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AEROFLOT: AN AIRLINE AND ITS AIRCRAFT

T-
[i] ••••
Aeroflot:
An Illustrated History
ofthe World1s Largest Airline
By R_E_G_ DA.VIES • I ••_ s t r c a t ~ d by IIWIIIKE IIWIIA.CHA.T
AEROFLOT:
AN AIRLINE AND ITS AIRCRAFT
An Illustrated History of the Worldls Largest Airline
OTHER BOOKS BY R.E.G. DAVIES
A History of the World's Airlines
Airlines of the United States Since 1914
Airlines of Latin America Since 1919
Continental Airlines - the First Fifty Years
Rebels and Reformers of the Airways
Pan Am: An Airline and Its Aircraft
Lufthansa: An Airline and Its Aircraft
Delta: An Airline and Its Aircraft

AEROFLOT: AN AIRLINE AND ITS AIRCRAFT
An Illustrated History of the Worldls Largest Airline
By R.E.G. Davies
Illustrated by Mike Machat
PALADWR PRESS
DEDICATION
With the support of his dear wife, Patricia, John Stroud
has devoted a lifetime of painstaking work to the cause of air
transport. He has researched, written, and meticulously
edited countless books, many of which are of such renown
that they are referred to simply as 'Stroud'. I have been
inspired by John's zeal, integrity, and enthusiasm.
In dedicating this book to him, I hope also that I shall come
up to his own exacting standards.
Text and maps copyright © 1992 by R.E.G. Davies
Art illustrations copyright © 1992 by Mike Machat
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and
retrieval system, without the written permission of the publisher.
Published by Paladwr Press, P.O. Box 1467P, RockVille, MD 20850, USA
Manufactured in Hong Kong
Designed by R.E.G. Davies
Artwork by Mike Machat
Edited and Produced by John Wegg
Typesetting/Layout by Fisher & Day, San Francisco
Prepress and Press Management by The Drawing Board
ISBN 0-9626483-1-0
First Edition
-
-
CONTENTS
Introduction
Prelude
Prelude to Air Transport
The First Multi-
engined Transport
The Early Airlines
The First Soviet Air Services
Formation of Dobrolet
Ukrvozdukhput and Zakavia
Dobrolet's First Steps
Dobrolet Spreads Its Wings
Aeroflot's Early Years
Dobrolet becomes Aeroflot
To The End of the Line
Airline to the Arctic
Aviaarktika
The North Pole
Life Support for APolar Station
The Great Polar Flights
Aeroflot Expands
ANationwide Airline
The Great Patriotic War
Post-War Pistons
Post-War Struggle
Piston-Engined Twilight
Versatile Biplane
The Jet Age
The World's First
Sustained Jet Service
Technical Transformation
Turboprop Workhorse
AMainliner from Kiev
Long-Range Turboprop
............................................................................. 6-7
I1'ya Muromets : 8-9
ACountry in Chaos 10-11
Fokker F.Ill 12-13
Junkers-F 13 14-15
Deruluft Progress 16-17
Showing the Flag 18-19
Kalinin K-5 20-21
ANT-9 .22-23
Flying Boats of the Far East.. 24-25
Opening Up the North 26-27
The Arctic Experience 28-29
ANT-6 30-31
A T-25 32-33
Flights Long and Short... 34-35
Aeroflot Turns to Douglas 36-37
Lisunov Li-2 38-39
Ilyushin I1-14 40-41
Antonov An-2 .42-43
Tupolev Tu-104 44-45
Tupolev Tu-124 46-47
Ilyushin I1-18 .48-49
Antonov An-lOA 50-51
Tupolev Tu-114 52-53
Long-Range Jet
Short-Haul Turboprop
Short-Haul Jet
The Mini-Liners
Standard Trijet
The SST
Supersonic Diversion
The First Big Air Freighter
Air Freighter Development
Arctic and Antarctic Activity
Arctic Ice Stations
Antarctica
A Social Service
Siberian School Bus
The Helicopters
Airline Helicopters
"We Built a Railroad"
Kamov Virtuosity
Heavy Lifters
Agriculture
Seventy Years of Aviation
Aid to Agriculture
The New Jet Age
Ilyushin I1-76
World Airline Status
The First Soviet Airbus
World's Biggest
Into the Nineties
Metamorphosis
Index
Bibliography
Ilyushin I1-62M 54-55
Antonov An-24 56-57
Tupolev Tu-134 58-59
Yakolev Yak-40 and Let L41OUVP-E 60-61
Tupolev Tu-154 62-63
Tupolev Tu-144 64-65
Antonov An-22 66-67
Ice Floe Air Service 68-69
The Last Continent .70-71
An-2s in the Far East 72-73
Mil Mi-2 74-75
Mil Mi-8 76-77
Sheer Versatility 78-79
Mil Mi-6P and Mil-10K 80-81
King of the Crop Sprayers 82-83
Yakovlev Yak-42 84-85
AGlobal Network 86-87
Ilyushin I1-86 88-89
Antonov An,124 90-91
Airbus A310-300 92-93
Like No Other 94-95
............................................................................. 96
............................................................................. 96
Introduction
Father of Russian Aviation - The Constructor
No book on Russian aviation is complete without refer-
ence to the inventor Aleksander Fedorovich
Mozhaisky (1825-1890). He began to study bird flight
when aged 31, and during the next 20 years, experiment-
ed with models. He flew kites and designed propellers. In
1876 he himself flew in a large kite, towed by a team of
three horses.
In 1877, the War Ministry granted 3,000 rubles for further
tests, and on 23 March 1878 Mozhaisky outlined an ambi-
tious 'large apparatus' able to lift a man. Granted a further
2,000 rubles, he traveled to England in 1880 to obtain,
from R. Baker, Son, and Hemkiens, two small steam
engines, one of 20hp, the other of ten. On 3 November
1981, he received a 'Privilege' to build his flying machine.
Parts were constructed at the Baltiisky factory at St
Petersburg and assembled at the Krasny Selo military
field. On 31 January 1883, he approached the Russian
Techmcal Society with a request to demonstrate his appa-
ratus. By the end of the year, it was moving under its own
power, at least on the ground.
The fuselage and the tail, as well as the 353m
2
(3,800sq
ft) square planform wing, were built of wood, with steel
angle brackets, and covered with varnished silk fabric, as
were the three four-bladed propellers, the center one of
which was 8.75m (28ft 7in) in diameter.
Some time in 1884, an unknown pilot attempted to fly
Mozhaisky's apparatus. He was launched down a sloping
ramp, but failed to take to the air because of inadequate
power. Mozhaisky ordered more powerful engines from
the Obukhovsky steelworks, but died before the work
was completed.
