample collected near the hay yard fence. and Seed and de Alba [13]). . after Andrus and Youd [1]. 7—Plots of penetration per blow for a few SPT tests conducted in unit C. Fig.[13].html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:32:22 a.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_259.m.. file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.

. .m.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_259.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:32:22 a.page_259 < previous page page_259 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20..

9—Liquefaction assessment chart based on Normalized CPT (Seed and de Alba [13]) with results from Pence Ranch.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_260. file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.page_260 < previous page Page 260 page_260 next page > Fig. Fig.. [11]) with SPT results from Pence Ranch..m. 8—Liquefaction assessment chart based on modified N-value (Seed et al. .html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:32:22 a.

[17]) with results from Pence Ranch. Fig. 11—Liquefaction assessment chart based on shear wave velocity (Stokoe et al.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_260.. 10—Proposed Liquefaction assessment chart based on normalized shear wave velocity (Finn [5]) with results from Pence Ranch.m..html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:32:22 a. < previous page page_260 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.page_260 Fig. .

Leslie Youd of Brigham Young University graciously provided information about the performance of Pence Ranch during the 1983 earthquake. Unit C lies within the zone where liquefaction is predicted to occur which agrees with the field performance. Bay. CPT and test pit samples. The lowest value of shear wave velocity from within unit C are shown in Fig. Young-Jin Mok. By using SPT. Finn [5]). [17] using measured shear wave velocity and maximum ground acceleration. typically 100 kPa and σ′o=effective overburden stress in same units as Pa. This extended relationship was then used to generated a possible susceptibility boundary for gravelly soil. the method based on the CPT predicted marginal liquefaction susceptibility. the relationship between the ratio of qc1 to N60 and mean grain-size was extended.html12/05/2010 06:32:23 a. Strain-Based Approach Another method of evaluating the liquefaction potential of sands is based upon analytical studies by Bierschwale and Stokoe [3] and Stokoe et al.. Additional data from other gravelly soils which have and have not liquefied are still needed to verify this procedure. Vs1. Glenn J.S. Dong-Soo Kim. 11.m. Based on this new boundary. The liquefaction potential is estimated using Fig. liquefaction behavior was also correctly predicted using the CPT method. Professor T.25 (3) were Pa=reference stress.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_261.. 10. and a high liquefaction susceptibility is correctly predicted. Rix. 11 and by plotting the shear wave velocity versus the maximum ground acceleration estimated for a stiff site at the candidate-site location. The normalized shear wave velocity. Jiun-Chyuan Sheu. Geological Survey for supporting this work. Assessment methods based on SPT and Vs measurements correctly predicted observed field behavior. CPT. CONCLUSIONS Liquefaction at Pence Ranch occurred in loose gravelly soils containing only a few percent fines. and Vs were applied directly to the field data. This method has evolved from the strain approach proposed by Dobry and his colleagues [4]. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors are grateful to the U.page_261 < previous page page_261 next page > Page 261 liquefy. . The plotted velocity data from unit C lie within the liquefiable region. James A. The degree of pore water pressure generation appears to have been controlled by a thick soil cap of low permeability that lies just above the loose gravel. Four simplified liquefaction assessment methods developed for sands based on SPT. A third stress-based approach for liquefaction assessment has been proposed based on normalized shear wave velocity (Robertson [9]. Ignacio Sanchez-Salinero. and Byungsik Lee assisted with field testing. On the other hand. is calculated as follows: Vs1=Vs(Pa/σ′o)0. < previous page page_261 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Normalized shear wave velocity data from unit C are plotted on the proposed assessment chart in Fig.

D. Washington. pp.J. 12. 1016–1032. T. Seed. Y. G.. Chung.. Harder.. Karlsruhe. in Earthquake Eng. GR87– 1. 153– 169. Idaho Earthquake. H. 1985. 1988. 1983Liquefaction. R.L.D.. 6.H.. and Powell.M. Eng. Louis. Dept. Rio de Janeiro. Vol. 3. Stokoe.. K.G. 1989. and Mok. Vol II.. Symposium on Recent Advances in Earthquake Design Using Laboratory and In Situ Tests.C. and Soil Dyn. pp. Paper GL-87–8.. of Commerce. Rix. P. Army Corps of Engineers. Laboratory Misc. D. Keefer. Robertson. Prakash. S. of CA. Japan. in Proceedings of the 2nd Int. Univ.. Special Pub. 13.J. Idaho Earthquake of October 28. 6. Div. Bureau of Reclamation. Earthquake.. 1989 3. Tokimatsu. Univ. Seismic Cone Penetration Testing for Evaluating Liquefaction Potential.S. Sanchez-Salinero.. F. D. Bldg. U. Stokoe. and Aouad.J. J. 5.D.. pp.. R. Nazarian.H. Thousand Springs Valley.J. G. D. Tokyo. and Mok. 111. 1991 (in these proceedings). K. Wong. GR84–15. Univ. Earthquake Eng. Idriss. Procedure for Determining Unit Weight of Soils In-Place by the Water Replacement Method in a Test Pit. Liquefaction of Soils During Earthquakes. 213–218. Chang.. Ph. J.C. Japan..Y. Andrus. A. I.H. R. ID. Harder. ASCE. 1984.Div. Influencc of SPT Procedures in Soil Liquefaction Resistance Evaluations. of TX. L. R. K.H.D.H. ASCE Geotech. No. 112. and Youd.. Y. in Proceedings of the 12th Int. Conference on Recent Advances in Geotech.). Analytical Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential of Sands Subjected to the 1981 Westmorland Earthquake.. 1990. T. II. J. pp. 1986. Andrus.. Youd. Germany. C. Eng.F. Comparison of 2-D and 3-D Models of Analysis of Surface Wave Tests. Moduli and Damping Fators for Dynamic Analyses of Cohesionless Soils. 183–188. D.. U.4.. Proceedings of Fifth Int.. 18. Use of In Situ Tests in Geotechnical Engineering. Stokoe. Proceedings of Ninth World Conference on Earthquake Eng. Vol. SPT-CPT Correlations.C. Sheu. J..m. Brazil.. Dissertation. II. R. 14. USBR 7221–86.L. 9. 1833–1850. R. I. Earthquake Spectra. Harp. U. Vol. Sanchez-Salinero.Geotcch. 1989. Dobry.S.M. 20.B. 1985.K. Liquefaction Potential of Sands from Shear Wave Velocity. Penetration Tests in Liquefiable Gravels. No. and Youd. of TX at Austin. 109. Proceedings. Rpt.. 16.. ASCE Geotech. M. Branch... and Wilson. Finn. D..B. R.. Bierschwale. Science Series 138.M. II.. 8.. ConeTec Investigations Ltd. Field Investigation of Gravelly Soils Which Did and Did Not Liquefy During the 1983 Borah Peak.H. 19. Eng. In Situ Testing of Hard-ToSample Soils by Surface Wave Method.J. 2.C. Geotech. 11. L. K. 15. W. K. Proceedings of Ninth World Conference on Earthquake Eng. J. 1449–1459.. and Stokoe. P.page_262 < previous page page_262 next page > Page 262 REFERENCES 1. St. 1985. Use of Penetration Tests to Determine the Liquefaction Potential of Soils During Earthquake Shaking. 71–89. Special Publication. 4. National Research Council. and Soil Dyn. Seed. Tokyo.. 17. pp. Seed. pp.S. < previous page page_262 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Yokel. H. II. Sanchez-Salinero. 1985. Geotech. Sheu.html12/05/2010 06:32:23 a. Subsurface Investigation of a Liquefaction-Induce Lateral Spread. pp. I.. R. No. (Ed. pp. Berkeley. Campanella..M.. and Wightman. and Earthquake Eng. No. III. . 1985.S. Geotech. R.M. B. Burnaby. T. Rpt. 11.. III. 1988.L.D.G. Div. ASCE J.K.L. Andrus.. G. J.B. Stokoe...G. pp.. Liquefaction of Gravelly Soils During the 1983 Borah Peak. Geotech..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_262. K. II. Conference on Soil Dyn. K.B. R. Bierschwale. 679–682.J. P. Rix.F. Prediction of Pore Water Pressure Buildup and Liquefaction of Sands During Earthquakes by the Cyclic Strain Method.T.S. MI. Roesset. II. 1987.L. Geotech. Y. J. 1988. 1249–1273. S. Andrus. 1988. ASCE J. Geotech. 1425–1445. I. pp. II. and Mok.. H. No. and Chung. and Tokimatsu.K. R. Assessment of Liquefaction Potential and Post-Liquefaction Behavior of Earth Structures: Developments 1981–1991.. E... Roesset. Vol.. 7. 264–278.. National Academy Press. Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Eng. K.W. Idaho. Ladd. Rix. 12. and Stokoe. Robertson. Laboratory and Field Procedures for Soils Engineering. 1991. Use of SPT and CPT Tests for Evaluating the Liquefaction Resistance of Sands. No. The Borah Peak. N. and de Alba. 10. 2..

.Hayashi (**) (*) Department of Civil Engineering and Operations Research. Princeton. . In this paper. U. Kajima Institute of Construction Technology.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_263.Keane (*). anisotropic. DYNA1D has been developed to allow site response analyses to be performed taking into account: (1) the nonlinear. and hysteretic stress strain behavior of the soil materials. the results of liquefaction experiments using a shaking table and computed results obtained in the simulation of the liquefaction tests by DYNA1D are presented and discussed.. Sophisticated engineering judgment is often necessary in defining the required material constitutive parameters for such analyses.html12/05/2010 06:32:24 a. N.m.Ohbo (**). (**) Civil Engineering Department.S. Dry and saturated. Tokyo 182.Prevost (*). Then.H. A. Firstly. The onedimensional liquefaction analysis program DYNA1D is based on the three-dimensional multi-surface plasticity theory and required material parameters can be obtained from standard soil tests. together with its validations. K. cohesive and cohesionless soil deposits can be analyzed. C. The procedures used (field (Biot [3]) and constitutive equations (Prevost [7.M. < previous page page_263 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.page_263 < previous page page_263 next page > Page 263 Validation of Procedures for Analysis of Liquefaction of Sandy Soil Deposits J. 10]) are general and applicable to multi-dimensional situations. Japan ABSTRACT Numerous constitutive laws have been proposed by researchers for expressing the behavior of sand as an elastoplastic material in analyses of liquefaction which occur in sandy soil deposits during earthquakes. Chofu-Shi. 1987. Princeton University. 19–1 Tobitakyu 2-Chome. DYNA1D is used to simulate the Superstition Hills (California) earthquake of November 24. INTRODUCTION DYNA1D (Prevost [8]) is a finite element computer program for nonlinear seismic site response analysis. and (2) the effects of the transient flow of the pore-water through the soil strata. Computed and recorded excess pore-water pressure histories are compared and discussed in detail. 9. New Jersey 08540. the basic components of the analysis procedure are presented.

etc. The cross section of the yield surface by any deviatoric plane is circular with radius . This is illustrated in Figure 2. 9.) based on the results of resonant column tests are also available (see. “triaxial” or simple shear soil tests). Further details of the plasticity model can be found in Prevost [7. Typically. M=material parameter. Their dependence on the mean stress is empirical in nature. and a purely deviatoric kinematic hardening rule is adopted. 10]. overconsolidation ratio. the direction of translation µ is selected such that: (3) where M′ and α′ are the plastic parameters associated with the next outer surface (M‘>M). Unless α=0.html12/05/2010 06:32:25 a. the plastic parameters may be generated by the procedure reported in Prevost and Keane [11]. confining stress. A non-associative flow rule is for the dilatational component. [12]. s=σ−pδ deviatoric stress tensor < previous page page_264 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. For cohesionless soils. a=0 and the apex of the cone is at the origin. In the absence of detailed laboratory soil test data. The is illustrated by Figure 1 in principal stress space. In order to allow for the adjustment of the plastic hardening rule to any kind of experimental data.m. where ν=Poisson’s ratio. The constitutive parameters required to characterize the behavior of any given soil are determined by fitting the model to available experimental soil test data. e. B=G[2(1+ν)/ 3(1–2ν)]. All required plastic model parameters can be derived entirely from the results of conventional soil tests (e. To avoid overlappings of the surfaces (which would lead to a non-unique definition of the constitutive theory).. The yield function plots as a conical yield surface in stress space with its apex located along the hydrostatic axis at the attraction. a collection of nested yield surface (Mroz [6]) is used. α=kinematic deviatoric tensor defining the coordinates of the yield surface center in deviatoric stress subspace. .page_264 < previous page Page 264 PLASTICITY MODEL FOR FRICTIONAL SOILS The yield function is selected of the following form: page_264 next page > (1) where (2a) (2b) (2c) (2d) with c=cohesion. The (hypo-)elastic shear G and bulk B moduli (low strain moduli) are best determined through seismic (wave velocity)-type measurements.g.. Correlation formula (relating moduli to initial void ratio. the axis of the cone does not coincide with the space diagonal.. and is suggested by Richard et al. Its center does not generally coincide with the origin but is shifted by the amount ..g.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_264. Hardin and Drnevich [4]).

The one-dimensional finite element mesh consists of 21 elements and 22 nodes. was selected as the test case for the purpose of simulating the liquefaction phenomena by use of the one-dimensionsal liquefaction analysis program DYNA1D (Prevost [8]). A sinusoidal wave (4 Hz.175m used for layer 1 (the top-most < previous page page_265 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The excess pore-water pressure ratios are negative for the first 4 seconds of shaking. [1]. although most increases occurred during the first 40sec of the event. 1987 included an event (MS=6.0m) were utilized to investigate the validity of DYNA1D in solving liquefaction problems observed in such tests. The total number of yield surfaces was set equal to 20.html12/05/2010 06:32:25 a.6) for which pore-water pressure increases accompanied by reduction of the vertical effective stress were recorded for this event. . and a cross-section of the array site is shown in Figure 6 which includes shear-wave velocity values (Bierschwale [2]). A geotechnical investigation of the site is contained in Bennett et al. of November 24. with the maximum negative value occurring at about 20cm in depth. The mesh is fixed at the base. in which the excess pore-water pressure ratio reached 1. Nodal spacing varies for each geologic layer with the largest spacing of 0.page_265 < previous page page_265 next page > Page 265 SIMULATION OF LIQUEFACTION TESTS BY DYNA1D Liquefaction tests performed using a shaking table (base dimensions of 2. California to monitor earthquake-induced pore-water pressures in a cohesionless soil deposit (Youd and Wieczorek [13]). Figure 5 is a comparison of the excess pore-water pressure time histories at observation points W2 and W3 obtained in the experiment and in the analysis.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_265.0. Liquefaction has been nearly reached after 10 seconds of excitation from 40 to 60cm depth. The computed vertical distributions of the excess pore-water pressure ratios at 1 second intervals are presented in Figure 4. and the vertical distribution of the maximum excess pore-water pressure. Table 2 contains material parameters for each layer. The finite element mesh used to represent the semi-infinite soil deposit consists of 29 one-dimensional elements (30 nodes)..m. Pore-water pressure increased for 97 sec after recordings began. the rise of the excess pore-water pressure. hereafter referred to as the Wildlife Liquefaction Array. The computed results compare quite well with the experimental results. was installed in 1982 in Imperial County. The experimental and numerical liquefaction analysis procedures agree in the occurrence of the negative excess pore-water pressure. The array consists of surface and downhole (depth=7. and semi-infinite at the sides. 200gal) input. Input to the model consists of the acceleration response wave observed at point A1.. CA.3m used for layer 5 (the bottommost layer) and the smallest spacing of 0.0m and height of 1. The required material constitutive parameters were determined from the methods listed in Table 1.5m) accelerometers and six pore-water pressure transducers..5m× 1. The earthquake in Imperial County. ANALYSIS OF EARTHQUAKE DATA USING DYNA1D A special instrumentation array. free at the top. Profiles of the excess pore-water pressure ratios shown at one second intervals for a particular cross-section are presented in Figure 3.

respectively. Downhole accelerations in each horizontal direction.page_266 < previous page page_266 next page > Page 266 layer). the solid line on each plot represents the initial stress condition. Input motions for the 2D kinematical analysis consist of the downhole acceleration components in the: (a) N-S and vertical directions for 2D Analysis A. and each node at or below the water table is assigned four degrees of freedom. In the first analysis.html12/05/2010 06:32:26 a.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_266. and 9c. referred to as 2D Analysis A and 2D Analysis B discussed hereafter. 7b. whereas layers above the water table are assumed dry. similar rate of pore-water pressure increase once it has begun.m. all plots display the same starting time of pore-water pressure increase. Input motions for the 3D kinematical analysis consist of the downhole acceleration components in the N-S. < previous page page_266 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. It seems that the pore-water pressure increases are largely the result of the N-S acceleration component. the N-S component dominates the response. Two approaches are used to study the response of the soil column to base excitation. .. vertical. 5m. respectively). Using this approach. and 2D Analysis B (Figures 9a. It is of interest to note the strong likeness between the results of the 3D Analysis (Figure 9a) and 2D Analysis A (Figure 9b). and 6. Computed and recorded plots of the pore-water pressure time histories at depths of 3m. all downhole acceleration components are input at the same time and the response obtained in one set of computations. It is clear in this case that the 3D Analysis provides marginally better improvements than either 2D Analysis.. Computed and recorded pore-water pressure time histories at the locations of the three porewater pressure transducers (3m. For example. and good agreement in the final value of excess pore-water pressures. Note that only three pore-water pressure transducers are located within the soil deposit of interest. and 6. Soil strata and location of recording devices are also shown. Nodes above the water table are assigned two degrees of freedom for the solid phase only.6m as a result 2D Analysis A and 2D Analysis B are shown in Figures 8a. and E-W directions. three for the solid phase and three for the fluid phase (for the N-S motion. similar times at which the rates of pore-water pressure increase begin to slow down. Good agreement is found between computed and recorded pore-water pressure time histories. 8b. This point is further emphasized by the vertical effective stress variations with depth as a result of the 3D Analysis. and six degrees of freedom are assigned to each node at or below the water table. 9b. and 7c. 2D Analysis A.6m) are shown in Figures 7a. 3 dimensional kinematics are used. 5m. two for the solid phase and two for the fluid phase (for horizontal motion and vertical motion). and (b) E-W and vertical directions for 2D Analysis B. and two separate computations are performed. are input individually along with the vertical component of downhole acceleration. respectively). vertical motion. Layers below the water table are assumed fully saturated. which is not unexpected since it is a stronger signal than the E-W motion. respectively. 2 dimensional kinematics are used. N-S and E-W. Clearly. The stress variation with depth is displayed every 2 sec. In the second analysis. and E-W motion. and 8c. The recorded and computed pore-water pressure time histories have the same similarities as in the 3D Analysis. Nodes above the water table are assigned three degrees of freedom for the solid phase only.

. MCLAUGHLIN.. J. Mech. 1988. These supports are gratefully acknowledged. M..V. The records for the MS=6. California. B..G.J. Phys. Soil Mech. 1987. pp.S.. T.e.” J..page_267 < previous page page_267 next page > Page 267 CONCLUSIONS The validity of the liquefaction analysis program DYNA1D has been studied for two types of data: (1) data obtained from shaking table tests. 1987 have been used to compute the response of a soil deposit as observed in-situ using a nonlinear one-dimensional analysis (i. 1972. BENNETT. “In situ mea-surement of pore pressure build-up during liquefaction..A. Comparisons of pore-water pressure variations have been discussed in detail and found to be in good agreement. “Shear Modulus and Damping in Soils: Design Equations and Curves.. 5. SARMIENTO. 6. Vol. 3.. AND DRNEVICH. Div. V.. No.O. Also. AND YOUD. Z. Vol. pp. .L. MD. Phys.. such as: the early occurrence of negative excess pore-water pressure. Gaithersburg.. pp. the trends in vertical distribution of the maximum shear strains.”. No. As a result. HOLZER. 98. 2. Vol.” J. 4. T. M.L.m. 1984. 163–175. 1984. 4..P. J. DYNA1D) of the semiinfinite soil deposit. Imperial Valley. HARDIN. Geological Survey Open-File Report 84–252. BIERSCHWALE. SM7. Solids.html12/05/2010 06:32:26 a. App.. “Mechanics of Deformation and Acoustic Propagation in Porous Media..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_267. YOUD. 1482–1498. it was confirmed that DYNA1D is capable of closely simulating the details of an experimental shaking table liquefaction test. < previous page page_267 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. the vertical distribution of maximum excess pore-water pressures. P. T. the results of the 3-dimensional kinematical analysis and the 2-dimensional kinematical analysis are compared and discussed.S. 667–692. 1962.. 15.L. “Geotechnical investigation of liquefaction sites. 1967.” University of Texas Geotechnical Engineering Report GR-84–15. and the time history response of excess pore-water pressures.J. and by Kajima Corporation (Japan) as part of a collaborative research program in Earthquake Engineering with Princeton University. ASCE.” Presented at 20th Joint Meeting of United States-Japan Panel on Wind and Seismic Effects. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant ECE 85–12311 via sub-contracts under the auspices of the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research. 103 p.6 event of the Superstition Hills earthquake of Nov. 33.. “Analytical evaluation of liquefaction potential of sands subjected to the 1981 Westmorland earthquake.” U.231 p. and (2) data recorded during the Superstition Hills earthquake of November 24. MROZ. AND BENNETT. Found. M. BIOT. REFERENCES 1. “On the Description of Anisotropic Work-Hardening.

NCEER-89–0025. Vol. R. J. 1982. 9–17. 8.. 8.. G. 1. C. Meth.H. Geological Survey Open-File Report 84–680. AND HALL..m. pp. < previous page page_268 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.” U.H. 1990. R. No. 195–216. J. 4. 10. 13.html12/05/2010 06:32:26 a..R. 1977. RICHARD.F. Vol. 36 p.. of Civil Eng. PREVOST. 12. Princeton University. N. PREVOST. Vol. “Two-Surface vs. T.M.. YOUD. J. WOODS. Num. Vol. 6.L. 1985. 116. 323–338. “DYNA1D: A Computer Program for NonlinearSeismic Site Response Analysis.page_268 < previous page page_268 next page > Page 268 7. Meth. AND KEANE. . “Mathematical Modeling of Monotonic and Cyclic Undrained Clay Behavior. Engrg.J. AND WIECZOREK. 1255–1263.. “Shear Stress-Strain Curve Generation from Simple Material Parameters. J. 1. Multi-Surface Plasticity Theories. Vibrations of Soils and Foundations. 1984.” J. Num. pp.” Report No.. Geom.” Int..E. 2.. Geotech. J. 9. PREVOST. California.. 1988. 1970.” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering. pp. PREVOST. Prentice-hall. 11.. and Operations Research. Div. ASCE. “A Simple Plasticity Theory for Frictional Cohesionless Soils... Dept.S.D. J..H. “Liquefaction during the 1981 and previous earthquakes near Westmorland. PREVOST.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_268. No. J.” Int. J.H. Geom. No.H.

.0×104 N/m2 20 0 N/m2 38° % 0.page_269 < previous page Page 269 Table 1: Input data Equations in DYNA1D 2-Phase Effective Stress Analysis Multi-Surface Theory Input Data page_269 Value 2.3×107 N/m2 1.01cm/sec 1. Com.m.0×109N/m2 38 % 0.02 next page > Test Method Specific Gravity test Known Quantity Known Quantity Moisture Content Test Permiablity Test PS-Logging Triaxial Test (Drained) Known Quantity Assumption Triaxial Test (Drained) ″ ″ ″ ″ •Specific Gravity of Soil ρs •Specific Gravity of Water pw •Bulk Modulus of Water Bw • Porosi ty n w •Coefficient of Permeability k •Shear Modulus of Soil Gs •Bulk Modulus of Soil Bs •Initial Effective Stress pθ •Number of Yield Surface •Cohesion C •Friction Angle ø •Max.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_269..0 2. Shear Strain •Dilatancy Parameter χp < previous page page_269 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Ext..7 1. Shear Strain •Max.html12/05/2010 06:32:27 a.5×107 N/m2 3.

..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_270..m.page_270 < previous page Page 270 page_270 next page > Figure 1: Yield surface in principal stress space Figure 2: Yield surface translation by the stress point in deviatoric stress space < previous page page_270 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.html12/05/2010 06:32:27 a.

m... .mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_271.html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:32:28 a.page_271 < previous page Page 271 page_271 next page > Figure 3: Recorded excess pore-water pressure ratio distribution Figure 4: Computed excess pore-water pressure ratio distribution file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.

..mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_271..m.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:32:28 a.page_271 Figure 5: Comparison between the recorded and computed results < previous page page_271 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.

page_272 < previous page Page 272 page_272 next page > Figure 6: Profile view of layered soil deposit at Wildlife site < previous page page_272 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.m.html12/05/2010 06:32:29 a.. ..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_272.

0° Dilation Angle 21.4047 0.0833 0.8 to 7.5 116.0 Page 273 Table 2: Material parameters for layered soil deposit at Wildlife site Layer 1 2 Depth (m) 0. (1988).0 Vetocity(1) (m/s) Total 1600.6799 0.0 to 1.4431 Reference Mean 1.0º Coefficient of — Permeability (m/sec) xp.61×107 2.0 1940...57×107 1.0° 1.15×104 2.0833 0.0º 1.0 2000.0° 18. Dilatancy parameter 0. .5 130.30 5.0 2.5 to 6.0 next page > 5 6.7400 0.0×10−4 35.50×107 0.95×104 Normal Stress (N/m2) Friction Angle(3) 21. et al.0×10−5 1970.50×107 0.0 4 3.00×104 22.7955 Porosity 0.html12/05/2010 06:32:29 a.5 to 3.0º 1.83×107 0.4075 8.5 Shear Wave 99.2 to 2. et al.3º 20.8 116. (3) From Bennett.25 0.0833 0.0×10−6 0.m.7400 0.47×107 (solid) (N/m2) Poisson’s Ratio 0.70×107 0.0 99. (1984).10×104 0.0 Density(2) (kg/m3) Shear Modulus 1.3º 20.. (2) From Holzer.08×107 2.30 4.4253 4.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_273.25 BuIk Modulus 2.page_273 < previous page page_273 3 2.2 1.0 1970.0833 < previous page page_273 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.4253 6.0° 5.0º 19.0×10−5 22.30 4. Other parameter values assumed or computed for 1.10×104 0.0833 (1) From Bierschwale (1984)..08×107 2.6878 0.44×107 (solid) (N/m2) Void Ratio(2) 0.

html12/05/2010 06:32:30 a.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_274.m.page_274 < previous page Page 274 page_274 next page > Figure 7: 3D Analysis—Pore-water pressure time histories (a) Depth=3m (b) Depth=5m (c) Depth=6..6m < previous page page_274 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.. .

6m < previous page page_275 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.page_275 < previous page Page 275 page_275 next page > Figure 8: 2D Analysis—Pore-water pressure time histories (a) Depth=3m (b) Depth=5m (c)Depth=6.m..html12/05/2010 06:32:31 a. ..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_275.

m.page_276 < previous page Page 276 page_276 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_276..html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:32:32 a. ..

m.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:32:32 a.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_276. .. depth (a) 3D Analysis (b) 2D Analysis A (c) 2D Analysis B < previous page page_276 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.page_276 Figure 9: Vertical effective stress vs..

INTRODUCTION Laboratory studies on liquefaction of soils are almost exclusively based on undrained test results conducted under either monotonic or cyclic loading conditions. 4].Chu Department of Civil and Maritime Engineering. a new procedure for the interpretation of undrained test data for soil liquefaction is proposed.m. a kind of liquefaction which occurs under non-undrained conditions is investigated. It is emphasized that the flow strength of liquefied soil may be influenced by the initial effective confining stress. procedures for evaluation of liquefaction of soil have been proposed [15]. Canberra Australia ABSTRACT In the first part of the paper.page_277 < previous page page_277 next page > Page 277 Liquefaction of Sands Under Undrained and Non-Undrained Conditions J. The implication of this kind of liquefaction is discussed. A key concept in the interpretation of undrained test data for liquefaction is the so called steady flow state [3. Despite of intensive studies over the last 20 years.html12/05/2010 06:32:33 a. In the second part. liquefaction of granular soils under the undrained condition is studied. University of New South Wales. The experimental results show that under non-undrained conditions.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_277.. liquefaction is also possible for dense granular soil. . To consider such influences. University College. Based on this concept. Hence. a thorough understanding on the steady state behaviour of granular soil is still yet to be achieved. the steady state line may not be unique for some soils. but depending on both the void ratio and the initial effective stress.. It has been pointed out by Seed [16] that the available experience seems to indicate that in many cases the existing procedure for the evaluation of liquefaction may lead to significantly higher values of < previous page page_277 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.

the undrained test condition inherently implies that the void ratio of a sand deposit. The first assumption was made by Castro [3] based on his experimental studies. the other than undrained. Considering the above fact. However. and the pore water pressure become constant while the axial strain keeps on increase as in a flow structure. it may be necessary to re-examine the basic assumptions of the steady-state method.” Seed’s argument is supported by the results of shaking table test [16]. a method which can consider the effective stress dependent behaviour of steady state is proposed to evaluate the liquefaction potential and the steady state strength.html12/05/2010 06:32:33 a. the approach presented in this paper can be extended to situations where liquefaction occurs under cyclic or dynamic loading conditions. after it liquefies. Two major assumptions have been made in the steady state methods: 1). The adequacy of the second assumption has also been questioned. The discussion is confined to static liquefaction only. conditions.. the shear stress. a unique steady state line exists in the void ratio and effective stress space and this line is a function of the initial void ratio of the soil only [3]. LIQUEFACTION UNDER UNDRAINED CONDITION Stress dependency of steady state When a soil sample liquefies in an undrained test. Konrad’s finding is further supported by Chu [6] and Chu et al [9]. Konrad [10. In the first part of the paper. is the same as that of soil before it liquefied. Considering the influence of the initial effective confining stress. a kind of liquefaction occurs under non-undrained conditions is studied. 11] recently pointed out that the steady state strength of a soil is influenced not only by the void ratio of the soil but also by the initial effective confining stress. Consequently. 2). it requires that liquefaction of soil needs also to be studied under the non-undrained.m.. Based on his undrained test results. Such a phenomenon has been referred to as steady state [3]. the existing methods may no longer be applicable for interpreting the undrained test data for liquefaction of soils [9].page_278 < previous page page_278 next page > Page 278 steady-state than those observed on actual liquefied sands in the field. the volume of the sample. . In the second part. that is. However. Seed [16] has indicated that “it is possible that there is a redistribution of water content in sand samples in the laboratory and in sand layers in the field.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_278. The objectives of this paper are to address the above issues. Another flow phe- < previous page page_278 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.

Influence of Initial Stress on Flow Strength (Data from [3]) < previous page page_279 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.html12/05/2010 06:32:34 a. limited flow over a significant strain range should also be considered in liquefaction study. 1 presents the results of two isotropic consolidated undrained tests for a loose sand with the same void ratio but different initial effective confining stresses conducted by Castro [3]. The data published in the past appears to indicate that the steady state line for both steady flow and limited flow is unique and is entirely independent of the initial effective confining stress. It clearly shows that the two steady state points were not identical. Such points can. A steady state or a limited flow state can be plotted on an plane as a point (e is the void ratio and is the first invariant of effective stress). . The difference between the two points are so large that it cannot be explained as testing error only. The initial effective stress affects the flow strength of soil even within the same kind of flow behaviour. even Castro’s own data also indicate that the initial effective confining stress affects the steady flow behaviour. there are also data published recently which clearly show that the initial effective confining stress does affect the steady flow behaviour. form a steady state line [3]. in turn. in which the steady flow is only developed over a limited range of strain. Kramer and Seed [12] suggested that because large deformation may still induce potential damage to engineering structures. Such evidences have been given by Alarcon and Leonards [1] and Konrad [10]. Figure 1. These studies have indicated that for some soils the steady state line may not be unique. However.. More evidences were given by Chu [6] and Chu et al [9].m.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_279. Fig..page_279 < previous page page_279 next page > Page 279 nomenon in an undrained test is the so called limited flow state. In fact.

In considering the scatter of some data used for obtaining a unique steady line. Interpretation Most of the existing methods for evaluation of liquefaction potential are based on the assumption that the steady state line is a function of the void ratio only. the flow behaviour of the soil under the undrained condition can be predicted by the established relationship. In undrained tests. The procedure suggested in the following is intended to be applied for general situation. Given the initial conditions of a test. as discussed by Chu [5. the critical state depends on the initial effective stress. To overcome the shortcomings in the existing methods. However. the analysis would inevitably become much more complicated. 11]. < previous page page_280 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.html12/05/2010 06:32:34 a. conditions for the occurrence of steady flow or limited flow behaviour and its strength characteristics will be discussed separately. A number of studies have shown that the steady state line can be regarded as identical to the critical state line for granular soils [17].ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_280. the dependence of the flow strength on the initial effective stress may be related to the dependence of the critical state on the initial effective stress [9]. 6]. The influence of the initial effective stress still cannot be considered band or a unique line exists in the properly [6]. the determination of the UF and LF lines is quite arbitrary and the lines so determined are lack of physical meanings. especially at a low stress range. the real difference between Konrad’s and the previous methods is whether a unique plane. A relationship between the occurrence of flow and the initial conditions of tests (e and ) can be established experimentally. Thus. Therefore. Without this assumption... the liquefied state is referred to as a steady flow state. A non-liquefied state may be referred to as nonflow state. Konrad [10] argued that the steady state line may not be unique. The assumption that the steady state line is unique has offered a great convenience in studying the liquefaction behaviour of soils. These two bounds have been denoted as the UF and LF lines in Konrad’s papers [10. A limit flow state may be regarded as a transition from the non-flow state to the flow state. The occurrence of flow behaviour under the undrained condition for a given soil depends on the void ratio e and the initial effective confining stress . but should be bounded by an upper bound and a lower bound. In the following.m. . a new procedure is proposed for interpreting the undrained test data for the study of static liquefaction of granular soils.page_280 < previous page page_280 next page > Page 280 It has been reported [18] that for some granular soils.

ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_281. 2(b) as point 1 and point 2. Supposedly four undrained tests for samples having four specially chosen void ratios are tested under Schematically. For the other two curves..m. their initial conditions can be shown in Fig. . 2(b) as point l and point u. The region bounded by the two points represents transition states between the steady flow and non-flow states. The points l and u also define the two boundaries of the transition zone. the stress-strain curves of the four tests can be presented in the same initial effective confining stress Fig.html12/05/2010 06:32:35 a. < previous page page_281 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.page_281 < previous page Page 281 page_281 next page > Figure 2. the higher the tendency to flow [10] [12]. Correspondingly.. curve l represents the state where the limited flow just occurs and curve u the state where the steady flow just occurs. They are called lower point and upper point respectively in the following discussion. The initial conditions for curves l and u can also be shown in Fig. Flow States versus Initial Conditions Liquefaction potential The influence of void ratio on the occurrence of flow can be stated as that the looser the sample. 2(a) in which curves 1 and 2 represent non-flow and steady flow states.

page_282 < previous page Page 282 page_282 next page > Figure 3.html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:32:36 a.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_282... Initial Conditions for Liquefaction Figure 4. Critical Flow State and Steady Flow Lines file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.m. .

..mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_282.m.page_282 < previous page page_282 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20..html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:32:36 a.

The band divides the plane into two zones. However. it is a general and objective approach for the evaluation of the liquefaction potential. It needs to be noted that the SS line and the LS line are different from the UF line and the LF line defined by Konrad [10].html12/05/2010 06:32:36 a. For an undrained test. These points form a pair of steady state line and limited flow state line. The SS line and LS line defined here have distinct physical meanings. All these points also form a band. 4. the SS line and LS line < previous page page_283 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Flow strength As the steady state strength is different from the limited flow state strength for the same initial effective confining stress. The T-band describes the strength characteristics during the transition from the non-flow state to the steady flow state. Since the steady state and the limited flow state are influenced by the initial effective stress state. the non-flow zone and the flow zone as shown in Fig. liquefaction will not occur. the steady state strength and the limited flow strength need to be considered separately. if the initial condition is in the non-flow zone. These states plane as points Su and Sl. Su and Sl represent the critical steady can also be plotted on the flow state and the critical limited flow state respectively. U2 and L2.. a upper curve and lower curve can be obtained. It is noted that the determination of the I-band does not require the data regarding the flow strength and whether the steady state can be uniquely determined or not.page_283 < previous page Page 283 page_283 next page > Since the initial effective confining stress affects the flow behaviour of soil. Thus.. This band represents the transition state in which limited flow occurs. 3 as U1 and L1. Corresponding to one initial effective confining stress. as shown in Fig. if the initial condition falls in the flow zone. called T-band. They can be specially denoted as SS line and LS line. These form a band on plane.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_283. as shown in Fig. the UF line and LF line are determined arbitrarily and do not have physical meanings [8. Similarly. It is entirely dependent on the initial test conditions. liquefaction will be manifested in an undrained test. . corresponding to different there can be different u and l points. although they are quite similar. samples liquefied at different void ratios will result in different steady state points and so will limited flow state points.m. It is the critical values which may have more engineering interest. Un and Ln. Schematically they are shown in Fig.…. which can be called I-band. 4. 9]. By joining all these points. Critical flow states Tests under the initial conditions given by the upper points and lower points of the I-band correspondingly lead to critical steady states and critical limited states. 3.

However. . provided the steady state and the limited flow state are modelled separated. by examining the published data it is noted that in some cases the data for steady states generated from different initial effective confining stresses can still be fitted into one line within certain accuracy.m. Strictly speaking. SS line or LS line can be approximately modelled as a unique line for some soils. undrained tests conducted under different initial effective confining stress will have different pairs of SS line and LS line. 4. although general and feasible. Interpretation of Undrained Tests for Dune Sand [10] It needs to be pointed out that the SS line and the LS line defined above may not be parallel to each other. These SS and LS lines represent the strength characteristics of soil in the steady flow and limited flow state under a certain initial effective confining stress. It has been discussed in [9] that the influence of the initial effective confining stress is only considerable when the stress level is low.. Comparison of the proposed < previous page page_284 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Figure 5. Different SS lines and LS lines reflect the influence of the initial effective confining stress on the steady flow and limited flow behaviour. Furthermore. there is no reason why they should be parallel to each other. Therefore. is too complicated to be used for a normal liquefaction analysis. as schematically illustrated by Fig. but depends on the initial effective confining stress.html12/05/2010 06:32:37 a. The above procedure for determining the steady flow or limited flow state lines. As the bounding points of F-band.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_284..page_284 < previous page page_284 next page > Page 284 so defined are not unique. points of Su and Sl form the starting points of SS line and LS line.

Two submergible LVDTs which were mounted directly over the top platen were used for measuring the axial deformation. was used for the study. 5. In a strain path test.page_285 < previous page page_285 next page > Page 285 procedure with that suggested by Been and Jefferies [2] and Konrad [10] is made in [9]. When Thus.3mm. . path. The elimination of the above errors is essential for a precise control of strain path. when strain path testing technique developed by Chu and Lo [7] was adopted to restraint the deformation of the sample. On the other hand. Example As an example to illustrate the application of the above proposed method. . a uniformly graded quartz sand with the average grain diameter of 0. This diagram provides a systematic presentation for both the prediction of the liquefaction potential by the initial conditions of an undrained test and strength characteristics at the steady or limited flow state. the I-band and the T-band can be determined. 5. as detailed by Lo et al [13].m. Free-ends with enlarged platens were used to effectively reduce the platen restraint. the test results on Dune sand [10] are interpreted in Fig. < previous page page_285 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing... Using the other data points. the sample will dilate and water will flow into the sample. the SS and LS lines corresponding to can also be determined in Fig. if any. A nonundrained condition can be modelled as with representing the undrained condition. The dry sand was re-constituted into saturated samples of 100-mm-diameter by 100-mm-height. both bedding and membrane penetration errors were present. was adopted in all the tests to reduce these errors to an insignificant magnitudes. Thus. the response of soil under the non-undrained conditions can be studied by controlling the ratio of the deformation of the sample is in compression and water flows out of the sample. An internal load cell was used for measuring the vertical force.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_285. 6. LIQUEFACTION UNDER NON-UNDRAINED CONDITION The need for studying liquefaction of soil under non-undrained conditions has been discussed in Section 1.html12/05/2010 06:32:38 a. To control a non-undrained condition. The test arrangement is schematically shown in Fig. the ‘liquid rubber technique’. along a prescribed constant Testing methods Sydney sand. By taking points L14 and L18 and L8 and L13 as two pairs of upper and lower points.

m. They were achieved by a micro computer controlled data-logger system. the volumetric change of the sample was controlled. which was registered by the DPVC #2. The drainage condition was controlled by activating strain path control using DPVC #2.page_286 < previous page Page 286 page_286 next page > Figure 6. The axial load was maintained constant by continuously scanning the load cell. The cell pressure was maintained constant during a test.html12/05/2010 06:32:38 a.. However. computer would instruct the DPVC #1 which connected to the actuator to regulate the pressure.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_286. the change in pore water pressure led to a change in effective confining stress.. . If there was any discrepancy. Strain path control was achieved by using a second DPVC to control the volume change of the sample. < previous page page_286 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. thus a change in pore water pressure was resulted. Test Arrangement In a load controlled loading mode. The technique of strain path testing has been detailed in Chu and Lo [7]. the vertical force was control by a digital pressure/volume controller (DPVC) via a hydraulic bellofram actuator. The conducted test involves maintaining the vertical load to be constant and control the drainage condition. During a strain path control.

it flows in a manner resembling a liquid. 7(b). For illustrative purpose. it losses a large percentage of its shear resistance. The liquefied soil in an ordinary undrained test shows a steady state. The external loading (including both axial force and cell pressure) were then maintained constant and the volume change of the sample was restrained at a certain strain increment ratio in accordance with the increment in the axial deformation. For both tests. However. Discussion of test results The observed instability has the following two characteristics: 1). Both samples ‘crashed’ in a matter of seconds. < previous page page_287 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. it is impossible to have a detailed discussion here due to the space limitation. An isotropic consolidated sample was first sheared along a required stress level (which was smaller than the failure stress level). thus leading to effective stress paths plummeting towards the failure surface. 2).5 and 3. it is a kind of liquefaction according to the definition of Sladen et al [17]. the samples were sheared along a commencing from an isotropic effective stress state of 150kPa. However.598 and 0. such as the steady state method [15] or the collapse surface approach [17] does not apply to this new kind of liquefaction. a run-away increase in pore water pressure was manifested. only the tests results of tests #01 and #02 are presented in this paper. Testing results A group of tests were conducted. Consequently. the failure behaviours of the two kinds of liquefaction are quite different. . The effective stress paths followed by the two tests are presented in Fig. Tests #01 and #02 were two dense samples with void ratios of 0..m. Whether liquefaction would occur or not was observed in this stage. The stress ratios at which strain path control took over were 3. Evidently.page_287 < previous page Page 287 page_287 next page > path to the The testing procedures are as follows. the sample liquefied in the above discussed test crashed suddenly with the pore water pressure increased to the cell pressure level and a steady state was not followed.60 respectively. 7(a). Although both of this kind of liquefaction and the liquefaction studied in undrained tests exhibit a flow state..0 for test #01 and #02 respectively. when the prescribed stress level was reached. the existing methods developed for evaluation of the liquefied behaviour of soil. computer control was activated to maintain the external load at a constant level and to switch the drained path condition to strain path control defined by . In both tests. The pore water pressure generation curve of test #01 is given in Fig. Interested readers can refer to [8].html12/05/2010 06:32:39 a.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_287. In each test.

.m..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_288. Pore Water Pressure Generation in Test #01 < previous page page_288 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Effective Stress Paths for Tests #01&#02 Figure 7(b)..html12/05/2010 06:32:39 a.page_288 < previous page Page 288 page_288 next page > Figure 7(a).

dilative soil. < previous page page_289 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_289. it should be borne in mind that the above knowledge is based on the studies conducted under undrained condition. contractive soils can suffer the necessary loss of shear resistance to result liquefaction” [15]. The study shows that the steady state line for a soil at a given void ratio is not unique but depends on the initial effective confining stress.. A kind of liquefaction occurred under the volumetric change controlled condition is manifested experimentally. This new method can be used to identify the initial test conditions under which static liquefaction may potentially occur and to evaluate the strength at the steady state or limited flow state. are not applicable to the above general situation because most of them rely on the assumption that there exists a unique steady state line. It has been generally believed that “only soils that tend to decrease in volume during shear. It indicates that the volumetric change pattern can be a very important factor affecting the occurrence of liquefaction.html12/05/2010 06:32:40 a. This kind of liquefaction can occur at a stress level well below failure and can even occur for dense sands. thus. the main assumptions inherent in the steady state method is examined. . The factors influencing this kind of liquefaction and the conditions for the initiation of liquefaction are discussed in detail in [8]. the liquefaction occurred for dense. One of the most important implications which can be drawn from the above experimental study is that liquefaction can also occur for dense (that is dilative) soil. The existing methods for evaluation of the liquefaction potential. Lastly. however. A new procedure for interpreting the undrained test data for static liquefaction is proposed.page_289 < previous page page_289 next page > Page 289 There are a number of features in the liquefaction observed in the above tests. First. SUMMARY In this paper.m. The discovery that liquefaction can occur for dense sand has put new challenges to our existing understanding of liquefaction.. i. It indicates that the volumetric change condition can be an important factor influencing the liquefaction of soils.e. the liquefaction occurred under a non-undrained condition. it occurred at a stress state well below failure. However. Second. The need for studying the liquefaction of soil under non-undrained conditions is addressed. The influence of the initial effective confining stress on the steady flow behaviour of granular soils is discussed.

Civil and Maritime Eng. Konrad.-M. Eng.R. Discussion on Minimum Undrained Strength of Two Sands. G. J. S-C.. 103. and Lo. Vol.page_290 < previous page page_290 next page > Page 290 REFERENCES 1. Cambridge. and Seed. 1988.A. 1990.. ASCE. Interpretation of Undrained Test Data for Liquefaction of Sands.. Eng..-M. Eng. 501–505. K. S. Vol. 1969. Discussion on Minimum Undrained Strength versus Steady-State Strength of Sands. J. Found. ASCE. Chu.. 81. submitted to J. Eng. 1991. and Lo. 1991. Soil Mechanics Series No. Geot. H. Vol. Univ. On the Implementation of Strain Path Testing. J. I.J. A State Parameter for Sands. Konrad. J. 1990. pp. pp. A. 9.html12/05/2010 06:32:40 a. 1990. 99–112.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_290. ASCE.m. G. 3. College. Italy. S-C. Proc. Chu. G. 932–947. Eng. S. Research Report. J. Geot. 10. College.R. 2. 6. Dept. Lee. New South Wales. Geotechnique. ASCE. . ASCE. and Jefferies. M. 5.. Liquefaction of Sands. J. Research Report.. Eng.G. 232–236. Castro.. 12. 8. 115. ASCE.L. J. Kramer. Chu. Minimum Undrained Strength of Two Sands. Harvard Univ. J. Univ. Mass. May.. Civil and Maritime Eng. New South Wales. Geot. Vol. 10th European Conf. J. Factors Affecting Liquefaction and Cyclic Mobility.R. J. Univ. submitted to J. Minimum Undrained Strength versus Steady State Strength of Sands. Univ.. Geot. Soil Mech. Discussion on Liquefaction Evaluation Procedure. 7. 35. 11. Eng. Geot. and Poulos. 116. 1977... Castro. Chu. Dept. pp. pp. 4.B. pp. A New Kind of Liquefaction Occurred for Dilative Granular Soils.. and Lo. 1985. 1991. and Leonards. Initiation of Soil Liquefaction under < previous page page_290 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 948–963. J. Australia. Chu. 116.K.K. Vol. 1990. Lee. Been. I.. Geot. Australia.. S-C. Alarcon.

pp. 17. 553–562. Eng.D. 16.K. The Liquefaction of Sands. Vol. D’Hollander. 114. pp. J.. J. pp. 1989. Geot. 14. G. 827–845. 1985. J.J. Geot. J. Vol. 22. Vol. Poulos. Castro. Can. 1990. R. Eng. 113.html12/05/2010 06:32:41 a. 15.. Vol. Geot. Geotech. Chu.J.. Testing J.R. Vol.. W. Design Problems in Soil Liquefaction. 18.A Technique for Reducing Membrane Penetration and Bedding Errors. J. Geot. Discussion on The Behaviour of Very Loose Sand in the Triaxial Compression Test. Poulos.. Lo.. 1981.. and Krahn. 564–578. ASTM.. pp. and Lee. J.. ASCE. 12. pp. and France. 1985. J. S. .. Geot.page_291 < previous page Page 291 page_291 next page > Static Loading Conditions. 111. Eng.A. Wu. Geotech.B. Eng. 13. 107. 412–430. Liquefaction Evaluation Procedure. H. pp. J.m... ASCE. J. Can. Vol.. 27. 772– 792. 1988. S-C. ASCE. A Collapse Approach. 311–316. < previous page page_291 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The Steady State of Deformation. I. 159–162. 1987. Seed.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_291. S. Sladen.. Vol. J. ASCE..

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8.Fei Department of Geotechnical Engineering. it can be said that the liquefaction potential of silt soil is strongly influenced by the fine particle contents.g. silt soil is defined as a soil whose fine particle (d<0. .html12/05/2010 06:32:41 a. in the recent years. INTRODUCTION In China. < previous page page_293 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The seismic intensity was at Tianjin.page_293 < previous page page_293 next page > Page 293 The Characteristics of Liquefaction of Silt Soil H. the residual strength of silt soil under liquefaction condition and the empirical relationship to predict the liquefaction potential of silt soil using the CPT test. This paper presents the effect of fine clay particles on liquefaction potential.. Based upon the results of the field investigation in seismic areas and the laboratory test.005mm) content is from 3 % to 15 % and whose plastic index Ip is less than or equal to 10. 1 shows the statistic relationship between the fine particle contents Pc and liquefied events of silt soil in areas of different seismic intensities in Tangshan Earthquake. the city of Tianjin was damaged due to the liquefaction of silt soil caused by the Tangshan earthquake whose magnitude was 7.m. 1239. Tongji University. Shanghai 200092. It has been demonstrated by earthquakes in China. e.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_293. that not only does the liquefaction of fine sands develop easily. Fig. besides the geological and geographical conditions as well as the ground water table. Siping Road. China ABSTRACT Silt soil is a kind of special soil in China.-C. On July 28 1976. but also some types of silt will liquefy under earthquake loads.. the Tangshan earthquake in 1976 caused the liquefaction of silt soil in large areas in Tianjin city.

. All silt samples taken from nature in Shanghai or remolded for this research project were limited in the distribution of grain sizes. < previous page page_294 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Table 1.page_294 < previous page Page 294 page_294 next page > Fig. Boundary value of Pc versus I Seismic Intensity Fine Particle Content (I) (Pc %) 7° 10 8° 13 9° 16 10° 19 It can be seen clearly from Fig.m.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_294. see Table 1.html12/05/2010 06:32:42 a. 1 Relationship Relationship between Fines Content and Seismic Intensity in Tangshan Earthquake This empirical relationship has been adopted by the new Chinese Building Aseismic Design Code published in 1989.. A dynamic triaxial device was employed to determine the liguefaction potential of silt soil.. The general distribution of grain size of silt is listed in Table 2. 1 and Table 1 that the liquefaction resistance of silt soil increases with an increase in the fine particle content.91cm in diameter. SAMPLE MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT Silt soil has a wide difference in grain size distribution. Samples were 8cm in height and 3.

2 Sketch of the Dynamic—Static Shearing Device.005 <0. The first group is obtained under high dynamic loads and a few cyclic . 5..html12/05/2010 06:32:43 a.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_295. The curves in the second group have a different shape and the slope is more gentle in numbers.8. manufactured by the Tongji University Factory was employed to measure the residual strength of silt soil under liquefaction condition. and 6.. 7. THE EFFECT OF FINE PARTICLE CONTENTS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF PORE PRESSURE IN SILT SOIL The test results presenting the. 12. 3. Fig. 15). 4. A soil sample 6cm in diameter and 2cm in thickness was tested. The slope of the first group of curves is steeper than that of the second group. for 4 different samples of silt soil containing diffeient quantities of the fine particle Pc (Pc= 2. It is obvious that the curve family in each figure can be divided into two groups. The shape of the curve in the second group is close to that of the empirical equation of the pore pressure ratio. .m. arcsin < previous page page_295 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.005 content (%) >65 3–5 A new device—superimposed ring dynamic/static shear device (Fig. to reach the middle section of the curve.05−0. They are obtained under a small dynamic load applied on the sample and with large cyclic load numbers. 2).page_295 < previous page Page 295 Table 2 page_295 next page > Grain size (mm) 0. relationship between the pore pressure ratio and cyclic number ratio are shown in Fig.

. B. the curves in the second group are insignificant for earthquake engineering applications.html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:32:44 a. 4 The Curve of Versus N/NL Fig.page_296 < previous page Page 296 page_296 next page > Fig. 6 The Curve of Versus N/NL for sands suggested by Prof.. 7.m. the relationship between the pore pressure and the cyclic number for 4 different samples of silt is shown in Fig.H. cyclic load period being 1sec. Therefore the first group of the curves is of interest . After a statistic analysis. 5 The Curve of Versus N/NL Fig.Seed. 3 The Curve of Versus N/NL Fig.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_296. However. because the dynamic load applied on the sample is too small and the cyclic number too large (N=60–1422. .). file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.

page_296 Fig. 7 The Curve of Versus N/NL for Pc=2.. 15 It can be seen from the figure that the higher the content of fine particle of silt . 7.8.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_296.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:32:44 a. . high content of fine particle and to reach under the same cyclic numbers see Fig.. the curves for the samples with the fine particle Pc=7 and Pc=12 almost meet. 8. In Fig. This means that it is very difficult for the pore pressure to build up in soil with a.m. the greater is the cyclic number for the pore pressure ratio . 7. 12. The < previous page page_296 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.

and the stress ratio when and N=20. 9 The Curve of Versus Pc For Nature & Remodelled Soil. This shows that on the one hand the effect of structure strength on is not obvious when Pc <10 %. . 9 shows the relationship between the fine particle content Pc Fig.page_297 < previous page page_297 next page > Page 297 empirical relationship between the pore pressure ratio and the cyclic number ratio of these curves can be written as follows (1) where NL—cyclic number when silt liquefies THE RESISTANCE OF LIQUEFACTION OF SILT SOIL Usually. For the remodelled sample the stress ratio decreases linearly with the increase of the fine particle content but the test results of natural samples tend to re-rise when Pc is larger than 10 %. The dashed line represents the test results of remodeled samples of silt and the solid line is for natural soil samples. Fig.m. The question is whether the resistance of liquefaction goes down or not when the stress ratio of-silt decreases within the range < previous page page_297 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. but on the other hand the resistance of liquefaction of silt increases very much when Pc>10 %.. the pore pressure ratio is used as the criterion to evaluate the initial liquefaction of sands in the laboratory test. It can be used as a base for the evaluation of initial liquefaction of silts.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_297.html12/05/2010 06:32:45 a.. 8 The Curve of the Maximum Versus Pc Fig.

This means that the shear dilation phenomenon occurs in Fig. It can be observed that the ultimate residual strength is controlled by pore pressure. Fig.m. it is necessary to determine the residual strength of silt under the condition .page_298 < previous page page_298 next page > Page 298 of 3 %—10 % of Pc. the shear stress reaches its maximum value.html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:32:45 a. It is very difficult for pore pressure to dissipate.. 11 shows the file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20. 10 Relationship between pore pressure or Shearing Stress and Displacement the sample. 10 a and b.. and that the variation of pore pressure is influenced by Pc. the pore pressure in the sample decreases and the shear stress of the sample increases steadily. In order to clarify the fact. With the increase of the static shear strain. . static shear will be applied to the samples under undrained condition. THE RESIDUAL STRENGTH OF SOIL UNDER THE LIQUEFACTION CONDITION When the pore pressure u in silt samples set in the superimposed ring shear device reaches under the dynamic load.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_298. If Pc is over 14 %. When the pore pressure stops decreasing. and the soil sample is in a plastic state The maximum shear stress can be taken as the ultimate residual strength τm. only a slight shear dilatancy occurs. Some results are shown in Fig.