Other Russian scientists and inventors, such as S.l.
Chernov, K.Ye. Isiolkovsky, and S.A. Chaplygin, all
made considerable contributions to aeronautical knowl-
edge during the 1890s.
Father of Russian Aviation - The Scientist
It was left to a notable scholar of the next generation to
examine the scientific principles of flight and to publish
analyses of his research. Nikolai Yegorovich
Zhnkovskiy (1847-1921) is recognized in Russia as the
founder of modern aerodynamics and hydrodynamics.
Zhukovskiy graduated at Moscow University in 1868,
taught at the Moscow Higher Technical School (M.V.T.U.)
from 1872, and, from 1886, simultaneously at the
6
University. He continued teaching in Moscow, and super-
vised the construction of his first wind tunnel in 1902,
founded Europe's first aerodynamic institute in 1904, and
M.V.T.U.'s own aerodynamics laboratory in 1910.
His continued studies led to the publication of the law
governing lift in 1906, profiles of aerofoils and propellers
in 1910-11, and analyses of propeller tip vortices in 1912-
13. He published many important monographs on aero-
dynamic theory.
In 1918, Nikolai Zhukovskiy was chosen to head the pres-
tigious Central Aero-Hydrodynamics Institute (TsAGI). He
died in 1921, but such was his stature that TsAGI became
known as the Zhukovskiy Institute.
Acknowledgements
The compilation of this book would not have been possible
without the cordial cooperation of the International Commercial
D e p a ~ t m e n t of Aeroflot, under the direction of Vladimir
Tikhonov, and with the supervision of Vladimir Masenkov,
who assembled a team to proVide data essential for the work.
The team consisted of Vadim Suvarov, veteran pilot of the
Great Patriotic War; Boris Urenovsky, Professor of the Civil
Aviation Institute in Moscow; and Tatiana Vinogradova,
once a senior flight attendant (she flew on the Tupolev Tu-114
to Havana and to Tokyo). Together the team helped to ensure
that errors in early drafts were corrected and accuracy ensured.
Much of the Russian documentation was translated by
Alex Kampf, an enthusiastic student of Aeroflot history. In
Moscow, I received great support from my good friend Yuri
Salnikov, television director of aviation documentaries and
author of magazine articles on famous Soviet airmen. He
introduced me to Vladimir Samoroukov, who examined
my credentials and first approved the book project.
Vasily Karpy, editor of Vozduzhny Transport, proof-read
the text and gave valuable advice. He also introduced me to
Boris Vdovienko, photographer par excellence, from whose
magnificent collection I was able to draw. Veteran pioneer
pilot, General Georgy Baidukov, Valery Chkalov's right
hand on his epic 1937 polar crossing, gave me a personal
insight into the workings of the old Aeroflot, and a first-hand
account of the historic meeting with Josef Stalin in 1936.
I received generous help from many others. In
Leningrad/St Petersburg, I was hosted by the Academy of
Civil Aviation, where Professor-Director Georgy Kryzhanovsky,
Deputy Director Anatoly Khvostovsky, Nina Nekrasovich, Irene
Volkova, Vitaly Khalikov, and the Academy's librarian, Natella
Safronova, were most helpful. In Novgorod, thanks to the
Chief of the Sub-Region, Anatoli Golovanov, and Deputy Chief
Vladimir Bolovsky, I was able to sample the crop-spraying ver-
satility of the remarkable Antonov An-2. In Khabarovsk, the
Vozduzhny Transport correspondent, Oleg Borisov, has been a
catalyst for some thrilling research. Through the courtesy of
Vladimir Skripnik, Director of the Far Eastern Region of
Aeroflot, I learned much about the airline's provincial opera-
tions, including a demonstration of the acrobatic prowess of
the An-2. At Nikolayevsk-na-Amure, Valery Dolmatov,
Head of the Nikolayevsk station and also a deputy to the
Russian Parliament in Moscow, afforded me the extraordinary
privilege of making a helicopter pilgrimage to the dignified
monument on Chkalov (formerly Udd) Island; and I met
Vadim Romanuk, local helicopter mechanic and historian,
who inspired the erection of the monument. Later, Leonid
Nagorny, who succeeded Skripnik in 1991 (and whose 50th
birthday party I shall long remember), Vladimir Lenuk,
Aleksander Glushko, and Vladimir Kuznetzov, also gave me
much assistance. In Tyumen, Director Vladimir Illarionov and
especially Mikhail Ponomarev opened my eyes to the heli-
copter capital of the world. At Krasnoyarsk, Deputy Director
Boris Kovchenkov was most hospitable, as was Nikolei
Klimenko at Yeneseisk. At Irkutsk, Vladimir Sokolnikov and
Peter Osharov were generous hosts, and my gUide to the excel-
lent museum there was Professor-Doctor Yvgeny Altunin,
aviation historian and author from Irkutsk University.
Similarly, at Yakutsk, General Director, Vitaly Pinaev, Mikhail
Vasilev and others introduced me to the special problems of
operations in Yakutia, and to aviation historians Ivan
Nygenblya and Vladimir Pesterev.
Back in Moscow, I was able to meet Genrikh
Novozhilov, Igor Katyrev, Aleksander Shakhnovich, and
Georgy Sheremetev, of the Ilyushin Design Bureau; Yuri
Popov, Gleb Mahetkin, and Sergei Agavilyan, of Tupolev; and
Aleksander Domdukov and Evegeny Tarassov, of Yakovlev. I
interviewed veteran Aeroflot pilots such as Constantin
Sepulkin and Aleksander Vitkovsky. Tatiana Vinogradova,
Vasily Karpy, Yuri Salnikov, and Viktor Temichev arranged
the programs of visits - no easy task during often-congested
traveling schedules.
I must not forget the eminent British writers who have
contributed so much to the annals of Soviet aviation history
during times when information was most difficult to obtain.
Veteran author and authority John Stroud, airline chroni-
cler Klaus Vomhof, and technical specialist Bill Gunston
have all produced pioneering works that have become stan-
dard references (see bibliography) for latterday writers such as
myself. Bob Ruffle, stalwart of Air-Britain's Russian Aviation
Research Group, generously supplied pre-war fleet data and
scrutinized the text. Carl Bobrow and Harry Woodman
provided expertise on the Il'ya Muromets and Paul Duffy's
camera work and information bulletins on post-U.S.S.R.
developments (not to mention his scoop in ascertaining the
Lisunov Li-2 production total) have been invaluable.