. ..page_298 relationship between the shearing stress and the ratio of pore pressure to overburden < previous page page_298 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:32:45 a.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_298.m.

τ=τo+A(Uo−U) (2) Fig.. Three curves meet together and form a line. 12. 11 Relationship between Shearing Stress and Pore Pressure effect of the loss of pore pressure by shear dilatancy on residual strength..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_299. .page_299 < previous page Page 299 pressure page_299 next page > . To avoid the Fig.html12/05/2010 06:32:46 a. The test result is shown in Fig.m. This can be expressed by the following equation. additional water head through a tube connected to the ring box is applied to the sample. Three groups of data show a linear relation with the same slope. 12 Relationship between Shearing Stress and Ratio of Pore Pressure to Overburden Pressure < previous page page_299 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.

The higher the fine particle content . A – slope of the curve. initial residual strength at pore pressure in soil. and can be expressed as A=1.5 is the hammer weight 63.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_300. 13. Eq. P. . The empirical equation is as follows: τo=22. the existence of the fine particle in < previous page page_300 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. if τo and A can be obtained in advance. As we know. The relationship between A and Pc is shown in Fig.5 kg of SPT). T..4 exp(−4. 13 Relationship between A and Fines Coment A plot of o versus Pc is given in Fig. it is very difficult to determine the potential of liquefaction with S. 2 provides a possibility to predict the residual strength under any pore pressure.m. page_300 next page > . the smaller will be the SPT brow count N..html12/05/2010 06:32:47 a. critical pore pressure.31 exp(1.page_300 < previous page Page 300 where: τ – τo u u – – – the residual strength at a given u.42/Pc) (4) (Pc=3 %–14 %) THE PREDICTION OF THE LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL OF SILTS USING CPT Because the saturated silt soil is one kind of soft soil. equal to . brow count N63. 14.61/Pc) (3) (Pc=3 %–15 %) Fig.5 (the footnote 63.

For Shanghai city. the small brow count of SPT will give a liquefaction conclusion.125(ds-3)–0. gc′= gc [1+0.1(Pc-3)] Where: gc′ the critical resistance of CPT to divide the liquefaction and unliquefaction in silts. (6) < previous page page_301 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. eq.m. it can be given as (5) Based on eq.. 5. The advantage is obvious: 1) The records of CPT can be used to classify the soil easily. how to built a standard for the estimation of the liquefaction of silts with CPT.page_301 < previous page Page 301 page_301 next page > Fig. 6 is employed to predicate the potential of liquefaction of silt in Shanghai. Therefore it is very convenient to determine the potential of liquefaction of silts by using CPT. The problem is.html12/05/2010 06:32:47 a. But. The simple practical solution is to make a empirical equation based on the statistic relationship between gc and N63. 14 Relationship between Shearing Stress and Fines Content silts will increase the resistance of liquefaction..05(dw-2) −0. .5.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_301. 2) The mechanical properties of the soil can be represented clearly with the cone resistance of CPT. The empirical relation between gc and N63.5 is diffeient in diffeient areas.

Table 3. 4. The fundamental value of CPT and SPT Seismic Intensity 7° 8° 9° SPT blow count (blow) 6 10 16 CPT resistance c (bar) 46 76 121 CONCLUSION The fine particles in silt is an important factor influencing the potential of liquefaction of silt. No. Zhao-jie Shi (1982): The Characteristics of Liquefaction of Silt and the Prediction in the Field. Dynamic stress ratio for always has a minimum value around Pc=10 %. Zhao-jie Shi (1984): The Prediction of LIquefaction Potential of Saturated Silt Foundation. . Vol. and the residual strength of silts will increase with the increasing of Pc. No. ds – the depth of silt deposit.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_302. dw – the ground water table.m. 3 2. The regularity of the variation of the residual strength with Pc is identical to that of the field investigation of the liquefaction events. ACKNOWLEDGE The authors wish to express their appreciation to the Wang Education Foundation for its support to enable Prof.page_302 < previous page page_302 next page > Page 302 c – the fundamental resistance of CPT see Table 3. It demonstrates that the resistance of liquefaction of silt will increase with the increasing of Pc. < previous page page_302 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Chinese Building Aseismic Design Code (1989). 3.. Fei to participate in the SDEE’91 in Germany.html12/05/2010 06:32:48 a.. REFERENCES 1. Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration. Hydraulic Geology and Engineering Geology. 3.

ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_303. Department of Geotechnical Engineering.. an averaging procedure was implemented and variation of return periods as well as the probability of exceedence were calculated in terms of earthquake magnitudes.35 Due to regional similarities. Civil Engineering Faculty. Taking into consideration geological. Ayazaga. Albatros was selected as a < previous page page_303 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. . Istanbul.12 0.html12/05/2010 06:32:48 a. and selecting a probable epicenter for a strong earthquake.page_303 < previous page page_303 next page > Page 303 Evaluation of Liquefaction Susceptibility A. Table 1.m. Acc.4 6. Expected Earthquake Magnitude and Peak Acceleration Return Period (years) 100 200 500 1000 Magnitude (M) 6. Turkey ABSTRACT Liquefaction susceptibility of natural soil deposits composed of silty sands and sandy silts encountered in an area with high seismic activity have been evaluated. INTRODUCTION An investigation was conducted to determine effects of local soil conditions and liquefaction potential for a factory site located in Western Anatolia..M. A parametric study was carried out based on semi-empirical procedures developed in terms of SPT blow counts and grain size distributions and cyclic simple shear tests were performed on undisturbed samples. the peak base rock acceleration at the site for different earthquake magnitudes were calculated with respect to return periods as given in Table 1.1 Peak Horz.9 7.Ansal Istanbul Technical University. the N-S component of 1971 Montenegro (Yugoslavia) earthquake recorded at Ulcinj. due to intrinsic differences between two types of data sets. However. (g) 0. The seismicity of the region with respect to historical and instrumental records was evaluated adopting a conventional probability analysis. tectonic and seismological aspects of the region.26 0.6 8.17 0.

The shear wave velocity profiles for each boring location were determined utilizing the relationship proposed by Ohta and Goto [6]. Dynamic properties of soil layers in boring locations were estimated based on field SPT blow counts and classification tests carried out in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory of Istanbul Technical University. Safety factors for liquefaction were determined with respect to earthquake induced average shear stresses along soil profiles calculated from site response analyses. Adopting the conservative estimate of return period of 1000 years. it appears realistic to consider an outer envelope of the calculated acceleration spectra as the design earthquake spectrum for the site. from an engineering perspective.35g. The SPT blow counts were corrected according to the energy efficiency ratio generally valid for the testing systems and techniques used in the region.page_304 < previous page page_304 next page > Page 304 possible design earthquake and used in site response analyses to study the behavior and the effects of local soil layers under earthquake excitations.html12/05/2010 06:32:48 a. As expected the calculated soil amplification and predominant soil periods are very dependent on the thickness and properties of soil layers. SITE RESPONSE ANALYSIS The procedure developed by Schnabel.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_304. The results of site response analyses carried out for six locations which were selected to represent the encountered variations in the soil profile.. based on the suggestions of Skempton[9]. < previous page page_304 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Site response analyses using this scaled record as the input motion on the base rock were carried out.. to evaluate effects of local soil stratification and to calculate variation of peak horizontal acceleration as well as maximum shear stress with depth for the selected boring profiles. In addition cyclic simple shear tests were performed on undisturbed soil samples obtained by special sampler. are shown on Figure 1 in terms of acceleration response spectra. the selected earthquake time history record was scaled such that the peak horizontal acceleration is ap=0. Seed and Lysmer [7] was used to estimate earthquake characteristics on ground surface for free field conditions. The variation of maximum horizontal acceleration with depth were also determined and depending on the depth of bedrock and properties of soil layers a significant deamplification was observed at some locations.m. The liquefaction susceptibility of shallow sandy soil layers encountered along the soil profile were evaluated by carrying out a parametric study using seven different semi-empirical procedures developed based on SPT blow counts and grain size distributions. . However. No amplification of peak acceleration was obtained in any of the response analyses performed for the investigated site.

and Charlwood [1] < previous page page_305 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.page_305 < previous page page_305 next page > Page 305 This aspect of the problem appears to agree with the results reported in literature concerning deamplification of earthquake waves as they pass through soil layers. and Chung [8] Method 2—Taiping. Acceleration response spectra for representative soil profiles PARAMETRIC STUDY The liquefaction susceptibility of sandy silt and silty sand layers encountered at the investigated site are evaluated based on methods proposed in the literature by: Method 1—Seed. Tokida. and Guoxin [12] Method 7—Atkinson. Figure 1. . Liam Finn.. and Hoishan [10] Method 3—Iwasaki. Harder. Fang.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_305.html12/05/2010 06:32:49 a. and Yasuda [4] Method 4—Ishihara and Perlea [3] Method 5—Yokota [11] Method 6—Yuqing. Quingyu..m. This type of response is partly due to increased strain dependent damping and partly due to viscoplastic nature of soil behavior at large strain levels that may develop during strong earthquakes. Tatsuoka. Chenchun. According to Kiremidjian and Shah [5] and Idriss and Seed [2] deamplification may become as high as 50%. similar to the analytical results obtained in the present study. Lunian. Tokimatsu. Therefore it was considered appropriate to use a reduced peak acceleration value at the ground surface in the empirical methods to evaluate liquefaction potential.

Even though the presence of safety factors smaller than one indicate a liquefaction susceptibility. It appears realistic at this stage to evaluate the results obtained from all methods together as given in the last row of Table 2.936) does not indicate a high liquefaction susceptibility. In the case of Method-3.0 with its percentage in respect to total number of locations and the average safety factors are given on Table 2 for all 10 semi-empirical procedures separately and for all of them together. As can be observed from this table.m.0 is 57. is to demonstrate the subjective nature of the liquefaction evaluation procedures. Variation of calculated safety factors utilizing two of the above mentioned procedures for all boring profiles are given on Figure 2. liquefaction susceptibility is evaluated based on 10 different semi-empirical methods for the total of 244 locations where sandy layers were encountered in boring profiles.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_306.html12/05/2010 06:32:50 a.. two alternative procedures were carried out. One of the major reasons for discrepancies among different methods is due to variations in the SPT testing procedures or more precisely due to deviations in the impact energy between the different SPT testing systems and techniques since the above cited semiempirical liquefaction evaluation methods were developed in different countries where SPT testing procedures may differ significantly.. In order to give a more comprehensive picture. < previous page page_306 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The large scatter observed in the safety factors within each method as well as differences between two methods are clearly visible. three alternative formulations and in the case of Method-6. One purpose of this study is to obtain a comprehensive picture about the liquefaction susceptibility of sandy soil layers. In addition dissimilarities in data bases (site conditions and soil types) used to develop the empirical correlations play an important role in the divergence of the results obtained. As a result. the number of locations where safety factor is larger than 1. The average safety factor calculated using all the results from all methods is larger than 1.7% with respect to the total number.0. . Six procedures out of ten gave average safety factors larger than 1. even the lowest average safety factor (0. considering 244 locations.2 and the locations with safety factors larger than 1.page_306 < previous page page_306 next page > Page 306 The safety factors against liquefaction susceptibility were evaluated using these 7 semi-empirical procedures. it is apparent that it may not be very dominant and wide spread. while the other purpose to conduct such a parametric study concerning 10 different methods proposed by different researchers.

page_307 < previous page Page 307 page_307 next page > Figure 2.. Variation of safety factors based on (a) Method 1 (b) Method 3 and 3a file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.m.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_307. .html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:32:50 a..

. .mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_307.m.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:32:50 a.page_307 < previous page page_307 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20..

8%) 0.page_308 < previous page page_308 next page > Page 308 Table 2. on undisturbed samples. The frozen samples were trimmed in the laboratory and placed in the simple shear test cell and allowed to melt under a relatively low confining pressure. cyclic simple shear tests were performed on undisturbed soil samples obtained from the site.285 Method-5 64 (26.971 Method-2 94 (38.html12/05/2010 06:32:51 a. The grain size characteristics of sandy soil layers encountered at the site vary within a large range..5%) 0. The cyclic simple shear tests were carried out on samples with different grain size distributions and different percentage of fines. The samples were taken by a special sampler and were frozen before they were transported to the laboratory. After sufficient time.310 Method-3b 162 (66. At some locations the fines content may decrease below 5% where the sand samples can be classified as SW or SP and at some locations fines content may increase as high as 50% where the sand samples can be classified as SC or SM.340 Method-7 95 (38.6%) 1. back pressure was applied to the samples to assure saturation and confining pressure was increased incrementally to a predetermined level which is slightly higher then the calculated in-situ effective stresses..936 Method-6a 200 (82. An effort is made to conduct sets of tests on samples with < previous page page_308 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.5%) 1.4%) 1.146 Method-3c 97 (39.294 Method-6b 160 (65.9%) 0. LABORATORY CYCLIC SIMPLE SHEAR TESTS A more accurate and realistic approach to determine the liquefaction potential of saturated sand deposits is to conduct a set of cyclic tests. sets of consolidated undrained. .966 Method-4 205 (84.m.2%) 0.0%) 2. In addition presence of gravel.062 Method-3a 242 (99.2%) 1. For this purpose.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_308. preferably.7%) 1.956 All Methods 1408 (57. this general statistical evaluation of all methods separately and together indicates relatively limited liquefaction susceptibility at the site during a strong earthquake.227 From an engineering point. silt and clay particles and pockets in sandy soil layers as observed in samples obtained from the site will be another important factor decreasing the influence of liquefaction. Summary of the Results of Semi-Empirical Methods Method Number Number of Locations with Safety Factor>1 Average Safety Factor Method-1 89 (36.0%) 1.

. The results of these sets of tests are utilized to determine the liquefaction strength of the sandy soil samples as shown on Figure 3. The main reason for this type of response is the presence of high percentage of fines in these samples. The safety factors calculated from the empirical procedures are shown only with the symbols while the safety factors calculated based on simple shear tests and site response analysis are shown with a continuous line on Figure 4. the base rock is relatively shallow overlain by medium dense silty gravelly sand layers of approximate thickness of 10 to 12m. Cyclic simple shear results for initial liquefaction LIQUEFACTION SUSCEPTIBILITY At the north part of the site.page_309 < previous page page_309 next page > Page 309 different fines content in order to have a general picture to evaluate the liquefaction susceptibility of the sandy soil layers encountered at the site. Initial liquefaction was observed in 4 sets of tests conducted on samples which had fines content varying between 11% to 29%. As expected the increase in the fines content increased the liquefaction resistance.html12/05/2010 06:32:52 a. it appears justifiable to use the lower bound curve given on Figure 3 in the calculation of the safety factors for liquefaction Figure 3... As can be observed safety factors based on laboratory tests are larger than 1 for the whole depth of the sand layers. The SPT blow counts varies between 3 and 12 along the depth of the sand layers.m.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_309. The grain size analysis performed on the samples from the upper part of these sand layers indicate that the fines content are around 10% and the gravel content is around 20% while for the samples obtained from the lower part the fines content is around 15% and gravel content is around 10 %. Taking into consideration the effects of testing technique and sample disturbance and in order to be on the safe side. < previous page page_309 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. In 2 sets of tests pore pressure accumulation were limited and no liquefaction was observed even after large number of cycles or at large shear strain amplitudes.

Safety factors based on all methods for the soil profile A1 Around the south part of the site. The SPT blow counts were between 3 and 14 along the top 15m. the depth of the base rock increases from approximately 16m to 30m.05 indicating a medium liquefaction susceptibility between the depths of 6 to 8m. Safety factors based on all methods for the soil profile A2 < previous page page_310 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_310. the value of the calculated safety factor is around 1.. As can be observed from Figure 5.page_310 < previous page Page 310 page_310 next page > Figure 4. However. The sand layers encountered in the soil profile are medium dense and contains high percentage of fines and some gravel at various depths.html12/05/2010 06:32:52 a. the safety factors based on laboratory tests are larger than 1 for the whole depth of the sand layers. Figure 5.. .m.

Even though the laboratory determined strength values were reduced significantly (in some cases reduction is in the order of 100%).M. Bull.. 1(1) pp. and Perlea. H. 58(6).M. Soils and Foundations.0 indicating a low or no liquefaction potential. the calculated safety factors for all boring locations were all larger than 1. REFERENCES 1. .html12/05/2010 06:32:53 a. An Analysis of Ground Motion During the 1957 San Francisco Earthquake. and Seed. The more sophisticated evaluation based on cyclic simple shear tests and site response analysis supports this conclusion that the effect of liquefaction at the site would be negligible. which was also necessary due to conventional bearing capacity and settlement problems. 2. 1969. 3. V. 2013–2032. Seismological Soc..W. 1977. for major part of the factory to achieve the sufficient safety against marginal liquefaction susceptibility that may exist at some locations.G. Ishihara. the overall evaluation of these findings indicate only marginal liquefaction susceptibility. Atkinson. The results obtained from semi-empirical procedures show a large scatter. 1984.m. < previous page page_311 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The liquefaction potential of the shallow sandy soil layers were studied in detail utilizing 7 (with their alternatives 10) different semi-empirical methods and based on laboratory cyclic simple shear tests conducted on undisturbed samples. This is mostly due to the relatively large percentage of fines and gravel present in these layers. I. In addition the presence of gravel pockets will lead to a faster dissipation of pore pressure preventing liquefaction.107–123.. Idriss. America. however. CONCLUSIONS A detailed investigation was conducted to evaluate the seismicity of the region and to determine the effects of local soil conditions on the earthquake characteristics at the ground surface as well as the liquefaction potential for the site based on parametric and experimental studies. R. pp. and Charlwood. the liquefaction susceptibility of the sand layers at investigated site was considered to be marginal. Simple Computation of Liquefaction Probability for Seismic Hazard Application. G. it was decided that it would be adequate to use pile foundations.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_311. Finn. Vol. K. 24(1). L.D. Considering the types of structures to be build at the site. Liquefaction-Associated Ground Damage During the Vrancea Earthquake of March 4. pp. Vol. Vol.page_311 < previous page page_311 next page > Page 311 Similar results were observed for other boring locations and according to these analyses summarized above based on both semi-empirical procedures and laboratory test results.1984. Earthquake Spectra.B.99–112.

Probability Site-Dependent Response Spectra. Vol. on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics. Harder. Ohta. Schnabel.. J. Iwasaki. 34–41.. W. Yokota. 1980.. A. 1425–1445. No. 7th WCEE. Liquefaction Risk Evaluation During Earthquakes.html12/05/2010 06:32:53 a. 885–896. Vol. 72–12. pp.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_312. 1986. Engng. Istanbul. Int. Vol. 1985.. St. 1980. H. No. Vol. A. and Guoxin.. Con. Proc.4..Con. and Shah. Taiping. ASCE. K. L. 425–447. H. Chenchun. Lysmer. T.C. Evaluation of Liquefaction Strength of Sandy Soils. 10. Struc. and Goto.. < previous page page_312 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. J. S. 8. K. 2nd Int.F. 1980.M. 29. 227–234. Kiremidjian. Geotechnique.W.W. 6. Skempton. pp. H.m.. on Microzonation for Safer Construction-Research and Application. Proc. 445–454. Vol. F. 1978. Tatsuoka. Fang. Proc. 1. relative density. San Francisco. L. particle size.A Practical Method for Assessing Soil Liquefaction Potential Based on Case Studies at Various Sites in Japan. Seed. 106(ST1).. 1976. EERC Report No. Louis. pp. Tokimatsu.of California.. .. and Hoishan. Berkeley. 12. and Yasuda. pp.. P. N.. L.Quingyu. 1972. Div. pp.. K. 11. pp. Un i.3. Tokida. 111 (GT12) pp. Standard penetration test procedure and the effects in sands of overburden pressure. and Chung.and Seed. 1.B. ageing and overconsolidation. 3.page_312 < previous page page_312 next page > Page 312 4. pp. L. 69–86. Vol.W. 7.B.Div. Lunian. 9. R. Y. ASCE. Shake—A Computer Program for Earthquake Analysis of Horizontally Layered Sites. J Geotech.B. Influence of SPT Procedures in Soil Liquefaction Resistance Evaluations. Formulae for Predicting Liquefaction Potential of Clayey Silt as Derived from Statistical Method. Istanbul.. Estimation of S-Wave Velocities in Terms of Characteristic Indices of Soil. 36.. H. 7th WCEE. 1984. Butsuri-Tanko. Q. Vol.. 121–124. 5. Proc. Yuqinq..

< previous page page_313 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. the constitutive laws for the pore water pressure buildup have been defined as well as the decrease of shear stress and transformation of non-linear stress-strain relationships.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_313. and others.. the problem can be further investigated by the strain approach. the investigation is limited. After that. However. The laboratory tests with the strain approach enable investigations in the post initial liquefaction conditions. results of the dynamic laboratory tests of sands with application of cyclic shear strain during the whole process of liquefaction. generally investigated with the stress approach. In these methodologies.Talaganov Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology. or stress ratio (where is the initial stress) and the number of cycles N. The details of the methodologies can be found in Seed [1]. the dynamic soil strength and the dynamic excitation are usially expressed in terms of shear stress τ. which are based on in-situ investigations of sites where liquefaction has occurred. University “Cyril and Methodius”. Ishihara [2] and [3] . methodologies have been developped.html12/05/2010 06:32:54 a. Based on the laboratory results.page_313 < previous page page_313 next page > Page 313 Post Initial Liquefaction Behaviour of Soils K. Laboratory tests. producing initial liquefaction. are presented. It has been concluded that the post initial liquefaction behaviour of soils is of extreme importance in the investigation of the liquefaction problem. The increase of pore pressure is also a function of Rτ and N. enable investigation only until the occurrence of initial liquefaction. . INTRODUCTION For the assessment of the liquefaction potential of cohesionless water-saturated soils under the effect of strong earthquakes. 91000 Skopje. as well as on laboratory tests and analytical studies. including both pre initial and after initial phase. Yugoslavia ABSTRACT The problem of liquefaction of cohesionless soils has been so far.. which form the basis for this approach.m. Here.

which cannot be under a control.m. This kind of tests primarily enable definition of the conditions of the initial liquefaction occurrence through the relationships between τ and the number of cycles N1. towards the the strength of end. It causes first occurrence of is also defined the number of cycles N. A result of this. close to the strength of the material. The details can be found in Dobry [4]. Thus. Cyclic Stress Tests It is a general practice to use cyclic shear stress with amplitude τ for the cyclic excitation in the laboratory tests. for example 5%. . the difference between N1 and Nγ is very small. Under such conditions τ shows a very high excitation. parallelly. due to the increase of U and the parallel reduction of the material is significantly reduced. taking into consideration more influential factors. < previous page page_314 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The soil samples are water saturated and the water drainage is prevented. This approach is defined as shear strain approach compared to the previous defined as shear stress approach. very often. The methods for the analysis of the liquefaction potential are based. which causes a certain level of shear strain. The initial liquefaction is defined as the first occurrence of U with .html12/05/2010 06:32:54 a. the effective initial stresses characteristic of the phenomenon of the pore pressure increase is that it is cyclic as well with a frequency twice bigger than the excitation one.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_314. close to the initial liquefaction occurrence. to a great extent. Due to this. However. where is effective stress. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LABORATORY TESTS The laboratory tests for the definition of the conditions for occurrence of liquefaction in the soil samples are performed mainly by inducing cyclic excitation.. on the laboratory tests which enable investigation of the phenomenon in detail. At the beginning. As a in the samples decrease. Besides that it value equal to the initial effective stress. 10% etc’. This causes abrupt occurrence of shear strain increase.. parallely or immediately after the occurrence of initial liquefaction a destruction of the sample takes place and the experiment has to be stopped. the material normally bears the excitation. [3] and Talaganov [5].page_314 < previous page page_314 next page > Page 314 To a relatively limited number are carried out investigations and methods are developed. in which the dynamic soil strength and the dynamic excitation are expressed in terms of shear strain γ. the total amount of the amplitude τ as an excitation practically cannot be applied. However. the pore pressure U increases and. The meaning of such an excitation for the behaviour of the material is different for the beginning and for the end of the test. It is because of the application of cyclic stress with constant amplitudes during the whole test. The pore pressure amplitudes are significantly increased with the increase of the relative densitty Dr of the tested samples.

with frequency takes place. Yugoslavia...m. . in accordance with the scheme shown in Fig. The sand samples were excited by a series of cyclic strains. where soil liquefaction occurred during the 1979 Montenegro earthquake. have been tested. the application of excitation does not cause destruction of the soil so that the experiment may continue. including loose and dense sands. . pore pressure increase in water saturated samples. while during the experiment they decrease with the softening of the material. as well as a result of the dynamic excitation.e.2. the decrease in as well as the shear stress τ were recorded. In this case. as well.html12/05/2010 06:32:55 a. At the beginning. Bijela and Baosic. in the phase around the initial liquefaction. 200 and 300 kN/M2. The grain size distribution curves of these sands are shown in Fig. Due to this. which is mainly double than the excitation frequency. Direct cyclic simple shear laboratory equipment (Dames&Moore type) was used. with an amplitude of γ . Increase in Pore Water Pressire As a result of the applied excitation with cyclic shear strains γ. < previous page page_315 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. i. Main characteristics of this kind of tests is the water saturated soil samples to be exposed to excitations with constant strain amplitudes γ. 1. Such a behaviour of the soil enables testing even under post initial liquefaction conditions.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_315. the shear strain excitation with constant amplitudes γ causes a different level of shear stress in the material during the experiment. the equivalent τ is decreased and is proportional to the soil characteristics. PERFORMED LABORATORY TESTS BY CYCLIC STRAIN Tests At the Dynamic soil testing laboratory of the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology in Skopje. the pore pressure U increases and is cyclic as well. At the moment of occurrence of the initial liquefaction which in this case. is defined as the first occurrence of .page_315 < previous page page_315 next page > Page 315 Cyclic Strain Tests In the laboratory tests it is rearly applied excitation with constant amplitudes of shear strain γ. The decreases was taken to be equal to the the initial vertical stress were 100. in addition to the strains. Thus. the shear stresses have the highest level. During the test performance. Reconstituted sand samples with relative densities Dr. Parallel with the increase of U a reduction of accompanied with the phenomenon of softening of the material. laboratory tests have been carried out on soil samples taken from sites. applying a specific procedure for dry samples and constant volume. The values of the applied initial The τ—γ relationship and their transformation with the number of cycles N were also recorded. so that the investigation of the phenomenon can be fully completed.

A typical result is shown in Fig. have a certain finite nonzero level. Typical result of it is shown in Fig. The amplitudes of U are the largest in the part upto occurrence of . regardless of that.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_316. It can be seen that the τ-γ relationships are in permanent transformation. although reduced. . 2.e.. 4 which results from the same test shown in Fig. the extreme values of τ permanently < previous page page_316 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Transformation of τ—γ Relationships The decrease of τ can be presented clearly through the τ—γ relationships. i. The peak value of U from different cycles gradually reaches the value of and then remains constant. In the starting cycles they have characteristics of softening curves.page_316 < previous page Page 316 page_316 next page > Fig.. However. At the first appearance of the amplitudes. 3. It is characteristic that U has a cyclic shape and starts to increase immediately with the application of γ. while in the firther cycles they are characterized by hardening curves. 3. a build-up of U. Grain-size distribution curves for the tested sands Fig. which were permanently recorded during the tests. the amplitudes start to decrease with a tendency to disappear completely when the pore pressure U from a cyclic one transforms into a -constant phenomenon with a value In Fig. Then.html12/05/2010 06:32:56 a.1.m. Then they continue to drop with a tendency towards a complete reduction. It can be seen that the amplitudes of γ decrease permanently from the initial maximal value of τo. Stress-stram state of sand sample appears a decrease of . 3 is also shown the time history of τ. where the time histories of γ and U are presented.

m. Liquefaction Based on the previously mentioned results from the tests several basic definitions for the soil behaviour can be applied. it becomes easily evident that the moduli Gs permanently decrease.. the state is preinitial liquefaction. The secants through the extreme points.html12/05/2010 06:32:57 a. In the range upto the occurrence of the initial liquefaction. In this phase. The stresses τ permanently decrease.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_317. corresponding to a total reduction of the shear strength of the soil with development of a shear strain practically without resistance of the material. . Then the area surrounded by τ—γ decreases from cycle to cycle and has a tendency of a complete reduction. If the regular definition for a secant modulus Gs is taken to be a mean modulus which corresponds to the straight line (linear τ—γ relationship) passing through the extreme points of the nonlinear relationships τ—γ. only that it does not get practical realisation with the first appearance of but in the phase after that moment.. The condition to which the τ—γ relationship transformations aim is a straight horizontal line. The relationship τ—γ perma- < previous page page_317 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. “rotate” towards the horizontal γ—axis with a tendency to get a horizontal position. the peak . 3. It is important to state that the tendency towards such transformation began from the very beginning of the excitation. Typical results of laboratory tests decrease. from cycle to cycle.page_317 < previous page Page 317 page_317 next page > Fig. but their extreme values of U from separate cycles gradually approach values are still with finite nonzero values.

while the minimal Umin is still increasing. In this way general functions have been obtained. the peak values of U from separate cycles are permanently at the level of . of a large number of test results was performed in order to define the basic analytical relationships for the main liquefaction parameters. Typical τ-γ relationships from the performed tests Fig. The condition of the initial liquefaction is defined at the moment of the first occurrence of . The state after the occurrence of the initial liquefaction is postinitial liquefaction. The τ—γ relationships continue to transform tending towards a straight horizontal line.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_318. However. A state of total liquefaction is defined when U occurres as noncyclic with constant value of .. These definitions are schematically presented in Fig. As a first step. relationships between the strain level and the number of cycles producing the first occurrence of peak pore water pressure equal to the initial effective stresses were established. < previous page page_318 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.5. During this state the τ—γ relationship appears as horizontal line.m. Between N11 and N1 the difference can be a multiple depending on the relative density of the material Dr. Liquefaction definitions nently transform when both Gs and damping decrease but still keep finite nonzero values. separately for each strain level. 5. The obtained relationships have been normalized by means of a number of cycles necessary for initial liquefaction occurrence. is obtained during a number of experiments. The stresses τ continue to decrease with their extreme values tending to zero. Then the relationship of peak pore water pressure increasing as a function of strain level. this condition appears only as one moment during the whole process.page_318 < previous page Page 318 page_318 next page > Fig.html12/05/2010 06:32:58 a. as well as the relationship of the decrease of initial shear stress as a result of the pore water pressure increase have been defined. and when τ. . In this phase. very close to total liquefaction. This happens in the cycle N1. This happens in the cycle N11.. Gs and the damping get zero values. 4. ANALYSIS OF THE TEST RESULTS Statistical processing. Idealized state.

The following analytical expression. Fig. 6. In it are jointly shown the results for different Dr and the results it can be stated that the effects of both Dr and are not specifically emphasized.html12/05/2010 06:32:59 a.6. Instead of having a tendency of separating the different relationships between γ and N1 related to the separate Dr and . a regression analysis is preformed to define the mean γN1 relationship. [4] .7 Normalized U-N for initial liquefaction < previous page page_319 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Having in mind the self-grouping of the results in a single range.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_319. 6. Conclusions like these have also tendency of forming a single relationship range between γ and N1 for all Dr and been drawn after the rare investigations where excitation with cyclic shear strain is applied as in [3]. which is thought to make good consideration of the results.m. is applied: Y=AeBlnX (1) where: Y=γ in % X=N1 A. B=parameters The best solution has been obtained for the following values of A and B: A=1.. γ-N for initial liquefaction Fig. there is a . 4126 (2) The relationship (1).2% to 2% are shown in Fig. 9838 B =−0. . From the analysis of from 0..page_319 < previous page page_319 next page > Page 319 Initial Liquefaction The number of cycles N1 producing initial liquefaction for the investigated levels of shear strain amplitudes in the range . for the values A and B according to (2) are also -shown in Fig.

7. the increase of Umin and the decrease of τ and Gs are related and express the solid behaviour. as it has been stated. The results harmonized in this way are shown in Fig. the increase of Umin is a function of Dr. . The analysis of the results shows that. with the purpose to define a mean relationship between and N/N1. so that for that range the equation (3) (5) As it has been presented with the results in the previous chapter. the following analytical expression. For this purpose. the minimal values of the pore pressure also increase from cyrcle to cyrcle. however. different from the increase of U. For that purpose. so that series of relationships between and γ can be obtained. Shear Stress Decrease In all phases of the liquefaction process the shear stress decreases tending to total reduction in the moment N11. B. Umin continues to increase tending to reach the value in a certain cyrcle N11. However. C. 7.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_320. which. D=parameters The best solution has been obtained for the following parameter values: A=1. B. the Umin in the monent N1 do not reach the value of . independent from γ . However. considers the results quite well. by analysis of that relationship series it has been stated that in case N is normalized by dividing it with N1 in the series of harmonized relationships appears a tendency to form a single relationships range.. In the range after the initial liquefaction.m. a regression analysis with the normalized results was performed.2809 The relationship (3) for the values A.1218 B=0.html12/05/2010 06:32:59 a. To the different values of U correspond equivalent relationships of the increase of U.. and D of (4) is also shown in Fig.1400 D=1. was applied: Y=X(A+BX) / (C+DX) (3) where: X=N/N1 A. By < previous page page_320 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. C. In the range after N1. the soil behaviour in the further procedure will be analysed through the decrease of τ. In the range after N1 the peak pore water pressure retains the value transforms imto: (4) .page_320 < previous page Page 320 Peak Water Pressur Increase page_320 next page > The increase of the peak pore water pressure U upto the level is the function of γ and N. Having in mind the above.1143 C=0.

These relationships are functions of γ and Dr. series of relationships between τ and N was obtained. as the maximal ones. which was obtained by applying of the expression: Y=1–X(A+BX)/(C+DX) (6) where: Y=τ/τo X=N/N1 A. Fig. 2753 (7) From the results shown in Fig. They show that in the N1 moment τ is not totally reduced and that it continues to decrease. One such normalized series of results is presented in Fig. that for occurrence of a complete liquefaction is needed a double number of cycles of excitation with γ.m. 8 is also shown the mean analytical relationship between τ/τo and N/N1. Typical τ/τo—N/N1 relationship < previous page page_321 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. the relationships tend to form single ranges of relationships.. while the amplitudes of the different cycles are defined with τ. 1137 C=0.html12/05/2010 06:33:00 a. The comparison of N1 with N11 shows that in this particular example N11=2 N1. 8 it can be seen that the decrease of τ in the post initial liquefaction phase tends towards total reduction. C. .e. which corresponds to a beginning of a complete liquefaction. i. 8. 1384 D=1. D=parameters The best solution was obtained for the following values of the parameters: A=1. This happens in the moment N11. and if N is normalized with N1. In Fig. 1209 B=0. B. The further analysis showed that if a normalization of τ is applied in a way that it will be divided by τo. are defined with τo.page_321 < previous page page_321 next page > Page 321 analysis of the results. which become independent from.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_321. The initial amplitudes of the shear stress. 8. compare to the cycles which cause initial liquefaction..

page_322 < previous page page_322 next page > Page 322 Based on the regression analyses of a great number of experimental results of samples with different Dr series of normalized function between τ/τo and N /N1 have been obtained. 9 are shown the functions between τ/τo and N/ N1 for characteristic Dr.m. having in mind the drifting apart of N11 and N1 by the increase of Dr. is impossible to reach. Due to all that in case of dense sands. which is given with: (8) < previous page page_322 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. the post initial liquefaction phase is longer than the initial liquefaction phase. it can be assumed that the very loose sands will tend towards leveling between N11 and N1. will tend towards occurrence of a complete liquefaction together with or immediately after the occurrence of the initial liquefaction. it can be assumed that the very dense sands will tend towards very high values of N11. practically. defined as described in the previous capters. for the basic liquefaction parameters can be taken as basis for defining of the constitutive laws models for the stress-strain soil behaviour. which can be applied in all phases of the liquefaction process. for example.html12/05/2010 06:33:01 a. which.. i.Opposite to that. 9 If we consider the approach of N11 towards N1 by a decrease of Dr. As basis for modelling of the relationship τ—γ is used the Martin-Davidenko’s model [7] . In Fig.. In the further text is given the definition of one such model. Due to the difficulties in building-up of extremely loose sands.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_322. Compared to N1 the N11 is several times bigger. . during the laboratory tests the above was not experimentally proved. Fig.e. If we analyse these functions it can be seen that N11 is a function of Dr and that it increases with the increasing of Dr. This means that the liquefaction ends with the cyclic mobility of the soil. MODELS FOR CONSTITUTIVE LAWS The analytical expressions.

The post-initial liquefaction phase was not investigated in details by laboratory tests. initial liquefaction. γ1. that phase is of a great importance for a complete explanation of the liquefaction prenomenon.html12/05/2010 06:33:01 a. it is necessary to include in the laboratory tests this last phase as well. B are defined from the experimental results. Yugoslavia in 1979. τ2−γ2=coordinates of the extreme points H (γ)=characteristic function expressed by: (9) where: γo. which. H(γ).ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_323. < previous page page_323 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. τ2. τ1. B=are parameters The parameters γo. from a semy-cycle n (n=N/2) change to a semi-cycle n+1 due to the increase of U. However. which can be summarized as: pre-initial liquefaction. defined with the equation (6). Thus. [7]. in order to complete the image of the liquefaction process... The laboratory tests with cyclic shear stran enable complete testing of this phase. can be applied the relationships (8) where Go. . Information regarding their values can be found in the research work of some authors. [8] For series of relationship τ—γ . γ1 and γ2 appear as variables dependednt from the semicycle n.m. eg.page_323 < previous page Page 323 where: the first equation is for loading the second equation is for unloading page_323 next page > Go=maximum shear modulus τ1. A. 9. CONCLUSIONS The liquefaction process in. A. It was proved that it gives satisfactory results [6]. According to this concept the equation (8) can be expressed with: For defining of the variable G in the equation (10) can be applied the relations between τ /τo and N/N1 from Fig. water-saturated sands under the effect of rather extensive dynamic excitations is developped in characteristic phases. in case the following approximation is accepted: τ/τo=G/Go (11) The presented model has been practically applied for analysis of the dynamic response of soils with occurred liquefaction during the earthquake in Montenegro. post-initial liquefaction and complete liquefaction.

UCB/EERC—78/23.. Institute of earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology. < previous page page_324 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. A. R. 1986 6. H.S. The Japonese Society of Coil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. Dobry. MASH a Computer Program for Non-Linear Analysis of Vertically Propagating Shear Waves in Horizontally Layered Deposits. Balkema Publishers. K. Prediction of Pore Water Pressure Build-up and Liquefaction of Sands During Earthquakes by the Cyclic Strain Method. K.B.. Eurodyn ’90. Washington D. Tokyo. Geotechnical Aspects of Montenegro 1979 Earthquake. and Seed.m. Washington. 1985 4. ASCE. K. Committee on Earthquake Engineering. Roterdam. Report IZIIS 86–129.html12/05/2010 06:33:02 a. Talaganov. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. Ladd. Determination of Liquefaction Potential of Level Site by Cyclic Strain. F. Stability of Natural Deposits During Earthquakes. NBS Building Science Series 138. National Research Council. 1985 3. National Academy Press.A. Zafirova. R. No. H. and Chung. 1982 5. Inc. Non-Linear Soil Dynamic Models Based on Performed Laboratory Tests..M.Y. 1978 8. Talaganov. . Report No..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_324.. European Conference on Structural Dynamics. Berkeley. Vol. Bochum Germany. Martin. EERC. June 5–7. Soil Liquefaction and Cyclic Mobility Evaluation for Level Ground During Earthquakes. Yokel. Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems. GT2 1979 2.. 105. Talaganov. 1989 7.P.B. M.C. 1990. Ishihara. Seed. Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division.page_324 < previous page page_324 next page > Page 324 REFERENCES 1. Liquefaction of Soils During Earthquakes. R. Skopje.. P. Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering. Universal Academy Press. I. Yugoslavia. and •ubrinovski. K.

. Geographic location of the region including the epicenter is shown in Fig.page_325 < previous page page_325 next page > Page 325 Liquefaction Associated with Manjil Earthquake of June 20 1990.N. INTRODUCTION Manjil earthquake of June 20 1990 caused extensive life lost and damage to buildings and substructures in a relatively populated region of provinces of Gilan and Zanjan. A general view on the earthquake characteristics and the geotechnical aspects of this earthquake is reviewed. < previous page page_325 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Iran S.html12/05/2010 06:33:02 a. The reason why liquefaction did occur only in two sections of the city of Astaneh is clarified. The extent of the liquefaction in addition to the general subsurface soil condition in affected area. as much as available.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_325.. Iran ABSTRACT Manjil earthquake of June 20 1990 caused extensive damage and loss of life throughout the relatively populated epicentral region mainly in the towns of Manjil and Rudbar and their suburbs. .TOOSSI University. Considerable additional damage occurred further north and west in Gilan and Zanjan provinces. farms and lifelines in a vast area. K.m. Liquef action occurred mostly in Astaneh and Rudbaneh some 75km northeast of epicenter.M. Due to the extent of damage occuring in this area a number of researchers from all over the world visited the affected area. is described. 1. Soil liquefaction caused extensive damages to buildings.Haeri Civil Engineering Department. especially in Rasht and Astaneh. In this respect a geotechnical team leading by the author visited the site a few days after the earthquake to investigate the geotechnical aspects of this earthquake. Results of a preliminary subsurface soil investigation performed after the earthquake in Astaneh are presented and discussed. Tehran.

This part of study has been completed and the results are presented in this paper. MANJIL EARTHQUAKE OF JUNE 20 1990 Just 30 minutes after midnight of June 21 1990.. 5. [4] The rupture zone defined by site investigation is reported to be about 100km long with a major trend of northwest-southeast direction. rockfall.html12/05/2010 06:33:02 a. liquefaction. local time (21 hour June 20 GMT). A comprehensive report in this respect is given elsewhere [2]. < previous page page_326 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. between Manjil and Rudbar and with the focal depth of about 10km. Site and laboratory studies on the behavior of loose sands under dynamic loading in recent decades resulted in various theoretical and experimental expressions and design charts to evaluate the potentiality of the liquefaction [eg. Liquefaction of level ground has shown to be responsible for many damages incurred to structures and lifelines during moderate to strong earthquakes. a disastrous and destructive earthquake occurred in the provinces of Gilan and Zanjan. The main aftershocks defined the same trend as mentioned above for the rupture zone. 1). i. landslide.page_326 < previous page page_326 next page > Page 326 Geotechnical aspects of this strong earthquake is a complete set of all possible events associated with any strong ground shaking. 3. To evaluate the reasons for earthquake induced liquefaction in Gilan and especially in Astaneh a careful surface study of the site was performed to map the zone of liquefaction. The magnitudes of Mb=7. the same as that of the major faults in the region. The approximate intensity distribution given by Building and Housing Research Center is shown in Fig. The continuation of the study involves both in situ and laboratory dynamic testing in all liquefaction affected area.3 and Ms=7. 7].6 and the maximum intensity of X in modified Mercali scale are reported. . 3. 6. One of the most important geotechnical earthquake engineering considerations of this earthquake was liquefaction of level ground.. The preliminary part includes subsurface investigation and in situ testing in Astaneh. IRAN (Fig.. 2. local site effects and soil amplification and foundation problems.m.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_326. The epicenter is reported to be about 200km northwest of Tehran. Location of any of these aspects occurred during the Manjil earthquake is given in Fig. The program of a comprehensive study of this liquefaction was planned in two phases.e.

html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:33:03 a.page_327 < previous page Page 327 page_327 next page > Fig. 1 Geographical location of epicenter file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.m.. .mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_327..

html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:33:03 a.. .page_327 Fig.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_327.. 2 Places of Geotechnical considerations with respect to Manjil earthquake of June 20 1990 < previous page page_327 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.m.

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Page 328 Earthquake induced damage exrtended to many cities and villages in the provinces of Gilan an Zanjan covering and area of more than 10000km. The damage occurred in the city of Rasht some 60km north of epicenter is mainly due to the soil amplification resulting in destruction and sever damage to buildings taller than four stories. Liquefaction was solely responsible for the damage occurred in the town of Astaneh and nearby villages some 75km northeast of epicenter. Earthquake induced landslides ruined villages, farms and roads. Sefidrud Dam located at the vicinity of epicenter experienced only minor damages. A number of accelerographs installed in the region recorded the main shock. Unfortunately seismograph installed at Sefidrud Dam was out of order at the time of the ground shaking. The nearest instrument to the epicenter in the region is an accelerograph installed on a rock site at Abbar some 40km west of Manjil and 10km far from the extent of the major fault (Fig. 2). The maximum acceleration recorded by this accelerograph is 0.65g in horizontal direction and 0.23g in vertical direction [4]. The maximum horizontal acceleration recorded at Lahijan some 75 km far from epicenter, and some 10km southwest of Astaneh, was 0.17g. The latter accelerograph installed on alluvial plain. LIQUEFACTION INDUCED GROUND DAMAGE Liquefaction caused extensive damage in a vast area of fluvial deposit of Sefidrud and i ts tributaries. The distance between observed liquefaction in this region and epicenter is between 50km and 90km (Fig. 2). The most extensive damage occurred in Astaneh and Rudbaneh some 75km northeast of epicenter. Study of the geological map of the region (Fig. 4) indicates that the liquefaction occurred mostly in levee deposits of the present and abandoned channels of Sefidrud river. The Sefidrud channel has changed its coarse of movement several times due to the fall of water level in Caspian sea [1]. The latest course of Sefidrud bed before its present channel are Heshmatrud and Aliakbari rivers passing through Astaneh and Rudbaneh and meandering and flowing towards the Caspian sea. As shown in Fig. 4, levee deposit shown by dark color covers a wide area and earthquake induced liquefaction occurred mostly in such a soil formation containing loose sand and silt. The water table generally is high being at about 1 to 2 meter below ground level at the time of earthquake. Most of affected lands are rice farms and

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Fig. 3 Approximate Intensity distribution of June 20 1990 earthquake of Manjil

Fig. 4 Pleistocene and Recent deposits of the Sefidrud delta and adjoining parts of the Caspian plain

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Page 330 therefore it was not an easy task to distinguish between the liquefied and not liquefied sites in such a wide area. The places with the signs of liquefaction are within the zone shown in Fig. 5. This does not mean that any point in this zone is a liquefied site. However, the observed places with clear signs of liquefaction are shown by dark circles in this figure. Sand liquefaction caused extensive damage such as foundation bearing failure, total and differential settlement, destruction of houses, disposition of irrigation canal linings, damage to pipes and buried utilities, damage to pavements and roads, opening and cracking of the ground surface, uprooting of large trees, sand boils in rice farms, and boiling and jetting of sand and water from ground and water wells resulting in sand fill in wells. Damage induced by liquefaction was mainly concentrated in Astaneh, Rudbaneh, Pahmedan, and Naserkiadeh to Rudposht along the abandoned Sefidrud channel (Heshmatrud and Aliakbari rivers in Fig. 5). The depth of level ground liquefaction in this area seams to be shallow. This conclusion is based on surface evidence and testimony of the local inhabitants about the method of their private water well excavation, the material they have been involved at the time of excavation, the normal depth of water table and the depth of water table just before earthquake. The wells are mainly for domestic water consumption and are dug by hand to a depth of at the most two meters below water table and lined by concrete rings. The water table is normally at about 2 meters below ground surface and the soil in places of liquefaction consists of 1 to 2 meters silty clay and clayey silt overlaying loose sand. In the liquefied zone most of these wells filled with sand which was boiled out during the earthquake. Shallow subsurface soil condition could be seen f’rom excavations being underway for pipeline repair. Within the city of Astaneh, liquefaction caused extensive damages to buildings in two particular parts of the city as shown in Fig. 6. Within these two particular sections the houses are collapsed, torn apart and experienced differential settlement. Sand boiled from room floors, water wells and everywhere that could penetrate to release the earthquake induced pore water pressure. Two private houses separated by a short wall is shown in Fig. 7a which are torn apart and the wal 1 tilted due to the heave of the ground. The heave as shown in Fig. 7a indicates that the ground shaking has resulted in loosening and

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Fig. 5 Zone of Liquefaction in Gilan

Fig. 6 Zone of Liquefaction in Astaneh

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Page 332 densifying different parts of the subsurface soil. Thus any other earthquake of similar intensity can repeatedly cause liquefaction. This sort of unconformity can be seen in many places in these two sections of the city. The fact that in other parts of the city no such a damage could be seen reveals that liquefaction of level ground is the sole responsible for incurred damage in the city of Astaneh. There has been no accelerograph installed in the city of Astaneh. However, an accelerograph installed in the city of Lahijan some 10km southeast of Astaneh recorded a maximum horizontal acceleration of 0.17g as mentioned before. The instrument installed at Lahijan is on an almost similar soil condition as that of Astaneh and thus one can assume that the maximum ground acceleration in Astaneh is of the same order as that recorded in Lahijan. To have a better understanding of liquefaction mechanism in Astaneh, a preliminary subsurface soil investigation was performed in this city. Results of this investigation are described in the next section. Damage incurred in Rudbaneh was almost of the same intensity as that of Astaneh. The main road passing through Rudbaneh is mainly parallel to a river located at the north part of the village. The soil condition in Rudbaneh is also similar to the general soil condition of places with the signs of liquefaction in this area; i.e. a top layer of maximum 2m of clayey silt overlaying loose sand. Liquefaction of loose sand caused the hardpan to break and a sort of flow slide occurred towards the river. As a result very long open cracks, mostly filled by sand, appeared at the ground surface especially along the road shoulders. The cracks along the road shoulder and uprooting of large trees are shown in Fig. 7b. Destruction of houses and damage to pavements and roads are other visible kinds of damages induced by liquefaction in Rudbaneh (Fig. 7c). A section of Pahmedan was also damaged by earthquake induced liquefaction. Other part did not experience damage. Shallow soil condition in these two sections are quite different. Loose sand underlies a top cohesive soil of about 2m in liquefied part, and the soil in other part consists of 1 to 2m sand overlaying a thick deposit of clay. The water table in the liquefied part has been about 2.5m below ground surface and the depth of hand dug wells is about 4m. There are a few bore holes excavated within few kilometers from Pahmedan for irrigation canal design. Location of bore holes are given in Fig. 5.

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Fig. 7 Liquefaction induced damages: (a) Damage to houses in Astaneh, (b) Open cracks along the road and uprooting of trees near Rudbaneh (c) Damage to pavements and houses in Rudbaneh (d) Damage to irrigation canals near Astaneh

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Page 334 The log of one of these holes containing SPT information is shown in Fig. 8 (bore hole no. 17). Apparently at that location liquefaction di d not occur. On the other hand, soil mechanics report associated with these bore hole logs indicates that the drilling is performed without using bentonite or casing. In this respect the operator could not drill the hole no. 18 (Fig. 5) at the right place due to the tendency of the sand to fill the drill hole. Thus the original place of boring was changed to a point about 200m off road to be able to drill the hole in a cohesive soil. The heterogeneity of the subsurface soil condition in the fluvial deposit of abandoned Sefidrud channel can be seen from this soil mechanics report. Presence of loose saturated sandy silt and silty sand with N values of less than 5 is indicative of possible mobilization of liquefaction due to a moderate or strong ground shaking. A number of subsurface investigations had been performed by different organizations for various projects in this region. The location of some of bore holes are shown in Fig. 5. None of the bore holes are located in Astaneh and few of them contain geotechnical parameters. Liquefaction induced damages in other places within the zone shown in Fig. 5. are more or less of the same intensity. The damage incurred to the unlined as well as lined irrigation canals was very heavy. An example of damage to lined irrigation canals near Astaneh is shown in Fig. 7d. Buried utilities such as culverts and pipelines experienced damage as well. An example is the water pipeline transmitting water from Astaneh to Kiashahr which damaged along 4km of its length. STUDY OF LIQUEFACTION IN ASTANEH Evidences from the damage incurred to the ground induced by liquefaction in Astaneh indicates that the depth of liquefaction is shallow. The liquefaction induced damage is concentrated in two sections of the city as shown in Fig. 6. No subsurface investigation had been performed in the city and no engineering subsurface soil information was available. To understand the liquefaction mechanism and answer questions concerning the liquefaction process in this city, a preliminary subsurface investigation performed composed of nine bore holes drilled, three in northeast and four in southwest zones of liquefaction and two in others part of the city (Fig. 6). Although the soil condition changed during and after the earthquake, the heave and settlement of the ground surface in different locations tell us

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Fig. 8 A bore hole log showing the soil condition in Raiat Mahaleh near Pahmedan

Fig. 9 Soil profile in a place located within the zone of liquefaction in Astaneh (BH3)

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Page 336 that both loosening and densif ication of the soil have occurred as a result of liquefaction. Thus, the subsurface investigation could clarify questions as to the liquefaction in Astaneh. The cyclic stress ratio developed in the field due to earthquake shaking can be computed from an equation of the form as below given by Seed and Idriss [5]:

(1) in which amax=maximum acceleration at the ground surface; overburden pressure on sand layer under effective overburden pressure on sand layer under consideration; and rd=stress consideration; reduction factor varying from 1 at the ground surface to about 0.9 at a depth of about 10m. The stress ratio determined by Eq. 1, then compared with the stress ratio required to cause liquefaction of the soil determined by implementing charts given by Seed et al (1983). Results of site and laboratory tests on soils taken from bore holes no. 3 (BH3) located in one of the zones of liquefaction and no. 4 (BH4), located in the part of the city without indication of liquefaction are shown in Figs. 9 & 10 respectively (see Fig. 6 for the location of these bore holes). SPT was performed carefully at every meter of the bore holes total length implementing exactly the same procedure as that recommended by Seed et al [7]. The hammer used was U.S. type safety hammer. The information given in Figs. 9 & 10 are plotted in charts given by Seed et al [6]. Fig 11 includes the results of this analyses. The circles plotted in Fig. 11 indicate the stress ratio caused by an earthquake with a maximum acceleration of 0.17g in a soil condition as that shown in Fig. 9. Each circle is representative of stress ratio of the soil at every meter of the bore hole depth. The comparison of the stress ratio caused by such an earthquake with the stress ratio required to cause liquefaction by an earthquake of Magnitude of 7.5 indicates that under the condition as that of Manjil earthquake of June 20 1990, liquefaction occurs almost along the total depth of such a soil profile as shown in Fig. 9. This means that under such a circumstances as that mentioned above the thickness of liquefied layer is about 8m. The considerable upward thrust caused by pore water pressure generalized by ground shaking could break through the thin cohesive upper part of the soil and liquefaction

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Fig. 10 Soil profile in a place located outside the zone of liquefaction in Astaneh (BH4)

Fig. 11 Results of liquefaction analyses for soils at BH3 and BH4

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Page 338 became visible. The same procedure described for BH3 accomplished for BH4 located in the section of the city with no sign of liquefaction. As seen from Fig. 10 at least three meters of cohesive material is present at the upper part of the soil, at this location, underlaying a compacted granular material of pavement. Results of the analyses for sandy parts of this cross section are plotted in Fig. 11, shown by triangles. Liquefaction can occur in a thin layer of loose sand and silt at a depth of 5m below ground surface and in layer of a medium sand at a depth of about 8m. These two narrow and relatively deep strata did not have enough thrust to break through the dense sand present at 6 to 7m deep and the thick cohesive soil present near the ground surface. CONCLUSIONS Characteristics and geotechnical considerations of Manjil earthquake of June 20 1990 briefly reviewed. Earthquake induced liquefaction occurred in province of Gilan especially in Astaneh and Rudbaneh described. Geological and ground damage maps indicate that most of the earthquake induced liquefaction occurred in heterogeneous fluvial deposit of Sefidrud and its tributaries, mainly in levee deposits of Sefidrud abandoned channels containing loose sand and silty sand with high water table. Liquefaction occurred only in two sections of Astaneh. To understand the mechanism of liquefaction in this city a preliminary subsurface soil investigation performed. This investigation reveals that the presence of a relatively thick loose sand near ground surface and high water table was responsible for observed earthquake induced liquefaction. Places with no signs of liquefaction at the ground surface, contain mostly a thick layer of cohesive soil near the ground surface underlaid mostly by a thin layer of sand which might be prone to liquefaction. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The financial support granted by Housing Foundation and International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology of Islamic Republic of Iran is gratefully acknowledged.

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Page 339 REFERENCES 1. Annells, R.N., Arthrton, R.S., Bazley, R.A. and Davies, R.G. Explanatory of the Qazvin and Rasht Quadrangles Map. Geological Survey of Iran, Tehran, 1975. 2. Haeri, S.M. Geotechnical Aspects of Manjil Earthquake of June 20 1990. Report of International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology of Iran, 1991. 3. Ishihara, K. Simple Method of Analysis for Liquefaction of Sand Deposits During Earthquakes. Soils and Foundations, Vol. 17, pp 1–17, 1977. 4. Moinfar, A.A., and Naderzadeh, A. An immediate and preliminary report on the Manjil, Iran earthquake of June 20 1990. Building & Housing Research Center, Tehran, 1990. 5. Seed, H.B. and Idriss, I.M. Simplified procedure for evaluating soil liquefaction potential. Journal of SMFE Division, ASCE, Vol. 97, No. SM9, 1971. 6. Seed, H.B., Idriss, I.M., and Arango, I. Evaluation on of liquefaction potential using field performance data. Journal of Geot. Eng. Division, ASCE, Vol. 109, No. 3, pp 458–482, 1983. 7. Seed, H.B., Tokimatsu, K., Harder , L.F. and Chung, R.M. Influence of SPT procedures in soil liquefaction Resistance Evaluation. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, Vol. 111, No.12, pp 1425–1445, 1985.

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Page 341 Countermeasures Against the Permanent Ground Displacement due to Liquefaction S.Yasuda, H.Nagase, H.Kiku, Y.Uchida Department of Civil Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Tobata, Kitakyushu, 804, Japan ABSTRACT Appropriate countermeasures against the permanent ground displacement due to soil liquefaction were studied based on shaking table tests and analyses. Four types of countermeasures were tested in the shaking table tests: (1) sand compaction, (2) steel pile, (3) compaction of the ground with a band, and (4) continuous underground concrete or steel wall. In all tests, displacement of some area close to the countermeasure on the upstream side was decreased due to the countermeasure. The continuous wall method was the most effective among the four methods. INTRODUCTION Recently, permanent ground displacements caused by the 1964 Niigata Earthquake and the 1983 Nihonkai-chubu Earthquake were measured by pre- and post-earthquake aerial surveys (Hamada et al. 1,2), and clarified that extremely large ground displacements, up to several meters, occurred in the ground liquefied during the two earthquakes though the ground surface was almost flat. The authors conducted shaking table tests, vane tests and cyclic shear tests to study the mechanism of the permanent ground displacement and to ascertain the rate of decrease of the shear modulus and the shear strength (Yasuda et al. 3). Based on these tests, a simplified procedure for forecasting permanent ground displacement was proposed. In the next step, appropriate countermeasures against the permanent ground displacement were studied based on shaking table tests and analyses. Countermeasures by strengthening the ground with sand piles, steel piles, densification at a narrow band or continuous walls were studied. The effectiveness and the limitation were clarified. Moreover, effectiveness of the countermeasure in the full scale ground was studied by some analyses.

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Page 342 In this paper, results of shaking table tests to know the mechanism, and proposed simplified procedure for the analysis are shown briefly. Then, shaking table tests and analyses for countermeasures are shown in detail. SHAKING TABLE TESTS TO KNOW THE MECHANISM OF PERMANENT GROUND DISPLACEMENT Shaking table tests were conducted on 24 soil models shown in Fig. 1 to study the mechanism of permanent ground displacement due to soil liquefaction (Yasuda et al.3). The shaking table used was 1m in length and 1m in width in plane. The soil container, used for series A, B, C, D, E and F, was 80cm in length, 65cm in depth and 60cm in width. For series G, H and I, a slightly bigger container, of 100cm in length, 65cm in depth and 60cm in width, was used. A soil model consisted of two sand layers: an upper layer of loose sand which would liquefy during shaking, and a lower layer of dense sand which would not liquefy during shaking. The same kind of sand was used for both sand layers; however, the method of compaction used for each layer was different. First, the lower sand layer was compacted by shaking at 300 gals of acceleration for two minutes. Then, the upper sand layer, which will be called the “liquefied layer” hereafter, was passed through a sieve in air or in water. Three types of sand were used for the tests: (1) very clean, (2) sand with fines and (3) Toyoura sand. Grain size distribution curves of the sands are shown in Fig. 2. The fine contents of the three sands were 0 %, 6 % and 0 %, respectively. Models tested were classified into nine series, as shown in Fig. 1. Several slopes of the surface or the bottom surface of the liquefied layer and three densities were adopted for each series. Shaking motion was applied in one direction parallel to the

Fig. 1 Model Types

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1Hz was applied until the excess pore pressure ratio. (4) The displacement of loose sand was greater than that of medium dense sand. only some of the main results are shown. at a frequency of 3 Hz and with appropriate accelerations to induce liquefaction after several cycles of shaking. 1 except series G. but occurred with a constant shear strain in the liquefied layer because of a fall of shear strength and shear modulus due to liquefaction. displacement also developed gradually after the occurrence of liquefaction. and the displacement of sand with fines was less than that of clean sand. placed vertically in the soil at the front of the model. In series H. Then.3) The sand used for these tests was also Toyoura Sand. The shaking was finished 10 seconds after liquefaction. and (2) displacement of 18 to 30 pins on the ground surface was measured by a scale after stopping the shaking.3). The prescribed amount of the excess pore pressure < previous page page_343 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.m. displacements were not so large. CYCLIC TORSIONAL SHEAR TESTS Cyclic torsional shear tests were conducted to clarify the rate of decrease of the shear modulus due to liquefaction (Yasuda et al. .page_343 < previous page Page 343 page_343 next page > Fig.. (3) In series G. (2) In series A.html12/05/2010 06:33:12 a. After saturated specimens were consolidated a cyclic shear stress of 0. The displacement increased almost linearly in a vertical direction from zero at the bottom surface of the liquefied layer to a maximum value at the ground surface. because detailed test results have presented already by the authors (Yasuda et al. (1) According to observation of the noodles.1 % per minute. displacement occurred not toward the slope of the bottom surface of the liquefied layer. reached a prescribed amount. displacement developed gradually after the occurrence of liquefaction. 2 Grain Size Distribution Curves horizontal axis in Fig. almost as it did in series B. In this paper. However. static shear stress was applied under a constant strain rate of 0.. just behind the glass.5 seconds after liquefaction. were measured by photo at intervals of 2.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_343. it seems that displacement was induced toward the direction of slope of the bottom surface of the liquefied layer. but toward the slope of the filled layers. This means that displacement did not occur at the boundary between the liquefied layer and the non-liquefied layer. Displacement at several points in the liquefied layer was measured by two methods: (1) deformations of nine to sixteen noodles.

A SIMPLIFIED PROCEDURE FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE PERMANENT GROUND DISPLACEMENT Based on the test results mentioned above and case studies conducted by Hamada et al. . was changed for each specimen from 0 to 1. almost 0. 3 Comparison between Calculated Displacements and Measured Displacements at Niigata Railway Station Fig. [1]. . . the authors assumed that permanent ground displacement would occur in liquefied softened ground due to shear stress present before file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20. G0.0. 3). 4 Three Categories of to Countermeasure against Permanent Ground Displacement ratio. The rate of reduction of shear modulus. and reaches a very small value.. 1/G0. et al. A specimen of is a fully liquefied specimen. if a specimen is fully liquefied.page_344 < previous page Page 344 page_344 next page > Fig..html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:33:13 a.m.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_344. In this procedure.001. the authors proposed a simplified procedure for the analysis of permanent ground displacement (Yasuda. i decreases rapidly with an increase in excess pore pressure ratio.

(3) The difference in deformation measured by the two < previous page page_344 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20. In the calculation.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_344.. . the distribution of stresses in the ground is calculated by the finite element method using the elastic modulus before the earthquake. (2) Then. The finite element method was applied twice as follows: (1) In the first stage.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:33:13 a. the finite element method is conducted again using the decreased modulus due liquefaction by the earthquake.m.page_344 liquefaction. model layers must be made in several steps. holding the stress constant. because the soil layers in natural ground have filled gradually..

Poisson’s ratios during filling and during an earthquake were assumed as 0. (2) strengthening structures to prevent damage. based on the tests. sand piles. The analyzed results coincide fairly well with the test results. Ground densification in all area is generally considered uneconomical. several analyses of the soil models used for the shaking table tests were conducted. 4. E. Three rates of elastic modulus decrease were assumed: 1/500. densification at narrow bands.page_345 < previous page page_345 next page > Page 345 analyses is supposed to equal the permanent ground displacement. In Fig. KIND OF COUNTERMEASURES AGAINST PERMANENT GROUND DISPLACEMENT It is not clear what kind of countermeasures are effective against permanent ground displacement due to liquefaction. Fig.. because no countermeasures have been applied. 3(a). because it must be applied to a wide area. sand piles. it can be said that the analysis assuming an elastic modulus of decrease rate of almost 1/1000 is appropriate. and (3) strengthening the ground with walls or steel piles.html12/05/2010 06:33:14 a. To confirm the accuracy of this procedure. analyses and case studies. respectively. 1/1000 and 1/2000. . densification through a narrow band was studied by shaking table tests and analyses. In these analyses. analyzed displacements and measured displacements have the same tendency: displacement increases with the thickness of the liquefied layer. as in the analyses of soil models used for shaking table tests. SHAKING TABLE TESTS ON COUNTERMEASURES AGAINST PERMANENT GROUND DISPLACEMENT Shaking table tests to ascertain effective countermeasures against permanent ground displacement due to liquefaction were < previous page page_345 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. permanent ground displacements at the site of Showa Bridge and around Niigata Railway Station in Niigata City during the 1964 Niigata Earthquake were analyzed. 3 compares the results of analysis of ground around Niigata Railway Station with the displacements measured in that area. to prevent large ground displacement if liquefaction occurs. These results were compared with the results measured by Hamada et al. was estimated from SPT N-value by using the formula. seem to be effective: (1) improving the ground in all area by densification to prevent liquefaction.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_345. In the next step. This decreasing ratio coincides well with the result of the cyclic torslonal shear test. Different methods must be used to strengthen different structures making this approach somewhat impractical. elastic modulus.. strengthening the ground by walls or steel piles. By comparing the amount of deformation analyzed with that measured.35 and 0. [1]. Therefore. the following three categories of countermeasures. However. E=28N.499.m. as shown in Fig.

The number of the compacted sand piles and rate of replacement in each case is shown in Table 1(a). Installation of the wall and method of filling loose layer were the same as in the steel pile method. aluminum piles of 2cm in outer diameter were stood in the dense layer.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_346. which is the liquefied layer.000kgf/cm2.m. In contrast. an acryloyl wall of 2mm or 3mm in thickness was used. Test conditions are shown in Table 1(b).8cm in outer diameter and 2. . Without countermeasures. The method of erecting the piles and of filling the loose layer were also the same. Four thicknesses of the compaction band were tested. (3) compaction of the ground with a band. method of filling loose layer. the thickness of the loose layer was 20cm. which is the liquefied layer. was filled with the pipes erect. was arranged as 30 %. H and I as described before. 1. were used in the ground compaction with a band method. < previous page page_346 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. After filling the loose layer. with a depth of 5cm. In this method.page_346 < previous page page_346 next page > Page 346 carried out by using the same soil container for series G. as shown in Table 1(c). Young’s modulus of the piles was 32. The following models were used for the four types of countermeasures in considering scale effects: (1) In the sand compaction method. with the maximum value at the center. The sand in the holes was compacted by pushing a rod to a relative density of almost 90 % to 100 %. the same as series G in Fig. (2) In the steel pile method. vinyl chloride piles of 1. as shown in Fig. and slopes of the ground surface and bottom surface of the loose layer were 3 %. In all tests.html12/05/2010 06:33:14 a. Models were shaken in the perpendicular direction to the horizontal axis. The depth of installation of the walls. Eight pieces of strain gauges were pasted on the wal1 to measure the bending strain of the wall due to earth pressure. piles were stood in one row or in two rows with triangle alignment. Tests were conducted under three conditions. two sheets of walls made of aluminum. 6 shows the measured displacements on the ground surface after stopping the shaking. Four types of countermeasures were applied to the model ground. Sand used was Toyoura Sand and the relative density of the loose layer. which is the not-liquefied layer. the pipes were pulled out and some Toyoura Sand was poured into the holes. Fig. (2) steel piles. The wall was stood on the bottom surface of the soil container. displacements of 2 to 2. with a thickness of 2mm. and (4) continuous underground concrete or steel wall. according to a 3Hz sine wave up to 10 seconds after the occurrence of liquefaction. (3) Instead of vinyl chloride pipes. as shown in Table 1(d). (4) In the continuous underground concrete or steel wall method. 5: (1) sand compaction.. displacements with countermeasures decreased to 2cm to 2mm.5mm in thickness were used.5cm occurred on the ground surface. and method of compacting the sand in the trench after pulling out the walls were the same as in the sand compaction method. Then the loose layer..

. . Number of piles Pitch of piles(cm) Number of rows P-1 10 6 1 P-2 12 5 1 P-3 15 4 1 P-4 20 3 1 PT-1 15 7. 5 Models of Countermeasures in Shaking Table Tests Table 1 Test Conditions of Countermeasures (a) Sand Compaction Case No. Number of piles Rate of replacement As (%) S-1 6 3.page_347 < previous page Page 347 page_347 next page > Fig.7 (b) Steel pile Case No..html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:33:16 a.6 S-3 10 8.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_347. Thickness of the compacted band W-1 0.8 2 (c) Compaction of the ground with a band Case No.5 file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.5 2 PT-2 20 5.1 S-2 8 5.m.

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the distribution of earth pressure acting on the wall was estimated as shown in Fig. in the ground compaction with a band. It can be seen that displacements changed with these factors.. 7. it can be said that the continuous wall method is the most effective among the four methods.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_348. < previous page page_348 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. some soil-flow through the piles was induced. thickness of the compacted band. In case of the continuous underground wall method. In the sand compaction method or steel pile method. Displacements with an underground wall were the smallest among the four types of countermeasures. an alignment with two rows was more effective than an alignment with one row if the numbers of piles were the same.m.html12/05/2010 06:33:17 a. 7 compares the displacements with rate of replacement. . and thickness of the wall. stress induced in the wall must be evaluated during the design of the wall. And. 6 Measured Displacement in Shaking Table Tests with the minimum value on the upper side. Fig. as shown in Fig.. 8 based on the measured strain and Young’s modulus of the wall. in four types of countermeasures. on the left side in the figure of the countermeasures. However. some bending of the compacted band occurred due to inadequate stiffness of the compacted band. Therefore. pitch of the steel piles. The distribution curve was almost triangular.page_348 < previous page Page 348 page_348 next page > Fig. In the steel pile method.

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9.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:33:18 a. mentioned above. on a ground model of 100m in length. The rate of decrease of the elastic modulus due to liquefaction was supposed as 1/1000.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_349. in the ground. several analyses were performed. Five of the results of analysis are shown in Fig.m. Among the four types of countermeasures by the continuous underground concrete or steel wall and the compaction of the ground with a band were selected for the analyses.. The SPT-N values of liquefied layer and the non-liquefied layer were assumed as 3 and 30. with a liquefied layer 10m in thickness and a 3 % slope of the ground surface. assuming different countermeasure parameters.. . respectively. 8 Distribution of Earth Pressure ANALYSES FOR THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COUNTERMEASURES IN THE GROUND To know the effectiveness of the countermeasures. Analysis showed that the amount of ground displacement was < previous page page_349 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.page_349 Fig.

” Proc. 1986. The most effective method was the continuous wall method. pp. on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Eng... Moreover. Vol. H.. Nagase. R. 9 Analyzed Deformation of Model Grounds with Countermeasure decreased by installing continuous wall. or if the continuous wal1 is weak. < previous page page_350 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. of the Pacific Conf.. REFERENCES 1. S. the amount of the ground displacement of some area close to the countermeasures was decreased.” Proc..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_350. 1991.. (2) steel pile. Yasuda.m. 2. and (4) continuous underground concrete or steel wall. Yasuda. 1. 245– 252.. and Kiku. or by compacting the ground. and Soil Dynamics. Vol. To study the effectiveness of countermeasures by strengthening the ground.page_350 < previous page Page 350 page_350 next page > Fig.html12/05/2010 06:33:19 a. Hamada. on Earthquake Eng. CONCLUSIONS Permanent ground displacement due to soil liquefaction brings severe damages to many structures. 1987. H. M. and Emoto. the effectiveness of the countermeasures decreases if the compacted zone does not reach the bottom of the liquefied layer. R. Hamada. “Shaking Table Tests on Permanent Ground Displacement Due to Liquefaction. of the 2nd Int. Isoyama. Analyses on a ground model of 100m in length also showed that the amount of the displacement was decreased by installing the continuous wall. Conf. S. M. S. Yasuda. In all shaking table tests. pp. 3. K. Four type of strengthening method were selected: (1) sand compaction.” Association for the Development of Earthquake Prediction. (3) compaction of the ground with a band. 37–47. “Liquefaction-induced Permanent Ground Displacement During Earthquakes. and Isoyama. . “Study on Liquefaction Induced Permanent Ground Displacements. shaking table tests and analyses were conducted.

These researches [1. Sato Kogyo. S. Japan ABSTRACT Behavior of a pile foundation in a liquefied sand layer during an earthquake is investigated to make rational aseismic design method of pile-structure system. Shaking table tests by using large scale shear bin (4m in length. 2.Yoshida (*).Nakamura (*). A 2-story structure model supported by four piles was set on the saturated sand layer in large scale shear bin. S. many buildings in Japan were constructed or are going to be constructed with pile foundation at the liquefiable soft ground. 3]was to recognize the mechanism of the liquefaction and to know the behavior of ground during earthquake. Ltd. Kanagawa.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_351.m.. 2m in width and 2m in height) were conducted.page_351 < previous page page_351 next page > Page 351 Soil-Pile Interaction in Liquefied Sand Layer K.html12/05/2010 06:33:19 a. K.. Japan (**) Faculty of Engineering. it is recognized that the secant modulus and equivalent damping ratio depend on the excess porewater pressure in the sand layer.Yao (**) (*) Engineering Research Center. From the obtained dynamic restoring force characteristics at the pile top. Co. N. .Sato (*).Kobayashi (*). Kansai University. Osaka. INTRODUCTION Much research has been performed related to the liquefaction after the 1964 Niigata earthquake at which severe damage to the structures such as subsidence and differential settlement firstly occurred due to soil liquefaction. Lately... In the design of the piles in the liquefiable < previous page page_351 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing..

When the ground liquefy or porewater pressure generates.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_352. . in which the coefficient of horizontal subgrade reaction is estimated considering the generation of the excess porewater pressure. Dr. a pile-foundation system is modeled to a beam on an elastic foundation. After setting a pile-superstructure model at the center of the shear bin.98gf/cm3. In this method. The unit weight of saturated sand varies between 1. Relative densitiy of the sand layer. a method based on the Japan Highway Bridge Code is frequently used in the earthquake-resistant design of a pile-foundation system. Therefore it is important to know the soil-pile interaction behavior in the design of the superstructure. Shaking table tests by using large scale shear bins were carried out to obtain it.. A sand layer is composed of siliceous sand No. the effect of the liquefaction or porewater pressure generation is not usually considered in the design of the superstructure.html12/05/2010 06:33:19 a.. a saturated sand layer is made by water-pluviation method by means of a power-bucket.88 and 1. It varies between 45 and 90%. TEST APPARATUS AND TEST PLAN Figure 1 shows longitudinal cross-section of the large scale shear bin (4m in length.page_352 < previous page page_352 next page > Page 352 ground. whose material properties are shown in Table 1.m. the weight of deposited sand and the water content. hence the behavior of the superstructure will also be changed. < previous page page_352 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. This paper deals with the dynamic behavior of a soil-pile-superstructure system in the liquefied sand layer. However analytical or experimental studies were hardly carried out to obtain soil-pile dynamic behavior in liquefied sand layer. It is composed of 25-frame steps (80mm in height). hence there remains some uncertainty on modeling the soil-pile interaction in liquefied sand layer. and designed so as to move without friction in the horizontal direction. the behavior of piles will be affected. Dynamic restoring force characteristics at the pile top are investigated in relation with the excess porewater pressure of the saturated sand layer. is calculated based on the depth of sand layer. On the other hand. 6. 2m in width and 2m in height) put on the shaking table.

It is changed from 1 to 7Hz..m. 50. which is called sweep up method. Locations of these instruments are also shown in Fig. 1. TEST RESULT Excess porewater pressure-time histories are shown in Fig. The weight of the 2-story structure model is 320 kgf. 90. The degrees of excess porewater pressure generation in the tests of case 1 and 2 are different from those of case 3 and case 4. Several series of tests were carried out in which the frequency of the external load is different to each other. 70.html12/05/2010 06:33:20 a. Excess porewater pressure reach the initial effective overburden pressure. 130.page_353 < previous page page_353 next page > Page 353 S-wave velocities in the sand layer. Vs. are calculated by an elastic wave exploration test. The same sand deposit is used 3 times in average. The displacement have both residual and cyclic components. The same tendencies are observed in the other cases. 110. They are between 50 and 90 m/ sec. In addition. only 4 series of the tests is introduced in this paper..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_353. which is known because displacements shift to one side as the acceleration increases. Sinusoidal vibrations are applied in the horizontal direction. D6 and D8) In the test of case 3. . The acceleration of the vibrations is increased gradually keeping the frequency constant. The piles are aluminium square pipes whose dimensions of the pile is shown in Table 2. a total of 18 strain gauges are put on a pile at the depths of 10. A 2-story structure model supported by four piles is used in the test. 8 inductance type displacement gages on the side of the shear bin. Among these tests. 150 and 170cm. 30. Figure 3 shows horizontal displacement-time histories of displacement gauges (D1. 2 servo accelerometers and 2 inductance type displacement gauges on the ground. The following measuring instruments were set: 6 servo accelerometers on each floor of the structure. but in the latter cases excess porewater pressure at upper layer liquified earlier. The instantaneous displacement distributions in the < previous page page_353 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 5 piezometers. at the same time in the former cases. 2. which is in definition of liquefaction level. which is a scaled model of a middle size R/C building commonly constructed in Japan considering a similarity rule[4].

The same tendencies are observed in the tests of other cases. Figure 8 shows the relationship between the secant modulus and the excess porewater pressure ratio and the relationship between the equivalent damping ratio and the excess porewater pressure ratio. It is clearly observed in Fig. DISCUSSION To obtain the dynamic restoring force characteristics at the pile top. and denotes the ratio of excess porewater pressure to the initial effective h denotes equivalent damping ratio. The equivalent damping ratio is smaller than 0. The deformation of the pile is similar to that of the soil shown in Fig. overburden pressure. P. when porewater pressure generation is small. but the direction at the upper layer becomes opposite to one at the lower layer. the product of the mass and measured acceleration. 7 that stiffness becomes low and the hysteresis damping becomes large as excess porewater pressure generates. 3. the inertia force at the pile top. It is noted that the maximum porewater pressure among those at 5 depths are employed in the horizontal axis in Fig. is computed by substracting the displacement at the bottom of shear bin from the displacement at the first floor. For understanding these tendency quantitatively. the soil moves in one direction at the beginning of loading. as the excess porewater pressure ratio exceeds 0. which may be the effect of porewater pressure generation. Here K denotes the ratio between the secant modulus K and the initial modulus K0.3 when the excess < previous page page_354 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.18 seconds.. Figure 7 shows the outline of alternations of the P versus δ relationships in the test of case 3 according to the generation of excess porewater pressure.8 at which soils are just to liquefy.html12/05/2010 06:33:20 a. 8.3. Figure 5 shows the pile bending moment-time histories in the test of case 3. In general. 6. The instantaneous bending moment distribution along the pile axis in case 4 is shown in Fig. The bending moments at the depths of 30 and 60cm are larger than those at other depths at 9.page_354 < previous page page_354 next page > Page 354 soil layer are shown in Fig. 4.m.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_354. The secant modulus ratio becomes smaller than 0. . However the bending moments at the depth of 70cm becomes larger after liquefaction. and displacement at the pile top.. is computed as the sum of the inertia force at two stories. δ.

Vol. the secant modulus decreases and the damping ratio increases as the excess porewater pressure ratio increases. Seed.W. 1967. ASCE. Matsuo ( former graduate student of Kansai University). 47–70..L. T. SM9. ASCE. pp.M. K.m. . T. 1971. Japan.Tsujikawa.R.97.. Cyclic Stress Conditions Causing Liquefaction of Sand. Ltd. SM1. The test was supported by H. K. Their support and cooperation are gratefully acknowledged.B. No.. The secant modulus versus excess porewater pressure ratio relationship as well as the damping versus excess porewater pressure ratio relationship in each case is a little different to each other.L. Vol.Abe. REFERENCES 1. No. and Martin. Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering Division. 3. and Idriss. I. H. pp.8.Yamamoto (former student of Kansai University). Simplified Procedure for Evaluating Soil Liquefaction Potential.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_355.Otawara. They are strongly related to the excess porewater pressure generation. S.. Lee. Osaka. CONCLUDING REMARKS The behavior of a soil-pile-superstructure system is investigated from the shaking table tests using a large scale shear bin.. In other words. W. ACKNOWLEGEMENTS The test facilities is owned and operated by Takechi Engineering Co. Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering Division.html12/05/2010 06:33:21 a. An Effective Stress < previous page page_355 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. M. Finn. From the obtained dynamic restoring force characteristics at the pile top. G. H. 92. 1249–1273.B. and Seed. Lee. the dynamic behavior of soil before liquefaction at every depth takes a significant effect on the restoring force characteristics of the pile top during the liquefaction.page_355 < previous page page_355 next page > Page 355 porewater pressure ratio is smaller than 0. The differences between the change of secant modulus and damping ratio against excess porewater pressure ratio seem to depend on the behavior of the soil before the liquefaction. 2.D.

m.66 1.16 1. No. GT6. S.725×106(kgf/cm2) Cross-section area 2. 863–864.6) 0.0 cm Young’s modulus 0. Journal of Geotechnical Division. 23rd Japan Natinal Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering.81 2.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_356.254 0. Pile Foundation Behaviors in Liquefied Sandy Layer of Large Scale Model (Part 1 Model Rules). Vol. 103. Frequency (Hz) Dr (%) Vs (cm/sec) Case 1 2 74 66 Case 2 3 83 69 Case 3 5 76 78 Case 4 7 45 70 < previous page page_356 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. ASCE.html12/05/2010 06:33:21 a. 1. (in Japanese) Table 1 Constants of soil properties Soil Type D50 (mm) D10 (mm) UC GS emax emin Siliceous Sand (No.654 Table 2 Dimensions of piles Length 175.. 4. 1977.046 0. .page_356 < previous page Page 356 page_356 next page > Model for Liquefaction. Yao.84 cm2 2nd moment of inertia 2.96 cm Table 3 Test plan No..5×5. pp. Vol. 1988. 517–533. pp.0 cm Cross-section 2.

..html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:33:22 a.m.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_357..page_357 < previous page Page 357 page_357 next page > Figure 1 Longitudinal cross-section of shear bin Figure 2 Time histories of excess porewater pressures during loading file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.

..html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:33:22 a.m. .page_357 < previous page page_357 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_357.

.m. .page_358 < previous page Page 358 page_358 next page > Figure 3 Time histories of cyclic load.. horizontal displacements during loading (Case 3) file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:33:23 a.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_358.

mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_358.m.. .html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:33:23 a.page_358 Figure 4 Vertical distribution of horizontal displacements of shear bin < previous page page_358 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20..

page_359 < previous page Page 359 page_359 next page > Figure 5 Time histories of cyclic load.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_359.m.. . pile bending moments during loading (Case 3) Figure 6 Vertical distribution of pile moments (Case 4) < previous page page_359 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.html12/05/2010 06:33:23 a..

html12/05/2010 06:33:24 a.page_360 < previous page Page 360 page_360 next page > Figure 7 Dynamic restoring force characteristics at the pile top (Case 3) < previous page page_360 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.. .m.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_360..

ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_361..m.page_361 < previous page Page 361 page_361 next page > Figure 8(a) The relationship between the secant modulus and excess porewater pressure ratio Figure 8(b) The relationship between the equivalent damping ratio and excess porewater pressure ratio < previous page page_361 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.html12/05/2010 06:33:24 a.. .

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m.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_363...page_363 < previous page page_363 next page > Page 363 SECTION 6: DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF DAMS AND EARTH STRUCTURES < previous page page_363 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.html12/05/2010 06:33:25 a. .

html12/05/2010 06:33:25 a. page_364 page_364 next page > next page > < previous page file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.m.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_364...page_364 < previous page Page 364 This page intentionally left blank. .

The second and the third tests were identical to the first one except the provision of a compacted zone beneath or in front of < previous page page_365 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing..[1].Yanagihara. As a result of the above case studies. . The model tests have clearly demonstrated that a flow type of deformation could develop and has progressed through a long distance away from the dike. Japan ABSTRACT Three types of model tests using large-scale shaking tables were conducted to observe dynamic behavior of embankment (dike) on locally compacted sand deposits. INTRODUCTION There are several reported evidences of lateral flow having taken place during recent major earthquakes such as 1948 Fukui earthquake in Japan by Hamada et al.[2]. and the 1971 San Fernando earthquake by O'Rourke et al.Ishihara Engineering and Development. Okumura Corporation.[3] .m. The first in the series was a test in which the model dike was placed on a uniform deposit of loose sand.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_365. Tokyo.. it is known that the amount of permanent deformations in the liquefied sand deposits are generally on the order of several meters and they can develop over a wide area extending several tens of meters from the place where the lateral flow is initiated. the 1923 Kanto earthquake in Japan by Wakamatsu et al. In this paper three types of shaking table tests were introduced. Furthermore. K. M.html12/05/2010 06:33:26 a. provision of a compacted zone beneath the dike was shown to be an effective countermeasure to prevent the progression of the flow slide in front of the dike.page_365 < previous page page_365 next page > Page 365 Dynamic Behavior of Embankment on Locally Compacted Sand Deposits S.Takeuchi.

m..9m high and 2m wide with transparent lucite-made side walls was placed on a shaking table having a maximum dynamic load capacity of 60 ton with 1g acceleration.5m long. .1.page_366 < previous page Page 366 page_366 next page > Figure 1: Layouts of the sand deposits for shaking tables the dike. The purpose of this paper is to observe the occurrence of liquefaction and consequent flow-type deformation. if it occurs. 0. the effectiveness of a preventive countermeasures against the flow slide was examined. Furthermore.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_366. a rigid steel plate was bolt—fixed to provide an inclined boundary for minimizing the adverse effects of end constraint which may inhibit the smooth continuous deformation of sand deposits through the length of the box.html12/05/2010 06:33:27 a. PROCEDURE OF TESTS Three types of shaking table tests were conducted in the laboratory of Okumura Co. The < previous page page_366 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. A large box 4. At one end of the bin. The test arrangements are schematically described in Fig.. in loose deposits of sand. in Japan.

a clayey silt material was prepared by blending cement. The mean diameter of the sand is 0. The displacement gauges were then placed on the surface along the center line of the model < previous page page_367 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The test bin was pooled with water and then the dry sand was rained through a narrow slit of a sliding hopper atop the box as shown in Fig. 1(c). By repeating this procedure successively. Owing to heavy-weight of the feleit material. a test was conducted in which a compacted zone was provided in the deposit in front of the dike toe as shown in Fig. The dense sand zone 75cm wide compacted to a relative density of 80% was shown in Fig. Exact locations of pickups for piezometers are shown in Fig. two steel plates were first placed vertically across the test bin to provide an enclosure and the sand was poured from the hopper.page_367 < previous page page_367 next page > Page 367 first test in the series was a test in which the model dike was placed on a uniform deposit of loose sand with a relative density of 40% (Fig. sets of piezometers and accelerometers were installed at pre-determined locations within the fill.30mm. Every time the sand was piled up about 10cm. The water table was maintained at the level of the ground surface. As the third in the series. a 30cm high model dike with a frontal slope 1:2. the unit weight of the dike was as much as 1.m. At each stage of the sand placement as above. 3.html12/05/2010 06:33:27 a. 1(b).88 ton/m3. a compacted zone with a relative density of 80% was provided in the middle portion of the test bin.. . The second test was identical to the first one except for the provision of a compacted zone beneath the slope of the dike.5 was placed at one end of the deposit. a uniform sand deposit was obtained with a relative density of 40%. kaolinite and feleit with 1:2:1. In some tests where it was necessary to provide a compacted zone. a lattice of white-colored sand was provided on the face of the transparent front wall.. the loose deposit enclosed within these twc steel plates was compacted with a rammer and then the plates were pulled up by about 10cm. After completing the sand filling. To facilitate visual observation of deformation progress in the sand deposit. By this procedure.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_367. Other conditions were identical to those in the previous two tests except for this shift in the location of the compacted zone. To construct a model dike on top of the sand deposit. 2.5 proportion in weight. Sand from Sengenyama in Chiba was used to provide loose sediments of sand. 1(a)).

html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:33:28 a.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_368.m. .page_368 < previous page Page 368 page_368 next page > Figure 2: Locations of pickups file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20...

.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_368.m.page_368 Figure 3: Sliding hopper < previous page page_368 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.. .html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:33:28 a.

RESULTS OF TESTS In the first test. the test bin was shaken by a sinusoidal motion with a frequency of 2Hz having an acceleration amplitude of 200gal.page_369 < previous page Page 369 page_369 next page > Figure 4: Monitored pore water pressures (case 1) dike and the deposit.html12/05/2010 06:33:28 a.m.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_369. In all the tests.. 4. . It may be observed that the pore water pressures at P57 and P63 distant from the dike indicated a sharp rise to a level of initial overburden pressure within the first one and half cycles. whereas there was some delay in the pore pressure build up at P45 and P51 located in the vicinity of the dike. The pore water pressures as above indicates the fact that the liquefaction developed first in the portion of the sand deposit free from any constraint of the dike and then progressed to the deposit near the dike where the resistance to liquefaction < previous page page_369 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.. time histories of pore water pressures monitored at key points along the mid-depth of the model fill are presented in Fig. The shaking was continued as long as necessary until the model deposit and dike deformed significantly.

..m.page_370 < previous page Page 370 page_370 next page > Figure 5: Monitored pore water pressures (case 2) file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20..mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_370.html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:33:29 a.

html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:33:29 a.m...page_370 Figure 6: Monitored pore water pressures (case 3) < previous page page_370 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_370. .

. the deformation in the sand fill were on the order of 0 to 2cm. In the first test as indicated in Fig. The distributions of final pore water pressure ratio are indicated in Fig. 8. the pore pressures monitored during the shaking at four representative spots are displayed in Fig. the pore water pressures monitored at four locations along the mid-depth of the deposit are displayed in Fig. the piezometer within the compacted zone indicated native pore pressures. 8(a). In the second test.m.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_371. where it may be seen that the build-up of pore pressures was significantly small and slow at points P45 and P48 within the compacted zone. 9(a) for the final stage where the dike completely slumped accompanied with large lateral deformation. Similar rapid build-up of pore pressures was also recorded in the loose zone far away from the dike. 5. In the second and the third tests. It is to be noticed here that the lateral deformation and heave has progressed through a long distance away from the toe of the dike. It may be observed that the piezometer at P45 in the loose zone below the dike indicated a sharp rise in the early part of the shaking. 6. . the free field portio away from the dike experienced a heave on the order of 20 to 50mm. The pattern of deformation obtained from the visual observation of the latticed white-colored sand in the first test is demonstrated in Fig.html12/05/2010 06:33:30 a. While the dike and its toe settled. This observation is indicative of the fact that the influence of a driving force caused by the presence of an object such as dikes and buildings on the liquefied level < previous page page_371 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. From this result. In contrast to this. In the third test. it may be mentioned that the compacted zone prevents the progression of the lateral deformations due to the lateral flow of the liquefied sand. it may be observed that the lateral deformations increased constantly until 10 seconds from the beginning of shaking. and after ten seconds the deformation progressions were ceased. because of the dilatant tendency of the dense sand by the shear stress generated by the weight of the dike. This tendency was similar at all 6 points. The progression of lateral deformation at main 6 points in the sand fill during shaking are indicated in Fig.. 7. in contrast to the immediate build-up at point P57 in the uncompacted loose part far from the dike.page_371 < previous page page_371 next page > Page 371 was stronger owing to sustained shear stress produced by the surcharge of the dike.

And it may be seen that. the settlements away from the dike were much smaller. severe cracking near the toe of the dike slope was seen developing at the end of the < previous page page_372 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. acted most effectively toward reducing the distress caused by the excessive lateral deformation of the loose sand deposit which would otherwise had occurred as evidenced by the first test in the series.page_372 < previous page Page 372 page_372 next page > Figure 7: Distribution of pore water pressure ratio ground could spread farther out and create a large. the dike settled significantly. 9(b).ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_372. With the crest settlement as small as 22mm and without any spread of lateral deformation toward the loose zone in front of the dike toe.html12/05/2010 06:33:30 a. 10. . Settlements of the dike crest was on the order of 80 to 125mm which is a fairly large amount as compared to 22mm observed in the second test. The pattern of the deformation in the second test are demonstrated in Fig..m.scale lateral flow of the liquefied sand.. it may be mentioned that the compacted zone. In contrast to this. while the compacted part did not move appreciably. The pattern of deformation in the third test are demonstrated in Fig. 9(c). The loose zone outside the compacted zone appears to have behaved on its own characteristics without being influenced by the dike. As shown in Fig. being properly positioned.

m..page_373 < previous page Page 373 page_373 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.. .mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_373.html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:33:31 a.

.m.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:33:31 a..page_373 Figure 8: Lateral displacements of sand deposits < previous page page_373 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20. .mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_373.

.html12/05/2010 06:33:32 a..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_374.m.page_374 < previous page Page 374 page_374 next page > Figure 9: Patterns of permanent deformation at the end of the test Figure 10: Deformation of embankment < previous page page_374 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing..

. In this sense..page_375 < previous page page_375 next page > Page 375 shaking where the liquefied sand and water oozed or spurted out of the loose zone beneath the dike. Thus it may be mentioned that the installation of a compacted zone would be completely effective only when it is executed in front of a liquefiable zone which is covered by a sufficiently thick surcharge. a stability analysis by Janbu method was made to back-calculate the residual strength of the liquefied sand which appears to have been mobilized along the horizontal portion of the sliding plane in the middle. if the surcharge is not thick enough. In this analysis. The amount of the dike settlement was equal to the volume of water and sand which had been expelled out of the underlying liquefied zone. by assuming an approximate tri-linear sliding surface as shown in Fig. The observation as above thus appears to indicate that.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_375. the static driving force was estimated by consider- Figure 11: Slip surface for calculating residual strength < previous page page_375 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 11.m. RESIDUAL STRENGTH In the first test. some beneficial effects could be expected from the installation of a compacted zone. thereby causing destruction due to intorelable settlements of the dike.html12/05/2010 06:33:32 a. . Installing a compaction zone just beneath the dike such as that executed in the second test satisfies this requirement and hence successfully achieved an intended purpose in minimizing the crest settlement. It is obvious that the presence of the compacted zone had acted favorably as a stopper to prevent a complete slumping of the dike due to the lateral flow of the liquefied sand. there remains a high possibility for the underlying liquefied sand coming out on the surface. but at a sacrifice of an adverse consequence as described above. It appears that the pore pressures developed under the dike pushed up the portion of small surcharge and broke out the toe expelling the liquefied sand.

Ishihara. T.” ASCE.html12/05/2010 06:33:32 a. Soils and Foundations. the dike completely slumped accompanied with large lateral deformation in sand deposits.. (1990) “Liquefaction—Induced Flow Failure of Embankments and Residual Strength of Silty Sand.D.-Japan Workshop on Liquefaction. (1989) “Liquefaction Induced Ground Displacement during the 1923 Kanto Earthquake”. Isoyama. No. thereby causing destruction due to the lateral flow of the liquefied sand. the above value is smaller.S. and Emoto. [4]. Proc.336. 69–80. Hamada. (1) In the case without compacted zone. which has progressed through a long distance away from the toe of the dike. 6. 3.0038 ton/m2. 827–845 < previous page page_376 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. “A Case Study of Large Ground Deformation during the 1971 San Fernando Earthquake. (3) If the surcharge on the compacted zone is not thick enough. K. N. A. pp. pp. Yasuda. REFERENCES 1. 5. 211–220. The residual strength thus calculated was 0. 3. Okusa. S. Vol. S. B.H. and Hamada. Hamada.S. Yosida.. No.”. K. Japan Society of Civil Engineers. 2. I.. However. CONCLUSION The results obtained from the tests are as follows. III-6. and Their Effects on Lifeline Facilities. Large Ground Deformation. R. pp. Vol.-Japan Workshop on Liquefaction Large Ground Deformation. [5].. Vol. this value is enough to induce the flow failure of any liquefied sand. Yasuda. and Ischuk. “Observation of Permanent Ground Displacements Induced by Soil Liquefaction.. Seed. 2nd U. Niagara Falls. (2) The provision of a compacted zone beneath the dike was shown to be an effective countermeasures to prevent a complete slumping of the dike due to the lateral flow of the liquefied sand. “Liquefaction -Induced Flow Slide in the Collapsible Loess Deposit in Soviet Tajik”. and Morimoto.B.. As compared with the other case studies by Ishihara et al.page_376 < previous page page_376 next page > Page 376 ing the completely slumped configuration of the model dike. “Design Problem in Soil Liquefaction.” Proc. M.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_376.4.” Proc. (1991). Niagara Falls. 4. Ishihara. and Seed [6].113. 73–89. . M. K. M. Roth..L. S. Y. and Their Effects on Lifeline Facilities. No.. S.. O’Rourke. Yasuda. 30. (1989).. pp. 2nd U. 30. (1986). (1987).. there remains a high possibility of boiling the underlying liquefied sand.8. K... No.. Oyagi. Wakamatsu.m. Soils and Foundations.

The effect of three-dimensionality was first investigated by Hatanka [6] and Ambraseys [1]. M13 9PL. through the shear beam. are built in narrow valleys where the rigid valley sides create a stiffening effect. U. The analyses have also given the opportunity to test a quite simple 3-D mesh generator for dams in arbitrarily shaped canyons. Parametric studies are performed in which the shape of the valley floor is varied systematically.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_377. .V.K. Manchester. University of Manchester. The assumption of plane-strain conditions is only valid when considering dams of infinite length.m. Results are compared with both 2-d finite element analyses and values measured at the site of an actual earth dam. many dams situated in seismic regions. or shear-wedge concept. INTRODUCTION Recently there has been a renewed interest in understanding the dynamic behaviour of earth dams. Comparisons between two-dimensional and threedimensional analyses of earth dams has also been performed by Mejia and Seed [7] for the Oroville Dam. By considering valleys of different shapes Gazetas [3] reported the effects on the natural frequencies of homogeneous earth dams due a change in the valley geometry. < previous page page_377 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. This stiffening effect increases the earth dams natural frequencies. and to clearly show the three dimensional mode shapes in high quality output. This concept was further developed by Dakoulas and Gazetas [2].K.Woodward.page_377 < previous page page_377 next page > Page 377 Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analyses of the Natural Frequencies of Non-Homogeneous Earth Dams P. ABSTRACT Finite element analyses have been performed in order to assess the effects of three-dimensionality on the natural frequencies of earth dams.html12/05/2010 06:33:33 a. The purpose of this paper is to quantify and assess further the stiffening effect of narrow valleys on the natural frequencies of non-homogeneous trapezoidal earth dams.. D..Griffiths Department of Engineering. However.

The notation used for the geometry of the dam is shown in Figure 1. 5 and 6 (Griffiths and Woodward [5]). to reflect nonsymmetrical valleys. in order to generate the required mesh characteristics. and eight noded brick elements were used in the three-dimensional analyses. A lumped mass approximation was implemented. by varying the valley floor width Parametric studies have also been performed to assess the effect of varying the dam height. similar to the two-dimensional mesh. in which the three-dimensional mesh is made to simulate plane-strain conditions. The parent section is divided into groups. The parent section is extrapolated horizontally into three dimensions by specifying the coordinates of a series of sections. Although this method is very flexible. The QR method was used to calculate eigenvalues and the eigenvectors were found by inverse iteration. Thus the dam is generated by a series of brick elements which have their nodes at adjacent sections as shown in Figures 4.. Figure 7 shows how a typical asymmetric mesh could be generated. The soil properties used are taken from the Long Valley Dam Analysis. Although this paper does not consider asymmetrical dams. 1. each group being assigned its own material properties. It is worth noting that each element could be assigned its own material properties if required. ie any shape of valley floor/side can be considered. Each of these sections has a minimum vertical height corresponding to the rising valley floor at that point. caution must be exercised in specifying the section heights. . Both types of analyses incorporated selective reduced integration in the formation of the stiffness matrices. < previous page page_378 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS Four noded quadrilateral elements were used in the two-dimensional analysis. The results are compared to two-dimensional and three-dimensional analyses.. (Griffiths and Prevost [4]).ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_378. by varying the valley slope angle 2.html12/05/2010 06:33:33 a.page_378 < previous page page_378 next page > Page 378 In order to assess further the three-dimensional effect of the valley geometry finite element analyses have been performed in which the valley is systematically varied in the following ways. Three-dimensional mesh generator The three-dimensional mesh was generated by first specifying a parent section (Figure 2). The frequencies are also compared to values obtained at the site of the Long Valley Dam in the Mammoth Lake area of California (Griffiths and Prevost [4]).m.

45 5: elastic 4.3 Table 1: Material Properties for Two-Dimensional Analyses The results of the eigenvalue analysis are presented in Table 3.45 4: undrained 5.2E5 0.3E5 0.9E5 0.. Typical meshes are shown in Figure 4 and 6. Figures 8 and 9 show the first two mode shapes.5E5 0.45 4: undrained 6. 178 elements and 352 degrees of freedom.9E6 0.3 2: undrained 4. THREE DIMENSIONAL ANALYSES The meshes used for the three-dimensional analysis varied between 9 and 51 sections.5E5 0. To reflect the spatial variation in stiffness.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_379. Group E kPa ν 1: drained 1. The meshes used only five material properties (see Table 2).3E5 0.3 2: drained 2.0E5 0. This gave a variation in degrees of freedom between 315 and 4413. The three-dimensional plane strain analysis gave the fundamental frequency within 2% of the two-dimensional analysis.45 6: undrained 5.3 Table 2: Material Properties for Three-Dimensional Analyses < previous page page_379 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.9E5 0.1E5 0.45 7: undrained 6.3 3: undrained 4. nine material properties were used in the analysis as listed in Table 1.html12/05/2010 06:33:34 a.45 8: undrained 6. .m. Group EkPa ν 1: drained 1.page_379 < previous page page_379 next page > Page 379 TWO DIMENSIONAL AND THREE DIMENSIONAL PLANE STRAIN ANALYSES The mesh used in the two-dimensional finite element analyses is the same as that used by Griffiths and Prevost [4] and shown in Figure 3.45 9: elastic 4.5E5 0.45 5: undrained 5..0E5 0.9E6 0.6E5 0. The mesh consisted of 215 nodes.3 3: undrained 5.

.63. The 3-D plots incorporate both perspective and depth viewing. The graphs converge at a W/H ratio of approximately 3.2) was chosen. a moderate valley slope. This suggests that the length of the crest (ie the L/H ratio) is unimportant (for this particular value of H) on the fundamental frequency after this value of W/H is exceeded. Figure 10 shows the results of the eigenvalue analyses. the results are generally in acceptable agreement with those presented by Mejia and Seed [7] and Gazetas [3].W/H=1..75. Again it was found that the graphs converged at a W/H ratio of approximately 3.page_380 < previous page page_380 next page > Page 380 Variation of the valley slope angle In order to assess more closely the effect of the non-dimensional parameter L/H. Although there are a few discrepencies.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_380. Conversely when the height is increased by 50% the W/H ratio decreases by approximately 50%. This indicates that the W/H ratio at convergence is inversely proportional to the height of the dam. A graph can thus be drawn (Figure 13) which shows the W/H ratio at convergence for a given height of the valley. the W/H ratio at convergence increases by approximately 50% . Variation of the dam height To investigate further the W/H ratio at convergence the valley height was varied. This ratio was kept constant while the valley floor width was systematically varied. To demonstrate this further. < previous page page_380 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.m. . 16) do not coincide with those obtained from the 2-D solution. A value of W/H<1.75.53) was chosen to demonstrate the mode shapes. Again these results clearly show three-dimensional effect due to the valley geometry. From Figure 10 it is evident that the parameter W/H is an important factor when considering the effects of a narrowing valley geometry. finite elements were used to analyse the effect of changing the valley slope angle (ie L/H ratio) while keeping the valley floor width and height constant. The undeformed mesh is shown in Figure 4 and 5.html12/05/2010 06:33:34 a. Figure 12 shows the effect on the fundamental period due to the variation of the parameter W/H. Figure 11 shows the results of the eigenvalue analyses by the changing parameter L/H. similar to the first twodimensional mode shape.5 would represent a very narrow valley floor. however modes 2 and 3 (Figure’s 15. (L/H ratio of 5. When the valley height is decreased by 50%. A typical narrow valley (L/H=3. The first mode shape (Figure 14) is clearly an up/downstream motion. commonly used when considering threedimensional effects on earth dams. In this work the valley geometry is also defined by a second nondimensional parameter W/H. Variation of the valley floor width The most interesting case is when the width of the valley is systematically varied while the valley slope and height is kept constant.

However it was felt necessary to perform a simple test in order to classify any difference between homogeneous and non-homogeneous dams. It was also found that reducing the height of the valley by 50% had little effect on these ratios. These results are given by Griffiths and Prevost [4].67 Table 3: Comparison of Results to the Long Valley Dam COMPARISON BETWEEN HOMOGENEOUS AND NON-HOMOGENEOUS EARTH DAMS One of the objects for this paper is to study the effects of dam non-homogeneity. the effects of three-dimensionality on the fundamental frequency reduce. W/H=1. The three. < previous page page_381 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.06 2.. This shows that as the rate of increase in stiffness in the dam becomes greater.14 2 2. for a width of 80m.63 3 2.20 2.76 1.. By considering a typical narrow valley (L/H=3. It was found that the ratios of the time periods between the three-dimensional results and the two-dimensional plane-strain results for the homogeneous and non-homogeneous dams were not consistent.45 3. It was found that the difference between the homogeneous and nonhomogeneous ratios was now of the order of 15%.dimensional frequency is obtained from the ‘Variation of the valley floor width’ analyses.56) both homogeneous and non-homogeneous finite element analyses were performed. . The difference being of the order of 9%.15 2.m. In order to classify further the effects of non-homogeneity the same analyses were performed but with the rate of stiffness increase with depth doubled. The computed and measured frequencies are in acceptable agreement.85 1.page_381 < previous page page_381 next page > Page 381 COMPARISONS TO THE LONG VALLEY ANALYSIS The results from the Long Valley analysis are shown in Table 3.63.00 2.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_381.95 1. Table 4 shows the results of these analyses. Griffiths and Prevost [4] Present Work Mode Number Spectral Analysis: Hz 2-D Analysis Hz 3-D Analysis Hz 2-D Analysis Hz 3-D Analysis Hz 1 1.58 2.25 3.html12/05/2010 06:33:35 a.63 2.79 2. The measured frequencies are obtained from a spectral analysis.

The three-dimensional effect of the narrowing valley geometry on the natural frequencies for trapezoidal dams has been extensively examined. It has also been shown that as the degree of non-homogeneity increases the three-dimensional effect of the valley geometry.m.76 0. .html12/05/2010 06:33:35 a.89 Table 4: Comparisons of T/T∞ for homogeneous and non-homogeneous earth dams CONCLUSION The results presented in this paper are intended to build upon the work already performed in this area of research. < previous page page_382 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.83 0. on the natural frequencies decreases.page_382 < previous page page_382 next page > Page 382 T/T∞ (HOM) T/T∞ (NON-HOM) T/T∞ (NON-HOM) [INCREASED STIFFNESS] 0.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_382.. It has been shown that when considering non-homogeneous trapezoidal earth dams the width to height ratio is very important when assessing the natural frequencies and hence the seismic response of the earth dam.. The computed frequencies for the Long Valley Dam compare very favourably with those obtained by Griffiths and Prevost [4].

. Three-dimensional Parent Section Figure 3.m. Geometry notation Figure 2. Two-dimensional mesh Figure 4.page_383 < previous page Page 383 page_383 next page > Figure 1. .ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_383. Typical three-dimensional narrow valley dam (aerial view) < previous page page_383 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.html12/05/2010 06:33:36 a..

page_384 < previous page Page 384 page_384 next page > Figure 5. Typical three-dimensional narrow valley dam (underside) Figure 6. Typical non-symmetrical dam (aerial view) < previous page page_384 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_384.m. Typical three-dimensional wide valley dam (aerial view) Figure 7.html12/05/2010 06:33:36 a.. .

Eigenvalue results for the variation of the valley door width < previous page page_385 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. First two-dimensional mode Figure 9. Second two-dimensional mode Figure 10.m.. Eigenvalue results for the variation of the valley slope angle Figure 11.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_385..html12/05/2010 06:33:37 a.page_385 < previous page Page 385 page_385 next page > Figure 8. .

html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:33:38 a.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_386. . Eigenvalue results for the variation of the valley floor width showing the effect of the parameter W/H file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.m.page_386 < previous page Page 386 page_386 next page > Figure 12...

.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:33:38 a..mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_386. Graph showing the variation of W/H at convergence for various values of dam height < previous page page_386 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.page_386 Figure 13.m..

First three-dimensional mode (up/down-stream motion) Figure 15..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_387. Third three-dimensional mode (S-shape along the crest) < previous page page_387 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.m. Second three-dimensional mode (up/down motion of the crest) Figure 16.html12/05/2010 06:33:38 a..page_387 < previous page Page 387 page_387 next page > Figure 14. .

Tokyo. J. 19–40. No.. 1991. Seismic response of earth dams: some recent developments. 367–388 5. Kyoto Univ. < previous page page_388 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 4. and Woodward. on Earthquake Engineering. 1986. Disaster Prevention Research Inst. D. P. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering. H.N. 1960.m. Geotechnique. Fundemental considerations on the earthquake resistant properties of the earth dam. P. Jan 1987. Griffiths. 7.. 14.V.H. and Gazetas. 11. Geotechnical Engineering. Internal Report. Mesh generation for three-dimensional earth dams. D.. Gazetas.K. 6. No.html12/05/2010 06:33:39 a. Hatanaka. Ambraseys. N. The seismic stability of earth dams.B. and Seed.. Univ. Seismic lateral vibration of embankment dams in semi-cylindrical valleys. 2nd World Conf. 3. No. G. 38. 1. L. 3. Vol. 1345–1363. Manc. Two and three dimensional finite element analyses of the Long Valley Dam.V. 109. Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics.page_388 < previous page page_388 next page > Page 388 REFERENCES 1. and Prevost. J. Mejia.H. 6. 1955. III. Dakoulas. Bull No.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_388. ASCE 1983. GT11. Proc. . 1383–1398. 2. Griffiths. G. M. Comparison of 2-D and 3-D dynamic analyses of earth dams.