Author
This book started a long time ago. In the late 1950s, when I was
researching material for my HistOlY of the World's Airlines, I was
fascinated by the Soviet airline that seemed to be performing an
enormous task, but of which little was known. An almost
impenetrable curtain shrouded all but a trickle of information
from Moscow. Travel was severely restricted, and even in the
decades that followed, was scanty and sporadic, to selected
tourist destinations. In 1988, however, when Mikhail Gorbachev
drew aside the curtain, an opportunity seemed at last to be in
sight, and I once again approached the Soviet Embassy for per-
mission to visit Aeroflot.
In 1990, I made the first reconnaissance to Moscow, and
asked to see the workings of the secondary, feeder, and bush
services of the vast domestic network. The International
Department responded admirably. I visited the Far Eastern
Division, flew in the Antonov An-2 and An-24, and, in a Mil
Mi-2, made a pilgrimage to the dignified monument to the
Chkalov crew on the former Udd Island. I began to feel the
pulse of Aeroflot, to meet its pilots, its managers, and its staff,
and to realize that this huge airline was as dedicated to its task
as any other airline of world stature.
Returning to Moscow, I was privileged to sit at the desks
of the late Andrei Tupolev and Sergei IlYUShin, and to visit
the museums of the great design bureaux. Welcomed every-
where with courtesy and enthusiasm, my appetite was whet-
ted for more.
In 1991, I co'htinued the mission. I visited the
Leningrad Aviation Academy, did some simulated crop-
dusting at Novgorod, and rounded off a round-the-world
trip (all on Aeroflot) by visiting old friends in Khabarovsk.
On the return to the U.S., I made the decision to begin
this book.
In 1992, I made a whistle-stop tour of Siberia (by this time
the Soviet Union had become the CIS) and gained first-hand
knowledge of the array of different roles played by Aeroflot,
in agriculture, forestry, fishing patrol, ambulance and emer-
gency work, and construction, especially in oilfields,
pipelines, power lines, and railroads. Everywhere, I enjoyed
visits to museums. Every region of Aeroflot has its historians,
justly proud of their heritage.
Telling the story, and meeting some of the people who
have contributed to it, has been an exciting and stimulating
exercise. Finally, I must record the great pleasure of working
once again with the 'Old Firm' who produced the previous
books in the series: Pan Am, Lufthansa, and Delta. To con-
sult, to review, to plan, and to organize - and yes, some-
times to argue - with my good friends artist Mike Machat
and producer/editor John Wegg has been a rewarding, (if at
times strenuous), and totally fulfilling experience.
- R.E.G. Davies.
Artist
As with previous books in this series, Machat's Law has been
a constant and often unwelcome companion. The Law states
(as some readers will know) that for any single type of airlin-
er, no two individual aircraft are painted exactly the same;
and very few carry their original paint scheme for the whole
of their lives.
In recent years, Aeroflot's enormous fleet of front-line air-
craft - I exclude the feeder types, whose color schemes are
legion - have carried more or less standardized markings. But
this was not the case in years gone by, when Soviet aircraft
design bureaux seemed to delight in individualism. Dozens of
lettering styles were used for the word AEROFLOT, and I have
identified a host of different versions of the airline's logo.
Fortunately (and unlike its U.S. counterpart) the Soviet flag
remained constant.
In the size comparisons, I have used the Ilyushin I1-86,
Aeroflot's largest wide-bodied aircraft, roughly comparable
with the McDonnell Douglas DC-10. - Mike Machat.
Producer/Editor
This book is designed according to the successful formula set
by its predecessor volumes on Pan American World Airways,
Lufthansa, and Delta Air Lines. The same standards of accura-
cy, relevance, and balance have been set, but inevitably, some
problems arose.
With the aircraft specifications, we have been conscious of
the dangers of misrepresenting performance by associating,
for example, the maximum range with maximum passenger
and/or cargo load. The term normal, where used, therefore, is
not a retreat to a broad generalization, but normality correctly
expressed. ATupolev Tu-114, for example, could fly 10,000km
(6,000mi), but could not do so with a full payload.
Spelling presented real difficulties. Transliteration from the
Russian, a language with vowel and consonant sounds differ-
ent from most others, has been and still is interpreted in
English in several ways. Aeroflot's predecessor airline has been
spelled Dobroliot, Dobrolyot, Dobriolot, and the generally
accepted Dobrolet, which latter, in fact, is misleading, because
it omits the y sound. We have done our best to be consistent.
Some place names have changed according to political
decree, and several major cities, Leningrad, Kuibyshev, and
Sverdlovsk, for example, changed back to their pre-Revolution
names (St Petersburg, Samara, and Ekaterinberg, respectively)
even while this book was being written. We have attempted, in
the text, the tables, and the maps, to be contemporarily correct.
With a current fleet alone in the region of 11,000 air-
craft, it was impossible to attempt to include individual air·
craft details as in the previous volumes-even if they were
available. Instead, emphasis has been placed on the pre-war
non-Soviet aircraft, and selected post-war types where the
listing did not preclude essential text, photographs, drawings,
or other tabular data.
The computerized layout of the text and final design
according to Ron Davies's original plan was fashioned and
polished by Kimberley Fisher, of Fisher & Day; and Paladwr
Press is much indebted to her and Brian Day for their enthusi-
astic support and professional advice. Printing, once again,
was accomplished under the professional direction of Scott
. Piazza of The Drawing Board. -John Wegg.
The People's Airline
Aeroflot traces its direct ancestry back to 1923, but its
mission began in 1930, with the proclamation of the first
Soviet Five Year Plan, which, among other objectives,
charged the airline with proViding an air service for all
the people, an obligation as essential as public housing,
public utilities, or an urban subway system. Profit-making
was irrelevant. Aeroflot received its aircraft, fuel, airport
facilities, and ground services from the State; and in
return it performed a public service for the State.
Business travel no longer existed as there were no pri-
vate businesses. First-class service was therefore not
required. Indeed, it was politically undesirable, although
senior officials usually received preferential treatment. As
Aeroflot grew, it was able to offer extremely cheap travel
to tens of millions of Soviet people, in the equivalent of
America's Greyhound Bus, and just as affordable for the
ordinary citizen.
Such a true People's Airline, with fares set low, with pas-
sengers paying only for the transport, not for meals and
amenities, has been alien to the minds of many western
commentatorS. In the West, air travel was at first the priv-
ilege of the rich, with very high fares, and only filtered
down to economy-class and group travel levels in later
years. In the Soviet Union, the reverse was the case. Only
when the airline expanded its horizons into the western
world, mainly during the past three decades, did it need
to cope with first-class cabin standards. But the people's
airbus service, for politicians and peasants alike, Aeroflot
has done its job superbly.