This representation of the reservoir is applied in the seismic analysis of two-dimensional gravity dams [1] and three-dimensional arch dams [2] and the idealization based on a semi-infinite channel is used < previous page page_389 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.html12/05/2010 06:33:39 a.P.m. Switzerland ABSTRACT The dynamic stiffness of a semi-infinite uniform fluid channel can be represented for each mode by a lumped-parameter model with a small number of additional internal degrees of freedom.. dashpots and masses of the model. The modal dynamic stiffness is approximated by a ratio of two polynomials which then leads to the frequency-independent coefficients of the springs. Assembling the corresponding property matrices with those of the irregular region of the reservoir allows the hydrodynamic forces acting on the dam to be calculated directly in the time domain. Department of Civil Engineering. 1) is modelled with an assemblage of finite elements connected to a semi-infinite uniform channel along the upstream direction. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology.. Only elementary mathematics such as curve-fitting and partial fraction expansion are used. A. CH-1015 Lausanne. Nonlinear response of the dam for seismic excitation can thus be calculated straightforwardly. INTRODUCTION To determine the hydrodynamic forces acting on the upstream face of a dam during an earthquake.Wolf.page_389 < previous page page_389 next page > Page 389 Lumped-Parameter Model of Semi-Infinite Uniform Fluid Channel for Time-Domain Analysis of DamReservoir Interaction J.Paronesso Institute of Hydraulics and Energy. the reservoir’s region of irregular geometry adjacent to the dam (part A—B—C—D—A in Fig. .ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_389.

e. . 2] and EACD-3D [4] are also based on this concept. dividing the reservoir into an irregular region and a semi-infinite uniform channel for modelling purposes is appropriate. Such a time-domain procedure to model the semi-infinite fluid channel is discussed in this paper. In addition. 1) is frequency dependent. however. also to calculate three-dimensional short-length gravity dams [3]. This leads to the absurd situation that because of the semi-infinite fluid channel the total dynamic analysis of the dam-reservoir interaction is performed in the frequency domain. [5] and confirmed in Ref. [6]. 1 Dam-Reservoir System. as this is the natural approach for a dynamic calculation and with which the structural analyst is familiar..html12/05/2010 06:33:40 a. when the channel of constant cross section is modelled separately using analytical solutions.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_390. They have to satisfy the radiation condition at infinity which is much easier to formulate in the frequency domain than in the time domain.page_390 < previous page Page 390 page_390 next page > Fig. i. Thus. Better results are achieved with this procedure. when a fictitious boundary C—D is introduced. a nonlinear analysis in the time domain with nonlinearities arising for instance in joints in a concrete dam or from the constitutive law in embankment dams is feasible in a straightforward way..m. This is demonstrated in Ref. A time-domain analysis is far superior. for which a lumped-parameter model consisting of springs. The dynamic-stiffness matrix of the semi-infinite fluid channel relating the pressures to their normal derivatives on the interface with the irregular region (C—D in Fig. This dynamic-stiffness coefficient of the input-output description in the frequency domain for each mode can be approximated as a ratio of two polynomials in frequency. To model the channel analytical solutions at least for the variation in the upstream direction are used. dashpots and < previous page page_390 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.Widely used computer programs for the seismic analysis of dams such as EADFS [1. as the dispersion relationships for the various modes appear. Alternatively. the total reservoir could be modelled based on the boundary-element method.

which can be regarded as a so-called realization in system theory. the results of the out-of-plane motion of the layer built in at its base can be used directly for the analysis of the infinite fluid domain of constant depth. The dynamic-stiffness coefficient in the frequency domain for each mode of the uniform semi-infinite fluid channel is the same as that for the semi-infinite bar on elastic foundation. In particular.z. A few results of the lumped-parameter models to represent the fluid are published in the appendix of Ref. The boundary conditions for 0<x<∞ are equal to z=0: p(x. the recursive evaluation of the convolution integrals at discrete time stations used in the computational algorithm is a more direct method. [7] is applied in this paper. 1] leads to < previous page page_391 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. SEMI-INFINITE FLUID DOMAIN OF CONSTANT DEPTH The concept of determining the lumped-parameter model for each modal response can be explained using the twodimensional semi-infinite fluid channel of constant depth d shown in Fig. A mathematically very demanding realization is sketched in Ref. [13]. This procedure.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_391. For the latter many other realizations allowing a dynamic analysis directly in the time domain to be performed are described in Refs.ω). Although lacking the appeal of physical insight of the lumped-parameter model. the procedure based on modal coordinates described in the last paragraph on page 31 of Ref. is developed for a semi-infinite soil in Refs. Actually. The corresponding structural property matrices can then be used directly in a time-domain analysis. [11] and [12] .ω)=0 (2a) z=d: p(x. . Dynamic-stiffness matrix The following boundary value problem is defined in the frequency domain.They are also summarized in Sections 6. The amplitude of the hydrodynamic pressure p (x. y=0 (2b) and the solution is subjected to the radiation condition.8 and 6.ω) is governed by (1) with c denoting the wave velocity. Using the technique of separation of variables [14.html12/05/2010 06:33:40 a.m. [9]. [7] and [8].page_391 < previous page page_391 next page > Page 391 masses with frequency-independent coefficients can be constructed... [10].9 of Ref. 1.

m. The modal equations (8) and (9) are not affected.ω) as a function of the nodal values {P(ω)} based on the shape function [N(z)] p(z. < previous page page_392 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The expression starting with the second integral represents qj.html12/05/2010 06:33:41 a. The modal input-output description equals qj(a0). In this case. the eigenvalues λj and the corresponding eigenvectors are determined from an eigenvalue problem involving a finite-element discretization of the cross-section of the channel. .ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_392.. and thus the modal lumped-parameter model discussed below can still be used..ω) at x=0 the following distributed “force-displacement” relationship can be formulated at x=0 (5) Expressing p(z. For each mode j only the term under the square root dkj depends on a0. ω)=[N(z)] {P(ω)} and applying the principle of virtual work leads to the concentrated “force-displacement” relationship (6) (7) with the dimensionless frequency a0=ωd/c The dynamic-stiffness matrix [S(a0)] contains the coefficients on the right-hand side of equation (7).page_392 < previous page Page 392 page_392 next page > (3) where sin λjz are the normalized eigenvectors with amplitudes qj(ω) corresponding to the eigenvalues λj (4a) and only the wave number kj depends on the frequency (4b) After determining the modal amplitudes qj from p(z.x=Sj(a0)qj(a0) (8) with the modal dynamic-stiffness coefficient (9) The same formulation also applies to the semi-infinite uniform channel in a three-dimensional problem as arising with arch dams [2].

. At first.. a summary of the procedure is given. representing a realization of the corresponding dynamicstiffness coefficient Sj (a0). consisting of a dashpot (Fig 2a). The singular part is then subtracted from the total coefficient. < previous page page_393 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The curve fitting and the calculation of the coefficients of the springs. To be able to understand the examples presented further on. resulting in the regular part. the so-called singular part of the dynamic-stiffness cocoefficient which is equal to its value at is calculated.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_393. equation (9). 2 Discrete Models Serving as Building Blocks for the Lumped-Parameter Model. The method is described in detail in Ref. [7].page_393 < previous page page_393 next page > Page 393 Lumped-parameter model A lumped-parameter model is determined for each mode. it is necessary to define some notation.html12/05/2010 06:33:41 a. To achieve this. . This determines the singular term of the lumpedparameter model. dashpots and masses have to be performed only once for the coefficient with as the dynamic-stiffnesses for all modes Sj. can be determined by scaling.m. The latter is then Fig.

c(a0) vanishes up to the cutoff frequency=π/2.. 2b and 2c follow without introducing any additional approximation.03. At first the harmonic response of the lumped-parameter model is calculated for M=3. One degree of freedom with a shape function of the pressure varying linearly over the depth is selected. γ′s and µ are dimensionless coefficients specified in Ref. which are determined by assembling the corresponding discrete models shown in Fig.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_394. the building block of Fig. the frequency-independent stiffness. 3a). Direct modelling in physical coordinates To illustrate the construction of the lumped-parameter model. the κ′s. For M=10. 2b in parallel with the one in Fig. K is the static value. 2c. .. The non-dimensional time step equals 0. 2c arranged in parallel.5 to < previous page page_394 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 2c. the one building block of fig. In the actual calculation.page_394 < previous page page_394 next page > Page 394 approximated using a curve-fitting technique as a ratio of two polynomials in ia0. 3b). damping and mass matrices corresponding to the lumped-parameter model are used. should not be used.e. The curve-fitting is performed for 0<a0<3. the regular part can be written as a sum of first-order and second-order terms. the “force-displacement” relationship specified in equation (7) is at first modelled directly (without explicit transformation to modal coordinates).5. for which the discrete models shown in Fig. excellent agreement is achieved (Fig. while the results for M=2.m. Substituting N(z)=z/d in equation (7) leads to the stiffness coefficient (10) which is non-dimensionalized as S(a0)=K[k(a0)+ia0c(a0)] with the static-stiffness coefficient (11) (12) The spring and damping coefficients k(a0) and c(a0) are plotted as a solid line in Fig. i. The degrees of the polynomials in the numerator and in the denominator are equal to M—1 and M. i. Also for M=3.html12/05/2010 06:33:42 a.e. [7]. i. 3. 2 in parallel. an acceptable accuracy results (Fig.e.x with a0=1 and=2. respectively. Performing a partial-fraction expansion. Applying a harmonic load P. 5 building blocks shown in Fig.

html12/05/2010 06:33:43 a.. The scale is selected in such a way that the exact harmonic solution leads to an amplitude equal to 1. Fig. (b) a0=2. After the initial phase influenced by the initial < previous page page_395 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 4a and 4b. .ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_395. 3 Dynamic-Stiffness Coefficient in Frequency Domain for Linearly Varying Pressure.page_395 < previous page Page 395 page_395 next page > Fig.. 4 Harmonic Response.m. (a) a0=1.5 the model at rest leads to the resultant pressure P as a function of plotted as solid lines in Fig. The applied load is shown as a dotted line.

the dynamic-flexibility coefficient in the time domain is addressed. 340]. the resultant pressure unit-impulse load P. the load as a function of time which is generated by a unit-impulse resultant pressure P acting at time zero. the pressure is in phase with the load..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_396.. This (so-called regular part) of the dynamic-stiffness coefficient equals (13) where J1 is the Bessel function of the first kind of order one. The value the lumped-parameter model with M=10 agree very well. An exact solution does not exist. Then the dynamic-stiffness coefficient in the time-domain is addressed. Fig.5 the phase angle is close to 90°. 5. In particular for a0=1.x for the rest of the time can be calculated analogously as in [13. 5 Dynamic-Stiffness Coefficient in Time Domain. If the first term only is considered in equation (10). The exact solution of P.page_396 < previous page Page 396 page_396 next page > Fig. For the lumped-parameter model the load is applied over one time step. This (non-zero) prescribed pressure is applied over the first four time steps. The value < previous page page_396 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. is plotted in Fig. the dynamic-flexibility coefficient equals (14) where J0 is the Bessel function of the first kind of order zero.e.x applied at time zero.m.e. i. The results of caused by a Finally. i. . 6 Dynamic-Flexibility Coefficient in Time Domain conditions the agreement is good. which indicates that no radiation damping occurs for this frequency below the cutoff frequency while for a0=2. p.html12/05/2010 06:33:44 a.

The curve-fitting is performed for 0<a0<3. the building block of Fig. . the normalized dynamic-stiffness coefficient is processed (Fig. the contribution for mode j qj (t). 6 together with the results of the lumped-parameter model for M=10 and M=3. whose coefficients are calculated by scaling those corresponding to the normalized dynamic stiffness. 2b in parallel to that of Fig. 7 Dynamic-Stiffness Coefficient in Frequency Domain for Normalized Mode.x at x=0.e. Modelling in modal coordinates Turning to the construction of the lumped-parameter model for each mode. Four modes each with its lumped-parameter model are chosen.e. Fig... For a prescribed p (z. 2c in parallel) are selected. 3 building blocks of Fig.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_397. After determining qj (t). This load acts over one time step .t) follows analogous to equation (3) as (16) A unit impulse load p(z).html12/05/2010 06:33:44 a. 2c) and M=6 (i.5 M=3 (i.x constant over the height is applied at x=0 at time t=0.page_397 < previous page Page 397 page_397 next page > is plotted in Fig.t). 7).x is calculated as (15) which represents the load acting on the lumped-parameter model of mode j.m. The resultant < previous page page_397 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. p (z. To study the lumped-parameter models for the modes. equations (5) and (8) are used.

9 Pressure Distribution at . Assembling these matrices with the realization of the dynamic-stiffness matrix of the semiinfinite region (equation (7)) leads to the discretized system of motion of the total reservoir in the time domain. which is equal to the dynamic flexibility non-dimensional form in Fig. Fig. is calculated taking the first 4 modes with M=6. the semi-infinite file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20. The exact solution with infinitely many modes equals [9] (17) the resultant hydrodynamic pressure exhibits a negative minimum. 8... (18) SEMI-INFINITE FLUID DOMAIN OF IRREGULAR GEOMETRY The reservoir’s region of irregular geometry is modelled with finite elements [1. It is plotted in pressure.m. At corresponding non-dimensional pressure distribution over the height using the lumped-parameter model is compared to the analytical solution in Fig. . To evaluate the performance of the coupled system.html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:33:45 a. The Excellent agreement results. The corresponding “static-stiffness” and “mass” matrices relating the pressures at the nodes to the integrated normal derivatives of the pressures are straightforwardly established. 8 Dynamic-Flexibility Coefficient in Time Domain at for Lumped—Parameter Model.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_398. An explicit algorithm with lumped masses based on the Newmark scheme is applied. 2]. 9.page_398 < previous page Page 398 page_398 next page > Fig.

mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_398..m. .html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:33:45 a..page_398 < previous page page_398 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.

the semi-infinite irregular reservoir with an inclined bottom as shown in Fig. The irregular region is discretized with square finite elements.. The explicit algorithm with parameter γ=0.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_399. . 11 is examined.html12/05/2010 06:33:46 a. Over the depth 12 finite elements are selected. < previous page page_399 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 11 Semi-Infinite Irregular Reservoir with Inclined Bottom. a unit impulse (applied over one "t) of p. 10 Dynamic-Flexibility Coefficient in Time Domain for Coupled System. Finally. 8.65 is processed.page_399 < previous page Page 399 page_399 next page > Fig. This figure should be compared to Fig. 4 modes and M=6 are chosen in the realization of equation (7). Fig. A very satisfactory behaviour is observed. fluid domain of constant depth is again addressed. As a stringent test.m. the semi-infinite regular part is again represented with 4 modes each with its lumped-parameter model with M=6. The first part adjacent to the dam is modelled with square finite elements with linear shape functions over a length of twice the depth.x (corresponding to a and the horizontal acceleration of the dam) constant over the depth is applied. The second part up to infinity is modelled using the lumpedparameter model for each mode. where the same result calculated without a finiteelement region is shown. 10.. The resultant pressure as a function of time is plotted together with the exact solution in Fig.

305–332 (1982). By selecting different degrees of the polynomial. The only approximation introduced at the very beginning of the procedure consists of replacing the modal dynamic-stiffness coefficient by a ratio of two polynomials in frequency.html12/05/2010 06:33:46 a.5 are selected. divided by the static water pressure Rst. resulting in a linear system of equations. . ∆t=0.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_400.page_400 < previous page Page 400 page_400 next page > Fig.m. whereby only 4 boundary elements are used over the depth d. < previous page page_400 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics. 10.0009 s and γ=0. The resultant pressure acting on the dam R(t).F. REFERENCES [1] Hall. A. and Chopra.00173 s) is applied. 12. A unit impulse acceleration of the rigid dam (introduced as a rectangle over 0. is plotted as a function of time in Fig. 12 Hydrodynamic Resultant Pressure for Impulse-Acceleration Loading. The stability is guaranteed and the corresponding property matrices are automatically symmetrical. Two-Dimensional Dynamic Analysis of Concrete Gravity and Embankment Dams Including Hydrodynamic Effects. This is performed by a simple curve-fitting scheme based on the least-squares′ method. CONCLUSIONS To calculate the hydrodynamic forces of the reservoir directly in the time-domain. a whole family of lumped-parameter models with easily verifiable accuracy is constructed.. dashpots and masses and with only a few additional internal degrees of freedom. An acceptable agreement is obtained with a time-domain boundary element solution [6].K. No unfamiliar discrete time manipulations such as the z—transformation are necessary.. each mode of the semi-infinite uniform fluid region is represented by a lumped-parameter model with frequency-independent coefficients of the springs. J.

[10] Weber. [6] Wepf. Germany.P. A.-D.F.F. 365–376 (1989).P. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. [5] Lin. B.. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics.A. and Chopra. and Cheng. J. A. A. 109.P. 895–905. A.H. Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis in Time Domain. Bochum. a Computer Program for Three-Dimensional Earthquake Analysis of Concrete Dams. M.-F. 11–32 (1991). Damping and Mass Matrices. June 1990. 149–167 (1983). 417–432 (1988). [9] Wolf. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics.m. Recursive Evaluation of Interaction Forces of Unbounded Soil in the Time Domain. Boundary Solutions for Fluid-Structure Interaction.L. [8] Wolf. 16. Louis. and Bachmann.K. 2. J. K. Rotterdam 1991. Consistent Lumped-Parameter Models for Unbounded Soil: Physical Representation. and Motosaka.A. A. A. [3] Rashed. 1. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics.. Journal of Engineering Mechanics. Wolf. J. 345–363 (1989). Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics. 111.D. 110. and Motosaka. and Iwan. Krätzig et al). 18. Englewood Cliffs. EACD-3D. M.K. Journal of Engineering Mechanics.. J. 1991. D. [13] Wolf. [14] Chopra.L. Hydrodynamic-Stiffness Matrix Based on Boundary Elements for TimeDomain Dam-Reservoir-Soil Analysis. and Paronesso. 1986. P. N. Journal of Engineering Mechanics. 20. 20.. A. Report No UCB/EERC—86/09. J. 51–64 (1984). Recursive Evaluation of Interaction Forces of Unbounded Soil in the Time Domain from Dynamic-Stiffness Coefficients in the Frequency Domain. Missouri. J. Proceedings of European Conference on Structural Dynamics Eurodyn’90.P. [12] Wolf. University of California. 93. Berkeley. < previous page page_401 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. St. 33–41 (1991). [4] Fok. Hall J. and Chopra.html12/05/2010 06:33:47 a. 851–858. Hydrodynamic Pressures on Dams During Earthquakes. 18.P. 1067–1083 (1985). Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics. Fluid-Structure Interaction for Arch Dams in Structural Dynamics (Ed.K. J.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_401.J.P. Prakash).page_401 < previous page page_401 next page > Page 401 [2] Hall. H. 1988. W. [11] Wolf. Consistent Lumped-Parameter Models for Unbounded Soil: Frequency-Independent Stiffness..H. Dynamic Analysis of Short-Length Gravity Dams.P. . Earthquake Engineering Research Center. Balkema. J. Dynamic Analysis of Arch Dams Including Hydrodynamic Effects. 205– 223 (1967). [7] Wolf. Prentice-Hall. Lumped-Parameter Model for Foundation on Layer in Proceedings Second International Conference on Recent Advance in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics (Ed.

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Kyoto University. M. A problem of this kind cannot be solved by empirical evaluation. both the mechanical behavior of the geotextile and the failure mechanism are still subjected to research. Thus.page_403 < previous page page_403 next page > Page 403 Earthquake Resistant Design of Earth Walls—A Probabilistic Approach D. H. The failure model considered is a special internal one with the failure plain cutting through the geotextile layers. < previous page page_403 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Japan ABSTRACT This paper applies a probabilistic safety analysis to a special problem in soil mechanics.html12/05/2010 06:33:48 a.Klapperich (*). In fact. Reinforced earth retaining structures usually also experience considerable settlement. has not thoroughly been answered yet. . The question. INTRODUCTION The design of reinforced earth retaining walls [1] depends strongly on the safety factors used for the stability analysis. Germany (**) School of Civil Engineering. which permit the assessment of the safety of the structure in an easy and convenient way.. special attention should be paid to the settlement potential. T. Parameter studies indicate that for the failure model considered the toe of the reinforced wall is its most sensitive part. since we are talking about a fairly new development in geotechnical engineering. the best way to derive safety factors for this type of geotechnical structure is a probabilistic approach..Genske (*). Therefore. We have to distinguish between the external failure modes—toppling/sliding/external circular failure/bearing capacity failure and internal failure modes—breaking of the geotextile/partial pull out of geotextile/global failure of the structure with a slip surface cutting through the geotextiles. Institut für Wasser und Bodenschutz-Baugrundinstitut.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_403. MODELS An earth retaining structure reinforced by geotextiles can fail due to a variety of failure modes. This subject becomes even more complicated when dynamic forces such as earthquake loadings are included in the analysis. how large the safety factors should be and whether a global safety factor or partial safety factors should be applied. Kyoto 606.m. Based on the probabilistic safety concept a reliability analysis is carried out and design factors are derived.Sugito (**) (*) DMT Deutsche Montan Technologie. a seismic loaded reinforced earth retaining structure.Adachi (**). 4630 Bochum.

For this performance function it was assumed that: –There is no vertical loading of the wall other than caused by gravity of the soil.. – The wall is completely drained. Based on laboratory tests a 2-block failure mechanism was identified (fig. – The earth pressure behind the reinforced wall is calculated in accordance with COULOMBs earth pressure theory. In accordance with BROMS [2] the potential lateral displacement also has to be considered as a relevant design criterion. PERFORMANCE FUNCTIONS The external failure modes refer to conventional mechanisms. Recent studies by GUDEHUS and SCHWING [3] help to understand this particular type of failure mechanism. b=1/h [-]. νg=critical sliding angle n=number of geotextile layers above base layer [-].ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_404. the two blocks of the global internal failure model will be exposed to an earthquake acceleration.page_404 < previous page page_404 next page > Page 404 But not only the vertical settlement appears to be important. If a reinforced earth retaining structure is subjected to earthquake loading. this 2-block failure mechanism yields the most realistic results. – The variation of the slip surface of the block 1 yields the minimum of the performance function. They are a function of the mass of each block and the horizontal acceleration due to the earthquake. which have been investigated already. on the other hand. γ=unit weight of soil [kN/m3]. The internal failure modes. < previous page page_404 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.m. Horizontal earthquake accelerations directed towards the open side of the retaining wall will destabilize the system considerably.. 1) and the following performance function was derived: (1) with where φ=angle of internal friction . The horizontal accelerations causes horizontal forces as depicted in figure 2. . he=h (1−b tan νg) [m]. φg=angle of friction between fabric and soil . still require further investigation. – The slip surfaces of the two blocks meet where the reinforcement ends. As indicated in the above mentioned article [3].html12/05/2010 06:33:48 a.

mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_405... file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.m.page_405 < previous page Page 405 page_405 next page > Fig. 1 The 2-block failure mechanism—statical loading conditions.html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:33:49 a. .

2 The 2-block failure mechanism—earthquake loading conditions.page_405 Fig.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_405.. < previous page page_405 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20. ..html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:33:49 a.m.

html12/05/2010 06:33:50 a.. Fig. –Due to the settlement of the wall. however.page_406 < previous page page_406 next page > Page 406 In order to derive a performance function for the system. the generally used seismic coefficients are only a fraction of the peak acceleration of the design earthquake—which means some yielding of the wall should be expected [14. – The geotextiles in the lower 10 % of the wall do not contribute to the overall stability of the wall [3]. 15]. .ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_406. a pre-existing sliding surface for block 2 is assumed. As commonly known the equation for earth pressure developed in Japan in the 1920’s has not worked badly for basic design. by the end of this article that the safety factors derived can also be applied to the case of an earthquake induced sliding plane as described by venerable MONONOBE-OKABEs formula [4]. – Only horizontal earthquake accelerations were applied. Its inclination was calculated from COULOMBs earth pressure theory. if an earthquake occurs and with it a horizontal acceleration. This decrease of stability is especially drastic in the vicinity of the toe of the wall.m. Concerning the last assumption it will be shown. the following assumptions were made: – No additional vertical loading of the wall itself and the area behind the wall is considered.. which represent a simplified statical approach. Extensive research has shown that the actual dynamic response of retaining walls is much more complex than outlined in MONONOBE-OKABEs equation which foremost is developed for gravity retaining walls. As a first attempt the outlined failure mechanism for reinforced walls based on sliding is considered. – No liquefaction effect or related phenomena where taken into account. < previous page page_406 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. However. ADACHI & SUGITO [6]. This holds especially for new types of earth retainment as described in this paper. besides the parameters mentioned already in equation 1: ã=a/g=horizontal earthquake acceleration over g [-] A detailed analysis of this performance function is given by GENSKE. Based on the above assumptions. the following performance function was derived (ADACHI & GENSKE [5]): (2) with. 3 illustrates how the stability of the structure decreases.

since these two parameters show a considerable dispersion. It’s COV may range.. the probability density function is considered to be bound at zero to the left hand side. The friction coefficient T between the fabric and the soil is interpreted as GAUSS-normal distributed with a coefficient of variation (COV) ranging between 0. . the Invariant Second Moment Approach by HASOFER & LIND [7] has proven to be very effective and easy to understand. SUGITO & KAMEDA [11]) a stochastic model for the earthquake induced ground acceleration which. as will be shown later. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS Among the possible procedures to derive the failure probability and appropriate safety factors. b=0.5).. They were derived for the internal friction and the friction angle between the fabric and the soil. In accordance with research carried out in Japan (e. in accordance with GUDEHUS & SCHWING [3] and GENSKE & WALZ [9] between 0. g. A good explanation of this method is given in ANG & TANG [8]. For simplicity.10≤COVφ≤0.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_407. SUGITO [10].05.m. The internal friction angle is considered to be lognormally distributed. controls the earthquake loading can be derived as follows: Based on an eight hundred year earthquake record < previous page page_407 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 3 The effect of an increase of the normalized earthquake acceleration a/g on the performance function (φ=φg=40°.10≤COVT≤0. The stochastic model for the seismic load is much more complicated.page_407 < previous page Page 407 page_407 next page > Fig. this method was applied in order to calculate partial safety factors. "h/h=0.html12/05/2010 06:33:50 a.15 (T=tan φg). In the paper of GUDEHUS & SCHWING [3] mentioned above.15.

0) [km] the annual probability of exceedance for a given peak acceleration a can be calculated: (4) For the peak acceleration in acceleration gives the hazard curves for a lognormal distribution is assumed. 4 Annual probability of occurrence U(M.html12/05/2010 06:33:51 a. ") is a function of the magnitude M and the distance " of the epicenter to the region considered..242M−30. Plotting P(a) over the peak < previous page page_408 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. ") for the Tokyo region.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_408.06·100.m. "=distance of location considered’to epicenter [km].page_408 < previous page page_408 next page > Page 408 (USAMI [12]) the annual probability of occurrence can be deduced for every region in Japan. These characteristic local earthquake probabilities allow the derivation of earthquake hazard curves. M=Magnitude on the RICHTER-Scale [-]. . With the attenuation equation for the horizontal peak acceleration [10] (3) . (M≥6.. Fig. "o="o(M)=1. U(M. Figure 4 gives an example for the annual probability of occurrence U(M. ") as a function of the magnitude M and the distance from the epicenter " for Tokyo.

43 1/100 0.24 0.20 1/50 0. can be estimated.page_409 < previous page page_409 next page > Page 409 Tokyo.m.. Osaka and Kyoto figure 5 yields the following normalized peak accelerations ã=a/g (a=peak acceleration. For Tokyo.. Since hazard curve which include these effects can also be derived their consideration should be possible.07 0.53 Fig 5.35 0. peak accelerations for given time intervals. It should be mentioned that in this approach only the peak acceleration was considered. On the basis of the probabilistic safety concept partial safety factors can < previous page page_409 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.07 0. For further studies on this topic it is recommended to also include the effect of the duration of the ground motion and the spectral intensity. appropriate safety factors are needed. also called return periods. In order to ensure the safety of a structure.html12/05/2010 06:33:51 a.23 0. For design purpose. By means of these hazard curves. Osaka and Kyoto.18 0. Earthquake hazard curves for Tokyo.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_409. g=gravitational acceleration): Annual Exceedance Probability [-] Osaka Kyoto Tokyo ã= ã= ã= 1/10 0. . Osaka and Kyoto (figure 5). the life time of the structure will specify the return period.

. it depends on the annual probability of exceedance and thus on the return period. which is used to calculate the horizontal earthquake loads.html12/05/2010 06:33:52 a. These partial safety factors are applied directly to the parameter which have been recognized as statistically dispersive ones.e. pf=Φ(−β)=probability of failure [-].. It is therefore used to specify the live time of the structure.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_410. Although this procedure includes some approximations it has the advantage of being easy to apply and flexible as to the local characteristics of the earthquake record..page_410 < previous page page_410 next page > Page 410 be derived. As to the peak acceleration.m. they are interpreted as deterministic (i. not dispersive) in the subsequent reliability analysis. Φ()=Cumulative GAUSS-Normal Probability Function [-] σT=standard deviation of T [-] with and < previous page page_410 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Since these design loads already include a statistical model. Thus. In this paper the earthquake statistics only assists in deriving the design earthquake loads. for the derivation of design factors only the internal friction angle and the friction coefficient are considered to be dispersive.γφ=design factors for T and φ [-] µT=mean value of T [-] T*=design point of T=µT—αT β σT [-] β=safety index [-]. In accordance with the First Order Second Moment Approach [7] the design factor for the GAUSS-normal distributed friction coefficient T and the lognormal distributed internal fiiction angle φ is determined by (5a) and (5b) with γT. Probabilistic design factors ensure a certain probability of failure not to be exceeded.

5. and so will the partial safety factor.page_411 < previous page Page 411 page_411 next page > These equations show that in order to calculate the partial safety factors the values of a have to be determined..0 since φ is the only dispersive parameter contributing to the safety of the structure. that with increasing a the relative effect of the dispersive parameter associated with this a on the failure probability will also increase. "h/h=0.839 = tan (40°).1. < previous page page_411 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. From the definition of the α-values it follows that (6) This means. µφ=40°. The failure probability in this study was fixed to 1/1000. Fig.. In the lowest part of the wall where the geotextiles do not contribute to the safety of the 2-block system the a for the internal friction angle is 1.html12/05/2010 06:33:53 a. which refers to a safety index of β=3.05. b=0. The results can only be found by means of an iterative procedure. µT=0.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_411. 6 α2-values as a function of the normalized height of the wall h′/h. In figure 6 the α2-values are plotted over the normalized height of the reinforced wall. Constant failure probability maintained at 1/1000.m. which are functions of the partial derivatives of the performance function to the dispersive parameters. .

. 7 Conservative design factors for φ and T with increasing failure probability. no attempt has been made to monitor the behavior of the α′s with further parameter studies. Also indicated are the recommended failure probabilities for geotechnical structures [13]. if the COV of the friction coefficient T is also large relative to the COV of φ.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_412. As soon as the geotextile starts supporting the system an a for the friction coefficient T generates. For a large COV the required safety factor must be large. The αT will with increasing heights h′/h soon dominate the failure probability. the partial safety factors necessary to ensure a certain probability of failure (expressed by β) can be calculated [6]. The upper and lower margins of the COV of both parameters are given. With this assumption we achieve to be on the safe side as to this critical part of the wall. If the failure of the wall has only a minor economical impact the lower boundary is appropriate. The region where both dispersive parameters have a considerable effect on the safety of the wall is rather limited. Therefore.. It is rather suggested to approximate both α′s with their possible upper value.m. which is 1.0. The increase of αT will be especially large.html12/05/2010 06:33:54 a. whereas if losses of live have to be expected in case of a failure the upper limit is recommended. even if its COV is at the lowest possible limit If figure 6 is now compared with figure 3 we have to realize that the region of uncertain α′s approximately refers to the most sensitive part of the wall where the deterministic safety already has a minimum. the partial safety factor must have a constant value. too. the safety factors increase as well. . Fig. < previous page page_412 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Utilizing the relationships pointed out in equation 5 and 6. Figure 7 gives the partial safety factors as a function of the safety index β With increasing β which refers to a decrease in the tolerable failure probability. however.page_412 < previous page page_412 next page > Page 412 Consequently.

stochastic) will lead to further modifications of the theoretical model and finally to satisfactory design.075. since the earthquake loading is in contrast to all other parameters a time depended parameter.125.839=tan (40°). Fig. only rather short return periods. < previous page page_413 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.2. 8 The critical geometry b=1/h as a function of the annual exceedance probability. a geotextile structure in Tokyo allows.7. Whereas for Osaka and Kyoto long return periods still yield feasible reinforcement length..html12/05/2010 06:33:54 a. "h/h=0.page_413 < previous page page_413 next page > Page 413 In figure 8 the critical geotextile length 1 (normalized with the wall heights h) in the toe zone is plotted over the earthquake return period. COVφ=0. Model tests using shaking tables and centrifuges will be helpful to study this complex interaction problem. The seismic design loads depend strongly on the regional earthquake record and the return period presumed for the design of the earth wall. Parameter studies indicated that the internal friction angle and the friction coefficient between the geotextile and the soil are appropriate for the application of design factors.. These design factors are a function of the probability of failure considered to be tolerable.05. from the practical point of view.m. µφ=40°. Further research should be directed towards the reliability analysis for other failure modes of the reinforced wall. γφ=1. µT=0. COVT= 0. . the consideration of a lateral vertical loading of the upper part of the wall and a more detailed analysis of the dispersive character of the local peak acceleration and its influence on the reliability of the structure. For the earthquake induced horizontal forces the derivation of stochastic design loads was treated separately.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_413. Basic experimental findings in terms of failure modes in relation to seismic input (harmonic. SUMMARY In order to establish design criteria for an internal 2-block failure mechanism of reinforced earth retaining walls a reliability analysis was carried out and design factors were derived. γT=1.

USA.C. G. Vol 100. Descriptive Catalog of Disaster Earthquakes in Japan (in Japanese). Fabric Reinforced Retaining Walls. M. 4th National Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Berlin 1989. 7. 1982. HASOFER. 14. ANG. ADACHI. LIND Exact and Invariant Second Moment Code Format. Paris.KAMEDA Nonlinear Soil Amplification Model with Verification by Vertical Strong Motion Array Records.. No EM1. Kyoto University. School of Civil Engineering. ADACHI. Microzonation and Buried Pipe Response for Urban Seismic Damage Assessment. WALZ Anwendung der probabilistischen Sicherheitstheorie auf Grundbruchberechnungen. . La Terre Armee. SUGITO. Wiley & Sons. D. New York. T. 1986. 12. REFERENCES 1. 129–147. 6. G. 1986. A. M.B. A. BROMS. USAMI. 11. WHITMAN. Tokyo. & H.. 13.). Tokyo. Savidis (ed. 10.S.. 223–229. JSPS Research Report (unpublished).page_414 < previous page page_414 next page > Page 414 ACKNOWLEDGMENT We are very grateful for the financial support which was granted to us from the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). Japan. 3. 9. University of Tokyo Press.. GUDEHUS. Fukuoka. 67–71. Nos. GENSKE. 53–66.M. J. Japan.GENSKE Earthquake Loaded Reinforced Earth Retaining Structures. WHITMAN. 1987. 2. Earthquake Resistant Design for Civil Engineering Structures in Japan. GENSKE. Nürnberg.D. & M. T & D. D. Japan. 888– 939. & B. 2. vol.. Balkema 1990.m. Soils and Foundations (in press). Structural Safety.KLAPPERICH Model Tests for Earthquake Simulation in Geotechnical Problems. Geotechnik 10. R. 3rd International Conf. & E. 1984. & W.V.D. 15. Seismic Design of Gravity Retaining Walls. Baugrundtagung.SCHWING Standsicherheit kunstoffbewehrter Erdbauwerke an Geländesprüngen.. on Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering. 1988.V.—Thesis. Earthquake Resistant Construction and Design (ERCAD). 1975.H. Princeton. 1990. T. Palm Springs. 1974. vol 2. 1987. 4. B. Earthquake Motion Prediction. 8.SUGITO Reliability Analysis of Reinforced Retaining Structures Subjected to Earthquake Loading. R. 1. Limit State Design in Geotechnical Engineering.H.TANG Probability Concepts in Engineering Planing and Design. 5. JSCE (Japan Society of Civil Engineers). Tokyo. Annales de l’Institut Technique de Batiment et des Travaux Publics.html12/05/2010 06:33:55 a. VIDAL. Engineering Mechanics. SUGITO. & N. & H. < previous page page_414 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Kyoto. 1984.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_414. 1990.G. MEYERHOF. 1966. H. Proceedings of the International Geotechnical Symposium on Theory and Practice of Earth Reinforcement.

page_415 < previous page page_415 next page > Page 415 Passive Earth Pressure Coefficients in Seismic Areas by the Limit Analysis Method A. The approach presented is a rigorous one in regard to the limit < previous page page_415 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. we present a more rational and simple method which makes it possible to calculate the earth pressure taking into consideration the earthquake forces.Kastner (**) (*) Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Arts et Industries de Strasbourg. 69621 Villeurbanne Cédex. Albert. the determination of active earth pressures acting on a retaining wall and taking into account the earthquake forces. the dimensioning of deep sheet piling stuctures in seismic areas requires the determination of active and passive earth pressures acting on these structures taking into account the earthquake forces. In his method. France ABSTRACT The upper-bound method in limit analysis is applied to the log-spiral rotational mechanism for calculating the passive earth presure coefficients in seismic areas. France (**) Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon.Soubra (*). . In this paper. Numerical results are discussed and compared with other authors’ results. 24.H. 20. So. Bd de la Victoire. Traditionally. is made using the classical method introduced by Mononobe-Okabe [4]...m. a rational analysis of these pressures is of great interest in geotechnical engineering.html12/05/2010 06:33:55 a. Einstein. 67084 Strasbourg Cédex. Thus. Av. this author used an extension of the Coulomb’s sliding wedge theory [3] in which earthquake effects are taken into account by the addition of horizontal and vertical inertia terms.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_415. R. INTRODUCTION Earthquake can endanger the stability of a soil-wall system by either increasing (or reducing) the active (passive) earth pressures acting on the wall.

Slip surface and normal stress distribution for passive earth pressure analysis. Free body diagram. In this paper. we look for the shape of the mechanism giving the minimum value of the passive earth force Pp and for which the three limiting equilibrium equations are satisfied. .html12/05/2010 06:33:56 a. Mathematical formulation of the problem It is well known that a rigorous limit equilibrium method is one for which the following conditions are satisfied: a.. Hence. It was shown by Soubra [15]. Notice that a mass is in a state of limit equilibrium when the Mohr-Coulomb criterion is satisfied along the slip surface AB. VARIATIONAL LIMIT EQUILIBRIUM METHOD The classical method introduced by Mononobe-Okabe [4] is a limit equilibrium method giving unsafe solutions since it is based on Coulomb’s approach [3] which highly overestimates the passive earth pressure coefficients: This fact is due to the a priori hypothesis concerning the shape of the slip surface. Figure 2. the solution obtained is an upper bound one for a rigid perfectly plastic material obeying Hill’s maximal work principle. Figure 1.m. Writing the three equations of the < previous page page_416 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. This problem is formalized mathematically using a variational approach. b. 1).ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_416. The shape of the slip surface y (x) and the normal stress distribution σ (x) will give the minimum value of the passive earth force Pp. The three equations of the static equilibrium are satisfied for the soil mass ABC (fig. that the variational limit equilibrium method is equivalent to the upper-bound method in limit analysis for a rotational mechanism.page_416 < previous page page_416 next page > Page 416 equilibrium method since it makes no assumptions concerning the shape of the slip surface and the normal stress distribution along this surface..

. Gi(x. y. It was shown (Petrov [8]) that the solution of such a problem is obtained using the Euler equations as follows (2a) (2b) Where H is an intermediate functional given by H=F+λi·Gi (i=i.. y. 2) Notice that H can be written as < previous page page_417 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. it is easy to see that the passive earth force Pp is a functional of two functions y (x) and σ (x). σ) and ai can be obtained from the two remaining equilibrium equations.page_417 < previous page page_417 next page > Page 417 static equilibrium for the soil mass (fig.. 2). σ) is simply obtained through one of the equations (1). y’. and combining these equations with the Mohr-Coulomb criterion. From these equations. one obtains the three limiting equilibrium equations as follows (1a) (1b) (1c) where all parameters of these equations are defined in figure (2).html12/05/2010 06:33:56 a. the rigourous passive limit equilibrium problem is a variational one of the isoperimetric type as follows subject to where F(x.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_417. y’. Thus.m.

. Log-spiral mechanism for passive earth pressure analysis. Replacing this equation into equation (3). y′)+g(x.f(x.m. solving the passive earth pressure problem by the upper-bound method in limit analysis for a rotational mechanism will give a rigorous solution in regard to the limit equilibrium method. It was shown (Soubra [15]) that any equation of the normal stress distribution having at least two degrees of freedom will satisfy the three equations of static equilibrium and that. Solving this equation. 3) is given as (4) Figure 3. y′) (3) Hence. This method is detailed in the following section. UPPER-BOUND METHOD The equation of the rotational log-spiral mechanism (fig. one can see that H becomes independent of the normal stress distribution.page_418 < previous page Page 418 page_418 next page > H=σ.html12/05/2010 06:33:57 a. y. y′)=0. < previous page page_418 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. y. Thus.. only the equation of moments around the centre of the log-spiral is sufficient to calculate the passive earth force Pp.. This result is a direct consequence of the shape of the slip surface.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_418. y. equation (2a) is equivalent to: f(x. It is easy to see that the moment equation of the rotational log-spiral mechanism around the centre is identical to the work equation for the same mechanism in the upper-bound method in limit analysis. one obtains the equation of the slip surface which is a log-spiral in the case of a constant .

for a kinematically admissible mechanism.html12/05/2010 06:33:57 a. Rate of external work The external forces acting on the soil mass are shown on the free body diagram shown in figure (3).17 describes very well the failure of the Sheffield dam in California: This dam was subjected to a maximal base acceleration of 0. 3) makes an angle with the transition layer according to the normality condition for an associated flow rule material. The weight of the soil mass between the log-spiral surface and the ground surface. it is interesting to notice that the real value of the seismic coefficient requires the analysis of actual failure cases.. a minimum value of 0. Notice that the seismic vector K has two components: The horizontal seismic coefficient Kh whose value is dominating and the vertical seismic coefficient Kv which is often disregarded. 12. These forces consist of: a. Notice that the choice of the seismic coefficient is completely empirical (Seed [11.15 in the United States and between 0. The force K. this mechanism is kinematically admissible since the velocity V along the plastically deformed surface AB (fig. Thus. The passive earth force which is inclined at δ to the normal of the sheet piling wall.15 and 0. b. . Taniguchi and Sasaki [16] have analysed the failure which occured for a slope subjected to the Naganokon Seibu earthquake in 1984 in Japan.W which simulates the inertial force due to the earthquake effect. The currently used values of Kh ly between 0. This author has also shown that for higher accelerations (0.05 and 0. c. Seed [13] showed that a value of Kh which lies between 0.1 and 0.3 is necessary for the horizontal seismic coefficient.4–0. According to the upper-bound theorem in limit analysis. 13]). equating the external rate of work of all external forces to the internal rate of dissipation of energy gives an upper-bound of the exact solution for an associated flow rule material.page_419 < previous page page_419 next page > Page 419 For a rigid body rotation.m. When studying the stability of slopes.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_419.15g.5g) which describe the Californian earthquakes. < previous page page_419 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. These authors have shown that the seismic coefficient can be described by either the following formulas Finally.25 in Japan.. the rate of external work exceeds the internal rate of dissipation of energy along the plastically deformed region.

The vertical component of the velocity is given as represents the distance between the y axis and the line of action of the weight force.f1(θ0.W is the product of this force by the horizontal velocity of the soil mass ABC as follows < previous page page_420 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.html12/05/2010 06:33:58 a. Having established the weight of the soil mass. . The rate of external work done by the passive earth force is given as The rate of external work done by the horizontal inertial force Kh.page_420 < previous page Page 420 The weight of the soil mass ABC is given as page_420 next page > (5) where f is the penetration depth and y represents the equation of the slip surface in the coordinate system (ox. oy).sinθ0 Replacing these equations into equation (5). it can be shown that W=γ. θ1) is given elsewhere (Soubra [15]).m.sinθ-r0.r02.. one can easily show that y=r. is simply calculated as follows where f2(θ0. Based on equation (4).ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_420. θ1) is given elsewhere (Soubra [15]). θ1) where f1(θ0. one can calculate the rate of external work done by the weight of the soil mass as the product of the weight by the vertical component of the velocity of the soil mass.. and Ω being the angular where velocity of the soil mass.

For a cohesionless soil.r and integrating.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_421.f4 (θ0.m. The most critical Kp-value can be obtained by minimizing with respect to θ0 and θ1 angles shown in figure (3).. NUMERICAL RESULTS Effect of the point of action of the passive earth force on the passive earth pressure coefficients In fact. Prakash < previous page page_421 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The θ0 and θ1 at which the Kp-value is minimum determine the most critical sliding surface. This point was the subject of great controversy in literature. A FORTRAN computer program for assessing seismic passive earth pressures has been developed with equation (6) as a basis. one obtains D=c. This hypothesis depends on problem kinematics and it will be discussed later. θ1) is also given by Soubra [15].Ω. to the internal rate of dissipation of energy. Work equation Equating the total external work done by the weight. .r02. the inertial force and the passive force Pp.. one can write Pp=Kp. Due to this hypothesis.θ1) where f4 (θ0.γ. θ1) is given by Soubra [15] Rate of internal dissipation The internal dissipation of energy along the log-spiral surface is simply calculated by first calculating the differential by the cohesion c by the tangential energy dissipation along AB which is the product of the surface element velocity and then by integrating over the surface AB as follows Replacing V by Ω.html12/05/2010 06:33:59 a.f2/2. the point of action of the passive earth force depends greatly on problem kinematics. one gets (6) Notice here that the passive earth force Pp is assumed to act at the bottom third of the penetration depth. this dissipation is vanishing.page_421 < previous page Page 421 page_421 next page > where and f3 (θ0.

the shear strength of the soil is assumed to remain unaffected as the result of the seismic loading. Thus.1 and 0. < previous page page_422 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Wood [17] was based on the elastic soil hypothesis and suggested a force acting at the middle of wall height. Aubry and Chouvet [1] made a finite element analysis and suggested a point of action lying slightly higher than the bottom third of the wall height. it is easy to see that for . To investigate how the passive earth pressures are affected. As mentioned previously.4f and 0.3. The reduction in the shearing resistance of a soil during an earthquake is only effective when the magnitude of the earthquake exceeds a certain limit and the ground conditions are favorable for such a reduction.m.html12/05/2010 06:33:59 a. the present limit analysis solutions are valid when there is no reduction in soil strength due to an earthquake.5f when the seismic coefficient varies between 0. the reduction in the passive earth pressure coefficient is about 16.page_422 < previous page page_422 next page > Page 422 and Basavanna [9] showed that the point of action of the active earth force lies between 0.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_422. he claimed that in many cases. Thus. The evaluation of such a reduction requires considerable knowledge in earthquake engineering and soil dynamics.3g and the mechanical properties of most soils do not change significantly in these cases. His results have shown that the Mononobe-Okabe approach seriously overestimates the Kp-value.. However. Seismic effect on the passive earth pressure coefficients It is known that earthquakes have the unfavorable effect of increasing active and decreasing passive lateral earth pressures. a conservative approach concerning the Kp-value is to adopt the bottom third distance. Research conducted by Okamoto [7] indicated that when the average ground acceleration is larger than 0. numerical results based on the above mentioned upper-bound method in limit analysis for a rotational mechanism are presented in dimensionless form (figure 4). An earthquake can also reduce the shearing resistance of a soil. the calculation of the coefficients of passive earth pressure taking into account the earthquake forces is of great interest in areas of high earthquake risks. The present analysis have shown that the passive earth pressure coefficient is increased when the passive force goes up. Due to figure (4). . there is a considerable reduction in strength for most soils.3g. In this paper. Comparison with authors’ results The best upper-bound solution in limit analysis is given by Chang and Chen[2] for the translational log-sandwich mechanism.5% when the horizontal seismic coefficient increases from zero to 0. the ground acceleration is less than 0. This is especially the case when the wall is rough.3. ..

Our approach gives better solutions than the Chang and Chen log-sandwich ones since our passive earth pressure coefficients are smaller than those of Chang and Chen [2] for δ>0.This comparison < previous page page_423 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. the passive earth pressure coefficient as calculated by the present For δ>0 approach is 3. It is interesting to remember here that the logsandwich translational mechanism is the best mechanism available in literature since it gives the smallest upper-bound solution.page_423 < previous page page_423 next page > Page 423 The results obtained by the present upper-bound method in limit analysis for a rotational log-spiral mechanism are compared with the above mentioned upper-bound solutions (figure 4).7% smaller than the Chang and Chen’s one when Kh=0.m.html12/05/2010 06:34:00 a.3. In order to braket the collapse load.9% when Kh=0.This difference decreases with the increasing of the Kh-value. Some Kp-value by the present analysis and the Chang-Chen’s one. Figure 4. . ..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_423. when δ=0. This difference is about 0. However.. our solution is compared with the lower-bound solution for available in literature. we obtain a planar surface and our passive earth pressure coefficients are the same as those of Chang and Chen since both the log-spiral and the log-sandwich mechanisms degenerate to a planar surface when δ=0.

Figure (5) shows some typical changes in the critical sliding surface as the result of an earthquake. Whereas. For higher values of Kh.54) which indicates that the upper-bound solution in limit analysis for a rotational log-spiral mechanism is very close to the exact solution for an associated flow rule material. < previous page page_424 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing..page_424 < previous page page_424 next page > Page 424 shows that our upper-bound solution (Kp=9.html12/05/2010 06:34:01 a. the slip surface is planar making an angle equal to with the horizontal direction: This is in accordance with the Rankine solution.81) is 2.8% greater than the Lysmer [5] lower bound solution (Kp=9. Figure 5.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_424. the most critical sliding surface is also altered. . but it is inclined at smaller angles than the Kh=0 case. when the Kh-value is equal to zero. Consequently. Seismic effect on the critical slip surface The seismic acceleration generated by earthquakes not only imposes extra loading to a soil mass but also shifts the sliding surface to less favorable positions. in the case of a smooth wall (δ=0).m. the slip surface remains planar.. Effect of seismic forces on failure mechanism. The numerical results given by the Fortran computer program have shown that the slip surface approaches a planar surface due to the increase in the Kh-value in the case of a rough wall (δ>0). in addition to the change in the passive earth pressures.

and Chen. and Chouvet D. M. 343–382. Mém.A. D. I. Pap. Lysmer. . chap. 1311–1334. New-York and London. 96. 7. Limit Analysis of Plane Problems in Soil Mechanics. The Netherlands. 7.. California.A.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_425.P. Vol. H. Génie Parasismique. Vol. 1776. pp. Vol. Bearing Capacity of Sandy Soil and Lateral Earth Pressure during Earthquakes. 1968. Proc. Chang..C. Variational Methods in Optimum Control Theory. J. The Effect of Ground Characteristics on the Aseismic Design of Structures. ASCE. On the Determination of Earth Pressures during Earthquakes. 2. 1929. CONCLUSION The upper-bound technique of limit analysis for a rotational log-spiral mechanism is used for determining the seismic passive earth pressure coefficients in a quasi-static manner.. N° 7416. The change in the critical sliding surface as the result of earthquake has also been noted by Sabzevari and Ghahramani [14]. Soil Mechanics Foundation DIV. 6. presses de l’E.page_425 < previous page page_425 next page > Page 425 Finally.F. Tokyo. it is interesting to notice that the critical sliding surface becomes more extended when earthquakes occur. 9. on Earthquake Engineering. Solid Mechanics Archives. 3. The approach presented is interesting since the passive earth pressure coefficients so obtained are smaller than the ones given by the best upper-bound solution available in literature concerning the translational log-sandwich mechanism (Chang and Chen [2]) and the difference with the lower-bound solution (available only when Kh=0) is less than 3% in the case. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.. Paris. 1st World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Pres. 315–362. Vol. Aubry. VIII.html12/05/2010 06:34:01 a. pp. Etr. World Engineering Conference. 1982. W. 231–247. 4. Acad. pp.F. 1960. N. Proc. 2nd World Conf. 7. J. pp. The Hague. Sav. and Matsuo. < previous page page_425 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Academic Press. 5.. pp. 8.m. 1956. Proc. Murphy. REFERENCES 1. S.. R. Essais sur une application des règles de maximis et minimis à quelques problèmes de statique relatifs a l’architecture. 27–1 to 27–26.. V. This conforms with the experimental results of Murphy [6]. N° SM4. Okamoto. 216 p. 176p. Coulomb. Petrov.3. Lateral Earth Pressures on Rigid Retaining Walls subjected to Earthquake Forces. 1970. Proc. C. Calcul sismique des murs de soutènement. N. Mononobe.

pp. pp. Proc. Wood. Div. < previous page page_426 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. pp. E. Vol.B. 1969. J. Analysis of the Sheffield Dam Failure. 993–1020. 1969. and Sasaki. K. N° SM6. 1985.B. 17. XCII. 11th ICSMFE. XCV. J.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_426. 11.html12/05/2010 06:34:02 a. N° SM3. and Martin G.M. 1974. I. California Institute of Technology. Taniguchi.. S. San Francisco. 13. Y. Thesis. Chile. ASCE. Geotechnical Eng. Earthquake-Induced Soil Pressures on Structures. 1966. Seed. Dynamic Passive Earth Pressure Problem. A. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division. Prakash. Earthquake Engineering Research Laboratory. 1989. Missouri. Back Analysis of a Landslide due to the Naganoken Seibu Earthquake of September 14. S. B. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division. The seismic coefficient in Earth Dam Design. INSA Lyon. Vol. A. H. Vol. Pasadena. and Idriss. Rolla. A Method for Earthquake Resistant Design of Earth Dams. Speciality Session on Seismic Stability of Slopes. H. N° SM1. Soubra. Sabzevari. and Basavanna. Seed.M. A. Influence des Forces d’Ecoulement. ASCE. Prakash. Vol. 15. 1981.. 14. .H. Application de la Méthode Variationnelle au Problème de Détermination des Pressions Passives des Terres.. 10. 200 p.R. 1966. 12. H. ASCE. Earth Pressure Distribution behind Retaining walls during Earthquake.page_426 < previous page page_426 next page > Page 426 9. International Conference on Recent Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineetring and Soil Dynamics.H. 133–148.m. 16..L. XCII. Seed. ASCE. 15–30. and Ghahramani. Report N° EERL-73–05. 100 (GT1). Lee..B. 4th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Analysis of Rigid Retaining Walls During Earthquakes.

PILES < previous page page_427 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_427. ..page_427 < previous page page_427 next page > Page 427 SECTION 7: SOIL-STRUCTURE-INTERACTION.html12/05/2010 06:34:02 a.m. FOUNDATIONS..

.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_428.m.page_428 < previous page Page 428 This page intentionally left blank...html12/05/2010 06:34:02 a. page_428 page_428 next page > next page > < previous page file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.

Switzerland ABSTRACT The ingenious concept of the standard cloning algorithm to calculate the dynamic stiffness is examined in depth using the scalar cases of a spherical cavity embedded in a full space and a two-dimensional wedge.page_429 < previous page page_429 next page > Page 429 Dynamic Stiffness of Unbounded Soil by Finite-Element Multi-Cell Cloning J..m. leading to a practical approach at least in the scalar case. Potentially. It is shown that this onecell cloning works only for special cases.. Adding the bounded cell of finite elements to the semi-infinite domain with the characteristic length re results in a similar semi-infinite domain with length ri. Department of Civil Engineering.Wolf. the cloning algorithm leads to an expression for the dynamic-stiffness matrix of the unbounded soil as a function of that of the cell.html12/05/2010 06:34:03 a. The concept can. The concept can be applied to their dynamic-stiffness matrices in the frequency domain by assembling the known dynamic-stiffness matrix of the cell and the unknown matrix of the unbounded soil referenced by the length re. which results in the unknown dynamic-stiffness matrix of the unbounded soil with length ri.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_429. this method is a stand-alone finite-element formulation competent to capture the radiation condition at infinity without using analytical solutions. The fundamental idea of cloning is illustrated in Fig. . Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. INTRODUCTION In the cloning concept the essential notion of infinity is captured by stating that adding a finite part to an infinite quantity does not change its value.Song Institute of Hydraulics and Energy. be expanded to multi-cell cloning. however. In the standard cloning algorithm pioneered by Dasgupta [1] over ten < previous page page_429 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. As a relationship for the dynamic-stiffness matrices referenced by different lengths exists. 1 for the semi-infinite soil taking the embedment into account. C. 1015 Lausanne.P.

g. and re of the cell can be used in defining the dimensionless frequency of which the dynamic stiffness of the unbounded soil is a function.. A new procedure called multi-cell cloning is introduced in this paper. An additional equation is introduced stating that the n+1 dynamic stiffnesses referred to all boundaries form a n−1 degree polynomial of the dimensionless frequency. In this scalar case for which analytical expres-sions can be formulated. valuable physical insight is gained.. For n cells. The static stiffness cannot be used for this propose.html12/05/2010 06:34:03 a. This is demonstrated in Wolf and Weber [2]. the dynamic stiffness with one coefficient of the out-of-plane motion of a wedge of a two-dimensional problem is addressed as an example. In particular. an artificial cutoff frequency exists below which no radiation of waves takes place. the basic cloning equation can be formulated n times. This generalized cloning method results in ordinary nonlinear first-order differential equations for the dynamic stiffness with the dimensionless frequency as the independent variable. In the same reference. < previous page page_430 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. . it is assumed that an average value of the characteristic lengths of the inner and outer boundaries ri.m. For the sake of illustration. all the different cloning algorithms are applied to the analysis of the dynamic stiffness of the spherical cavity in a full space with symmetric waves. Taking the limit of zero width of the cell results in differential equations which lead to the exact solution of the dynamic stiffness.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_430. In addition. This is not consistent with the derivation of the dynamic stiffness of the cell. With the exception of cases where the dimensionless frequencies are the same at the inner and outer boundaries (such as for a soil layer or in the static case) incorrect results are obtained outside the high-frequency range. The standard cloning of Dasgupta [1] corresponds to one-cell cloning. The system can be solved numerically (e. by Euler’s method) provided a starting value is known. the procedure has been extended to take into account the variation of the dimensionless frequency from the inner to the outer boundary of the cell. Or in other words the dynamic stiffnesses of the unbounded soil referred to the outer and inner boundaries are assumed to be equal.page_430 < previous page Page 430 page_430 next page > Figure 1: Fundamental concept of cloning algorithm years ago.

16–20 for a detailed derivation) (3) with the dimensionless dynamic-stiffness coefficient X (4) < previous page page_431 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Poisson’s ratio ν and mass density ρ which leads to symmetric P-waves is used as the benchmark problem (Fig. Considering only the outwardly propagating wave.. 2). .. S∞ is formulated as (see Wolf [3] pp.m. The dynamic-stiffness coefficient in the frequency domain S∞ Figure 2: Spherical cavity with uniform pressure (section) Figure 3: Interior and exterior infinite domains and cell of spherical cavity is defined as (1) with u0 denoting the amplitude of the radial displacement of the cavity’s wall. The governing scalar differential equation of motion equals (2) where r is the radial coordinate and with the dimensionless frequency a0= ωa/cp (cp=dilatational-wave velocity).page_431 < previous page page_431 next page > Page 431 ANALYTICAL SOLUTION AND BASIC CLONING EQUATION A spherical cavity of radius a with uniform pressure of amplitude p embedded in a full space with shear modulus G.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_431.html12/05/2010 06:34:04 a.

html12/05/2010 06:34:05 a. The concept of cloning is applied to the one-dimensional case of the spherical cavity (Fig. . 4 for ν=1/3. which is used throughout this paper. The force-displacement relationship of the cell located between the interior and exterior boundaries is written as (6) where [S] denotes the dynamic-stiffness matrix of the cell..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_432.m. They are shown in Fig. The corresponding equations for the interior and exterior infinite domains are formulated as (7) (8) Eliminating Pi and Pe from equations (6).page_432 < previous page Page 432 X is normalized with the static value page_432 next page > X(a0)=Xst[k(a0)+ia0c(a0)] (5) where k(ao) and c(a0) are the spring and damping coefficients.. 3). (7) and (8) results in (9) It is convenient to introduce nondimensional stiffness coefficients as follows (10) (11) (12) This transformation substituted in equation (9) leads to the basic cloning equation relating the stiffness coefficients of the infinite domains referenced to the interior and exterior boundaries to those of the cell Xi=Dii−Die(Xe+Dee)−1Dei (13) where for a cell with a finite element based on a linear shape function in the radial direction (14) < previous page page_432 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.

whereby a0i in equation (14) changes..0105 at a0=0.html12/05/2010 06:34:05 a. the variation of X for r less than the starting value can be determined. and starting with X=0. Alternatively. Equation (13) can be used to calculate Xi (corresponding to ri) for a known Xe (corresponding to re). γ=1.m.03.25 and 1..2 for linear and parabolic elements). ONE-CELL CLONING As explained in Dasgupta [1]. which allows the variation of X for r larger than the starting value to be calculated. respectively.5+ia00. the cell width cannot be larger than a fraction of the wave length (e. The two curves coincide.g. In addition. Xi and Xe are assumed to be equal Xi=Xe=X (15) Substituting in equation (13) leads to the quadratic equation in X X2+(Dee−Dii)X−DiiDee+DieDei=0 (16) < previous page page_433 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. . The degree of freedom corresponding to the middle node is condensed out. For a parabolic shape function. equation (13) can be solved for Xe as a function of Xi.9904+ia00. Applying this procedure repeatedly.6 for the linear and the parabolic finite elements. Figure 4 Figure 4: Direct application of basic cloning equation Figure 5:1-cell cloning (γ=1) shows the variation of the non-dimensional dynamic-stiffness coefficient X decomposed as specified in equation (5) starting with X=−0. 0.1 and 0. For accurate results.997 at a0=20 for dynamic condensation.103 for substructure deletion. the aspect ratio γ should not exceed 1.page_433 < previous page page_433 next page > Page 433 γ is the aspect ratio re/ri and a0i=ωri/cp. This actually corresponds to dynamic condensation. This procedure is called substructure deletion. [D] is calculated using numerical quadrature.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_433.

c vanishes up to the artificial cutoff frequency=1. Large discrepancies arise. It is worthwhile to determine the corresponding physical system.page_434 < previous page page_434 next page > Page 434 Of the two roots the one corresponding to outwardly propagating waves exhibits a positive imaginary part (damping coefficient) and when the imaginary part vanishes. In the limit γ¡1 equation (16) is transformed to (17) with the solution (18) When compared to the analytical solution in equation (4). . the real part has to be positive.. The results for γ ≠1 exhibit the same tendency (not shown).ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_434. X from equation (18) is plotted in Fig. This means that the one-cell cloning algorithm is actually solving another physical system with the mass density varying as specified in equation (19).5. Xe is expanded at Xi into a Taylor series (Wolf and Weber [2]) as (21) Substituting into equation (13) leads to the generalized cloning equation (with X=Xi and a0=a0i) (22) < previous page page_434 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The differential equation of motion of this system equals (20) which leads to the dimensionless dynamic-stiffness coefficient specified in equation (18). The assumption of one-cell cloning expressed in equation (15) implies that a0 is independent of r. Postulating the mass density to vary as (19) leads to a linear variation of cp with r and thus to a constant a0. it can be seen that the static value and the limit for a0¡∞ calculated from cloning are exact. 5.html12/05/2010 06:34:06 a.m.. G and ν remain constant. GENERALIZED CLONING To distinguish between the X at the exterior and interior boundaries.

4).g. .. the generalized cloning equation can be solved starting from a0=∞.. Actually. provided a starting value is known. The behaviour is the same as that described using substructure deletion and dynamic condensation (Fig.html12/05/2010 06:34:07 a. The integration constant of the first-order differential equation equals c2/c1 for c1≠0 and c1/ c2 for c2≠0. Xst cannot be used as the starting value to solve the generalized cloning differential equation. In contrast. Valuable insight can be gained after taking the limit γ¡1. Equation (24) results in (25) (26) Equation (25) does not correspond to the static value Xst. Transforming both the independent and dependent variables (27) (28) equation (23) is written as (29) < previous page page_435 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The limit of X for a0¡0 is investigated. This differential equation can be solved numerically for increasing and decreasing a0. Equation (22) is transformed to (23) Its solution equals (24) Equation (24) can be derived starting from equation (2) by including both the outwardly and inwardly propagating waves and by using equation (1).m. e.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_435. As all other c1.page_435 < previous page page_435 next page > Page 435 which is a nonlinear ordinary first-order differential equation for X (a0). using the Euler scheme. c2 lead to the static value (equation(26)).. respectively. c2=0 and c1=0 correspond to outwardly propagating and inwardly propagating waves.

html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:34:07 a. . For outwardly propagating waves. however. n) leads to n equations in n+1 unknowns Xj (33) To determine the n+1 equations needed to supplement equation (33). the plus sign applies. it is assumed that the Xj (j=1. Formulating the basic cloning equation (13) for cell j with the interior boundary j and the exterior boundary j+1 (j=1. is used to calculate the dynamic-stiffness coefficient down to the static value (Fig. An adaptive Euler scheme starting from b0=1 and Y=i. 7).…...page_436 < previous page Page 436 where page_436 next page > (30) (31) (32) For a0¡∞ and thus b0¡1 and for dY/db0=o((1−b0)−2). n+1) form a polynomial of order n−1 file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20. a very large number of steps. n+1 boundaries (each with its own dynamic-stiffness coefficient) arise (Fig. For the limit a0¡∞ the (transformed) generalized cloning differential equation contains the starting value. 6). Excellent agreement results using. Y=±i results.m.…. with the same aspect ratio γ and each with its own exterior and interior boundaries. For n cells. Figure 6: Generalized cloning (γ=1) Figure 7: Multi-cell cloning MULTI-CELL CLONING The basic cloning equation can be formulated repeatedly leading to multi-cell cloning.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_436.

.m..page_436 < previous page page_436 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:34:07 a.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_436. .

a small where Figure 8: Two-cell cloning Figure 9: Three-cell cloning cutoff frequency is still observed.. . The starting value for this iterative algorithm is selected for each j as (36) Xj=Xst+iα0 Multi-cell cloning can be used to calculate the dynamic-stiffness coefficient for any specific α0. 8 and 9).5) leading to useless results in the intermediate frequency range. for the case of 2-cell cloning the following cubic equation is obtained.page_437 < previous page Page 437 (and not of order n) in the coordinate r. n-cell cloning will result in a polynomial for X of n+1 degree. For two-cell cloning.and 3-cell cloning (Figs. Parabolic elements with an aspect ratio γ less than 1. For instance. file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20. For the limit γ¡1..html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:34:08 a. making the multi-cell cloning procedure an attractive tool to calculate the dynamic-stiffness coefficient. Compared to the 1-cell cloning (Fig.6 and satisfying the fraction-of-the-wave-length criterion are used for the 2.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_437.m. the results are highly accurate. This results in page_437 next page > (34) lj(rj)=(rj−r1)…(rj−rj−1)(rj−rj+1)…(rj−rn+1) (35) The system of nonlinear equations is solved (for each α0) by the Newton-Raphson method.

mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_437.m.page_437 (37) < previous page page_437 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20... .html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:34:08 a.

11). In particular. the complex root with the positive imaginary part is selected. mass density ρ with an opening angle of α=π/6) with a free and a fixed boundary extending to infinity is examined as a two-dimensional problem (Fig. which is the same as applying the 2-cell cloning for γ¡1. leads to inferior results (Fig. 8 and 5).html12/05/2010 06:34:09 a. For non-vanishing c1 and c2 the solution for X specified in equation (24) oscillates with a0. This phenomenon can be explained qualitatively as follows.. Multi-cell cloning sets the n-th derivative equal to zero. . The dynamic-stiffness coefficient corresponding to an out-of-plane motion ν(θ) prescribed as a linear function in the circumferential direction < previous page page_438 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_438. Addressing the limit a0¡∞ in equation (37). Figure 10: Two-cell cloning (γ=1) Figure 11: Semi-infinite wedge with prescribed linear displacement OUT-OF-PLANE MOTION OF SEMI-INFINITE WEDGE The out-of-plane motion (SH-waves only) of a wedge (shear modulus G. 10).. Solving equation (37). the high-frequency limit of X equals (1−3ν)/(1−ν)+ia0. Selecting a larger γ is thus more effective in favouring the smooth solutions. This value is oneorder more accurate than that of one-cell cloning in the higher-frequency range (compare k(ao) in Figs. When the width of the cells is large (γ>1).m.page_438 < previous page page_438 next page > Page 438 When this equation has one real and one pair of complex conjugate roots. When this equation has three real roots. resulting in higher accuracy. The real root is always negative. as it is for c2=0 and c1≠0. the largest one is selected. the fictitious cutoff frequency is increased. For c1=0 and c2≠0 the solution is smooth. the oscillating solutions are suppressed to a larger extent than when the width is small (γ¡1).

Again.m. . 1-cell cloning leads to a significant fictitious cut-off frequency and useless results in the important intermediate-frequency range. The static value equals 0.e. CONCLUDING REMARKS 1. the force amplitude at point O corresponding to a unit displacement amplitude) equals (38) where (39) is the second-kind Hankel function of order λj. The standard cloning algorithm (1-cell cloning) actually determines the dynamic stiffness of a different physical system for which the density decreases proportionally to the square of the radial coordinate. Using the technique of separation of variables. The spring coefficient k(a0) and damping coefficient c(a0) are plotted in Fig.1 if not forced to be smaller to satisfy the fraction-of-the-wave-length criterion. 2. The aspect ratio γ is equal to 1.page_439 < previous page page_439 next page > Page 439 on the arc is addressed.and 3-cell cloning perform well for all frequencies. 12..5427G.. Figure 12: Dynamic-stiffness coefficient of wedge For all cloning computations one or more cells composed of one finite element with the shape of an annular wedge and with a bi-linear shape function for the displacement are used.html12/05/2010 06:34:09 a. the corresponding dynamic-stiffness coefficient S∞ in the frequency domain (i.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_439. < previous page page_439 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. For the and with presentation of the results S∞ is formulated analogous to equation (5).

html12/05/2010 06:34:10 a. 49. pp. Rotterdam.or 3-cells) as applied to the scalar case (associated with even a two-dimensional homogeneous problem) leads to a highly accurate dynamic stiffness for any specific frequency. Soil-Structure-Interaction Analysis in Time Domain. et al. B. Zurich. Vol. J. International Symposium on Numerical Models in Geomechanics. 1982. 3.A. 1988. . A Finite Element Formulation for Unbounded Homogeneous Continua.J. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors wish to express their gratitude to Professor J.P. H. [3] Wolf. G.Balkema.g.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_440.) pp. The real challenge consists of determining the dynamic-stiffness matrix for an arbitrary geometry of the boundary using multi-cell cloning. R. Englewood Cliffs. On Calculating the Dynamic-Stiffness Matrix of the Unbounded Soil by Cloning.page_440 < previous page Page 440 page_440 next page > 2. 136–140 March 1982. A. Dungar. In particular.Descloux and Mr. When the geometry of the boundary of the semi-infinite domain permits the transformation to independent scalar equations (as e. Switzerland.Débonnaire for in-depth discussions. 4. N. the criterion for selecting the roots of the nonlinear equations must be established. for a circle by using a Fourier series in the circumferential direction).m.R and Weber. REFERENCE [1] Dasgupta.. < previous page page_440 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Multi-cell cloning (2. (Ed. J. 486–494. Journal of Applied Mechanics. each one can be solved using cloning.. [2] Wolf. Prentice-Hall..

P.m. it may be disregarded in the nonlinear case. The reliability of the analysis results is confirmed by way of comparison with the results of a time-stepping algorithm for the specialized case of constant soil-stiffness coefficients. Switzerland ABSTRACT The hybrid frequency-time-domain procedure is applied to the nonlinear seismic analysis of a 6-story shear building interacting with the supporting soil. Such systems include nonlinear structures which interact with infinite or semi-infinite media (nonlinear soil-structure and fluid-structure interacting systems) and systems which have substructures whose internal degrees of freedom are dynamically condensed out of the equation of motion.page_441 < previous page page_441 next page > Page 441 Application of the Hybrid Frequency-Time-Domain Procedure to the Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis of a Shear Building with Multiple Nonlinearities G. The resulting left-hand side of the equation of motion < previous page page_441 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. For all practical purposes.html12/05/2010 06:34:10 a. The hftd procedure consists of replacing the nonlinear system being analyzed by a pseudo-linear system obtained by transferring the nonlinear component of the internal forces to the right-hand side of the equation of motion. Both the frequency dependence of the foundation stiffness coefficients and the nonlinear hysteretic characteristics of the individual stories are retained in the analysis. CH-3001 Bern. INTRODUCTION The hybrid frequency-time-domain (hftd) procedure is an attractive computational tool aimed at performing the dynamic analysis of nonlinear systems with frequency-dependent characteristics..Box 2743.Darbre Swiss Division of Safety of Dams. The influence of the frequency dependence of the foundation stiffness coefficients on the seismic response is less important in the nonlinear case than in the linear case..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_441. This latter force component depends on the—unknown—motion and is obtained iteratively.R.O. . 1.

The feasibility of such an approach has been demonstrated analytically and by the numerical analysis of an uplifting rigid block interacting with the supporting soil in Ref. being the use of constant foundation stiffness coefficients anchored at a specific frequency or of linearized isolation characteristics. 2). Special issues are addressed in Section 4. < previous page page_442 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Although theoretically feasible (Ref. SYSTEM INVESTIGATED AND FUNDAMENTAL RELATIONS 2. the influence of the frequency dependence of the foundation stiffness coefficients on the nonlinear seismic response of the base-isolated reactor building has been evaluated. This influence was found to be negligible for all practical purposes. are introduced. In this study. . They include an evaluation of the accuracy of the analysis results by way of comparison with the results obtained by a time-stepping algorithm. such applications have not been performed yet. both the frequency dependence of the foundation stiffness coefficients and the nonlinear characteristics of the isolation are retained in the analysis. 1 to 3 for details). 1). 1). a discussion on what effects changing the length of the time segments of integration and reducing the Nyquist frequency have on the response. 1. The 6-story shear building with hysteretic elasto-plastic story characteristics used in this study is introduced in Section 2.page_442 < previous page page_442 next page > Page 442 is processed in the frequency domain and frequency-dependent characteristics are accounted for directly (see Refs.m. Rather. The applications of Refs. 2. The occurrence of these multiple nonlinearities does not prevent the hftd procedure of performing in a satisfactory manner. The present study is aimed at extending the area of application of the hftd procedure so as to encompass dynamic soil-structure interacting systems with multiple nonlinearities. Five stories simultaneously perform in the nonlinear range during the seismic excitation.. the hftd procedure has been applied to the seismic analysis of a reactor building on a sliding-type isolation (Ref. and a brief discussion on the spectral radius to which the criterion of stability of the hftd procedure is related (Ref. More recently.html12/05/2010 06:34:11 a. 1 & 2 are limited to the seismic analysis of soil-structure interacting systems with a single nonlinearity. The seismic response of the building interacting with the supporting soil is presented in Section 3.. 1. The latter analysis of a system of practical importance is a significant contribution to the field of nonlinear soil-structure interaction analysis as no approximations.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_442.1 System investigated The system investigated consists in the 6-story shear building interacting with the supporting soil shown in Fig.

. The properties of the halfspace differ only in the value of the shear modulus equal to 80*106 N/m2 (Cs=200m/sec). The elements of [Kgbb(ω)] are shown in Fig. 2b. 1—Shear Building investigated Soil The soil consists in a layer of 7 meter depth resting on a semi-infinite halfspace.page_443 < previous page page_443 next page > Page 443 Shear building The building has a story height of 3m. a floor mass of 150*103kg and a floor mass moment of inertia of 2. The dynamic-stiffness matrix [Sgbb(ω)]=[Kgbb(ω)]+iω[Cgbbω)] of the massless circular rigid foundation in welded contact with the layer is frequency dependent. They are normalized with respect to the corresponding static values of Khh=889*106 N/m. The case of a constant yielding force of 1.7Hz (lowest fixed-base natural frequency. with a linear stiffness coefficient of 300*106 N/m and a yielding force varying linearly over the height of the building from 1.7*106 kg*m2. are normalized through multiplication by Cs/a (shear wave velocity < previous page page_443 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Krr=33*109 Nm and Khr=Krh=236*106 N (the coupling coefficient is divided by 5 for better representation).5*106 N in all stories is also investigated.5*106 N in the sixth story. The elements of [Cgbb(ω)].5*106 N in the first story to 0. Poisson’s ratio of 1/3 and hysteretic damping ratio of 5%.m. The small-amplitude energy dissipation within the building is stiffness proportional with 2% critical damping at 1. mass density of 2*103kg/m3 (Cs=100 m/sec). shown in Fig. 2a.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_443. The properties of the layer are: shear modulus of 20* 106 N/m2.. The force-displacement relation of the individual stories is elasto plastic. Fig. corresponds to a period of 0.html12/05/2010 06:34:11 a..6 seconds).

{ugb(ω)} identifies the input motion.page_444 < previous page page_444 next page > Page 444 of layer divided by foundation radius of 7m) and division by the static value of the corresponding coefficient. 2—Dynamic stiffness coefficients of massless circular rigid foundation a) spring coefficients b) damping coefficients 2.html12/05/2010 06:34:12 a.2 Fundamental relations The nonlinear seismic analysis of the shear building interacting with the supporting soil is performed with the hybrid frequency-time-domain procedure. . Fig.4Hz (small amplitude. {Q(ω)} is the Fourier transform of the vector of correcting forces {Q(t)}={F(t)}Pseudolinear-{F(t))linear which represents the difference between the internal forces associated with the pseudo-linear system and the internal forces associated with the actual nonlinear system... The lowest natural frequency of the flexible-base building is 1.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_444. based on static foundation spring coefficients). 4 and 2 in which its trace and response spectrum are presented. The time history is identical to that used in Refs.m. Denoting by Si < previous page page_444 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The subscript s refers to the degrees of freedom associated with floors 1 to 6 and the subscript b refers to those associated with the foundation floor 0. The equation of motion in the frequency domain is (in total displacements) (1) The elements of the dynamic-stiffness matrices identified by the superscript s refer to the pseudo-linear structure (shear building with linear stories) and those identified by the superscript g refer to the massless foundation in welded contact with the soil. Excitation The seismic excitation is given by a horizontal free-field acceleration with a peak value of 25% g.

SEISMIC RESPONSE The peak values of floor acceleration ü and of interstory deformation δ occurring during the seismic excitation of 25 seconds duration are presented in Tables 1a and 1b. 4.page_445 < previous page Page 445 the internal shear force in story i. Ref. although the problem is nonlinear. This is a significant result as. 2. 3. The implementation of the procedure is straightforward and the analysis is performed without major difficulties. the correction force page_445 in the horizontal direction at floor j is next page > (2a) The correction force Q(t)r0 in the rocking direction is (2b) The internal story forces S are obtained as described in Ref. They are obtained by introducing the zerofrequency foundation spring coefficients (static coefficients) and the infinite-frequency foundation damping coefficients in the analysis. 5 in which the nonlinear seismic analysis of a one-story building interacting with the supporting halfspace is performed in the time domain using approximate analytical impulse response functions for the contribution of the halfspace to the equation of motion. .m..3 Implementation of hybrid frequency-time-domain procedure The hftd procedure is implemented based on the flow chart of Ref. The values obtained by disregarding the frequency dependence of the foundation stiffness coefficients are also indicated.html12/05/2010 06:34:12 a.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_445. This application demonstrates how efficiently the hftd procedure can be used in the dynamic analysis of systems with multiple nonlinearities which have frequency-dependent characteristics. A major exception consists in the study of Ref. The peak values obtained for the linear building (infinite yielding forces) are included for comparison purposes as well. 2 (because all degrees of freedom can be affected by the occurrence of nonlinearities.. It must be emphasized that the frequency dependence of both the real and imaginary parts of the foundation stiffness coefficients is duly accounted for in the analysis. no dynamic condensation is performed here). < previous page page_445 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. to the author’s knowledge. respectively. no other similar study has been successfully completed previously with such efficiency using the hftd procedure or any other method. 6.

23 constant no 2 .54 4.44 yes 2.07 3.55 no 2.43 3. 3—Number of stories performing in plastic range a) varying yielding forces b) constant yielding forces < previous page page_446 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.16 varying no 1.87 0 .23 1 .08 0 .40 0.m.65 2.63 4. constant linear frequency dependence page_446 next page > ü0 ü1 ü2 ü3 ü4 ü5 ü6 yes 2.39 Table 1b—Peak interstory deformations [cm] system frequency dependence δ1 δ2 δ3 δ4 δ5 δ6 nonlinear.00 3.39 2.45 0.58 3.05 0 .95 4.07 0.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_446..70 2.79 0 .51 2.46 yes 2.72 2. 3a in which the total number of stories performing in the plastic range is indicated as a function of time for the case of the varying yielding forces. varying nonlinear.30 0.html12/05/2010 06:34:13 a.46 4.75 0 .28 The level of nonlinearities occuring during the excitation is appreciated from Fig.44 0.98 3.49 no 2. 3b for the case of the constant yielding forces.56 2.74 0. Up to 5 stories simultaneously perform in the plastic range.88 0.42 0.62 4.82 4.35 4.55 2.55 2.45 1 .37 2.73 2.12 1.13 3.62 0 .64 0.85 0.72 3. yes 0 . yes 1 .68 3.45 2.22 2. The same information is presented in Fig.46 0.24 linear yes 0 .04 5.28 0 .93 0 .60 0.57 2. Fig.24 1.page_446 < previous page Page 446 Table 1a—Peak total accelerations [m/sec2] system nonlinear.37 3.18 1 .46 2.98 0 .32 0.50 0.01 0. .88 1 .52 0..92 0 .62 3.15 2.15 2.52 0.56 2.44 no 2.86 1 .16 nonlinear.24 no 1 .91 0 .56 0.57 5.

This decrease is the largest for the case of the varying yielding forces. Consequently.01 second is used here in the fast Fourier transform). Part of the differences observed between the deformation response calculated by duly considering the frequency dependence of the foundation dynamic-stiffness coefficients and that calculated under the approximation of constant foundation spring and damping coefficients is believed to be due to the time discretization (see also Section 4. 4. . The associated maximum response values obtained by an < previous page page_447 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.m. (The study of Ref. SPECIAL STUDIES 4. The ductility requirement of the individual stories is thus affected by the frequency dependence of the foundation dynamic-stiffness coefficients in all cases. From a practical point a view the differences in response observed in the nonlinear cases hardly justify using the much more elaborate analysis which accounts for the frequency dependence of the foundation dynamic-stiffness coefficients and for the structural nonlinearities rather than performing a simpler time-domain nonlinear analysis using constant foundation spring and damping coefficients. The influence of the frequency dependence of the foundation stiffness coefficients on the acceleration response is the largest for the linear building and the smallest for the nonlinear building with varying yielding forces. 2. A similar conclusion was reached in the case of the reactor building on sliding-type isolation. This comes from the fact that the increase in structural flexibility and structural damping associated with the nonlinear hysteretic action of the individual stories reduces the relative overall importance of the soil flexibility and of the soil energy dissipation. Ref. 7 (a time increment of 0.1 Comparison with time-stepping algorithm The nonlinear equation of motion can be solved directly in the time domain when the foundation dynamic-stiffness coefficients are approximated by the constant zero-frequency spring coefficients and the infinite-frequency damping coefficients. the influence on the response of the variation of the foundation dynamic-stiffness coefficients with frequency is also reduced.page_447 < previous page page_447 next page > Page 447 Up to 4 stories simultaneously perform in the plastic range in this latter case. Ref. The deformation response is more sensitive to the soil modeling than the acceleration response. 5 led to the conclusion that consideration of the interaction effect is not as important in the design of yielding structures as in the design of elastic structures). The repeated incursions in the plastic range result in a decrease in the acceleration response of the building.1)..html12/05/2010 06:34:14 a. This influence must however be critically assessed as the calculated deformation values of bilinear systems are sensitive to the length of the time step used in the time integration.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_447..

75 0. 10.47 hftd 2. 2.78 0.99 3. The determination of yielding inception and of yielding conclusion occurs at time values which are multiples of the length of the time step of integration.04 5.46 expl.43 3.08 0.71 2.00 3.12 1. At these particular time values.95 4. < previous page page_448 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing..93 0.23 1.74 0.1 seconds. 14. 13.html12/05/2010 06:34:14 a. the hftd procedure and the explicit scheme predict incursions in the plastic range which are one time step apart.51 2.18 1..1.39 3.61 3.35 2. .72 3.15 3.96 4.70 3.32 0.68 3. 4) and the deformation time history of the first story (Fig.22 2.1.page_448 < previous page page_448 next page > Page 448 explicit integration are compared in Table 2 with the values obtained by the hftd procedure for the same foundation stiffness coefficients.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_448.44 expl.65 2.62 3.07 0.4 and 23.23 2.65 2.60 0.43 0.74 0.42 0.08 0. hftd 1.18 1.67 4.35 1. No account is made of the fact that yielding inception or yielding conclusion can occur at intermediate time values.93 1. This is illustrated by comparing the number of stories performing in the plastic range (Fig.17 nonlinear.92 0.57 5.85 0.44 hftd 2.46 2.63 4. varying nonlinear.93 0.46 4. Table 2a—Peak total accelerations [m/sec2] system nonlinear.50 2.28 explicit 1. 2.04 5.45 4. A loss of accuracy which differs for each procedure of time integration ensues.24 constant explicit 1.99 1. 5) as obtained by applying the hftd procedure and the explicit time-integration scheme for the case of constant yielding forces.05 0.75 0.01 second for the hftd procedure and 0.07 3. 2.7.52 0. The differences in interstory deformation initiate at time values of 7.33 0.58 5.44 0.52 0.42 0.39 2. constant linear scheme ü0 ü1 ü2 ü3 ü4 ü5 ü6 hftd 2.08 0.39 Table 2b—Peak interstory deformations [cm] system scheme δ1 δ2 δ3 δ4 δ5 δ6 nonlinear.52 0.96 0.45 2.39 expl.86 1. The discrepancies which occur in the peak deformation values are due partly to the bilinear nature of the nonlinearities.24 linear hftd 1.16 varying explicit 0.59 0.0025 second for the explicit scheme).15 2. hftd 2.45 2.m.52 0.51 0.10 2.43 2.28 Excellent agreement in maximum acceleration values is found considering that two different methods of time integration are used (hftd procedure and explicit scheme) each having a different length of time step (0.

.. 1 & 2. The associated number of iterations is shown in Table 3a and the maximum response values in Tables 3b and 3c. In order to gain some insight into this question.2 Length of time segments One deficiency of the hftd procedure is that no rules exist at present to assist the analyst in selecting the length of the time segments which must be introduced in the analysis.page_449 < previous page Page 449 page_449 next page > Fig. < previous page page_449 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.html12/05/2010 06:34:15 a. 4—Number of stories performing in plastic range a) obtained by hftd procedure b) obtained by explicit integration Fig. 4. Refs. the analysis has been repeated for various lengths of time segments for the case of the varying yielding forces..m.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_449. 5—Deformation of first story a) obtained by hftd procedure b) obtained by explicit integration In view of these remarks the reliability of the results obtained by application of the hftd procedure is confirmed by the comparison.

50 Table 3c—Peak interstory deformations [cm] number of segments δ1 δ2 δ3 δ4 δ5 δ6 50 0.1). Also. the total number of iterations is more largely affected by the number of time segments introduced in the analysis.14 2.37 2.21 1.44 0.58 3.24 1. While this might not be of great concern in this application as the acceleration response is still fairly accurate.19 1.37 2.34 0.87 0.15 2.page_450 < previous page Page 450 Table 3a—Total number of iterations number of segments time steps per segment 45 or less 50 60 75 56 or more 50 42 34 page_450 total number of time steps about 2′500 2′500 2′520 2′550 2′500 ü1 ü2 ü3 ü4 ü5 ü6 next page > total number of iterations diverge 502 816 646 923 100 25 Table 3b—Peak total accelerations [m/sec2] number of segments ü0 50 2.14 2.16 60 1. 1 and 2 where it was recognized that selecting too many time segments wastes computer time.54 2.41 0.30 0..55 2.26 0.44 0.86 1.45 1.88 1..57 2. this points out a possible source of inaccuracies in future applications of the hftd procedure to systems whose analysis requires < previous page page_450 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. introducing 60 time segments surprisingly requires more iterations than introducing 50 or 75 time segments.55 2.57 2.55 60 2.55 100 2.01 0.04 1.54 2.54 2. However. In this present application.03 0.53 75 2.29 0.56 2.m.17 75 0.16 100 1. selecting too few time segments still leads to a divergent solution.73 0.58 3.64 3.57 2.37 2.71 3.57 2.html12/05/2010 06:34:16 a.46 0.37 2.42 0. Aliasing effects apparently become more important thus affecting the quality of the deformation response (see also Section 4.14 2.57 2.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_450.83 1.05 2. that selecting too few time segments leads to a divergent solution. .15 2.52 1.60 2.17 The pattern observed here is slightly different from the one observed in the studies of Refs. a new effect is identified for the cases in which a large number of iterations are required (100 and 60 time segments). and that the total number of iterations remains essentially constant over a rather wide range of selection of lengths of time segments.

The spectral peaks occurring near the structural natural frequencies of the linear building are clearly recognized in Fig.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_451. In the present case. 6b for the most severe case which does occur in this study. namely that of all stories performing simultaneously in the plastic range.html12/05/2010 06:34:16 a. Ref.01 second and Tfft=4’096*"t. 8).page_451 < previous page page_451 next page > Page 451 a very large number of iterations. 6. Fig. . Decaying loading functions of 1. 2). Unless indicated otherwise. (The spectral radius of the undamped soil-structure system is infinite at the natural frequencies as the dynamic stiffness matrix of the pseudo-linear system is zero at these frequencies). 1. 6a for the most severe nonlinear case which can possibly occur in the building investigated. It is shown in Fig. it is recommended that an analysis involving multiple nonlinearities be repeated with various integration parameters and that the accuracy of the calculated response be verified by comparing the results of the various analyses. For the time being. 6—Variation of spectral radius with real frequencies a) 6 stories performing simultaneously in plastic range b) 5 stories performing simultaneously in plastic range While the criterion of stability for the hftd procedure depends on the value of the spectral radius evaluated at the frequency value of -iΩ (minus unit imaginary number times Nyquist frequency) rather than Ω Ref.5 seconds duration have been appended at the end of the segments (Ref.g.m. the spectral radius at iΩ cannot be evaluated readily because the soil stiffness coefficients are given < previous page page_451 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.3 Spectral radius and Nyquist frequency The variation of the spectral radius with real frequencies is shown in Fig. it is still interesting to note that the spectral radius at the Nyquist frequency of 50 Hz is well below the critical value of unity as it equals 0. the results presented in this study have been obtained using 50 segments of 50 time steps of length "t=0. namely that of the five lowest stories performing simultaneously in the plastic range while the sixth story remains elastic... 4.08 (5 stories simultaneously in the plastic range). Overcoming this unwelcome phenomenon could be attempted by way of recovering the appropriate initial conditions by adding a free-vibration component of response after each iteration (see e.

57 3.02 second) with the objective of assessing to which extent the calculation is affected by such a change as the spectral radius at 25Hz is 0.58 3.24 1.01 0..00 1.46 1.88 1.37 2.79 2. 510 iterations are required to process the 50 segments of 25 time steps of 0.55 50 [Hz] 2. The analysis of this system of practical importance is a significant contribution to the field of nonlinear soil-structure interaction as no approximations.23 2. The corresponding results are compared in Table 4 with the results obtained for Ω=50Hz ("t=0. The analysis for the varying yielding forces has been repeated using a Nyquist frequency of 25Hz ("t=0. being the use of constant foundation stiffness coefficients anchored at a specific frequency or of linearized story characteristics.01 second).55 2.30 0. . both the frequency dependence of the foundation stiffness coefficients and the nonlinear hysteretic characteristics of the individual stories are retained in the analysis.46 0. are introduced. Rather. Table 4a—Peak total accelerations [m/sec2] Nyquist frequency ü0 ü1 ü2 ü3 ü4 ü5 ü6 25 [Hz] 2.55 2.57 2.41.01 second duration).html12/05/2010 06:34:17 a. They are essentially identical.02 second duration (versus 502 for the 50 segments of 50 time steps of 0.56 Table 4b—Peak interstory deformations [cm] Nyquist frequency δ1 δ2 δ3 δ4 δ5 δ6 25 [Hz] 0. CONCLUSIONS This application of the hybrid frequency-time-domain procedure to the soil-structure interaction analysis of a building with multiple nonlinearities demonstrates the effectiveness of the hftd procedure as an analytical/numerical tool aimed at performing the dynamic analysis of nonlinear systems with frequency-dependent characteristics..48 0. < previous page page_452 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.38 2.61 2.45 1.16 50 [Hz] 0.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_452.02 second is somewhat too long to follow adequately the hysteretic paths of the various stories.23 0.16 5. considering that a time step of 0.49 2.94 1.07 0.page_452 < previous page page_452 next page > Page 452 as functions of real frequencies rather than as functions of imaginary frequencies.15 2.m.

. 19.m. Earthquake eng. < previous page page_453 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. this conclusion should not be extended to soil-structure interacting systems whose characteristics depart significantly from the ones of the building studied here. earthquake eng. For all practical purposes.R.0. Rome 2. A. 82.R. mech. Earthquake eng. REFERENCES 1. conf. Because the data base is still limited. ‘Criterion of stability and implementation issues of hybrid frequency-time-domain procedure for nonlinear dynamic analysis’. G. G.K. as demonstrated by way of comparison with the results obtained by a time-stepping algorithm for the specialized case of constant soil-stiffness coefficients. This is believed to be due to aliasing effects. struct. Proc.598. reactor techn.Chopra during the author’s stay at UC Berkeley is sincerely appreciated. 5. G.R. 16. G.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_453. Until the procedure is modified in order to eliminate this unwelcome phenomenon.Darbre. Proc.Darbre.html12/05/2010 06:34:17 a. . 4. struct.. Moscow (1990). dyn. 6.Darbre.page_453 < previous page page_453 next page > Page 453 The implementation of the procedure and the ensuing calculation do not present any difficulties. it is suggested to repeat an analysis involving multiple nonlinearities with various integration parameters. 7.. The influence of the frequency dependence of the foundation stiffness coefficients is less important in the nonlinear cases investigated than in the linear case. The calculated response is reliable. ‘Dynamics of elastic and yielding structure-foundation systems’.R. dyn. 9th european conf. 10th int. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This study was conducted during a visiting stay at the University of California Berkeley. ‘Nonlinear seismic analysis of base-isolated reactor building by the hybrid frequency-time-domain procedure’. this frequency dependence may be neglected in the nonlinear cases. The financial support of the Swiss National Science Foundation under grant No. ‘On the application of the hybrid frequency-time-domain procedure to the seismic analysis of non-linear systems with frequency-dependent characteristics’. 5th world conf. 661–666 (1989).Wolf. Slightly deficient results in deformation response occur for those integration parameters which lead to a very large number of iterations. 569–581 (1988).Verbic. struct. 3.S..88 and the computer time provided by the University of California are gratefully acknowledged. The hospitality of Prof. Anaheim K. A. ‘Seismic analysis of non-linearly base-isolated soil-structure interacting reactor buikding by way of the hybrid frequency-time-do-main procedure’.Veletsos and B. 725–738 (1989). 2. 1905–1908 (1972).P.Darbre and J. earthquake eng..

dyn. div.m. mech.Ventura and A.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_454... 14. A. R. C. 7. 228–233 (1989).page_454 < previous page page_454 next page > Page 454 6.Veletsos and B. struct. div.S.html12/05/2010 06:34:18 a. 595–608 (1986).C.Villaverde and R. struct. eng. ASCE 100. 8.Veletsos. 189–202 (1974). J.Russell.E.S. ‘Basic response functions for elastic foundations’. ‘Steady-state and transient responses of non-classically damped linear systems’. < previous page page_454 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. ‘Scheme to improve numerical analysis of hysteretic dynamic systems’. . ASCE 115.Verbic. Earthquake eng. J.

i. However. In the linear case.. Nonsymmetrically loaded shells of revolution. requires the inclusion of the liquid and the soil in the computational model. D-8000 Munich 2. in the more realistic nonlinear case. fully three-dimensional discretization procedure. To avoid the requirement of an expensive.Schäpertöns. For the unbounded region a solution procedure is desirable. and can easily coupled to the exist- < previous page page_455 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.e.Springer.Temme Technical University. computation in the time domain must be used. 21.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_455. modelled through ring elements in the axial direction. are coupled with isoparametric continuum ring elements for the soil. B. Germany ABSTRACT This paper deals with the influence of the soil on the nonlinear dynamic response of axisymmetric structures under arbitrary excitation. . The interior region of the soil is modelled by standard continuum ring elements. which enables the treatment of radiation of energy through infinite elements. and the far field. which is fully discretized and permits to treat the nonlinearities of the soil. a semi-analytical approach for the nonlinear analysis of structures with rotational geometry was developed. which reduces the discretization effort to one dimension for the shell-structures and to two dimensions for the soil using Fourier series. INTRODUCTION The realistic assessment of the nonlinear vibration characteristics of liquid storage tanks.html12/05/2010 06:34:18 a.page_455 < previous page page_455 next page > Page 455 Dynamic Soil-Structure-Interaction of Nonlinear Shells of Revolution in the Time Domain W.m. C. The numerical simulations are performed in the time domain using the finite-element-method. these procedures are well established.Wunderlich.. which do not require excessive numerical effort. H. and they are normally performed in the frequency domain. Here. Postfach 202 420. the soil region is subdivided into two parts: a near field. under strong earthquake excitation. Arcisstr.

which connects the components of the associated displacement vectors at the nodal circles of a ring element as well as the various nodal vectors of the applied external < previous page page_456 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. . which are valid for arbitrary shells of revolution undergoing large nonaxisymmetric deflections and moderate rotations. Furthermore. SHELLS As described in some detail in [1–3] and the references given there.m. among other things. the circumferential variation of all geometrical and field variables is approximated by Fourier series and the remaining first-order differential equations are integrated numerically along a finite meridional interval using an asymptotically exact numerical integration procedure. Fig.. In this fashion we first obtain for each Fourier wave number n a linear stiffness matrix Kl..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_456.page_456 < previous page page_456 next page > Page 456 ing shell-structure. In contrast to standard two-dimensional displacement finite element approaches we start from the set of partial differential equations which govern the displacement variables and stress resultants appearing in the line integrals around the circumferential boundaries. It also avoids the subdivision of the soil into a large number of elements if the usual approach is applied to unbounded domains. and the Newmark temporal operator is employed to perform a discretization in time. 1. Typical soil-structure system In comparison with the Boundary-Element-Method the use of infinite elements has. the advantage of decoupled boundary nodes resulting in a smaller bandwith of the system matrices. The exterior region of the soil may be considered as linear and is simulated by the—later described— infinite elements.html12/05/2010 06:34:19 a. a semi-analytic spatial discretization is used to treat the governing nonlinear shell equations.

After assembling the matrices and vectors of the individual ring elements in the usual manner. they are ’added pressures’. . v)+pts(v0.html12/05/2010 06:34:19 a. v) (3) FLUID The liquid filling may be taken into account by substructure methods in the numerical model.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_457. Considering the various Fourier harmonics to be collected into corresponding single matrices and vectors the equations may be written concisely in the form (1) where the matrices M. The ‘secant‘-vector Ps is given by ps(v0. Kl. MODELLING OF THE SOIL The soil region near the structure is fully discretized by isoparametric finite elements using Fourier decomposition. one obtains n implicit sets of nonlinear (incremental form). the damping matrices C and the pseudo-load vectors Ps. < previous page page_457 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. quadratic and cubic function of all n displacement vectors. At this stage the behavior of the soil is treated linear-elastic. The reference configuration are denoted by v0. while the remaining vector Pts is a quadratic and cubic function of v. [6]. strictly speaking. The mass matrix contains additional terms which account for the interaction. second-order ordinary equations in time. C and K are block diagonal. Also. Due to the geometric nonlinearities the latter is a linear..m. This procedure implies the reduction of the originally three-dimensional discretization problem to only two dimensions. In a formal sense. The incompressibility of the fluid allows a static condensation of the hydrodynamic pressure of the form of the equations of motion for a ’dry’ shell with a symmetric structure.page_457 < previous page page_457 next page > Page 457 loads λp. The fluid is assumed as inviscid and incompressible. algebraic. v)=pt(v0. the consistent mass matrices M.e. and the familiar global tangential stiffness matrix Kt are formally related by Kt(v0)v=Klv+pt(v0. Pt.v) (2) where the ‘tangent‘-vector Pt is linear in the increment v. these additional terms may be viewed as ’added masses’ although. In the most practical cases this description according to linear potential flow theory is sufficient [4. but it is straightforward to consider the nonlinear effects of the soil i. 5]..

The shape functions for the unknowns are varying like inverse powers with the distance from the pole. The virtual work of the inertial forces in the infinite domain must be equivalent to the virtual work of the stresses on the surface between the discretized near field and the infinite far field. The infinite elements represent the behavior of the unbounded domain.page_458 < previous page page_458 next page > Page 458 Absorbing infinite elements for the time domain The radiation of energy into the half space is simulated by a doubly asymptotic approximation. This formulation is extended to three dimensions by the Fourier decomposition. (4) is replaced by (5) By adding these two parts the doubly asymptotic approximation of the behavior of the surrounding half space is obtained: (6) Static stiffness For the evaluation of the static stiffness matrix for one element of the surrounding elastic medium the formulation of ‘mapped’ infinite elements due to Zienkiewicz [8] is applied. the first term of equ. Following the approach of Lysmer/ Kuhlemeyer [9] viscous damping forces are arranged along the boundary to infinity. . For the high frequencies the static stiffness is negligible.. To prevent outgoing radiating waves from reflecting at the edges of the discretized region an artificial absorbing layer is introduced.m. The virtual work in the unbounded domain may be splitted into two parts: (4) The first term of the right hand side represents the virtual work of the initial forces as a limit in the case of high frequencies and the second term represents the static case as a limit for low frequencies [7]. the parameter space.html12/05/2010 06:34:20 a. Thus.. and there the geometric shape functions approach infinity.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_458. With geometric shape functions the original infinite domain is mapped to a finite domain. < previous page page_458 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The mapping into two dimensions is performed by using Lagrange-polynoms in the finite domain and special rational functions in the infinite direction.

Transformation of the stresses and the velocities to their global components yields the specific damping matrix (7) and indices n. t. T is the rotation matrix containing the direction cosines.html12/05/2010 06:34:20 a. the velocity . tangential and the circumferential direction. Stress components three dimensions. For the one dimensional case this assumption is exact. The boundary conditions are with the two wave-velocities cs (shear) and cp (dilatational). the density normal. By inserting the shape functions NA for the displacements at the surface. the damping matrix for the absorbing layer reads (9) < previous page page_459 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. φ for the (8) Here. The special conditions are assumptions which are verified by numerical results..ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_459.m.. 2.page_459 < previous page page_459 next page > Page 459 Absorbing layer In the formulation for the special boundary conditions the approach of Lysmer/Kuhlemeyer [9] is employed extending the relations to Fig. .

It is applied as a surface load on the first element near the axis of revolution. The system is divided into three parts: The structure.3 and . Assuming that the free field excitation at the interface is a rigid body motion. The effective force vector results from the added structure acted upon by the free field motions. The half sine pulse has a duration of 2 seconds. Defining the motions of the structure relative to those interface displacements simplifies the right hand side of the equations of motion as the stiffness terms drops out.5m. Now the soil is treated as an infinite domain. Here. the response may be divided into the free field motions and the added response resulting from the soil-structure-interaction.html12/05/2010 06:34:21 a.5m/s. since the source of excitation is not close to the boundary [10. When the structure is superposed on the foundation. but those of the interface are not.. With these values.267m/s. in most cases only the free field motions are known. In fact. 11]. Furthermore. The elastic half space is loaded with a horizontal pulse as a generally three dimensional problem. Horizontal pulse loading on elastic half space To show the absorbing properties of the infinite elements a test problem is considered. to express the effective earthquake forces also in terms of the free field motion. the corresponding parts of the structure may behave nonlinear. This formulation makes more feasible to use frequency independent boundaries.m. cs=0.. and thus permits the nonlinear treatment of the total structure. however. the added motions of the structure are total displacements. the soil and the interface between the structure and the soil. where the input motion could be defined.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_460. Using Fourier decomposition the horizontal pulse corresponds to a loading in the first harmonic. The numerical calculations are performed with the values cp=0. The infinite elements with the absorbing layers are placed at the artificial boundary to infinity. µ=0. No material damping is present in the system. the dilatational waves reach the boundary in 9 seconds and the shear waves in 17 seconds. only the free field displacements of the interface are needed. It is possible. . NUMERICAL EXAMPLES 1. The mesh consists of 9 times 9 elements of width 0. < previous page page_460 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. So no boundaries exist.page_460 < previous page page_460 next page > Page 460 EXCITATION Usually the earthquake excitation of a system is defined as a rigid base excitation or as a basement rock excitation.

. In this numerical example the fluid filling is replaced by added masses at the shell nodes. Some spurious reflections remain in the system with the infinite elements.m. The models (II) and (III) were performed without any damping within the soil region. 5. here combined with a surface waves.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_461. The time history of the ground accelerations is taken to be a periodic saw-tooth like function. in that way that the eigenvalues of this system cor- < previous page page_461 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The dilatational waves. 5. This system. (II) tank with finite soil elements and rigid boundary conditions and (III) tank with finite and infinite elements. Earthquake like base excitation of a cylindrical liquid storage tank As a typical engineering problem. 3. these reflections are the result of the inaccurate formulation of the viscous boundary at the surface to infinity. a water-filled liquid storage tank under horizontal base excitation is investigated. The soil is treated linear and the properties are also given in Fig. the numerical results show the good performance of the viscous boundary in eliminating wave reflections. For the storage tank an elasticideally plastic material behavior is assumed (structural steel). In Fig. But from an engineering point of view.may be identified in the sampled plots.page_461 < previous page Page 461 page_461 next page > Fig. was also analyzed in [12] with fixed boundary conditions without soil. the infinite elements with their absorbing layers work very satisfactory. travel about two times faster than the shear waves. The two kinds of waves -dilatational and shear. 2. 4 the propagation of waves in the two main directions X and Y can be observed. on the second hand these are node to node reflections caused by the discretization with finite elements. On the one hand. Fig. The structural response was analyzed for three choices of finite models: (I) storage tank with rigid base.. Discretization of the half space Compared to fixed boundary conditions.html12/05/2010 06:34:21 a..

ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_462..m. Radiation of waves in the elastic half space < previous page page_462 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.. .html12/05/2010 06:34:22 a.page_462 < previous page Page 462 page_462 next page > Fig. 4.

Fig. .. we study the behavior of the top node of the structure and the stress component N22 at the bottom of the tank.m. In these proceedings first numerical results are given.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_463.html12/05/2010 06:34:23 a. Liquid storage tank under ground excitation < previous page page_463 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. In particular.page_463 < previous page page_463 next page > Page 463 respond to the eigenvalues which are computed including fluid elements as described above.. 5.

Eng. Goebel. Proc. Soc. Wunderlich. Redanz. Bergan. Cramer. 6 shows different time response curves of the stress component N22 of the element nearest to the bottom.: Seismic Effects in Flexible Liquid Storage Tanks.: Nonlinear analysis of shells of revolution including contact conditions.. Seism.. W.). G. Mech. 6. (eds. 47 (1957). Obrecht. Am.. Fig. Vol. W. H. In ‘Finite Element Methods for Nonlinear Problems‘. that after several response cycles a localized bulge deformation near the bottom (“elephant’s foot”) occur at obviously different limits. Comp. W. Earthqu. Eng. Elishakoff. H... A. Fig. In ‘Refined Dynamical Theories of Beams. Wunderlich.page_464 < previous page page_464 next page > Page 464 Varying the amplitudes of the base excitation of the three different models it turns out. 630–639 < previous page page_464 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 259–275 [2] Wunderlich.. Plates and Shells and There Applications‘.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_464. Stress component N22. Cramer.W. Berlin (1986).html12/05/2010 06:34:23 a. 5th World Conf. H. W: Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Shells of revolution.). 402–419 [4] Housner.: Dynamic Pressures on Accelerated Fluid Containers.m. Bathe.. Springer-Verlag.: Application of ring elements in the nonlinear analysis of shells of revolution under nonaxisymmetric loading. . Element 1 REFERENCES [1] Wunderlich.. 51 (1985). W. Irretier.. (eds. H. 697–717 [3] Obrecht. Bull. 15–37 [5] Veletsos.S. Berlin (1987). Springer-Verlag. Vol. 1 (1974)..

& Struc.: Discretization and Solution Techniques for Liquid Filled Shells of Revolution under Dynamic Loading. Emson... H.: Numerical Techniques for the Evaluation of Soil-Structure Interaction Effects in the Time Domain.. In ‘Discretization Methods in Structural Mechanics’. R. McGraw-Hill. UCB/EERC 83/04 (1983) [12] Wunderlich.L. Springer-Verlag. G.. Bettes.. B.page_465 < previous page page_465 next page > Page 465 [6] Cramer. W. J. R: A novel boundary infinite element. H. Wilson.. 19.html12/05/2010 06:34:24 a. 26. (1975) [11] Bayo. Heidelberg (1989) < previous page page_465 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing...m. College of engineering.. European Conf. in eng. Kuhlmeyer.. E. of Calif. Mang. Vol. (1969) [10] Clough. W. Jour. Report No. .W. Inc. O.: Dynamics of Structures. (1983).. on Structural Dynamics.: Multiphase models in soil dynamics. (eds.. Goebel W. 1/2 (1987) [8] Zienkiewicz...A. J. elastic-plastic soil elements and absorbing infinite elements.. Univ. Div. of Eng. Vol. J. H. 393–404 [9] Lysmer. Nordgren. 568–575 [7] Haeggblad.). meth. Springer. EM4. R. Proc. C.: Finite dynamic model for infinite media. Int.C. Penzien. Comp. for num.. E. Bochum (1990). G. Wunderlich. No.: Modelling nonlinear soil-structure interaction using interface elements. Eurodyn 90.L.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_465. Kuhn. Mech.

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. The compliance functions for concentrated vertical harmonic loads are calculated for realistic structure and soil parameters and for a wide frequency range. Two related models—rigid foundations on halfspace and flexible foundations on elastic support (Winkler soil)—are discussed briefly. D 1000 Berlin 45.Auersch Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung. 2. system parameters and method of solution In the present study flexible foundation on a homogenous elastic soil medium are considered under concentrated dynamic loads.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_467. The study was motivated by research works on vibrations induced by railway traffic where the dynamic behaviour of track-soil or tunnel-soil systems were examined. Problem. Therefore this contribution may be seen as a useful orientation about the dynamic behaviour of flexible foundations. Germany 1.page_467 < previous page page_467 next page > Page 467 Dynamic Soil-Structure Interaction of Rigid and Flexible Foundations L. beams and railway tracks resting on the elastic halfspace are examined by use of a combined finite and boundary element method. Summary Different flexible foundations such as plates. showing that the soil mainly affects the low frequency response whereas the structural properties are more important at higher frequencies.m. which have also been measured in connection with railway research work. To generalize some < previous page page_467 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.. High frequency asymptotes are observed for the plate and track foundations.html12/05/2010 06:34:24 a.. The influence of soil and foundation stiffness is investigated. By two-dimensional analysis (plate under lineload) the approach of finite plate to infinite plate behaviour is studied.

.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_468..page_468 < previous page Page 468 page_468 next page > Figure 1 Calculated foundation systems and their dimensions < previous page page_468 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. .html12/05/2010 06:34:25 a.m.

. m=60kg/m mass per length.page_469 < previous page page_469 next page > Page 469 observations simple foundations as elastic plates and beams are calculated for realistic soil and foundation parameters. The results for a rigid plate with dimension < previous page page_469 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The calculated systems are shown in figure 1: elastic plates. 15 s=2. The problem in solved numerically by use of a combined finite element and boundary element method which is described in /1/ and /3/. Rigid plates In the literature of dynamic soil-structure interaction we find a lot of distributions about the behaviour of rigid foundations. . When we show some more results about this topic. flexural stiffness. 33 s=2·103kg/m3 The rail parameters are (UIC 60) EI=6. the beams and the sleepers of the railway track is concrete with E=3·1010N/m2 modulus of elasticity.html12/05/2010 06:34:26 a.m. 5·103kg/m3 The soil is defined by vT=100…300m/s ν=0.. beams and a railway track under vertical harmonic pointloads p. 4·106N m2 Poisson’s ratio. mass density. The foundation structures are calculated by finite beam and plate elements whereas the soil is calculated by the boundary element method using the half-space solution given in /5/. it is to facilitate the comparison of rigid and flexible foundations. mass density. Poisson’s ratio. We are interested in the vertical displacements u at the point of excitation as a function of frequency and compliance functions u/p or admittance functions v/p are calculated. ν=0.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_469. The material of the plates. shear wave velocity. For the plate also the two-dimensional problem of a semi-infinite plate under vertical line-load is solved. 3. The geometric parameters can be read from figure 1.