Aeroflot Director-Generals
1930-33 B.I. Baranov 1957-59 P.F. Shigarev
1933-35 I.S. Unshlikht 1959-70 Ye.F. Loginov
1935-38 I.F. Tkachev 1970-87 B.P. Bugaev
1938-42 V.S. Molokov 1987-90 A.N. Volkov
1942-47 FA Astakhov 1990-91 B.Ye. Paniokov
1947-49 G.F. Baidukov 1991-92 A.A. Larin
1949-57 S.F. Zhavaronkov
7
-
<:> St Petersburg
Orsha
THE EPIC FLIGHT
OF THE
II'yo Muromets
30 June-12 J u ~ 1914
The famous picture of the II'ya Muromets - probably the Russian
Knight prototype - flying low over the airfield at St Petersburg in
1913 or 1914. (photo: United Tecbnologies)
Petersburg to Kiev, with only one stop, to refuel, at Orsha.
Taking off at 1.00 a.m. from Korpusnoi airfield, the crew
arrived triumphantly at Kiev in the early afternoon of the
next day. On 12 July, they returned to St Petersburg, this time
covering the 1,060km (660mi) in only 13 hours.
But a month later, the Lights Went Out in Europe, and
Russia was swept into the Great War. The Sikorsky aircraft
were put into production, to be used for reconnaissance and
for bombing, and gave a good account of themselves.
.'
gel's aboard. The Il'ya Muromets was named after a legendary
Russian folk hero, but it deserves an heroic place in the reality
of aviation's Hall of Fame.
The Myth
While reports of these events were published, so that the Il'ya
Muromets was well known in Russia, the western European
countries seemed not to believe the bulletins. The aircraft was
even regarded as something of a freak, only one or two were
thought to have been built, and that they were unsuccessful.
While the French, German, and British aircraft manufacturers,
engulfed in the demands of the Great War, paid little atten-
tion to the obvious potential of the multi-engined aircraft so
ably demonstrated in St Petersburg, Sikorsky forged ahead,
and continuously improved the breed. Far from being a tran-
sitory experiment, as many liked to think, the I1'ya
Muromets was the greatest advance in aircraft technology
since the Wrights; records indicate that at least 80 aircraft,
and possibly more, came off the 'production line'.
The Great Flight
The pictures taken of the Il'ya Muromets in 1914 necessarily
show the aircraft at low altitude, because few other aircraft
could position themselves to match the Sikorsky giant at
1,800m (6,000ft), an altitude already achieved by the summer.
Any doubts about its performance, however, were quickly dis-
pelled. On 30 June of that year, the Il'ya Muromets, with a
crew of three as well as Sikorsky in command, flew from St
Prelude to Air Transport
Igor Sikorsky - Aviation Genius
For many years during the early development of the commer-
cial airliner, little notice was taken of, or little credit given to,
the remarkable achievements of the Russian designer, Igor
Sikorsky. Less than ten years after the historic flight of the
Wright brothers on 17 December 1903, and while designers in
other countries were still dabbling with single-engined light
aircraft, Sikorsky built a multi-engined giant that began to car-
ry respectable loads of passengers, in acceptable comfort, on
demonstrations and test flights over the city of St Petersburg.
Born in Kiev in 1889, Sikorsky was the son of a professor
at the Imperial University of St Vladimir, and was fortunate in
being able to study at Kiev Polytechnic Institute and also in
Paris. He quickly embraced the science of aeronautics, then in
its embryo stage and, early in 1912, was able to propose the
idea of a multi-engined aircraft to Mikhail Shidlovsky,
chairman of the Russo-Baltic Wagon Company at St
Petersburg. Sikorsky advocated more than one engine because
of the notorious unreliability of power plants at that time.
Shidlovsky was impressed, and authorized construction of the
world's first four-engined aircraft on 30 August 1912.
Development of a Magnificent Machine
On IS March 1913 (Julian calendar - add 13 days to convert
to the modern, Gregorian, calendar - same as western calen-
dar from 1 January 1918) the Sikorsky Le Grand made its
maiden flight at the Komendantsky airfield. Built of wood
and fabric by skilled carpenters, it would eventually weigh
4,200kg (9,240Ib) and carry a load of 700kg (1,600Ib) at
80km/h (SOmph). Because of its - for the time - awesome
size, and with two extra engines fitted in tandem, it was soon
called the Bolshoi Baltiskiy (Great Baltic). During that
summer, the extra engines were moved to line abreast along
the wing, and it was again renamed the Russkiy vityaz
(Russian Knight). First flown in that form on 23 July (Julian),
it was inspected by Tsar Nicholas II. Re-designed, the I1'ya
Muromets, with four tractor engines mounted in line along
the wings, first flew in October 1913 (Julian).
By February 1914, the four-engined giant was able to carry
11 tons - at that time more than any other aircraft's total
weight; in June, it stayed aloft for 61 hours, with six passen-
The cabin of the II'ya Muromets was as comfortable as those of
many a post-World War I passenger aircraft. It was adequately
furnished, and featured electric lighting and a toilet in the rear.
(photo: United Technologies)
8
1 1 ' ~ a Muromets
6 SEATS. 80km/h (SOmph)
Argus (4 X lOOhp). MTOW 4,200kg (9,2601b). Normal Range 170km (lOSmi)
The Russo-Baltic Works
In 1838, in Riga under Tsarist Russia, in the area known as Courland, but now the capital of
Latvia - the Russko-Baltiski Vagoni zavod (R-BVZ), the Russo-Baltic Wagon Works, was
founded. It became the largest builder of railroad cars in Russia which, during the nineteenth
century, built up an extensive rail network, mainly in Europe, but extending, from 1891 to
1904, to the Pacific Ocean via the Trans-Siberian Railway. In 1905, the R-BVZ started to build
motor cars, producing the Russobalts, some of which were purchased by the Tsar. The Riga
works also turned out farm machinery and tramcars. It was a company of considerable stature in
the Russian industrial world.
In 1910, it widened its horizons further by forming an aeronautical division, building French
aircraft, mainly those designed by Roger Sommer. Such progressive fleXibility was inspired by
the remarkable general director of R-BVZ, Mikhail V. Shidlovsky, who decided to move the
aeronautical division to St Petersburg in 1912, to occupy some old factory buildings on the
north bank of the eva River. His attention was drawn to the creative talents of a young man
from Kiev, and on the advice of Baron General Kaulbars, Igor Sikorsky became the chief
designer of R-BVZ's aircraft works in St Petersburg. He was not yet 23 years old.
Le Grand
Early in 1912, Sikorsky had, with the help of friends from the Kiev Polytechnic, built, after earli-
er experimental types, the S-6B biplane, powered by a 100hp German Argus engine, a type
favored by Sikorsky until the Great War cut off supplies. On 14 March he established a record by
carrying four passengers at a speed of 106km/(65mph). The S-6B then won a competition
against seven other aircraft, including foreign entries; but Sikorsky decided to eliminate the
ever-present danger of disaster through engine failure, simply by haVing more than one. On 17
September 1912, he persuaded Shidlovsky (who, in turn, persuaded the R-BVZ board and the
Russian Army) to allow him to build a twin-engined version of the S-6B.
This aircraft, which was to become Le Grand, was built by master carpenters. Its fuselage was
The pioneer of all ll1ulti-engined aircraft, and ahead of foreign rivals by at least two years, the prototype came to an unusu-
al end. On 11 September, it was parked at Korpusnoi when, during a competition for military airplanes, the engine fel! off
a Mellor tail boom pusher type aircraft, flown by a Polish pilot. The engine made a direct hit on the Russkiy vityaz which
was, as the familiar phrase has it, damaged beyond repair. Fortunately, Igor Sikorsky was already building its successor, the
first I1'ya Muromcts.
Comparison with 11-86
LENGTH 20m (66ft) SPAN 28m (92ft)
made of four main ash longerons, framed by transverse and vertical members of pinewood, braced
with piano wire and additional pine tie-rods, covered with a skin of 4mm (0.15in) Kostovich
Arborit, a Russian patented plywood. The doped fabric-covered wings had the high aspect ration of
12-1. Sixteen ieuport IV wheels, in eight pairs were used for the landing gear. The most remark-
able feature was the cabin, which featured wicker armchairs, a table, electric lights, curtained win-
dows, glass paneled doors between the cabin and thecockpit, and even a toilet in the rear.
The Big Baltic
The twin-engined aircraft made its first flight on 15 March 1913 Gulian) (see oppOSite page),
and then, with two extra engines, mounted in tandem, and renamed the Bolshoi Baltiskiy
(Big Baltic) it made an impressive demonstration on 13 May 1913 at the Korpusnoi military
airfield. The flight lasted 20 minutes and Sikorsky was carried shoulder-high in triumph by the
awaiting crowd that had assembled.
The next step was to rearrange the engines, in line abreast rather than in tandem; and this
became the basic design for all subsequent versions of the big aircraft. Again renamed, this time
as the Russkiy vityaz (Russian Knight) it first flew on 23 July 1913, and on 2 August set a
world record by carrying seven passengers for Ihr 54min.
9
The First Multi-engined Transport
--
SIKORSKY MULTI-ENGINED AIRCRAFT, 1913-17 - PRODUCTION BY TYPE
Aircraft Variant Date of I Engines Remarks No.
First Built
Type Name (if any) Flight No. Type H.P. ea.
- Grand: Bolshoi { March 2 Argus 1100 Original prototype, 2engines
I
Baltiskiy 1913
(Great Balticl April 4 Argus 100 Same aircraft, with 4engines paired in tandem
1913
1
Grand: Russkiy July 4 Argus 100 Same aircraft, with 4engines on leading edge.
vityazl Russian 1913 Set aworld record by carrying 7passengers for
KnigM 1hour, 54 minutes
- Il'ya Muromets October 4 Argus 100 Also flown as floatplane, with 2xl15hp Argus + 1
1913 2x200 Salmson engines
A Kievsky (proto· Spring
I
2 Argus 100 Made the epic long distance flight, St. 1
type military 1914 2 Argus 125 Petersburg-Kiev (750 miles!. and back, with Igor
conversion) Sikorsky and crew of three, 30 June 1914
B(Behl (Series production of 4 Argus or 140 Five aircraft adapted for military use. Some, 5
military conversion) 4 Salmson 140 used only for training, had only two engines
BIVeh) Kievsky II 1914 2 Argus 140 Military version, with special modifications and 1
Imilitary versionI' 2 Argus 125 aerodynamic improvements. "Kievsky II" was
ISunbeam
squadron name
B(Veh) 1914 4 150 Production version of Type B(Veh) 36
01 DIM 1915 4 Sunbeam 150 Smaller and lighter model, with detachable
)
(IM= Il'ya wings, for ease of rail transport 3rudders. First
Murometsl 2had engines in tandem 13
02 1916 4 Sunbeam 150 Improved version of 01. Center rudder removed
to install tail gun
B(Vehl Modified as 1915 4 Sunbeam 150 Advanced military version, with larger 1
prototype for wing Crew of six.
the Gseries
G1 Familiarly 1915
I
2 Aenault 220 Production version of Gseries
known as 2 A-BVZ 150
G2
"Aussovalts"
1916
)
various: A-
I'''"'"''00~ ~ . Oil,," ~ . " I I ~ ,"", or "Aenobalts"
according to
BVZ, Aen- One G2 with Beardmore engines, attained a
ault, Argus, height of 17,000ft. 24
the engine
Hall·Scott,
G3 type used 1917 Bigger load, more defensive power
G4
IA-BVZ or
1917 4 Aenault 220 Used in 1921 for first commercial air route in
Aenault,
Soviet Union,Moscow·Nizhne Novgorod (later
respectively)
Gorky, until 19921
8
EIYe·1 ) 1916- 4 Aenault 220 Largest and most advanced of all the II'ya
EIYe-2)
1918 Muromets types, with increased bomb load and
as many as 8machine guns. Crew of eight.
TOTAL, ail multi-engined types 91
The numbers built include all airframes constructed Some of these never flew, because engines were unavailable.
Afewsub-assemblies were never put together.
All information based on original research and detailed data compiled by Carl J. Bobrow and Harry Woodman
10
Ploughshares into Swords
Just before the first !I'ya Muromets made its historic round-trip from St Petersburg to Kiev (page
8), on 28 June the Austrian Archduke Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo and Austria
declared war on'Serbia a month later. On 1 August Germany declared war on Russia, which had
decided, on 25 July, to support Serbia, Amid frantic mobilization for war, Sikorsky's plans for his
fine machine came to an end, at least for commercial purposes.
The E.V.K.
But the ability of the !I'ya Muromets to carry heavy loads over long distances was noted by
many military minds. The Russo-Baltic Works chairman, Mikhail Shidlovsky, convinced the
Russian High Command, the Stavka, that it had military applications, and in December 1914 he
was instructed to create the Escadra vozduzhnykh karablei (E.V.K.), or the Squadron of
Flying Ships, to perform flying duties on the Eastern Front, where Russia was engaged in a life-
or-death struggle with the Central Powers, and had already suffered a massive defeat at the
Battle of Tannenburg at the end of August 1914.