...page_470 < previous page Page 470 page_470 next page > Figure 2 Compliance functions of rigid plates on different soils file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:34:26 a.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_470.m.

.m.page_470 Figure 3 Admittance functions of rigid plates on different soils < previous page page_470 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20. .mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_470..html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:34:26 a.

< previous page page_471 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. One can see that there are extremely different static values whereas at high frequencies we have almost the same amplitudes for all soils under consideration.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_471.6 is reached at high frequencies. The vertical eigenfrequencies can be found in the phase diagram for φ=−90° lying between 20 and 60Hz.page_471 < previous page page_471 next page > Page 471 a=b=5m d=0.. The corresponding admittance (velocity divided by force) can be obtained by multiplying the results of figure 2 by the circular freguency i (figure 3) . 5m s=2. 5·103kg/m3 resting on different soils are given in figure 2. .m. but no resonance amplifications compared to the static displacements occur for this light plate because of the high damping of the soil. In the admittance functions of figure 3 we find a region of maximum amplitudes around the eigenfrequency of the rigid foundation. Figure 4 shows the influence of the soil stiffness for a plate with thickness d=0.. So it can be concluded that the static behaviour of the soil-foundation system in strongly affected by the soil whereas the dynamic behaviour at higher frequencies is ruled by the properties of the plate. Flexible plates Now the same foundation is considered as a flexible plate and the thickness d as well as the soil stiffness are varied. It is well suited for two-dimensional results (see section 5) and for experimental results where velocities are measured rather than displacements. When the thickness and that means mainly the stiffness of the plate is varied (fig. 4. As for the rigid foundation there are great differences of the static compliance and only little differences at high frequencies. It seems that—independent of soil stiffness—a common asymptote with constant phase φ=−50° and corresponding amplitude decay of A~ω−0. It shows the amplitude and the phase of the compliance (displacement divided by force) due to vertical excitation. 5) we have also differences in static displacements but even stronger differences at high frequencies. 25m. The admittance function better shows the high frequency response whereas the static response cannot be seen.html12/05/2010 06:34:27 a.

html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:34:27 a. 25m) on different soils file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20..page_472 < previous page Page 472 page_472 next page > Figure 4 Compliance functions of flexible plates (concrete. ..m. d=0.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_472.

m.page_472 Figure 5 Compliance functions of concrete plates with different thickness (soil with vT=200m/s) < previous page page_472 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20...html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:34:27 a. .mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_472.

In other words this is a damper like behaviour of the plates under line-load. Also by comparison of figures 2 and 4.. not reaching the value of φ=−90° that would indicate an eigenfrequency.html12/05/2010 06:34:28 a. 7m on soft soil (VT=200m/s) are shown for f=50Hz in figure 6. . the admittances v/p′ of the midpoint of the plates with different widths (fig. < previous page page_473 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. plates under vertical line-loads are considered. 5. the amplitudes of the flexible plates are considerably higher and the phase shift is smaller. But one should keep in mind that the differences between rigid and flexible plate response increase with increasing freguency and that the “rigidity” of a foundation also depends on the type of loading. One may expect that the finite plates behave almost like the corresponding infinite plate. For larger thickness to length aspects d/a≥0.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_473. only near the edges of the plate there is a smaller curvature (less bending). which means a phase of φ=−90° and an amplitude decay of A~ω−1 for the compliance function.. 5m. According to that. 2 the foundation (concrete on soft soil with vT=200m/s) may be regarded as rigid. The two-dimensional analysis allows to calculate larger systems and here especially the influence of the width b of the plate is examined. 5m×5m×5m on a soft soil (vT=200m/s) cannot be regarded as rigid. The vibration modes of different plates with thickness d= 0. The deformations are very similar for all widths of the plate.page_473 < previous page page_473 next page > Page 473 In figure 5 there are also shown the results of a rigid plate corresponding to the thickest plate with d=0. the static displacements of a flexible plate decrease with increasing thickness d and one might expect that a plate of d=1m would give the same static response as the rigid foundation.m. The admittance reaches an almost constant real asymptote for frequencies higher than 20Hz. demonstrating that even a concrete plate of 0. As can be read from figure 5. Plates under line-load excitation Motivated by research work about tunnels of underground railways. 7) do not vary much in the given frequency range.

m... soil with vT=200m/s. .html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:34:28 a.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_474.page_474 < previous page Page 474 page_474 next page > Figure 6 Concrete plates under line-load excitation: vibration modes for different widths of plate a) b=5m b) b=9m c) b=15m d) b=25m (d=0. 7m. f=50Hz file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.

.page_474 Figure 7 Admittance functions of concrete plates under line-load excitation for different widths < previous page page_474 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.m.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:34:28 a..mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_474..

The phase shift reaches values greater than −90° and some small resonances occur around 100Hz. because it has a simple explicit static solution: with the characteristic length and the stiffness k′ of the Winkler soil This stiffness k′ can be chosen just to match the static compliance of the beam on halfspace system by taking k'≈G or G/(1−v).. 8) and the same general tendencies can be observed: large differences in static stiffness. Beam foundations For elastic beams on halfspace again the compliance functions are calculated for different soil stiffnesses (fig. This is due to the fact that the contact area between beam and soil is small and therefore the damping is smaller than for the other cases considered here. For a beam foundation another model—the infinite beam on a Winkler soil—is often used (especially for railway tracks for which it had been introduced). 1 is calculated for different soils (fig. sleepers and ballast as shown in fig. < previous page page_475 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. but the displacements will be more concentrated and the soil stresses will be less concentrated around the loading point than for the beam on halfspace.page_475 < previous page page_475 next page > Page 475 6.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_475.html12/05/2010 06:34:29 a. 7. small differences for higher frequencies. 4). the static compliance strongly depends on the soil stiffness. However there are some differences compared with the given plate compliances (fig..m. whereas the differences become small with increasing frequency. 9) . As for the foundations treated before. . Railway track At last a conventional railway track consisting of rails. The phase reaches an asymptotic value of about 50°.

page_476 < previous page Page 476 page_476 next page > Figure 8 Compliance function of a concrete beam (a=d=0.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_476...html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:34:29 a. .m. 5m) on different soils file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.

mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_476..m. ..html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:34:29 a.page_476 Figure 9 Compliance function of a conventional railway track on different soils < previous page page_476 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.

7. Vol. 1982 /6/ Ch. 6m.Huber. here results measured by the university of Karlsruhe /4/.. 2m and width a=2.Rücker: Dynamical behaviour of rigid foundations of arbitrary shape on a halfspace. 1990 /4/ G.m. 19. The slab track has a phase asymptote of φ=−90º different from that of the ballasted track. /6/ are used. Figure 10 shows the measured compliances of two ballasted tracks at different locations (and soil conditions) and of a slab track. Universität Karlsruhe. Bremerhaven).Prange: Identifikation des Gleisrostes für Erschütterungsausbreitung. References /1/ L. Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Bodenmechanik und Felsmechanik.Vrettos. 931–947. B. 1986 < previous page page_477 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. G. 675–690. These observations are in good agreement for calculation and measurement.Huber: Erschütterungsausbreitung beim Rad/Schiene-System. Universität Karlsruhe.page_477 < previous page page_477 next page > Page 477 The calculated results are compared with measurements. Technischer Bericht zum Forschungsvorhaben BMFT TV 82273B. 1988 /2/ L. 1988 /3/ L. Berlin (Verlag für neue Wissenschaften. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamic. Vol.. Berlin (Verlag für neue Wissenschaften. The influence of the stiffer track structure is more evident at higher frequencies. BAM-Forschungsbericht 151.Auersch: A simple boundary element method and its application to wavefield excited soil-structure interaction.Auersch: Zur Entstehung und Ausbreitung von Schienenverkehrserschutterungen—Theoretische Untersuchungen und Messungen am Hochgeschwindig-keitszug Intercity Experimental. 1988 /5/ W.html12/05/2010 06:34:30 a. 10. BAM-Forschungsbericht 155. . Bremerhaven). Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics. Heft 115. Figure 11 again shows calculated results of ballasted tracks and of a slab track which was modelled by an additional concrete plate of thickness d=0.Auersch: Wechselwirkung starrer und flexibler Strukturen mit dem Baugrund insbesondere bei Anregung durch Bodenerschütterungen.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_477.

html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:34:30 a.. /6/) file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_478.. Prange et al.page_478 < previous page Page 478 page_478 next page > Figure 10 Measured compliance functions of different railway tracks (after Huber. /4/.m. .

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Figure 11 Calculated compliance functions of different railway tracks

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Page 479 Experimentally Determined Impedance Functions of Surface Foundations B.Verbi•, S.Meler Department of Civil Engineering, University of Sarajevo, Hasana Brki•a 24, 71000 Sarajevo, Yugoslavia ABSTRACT Forced vibration tests on a series of four circular footings supported at the surface or relatively deep soil deposits with constant properties were performed. The 2.0m diameter model footings were subjected to a rotating-mass-type horizontal and vertical harmonic force in the frequency range from 5 to 40Hz. For each mode of vibration the independent displacements and phase angles were recorded, providing thus enough data to compute actual impedance functions of model footings. The experimentally determined impedances were then compared with the theoretical solutions for a rigid disc resting on the surface of an elastic halfspace. INTRODUCTION The last twenty years in the field of foundation vibrations has been characterized by an intensive development of theoretical methods for determination of dynamic stiffness of foundations based on numerical solution of the stress-wave propagation problems in elastic solids. The solutions were in most cases obtained as impedance functions, i.e. as complex functions of the frequency. Now when the theoretical and computational problems have been in general solved, the interest of researchers has shifted toward the experimental valuation of those solutions, which is understandable since the soil is a markedly nonlinear medium. In the past five to six years results of a number of studies were published, only a few of which are listed in this paper, in which impedance functions were determined directly from the results of forced vibration tests of foundations and compared with theory, or

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Page 480 in which the theoretical impedance functions were validated indirectly by comparing the measured responses of foundations with theoretical predictions. This paper presents results of a study which belongs to the first type of experiments, but the main purpose of it was not, however, to determine impedance functions of a particular type of foundation or site characteristics, but to try to provide a basis for a general evaluation of the theory based on elastic soil models, since in some of previous studies a significant disagreement between the theory and measured response of actual foundations was observed [1, 5, 7, 11]. It was considered that this could be best done through tests with rigid circular footings resting at the surface of a deep homogeneous soil deposit for which the theoretical impedance functions are simple and depend on the least possible number of parameters. The experiments were performed with 4 circular concrete footings 2m in diameter and 0.75m in height. These were the largest foundations for which, on the basis of preliminary analysis, the maximum intensity of vibrations without lifting (separation from the soil) could be achieved with the available vibration generator in all vibration modes, and which could be at the same time considered as rigid. It is obvious that in experiments with foundations of such proportions supported on a real undisturbed soil the second part of the model could not be fully realized. The best that could be done was to construct the model footings on relatively deep soil deposits with relatively constant properties. SITE CHARACTERISTICS The experiments were conducted in Skopje on two different sites with two model footings at each. Skopje was chosen as a place to carry out the tests because in the period following the catastrophic earthquake of 1963 a thorough investigation of geomechanical and seismical characteristics of soil deposits was done, making easier the search for sites with the desirable characteristics. The first testing site was located on a deposit about twenty meters deep of Quaternary sandy clays underlaid by marl, and farther on will be referred to as “clay”, while the second testing site was located on a deposit about ten meters deep of predominantly clayey and silty alluvial sands underlaid by gravels, which farther on will be referred to as “sand”. Both sites were in investigated in the 1980s by soil boring and the geomechanical properties of the soil were determined in the laboratory. Within the scope of this study the in-situ shear-wave velocities Vs were measured by seismic refraction and by steady-state-vibration technique during the forced vibration tests of footings. The second technique could be applied with the available equipment only to the depth of 6m. The site characteristics without the top weathered layer, which was removed prior to model

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Page 481 footing construction, are given in Tables 1 and 2. Table 1. Basic properties of site CLAY Depth m AC Clasif. VPm/sec 1.2–1.4 CI 425 10–11 CI, CL 720 21–24 CI/CH 1240

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Vsm/sec 150 315 435

Poisson’s Ratio 0.429 0.382 0.430

Unit Weight kN/m3 16.5 19.7 19.8

− Marl 2430 990 0.400 23.0 Table 2. Basic properties of site SAND Depth m AC Clasif. VPm/sec Vsm/sec Poisson’s Ratio Unit Weight kN/m3 1.7–2.1 SW/SFc 375 185 0.339 14.6–15.7 8.5–9.5 SFs/SFc SU, C 480 250 0.314 15.6 19–21 GW, ML 960 380 0.407 19.5 Based on the measurements carried on within the scope of this study and on the results of a number of investigations of similar deposits in Skopje, the following distribution of shear-wave velocities with depth are proposed for the testing sites up to the depth of 10m: Site CLAY Vs=192H0.25 refraction measurements Vs=124H0.5 steady-state vibration technique Site SAND Vs=142H0.25 refraction measurements Vs=114H0.5 steady-state vibration technique As could be expected the shear-wave velocities obtained from the steady-state vibration measurements are smaller at the upper layers than the velocities obtained by seismic refraction due to higher strain level in the soil induced by the footing vibration. The ground water table was below 10m from the surface at both sites. EXPERIMENTS Two types of forced vibration tests were performed on each model footing. In the first experiment the vertical harmonic force was applied in the direction passing through the common center of gravity of a footing and the vibrator and through the center of a footing-soil interface. To achieve that an additional weight was attached to the footings at the proper place. In the second experiment the horizontal harmonic force was applied in the direction centered over the center of gravity. The vibrations were excited

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Page 482 by a rotating-mass-type vibrator EX-50 made by Itoh Seiki, Japan, capable of producing unidirectional horizontal and vertical harmonic force in a frequency range from 2 to 40Hz with the maximum amplitude of 10kN. The induced vibrations were measured with three “Kistler” 305A accelerometers coupled with bridge amplifiers Honeywell Accudata 218 and recorded on a 906T Honeywell Visicorder UV recorder. The vertical response of each footing was measured with two accelerometers mounted on the upper surface of the footing in the direction in which the horizontal force was applied. The same accelerometers were used to measure the rocking response of a footing. The third accelerometer was used to measure horizontal translation of the footing and was mounted at the bottom of the footing in the direction of the horizontal exciting force. Parallel to that accelerometer one LVDT was mounted to measure eventual horizontal slippage of the footing. However, no slippage was registered at any test. Together with the footing response the peak of the exciting force was recorded for measuring the phase angle between the force and the footing response. The position of transducers on the footings and the direction of applied forces are shown in Fig.1.

Figure 1. Position of accelerometers and direction of applied forces on model footings. Each experiment was conducted with four different moments of eccentricity of the rotating masses of the vibrator: 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4kgm in the frequency range from 5Hz up to a frequency for which the maximum allowable force of the vibrator of 10kN was produced. For the moment of eccentricity of 0.1kgm the upper limit was the limit of the vibrator frequency range of 40Hz. In Fig. 2 are shown steady-state translational responses (displacement amplitudes and phase angles) of the center of a footing-soil interface and rocking responses about the axis through the same center during the horizontal vibration of one footing on clay and one on sand and in Fig. 3 are shown vertical responses of one model footing on clay and one on sand.

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Figure 2. Translational (a) and rocking (b) responses of two model footings during the horizontal vibration tests.

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Figure 3. Responses of two model footings during the vertical vibration tests. EXPERIMENTAL IMPEDANCE FUNCTIONS Experimental impedance functions were obtained by solving the equations of motion for the forced vibration experiments at each frequency of excitation: (1) (Kvv−mω2+iωCvv)Z=F for the case of vertical excitation, and (−mω2+Khh+iωChh)X−mhcω2Φ=F (2) −mhcω2X+(−Iω2+Kmm+iωCmm)Φ=Fhp for the case of horizontal excitation, where Kii are the real parts and Cii imaginary parts of an impedance function, F is a force amplitude, Z, X and Φ the complex steady-state vertical, horizontal and rocking displacements. The overall mass m of a footing, vibrator and ballast, computed assuming a unit weight of concrete 24.0kN/m3, was 6200kg (410kg vibrator, 136 kg ballast). The mass-moment of inertia I about the axis passing through the center of the footing-soil interface was 3190kgm2. The height of the

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Page 485 center of gravity of the system is 0.43m from the footing-soil interface, and the horizontal force was applied 0.34m above the upper surface of each footing. It is obvious from the way the experiments were conducted that in the case of the horizontal excitation the off-diagonal terms in the impedance matrix corresponding to the coupled translational and rotational response were ignored in these computations. However, this has little effect on the computed values of the diagonal terms since the off-diagonal impedances are relatively small for surface foundations as theory [6, 7] as well as some experiments indicate [2]. The impedance functions were computed using as the point of reference the center of the footing-soil interface. The experimentally determined impedances for one footing on clay and one on sand are shown in Figs. 4 and 5 and compared with theoretical impedance functions computed using the corresponding solutions for a rigid disc supported at the surface of an elastic halfspace [6, 9, 10], and assuming for Vs average value determined by in-situ measurements to the depth of 1.5m, and zero material damping. The comparison shows that experimental impedances differ, in some cases significantly from the theoretical impedances obtained for an elastic halfspace model of the supporting soil. However, the differences are not of the same nature for all modes of vibration. For example, the horizontal experimental damping coefficients have much lower values than predicted by theory, while the rocking experimentally determined damping coefficients are larger than the theoretical. The disagreement between the theoretical and experimental impedances is not only in their values but also in the shape. In general, the experimental stiffness functions decrease faster with increasing frequency than the theoretical functions, while the experimental damping functions show higher variation with change in frequency than the theoretical functions. Similar kinds of disagreements between the theoretical and actual stiffness functions were predicted in one previous study [11] in which through a comparison of computed and measured responses of model footings it was concluded that the theory based on an elastic halfspace model of the soil overestimates the soil stiffness for foundations excited with both vertical and horizontal force, overestimates damping for vertically vibrating foundations, and underestimates damping in the case of a horizontal excitation. Results of a similar kind of study reported recently by Crouse et.al. [3] indicate that an improvement in agreement between the theory and the results of the presented experiments could be expected if the increase in shear-wave velocity with depth in soil is taken into account in theoretical impedances. Even better agreement between the theory and the results of experiments could be obtained by modifying the dynamic soil properties (shear-wave velocity and material damping) as was done in some studies [3, 11]. However, an argument against such an approach is that different modifications are needed for different impedance functions or modes of foundation vibration, and it

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Figure 4. Experimental vertical (Kvv, Cvv), horizontal (Khh, Chh) and rocking (Kmm, Cmm) impedance functions for one footing on clay.

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Figure 5. Experimental vertical (Kvv, Cvv), horizontal (Khh, Chh) and rocking (Kmm, Cmm) impedance for one footing on sand. also opens the problem of determination of the “actual” soil properties.

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Page 488 CONCLUSIONS Impedance functions of circular surface foundations were experimentally obtained and compared with the theoretical solutions based on an elastic halfspace model of the soil.The results of this study as well as the results of previous similar studies suggest that at least in the low frequency range in which the forced vibration tests were run (5 to 40Hz or a0=0.2 to 1.5), the theoretical solutions generally overestimate horizontal and rocking stiffnesses and underestimate the rocking damping of surface foundations. The best agreement between the theory and experimental results was obtained for vertical impedances. A difference is also found in the type of frequency dependence between the experimental and the theoretical impedances. The values of theoretical stiffness coefficients decrease generally slower with increasing frequency than the experimental coefficients, which itself may affect the accuracy of the computed response of a structure-soil system. However it is clear that more theoretical and experimental studies need to be performed for definite evaluation of the foundation-soil interaction theory based on an elastic soil model and in general for better understanding of interaction phenomena in real soil. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This study was supported by the National Science Foundation of the U.S.A. and the Science Foundation of the SR Bosnia and Hertzegovina, Yugoslavia, through the American-Yugoslav Board for Scientific and Technological Cooperation, grant No. JF844. The authors also wish to express their gratitude to the Institute for Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology in Skopje for help in organizing the experiments and to its associates Dr. Dušan Aleksovski who performed the in-situ shear-wave velocity measurement and Dr. Mihael Garevski, Metodije Bojadžiev and Blagoje Keram•iev who assisted during the vibration testing. REFERENCES 1. Barkan, D.D., and Shaevitch,V.M. Influence of Coupled Soil Mass and Its Nonlinear Characteristics on Vibration of Foundations, Osnovaniya fundamenti i mehanika gruntov, No. 5, pp. 11–14, 1976, (in Russian). 2. Crouse, C.B., Liang,G.C., and Martin, G.R. Experimental Foundation Impedance Functions, J. Geotechnical Engrg. Div., ASCE, Vol. 111, No.6, pp. 819–822, 1985.

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Page 489 3. Crouse, C.B., Husmand, B., Luco, J.E., and Wong, H.L. Foundation Impedance Functions: Theory versus Experiment, J. Geotechnical Engrg. Div., ASCE, Vol. 116, No.3, pp. 432–449, 1990. 4. Dobry, R., Gazetas, G., and Stokoe, K.H. Dynamic Response of Arbitrarily Shaped Foundations: Experimental verification, J. Geotechnical Engrg. Div., ASCE, Vol. 112. No.GT2, pp. 136–154, 1986. 5. Ilichev, V.A. and Taranov, V.G. Experimental Study of Interaction Between a Vertically Vibrating Foundation and the Soil, Osnovaniya, fundamenti i mehanika gruntov, No.5, pp. 9–13, 1975, (in Russian). 6. Luco, J.E., and Westman, R.A. Dynamic Response of Circular Footings, J. Engineering Mechanics Div., ASCE, Vol.97, No.EM5, pp. 1381–1395, 1971. 7. Novak, M. Experiments with Shallow and Deep Foundations, pp. 1–26, Proc. ASCE Symp., Vibration problems in Geotech. Engrg., ASCE, New York, 1985. 8. Novak, M. Discussion of “Dynamic Response of Arbitrarily Shaped Foundations: Experimental Verification”, [by Dobry et al.], J. Geotechnical Engrg. Div., ASCE, Vol. 113, No.11, pp. 1410–1412, 1987. 9. Veletsos, A.S., and Wey, Y.T. Lateral and Rocking Vibration of Footing, J. Soil Mech. Found. Div., ASCE, Vol. 97, No.SM9, pp. 1227–1249, 1971. 10. Veletsos, S.A., and Verbic, B. Vibration of Viscoelastic Foundations, Earthquake Engrg. Struct. Dynamics, Vol. 2, No.1, pp- 87–102, 1973. 11. Verbic, B. Experimental and Analytical Analysis of Soil-Structure Interaction. Part One—Block Foundations, Research Report, Inst. for Materials and Structures, Faculty of Civil Engrg., Sarajevo, Yugoslavia 1985. 12. Verbic, B. Application of Impedance Functions of Rigid Foundations for Analysis of Soil-Building Interaction, pp. 5.5/9–5.5/16, Proc. of the 8th European Conf. on Earthquake Engrg., Lisbon, 1986. 13. Yan, R.J. In-Situ Measurements of Coupled Vibration Parameters, pp. 327–330, Vol. 3, Proc. of the 10th Int. Conf. on Soil Mechanics and Found. Engrg., Stockholm, A.A.Balkema, Rotterdam, 1981.

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Page 491 Stiffness and Damping of Closely Spaced Pile Groups B.Boroomand, A.M.Kaynia Department of Civil Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran ABSTRACT A general analytical solution is presented for the dynamic analysis of pile groups in a homogeneous soil stratum under steady-state vertical vibrations. The analysis is formulated for end-bearing piles and is extended to floating piles by treating the soil column beneath each pile as the pile’s extension. The special feature of this formulation is that the displacement compatibility is enforced on the entire pile-soil interface. This allows actual variation of pile-soil tractions to be taken into account. The presented analytical model thus makes it possible to analyze closely spaced pile groups, in which the widely used approximation of uniform pile-soil tractions is not justified. INTRODUCTION Pile foundations are usually used when the soil conditions or certain design constraints do not justify the use of the more conventional shallow foundations. Piles are usually used in a group in which case they are often connected to a rigid pile cap supporting the superstructure. The behavior of pile groups under static loads has been a subject of considerable research (eg. Poulos and Davis [1]). However, the first set of results obtained for the dynamic response of pile groups displayed a marked difference between the dynamic and static behaviors (Wolf and von Arx [2], Nogami [3]). This motivated more detailed analyses of pile groups through analytical or numerical models (Waas and Hartman [4], Kaynia [5], Kaynia and Kausel [6], Sheta and Novak [7], Kagawa [8]). These studies enlightened the mechanism of pile group dynamic behavior and paved the road for more research through boundary element and finite element formulations or approximate schemes (Roesset [9], Novak and EL-Sharnouby [10], Sen et al. [11], Kaynia [12], Dobry and Gazetas [13], Mamoon et al. [14], Kobori et al.[15]). A comprehensive survey of the achievements in the dynamics of pile groups has been recently presented by Novak [16].

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length LP and diameter d (or radius ro). This approximation was made by other researchers [3. Then by solving the differential equation of the stratum. Whereas this assumption is reasonable for pile groups. The soil stratum < previous page page_492 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. with depth H. Consider the soil stratum in Figure 1 under vertical vibrations. with a pile spacing larger than four times the pile diameter. Consequently. The piles are assumed elastic rods with elasticity modulus Ep.html12/05/2010 06:34:38 a. as indicated through an approximate analysis by Sanchez-Salinero [17]. whether of the finite element or boundary element type. shear and pressure wave velocities Vs and Vp. 18] and the results of a more rigorous model substantiated it [5]. do not need to be the same for the piles in a group. overlying a rigid bedrock.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_492. however. mass density ρs and hysteretic damping ratio βs.page_492 < previous page page_492 next page > Page 492 Most of the existing numerical formulation. For a steady-state axisymmetric vibration with frequency Ω the vertical displacement can be expressed as w(r. Nogami and Novak [18] showed that w (r.m. z)eiΩt. It is further assumed that under vertical vibrations the horizontal displacements are negligible. mass density ρp. its validity is questionable for closely spaced groups. An assumption inherent in most of these studies is that the pile-soil tractions are uniform on the pile’s circumference. the pile-soil displacement compatibility can only be enforced at the centerline of the piles. These properties. FORMULATION In the present study only the steady-state vertical vibration of pile groups is considered. are based on the calculations of Green’s functions due to point forces or distributed forces stemming from the pile-soil interaction. z) is given by the following expression (1) where Ko is the modified Bessel function of order zero and (2) (3) Figure 1. The results of this study also provide a ground for examining the assumption of uniform pile-soil tractions and its implications on the response of closely spaced pile groups. . The objective of this paper is to present a new formulation for the dynamic response of pile groups under steady-state vertical vibrations accounting for nonuniform pile-soil tractions.. The soil medium is considered to be a uniform stratum..

as well as on r and z.html12/05/2010 06:34:38 a.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_493. Anm and Bnm are undetermined coefficients and hn and qn are given by equations (2) and (3). To mend this model a new formulation is presented here which will make it possible to achieve the full compatibility between the piles and the soil at their interface. will be expressed in the following form (8) < previous page page_493 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. . however. If now there are N vibrating piles in the stratum one can assume that the displacement field in the medium is the superposition of the displacements generated by the individual piles. To this end the previous expression for w is replaced by another expression depending on θ. one is bound to assume a uniform variation of tractions on each pile’s perimeter and impose the pile-soil displacement compatibility only at the axis of the piles.. Therefore. By this formulation. The quantity wn=AnKo(qnr) then reflects the radial variation of the amplitudes of the n th mode (radial mode shape). θ)eiΩt (4) The differential equation of the soil is then given by (5) The solution of this equation satisfying the radiation condition as well as the stress and displacement boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the stratum can be written as (6) where Km is the modified Bessel function of order m.. given by Equation (6). Equation (1) along with the associated expression for the shear stress [18] were used by Nogami to formulate the dynamic response of pile groups [3].m.page_493 < previous page page_493 next page > Page 493 Equation (1) expresses the displacement at any point as the superposition of infinite number of vertical modes with modal shaps cos (hnz). in the form w=w(r. z. if the vertical displacement at a point due to the j th pile is denoted by wj. the total displacement at the point is (7) where wj.

At this stage it is necessary to enforce the displacement compatibility between the piles and the soil. This can be achieved by requiring that for each pile. .page_494 < previous page Page 494 page_494 next page > (9) in which rj and θj are the polar coordinates of the point defined with respect to a local coordinate system attached to pile j. 1. M≤3. the soil has a uniform vertical displacement.. on the perimeter of each pile. . This means one has to insure that. can be expressed as Figure 2.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_494. which depends on rj and θj (as in Equation 9). Also note that in these integrations a function of α.…) usually only a few terms. say pile i. Pile i within the displacement field of pile j Using the notation defined by Equations (8) and (9) one can then calculate the displacement of pile i as (12) Although Equations (10)–(12) indicate on infinite number of terms (integrations) to be calculated (corresponding to m=0. provide satisfactory < previous page page_494 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.m. the following conditions are satisfied (10) (11) where the angle α is shown in Figure (2) for the integrations being performed on pile i when it is within the displacement field of pile j..html12/05/2010 06:34:39 a.

referred to as the n th modal soil stiffness matrix.m.html12/05/2010 06:34:40 a. relating forces per unit length of piles where to the corresponding displacements.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_495. along with Equation (8) into Equation (14) leads to the following expression for (15) Substituting Equation (9) for into Equation (15) and carrying out the integrations one can obtain Anm and Bnm which can be expressed in matrix form as as a function of (16) The final step is to eliminate the vector containing the and Bnm values from Equations (13) and (16). to express wi as Σwj. One can show that this force can be expressed as (for pile i) (14) where η is shown in Figure (2). .page_495 < previous page page_495 next page > Page 495 results. Introduction of Equation (7). This will result in an equation of the form (17) is a square matrix. This matrix can then be used.. The next step is to calculate the shear stresses associated with the above displacements and to integrate them on the perimeter of each pile to obtain the force per unit length of the pile. The equations resulting from the expressions (10) to (12) can be cast in a matrix form as (13) where [Z] is a square matrix of order (2N×M+N). Therefore each of Equations (10) and (11) result in N×M equations.. in the same way as described by Nogami [3]. < previous page page_495 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. to couple the soil stiffness with that of the piles to obtain the dynamic response of the pile group.

νp=0. The quantities of interest are the dynamic stiffness of pile groups and the distribution of an applied force among the individual piles in a group. Stiffness and damping of a 2×2 stiff pile group < previous page page_496 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. on the other hand.. corresponds to M=2 (in obtaining the presented results it was observed that the accuracy did not change for M>2).7.25. The stiffness and damping have been normalized with respect to the static stiffness of a single pile. Figure 3 shows the variations of stiffness and damping of a 2×2 stiff pile group with s/d=2 (s denotes the center-to-center spacing between the piles) as a function of ao. The dynamic stiffness of the pile group (relating the vertical force on the pile cap to the corresponding displacement) is a complex quantity which can be expressed as K=k+iaoc (18) where ao= Ωd/Vs is the nondimensional frequency.05. The solid curve. . ρs/ρp=0.html12/05/2010 06:34:40 a. Also shown in this figure are Figure 3.3. H/d=40 and Lp/d=20.page_496 < previous page page_496 next page > Page 496 RESULTS A number of representative results are presented in this section to investigate the applicability of the presented formulation and the characteristics of the response of closely spaced pile groups. The dashed curve in this figure corresponds to taking only one circumferential mode (M=0) and thus defines the solution associated with uniform pile-soil tractions.. In this form k and c are usually referred to as stiffness and damping of the foundation.m. βs =0. The presented results correspond to a pile-soil system with νs=0. Two types of piles are considered: stiff piles with Ep/Es=1000 and flexible piles with Ep/Es=100.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_496.

. . the accuracy of the results from such models may deteriorate drastically.0) the accuracy of conventional solutions for pile groups is satisfactory. as frequency increases.page_497 < previous page page_497 next page > Page 497 the results obtained from Kaynia’s model [5]. As expected. < previous page page_497 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Figure 4 shows a comparison between the solutions associated with M=0 and M=2 for the same pile group over a larger frequency range. Figure 4. Comparing these results one can conclude that for low to intermediate frequency ranges (ao<1. Stiffness and damping of a 2×2 group for high frequency Figure 5 shows the variations of stiffness and damping of a flexible 2×2 pile group with s/d=2 Similar observations apply to this figure.html12/05/2010 06:34:41 a.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_497. However. the latter results match those calculated for M=0.. This figure clearly displays the difference between these two solutions.m.

Stiffness and damping of a 3×3 stiff pile group with s/d=5 with s/d=5 is plotted for M=0 and M=2.. .. < previous page page_498 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.page_498 < previous page Page 498 page_498 next page > Figure 5. This figure and other similar results (not shown) indicate that if the piles are not too close then the assumption of uniform pile-soil traction is satisfactory. in order to investigate the effect of the above assumption on the distribution of an applied force among the individual piles.m. the effect of assuming a uniform pile-soil traction on the solution accuracy is negligible in pile groups with moderate pile spacing. in Figure 6 the stiffness and damping of a 3×3 stiff pile group Figure 6. For example. Finally.html12/05/2010 06:34:41 a.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_498. Stiffness and damping of a 2×2 flexible pile group with s/d=2 As was stated in the introduction. the distribution of forces for three piles in a 3×3 stiff group are plotted as a function of ao in Figure 7.

. For low to intermediate frequency ranges. is exaggerated by the more conventional pile group analyses. 2. and Soil Dyn.m.page_499 < previous page Page 499 page_499 next page > Figure 7. Distribution of forces in a 3×3 stiff pile group with s/d=2 Figure 8.H. on Earthq. ASCE Specialty Conf. Figure 8 shows the distribution of forces in a 3×3 flexible pile group with s/d=2. however. Proc. Also.A. CONCLUSIONS A general analytical solution was presented for the steady-state vibration of pile groups. Pile Foundation Analysis and Design. California. 1980. H. Vol. which supports the previous observation. John Wiley and Sons. Poulos. Impedance Functions of a Group of Vertical Piles.G. 1978. and von Arx. Eng. G. J.html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:34:42 a. Wolf. E. 3..mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_499. The solution takes into account the variation of traction on the perimeter of piles-soil interface. Besides displaying a noticeable difference between the two solutions the results suggest that the center pile is most affected by the assumption corresponding to M=0. file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.. and Davis. REFERENCES 1. . The results from this model suggest that for closely spaced pile groups the interaction between the piles. Pasadena. 1024–1041. as displayed by the peaks in the variation of stiffness.P. such analyses can provide satisfactory results even for close piles. Distribution of forces in a 3×3 flexible pile group with s/d=2 This figure corresponds to s/d=2 and shows the absolute values of the forces normalized by the average force in a pile.

html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:34:42 a.. .mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_499.page_499 < previous page page_499 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20..m.

pp 557–574. Vol. 10. T. Eng.html12/05/2010 06:34:42 a. J. New York. ASCE Eng.. Eng. 16.M. 1984. ASCE. Mech. J. Kaynia. 1982. Mech. 9th World Conf. Proc. and El-Sharnouby. Kobayashi. Proc... in Geot. Louis. Dynamic Group Effect of Multiple Piles Under Vertical Vibration. Simple Method for Dynamic Stiffness and Damping of Floating Pile Groups. Vol. Texas.. Mamoon. 2nd Int. Eng. Dyn. pp 509–532.M. Nogami. pp 1267–1285. Paris. Recent Adv. pp 53–65. ASCE.. Dynamic Behavior of Pile Groups. K. R. and Banerjee. G. Earthq. A. 1990.. Luis. T. 109. Texas. 1984. 1991.. Eng. St.m. Vol. S. pp 570–590.. Analysis of Pile Foundations Under Dynamic Loads. Geotech. Kaynia. 10. Hijikata. Eng. M. Geotech.page_500 < previous page page_500 next page > Page 500 3. Piles Under Dynamic Loads. T. State of the Art Report. 4. 116. Dynamic Analysis of Piles and Pile Groups Embedded in Homogeneous Soil. Earthq. No. 6.G. Proc. and Moroi. Missouri. Missouri.m.. ASCE. 13. Numerical Meth. Vol. M. and Novak. 2nd Int. 1988. 13.M. 1982. 5. Conf. Kaynia. No.. Characteristics of the Dynamic Response of Pile Groups in Homogeneous and Nonhomogeneous Media. P. Proc. 1981. A. T. 8. M.. 11.I. Nokazawa. J. Kagawa. 7. .. Roesset. P. Tokyo-Kyoto. 2nd Int. No. 1983.. Dynamic Stiffness of Pile Groups. < previous page page_500 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Davies. A. Specialty Conf.. Kaynia. pp 750–754 Proc.. Evaluation of Dynamic Experiments on Pile Groups. 9. B. 15.M. Austin. 110. Y. 1991. Novak. J. Eng. on Earthq. Sen. pp 738–756. and Gazetas. pp 2237–2257. M. Proc. 4. Conf. Dynamic Stiffness and Seismic Response of Pile Groups. Novak. No. and Hartman. Eng. MA. and Kausel.G. Miura. Pile Foundations.. Geotech. H. Earthq.K. 1988. J. Conf. Cambridge.K. Kobori. ASCE... 12. 1979. and Banerjee. 3. Miyamoto. and Struct. G. St. M. M. No.. On Frequency Domain Dynamic Analysis of Piles and Pile Groups. 108. SMIRT Conf. Study on Dynamic Characteristics of a Pile Group Foundation. Geotechnique. 6. Austin. Research Rep. A. Y. 1982. Vertical Vibration of Pile Groups. Sheta. Dobry.. K. 10. Dynamic Lateral Pile Group Effects. 38. Vol. Vol. on Recent Adv.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_500. 1985. Waas. Vol. ASCE. 4. Offshore Piling. E. R. 14.T. pp 575–580. in Geot.M. T. Eng. R82–03. Japan.

Earthq.m.. J. 1976.. Soil-pile Interaction in Vertical Vibration. M. . 18. Vol. Eng. Eng. and Novak.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_501. Nogami. 1983. I. and Struct.html12/05/2010 06:34:43 a. < previous page page_501 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Report GR83-5. Dynamic Stiffness of Pile Groups: Approximate Solutions..page_501 < previous page page_501 next page > Page 501 17. Geotech. 4 pp 277–293. T. Dyn. University of Texas at Austin. Sanchez-Salinero..

page_502 page_502 next page > next page > < previous page file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_502..page_502 < previous page Page 502 This page intentionally left blank.html12/05/2010 06:34:43 a.m. ..

except for the restoring force. All parameters of the system are known. side resistance and tip resistance. In the case of pure side resistance.m. SYSTEM We consider a single degree of freedom system with harmonic excitation forces F0 sin Ωt (see Fig. This leads to a strongly nonlinear equation of motion. Tip resistance strongly increases the characteristic.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_503. The restoring force is hysteretical. For a certain class of motions. The equation of motion for this single degree of freedom system can be easily given. This force is divided into two parts. The restoring force depends upon the depth of penetration and the direction of velocity. Universität Karlsruhe. Kaiserstraβe 12. < previous page page_503 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. . Dominant tip resistance gives rise to bifurcation phenomena as period doubling.Storz Institut für Mechanik. if the characteristic of the restoring force is assumed to be known from experimental investigations. D-7500 Karlsruhe 1. subharmonic and even chaotic motions are observed.page_503 < previous page page_503 next page > Page 503 Chaotic Motions in Pile-Driving M.. 1). the restoring force is described by a Coulomb type law. produced by rotating unbalanced masses. This is confirmed by experiments.html12/05/2010 06:34:43 a. Assuming the limiting case of a Coulomb side resistance and impact type tip resistance. Germany ABSTRACT Vibratory pile-driving is modelled by unconstrained motions of a harmonically forced rigid body carrying an additional static load. the characteristics are quasi-stationary during a finite number of forcing cycles. The pile is assumed to be rigid and the surrounding soil unmoveable.. Stationary solutions have the same frequency as the excitation.

.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_504.page_504 < previous page Page 504 page_504 next page > Figure 1: Mechanical Model Fig. For . measured by Verspohl [6]. the restoring force is strongly Figure 2: Restoring Force (Measured) If the characteristic is strongly influenced by tip resistance. we observe periodic multiplication of the system response [6] in experiments as well as in numerical calculations. 2 shows a restoring force diagram.m. . there is only side resistance.html12/05/2010 06:34:44 a. For influenced by tip resistance.. < previous page page_504 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. For fundamental studies of the system behaviour..

• A represents the sum of the pile weight N and an additional statical load G.page_505 < previous page page_505 next page > Page 505 we assume the limiting case of pure Coulomb side resistance and an inelastic impact (see Fig. reversal of velocity: z′(τ1)=0 (2) < previous page page_505 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. In this situation.. Figure 3: Restoring Force with Coulomb Side Resistance and Inelastic Impact In the mechanical model. .. the restoring force depends only upon the direction of velocity and not on the depth of penetration x.html12/05/2010 06:34:44 a. • B represents the amplitude of excitation F0. The equation of motion is given by z″+sgnz′+A=Bsinτ (1) with the dimensionless quantities In the differential equation (1). the inelastic impact corresponds to unmoveable ground. normalized with the Coulomb frictional force R0. 3). also normalized with the Coulomb frictional force R0. the type of motion depends only upon the two parameters A and B.m.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_505. The switching conditions impact: z(τ1)=0.

To explain Fig.m. the pile sticks to the soil (τ∈S see (3)). The integration of (1) leads to (4) which is valid for the motion in the interval between two impacts or until the following reversal of velocity. The constants of integration are given by C1=B cosτ1. whereas the nonlinearity of the total problem lies in the time-history dependent switching conditions. it is assumed that the static load A remains constant and the amplitude of excitation B increases from the left to the right. In the case < previous page page_506 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.html12/05/2010 06:34:45 a.page_506 < previous page page_506 next page > Page 506 will be required for the calculation of the switching time τ1 at an impact and at a reversal of velocity.. respectively. If τ fulfills the condition (3) then the pile is sticking after switching.. It is worth to note. . that the equation of motion is piecewise linear. MOTIONS Figure 4: A B Parameter Diagram The possible motions depend on the two parameters A and B (see Fig. 4). In the hatched range. C2=B sinτ1. 4.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_506.

the next one impact motion appears with the period increased by one. < previous page page_507 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. The simple one impact motions of Fig. The series of motions always follows these rules.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_507. the period is reduced by one. 5 shows in detail the scheme for the series of motions when the amplitude of excitation B increases. simple one impact motions appear. Figure 5: Series of Motions for a Constant A Fig. 6 shows the experimental arrangement for the verification of the calculated results.. In the shaded parameter ranges complex motions are observed.m. EXPERIMENTS AND VERIFICATION Fig. Only the number of motions within the shaded ranges increases by two. which are denotated by (n. 4 are found in the nonshaded boxes. 1). . the period of response and the number of impacts are doubled. The notation represents: first number: period of response as a multiple of the period of excitation.page_507 < previous page page_507 next page > Page 507 of an increasing amplitude of excitation. second number: number of impacts per period of response. It is possible to determine the rules of these bifurcation phenomena by means of a point mapping method [1] [4]. This has been described in a former paper [5]. which have a variety of periods and number of impacts. In the next box.. but the number of impacts remains the same. There is always a parameter range of B with complex motions in the interval between two impact motions (see CHAOTIC MOTIONS). The motions in the shaded boxes follow the following rules: Starting with a one impact motion. After this period doubling complex motions appear. Finally.html12/05/2010 06:34:45 a.

m. Figures 7 and 8 show a (1. The amount of friction is controlled by springs.1)-motion with one impact per period. 3) is well reproduced. The pile impacts inelastically for z=0 and the trajectory starts again for z. 5). The motions in this comparison are steady-state motions. The response has the same frequency as the excitation. In the interval between the impact and the starting point. it is guaranteed that the restoring force (Fig. 1)-motion. . because they are the parametric representations of the two time dependent functions z(t) and z'(t).page_508 < previous page Page 508 page_508 next page > Figure 6: Laboratory Model with Measuring Devices The pile is modelled by a hollow steel tube. the driving motor is not mounted on the exciter. The experimental results concur completely with the calculated motions. The Coulomb frictional force is produced by means of three steel plates with cork layers.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_508. The resulting diagrams agree in both the shape of the curves and in the series of motions (see Fig.html12/05/2010 06:34:46 a. To produce these curves. It is therefore possible to produce phase curves on the oscilloscope. z′=0. The exciter at the top possesses two gear wheels with unbalanced masses. This can not be seen in the phase curves. A was held constant and B was gradually increased.. The frequency of excitation and the pile acceleration are measured. Otherwise. up to and including the (2. The left hand diagram of Fig. sticking is possible. The right hand diagram of Fig. The velocity and the displacement are integrated from the acceleration by an analog computer. the pile moves frictionless and impacts inelastically into a barrel filled with sand. 7 < previous page page_508 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. To minimize system weight. By separating the force components. Coulomb friction and impact. 7 shows the calculated phase curve.. Figures 7 to 12 show a comparison of calculated phase curves and restoring forces with measured curves. The hatching represents the unmoveable ground for z=0.

page_509 < previous page Page 509 page_509 next page > Figure 7: (1.m. 2)-Motion (Calculated) < previous page page_509 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_509.. 1)-Motion (Calculated) Figure 8: (1. 1)-Motion (Measured) Figure 9: (2.html12/05/2010 06:34:47 a. ..

1)-Motion (Measured) < previous page page_510 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. .ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_510.page_510 < previous page Page 510 page_510 next page > Figure 10: (2. 1)-Motion (Calculated) Figure 12: (2.m..html12/05/2010 06:34:47 a. 2)-Motion (Measured) Figure 11: (2..

For any additional increasing of the amplitude of excitation B... 2)-motion (see Fig. that the impact is not completely inelastic. The two phase curves in Figures 13 and 14 show complex motions. Again. which corresponds to an increasing amplitude of excitation B~f2. 9 and Fig. The period of response of this motion is double the period of excitation with response having two impacts per period. 10) appears for an increasing frequency of excitation f.html12/05/2010 06:34:48 a. 12) with the same period as the (2. This can be proved by counting the cycles of response. . 2)-motion. 11 and Fig. 1)-motion (Fig.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_511. A (2. except for the fact. the phase curves and the restoring forces concur with the calculated results.page_511 < previous page page_511 next page > Page 511 shows the corresponding restoring force. the series of motions follow the calculated predictions. The last two figures show a (2. 8) have the same shape as those calculated. The measured results for the phase curve and the restoring force (Fig.m. but having only one impact. Figure 13: Phase Curve of a Multi-Periodic Motion (Calculated) Figure 14: Phase Curve of a Multi-Periodic Motion (Measured) This occurs in ranges of B where it is impossible to determine the periodic < previous page page_511 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.

H. It is not possible to prove chaotic behaviour by numerically calculated point mappings. Dr. that there is the unique possibility of chaotic motions in these parameter ranges. Ed. < previous page page_512 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. But their diagrams are very complicated. . CHAOTIC MOTIONS The phenomena of complex motions in the interval between two impact motions has been investigated in [5] by means of a point mapping method..W. 6. P. The traces of the point mappings leads to the conclusion.m.Vielsack and Dr. Chaotic Vibrations.J. Moon. Thesis. Vol. Journal of Applied Mechanics. Holmes. P. Krätzig et al. Ungefesselte hysteretische Systeme unter besonderer Berüksichtigung der Vibrationsrammung. F. Springer-Verlag. Berlin and New York. M. Vol. 3. New York.. Cracow. Many thanks to the Deutsche Forschungs Gemeinschaft for their financial support.-Ing. 849–857. J. Acknowledgement: The author would like to thank Prof. Dynamical Systems and Bifurcations of Vector Fields. 2.. 779–785. ”The numeric determines the chaos”. Verspohl. 1987. to appear in Proceedings of GAMM Annual Scientific Conference. Vielsack.. P. Storz. A Periodically Forced Impact Oscillator with Large Dissipation. Structural Dynamics.html12/05/2010 06:34:48 a.. S. 4. 1990.page_512 < previous page page_512 next page > Page 512 multiplication and the number of impacts. Ein ungefesseltes. P. Holmes. that there are no critical values for the parameters A and B. Applied Mathematical Sciences. Poland.42. REFERENCES 1. Every parameter range with chaotic motions is followed by a range with steady-state motions. H. harmonisch erregtes System mit Coulombscher Reibung und Stoß als Modell für die Vibrationsrammung. University of Karlsruhe. so they were not included for the sake of clarity. 1983. Shaw. pp.-Ing.Schmieg for the interesting discussions and help with the experiments. Nonlinear Oscillations. It is also possible to calculate or to measure much more complex phase curves. 1983. John Wiley & Sons.50.C.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_512. 5. Guckenheimer. 1990. 1991. It is interesting to note. There is always a limiting cycle because of the finite number of mapping points. pp.. Schmieg. Vibratory Driving of Tubes into Dry Granular Soil. J.

page_513 < previous page page_513 next page > Page 513 SECTION 8: EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING OF STRUCTURES < previous page page_513 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing...ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_513. .html12/05/2010 06:34:49 a.m.

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Princeton University. a damage model based on the evolution of the natural period of a time-varying linear system equivalent to the actual nonlinear system for a series of non-overlapping time windows has been developed. CA 94133.Cakmak (*). The model has also been compared to the traditional measures of damage and some of the more recently developed indicies. In addition to the post-earthquake damage assessment.A. without any immediate need for inspection after earthquakes. The functional form of the damage indicies has been derived from the experimental and theoretical analysis.DiPasquale (***) (*) Department of Civil Engineering and Operations Research. S.S. < previous page page_515 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.. U.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_515.S. France ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to show that structural damage can be detected through the analysis of strong motion records. San Francisco. (***) Engineering Systems International. this analysis of strong motion records can be used in performance prediction of a structure in the design stage and reliability studies of existing facilities. The analysis and the calibration of the model have been presented in detail.A. U.m. NJ 08544. The model has been validated by other experimental data and real examples have been studied.Y. .Rodriguez-Gomez (**).html12/05/2010 06:34:49 a. Lin International. Rungis-Cedex.page_515 < previous page page_515 next page > Page 515 Seismic Damage Assessment for Reinforced Concrete Structures A.S. A maximum likelihood criteria for the identification of the time-varying equivalent linear system from the acceleration records at the top and at the base of the structure has been used. Princeton. 20 rue Saarinen-Silic 270–94578. E.. For the purpose of post-earthquake reliability assessment. (**) T.

< previous page page_516 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.. be as useful to engineers as detailed information. the structural safety is attained by keeping the stresses well below the material yield limit. Most of the research in the field of damage assessment has dealt with the analysis of simple structural elements. In the classical structural design for static loads. Even moderate earthquakes may produce yielding in some of the structural members without producing a dangerous situation. Furthermore. Some average or global measures of damage may. it is important to know the degree of damage for structures at which they undergo inelastic deformations and dissipate the earthquake energy. the interstory or global drift and ductility ratio have been used as traditional or engineering measures of seismic damage. the earthquake loads or so called seismic loads. The application of these techniques to the post earthquake analysis of existing structures is limited by the scarcity of data available in the field regarding the history of stress and strain for single elements. the seismic forces are reduced. When the inelastic response takes place. structures (especially reinforced concrete ones) are designed in such a way that they can withstand only minor to moderate earthquakes within the elastic range. in this case. In current practice. many local and global damage indices have been proposed to indicate the remaining capacity after earthquakes.m. In order to obtain such detailed information a great number of instruments must be installed on the structure. if any. Since inception of the earthquake engineering practice both the expected performance of structures subjected to earthquakes and the state of damage after actual seismic events have been characterized using indicators other than the stress level.html12/05/2010 06:34:50 a. local features of damage may not be very important in determining what.. which are stochastic in nature. The safeguard against large earthquakes is the inelastic response of the structural elements which provide a mechanism for the dissipation of the earthquake energy.page_516 < previous page page_516 next page > Page 516 INTRODUCTION Local and Global Damage Indicies Structural mechanics and previously set standards are the main tools in the process of structural design. This simple definition of safety is too conservative for the evaluation of the state of a structural system after earthquakes. when a certain degree of redundancy is present in the structure. In structural design.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_516. . The width and distribution of cracks. have been simplified so that the structural engineer can easily analyze the structure under design for seismic loading which may act on the structure throughout its useful life. repair actions should be carried out. Thus. Similar to these measures.

The new proposed global damage indice is based on the changes in vibrational parameters of the structure. In general. . is theoretically correct but very impractical. it was pointed out that for the purpose of postearthquake reliability assessment.page_517 < previous page page_517 next page > Page 517 Global damage indices that give information about the state of complex structual systems are generally defined as a weighted average of the local damage in the simple structural elements that form the system. 1987). A different approach for the definition of global damage indices is proposed in this paper. The definition of “point” depends on the structural model that is chosen for the analysis. or of continuous-damage indices. The damage state must be reduced to a finite number of dimensions in order to solve the problem of damage assessment for a real structure. 1981. a damage event that the structure undergoes can be described as a function. The damage state may or may not be dependent on the history of loads.. One can think of a binary damage state (failure/no failure)..” Once the number of dimensions has been reduced. 1).html12/05/2010 06:34:50 a. based on an infinite dimensional damage state. Krajcinovic and Fonesca. therefore. < previous page page_517 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. it is necessary to define a global damage state for a structure that has experienced an earthquake. An intuitive approach is to define global damage as a combination of the damage at each point of the structure. as considered in continuum-damage mechanics. damage and critical damage (Stephens and Yao. 1984). D=∫Ωw(x)f(x)dx (1) where w(x)=an appropriate weighting function This formulation of the damage problem. which customarily takes values in the interval (0.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_517. or of a discrete-valued damage state using qualitative indicators such as safety. is defined on the volume (Ω) occupied by the structure. f: Rn¡Rn. 1958. The damage state can also be defined in several ways.m. depending on the particular model that has been chosen to describe the structural behavior (Kachanov. The function f describes the loss of resistance experienced in the neighborhood of a given point. Lemaitre. light damage. The function f. The need for this reduction was first pointed out by Yao (1982) It was assumed that a finite number of quantitative indicators is sufficient to determine the damage state of the whole structure. Such indicators are usually referred to as “damage indices. The global damage state (D) can thus be definded as a functional of f. Definition of Global Damage State Early in this paper.

DiPasquale and Cakmak (1987. the natural frequencies and the effective participation factor for each natural mode. The modal parameters are functions of the vibrational characteristics. the global damage (D) is given by function (f) defined on the damage space: (2) D=f(δ.1) for the structure’s damage can thus be simplified.m.. 1985). If δ1..…. After considering the above mentioned facts and previous observations in the damage assessment field. The structure is modeled as an assemblage of elements and joints. The global damage indices are for the single elements (Stephens and Yao. reduction by lumping is not directly possible. Effect of Structural Damage on the Modal Parameters A linear structural system described in terms of the modal parameters was proved to be indentifiable by Beck (1979). The functional form of the damage indices is derived from the experimental and theoretical analysis of damage of simple struc tural elements and of complex structures. The modal parameters of a structure are the damping factor.page_518 < previous page page_518 next page > Page 518 the damage state of the structure can be inferred from the history of a finite number of structural parameters. mass.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_518. The reduction to a finite number of dimensions can be obtained by lumping procedures.. damping and stiffness.. In the practical case of a structure where only two accelerometer arrays are installed. 1988) defined a global damage indice based on the vibrational frequencies of the structure in the linear phase.…. of a structure. for each of which a damage index is computed from the history of loading during the earthquake. or elastic. The analysis of these histories yields numerical values for the corresponding damage indices. .δm) Similarly. in simulation studies. < previous page page_518 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing..…. The space of the damage indices can be termed “damage space. and the collapse limit state.html12/05/2010 06:34:51 a. If nel elements and joints are considered. limit state.δm)=0 Examples of limit states are the serviceability. or for full-scale structures that are extensively instrumented. 1987. Park et al..” The expression (Eq. for each of them a damage index (δi) and a weight (βi) can be defined. δm are the damage indices considered. so that the global damage is measured as: (4) Reduction by lumping procedures requires that generalized displacements and restoring forces are available for a large number of nodes. a state is defined as a surface g in the damage space: (3) g(δ1. This is possible in the analysis of shaking-table experiments. and of an equivalent linear structure in the nonlinear phase.