By 1915, the first units were deployed at Jablonna, near Warsaw, and in Galicia. Sikorsky
then began to install different engines: French Renaults, British Sunbeams, the home-built R-
BVZs, and other types. On 24 January 1915, he demonstrated Il'ya Muromets performance by
climbing to 2,500m (8,000ft) in 49 minutes, and then climbing to 3,300m (ll,OOOft). The E.V.K.
carried out bombing missions, with bomb loads of up to and even exceeding 680kg (1,500Ib);
yet the reception by the front-line commanders was lukewarm, at a time when the cry should
have been "send us more Sikorskys."
This picture of the Il'ya Muromets shows the engine mountings, gravity-feed fuel tanks, and the excel-
lent visibility of the cabin. (photo: United Technologies)
.....
ACountry In Chaos
. /I Naval Forces
'C ,. of the Entente ,. . . Ad
o'..,'Aug. 1918-Sep, j919.:,,"' vances
. MUl"ma!:,sk'i;.,... ,::. ... Red Army
recaptured,13Marchl920 ;".:/ Counter-attacks
o ... 200 400 600·. t \" /1.:.'.... 1 '
, !, S'tatUte Miles',.;., ' \ • ·,c.. :",·..,.. == Defensive Line
200 400 GOO 600'" fOOO' I:·.' '.". - .
, Kiiometer;s):J,J , Mdl.e: JApr11 1919
tj ....
I.••....•.•..' .. :·•. '.: .•. 2. f '. I.!I
::d FINLAND '\ \\ I' III!
. '/':;/ 6 Decf917 ;, s' '4: ,./V- \,]11
Gene·t:;."!.J.•.:JKu.den. 4),. ".)'''\ .
),\R',·n 1j: ....:R=--/l 30 ( III
"'-'1JII

'vII )
:/V-'j'- )
..
. ::v:G..>:>i..·:D)··, ..\llf . III A9miral Kolchak
. "', 1/1 (C" h L .
eglO ".
,,;,,;',:-o:.;·:.).:;PTHUAN/:d. 'II OM' Y I.
. .' ·f "" Omsko+
Polish' Force'S. ffllnS
k
\\\
).. ' .-'..,.d 5 July 1920. November 19f9
/ ..-:: /. _.J
recaptured Q 0 . T\ .
(Bahle of I ,.-'11=-/l - - /11 ('
r ( ( III Cossack
/ ,3Nayt918
K
, O' \. (White)
", "lev '" ",,\0;; \". Forces
recapture.cl. 121 Jun.e1920 \ arkovO \" .
" Krasnov '/II)
WffH;f '."
Odess.a U K R_A INE Qr
j
9 "'- ..,,;:..:\
19)8:4 Rostov-on- ,"''; ":':';:C)
Dates of Declarations of. . 1>1' ..'.' "'.,.. ." j '.::.- ..:•....-:.: J.l.,Jdn.;.•.. :.Ot
y
.f?.,.B}... . 7/ Independence - on map'. Couca' 7' fl'C- .. '!'-" !!
: :'.. N Slar 7>
Dates of PeaceTreaties):·/·;.j.,A:, /·:··..·:0.. ovorosSls 1f>\..
J( .' ,'" ':'5 ' ·· .... 2.7 MorcH:1920.,,/ .•...;
Estonia 2 Feb. 1920cf ,I.'!\. C K f'; 1 ....' ---:'.. /\ f'!'.\...
Lithuania 12 July 1920.. .NO.. vaI. . .;::::r. ' GEORGI.' \'; < t·:."··.'S .. ':"...:(,
. :: of .. ;:::::::::-- 't;126 May 1918".,,':r:</v
LatVia 11 Aug.
1920
1<:·';"'·''''' . ..
Finland 14 Oct.1920' Against the WhIte 28 Ma 1918'\ .a:f, I:Baku;>'::>
--r- and y,.... tured
Poland 18 Mar 1921 forces, the Red Army s TRANSCAUeASL.\N 27 .,
. 1200 pilots and 250 observers FEDERATION <,:.'. pn .'
Germany 16 Apr. 1922 mode about 20,000 flights April-Juh.e, 1918 ,.
. RE:GD
Had civil war not intervened in Russia, Irgor Sikorsky's Il'ya Murometsy might have put his country in
the forefront of air transport in Europe. But as the map shows, the massive foreign invasion after the
Bolshevik Revolution postponed any development in this direction.
Revolution
The Great War did not go well for Russia. Although possessing far superior numbers, its armies
lacked good logistics, and were generally badly led. By the time the infrastructure of armaments,
food, and clothing supplies were shOWing signs of improvement, the administration of the
Tsarist government had collapsed. Of several political parties, one, the Bolshevik, succeeded in
mounting a coup in Petrograd (the new westernized name for St Petersburg) and the October
Revolution of 24-26 October 1917 changed the course of history. The autocratic monarchy
was replaced by an idealistic but ruthless ruling class.
Brest-Litovsk
One of the Bolshevik policies had been, effectively, 'peace at any price'. When' it signed the
Treaty of Brest Litovsk on 3 March 1918, Russia lost all the western provinces as, one after
another, independent republics were formed (see map). The Bolshevik leader Vladimir I.
Lenin, was forced to surrender territory as the price of peace - territory that Josef Stalin was
to regain (Finland and Poland excepted) after World War II.
Siege and Counter-Attack
The agony was not yet over. In April 1918, a contingent of British troops had landed at
Murmansk, at first in support of its Russian ally, but qUickly becoming part of an international
alliance of intervention whose objective was to destroy the threat of a communist Russian state.
As the map shows, the intervention was Widespread, encircling the besieged Bolsheviks with a
ring of opposing forces that became known as The Whites, to distinguish them from the
Bolshevik Reds. The British in the North, at Murmansk and Archangelsk, were joined by the
troops and naval forces of many nations, both on land and in the Black Sea. Many Russians
themselves, with their Slavic cousins in the Ukraine, Byelo-Russia, and Poland, took up arms in
a bloody civil war. In the east, a makeshift army including Czech prisoners-of-war, under the
leadership of Admiral Kolchak, actually set up a Government of West Siberia at Omsk on 1 July
1918, and changed its name to the All-Russian Government on 18 November 1918. On 8 August
of that year, British and French troops landed at Vladivostok, to be joined by the Japanese on 12
August and the Americans on 15 August. By 6 September, the British and Japanese had reached
Chita, in a westward march to outflank the Russians.
But the tide turned. Just as the British troops in the north, reinforced by White Russians,
reached the shores of Lake Onega, posing a threat to Petrograd, the Red Army, under the direc-
tion of Leon Trotsky, counter-attacked in the east on 28 April 1919, repulsing the Czechs,
who had reached the Volga at Samara. In October, the Red Army went on to the offensive
against General Denikin in the Ukraine and against General Yudenich on the Baltic front.
During the next year, the Bolshevik forces steadily re-occupied the lost territories, meeting,
however, stiff resistance from the Poles, who won a great victory under General Pilsudski, with
considerable losses on the Russian side. But by the end of 1920, it was all over. The White forces
under General Wrangel evacuated southern Russia, and the Peace of Riga on 18 March 1921
ended the war with Poland.
Lost Opportunity
One of the casualties in the terrible conflict had been the dismemberment of the Escadra
vozduzhnykh korablei E.V.K. (see page 10), and the destruction of many of the Il'ya
Muromets aircraft. A few were assembled near Moscow and in spring 1920, were sent to the
western and southern fronts. The Russo·Baltic Works ceased production. Igor Sikorsky him-
self was on the wrong side, and, like thousands of other educated technicians and scholars, he
fled to the West, arriving in New York on 30 March 1919.
11
The First Soviet Air Services
still the site of Aeroflot's central bus terminal and design
bureaux of Ilyushin, Yakovlev, and Sukhoi are adjacent to it.
Civil Aviation Begins
On 17 January 1921, Lenin signed a decree to regulate travel
in the airspace over Soviet territory. On 26 January a further
decree set aside 3 million gold rubles for an aviation develop-
ment program under the jurisdiction of Glavvozdykhoflot.
The terrible civil war between the Reds and the Whites was
over; the Peace Treaties had been signed; the new Soviet
Russia was ready to go to work.
The First Commercial Air Service
The successor to the Tsarist E.V.K., the D.V.K. (Divisionye
Vozdushniy Korablei or Flying Ships Division) had a small
part to play in this revival of activity. On 1 May 1921, three
converted Sikorsky I1'ya Muromets four-engined bombers of
the 2nd Otryad (Detachment), commanded by A.K. Tumanskiy,
carried the first official mail and passengers from Moscow to
Kharkov, via Ore!. The frequency was two or three services per
week, and a total of 43 flights were made over a period of five
months. Sixty passengers and six tons of mail were carried alto-
gether, before the service ended on 11 October.
In spring 1920, KOMTA (Kommassiy po Tyazheloi
Aviatsiy, or commission for heavy aviation) had been
formed under the chairmanship of Zhukovskiy, and a six-
leight-passenger twin-engined triplane, called Komta
(Comet), was completed in March 1922. It proved almost
incapable of flight, and the design was abandoned.
REGD 1922-1937
Moscow
(f922)
;
;
__ 0;
- Smolensk
(until 193/)
DERULUFT
Deruluft
Resulting from Lenin's advocacy, Soviet Russia adopted, by
decree, on 9 August 1921, the New Economic Policy
(N.E.P.) that broadened the base of commerce and trade, to
allow limited participation by private firms or indiViduals.
The country needed help badly, in all sectors of the economy,
and one sequel was the establishment, in March 1922, of the
American Relief Administration, under the direction of
Herbert Hoover, to help to relieve the great famine of 1922.
Another manifestation of this widening scope was the for-
mation of a joint Soviet-German airline on 24 November 1921.
Most of the aircraft used were German, and so was most of the
organization and administration, at least until the 1930s; and
the airline was known everywhere by its German name, the
Deutsch-Russische Luftverkehrs A.G., or Deruluft. (Its
history is related in Lufthansa: An Airline and Its Aircraft, a com-
panion volume to this book.)
On 16 April 1922, Germany signed the Treaty of
RapaIlo, interpreted - correctly - by historians as a device to
evade the harsh conditions of the Peace Treaty imposed on
Germany on 7 May 1919. Germany recognized the Soviet
Union, although it was not yet officially in existence. Almost
two years were to follow before any other nation recognized the
Soviet Union - Great Britain was next, on 1 February 1924.
Deruluft opened its first service to Moscow from
Konigsberg (later Kaliningrad) on 1 May 1922, started a new
route via Tallinn (Reval) to Leningrad (renamed from
Petrograd on 22 April 1920) on 6 June 1928, and maintained
both routes until 31 March 1937.
(until (935)
Tilsit

Danzi

lV°1l'
Berlin
a Ryazan
ROUTE OF THE E.V.K.
(lI'yo Muromets)
1May - 11 Oct 1921
Kharkov
o Kursk a Voronezh
OreI •
REGO
An Embryo Organization
The Bolshevik leaders, now beginning to call themselves
Soviet, recognized the importance of aviation as a new indus-
try. V.I. Lenin supported aviation and agreed to its receiving
priority. Before the Revolution, there were 27 aircraft factories
and seven more were being built. Tsarist Russia had been far
from backward in the new science.
As early as 10 November 1917, two weeks after the Ten
Days That Shook The World, a Bureau of Commissars for
Aviatiou and Aerouautics was formed, to review the avia-
tion assets of the country, with a view to creating a Soviet Air
Force. The first Soviet detachment, with a modest contingent
of twelve crews, was formed to defend Petrograd against
General Krasnov's forces. Then on 29 December 1917, the
Bureau became the All-Russian Collegium for the
Administration of the Air Fleet, widening its scope to
cover all facets of aviation and aeronautics. Then again, on 24
May 1918, the Collegium was replaced by the Main
Directorate of Workers aud Peasants of the Red
Army Air Force (Glavvozdykhoflot), at first headed by
M.A. Solovov and A.S. Vorodnikof. This Directorate was
charged with uniting all air units "in the interests of protect-
ing the Soviet Motherland."
Building a TechniUlI Base
All this took place before the official establishment of the
Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic (R.S.F.S.R.) in July
1918. And in spite of the chaotic conditions inflicted by the
waging of civil war, the nucleus of an aviation industry was
taking shape. On 1 December 1918, the Centralyni Aero
Gydrodynamichesky Institut (TsAGI) or Central
Aerodynamics and Hydrodynamics Institute was
established under the direction of Nikolai Eo Zhukovskiy;
his deputy was Andrei N. Tupolev. On 13 September 1919,
Zhukovskiy formed the Moscow Technical Aviation
College, later reorganized as the Institute of Engineers
of the Red Air Force, and known familiarly as the
Zhukovskiy Academy. On 3 December 1920, by a decree
signed by Lenin, this man was named The Father of Russian
Aviation for his outstanding efforts.