. it is confirmed that the natural frequencies of the structure tend to shift towards lower values (Beck.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_519. Meyer and Roufaiel. Vasilescul et al. For the case of damage in reinforced concrete structures. After considering the above mentioned facts and previous observations in the damage assessment field. as well as due mostly to the stiffness decrease subsequent to structural damage. While studying the decrease in the natural-frequencies or the lengthening in the natural periods. 1983). in any case degradation of the resistance properties of structural elements. consequent to seismic damage. and the severity of damage.page_519 < previous page page_519 next page > Page 519 When an earthquake hits a structure. This is especially true for low-rise buildings. the nonlinear mechanical behavior was taken into account by evaluating the natural period of a time-varying linear system equivalent to the actual nonlinear system for a series of non-overlapping time windows. Ogawa and Abe (1980) and Carydis and Mouzakis (1986) attempted to correlate stiffness degradation. 1979). Throughout this work. the importance of soil-structure interaction increases with the amplitude of the motion. a global damage indice based on the vibrational frequencies of the structure in the linear phase.. recorded at the basement of the structure. Mihai et al.m. 1980. 1977. (Rayleigh. 1977. due to the microcracking of concrete and due to plastic deformation related to yielding of reinforcement bars. This can be due to nonlinearities in the mechanical behavior of the structure. it has been asssumed. that the acceleration. 1945... buckling and plastic deformation. 1980).html12/05/2010 06:34:51 a. . Unfortunately. From this local stiffness degradation. the local effect of structural damage will be cracking. the functional form of the damage indicies is derived from the experimental and theoretical analysis of damage of simple structural elements and of complex structures. due to the soil-structure interaction. slender structures. When time variant linear models are fitted to strong motion records. whereas soil-structure interactions would definitely be less important in the analysis of tall. has been observed by several authors (Chen et al. was in fact the input motion. stiffness characteristics of an element or of a joint will degrade. Any interaction between foundation and soil was thus neglected. as a working hypothesis. but it is in general not true. 1984. Stiffness degradation of both full scale structures and of small scale models. a general shift of the natural frequencies towards lower values will result. Foutch and Housner. DEFINITION OF THE PROPOSED GLOBAL DAMAGE INDEX Knowing that a linear structural system described in terms of the modal < previous page page_519 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. as well as nuclear facilities. and therefore with the expected severity of the damage. by all the researchers in the field. This has been so far assumed. and of an equivalent linear structure in the nonlinear phase has been defined. as a function of the variation in the fundamental period.. Dowell.

ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_520.) seek equivalent linear models using analytical methods such as the error-in-the-equation criterion. FIGURE 1. In particular. When the structure enters a nonlinear phase.html12/05/2010 06:34:51 a. the system identification algorithm based on linear models will yeld estimates of equivalent linear parameters.page_520 < previous page page_520 next page > Page 520 parameters can be identifiable.. .m. 1971) The equivalent linear model that fits strong motion records coincides with the actual structure as long as the structure’s behavior is linear. reflecting the nonlinearities that take place during the strong motion. the structure will experience an apparent softening < previous page page_520 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Valdimarsson et al. The nature of such an equivalence will depend on the criteria that the analyst has chosen for the purpose of indentification. Evolution of Equivalent Fundamental Period for Milikan Library (San Fernando Earthquake.. Beck and Jennings introduced error in the output criteria instructural analysis and DiPasquale and Cakmak treated “maximum likelihood” criteria which yields statistically optimal estimates of the time varying modal parameters. Traditional equivalent linearization techniques (Caughey. one can think of using equivalent linearization techniques to consider nonlinear mechanical behavior so that when the structural behavior is nonlinear. the equivalent linear model will change.

a history of the equivalent parameters is obtained. Furthermore. The algorithm for Maximum Likelihood estimation of the equivalent modal parameters and the details of the fortron code.m. Engineers < previous page page_521 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. the goal is to extract information concerning damage from the history of the modal parameters. Damage Indices Based on Equivalent Linear Models LOCAL PHENOMENON MACROSCOPIC FEATURE GLOBAL INDEX Stiffness degradation Cracks Final softening (5a) Plastic softening (5b) Maximum softening Plastic deformation Yielding of reinforcement bars Combined effect of plastic deformation and stiffness degradation Onset of structural damage (service-ability limit state) (5c) First. the fundamental period of vibration. MUMOID which was developed to implement the procedure were presented in [12]. It is clear from the start that only the natural frequencies will provide valuable information. and the equivalent natural frequencies will decrease. . and their estimation. 1978] This correlation is reduced but not eliminated when constraints are imposed on the effective participation factors.. In this research. Damping factors are entities of uncertain physical meaning. the estimates of damping factors and of effective participation factors are statistically correlated..html12/05/2010 06:34:52 a.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_521. TABLE 1.page_521 < previous page page_521 next page > Page 521 as the amplitude of the oscillation increases. yields results of questionable reliability. All the computations are actually carried out on its inverse. [Beck. only the first (fundamental) natural frequency is considered. By fitting a time variant linear model to the records. when the structure is in the nonlinear phase.

(T0)initial. When the final portion of the record still presents apparent nonlinearities. (T0)initial. California. They are functions of the fundamental periods (T0)n estimated during an earthquake. (T0)max.. during the San Fernando earthquake.page_522 < previous page page_522 next page > Page 522 commonly use only the fundamental period. (T0)final. corresponding to the linear behavior of the damaged structure. and the behavior of the structure can be considered linear. as well as of the initial fundamental period (T0)initial and the final one (T0)final. so that the vibrations due to the strong motion have abated by the end of the record. For each of these windows. can be assumed to be equal to the fundamental period of the linear oscillation after the earthquake (T0)final.. Nevertheless it should be noted that consideration of other modes will yield better results after a more complicated analysis. The first window can be made small enough. (T0)final can sometimes be obtained from postearthquake tests. 1 shows the evolution of the equivalent fundamental period estimated from the response of the Millikan Library in Pasadena.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_522. Three parameters can thus be typically observed in the evolution of the equivalent fundamental period during an earthquake: (1) An intial value. which is assumed to correspond to the linear behavior of the undamaged structure. 1971. Analysis of empirical results shows that there exists a correlation between the damage state of a reinforced concrete structure that has experienced an earthquake and the maximum softening δM. A procedure for the detection of seismic structural damage will be introduced and validated below. . The interval (0. When the record is long enough. upon analytical considerations and upon the analysis of data recorded from damaged structures. and (3) the maximum value of the estimate of the fundamental period. defined as: (6) It is commonly believed (see for instance Sozen) that seismic damage to < previous page page_522 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Table 1 describes some parameter-based global damage indices that have been proposed by Cakmak and DiPasquale and their correlation with local damage variables and with macroscopic features of damage for reinforced concrete structures. s) of duration of the earthquake is divided into nwind nonoverlapping windows of width si seconds. The functional form of the index may depend upon phenomenological aspects of damage at the local level. an equivalent fundamental period (T0)i is computed. where the effect of nonlinear behavior and of soil-structure interactions is superimposed onto stiffness degradation.html12/05/2010 06:34:52 a. Fig. (2) a final value.m. the estimate of (T0) corresponding to the last window. (T0)nwind. Several indices can be proposed as measures of global structural damage. so that it can be assumed that the structure is still vibrating in the linear regime and that (T0)1 is equal to the fundamental period of the linear oscillation of the building before the earthquake.

Seismic response data from damaged structures must be analyzed.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_523. In order to find enough data to support < previous page page_523 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Unfortunately. the structural serviceability limit state..m. is a theoretically grounded global damage indice. δM. as reported by post earthquake inspection and analysis. Up to here a parameter based global damage index has been introduced as a measure of seismic structural damage. corresponding to the onset of seismic structural damage. and engineering features of damage. while the particular sequence (or path) of loading is not very important in determining damage. δf. It is therefore intuitive that the maximum softening δM. δp. should be defined. δf. plastic softening. Analysis of Strong Motion Records In order to use the maximum softening to measure global damage. δp and maximum softening. It has been shown that the maximum softening.page_523 < previous page page_523 next page > Page 523 reinforced concrete structures depends mostly on the maximum strain that is observed during an earthquake. is defined for the stiffness degredation related to microcracking of concrete and plastic softening. which carries the necessary elastic and plastic damage independent contributions [16]. which depends on the combined effects of stiffness degradation and nonlinearities. Ju and Cakmak (1989. It has been shown that for both cases of elastic and plastic damage. as obtained from strong motion records. DiPasquale.. 1990) studied the theoretical basis to the proposed indices. ranging from cosmetic repairs to demolition.html12/05/2010 06:34:53 a. The decision to undertake a particular action is then equivalent to assessing whether the corresponding limit state has been trespassed or not. as defined in equation (6). there are very few records from buildings that have been damaged during an earthquake. δM. namely final stage softening. In a model for the analysis of seismic damage these decisions will correspond to different limit states. So. THEORETICAL VALIDITY OF THE PROPOSED INDICES FROM THE CONTINUUM-DAMAGE MECHANICS VIEW In order to strengthen the validity of the proposed indices. is defined for the plastic deformation related to yielding of reinforcement bars. a quantitative relationship must be established between the numerical value of the index. THE ANALYSIS AND THE CALIBRATION OF THE MODEL Post earthquake damage assessment involves decisions regarding the future of the building. be used as damage index for reinforced concrete structures. such as whether the building is safe or needs some actions. defined for reinforced concrete structures. final softening. depends on the combined effect of stiffness degradation and plastic deformations. continuum-damage mechanics provide a theoretical foundation to global indices and that the proposed indices carry the necessary information of elastic and plastic damage. . Repeating Table 1. it is obvious that maximum softening.

3-bay Sozen double frame +heavily reinforced wall FW2 Abrams and 10-storey 3-bay Sozen double frame+lightly reinforced wall FW3 Abrams and 10-Story 3-bay Sozen double frame+lightly reinforced wall FW4 Abrams and 10-storey.5 3 Taft (1952) 4.html12/05/2010 06:34:53 a. 3-bay double frame tall first storey FW1 Abrams and 10-Storey.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_524..7 TOTAL NUMBER OF RUNS 3 10-Storey.0 3 Taft (1952) 5.page_524 < previous page Page 524 MODEL AUTHORS TYPE OF STRUCTURE page_524 EARTHQUAK EEXCITATION EI Centro (1940) next page > UNDAMAGED FIRST MODE FREQUENCY (Hz) 3. 3-bay Sozen double frame +heavily reinforced wall H1 Cecen Sozen 10-storey..2 3 EI Centro (1940) 2. Shaking Table experiments at UIUC MF1 Healey and Sozen EI Centro (1940) 4.m. 3-bay double frame weak beams design TABLE 2.7 7 < previous page page_524 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 3-bay double frame weak beams H2 Cecen and Sozen 10-storey. .2 3 EI Centro (1940) 2.3 3 EI Centro (1940) 4.

This sequence was repeated with the intensity of the earthquake simulation being increased successively.. run 1 (Abrams and Sozen. Such experiments are very useful for model validation. The design earthquake for each structure was the earthquake for which the interstorey drift reached the limit level of 1%. In order to estimate the equivalent linear parameters of a structure. 2 shows the accelerations records for the structure FW1. records from the basement and from some upper level are needed. Therefore.. Cecen (1979). If the effect of input < previous page page_525 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. is determined (model identification). For all but one structure (H2). Then the parameters are estimated using maximum likelihood techniques. (2) Earthquake simulation (3) Recording of any observable signs of damage. and (T0)n the respective equivalent fundamental period estimated.html12/05/2010 06:34:54 a.m. The analysis of each window can be divided into two phases. As the actual structure is nonlinear. 1/10th -scale structures (Table 2).page_525 < previous page page_525 next page > Page 525 a statistical analysis. 1979) and the corresponding evolution of the structure. First the order of model. as defined as (7) where the subscript n indicates the ith window considered. Abrams and Sozen (1979). Fig. Each structure was tested at the University of illinois Earthquake Simulator. it must be assumed that no prior information about the structure is available and that the undamaged natural frequency must be estimated from the strong motion records. the first earthquake simulation represented the ‘design’ level. A particularly interesting program of shaking table experiments has been performed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champagne (UIUC) by Sozen and his associates (Healey and Sozen (1978). The basement record is used as input to a numerical model that is equivalent to the original structure in the Maximum Likelihood sense.e. These structures were representative of a variety of options in the design of structures against lateral (seismic) loads. Test runs of a given structure included repetitions of the following sequence: (1) Free vibration test to determine low-amplitude natural frequencies. . and the parameter estimation is performed separately for each of these windows. i. The experiments analyzed here come from a population of seven ten-storey. the number of modes whose parameters are estimated. For the analysis of real world buildings. Sozen (1981).ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_525. the interval of duration of the earthquake is divided into segments (time windows) of appropriate length. The natural frequency of a structure’s linear oscillations can be estimated from the strong motion records. the equivalent linear model must be time variant.. it is necessary to resort to seismic simulations on shaking tables.

Figure 3 shows < previous page page_526 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. for a total of 25 tests. while three-mode models are very difficult to treat. Experience shows that one-mode models may sometimes match the observed mation very poorly. Run 1 Calibration of the Model The model has been calibrated according to the acceleration records from seismic simulation experiments performed at the Univeristy of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign [21].m. .html12/05/2010 06:34:54 a. FIGURE 2. Acceleration Records and Evolution of Softening for the Structure FW1. The seismic behavior of seven reinforced concrete structures has been analyzed.page_526 < previous page page_526 next page > Page 526 noise is neglected. the estimation of the modal parameters using the Maximum Likelihood criterion reduces to matching the recorded acceleration of the upper floor with the output of the model considered. due to the large number of parameters involved.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_526.. although the estimates of the fundamental frequency are very close to those obtained using higher order models. Two-mode models usually can be fitted to the output with very good results..

. the maximum softening is estimated from the analysis of strong motion records. The structures were expected to undergo moderate damage when subjected to an earthquake of the design intensity. For the purpose of damage detection. the structure may be considered safe. it can be expected that a linear regression would yield results valid in the neighborhood of the damage theshold. As customary. Due to the uncertainties present in the problem. The functional form of the relationship between amax/ades and δM is certainly complicated. the parameters α and β must be treated as random variables. as most data lie in the intermediate damage class. For these reasons the ‘design’ earthquake intensity relative to the models considered is a very meaningful quantity. NS.081 (9a) (9b) with standard deviations: σα=0. they were stiffened against out-of-plane (lateral and torsional) motion. α and β are therefore treated as independent random variables.446 (10b) For simplicity the covariance σαβ of the regression parameters has been neglected. Furthermore. the design intensity ades and the lowest damaging intensity adam can be assumed to coincide. In particular. Their actual behavior was thus very close to analytical or numerical predictions. The leastsquare estimates of the regression parameters are: α=−1. For this set of structures. Models of structures for shaking table tests were designed and built with much greater care than standard buildings.page_527 < previous page page_527 next page > Page 527 a plot of the normalized intensity versus the maximum softening of the earthquake for each of the seven structures analyzed. When this ratio is less than one.. An expected value E(amax/ades) for the normalized intensity is easily computed: < previous page page_527 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.m. Nonetheless. A linear model: (8) has been fitted to the data of Table 2.4g).. the structure was subjected to a series of amplified replicas of the same earthquake ground motion (in most cases.260 (10a) σβ=0. All the structures considered were designed so that they would undergo moderate damage (corresponding to a maximum storey drift of 1%) when subjected to an earthquake of the design intensity (typically 0. The normalized intensity can thus be used to detect the insurgence of structural damage. while no damage was expected for weaker earthquakes.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_527. 1940). therefore. El Centro. The normalized intensity is the ratio of the of the intensity of the earthquake to which the structure is subjected to the intensity of the design earthquake. the intensity of an earthquake is defined as the peak acceleration recorded during the strong motion.html12/05/2010 06:34:55 a. otherwise some damage must be expected.

Maximum Softening for UIUC Models (Dotted Line: Linear Regression) A conservative estimate of the standard deviation σδ of the maximum softening is: (12) (13) As a first approximation. Intensity Ratio vs. and and σδ. Under this assumption it is easy to compute the probability that the damaging earthquake intenstiy has been exceeded: < previous page page_528 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.m. . β and δM are independent random variables with means the normalized intensity will then be: .page_528 < previous page Page 528 page_528 next page > (11) The uncertainties present in the problem can be easily taken into account if it is assumed that α. and and standard deviation σα. the normalized intensity can be treated as a Gaussian random variable.. σβ. The variance of FIGURE 3.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_528.html12/05/2010 06:34:55 a..

page_529 < previous page Page 529 page_529 next page > FIGURE 4.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_529.. . Structural Serviceability Limit State < previous page page_529 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.html12/05/2010 06:34:57 a.m. Fragility Curve..

The applications described in the next section suggest that this method of the detection of seismic structural damage can be applied to full-scale structures. giving the probability of the onset of damage (limit state probability) as a function of the maximum softening δM (Fig. the structure was subjected to simulated seismic excitation of increasing intensity until collapse occurred at the first floor.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_530. From the analysis of the acceleration records of each test.. The experimenters have reported information on the damage state subsequent to each of seven tests. when δM=0. a fragility curve has been defined. A set of fragility curves.page_530 < previous page Page 530 page_530 next page > (14) From the analysis of a set of data.m. It should be pointed out that structures analyzed in this project represented the widest database available in the USA. The experimental program considered here was carried out at UCB by Bertero and his associates within the US-Japan joint research project [5]. Records from six of these tests were available and have been analyzed here. Such probability of damage must be considereed as the fraction of damaged structures. relative to a sequence of limit states. .43. In particular. until a second collapse occurred. whose resistance to horizontal load is provided by moment resistant frames or shear walls. The points marked by circles identify the test runs in the maximum-storey-drift versus maximum-base-shear plane. the maximum softening and its standard deviation were estimated. the model predicts that 50% of the structures considered will present damage. The connecting lines represent an envelope of the hysteretic cycles < previous page page_530 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Figure 5 has been derived from the experimenters’ report (Bertero et al. The procedure described above has been used for the detection of seismic damage. for which the onset of damage could be identified using the normalized intensity of the earthquake. The structure tested was a 1/5th scale model of a seven-storeyed reinforced concrete building designed according to the Uniform Building Code. Resistance to lateral loads was provided by a moment resistant frame acting in parallel with a shear wall.). Hence the probability of the onset of seismic structural damage was computed.html12/05/2010 06:34:58 a.. The structure was then repaired and tested again. can be defined similarly [13]. These results are valid for moderately slender reinforced concrete structures. over a large number of structures for which the same δM has been estimated. 4) estimated from the strong motion records. After a series of low amplitude tests. regarding seismic structural damage to reinforced concrete structures. VALIDATION OF THE DAMAGE DETECTION MODEL Analysis of Shaking Table Experiments A series of seismic simulations on shaking tables constitute an excellent test for damage assessment procedures.

amax. is that only two acceleration records are needed for its computation. Detection of Structural Damage for the UCB Models For the purpose of damage detection.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_531. . Very low probabilities of damage correspond to those tests in which the structure remains safe. The structures considered sustained little or no damage (Jen- < previous page page_531 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. as well as the other two global damage indices described in Table 1. thus simplifying the decision process. Corresponding to each test run.page_531 < previous page page_531 next page > Page 531 of the structure.. δM and P[damage] are reported. The advantage of using the maximum softening. FIGURE 5.. Analysis of Actual Strong Motion Records Five strong motion records of the San Fernando earthquake were analyzed. and provide information on the progression of nonlinearities and the eventual collapse. 5. the maximum softening contains the same information as the envelope curve shown in Fig. 5 Criterion (14) provides a quantitative indication of the degree of damage. while extensive instrumentation is necessary to obtain the curve of Fig. The simulated earthquakes that damage the structure are clearly identified by a very large probability of damage.m.html12/05/2010 06:34:58 a. It should be noted that the method is successful in identifying the onset of damage.

6 0.97 LOMA PRIETA EARTHOUAKE (1989) δM p[damage] STRUCTURE DAMAGE Double-deck structure on 1–880 Demolition 0. relative to the Imperial County service building. This building was severely damaged during the earthquake.m. It can be seen that the model performs very well in detecting damage even at very low levels.88 Bank of California Repaired 0.html12/05/2010 06:34:59 a.03 Holiday Inn Repaired 0.81 1 IMPERIAL VALLEY EARTHQUAKE (1979) δM p[damage] STRUCTURE DAMAGE Imperial Countv (EW) Demolition 0. have also been analyzed.). The table reports the estimated value of the maximum softening δM and the probability that the structure is damaged (limit state probability).).13 0 Sheraton Hotel None 0. The results of the serviceability analysis are shown in Table 3. 1979. Strong motion records of the Imperial Valley eathquake.59 0. Its repair was considered not advisable and it was decided to demolish it (Wosser et al.62* 0.. .97 Imperial County (NS) Demolition 0. Damage Detection for Actual Buildings SAN FERNANDO EARTHQUAKE (1971) δM P[damage] STRUCTURE DAMAGE 611 6th Street None 0.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_532. They are therefore a very good test for the sensitivity of the damage detection procedure.97 < previous page page_532 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.32 0. Some similar analysis has been done for the double deck structure on 1–880 which collapsed in the 1989 Loma-Prieta earthquake [27].29 0 Milikan Library None 0. TABLE 3.page_532 < previous page page_532 next page > Page 532 nings et al.52 0..

The dynamic analysis of the structure is performed by the SARCF-II program of Chung et al. which is mandatory if statements on the post earthquake structual reliability is intended solely from knowledge of the latest recorded damage value. whereas some deviation is observed for the variance and higher order statistical moments. the permanent interstorey drift and the maximum ductility ratio for beams and columns. information about the instantaneous natural period was available. Due to the scarcity of experimental data and because this was the only option available for the computation of some of the damage indices that had been considered. On the other hand in the numerical simulations. In order to compute the maximum softening DiPasquale and Cakmak (1987–90) used the ground acceleration and the acceleration at another location such as the top of the structure. the duration of strong shaking and local soil quality parameter... In addition a regression analysis is performed for the increment of the damage indicator versus the sample peak acceleration and the sample peak frequency of the causing realization of the earthquake process. . So.m.page_533 < previous page page_533 next page > Page 533 Evaluation of Maximum Softening as a Damage Indicator for Reinforced Concrete Under Seismic Excitation The properties of the maximum softening as a global damage indicator for reinforced concrete structures subjected to seismic loads have been evaluated [23].. Especially the Markov property of the damage indicator is investigated.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_533. From the observed data sample. the Markov assumption of the damage indicator sequence is justified for the mean value of the tpdf. comparisons were obtained by means of numerical simulations. The applied earthquake excitation model is the nonstationary single earthquake ARMA-model of Ellis and Cakmak (1987). The transition probability density frunction (tpdf) of the damage indicator during sequential earthquakes has been determined by Monte-Carlo simulation for a planar 3 storey 2 bay reinforced concrete frame designed according to the Uniform Building Code (UBC) zone 4. from which. the epicentral distance. besides these acceleration records. For each realization of the earthquake process a sample of the damage indicator during the earthquake is obtained by numerical integration of the structural equations of motion. which depends on the magnitude of the earthquake. it is concluded that the maximum softening is completely uncorrelated to these quantities [23]. An averaging window with a length < previous page page_533 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.html12/05/2010 06:34:59 a. (1987). COMPARISONS Rodriguez-Gomez and Cakmak (1990) compared maximum softening (the global damage index defined in equation 6) to weighted averages of some recently developed damage indices and to traditional measures of damage such as the maximum interstorey drift. Rodriguez-Gomez and Cakmak (1990) developed a new procedure for the computation of the damage indices based on vibrational parameters from the instantaneous natural period [26].

10. global damage indices and parameters that characterize the response of the damaged structure to a second earthquake were obtained by using the SARCF-II. For each of the nonlinear dynamic analysis that have been carried out. . The details of the structures can be found in [26]. The input parameters and their values used in this case are: an initial peak time of two seconds.html12/05/2010 06:34:59 a. a distance from the epicenter of 10 or 100 kilometers. The conclusion that was extracted from the comparison of the recorded response to the computed response was that. This new version was first tested by comparing computed results to experimental results obtained from a reinforced concrete model tested at the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaigne. local damage indices. 20]. A general description of the initial version of SARCF (Seismic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Frames) and the modifications done by RodriguezGomez can be found in [8] and [26] respectively. The parametric relationships between modeling parameters and physical variables were obtained from a set of strong motion accelerograms recorded from the following Japaneses earthquakes: Tokachi-Ochi (1968). with a value of 0. Among the traditional means of damage the maximum interstorey < previous page page_534 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Two types of input acceleration have been used: scaled versions of the N-S component of the acceleration history recorded at El Centro during the Imperial Valley Earthquake (1940). Nihonkai-Chubu (1983) and Michoacan (1985). one two bay three storey building frame. First. a duration of the earthquake of 20 seconds.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_534. to resist the equivalent static lateral loads specified in the Uniform Building Code [32] for seismic zone 4.page_534 < previous page page_534 next page > Page 534 equal to two or two and a half times the initial natural period has been found to yield results consistent with the original way of computing the global damage indices of DiPasquale and Cakmak.. and artificially generated earthquakes using an ARMA model according to the method proposed by Ellis and Cakmak [19. Then a total of 29 different earthquakes have been applied to the three structural models. a good approximation was obtained using the program SARCF-II [26]. γf. The seismic response of several reinforced concrete frames subjected to a set of artificially generated and recorded earthquakes was computed by using an improved version of the computer code SARCF. information about traditional measures of damage. Miyagiken-Oki (1978). and a soil factor. different values of the earthquake magnitude. one three bay four storey and another three bay four storey building frames are designed according to the ACI 318–83 [2] code . Single event earthquakes have been generated using this capability of the program SARCF-II. The numerical simulations have been carried out on three low rise buildings designed according to the existing codes. given the uncertainties that exist in the description of the nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete structures..m.

Sozen [28].page_535 < previous page page_535 next page > Page 535 drift. using the Systems Identification Program. The interstorey drift has been used as a measure of damage by M. The global damage indices that were studied are: 1. Chung.E. the correlation between system identification and moving averages methods for the computation of the maximum and final softening were obtained and it is concluded that two methods give equivalent results for the structures of study. However.Yao [30 and 31]. 4.html12/05/2010 06:35:00 a. MUMOID. and computing a moving average of the instantaneous natural period. The permanent drift is the interstorey drift after the earthquake. The comparisons have been done by means of a series of plots that show the value of the maximum softening as a function of the other damage indicator.m. Whether or not the structure collapses in the second earthquake is considered to be an objective measure of the level of damage in the first < previous page page_535 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_535.Stephens and J. 3. The ductility ratio which has been computed is a curvature ductility ratio. Energy average of Chung. Maximum and Final Softening defined by Equations (5c) and (5a).T. Weighted average of Chung. Each point in the graphs has been obtained from the nonlinear dynamic analysis of any of the building frames described in [26].P.. have been computed. Meyer and Shinozuka’s damage index and the modified Park and Ang’s damage index have been computed at both ends of each beam or column. Energy average of Park and Ang’s Damage Index [26]. the filled circles correspond to the damage indices that were computed for the first earthquake. The interstorey drift is defined as the tangent of the angle between the original position and the deformed position of the columns. Both indices have been computed in two different ways. Then maximum softening is compared to other damage indices. . Chung. the permanent interstorey drift and the maximum ductility ratio for beams and columns. First. The filled circles represent the cases for which the second occurrence of the same earthquake produced collapse.. defined as the ratio between the curvature and the yield curvature. Meyer and Shinozuka’s Local Damage Index [26]. Park and Ang’s local damage index includes two terms that reflect the influence of the maximum deformation and the absorbed hysteresis energy [24]. 2. using the triangular weighting function [26].A. The permanent drift has been used as an indication of damage by J. Meyer and Shinozuka’s Local Damage Index. Meyer and Shinozuka’s local damage index combines a modified version of Miner’s Hypothesis with damage acceleration factors that reflect the effect of the loading history [8].

.m..mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_536. Maximum Softening vs. Maximum Interstorey Drift file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.page_536 < previous page Page 536 page_536 next page > FIGURE 6.html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:35:00 a. .

m. Maximum Final Drift < previous page page_536 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_536. Maximum Softening vs.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:35:00 a. .page_536 FIGURE 7...

.html12/05/2010 06:35:01 a..page_537 < previous page Page 537 page_537 next page > FIGURE 8. Maximum Softening vs.m.. Maximum Softening vs. Maximum Ratio for Beams < previous page page_537 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Maximum Ductility Ratio for Columns FIGURE 9.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_537.

ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_538..html12/05/2010 06:35:01 a. Energy Average of Park’s Index FIGURE 11..m. Energy Average of Chung’s Index < previous page page_538 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Maximum Softening vs. .page_538 < previous page Page 538 page_538 next page > FIGURE 10. Maximum Softening vs.

a value of the maximum softening larger than 0. 7.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_539. FIGURE 12. there should be a cutoff value of that damage index so that a collapse resulting from identical earthquake only occurs for values greater than that cutoff value.html12/05/2010 06:35:02 a.. 11 and 12 that for all cases.10.m. 9 . In that case. . 8.page_539 < previous page page_539 next page > Page 539 earthquake. 7. Since it is possible to draw a horizontal line that seperates the squares and filled circles in all figures 6. 8. one concludes from figures 6. the best global damage index would be the one that can predict the collapse of the structure in the second earthquake. for the detection of seismic structural damage. global dam- < previous page page_539 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. recalling that the serviceability limit state was related to an average value of maximum softening of 0. 9. 10. Maximum Softening vs.43. The reader is referred to reference [26] for detailed information about the calculation of other damage indicators.43 implies a collapse in the second identical earthquake and that there is not such a value for the other damage indicators that seperates the structures that collapse in the second earthquake.. 11 and 12. Chung’s Weighted Avergage CONCLUSIONS In this paper.

. several damage indices and traditional measures of damage have been computed and compared to maximum softening. 40] the theoretical basis to the intuitvely defined global damage indices (final softening. the response of three code-designed buildings frames subjected to artificially generated and recorded earthquakes has been obtained by using the computer code SARCF-II In this numerical study. For post-earthquake reliability assessment. In order to compare maximum softening with other damage indicators. relative to the structural serviceability limit state has been derived.html12/05/2010 06:35:02 a. In all cases considered. a fragility curve. Noted that previously in [38. So.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_540. Imperial Valley (1979) and Loma Prieta (1989) earthquakes. Since the post earthquake structural reliability is intended solely from the latest recorded damage value. acceleration records from seismic simulation experiments performed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaigne have been used. This criterion has been used for the damage analysis of shaking table experiments performed at the University of California at Berkeley and strong motion records from the San Fernando (1971). the Markov assuption of maximum softening has been studied and it is justified for the maximum value if transition probability density fuction where as some deviation is observed for variance and higher order moments.m... for a total of 25 tests.page_540 < previous page page_540 next page > Page 540 age indices based on the lengthening in the fundamental period has been first introduced and then validated. The details of the theoretical study is not presented in this paper. The probability of the onset of seismic structural damage is computed as a function of a global damage index (maximum softening) which is based on equivalent modal parameters. The seismic behavior of seven reinforced concrete structures has been analyzed. plastic softening and maximum softening) had been studied and it was concluded that continuum mechanics provide a theoretical foundation to the defined global indices and the proposed indices carry the necessary information for both cases of elastic and plastic damage. A new way of computing maximum softening by moving averages of the instantaneous natural period has been < previous page page_540 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. a damage model based on the evolution of the natural period of a timevarying linear system equivalent to the actual nonlinear system for a series of non-overlapping time windows has been developed. For the identification of the time varying equivalent system from the acceleration records at the top and at the base of the structure a maximum likelihood criteria has been used. In order to calibrate the model. an excellent correlation has been found between the values of the parameterbased damage indices estimated from strong motion records and the onset of seismic structural damage. The damage detection criterion proposed yields the probability that the structure has undergone damage after the seismic event or not.

2. (1980)..D Dissertation. J. (1979).S. Eng. BECK..m. 5..page_541 < previous page page_541 next page > Page 541 derived and it is oberved that system identification and moving averages methods are equivalent from practical point of view.. JENNINGS. 3. V. Vol. ABRAMS. CHARNEY.. Detroit.-Japan Cooperative Research Program: Earthquake Simulation Tests and Associated Studies of a 1/5th Scale Model < previous page page_541 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Struc.V. A. “Structural Identification Using Linear Models and Earthquake Records”. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaigne.C. . Before graphic comparisons. an appropriate weighting function has to be defined. Dyn. M. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In carrying out this work. P. a good approximation to the experimental values was obtained by using SARCF-II. “Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete”. California Institute of Technology. BECK.L..E. it is concluded that maximum softening predicts the structural capacity for future earthquakes more consistently than any of the traditional measures of damage and that maximum softening is a more robust global damage index than the weighted averages of the local damage indices..A. (1979). but for obtaining global damage. “U... (1984). simulation results are compared to experimental results of the tests done at UIUC by Sozen et al. Ph. SAUSE. J..P.html12/05/2010 06:35:03 a. 145–160. The maximum softening avoids the definition of a weighting function. MI. “Experimental Study of Frame-Wall Interaction in Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Strong Earthquake Motions”. The authors also acknowledge the support of Princeton-Kajima Joint Research Program. AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE.T. 8 pp. F.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_541. SOZEN. UILU-ENG-79–2002. Earth. AKTAN.L. Considering the uncertainities that exist in the description of the nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete structures. REFERENCES 1. ACI 318– 83. D. (1984). For the studied case. R. BERTERO. 4. “Deteriming Models of Structure from Earthquake Records”. The maximum softening and the limit state probability defined can therefore be used in the detection of seismic structural damage. SRS 460.. the authors were supported by the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research under contract number 89–1104. Report No. It should be noted that local damage indices give important information at the local level..

Seismic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Frames”. (1987).S. (1987). Conf.W. Y. Princeton University. 2. State University of New York at Buffalo. Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics. NCEER-88–0044. CAUGHEY. CAKMAK.. University of California at Berkeley. of Struc. Am. “Detection and Assessment of Seismic Structural Damage”.. CECEN. (1987). J. 5. H. National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research. State University of New York at Buffalo. AND SHINOZUKA. 15. AND SHINOZUKA. 60–65. Vol. (1988). DIPASQUALE. Vol. MEYER. 116. Dissertation. Y. “Response of Ten Story.S. 27.. M. A. DIPASQUALE. Proc.page_542 < previous page Page 542 page_542 next page > of a 7-Story Reinforced Concrete Test Structure”. pp.m. No.. 17. 10.. UCB/EERC-84/05. DIPASQUALE. Report NCEER-87–0015. CAKMAK. C. A. 11.S. E. National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research.. MEYER. State University of New York at Buffalo. Soc..D.S. 9. Ph. 3rd Int....W. (1990). 6. . MEYER. “Identification of the Serviceability Limit State and Detection of Seismic Structural Damage”.K. E. E. CAKMAK.. NCEER-88–0024. Eng. E. CAKMAK. A. Princeton. 4. ELLIS. Report NCEER-88–0022. Dissertation.. AND SHINOZUKA. (1963). DIPASQUALE. E. 12. Earth. “On the Relation Between Local and Global Damage Indices”. “Seismic Damage Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Buildings”. CAKMAK.S. CHUNG.. J. “Damage Assessment from Earthquake Records”. National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research. NJ. 5. DIPASQUALE. A.. CHUNG. C.D.S. M. J. Y. pp. 7. “Detection of Seismic Structural Damage Using Parameter-Based Global Damage Indices”.. Princeton. “Automated Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete Buildings”. Report No. 1440–1456. pp. (1988).ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_542. “SARCF User’s Guide. Ph. National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research. AND CAKMAK. CHUNG.. “Relation Between Global Damage Indices and Local Stiffness Degradation”. A. G. Eng. E.S.. Technical Report NCCEER-89–0034. 1706–1711.. 8. No. 13. State University of New York at Buffalo. DIPASQUALE.. A. (1987)... Ac. National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research.html12/05/2010 06:35:03 a.. NJ..S. (1988). State University of New York at Buffalo. < previous page page_542 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. C. (1979). Reinforced Concrete Models Frames to Simulated Earthquakes”.. T. “Modeling Earthquake Ground Motions in Seismically Active Regions Using Parametric Time Series Methods”.. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaigne. (1989). ASKAR. State University of New York at Buffalo. National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research. “Equivalent Linearization Technique”. A.. NCEER-87–0022. 16.. 14. Soil Dyn. M. (1990).. JU.S. Vol. No.

Eng.. (1985).H. Princeton University.W. pp. “Review of Earthquake Response of Reinforced Concrete Buildings with a View to Drift Control”.. 111.. T. (1990).A. S. “Evaluation of Seismic Damage Indices for Reinforced Concrete Structures”... PARK. Proc. Sc.. A. Dissertation. 27. “On Energy-Based Coupled Elasto-Plastic Damage Theories: Constitutive Modeling and Computational Aspects”. Ju. 22. Conf. NJ. ELLIS. 740–757. CAKMAK.. ANG. of 1st Inter.S.. Technical Report NCEER-88–0042. CAKMAK.H. A. RODRIGUEZ-GOMEZ. RODRIGUEZ-GOMEZ.A.. Struc. AND SHINOZUKA. pp. “Seismic Damage Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Buildings”. 20. Intl J. (1987).. 722–739. No. 25. A. S.html12/05/2010 06:35:04 a. and Earth.4..R.W. (1981). Soil Dyn.-J.-K. (1991). State University of New York at Buffalo.W. (1985).. G.-J. 28. Technical Report NCEER-87–0014. Rep. Department of Civil Engineering and Operations Research. 803–833. M.m. G. J. Earth.. 25. Princeton. Confrence on Computational Stochastic Mechanics (to appear September 1991). CAKMAK.J.. State University of New York at Buffalo. Y. “Modelling Strong Ground Motion from Multiple Event Earthquakes”. AND WEN.. Vol. A.S.. A. Vol.S. of Solids and Struc. State of the Art in Earthquake Engineering. Eng. Y.... “Damage Analysis of Simulated 1–880 Structures Under the Loma Prieta Earthquake”. A. G. Eng.. (1978). A. M. No.S. “Evaluation of Maximum Softening as a Damage Indicator for Reinforced Concrete Under Seismic Excitation”. “Modelling Earthquake Ground Motion in Seismically Active Regions Using Parametric Times Series Methods”. 21. NJ. Soil Dyn. 24.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_543. Princeton. Eng.S.S.. NIELSEN. (1988). “Modeling Earthquakes in Seismically Active Regions Using Parametric Time Series Methods”. 19. 26. “Mechanistic Seismic Damage Model for Reinforced Concrete” . pp. Eng. M.-W. CAKMAK. S..K. LEDOLTER. Vol. SOZEN. ELLIS. M. 3rd Int. National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research. J. 4.. Turkish National Committee on Earthquake Engineering. “Experimental Study of the Dynamic Response of a Ten Story Reinforced Concrete Frame with a Tall First Story”. PARK. No. < previous page page_543 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. SRS 450. Turkey. No. (to appear). (1987). CAKMAK. Struc. Istanbul. National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research. UILU-ENG-78–2012. Proc. (1989). SOZEN. Y. 7. ANG..ASCE J. HEALEY. .. ELLIS.. 111.. 23.page_543 < previous page page_543 next page > Page 543 18. University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaigne.S. ASCE J.

T. STEPHENS. 31. YAO. (1985). “Linear Models to Predict the Non Linear Seismic Behavior of a One-Story Steel Frame”. “Damage Assessment Using Response Measurements”. Structural Safety.... Dissertation.P. 107–121. (1983). No. Berkeley. 32.. “Probabilistic Method for the Evaluation of Seismic Damage of Existing Structures”. 4.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_544..P. J. 30. Ph. SHAH. Vol. Vol. ASCE J. 109. A.. 1982. . (1987).. “Earthquake Regulations”. Eng. J. 130–135.. pp. 5. CA. “Structural Damage Assessment Using Response Measurement”. 1189–1203. 1. “Theory of Evidence”. (1982).S. pp.T. ASCE J. J. J.. UCB/EERC 81/13.S.D. 33.D. S. No. Toussi.. 34. pp. Purdue University. pp. YAO. IN. Vol. VALDIMARSSON..T.P. H. STEPHENS. (1988). Lafayette. Vol. Mech. < previous page page_544 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. UNIFORM BUILDING CODE.m. H.. 113. Soil Dyn. Struc..H. J. 3.page_544 < previous page page_544 next page > Page 544 29. “Hysteresis Identification of Existing Structures”. Eng. Earth.. YAO. (1981).html12/05/2010 06:35:04 a. 1. 787–801. MCNIVEN. Eng. No.

b) frequency-content characteristics of motions. etc. Federal District Seismic Code of Mexico City (FDR-87). For long and moderate periods the reduced spectra are obtained simply by dividing the linear elastic spectral responses by a reduction factor (this is called Q in ref 1.e. UBC Code.page_545 < previous page page_545 next page > Page 545 Reduction of Linear Elastic Response Spectra due to Elastoplastic Behaviour of Systems S.Díaz Instituto de Ingenieria. and K in ref 2).Ruiz. regardless of the ductility value assumed. A well known set of rules was proposed by Newmark.. 04510. D.. depending on: a) ductility reduction factors. and c) structural vibration periods. UNAM. This study indicates that the mentioned rules (applied to the mexican seismic code of 1987). give place to different results with respect to those obtained directly from records. Coyoacan. < previous page page_545 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.F. Apdo Postal 70–472. i. in 1970 where: for long and moderate periods a hypothesis of similar displacements of linear-elastic and elastoplastic systems is adopted.m. similar energies are supposed. the well known rules proposed by Newmark (1970) for estimating nonlinear response spectra on the basis of the elastic ones are analyzed for different types of ground motion. .. A critical analysis of the results is made. ref 1. whereas for the short period range.E. Mexico ABSTRACT Using the responses obtained from five groups of accelerograms recorded in soft and hard soils in Mexico City.html12/05/2010 06:35:04 a. Each rule corresponds to different soil conditions. INTRODUCTION Rules for reducing the ordinates of linear acceleration spectra used in seismic design to account for inelastic response of structures are given in some seismic design codes. Mexico. ref 2. O. For short periods the spectral ordinates are divided by while the ordinates of nonlinear spectra tend to the peak ground acceleration. A set of simple rules to reduce the elastic spectra due to elastoplastic behavior is given.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_545.

This group with 6 accelerograms. with peak period of 2s.6. Their magnitudes were in the range of 6. . The < previous page page_546 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Ground motions affected by soil-structure interaction on soft soil. the bandwidth is wider than that associated with group A. In view of the soil-structure interaction phenomenom.5.s rules. Group C. Their elastoplastic spectra are obtained for ductility factors Q of 1. with peak period of 2s.html12/05/2010 06:35:05 a. In order to evaluate the relations among the spectra coresponding to different soil conditions. 2. Group A. for 5% of critical damping.3. EARTHQUAKE MOTIONS The ground motions analyzed were originated at the subduction zone in southwestern Mexico with magnitudes equal or greater than 6. For normalizing each record its ordinates were scaled so that each motion had an energy content equal to the maximum energy presented in any accelerogram within each group. This group consists of 11 accelerograms recorded on free field at the surface of soft clay deposits. Underlying this there is a hard deposit of silty weakly cemented sand about 50 to 70m deep (Romo et al.8 to 7. Five groups of intense ground motions are studied. These were recorded by instruments placed at the base of structures located on soft clay layers of 30 to 40m deep. Figure 1b presents the mean spectrum—plus and minus one standard deviation—for 5% of critical damping. as well as the spectra reduced by inelastic behavior. 1988). 3 and 4.3 and 6. is shown in Fig 1a.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_546. Group B. Ground motions recorded on soft soil. the mean values of the ratios between inelastic (Ai) and elastic (Ae) acceleration spectra were compared with those obtained by Newmark. This group consists of 7 records obtained in the Texcoco Lake area. is associated with earthquakes having magnitudes between 6. The mean acceleration spectrum—plus and minus one standard deviation—of the normalized accelerograms.page_546 < previous page page_546 next page > Page 546 In this paper we analyzed the above mentioned rules for motions recorded on different types of soil in Mexico City. The soil in this zone includes a superficial layer of alluvial deposits followed by a thick layer of soft clay..5..m. Ground motions recorded on soft soil with peak period of 3s.

1. the mean ratios REGRESSION CURVES A regression curve having the following form was fitted to Ai/Ae data: (1) where Q=ductility demand < previous page page_547 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.4 to 7. about 12m deep. located at the south-west of the city. Ground motions of this group were recorded within the National University campus.page_547 < previous page page_547 next page > Page 547 mean spectrum—plus and minus one standard deviation—for 5% of damping is shown in Fig 1c.. The ratios between these spectra (Ai) and the linear elastic ones (Ae) were obtained for different and the standard deviations for each frequency were calculated. 3 and 4.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_547. assuming four different ductility levels: Q= 1.1 magnitude earthquake of 1985. vibration periods. As the September 19. Group D. 1985 earthquake.8. Ground motions recorded on the stiff soil zone of Mexico City during the September 19. 1988).2 shows a bandwidth between 1 and 2s. ref 6) they were analyzed separately. This group consist of 6 records obtained at 3 sites at the National University campus during the 8. 2. Then.. 2.1. The events’ magnitudes range from 6. .html12/05/2010 06:35:05 a.9 and 2s. overlying soft rock at depths between 12 and 21m (Seed et al.m. Group D.5. 1985 records obtained at this zone were considered seismologically uncommon (Singh et al. SPECTRAL RATIOS The elastoplastic acceleration spectra were calculated for each accelerogram. The associated mean spectrum is shown in Fig 1 d. Ground motions on stiff soil with spectral peak periods between 0. The mean spectrum of Fig 1 d. This zone has a layer of fractured lava.

b.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_548.. Peak inelastic spectra ordinates From the regression curves (ec. For T values greater than 3s or 5s the mentioned ratios tend to the value 1/Q.1 and D. Regression parameters for this case are also given in Table I. RESULTS Influence of the vibration period associated to the inelastic design .5s and 3s or 4s. They also show the ratios spectra divided by the elastic one reduction rules. which is reasonable.5. 3 and 4 corresponding to group A. . 2. Q=2. Fig 3a illustrates the fitted curves for Q=1. The minimum value of each curve occurs at larger periods for higher values of Q. 1 and Table I) it is observed that the minimum value of each curve occurs at periods which are functions of the ductility factor and the type of motion.page_548 < previous page Page 548 page_548 next page > T=vibration period a. Values of the parameters a.5s or 2. This indicates that for high Q values the inelastic spectra ordinates are higher for short structural periods than for large ones. d=parameters to be fitted based on data Powell’s method (ref 7) was applied to curve-fitting. the regression curve r—plus and minus one standard deviation. For short periods. For example. b.html12/05/2010 06:35:06 a. In the same figure the mean values curve is presented. 2.2 suggested that they behaved similarly. 0<T<1. This shows that for high values of Q the peak values of the elastoplastic acceleration spectra occur at shorter periods than that associated to the peak elastic spectra. c and d for each case are presented in Table I. so they were grouped in a single group denoted as group D. is shown in Fig. The regression analysis of groups D. Figs 3a–d show regression curves corresponding to the studied groups.5s. As an example. those ratios (C) are always smaller.. for periods Results in Figs 3a–d indicate that ratios between 1.5s or 2. This code uses the Newmark’s are higher than those of the regression curve r.m. both obtained from the FDR-87 (ref 1). < previous page page_548 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. c. σr—of group A. depending on the group.

subindex i and e correspond to inelastic and elastic responses respectively.m. Figures 3a–d show the behavior of the ratios between (related to Newmark.html12/05/2010 06:35:06 a.5 to 2. CONCLUSIONS 1. . The structural engineer should provide designs capable of absorbing the energy of structures without suffering damage. associated to different Q values Peak values of ratios C/M versus Q are plotted in Fig 4. and those calculated from motions recorded on soft and stiff soils of Mexico City (ec 1).ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_549. Comparison between groups Figure 4 also shows that in general the maximum values of ratios C/M correspond to group A and the minimum ones to group D. b) For short periods (0<T<1. This means that for systems subjected to narrow band motions like those of group A (soft soil) response reductions associated to elastoplastic behavior are higher than those associated with wider band motions like those of group D (stiff soils). . depending on the group) C ratios based on Newmark.5s<T< 3.5 to 2. specially when they are subjected to narrow band motions. .s rules.5s) the ratios C are < previous page page_549 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. leading to different response patterns. ref 1). 2. where more pronounced period changes may occur.s rules are higher than those corresponding to results of real motions (ec 1).page_549 < previous page page_549 next page > Page 549 Comparison among acceleration ratios of the same group. This is an indication that dynamic response to narrow band excitations undergoes more important reductions due to inelastic behavior than that corresponding to wide-band motions. From these figures the following conclusions can be made: a)For intermediate periods (1.5 to 5s.The elastoplastic spectral accelerations corresponding to ground motions recorded on soft soils in Mexico City have higher ratios C/M than those associated to motions recorded on the stiff soil zone (fig 4). This conclusion may not apply to stiffness degrading systems. C and D such ratios are higher for Q=2 than for ductility factors of Q=3 or 4. applied to the 1987 mexican seismic Regulations... From this figure it can be seen that for groups A.

“Relationships between soil conditions and earthquake ground motions” Earthquake spectra. N. 4. The enthusiastic participation of Hector Rosas and Omar Valladares. in Earthquake. Nontheless it must be noted that for short periods the structures are generally designed for vertical loads and the seismic effect is unimportant. including band-width characteristics. 3. Mexico. Engineering.Wiegel. N. H.m.F. “Mexico Code 1987” Reglamento de construcciones para el Distrito Federal. Hadjian.M. UNAM. No. A. 4. c) For long periods the ratios C and r tend to the same value 1/Q. Diario oficial de 1a Federación. Seed. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Thanks are given to L Esteva. From Fig 4 it can be appreciated that the peak ratios C/M are greater for Q values of 2 and they decrease for higher ductility factors.. REFERENCES 1. Such project includes the analysis of near field motions like those registered in stiff soil of Acapulco. It should be noted that for very large T periods ec 1 is equal to 1/Q. July . “Current trends in the seismic analysis and design of high-rise structures”. Newmark. Mexico..B... 1984 3. “A calibration of the lateral force requirements of the UBC”. pp 687–730.html12/05/2010 06:35:07 a.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_550.. This condition is established by Newmark’s rules. Mexico. R Gómez and M Ordaz for their valuable suggestions. Prentice-Hall. General expressions. edited by R. Proc. . San Francisco. Nonthelees some of the values obtained in this study from the accelerograms groups are greater than 1/Q for periods longer than 4s. Vol 4. besides the parameters studied in this paper. 8th world conference on earthquake engineering. D.J. Gro.H. 1970 4.page_550 < previous page Page 550 page_550 next page > always smaller than r.. et al. are being explored in a current research project at the Institute of Engineering. 1987 2. Englewood Cliffs. nov 1988 < previous page page_550 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. is greatly appreciated.

. pp 731–752.. nov 1988 6.page_551 < previous page Page 551 page_551 next page > 5.2917+0.559 1.77Q 0. April.70 0. “Some aspects of source characteristics of th 19 September 1985 Michoacan earthquake and ground motion amplification in and near Mexico City from strong motion data.165+0.. No. E and Castro.772Q 0.33Q 0. 2 pp 451–477. London. 1988 7.. pp 294–307.310 0. Mena.H.1 D.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_551.K.html12/05/2010 06:35:07 a. 1986 TABLE I Parameters of the regression curves Parameters Group a b c d A B C D.10 0.795Q 0.2 D 3(Q)−1/2 1.506+0.4158+3. R. M. Earthquake spectra. Press.9Q2 0. Jaime. Cambridge University Press.662 0.133Q 0..40 1.926 1. Bull seism soc Am. et al.846 2.711Q 8.428 < previous page page_551 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.m.P.513 1.502 1.431 0. Singh.068 1.02 0. S.147 0.. Numerical recipes.298–0. Vol 78. Romo. D. “General conditions and clay properties in the valley of Mexico”. A and Resendiz.749+0. W. .0 1.

ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_552. plus and minus one standard deviation of the normalized records < previous page page_552 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.m.html12/05/2010 06:35:08 a...page_552 < previous page Page 552 page_552 next page > Fig 1 Mean acceleration spectra. .

Q=2 Fig 3 a. . plus and minus one standard deviation (σr) of group A.m.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_553..page_553 < previous page Page 553 page_553 next page > Fig 2 Data Ai/Ae and regression (r) curves..html12/05/2010 06:35:08 a. b Regression curves < previous page page_553 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.

..page_554 < previous page Page 554 This page intentionally left blank.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_554.html12/05/2010 06:35:09 a.m. page_554 page_554 next page > next page > < previous page file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing..

As an example the elaboration of design provisions for reinforced concrete structures of ductility class L in Eurocode 8 in examined..g. A reduction of the design peak ground acceleration. Germany ABSTRACT Possibilities are analysed in the paper to consider in the design of structures in regions of low seismicity the favourable effect of short earthquake duration.Eibl.html12/05/2010 06:35:09 a. based on ductility considerations. In what concerns the strong motion duration. Suggestions concerning the design of masonry structures in regions of low seismicity are also given. W-7500 Karlsruhe. INTRODUCTION In the design of structures in seismic regions three parameters of a presumed future seismic event must be considered.page_555 < previous page page_555 next page > Page 555 Problems in the Determination of Input Data for the Seismic Design of Structures in Regions of Low Seismicity J. As an alternative a detailed analysis of the design provisions is proposed. The first two characteristics—intensity and frequency content—enter directly into the input data for seismic design by the response spectrum method.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_555. used in traditional codes.Keintzel Institut für Massivbau und Baustofftechnologie. on which depends the effect of earthquakes on structural elements: the intensity of the seismic ground motion. aiming to adapt them to the reduced requirements regarding the behaviour under cyclic loading of structures in regions of low seismicity. E. .m. So the intensity of the ground shaking is characterized usually by a conventional value of the peak ground acceleration and the frequency content is reflected by the shape of the spectrum. is not applicable in modern codes. its frequency content and its duration. Universität Karlsruhe. it is recommended frequently—e. in the Workshop on Seismic Input Data in Lisbon [1] < previous page page_555 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.. because it would prevent a realistic evaluation of ductility demands.

In Fig. As an example may be considered the actual German Seismic Code DIN 4149 [2]. exceed the values of DIN 4149. occuring at earthquakes of high magnitudes. according to DIN 4149 and to a proposal for Eurocode 8 < previous page page_556 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Code provisions for seismic design generally are oriented by the needs of structures in regions of high seismicity. . In this situation the favourable effect of shorter strong motion durations is introduced in codes frequently by reducing the design peak ground acceleration. corresponding to the assumptions of DIN 4149 [2] and to a proposal for seismic input data by Hosser et al. Correspondingly for regions of low seismicity. So they are aimed to ensure the integrity of structures for relative long durations of the ground shaking. reflecting as well the effect of lower ground accelerations as that of shorter strong motion durations. where only seismic events of low magnitudes are considered. The realistic spectral values. [3].”. stating in Clause 7. [3]. to be used in a design according to Eurocode 8 [4]. by more than two times. which are higher. 1 Elastic Response Spectra for German sites on rock or firm soil..m. Fig. a double revision of code provisions is possible. but which cannot exert their full effect because of the very short duration of action occuring in German earthquake regions…. 1 a comparison is shown between elastic response spectra. reduced by considering the influence of short earthquake duration. The question is raised how to consider this influence also in a design according to Eurocode 8.are not identical with the peak soil accelerations.page_556 < previous page page_556 next page > Page 556 —to adjust the value of the intensity parameter—that is the value of the effective peak ground acceleration—with this characteristic of the ground motion..1 that “the assumed accelerations…. proposed by Hosser et al.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_556.html12/05/2010 06:35:09 a.

ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_557. its limit values depending on the behaviour factor q as a measure for the required rotation capacity of the plastic zones. The implementation of a given behaviour factor q. but the other by equating their displacements. Subsequently these behaviour factors are converted into quantitative ductility requirements and further into quantitative prescriptions for detailing. that is the design of a structure. which must remain in the eleastic range. in a third step. corresponding to a realistic assessment of behaviour factors as ratio between elastic seismic loads and design loads. by using an appropriate constitutive law for confined concrete and by inserting a verification of the section after the spalling of the concrete cover. for example of K-shaped truss bracings. The consideration of the influence of short earthquake duration < previous page page_557 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. A similar situation is encountered in the case of steel structures. consists in the fact that in the traditional codes the prescriptions for the design of ductile structures are more qualitative than quantitative. They are calculated as the mean values of two expressions. the one being derived by equating the deformation energies of the elastic and the inelastic system. complying with q-dependent ductility demands.m. where the width-thickness ratio b/t is restricted for compressed zones of sections. As a conclusion it is stated that the quantitative definition of ductility requirements in Eurocode 8 implies the use of realistic spectral values. The admittance in Eurocode 8 of non-dissipative steel structures. 2 for reinforced concrete structures.html12/05/2010 06:35:10 a.. constructional details of the confining reinforcement are adapted to the required curvature ductility factors. multi degree of freedom structures are derived from displacement ductility factors of associate single degree of freedom systems and then expressed approximately as a function of behaviour factors. Finally. as DIN 4149. equally implies the evaluation of realistic elastic seismic loads..page_557 < previous page page_557 next page > Page 557 DUCTILITY BASED DESIGN IN EUROCODE 8 One of the most important differences between Eurocode 8 and traditional seismic codes. So in Eurocode 8 the favourable effect of inelastic deformations is introduced by behaviour factors q. . In a first step displacement ductility factors for single degree of freedom systems are expressed as a function of behaviour factors. whereas in Eurocode 8 ductility demand and ductility supply are controlled numerically in a high degree. by which the ordinates of elastic response spectra are devided. is shown schematically in Fig. They are proved to increase proportionally with the squares of behaviour factors. In this way the whole process of designing and detailing is based on a quantitative evaluation of ductility requirements. In a second step curvature ductility factors in the critical sections of real.

. .page_558 < previous page Page 558 page_558 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:35:10 a.m.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_558..

.page_558 Fig.m. So the consideration of this effect in a design according to Eurocode 8 or to an other similar modern code must be based on a detailed analysis of the behaviour of structural members in the nonlinear domain.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:35:10 a. would falsify the design calculations and is therefore unsuitable.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_558. 2 Implementation of a given behaviour factor q for RC structures according to Eurocode 8 by reducing the spectral values. < previous page page_558 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.. as in DIN 4149. as shown in the following for reinforced concrete members..

the hysteresis loops are of pinched shape. So the earthquake-resistant capacity is poor in comparison with that of a member dominated by flexure. 3 Idealized. is small.. respectively with shear failure. belonging to RC members with flexural. and the area eclosed by a hysteresis loop. from Paulay et al..m. in which the internal forces are transferred predominantly by reinforcing steel. [5] < previous page page_559 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Fig. for the member with shear failure an important strength degradation occurs after few cycles. 4 examples of experimentally obtained hysteresis loops are represented. dominated by shear. In Fig. unattainable in real RC plastic hinges. . Curves 3 and 4 correspond to a RC member. corresponds to a RC member dominated by flexure.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_559. Whereas for the member with flexural failure a large number of hysteresis cycles can be supported without strength degradation. Curve 1 shows a perfectly elastic-plastic load-displacement relationship. Curve 2. showing a load-displacement relationship characterised by Bauschinger effect.html12/05/2010 06:35:11 a. optimal and degrading displacement response of a RC member during an inelastic pulse. In this case both important strength and stiffness degradation occurs. 3 typical hysteresis loops for RC structural members under cyclic loading in the nonlinear domain are represented. which represents the energy dissipation capacity.page_559 < previous page page_559 next page > Page 559 RC STRUCTURAL MEMBERS UNDER CYCLIC LOADING IN THE NONLINEAR DOMAIN In Fig.

b) member with shear failure. 5 Load and energy degradation under cyclic loading in beams with a given displacement ductility factor. [7]. [8]. a) Member with flexural failure.. from Park et al.m. b) beam with shear failure. a) Beam with flexural failure. 4 Hysteresis loops for RC structural members under cyclic loading.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_560.. file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.page_560 < previous page Page 560 page_560 next page > Fig. [6]. from Brown et al. from Wight et al.html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:35:11 a. . Fig.

Likewise as in Fig... 4 it is shown that the supportable number of inelastic deformation cycles is much lower at members with shear failure than at members with flexural failure.page_560 In Fig. 5 load and energy degradation (degradation of the area enclosed by a hysteresis loop) are represented for two cantilever beams.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_560.m. . as a function of the number of inelastic deformation cycles. < previous page page_560 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20. The high sensibility of members with shear failure to the number of load cycles denotes an increased importance for these elements of the duration of ground shaking.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:35:11 a. the one with flexural and the other with shear failure. corresponding to a displacement ductility factor µ=5.

m. The procedure outlined above. that is that the behaviour of the structure is not similar to that represented in Fig. . where due to shear reversals bidiagonal cracking is probable. neglecting the influence of the earthquake duration. in order to prevent shear sliding Fig. Similarly in shear walls.html12/05/2010 06:35:12 a. as represented in Fig.. is based on the assumption that even in an earthquake of relative long duration. that is in order to avoid shear failure under a large number of load and deformation cycles in the nonlinear range. 2. 7a. in Eurocode 8 a series of special measures are imposed on the shear dimensioning of RC structures. The duration of the expected earthquake does not occur directly in the design calculations. mean (M) or low (L) ductility—a higher or a lower behaviour factor is introduced. So in beams and in columns. that the behaviour of the structure is characterized by flexural failure. according to Eurocode 8 < previous page page_561 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 7b.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_561. 6. but to that represented in Fig. 6 Ultimate curvature and curvature at yield for a RC member. belonging to the ductility classes H and M. no important strength and stiffness degradation occurs. Depending on the chosen ductility class—high (H). and not by shear failure. as shown in Fig. bidiagonal shear reinforcement is provided.. Thus it is supposed. leading to a higher or to a lower curvature ductility factor. leading to a large number of load reversals.page_561 < previous page page_561 next page > Page 561 THE CONSIDERATION OF EARTHQUAKE DURATIONS IN THE DESIGN OF RC STRUCUTRES ACCORDING TO EUROCODE 8 The design and dimensioning of RC structural members under seismic loading for flexural strength and ductility is based in Eurocode 8 on the consideration of the moment-curvature-diagram under static loading in the nonlinear range. In order to ensure stable hysteresis loops.

also bidiagonal reinforcement is suggested. considered in the case of ductility class L. one could renounce likewise to a series of supplementary provisions for detailing. Thus it was possible to introduce the influence of short earthquake duration in the design of RC structures of ductility class L by renouncing for this ductility class to the special measures. where the normalised design axial force is lower than 0. The few load reversals. due to the low values of the behaviour factors. Further within the critical regions of potential plastic hinge formation in beams. to rather insignificant incursions into yielding state. according to a proposal from Germany at a workshop in Pavia [10]. columns and shear walls.1. the contribution of concrete to the shear strength of the element (the term Vcd in the dimensioning for shear according to Eurocode 2) is not taken into account. leading to a short duration of the strong motion phase and accordingly only to a reduced number of load reversals.html12/05/2010 06:35:12 a. corresponding.m. 7 Behaviour of structures under cyclic loading. . b) good behaviour with stable hysteresis loops. In this way important simplifications could be admitted in the design of structures in regions of low seismicity.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_562. ensuring for structures of the ductility classes H and M a satisfactory behaviour under a large number of load reversals. a) Poor behaviour with strength and stiffness degradation.page_562 < previous page page_562 next page > Page 562 failure... The third ductility class (L) has been introduced in Eurocode 8. So this ductility class has been conceived for structures that have to resist to earthquake of low magnitude. Fig. as lowest ductility class for structures in regions of low seismicity. < previous page page_562 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. from Wakabayashi [9].

.m.: Shear Effects on Plastic Hinges of Earthquake Resisting Reinforced Concrete Frames. E. Hosser. AICAP—CEB Symposium Structural Concrete under Seismic Actions. Commission of the European Communities. 1979. Preliminary Report. Eibl and E. . Paris. Commission of the European Communities. D. 132.N. Lastannahmen. Strucutres in seismic regions. (Coordination J. higher behaviour factors for the seismic design of masonry structures in regions of low seismicity may be expected. Considerations of this kind in the field of RC structures are translated in Eurocode 8 into more favourable conditions in the shear design of structures belonging to the ductility class L— conceived especially for structures in regions of low seismicity. but only by taking into account the real behaviour of structural members under cyclic loading in the nonlinear domain. Th. Workshop on Seismic Input Data held in Lisbon. Vol 1—Seismic Input Data. and Schneider. Part 1. G.Keintzel): Proposal for Harmonized Rules for the Determination of Seismic Input Data. 1990. First investigations on this problem are presented by Vratsanou [11]. and Bull. dominated in their seismic behaviour by shear. May 1988 edition. 1989 4. on July 2nd and 3rd. Eurocode 8. It is shown that in modern codes.. Bulletin d’Information CEB No.. Paulay. As a final result of research efforts in this domain. characterized by an important strength and stiffness degradation. The behaviour of masonry members under cyclic shear loading. where ductility demand and ductility supply are controlled numerically in a high degree. Teil 1. DIN 4149. 1979 < previous page page_563 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. General and building. Synthesis Report on the agreed decisions concerning the lines to be pursued in order to arrive at an harmonized definition of a model for the seismic action and of the design input data to be introduced in Eurocode 8 2.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_563.html12/05/2010 06:35:13 a. leads to the idea to apply similar considerations also to masonry structures. 1989 5. Keintzel. Design. J.page_563 < previous page page_563 next page > Page 563 CONCLUSIONS In the paper possibilities are analysed to introduce in the design of structures in regions of low seismicity the favourable effect of short earthquake duration. Bauten in deutschen Erdbebengebieten. Rome. as in Eurocode 8. at LNEC. this effect cannot be introduced by reducing the design peak ground acceleration as in traditional codes. In: Background Documents for Eurocode 8. REFERENCES 1. Bemessung und Ausführung üblicher Hochbauten. Part 1 (May 1988). Ausgabe April 1981 3.

European Earthquake Engineering. 2.m. Subjected to Earthquake Actions. Vol 2. pp. Wakabayashi. and Sozen. pp. 380–390.: Shear Strength Decay in Reinforced Concrete Columns Subjeted to Large Deflection Reversals. and Jirsa. 1988 11.: Reinforced Concrete Members with Cyclic Loading. Wight. New York. 1341–1360.C. Journal of the Structural Division..: Reinforced Concrete Beams Under Load Reversals. R. J.K. 43–44. 101.. Computational Mechanics Publications.A. . No. Brown. February 1988. Journal of the Structural Division.H. 98. and Sampson. D. 1975 8. 1972 7. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering. Eurocode 8—Structures in seismic regions. R. McGraw-Hill. 1053–1065. 1986 10.: Determination of the Behaviour Factors for Brick Masonry Panels. ASCE. V. J. Southampton. Vol. Vol 68. 1991 < previous page page_564 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Park. Journal of the American Concrete Institute. ASCE. M. M.: Design of Earthquake Resistant Buildings. Karlsruhe 1991.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_564. Specific rules for concrete structures—workshop in Pavia. 1971 9. R.. Kent. Vol. Vratsanou.page_564 < previous page page_564 next page > Page 564 6. pp.U. pp.A.html12/05/2010 06:35:13 a.

material properties of brick and mortar. Bernardini et al. which is based on the experimental results of Page. dimension of the bricks. In the recent years several investigations have dealt with the structural behaviour of masonry. For convenience. Remarkable efforts in this field have been made i. The proposed material model is used for the determination of the behaviour factors for brick masonry panels in seismic regions. INTRODUCTION Masonry is a material which exhibits distinct directional properties due to the mortar joints which act as plane of weakness. masonry is often modelled as a linear. using the finite element method. The results from the analysis of masonry panels are compared with experimental findings from the literature and a very good agreement is found. such as anisotropy of bricks.page_565 < previous page page_565 next page > Page 565 Determination of the Behaviour Factors for Brick Masonry Panels Subjected to Earthquake Actions V.a. [6]. The proposed constitutive model can predict (i) failure by splitting parallel to the free surface of the panel and (ii) failure by cracking either in the joints alone or in a combined mechanism involving both bricks and joints. elastic or elastic-plastic material. Germany ABSTRACT An analytical constitutive model for the analysis of the response of brick masonry panels to in-plane monotonic and cyclic actions is presented. ..html12/05/2010 06:35:14 a. make the simulation of plain brick masonry extremely difficult. The model is based on the concept of the “equivalent uniaxial strain” first introduced for concrete by Darwin/Pecknold. D7500 Karlsruhe 1.. A failure criterion has been elaborated. Masonry is treated as an ideal nonlinear homogeneous material. For the determination of the stress-strain relations under monotonic and cyclic actions the experimental findings of Naraine/Sinha are used.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_565. by Page [5]. isotropic. Abteilung Massivbau.m. joint width. arrangement of bed and head joints and quality of workmanship. The great number of the influence factors.Vratsanou Institut für Massivbau und Baustofftechnologie. < previous page page_565 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.

(1).and two-phase material models for masonry ONE-PHASE MODELS TWO-PHASE MODELS Relatively simple use Relatively costly use due to the great number of the degrees of freedom Less input data More input data The failure criterion has normally a simple form The failure criterion has a complicated form due to the brick-mortar interaction The constitutive equations for the material “masonry” are The constitutive equations of the components have relatively complicated normally a simple form Unloading and reloading of the material can be simulated The simulation of unloading and reloading is extremelly difficult At best suitable for the simulation of structures or greater Suitable for the simulation of small structural elements (e. small test specimens). and (ii) the “two-phase” material models. structural elements g.. . (iii) the uniaxial compressive strength.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_566. . . corresponding to the uniaxial compressive strength. Ignatakis et al. which is based on the principle of the “equivalent uniaxial strain” first introduced for concrete by Darwin/Pecknold [2]. Calvi [7]. For the description of the model the following material parameters are required: (i) the initial tangent modulus. The present paper briefly describes an one-phase constitutive model for plain brick masonry subjected to in-plane monotonic and cyclic actions.page_566 < previous page page_566 next page > Page 566 Table 1: Comparison between one. Eo. The advantages and the disadvantages of the two categories are shown in Tab. and only if the contact regions are clearly definable At best suitable for the study of the global behaviour of Suitable for the study of the local behaviour of masonry masonry Motta/D’ Amore [9]. where the components are treated separately and the interaction between them is taken into account. (iv) the strain < previous page page_566 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.html12/05/2010 06:35:14 a. where masonry is treated as an ideal homogeneous material. The proposed constitutive models can be classified in two categories: (i) the “one-phase” material models. [11]. Mengi/McNiven [12].. ν.m. whose constitutive equations differ from those of the components (bricks. mortar). (ii) the Poisson’s ration.

can be determined by conventional tests on brick masonry panels and/or by emprirical formulas available in literature. 2 are the current principal stress axes. and (vi) the parameters Cσ and which define the point of material disintegration.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_567. which are indicatcd in Fig. MATERIAL IDEALIZATION Form of the incremental constitutive relations The biaxial stress-strain relations for plain masonry are idealized as incrementally linear orthotropic. in the current principal stress direction i.html12/05/2010 06:35:15 a. is determined from a family of —curves (σi is the principal stress and the equivalent uniaxial strain in the i-direction). The tangent modulus Ei.. The shear modulus term is obtained by requiring it to remain independent of direction.page_567 < previous page Page 567 page_567 next page > Figure 1: Typical stress-strain curve for masonry in uniaxial loading (v) the uniaxial tensile strength.m. (1). The above material properties. Thus: (1) in which the axes 1. 2. with the axes of orthotropy coinciding with the current principal stress axes. i=1. . < previous page page_567 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing..

The equivalent uniaxial strain is always associated with the current principal stress axis i and depends on the current stress ratio α=σ1/σ2. and equivalent uniaxial strains. The equivalent uniaxial strain does not transform in the same manner as stress.page_568 < previous page Page 568 page_568 next page > Figure 2: Proposed stress-strain curve for masonry in biaxial stress state Equivalent uniaxial strain The introduction of the equivalent uniaxial strain is a clever method to “remove” the Poisson’s effect from Eq. respectively. it is only a “fictitious” measure on which to base the variation of the material parameters. σ.m. σi. It is defined as the strain corresponding to the stress σi on the uniaxial loading curve and is determined by: (2) in which dσi is the incremental change in stress. < previous page page_568 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 1) are now replaced by the biaxial parameters where σic is the biaxial compressive strength and and the correand respectively (Fig. in place of the uniaxial stress.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_568.html12/05/2010 06:35:15 a.. (1).. . Monotonic stress-strain relations Once the various expressions describing the stress-strain curve under uniaxial loading are known. The parameters (Fig. 2). and strain. these can be directly transformed into biaxial loading conditions in terms of the biaxial stresses.

which is a function of the and the strain are determined by . which define them. the model is based on the experimental work of Naraine/Sinha [3.page_569 < previous page Page 569 sponding strain in i-direction. the strengths and tangent modulus becomes equal to null. compressive strain is reached and the material crushes. and . who investigated the behaviour of plain brick masonry under uniaxial compressive loading perpendicular and parallel to the bed joint. Load reversals follow the line with slope EAS between the unloading and reloading lines. In the compression-compression region the bed joint orientation exerts little < previous page page_569 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. In the tension region a linear stress-strain relation is assumed with a brittle failure as the tensile strength σit is reached. The reloading curve is now represented by a straight line from the “plastic strain” point P through the common point K. Thus: (3) This curve has initial slope Eo and passes through the point continuously changing principal stress ratio α. It is based on the experimental results of Page et al. reflect the ductility of masonry.. This expression has been slightly modified so as to account for the fact that the stress-strain curve at point C (attainment of compressive strength) can be very pointed. page_569 next page > To describe the nonlinear compressive loading portion of the —curve the exponential equation suggested by Naraine/Sinha [3] is used..html12/05/2010 06:35:16 a. [10]. The coordinates of point of max. A good match with the experimental results is obtained by substituting the proposed exponential through linear functions (Fig. who tested 180 masonry panels with five different bed joint orientations for a range of principal stress ratios. 4. The downward portion of the envelope curve drops linearly from the point of max. Cyclic stress-strain relations Since no experimental data on the behaviour of plain masonry under biaxial cyclic loading are available. Using the exponential functions proposed by the same authors the unloading and reloading curves for both load cases (perpendicular and parallel to the bed joints) were compared and it was found out that the effect of the bed joint orientation is negligible.m. and the parameters Cσ and . For low values of the equivalent uniaxial strain the unloading and reloading take place on a single line with slope Eo. stress (a function of α) until a max. The stress and strain at the lower end of the line are independent of α. The unloading curve is approximated by two straight lines. Failure criterion The failure criterion adopted is depicted in Fig.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_569. stress. 4]. 3). At point the in which 0<ρσ≤1 and are functions of Eo. .

..html12/05/2010 06:35:17 a. .ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_570.page_570 < previous page Page 570 page_570 next page > Figure 3: Typical hysteresis curve for the proposed model Figure 4: Proposed failure criterion for brick masonry in plane stress state < previous page page_570 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.m.

the second crack forms perpendicularly to the first.m. In the tension-tension region failure occurs by joint sliding. It was found out that the variation of with σic can be simply expressed by (5) Cracking A smeared set of cracks occurs when the tensile stress in a principal stress direction exceeds the tensile strength of masonry. in the compression range were obtained from curve-fitting of the biaxial test results. equal to the uniaxial tensile strength of masonry .page_571 < previous page page_571 next page > Page 571 influence at the strength and failure occurs by splitting in a plane parallel to the free edges of the panel. i=1. If the first crack is open. and the corresponding normal stress is released. In this case. since failure occurs in a plane normal to the panel in all cases. 2. The effect of this material failure is that the normal and shear stiffness across the plane of failure are reduced.10) failure occurs by cracking and sliding in the joints and/or bricks. then the orientation of the second < previous page page_571 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. a strain softening behaviour in the tension region was adopted for the purpose of the numerical solution. second crack open. and forms like the first when the tensile strength of masonry is exceeded. The experimental results of Mann [8] are normal compressive stress σyy is relatively low. The model includes the following crack configurations: one crack open.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_571.. first crack closed. was assumed. both cracks closed.html12/05/2010 06:35:18 a. The second crack may form while the first crack is either open or closed. both cracks open. if the first crack is closed. It was found out that the biaxial strengths σ2c and σ1c can be satisfactorily determined using the following expressions (for σ1≥σ2): (4) According to the experimental results of Page. For lower values of α (−∞<α<0.) with increased tensile stress worked satisfactorily in the investigated problems. it was assumed that sliding occurs if the . The tangent modulus of the corresponding direction on the downward portion of the stress-strain curve is set to zero and the stresses are corrected to their proper value at the end of each iteration. . the bed joint orientation becomes significant. In the tension-compression region the assumption of a straight line reduction in compressive strength (abs.. Thus it was assumed that Eq. when one principal stress dominates. the simple criterium of constant tensile strength. (4) is valid only for α>0. it is assumed that a plane of failure develops perpendicular to the principal stress sirection. that is if also consistent with this assumption. In view of the need to distinguish between tensile and sliding failures in this region.10. first crack closed. However. Expressions for the corresponding strains .

They were made of normal ceramic hollow bricks with a mean compressive strength of 24. who performed uniform compression tests in masonry panels in order to determine the uniaxial compressive strength normal to the bed joints.85 and .70m·0..70m·0. . Cσ=0.page_572 < previous page Page 572 page_572 next page > Figure 5: Comparison of experimental and numerical results crack is linked to the orientation of the principal stress axes. The test specimens were of dimensions 0.83m·0. Program ADINA and several parametric studies were conducted to establish the sensitivity of the material model to variations in mesh size and load step in the analysis of masonry panels.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_572. As a second example the experimental results of Naraine/Sinha [3] were simulated. The experimental results were compared with the numerical solution and a very good agreement was found (Fig.77m·0. .23m < previous page page_572 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. . . The material properties that were given as input to the program were: Eo=7270M Pa. 5). NUMERICAL APPLICATIONS The proposed material model was implemented to the F.. ν=0.m.html12/05/2010 06:35:18 a.12m. As a first example the simulation of the experimental results of Bernardini/Modena/Vescovi [1] is shown here. The dimensions of the masonry panels were 0.20.7M Pa and M3 mortar with a minimum compressive strength greater than 8M Pa.E.

ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_573. which is an essential term in Eurocode 8 (“Structures in Seismic Regions”) is an oversimplified means in order to take into account the capability of the structural system to resist seismic loads in the post-elastic region. ν=0. .20. mean compressive strength of the mortar cubes fmc=6. Cσ=0. .1M Pa.. EVALUATION OF THE BEHAVIOUR FACTOR The behaviour factor q. . In the CIB-Recommendations [13] the following values for the q-factor are suggested: < previous page page_573 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.html12/05/2010 06:35:19 a.. 6).page_573 < previous page Page 573 page_573 next page > Figure 6: Comparison of experimental and numerical results and were constructed with frogged clay bricks and 1:5 (cement: sand by volume) mortar mix (mean compressive strength of the bricks fbc=13. It is defined as the ratio between the earthquake intensity (in the sense of acceleration) resulting to a collapse of the structure and that leading to the attainment of the elastic limit.1M Pa).85 and .m. The material properties that were given as input to the program were: Eo=2400M Pa. The case of compressive loading perpendicular to the bed joints was investigated. . The experimental results were compared with the numerical solution and again a very good agreement was found (Fig.

html12/05/2010 06:35:19 a. 7. and the first results will be presented at the Conference. The passage from the local to the global ductility and from the global ductility to the behaviour factor can be achieved by means of semi-empirical formulas available in literature. The ideal path would be.m.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_574..page_574 < previous page Page 574 page_574 next page > Figure 7: Indirect method for the numerical evaluation of the behaviour factor Unreinforced masonry: q=1.00 However.00÷3. The above values are mainly based on the available experience from the behaviour of masonry buildings during earthquakes and on a critical review of the available experimental and theoretical data. The research is still in progress. < previous page page_574 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.00 Reinforced masonry: q=2. whose basic steps are depicted in Fig. In this work an “indirect” numerical method was chosen.50 Confined masonry: q=2. The local ductility of the basic masonry element can be defined using the above described material model. The advantage of this method is the considerable reduction of the influence parameters. given a structure and a loading history. to define the strength needed to reach a 30% deterioration (according to the definition of “failure” suggested by the CIB-Recommendations [13]) and to divide this value by the elastic strength. no systematical studies have been carried out for the evaluation of the behaviour factors.. Particular consideration is given on the relation between the duration of the seismic excitation and the q-value. The behaviour factor can be defined experimentally or numerically. . The randomness of the seismic excitation and the variation in the geometry of the structure make this method very costly and time-consuming.

Calvi.. 115.. London. A. 102. 1982 2.. Sinha.. A.. 1978 Paper in Conference Proceedings 6.m. U. No. 1985 10. Sinha. “A finite element analysis of masonry walls under cyclic actions”. The International Journal of Masonry Construction. D. tests and application to shear walls”.A. Samarasinghe. Bernardini. 1976 3. Melbourne. W.. A. 6. F. “Analysis of r. No. ASCE Journal of the Structural Engineering. No. 115. “Failure of shear-stressed masonry. 2. Naraine. Aug. A. 1989 5.. Vol.page_575 < previous page page_575 next page > Page 575 REFERENCES Paper in a journal 1. CIB Symposium on Wall Structures. 6th I. ST8.. Warsaw. Darwin. 104. Oct. shear panels under cyclic loading”. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division. 4.Ma.C.. Cantù.. Hendry. No.. Rome. . Vol. D’ Amore.W. Rossetto. K. London.. 1980 < previous page page_575 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.. May 1982 7.c. Vol. Pecknold. Nov.. Naraine. 1980 9. Mann.. C. “Finite element model for masonry”. Vol.. Page. Nov. Vescovi. Vol. “The in-plane failure of masonry—A revue”. D. “Numerical modelling of the structural behaviour of masonry buildings”.. 7th I. I. ST2.. K. Modena. Motta.. E. Vol. Jun.. No. ASCE Journal of the Structural Division. ASCE Journal of the Structural Engineering. A. Vitaliani. E. R. W.M. An enlarged theory.. Sproccati..Ma.. 10.W. P. “An anisotropic biaxial failure criterion for hollow clay brick masonry”.. 7th International Symposium on Load-Bearing Brickwork.B. “Loading and unloading stress-strain curves for brick masonry”. S. G. A.1984 8..B.. Feb. 7th International Symposium on Load-Bearing Brickwork. Feb.html12/05/2010 06:35:20 a.W. Page. “Soluzione numerica dello stato fessurativo in lastre piane di muratura ordinaria o armata”. Bernardini.C. S. June 1989 4.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_575. “Behaviour of brick masonry under cyclic compressive loading”.

Stavrakakis. Report No. UCB/EERC-86/07. Ignatakis. . 1989 Report 12. in “Structural repair and maintenance of historical buildings”.. “Analytical model for masonry using the finite element method”. Mengi. H. 1987 < previous page page_576 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.. Y. University of California. Confined and Reinforced Masonry Structures”. Publication 94.. C.m.. McNiven..D. “International Recommendations for Design and Erection of Un-reinforced and Reinforced Masonry Structures” with an Appendix on “Recommendations for Seismic Design of Unreinforced. Berkeley/California. May 1986 13. Penelis. E.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_576. G.page_576 < previous page page_576 next page > Page 576 Chapter in a Book 11. “A mathematical model for predicting the nonlinear response of unreinforced masonry walls to in-plane earthquake excitations”.. CIB.html12/05/2010 06:35:20 a. Earthquake Engineering Research Center. Computational Mechanics Publications.

ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_577.A. The results indicate that the use of a period. . A number of statistical studies have been conducted over the years with the purpose of improving the knowledge on design spectra.. INTRODUCTION There is a general consensus that the greatest source of uncertainty in the determination of the response of structures to earthquake ground motions is that associated with the prediction of the intensity and characteristics of the seismic input. Berkeley. These studies have been improved in time as more earthquake ground motions have been recorded. Since the concept of response spectrum was developed in the late 30’s. CA 94720.S.page_577 < previous page page_577 next page > Page 577 Statistical Study of Nonlinear Response Spectra for Aseismic Design of Structures E.and soil-independent strength reduction factor may lead to unconservative designs. The records were selected giving emphasis to those recorded in California and to those recorded in the last six years. U.Miranda Earthquake Engineering Research Center. Linear elastic response spectra provide a reliable tool to estimate the level of forces and deformations developed in structures responding elastically during earthquake. Mean inelastic strength demand spectra are presented for six levels of displacement ductility. The study was conducted to develop practical means of estimating strength demands on earthquakes that are more rational than those presently specified in various seismic code requirements.m. There has been a good number of statistical studies < previous page page_577 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. University of California at Berkeley. response spectra have been widely used to estimate strength demands on structures imposed by earthquake ground motions.. The study was based on inelastic response spectra of 124 recorded ground motions.html12/05/2010 06:35:20 a. ABSTRACT Results from a statistical analysis of the nonlinear response of single-degree-of-freedom systems subjected to earthquake ground motions are presented. Special attention was devoted to the influence of local site conditions on the inelastic strength demands.

have investigated the characteristics of linear elastic response spectra including the influence of earthquake magnitude.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_578. and damping ratio. however. Thus buildings designed according to this philosophy are likely to experience significant inelastic excursions which produce produce reductions in seismic forces which cannot be predicted with the use of linear elastic models. Recently. damping ratio and. c is the damping coefficient. During strong earthquakes. However. local site conditions (Newmark et al.. The displacement ductility ratio is defined as the ratio of the maximum absolute value of the displacement response divided by the yield displacement of the system. [3]. (4) < previous page page_578 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Katayama et al. [7]). [2]. m is the mass. . Mohraz et al. frequency content. [1]. The equation of motion of a SDOF system under earthquake excitation is given by (1) where u is the relative displacement of the system. Krawinkler [8] studied the strength reductions due to nonlinear behavior by using 33 horizontal ground motions recorded during the 1987 Whittier Narrows. by considering a large number of recorded ground motions. Seed et al. epicentral distance. RESPONSE OF NONLINEAR SDOF SYSTEMS In the present study. California earthquake. [4]. Typically. ω. present seismic design philosophy accepts structural and non-structural damage. [5]). and R(t) is the restoring force. ξ (2) where the natural circular frequency and damping ratio are given by (3) and k is the initial stiffness of the system. the effect of soil conditions was not taken into account. üg is the ground acceleration.html12/05/2010 06:35:21 a. Kiremidjian et al. statistical studies that have included non-linear behavior have only considered a small number of recorded ground motions (Veletsos [6]. The objective of this paper is to present the result of a statistical study of inelastic strength demands on single-degree-offreedom (SDOF) systems in which a large number of recorded ground motions was considered.. constant ductility nonlinear spectra are obtained by computing the response of a family of SDOF systems with the use of the computer program NLSPECTRA which was developed specifically for this purpose.page_578 < previous page page_578 next page > Page 578 that.m. Riddell et al. Equation 1 is frequently expressed as a function of the natural circular frequency.

alluvium. In this study. while a value greater than unity indicates inelastic response... The ground motions were classified into three groups according to the geologic conditions at the recording station. In NLSPECTRA iteration is done with the secant method. Strength demands for each record were then normalized using peak ground acceleration (PGA). and soft soil sites. ductilities were considered satisfactory if they were within 1% of the target ductility. Equation 2 is solved by numerical step-by-step integration using the linear acceleration method. and 3 list the selected ground motions recorded on rock. the study was limited to bilinear systems with a post-elastic stiffness of 3% of the elastic stiffness and with a damping ratio of 5% of critical. For this study 124 records were selected. Due to the large number of records and the computational effort involved in calculating constant ductility nonlinear spectra. These ground motions have more than doubled the number of records previously collected. with emphasis on those recorded in California and on those recorded during the last six years. Equilibrium violations due to stiffness changes within a step are minimized by using a variable integration time-step and by imposing equilibrium by modifying the acceleration at the end of the step.html12/05/2010 06:35:21 a. 2. 3. 96 (77%) were recorded in the last six years and 90 (73%) were recorded in California. respectively. . Computation of constant ductility response spectra involves iteration on Equation 2 with different values of yielding strength. STATISTICAL STUDY OF INELASTIC STRENGTH DEMANDS In order to improve current methods to estimate inelastic strength demands on structures a statistical study of nonlinear response spectra was conducted. 4. Selected Ground Motions In the last six years an extensive number of earthquake ground motions has been recorded in different parts of the world.page_579 < previous page page_579 next page > Page 579 The ductility ratio gives a measure of the severity of the peak displacement relative to the displacement necessary to initiate yielding. These groups were rock. Tables 1. Results from the Statistical Study Constant ductility nonlinear spectra were computed for all records in each soil group. A displacement ductility ratio less than unity represents elastic response. For ground motions recorded on rock or < previous page page_579 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. 5 and 6.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_579. 2.m. Of the total number of records. Constant ductility nonlinear spectra were computed for 124 earthquake ground motions recorded on various soil conditions ranging from rock to very soft soils. The following values of ductility were selected for this study: 1 (elastic). alluvium and very soft soil. The iteration is successful when the computed ductility reaches the specified (target) ductility within a certain tolerance that can be specified by the user.

These results are different to those reported previously by Seed et al. 4.8 seconds depending on the depth of these deposits. For Statistical analyses of spectra it makes no sense to average spectral ordinates at a certain period for ground motions with significantly different predominant periods. The maximum amplification for alluvium sites is larger than that observed at rock sites.0 seconds.html12/05/2010 06:35:23 a. and 6 (from top to bottom). 2. Hence. It can be shown that essentially the same predominant period would be obtained if the Fourier amplitude spectrum or the input energy spectrum are used instead of the velocity spectrum because of the relationship between these three spectra. in Mexico City where the soft clay deposits have approximately the same characteristics throughout the city.. 5. The spectra are plotted for displacement ductilities of 1. nonlinear spectra were computed for a fixed set of 50 periods between 0. . The shape of inelastic response spectra is significantly different to that of linear elastic spectra. it is important to characterize the demands on structures with periods shorter. Mean and plus one standard deviation inelastic strength demand spectra of 62 ground motions recorded on alluvium are shown are shown in Figures 3 and 4. For rock and alluvium sites the maximum amplifications computed in this study are practically the same as those found by Seed et al. 3. scaling of the elastic spectra using a period-independent factor to estimate inelastic strength demands is not rational.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_580. the predominant period of the motion can vary anywhere from 0. The reason for using T/Tg instead of T is that Tg can have large variations depending on the shear wave velocity of the soil and the depth of the soft deposits. For buildings on soft soil and with fundamental periods smaller than the predominant site period. longer or near the predominant period. For structural design purposes.6 second to more than 3.05 and 3. For instance. the maximum amplification (with respect to PGA) computed in that study is nearly 30% smaller than the maximum amplification computed here. where Tg is the predominant period of the ground. Moreover. [2] who computed larger amplifications for rock and alluvium sites than for soft soil sites.. Mean and mean plus one standard deviation inelastic strength demand spectra of 24 ground motions recorded on soft soil sites are shown in Figures 5 and 6. Moreover reductions are significantly affected by the soil conditions. with a smaller set of ground motions. Mean and mean plus one standard deviation inelastic strength demand spectra of 38 ground motions recorded on rock are shown in Figures 1 and 2. spectra were computed for a fixed set of 50 ratios of T/Tg. By comparing the average spectra of the three different soil conditions it can be seen that the largest dynamic amplification for elastic response (¼=1) is produced for soft soil sites. In the case of ground motions recorded on very soft soil. while for fundamental < previous page page_580 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.m. strength reductions are very small.page_580 < previous page page_580 next page > Page 580 alluvium sites. In this study the predominant period was computed as the period corresponding to the maximum spectral velocity ordinate.

B.. 3. Department of Civil Engineering. A comprehensive study of the reduction factors and their dispersion can be found in Ref.M. [9] (Miranda).m.html12/05/2010 06:35:23 a. November. Southern Methodist University. 1980. 6. Riddell. University of Illinois. and the local site conditions. Vol. 99. 311–313. For soft soil sites. Seismic Evaluation and Upgrading of Existing Buildings... 1978. Ph. alluvium and soft soil sites. University of California. B.. the estimation of the predominant period of the site is particularly important on the estimation of strength and deformation demands. SMIP-1990 Proceedings of the Seminar on Seismological and Engineering Implications of Recent Strong-Motion Data. Houston. P02. Civil and Mechanical Engineering Department. Research at Rice.. The use of period-independent strength reduction factors. 1979. J. A.. California. Probabilistic Site-Dependent Response Spectra..K. pp. A Study of Earthquake Response Spectra for Different Soil Conditions. Vol. ST1.. Katayama. T. No. and Saeki. 287–303. August. and Kapur. Site-Dependent Spectra for Earthquake-Resistant Design. pp.. Krawinkler. Mohraz. Journal of the Power Division. J. A. Newmark. 7.. Dallas. Berkeley. 6. November. < previous page page_581 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. H. Nassar. A. Sacramento. June. 106. the level of inelastic deformation. December. 9. REFERENCES 1. M. Journal of the Structural Division. January. Texas. H.. 1975. Statistical Analysis of Earthquake Acceleration Response Spectra. Seismic Design Spectra for Nuclear Power Plants.A. R. It is concluded that strength reductions produced in non-linear systems are strongly affected by the natural period of vibration. No. Veletsos.. 1973.M. pp. H. as currently specified in many seismic design recommendation may lead to unconservative designs. T.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_581. University of California at Berkeley.. 8. CONCLUSIONS Elastic and inelastic response spectra were computed for 124 ground motions recorded on rock. Seed. Report No. . 10. Transactions of the Japan Society of Civil Engineering. N. 2. EERC 74–12.UrbanaChampaign.. 1969. and Shah.. Texas. California. Blume. Earthquake Engineering Research Center. Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers.C. Structural Research Series No.. Berkeley.D. 1990. N.S. Lysmer. 4. 1974. The results indicate that the shape of the inelastic strength demands differs from the shape of elastic strength demands. K. Strength and Ductility Demands for SDOF and MDOF Systems Subjected to Whittier Narrows Earthquake Ground Motions. 5. Statistical Analysis of the Response of Non-linear Systems Subjected to Earthquakes. Rice University. Report No. August.page_581 < previous page page_581 next page > Page 581 period close to the predominant site period the reduction factors are larger than µ. May 1991..S. Kiremidjian. Iwasaki. 468. Thesis. Vol. 69–86. E.. Ugas. and Newmark. C. California Department of Conservation.. Miranda.. Response of Ground-Excited Elastoplastic Systems.

1957 PARKFIELD Rock Parkfiled Cholame Shandon No.12 0.20 0.27 0.11 0.07 0.05 0. 1989 SAN FRANCISCO Serpentine Loma Prieta Presidio October 17.1(MS) 7..08 0. 1989 SAN FRANCISCO Franciscan Loma Prieta Cliff House sandstone October 17.53 0. INVEST.1986 GEOTECH.1(MS) 5. 1989 Table 1.3 19 7 16 99 97 98 95 95 next page > DIRECTION PGA [g’s] N10E S80E N65E N21E N69W N10E S80E N70E S20E NOOE N90E NOOE N90E N90W SOOE 270 180 90 180 180 90 90 360 90 360 90 360 90 0 360 270 90 0 90 360 90 360 0. 1971 LLOLLEO Sandstone & Central Chile volcanic rock March 3.4(MS) 5. 5.10 0. Balsamo San Salvador INSTITUTE Formation October 10.8(MS) 7.62 0.4(MS) 5. 1985 LA UNION Metavolcanic Michoacan Rock Sept.1 (MS) 8.42 0.7 5.17 0.08 0.3(ML) 5. 19. 1989 YERBA BUENA Franciscan Loma Prieta ISLAND sandstone October 17.. [km] 11 7 29 45 84 84 44 135 5. 19.1(MS) 7.15 0. .68 0. URBAN Fluviate San Salvador CONSTRUCTION Pumice rock October 10.11 0.47 0. 1966 CASTAIC Sandstone San Fernando old Ridge Road February 9.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_582.13 0.41 0.1986 INST.39 0.19 0.67 0. 1985 VALPARAISO Volcanic Central Chile rock March 3. 1985 LAVILLITA Gabbro Michoacan Rock Sept. DIST. Selected ground motions recorded at rock sites < previous page page_582 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.8(MS) 8. 19. Fluviate San Salvador CENTER Pumice rock October 10.03 GEOLOGY EARTHQUAKE DATE MAGN. 1987 CORRALITOS Landslide Loma Prieta Eureka Canyon Road deposits October 17.38 0.3 4.16 0. 1989 SAN FRANCISCO Franciscan Loma Prieta Rincon Hill sandstone October 17.43 0.1986 MT WILSON Quartz Whittier-Narrows Caltech Seismic Station diorite October 1.html12/05/2010 06:35:24 a.18 0.32 0.06 0.13 0.48 0.6(ML) 6.2 June 27.1(MS) 7.10 0.1(MS) 8. 1989 SANTA CRUZ Limestone Loma Prieta UCSC October 17.1(MS) 7.m.06 0.16 0. 1989 SAN FRANCISCO Franciscan Loma Prieta Pacific Heights sandstone October 17.5(ML) 7.1(MS) 7.09 0.1(ML) 7.1(MS) SAN FRANCISCO Slliceous San Francisco Golden Gate Park sandstone March 22.page_582 < previous page Page 582 STATION NAME page_582 EPICTR. 1985 ZIHUATANEJO Tunalite Michoacan Rock Sept.4(MS) 6. 1985 NATL GEOGR.1(MS) 7.67 0.43 0.

52 0.8 (MS) 7.[km] 8 56 41 35 38 110 21 3 22 21 84 88 49 7 13 26 next page > DIRECTION S90W SOOE N21E S69E N52E S38W N90E SOOW N46W S44W N90W NOOE 360 270 S40E S50W S40E S50W S40E S50W N50E S40E N70W S20W SOOE N90W 270 180 90 360 130 40 PGA [g’s] 0. 1971 HOLLYWOOD Alluvium San Fernando Free Field February 9. Fed.22 0.36 0.16 0. DIST.12 0.34 0. Selected ground motions recorded at alluvium sites < previous page page_583 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Savings Bldg. 1978 MELOLAND Alluvium Imperial Valley Interstate 8 Overpass October 15.4 (MS) 6. February 9.8 (MS) 8.40 0..page_583 < previous page Page 583 STATION NAME GEOLOGY page_583 MAGN.6 (ML) 6.1 (ML) 6.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_583.30 0. 1985 ALHAMBRA Alluvium Whittier-Narrows Freemont School October 1.1 (ML) 6. 19.15 0.23 0.6 (ML) 6.15 0.16 0.. 1971 AVE. 1985 ZACATULA Alluvium Michoacan Sept.18 0.21 0. June 12. 1952 FIGUEROA Alluvium San Fernando 445 Figueroa St.STARS Silt & sand San Fernando 1901 Ave.6 (ML) 7. 1987 Table 2. 63 (ML) 7.15 0. 1979 BONDS CORNER Alluvium Imperial Valley Highways 98 & 115 October 15.7 (MS) 6.37 0. COLLEGE Alluvium Imperial Valley El Centro Array # 7 October 15.33 0.5 (ML) 7.44 0. 1940 TAFT Aluvium Kern County Lincoln School Tunnel July 21. 1987 BURBANK Alluvium Whittier-Narrows Cal.17 EARTHQUAKE DATE EL CENTRO Alluvium Imperial Valley Irrigation District May 18.m.45 0. 1979 EL ALMENDRAL Compacted Central Chile fill March 3. of the Stars layers February 9. October 1.14 0.31 0.29 0.31 0.html12/05/2010 06:35:24 a. 1979 IMPERIAL V.26 0.6 (ML) 6. 1971 SENDAI CITY Alluvium Miyagi-Ken-Okl Kokutetsu Bldg.24 0.30 0.1 (ML) EPICTR. 1979 JAMES ROAD Alluvium Imperial Valley El Centro Array # 5 October 15.77 0.5 (ML) 65 (ML) 6. .58 0.17 0.1 (MS) 6. 1987 ALTADENA Alluvium Whittier-Narrows Eaton Canyon Park October 1.21 0. 1985 VINA DEL MAR Alluvial Central Chile sand March 3.17 0.

63 0. 1987 Whittier-Narrows October 1.15 0. .16 0.36 0. 1987 Whittier-Narrows October 1.63 0.. 1987 Whittier-Narrows October 1.29 0.45 0.page_584 < previous page Page 584 STATION NAME DOWNEY County Maint. 1987 Whittier-Narrows October 1. 1987 Whittier-Narrows October 1. 1989 Loma Prieta October 17.12 0.44 0.23 0..1 (ML) 6. 1987 Whittier-Narrows October 1.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_584. 1987 Whittier-Narrows October 1.17 0.[km] 17 25 22 27 25 10 27 8 44 10 8 9 48 92 51 next page > DIRECTION 270 180 90 360 360 270 90 360 90 360 360 270 90 360 360 270 90 360 90 360 90 360 90 360 90 360 290 200 360 90 PGA [g’s] 0.15 0.15 0.1 (ML) 6.21 0.1 (ML) 6.1 (ML) 7.25 0.46 0.39 0.26 0.40 0.17 0. 1989 Loma Prieta October 17.46 0.1 (MS) 7. 1987 Loma Prieta October 17.1 (ML) 6.29 0. INGLEWOOD Union Oil Yard LOS ANGELES 116th School LOS ANGELES Baldwin Hills LOS ANGELES Hollywood Storage FF LOS ANGELES Obregon Park LONG BEACH Rancho Los Cerritos SAN MARINO Southwestern Academy TARZANA Cedar Hill Nursery WHITTIER 7215 Bright Tower ALBA 900 S. 6. 1987 Whittier-Narrows October 1.html12/05/2010 06:35:25 a. 1989 MAGN.22 < previous page page_584 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.43 0. STANFORD Parking Garage GEOLOGY Deep alluvium Terrace deposits Terrace deposits Alluvium over shale Alluvium Alluvium Alluvium Alluvium Alluvium Alluvium Alluvium Alluvium Alluvium Alluvium Alluvium page_584 EARTHQUAKE DATE Whittier-Narrows October 1.1 (ML) 6.27 0.1 (ML) 6. 1987 Whittier-Narrows October 1.1 (MS) 7.20 0. Bidg. 1989 Loma Prieta October 17. 1987 Whittier-Narrows October 1.19 0.1 (ML) 6.1 (ML) 6. DIST.1 (MS) EPICTR.m.1 (ML) 6.Fremont CAPITOLA Fire Station HOLLISTER South & Pine OAKLAND 2-Story Office Bldg.24 0.25 0.1 (ML) 6.1 (MS) 7.20 0.

1 (MS) 8.26 EARTHQUAKE DATE BUCHAREST Soft Romania Building Research Inst.1 (MS) 7.28 0.08 0.1 (MS) 7.26 0. day Sept 19.07 0. 1985 CENTRAL DE ABASTOS Soft Michoacan Frigorifico day Sept 19. y Transport.29 0.1 (MS) 7. 1989 Table 3.20 0.9 (MS) 7.[km] 174 385 389 389 – 97 97 95 98 79 95 63 next page > DIRECTION EW SN N90W SOOE 99. 1989 FOSTER CITY Bay mud Loma Prieta Redwood Shores October 17. 7.56 67.95 N90W SOOE 350 260 350 260 305 125 90 360 90 360 980 350 90 0 PGA [g’s] 0. 1977 SCT Sria.52 76.08 0.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_585. March 4. 1985 CENTRAL DE ABASTOS Soft Michoacan Oficina day Sept 19.1 (MS) 8.27 0. 1989 EMERYVILLE Bay mud Loma Prieta Free Field North October 17.1 (MS) 7.10 0.05 0.page_585 < previous page Page 585 STATION NAME GEOLOGY page_585 MAGN.17 0.16 0.1 (MS) EPICTR. .23 0. de Soft Michoacan Comunic.17 0...13 0.1 (MS) 7. Selected ground motions recorded at soft soil sites < previous page page_585 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.10 0.1 (MS) 7.20 0. DIST. 1985 COLONIA ROMA Soft Acapulco day April 25.1 (MS) 8.16 0. 1989 OAKLAND Bay mud Loma Prieta Outer Harbor Wharf October 17.21 0.22 0. 1989 TREASURE ISLAND Fill Loma Prieta Naval Base October 17. 1989 EMERYVILLE Bay mud Loma Prieta Free Field South October 17.m.1 (MS) 6.33 0.53 77.06 0.10 0. 1989 SAN FRANCISCO Fill over Loma Prieta 18-Story Comercial Bldg. bay mud October 17.html12/05/2010 06:35:26 a. 1989 SAN FRANCISCO Bay mud Loma Prieta International Airport October 17.

html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:35:26 a.page_586 < previous page Page 586 page_586 next page > Figure 1. Mean plus one standard deviation strength demands of ground motions recorded on rock when normalized using PGA (µ=1. 3. 4.. Mean strength demands of ground motions recorded on rock when normalized using PGA (¼=1. 6). 3.m.. 2. 6). 5. 4.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_586. file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20. Figure 2. . 5. 2.

..html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:35:26 a. .m.page_586 < previous page page_586 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_586.

5.page_587 < previous page Page 587 page_587 next page > Figure 3. 4.mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_587. file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20. 6). 4. 6). Mean strength demands of ground motions recorded on alluvium when normalized using PGA (µ=l. 2.m. Figure 4.. Mean plus one standard deviation strength demands of ground motions recorded on alluvium when normalized using PGA (µ=l. 3.. 5. 2. 3.html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:35:27 a. .

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Mean strength demands of ground motions recorded on soft soil when normalized using PGA (µ=1. 6). Figure 6..html (1 of 2)12/05/2010 06:35:27 a. 3. 2. .. 5. 6).mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_588.page_588 < previous page Page 588 page_588 next page > Figure 5. 4.m. 3. file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20. 2. 4. Mean plus one standard deviation strength demands of ground motions recorded on soft soil when normalized using PGA (¼=1. 5.

m.html (2 of 2)12/05/2010 06:35:27 a. ...mics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_588.page_588 < previous page page_588 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20.

also considering the reversed loading case. and is one of the most important mechanisms for the transfer of the shear force. In recent years. This is due to the “Aggregate Interlock” which is caused by the interlocking of the aggregate particles protruding from the opposite rough crack faces.html12/05/2010 06:35:28 a.. 12] are some of the works which further analyze the aggregate interlock phenomenon and its various aspects. the stress formulations used are based on the experimen- < previous page page_589 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_589. 1). B•oazçi University. References [1–3] are some of the important works disclosing such results for monotonic loading. 80815 Istanbul. extensive research work has been carried out to disclose experimental results related to the stresses transmitted across such typical crack faces in terms of the related displacements (Fig.Karakoç Department of Civil Engineering. while references [2–9. Turkey ABSTRACT The object of this paper is to introduce the constitutive relations for the crack interface. substantial shear forces can be transmitted across the cracks even though there is a significant reduction in the shear strength. INTRODUCTION In a cracked plain or reinforced concrete element. assuming that the aggregate interlock is of frictional nature. In this paper. and also to develop anaytical models.page_589 < previous page page_589 next page > Page 589 Shear Transfer and Friction across Cracks in Concrete under Monotonic and Alternate Loads C. which express the stresses in terms of the related displacements for alternate loading in addition to the monotonic loading case.m. Global significance and various new aspects of such formulations. Such considerations and formulations for the alternate loading case will be confronted with experimental results.. . and coefficient of friction will be specially emphasized.

and Dei Poli et al. the crack opening is kept constant throughout the experiment while in d) the parameter kept constant during the test is the confinement stress.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_590.m. for a media characterized by parallel. [8] using the for- < previous page page_590 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Bazant and Gambarova [4] and then Walraven [2] have already shown based on smeared approach. Refs. Kupfer et al.. using such relations proposed by Walraven [2]. Gambarova and Karakoç [5] have presented a short survey on the researchers and their works related to such tests. As to the fields of application and design. Figure 1. These stress formulations are represented by the “Gambarova-Karakoç Model” which is one of the rather few successful models which are widely recognized and used. The types of set-ups. . It naturally follows that in numerical methods such as finite element method. In c). In types 2. [7]. 11].page_590 < previous page page_590 next page > Page 590 tal results of the first two references for monotonic loading.a) and Figure 2. [10. and closely spaced cracks. that such constitutive laws can be obtained from the stress-displacement relations for the crack. b) the confinement is provided by external and internal (embedded) bars to simulate and study the effects of reinforcement crossing a crack. regular. it should be kept in mind that the aim of all such experiments is basically oriented towards a more realistic establishment of the constitutive laws of cracked concrete. Stresses and related displacements across a typical crack. 2. it is possible to express and update the constitutive laws of concrete at each increment of load by making use of such relations.html12/05/2010 06:35:28 a. EXPERIMENTAL ASPECTS AND FIELDS OF APPLICATION The typical experimental set-ups which are employed in the tests to obtain results and information about the behaviour of the cracks and especially the relation between the stresses and displacements across the crack are shown in Fig..

the following expression was introduced for the evaluation of confinement stress for the case of varying displacement and stress: (1) This semi-empirical expression checks the basic physical criteria expected for the behaviour of the crack. (1). (2) < previous page page_591 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. For the constant crack opening case.3 and Fig.” Furthermore. Gambarova and Karakoç [5. Karakoç [9] has proposed the following formulation : (2) This formulation which is quite handy because of its simplicity.page_591 < previous page page_591 next page > Page 591 mulations of Gambarova and Karakoç [5].ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_591. even though they are similar in basic form. Walraven and Keuser [15] also refer to Nissen [14] and present his results for the path dependency. (1) were in very good agreement with the test results given by Walraven [2] and those by Millard and Johnson in the papers referred in [16]. Walraven and Keuser [15] cites the words of Millard and Johnson [16]: “If a cracked specimen undergoes shear displacement without crack widening occurring there must be a great deal of irreversible crushing damage caused.html12/05/2010 06:35:29 a. Karakoç [9]. has already shown that the predictions of Eq. such criteria having been summarized by Bazant and Gambarova [4]. 16] have shown that the predictions of Eq. . This is expected. have analyzed the contributions of aggregate interlock to the shear capacity of thin webbed reinforced and prestressed I beams. If the crack is then widened.. it might be expected that the shear and normal stresses would be quite different from those that would result if the crack was first widened and then caused to shear. for the tests he has carried out at constant crack opening in which all basic variables (two stresses and related displacements) were disclosed.4. predictions of Eq.. (2) were in a very good agreement with all the results of Daschner [1]. can be seen to be considerably different from Eq. FORMULATION OF THE STRESSES AND COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION As for the formulations for the relation between stresses and displacements related to a crack in concrete proposed by Gambarova and Karakoç [5]. In Fig.m.

aggregate size. have been compared with the results given by Daschner and Kupfer [6] for the constant crack opening case of δn=0. Test results of Daschner and Kupfer [6] and predictions of Eq. Da being the max. Making use of Eq.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_592.. both having a cube strength of 55Mpa. (2).2mm for normal and lightweight concrete.html12/05/2010 06:35:29 a. Test results of Daschner and Kupfer [6] and predictions of Eq..page_592 < previous page Page 592 page_592 next page > Figure 3. . the coefficient of friction (¼ =σnt/σnn) can be given as: < previous page page_592 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. Figure 4. (1). (2).m.

html12/05/2010 06:35:30 a. Test results and predictions of Eq. 3–4. 3) is checked as shown in Figs. Using the same data as for Figs. < previous page page_593 next page > file:///F|/LIbros%20de%20ingenieria_21/LIbros%20de%20ing. .page_593 < previous page Page 593 page_593 next page > (3) Figure 5.. (3).m. Figure 6.ynamics_and_Earthquake_Engineering_V/files/page_593. Eq. (3). T