An Historic Airfield
On 21 September 1919, an airfield was opened at Khodinka,
only 6km (4mi) to the northwest of Moscow's Red Square,
where, in March 1918, the Bolshevik party had established its
capital in the Kremlin, to replace St Petersburg/Petrograd. It is
12
Fokker F.III
DERULUFT FOKKER F.llls
Regn. MSN
S e ~ c e
Remarks
RR 1 4/22-26
RR 2 1653 4/22-26 Rebuilt as Grulich Vl, to 0 902
RR 3 4/22-5/28 to 0 1389
RR 4 4/22-26 to 0 904
RR 5 8/22-30 Rebuilt as Grulich Vl, Vl a
RR 6 1656 5/22-26 to 0 906
RR 7 5/22-26
RR 8 1658 8/22-26 to 0 200
RR ~ 5/22-26
RR 10 1660 7/22-26 to 0 910 Zugspitze
1530 ex H-NABR
1531 ex H-NABS, to 0 180
Notes.' Oeruluft also operated Fokker FVRR 73 (2050), ex H-NABW;
Fokker FVII RR 27 (4845), to H-NACR; LVG CVI RR 71 (46443),
ex 0723; Albatross L.76a 07727 {IOI07}; and at least one PolikarpovPM-7.
F777s RR 3, RR 5, RR 6, &RR 7ato Ukrvozdukhput
A Fokker F.IJI ofDeruluft. The pilot was seated on the port side of the engine, in front of the passenger cabin. (photo: Lufthansa)
Aero-Union
The Russian aircraft industry had been severely handicapped by the ravages of the Great War.
Most aircraft factories were in ruins and even the I1'ya Murometsy survived only in small
numbers. A few were produced in the early 1920s but only the AK-} and the ANT-2 (page 18)
were suitable for air transport.
German airlines sprang up in a profusion of interlocking relationships, involVing shipping
lines, aircraft manufacturers, and states or cities which sponsored the many small companies.
One of these was Aero-Union, direct descendant of Deutsche Luft Reederei, backed by the
A.E.G, company, and the first post-war scheduled airline in the world. When Deruluft was
founded on 24 November 1921, its first aircraft were acquired through the 50% shareholding
held by Aero-Union.
Deruluft's First Aircraft
Deruluft began services on 1 May 1922 from Konigsberg, East Prussia, to Moscow (see map,
oppOSite page). Its first aircraft were Dutch-built Fokker F.IIIs, third in the line of famous early
transport aircraft, with wood-covered tubular steel-framed fuselages, and the characteristically
thick wooden wing construction of Fokker aircraft. At first, Deruluft carried only mail and offi-
cials, but on 27 August 1922, the service was opened to the public. The large Lloyd group,
backed by the Nord-Deutscher Lloyd shipping line, took over Aero-Union on 6 February 1923,
and in turn, its shares were acquired by Deutsche Luft Hansa when all the German airlines
were amalgamated on 6 January 1926. But Deruluft, with its joint ownership with the Soviet
Union, remained legally independent. In practice, however, there were close links with the
German flag carrier. Ten Fokker F.IIIs were leased by D.L.H. to Deruluft from 1922.
Fokker F.III RR 5 was converted by Deutscher Aero Lloyd at Berlin-Staaken (directed by technical man-
ager Dr Ing Karl Crulich), with a revised fuselage, tail unit, cockpit, and landing gear, and -later-
a Bristol Jupiter radial engine. In this guise, it was designated Crulich VIa. (photo: Lufthansa)
13
Formation of Dobrolet
ment of civil air transport. On 9 February 1923, the Soviet
Council of Labour and Defence issued a decree whereby the
establishment of airlines was entrusted to Glavvozdykhoflot,
through the Inspectorate of the Air Fleet. With the support of
the post office and other government agencies, the operation
was, in turn, placed under a full-time Civil Aviation Board (or
Council) and this event is recognized as the official birth
date of Aeroflot.
Formation of Dobrolet
On 8 March 1923, an important meeting was held by the
Obshestvo Druzhny Vozduzhnovo Flota (Society of Friends of
the Air Fleet). This influential body was patronized at this
meeting by senior party members such as Frunze,
Dzerzhinsky, and by Lenin himself. The result was the organi-
zation, on 14 March 1923, of the All-Russian Volunteer Air
Fleet, or Rossiskoye Obshestvo Dobrovolnogo
Vozduzhnogo Flota (Dobrolet), with a capital of 500,000
rubles. Its first chairman was Krasnoschekov, who was also
chairman of the Russian Mercantile Trading Bank.
Echoing the Junkers service of the previous year, Dobrolet
started a short-lived service from Moscow to Nizhne
Novgorod, and carried 229 passengers and 1,900kg (4,200lb)
of freight. The Red Air Fleet lent various makeshift types
imported from overseas: de Havilland D.H.9s, Vickers Vimys,
and Junkers. Dobrolet's capital was increased in 1923 to 2
million rubles.
Except for this brief interlude, only a few other flights
were made, from Moscow to Leningrad, Kazan, Kursk, and
Kharkov, but these were neither regular nor open to the pub-
lic. But on 19 October 1923, the Council for Labour and
Defence established a three-year program to expand air travel,
not only within European Russia, but also to Turkestan, and
ambitiously, to Mongolia.
Junkers-F 13fe RR 38 ofDeruluft. (photo: Lufthansa)
Russia's vast eastern expanses, almost totally devoid of surface
transport north of the trans-Siberian Railway.
Other than Deruluft, another small air transport service,
the All-Russian, was offered in 1922. On 1 August, flights
began between Moscow and Nizhne Novgorod, in conjunc-
tion with the annual fair. The aircraft used were Junkers-F
13s, lent by the German Junkers firm, which was planning to
establish an assembly plant in Moscow (see opposite). The
service operated until 25 September, and 57 flights were
made, carrying 209 passengers and 2,600kg (5,800Ib) of
freight over the 420km (260mi) distance.
As a result, the Russian authorities ordered 20 Junkers-F
13s for future use, and the national budget for aviation pur-
poses was raised to 35 million rubles. During 1922 also, the
first Soviet-built aircraft made its debut in Leningrad. It was a
small training model, designated the U-1, and named Red
Pilot. Some 700 are reported to have been built, as well as 120
of the Mu-1 floatplane version. The U-2 was built in 1928.
Formation of the U.S.S.R.
Political consolidation was delayed until the end of 1922, when
the Far Eastern Republic, which had declared independence
during the turmoil of the Revolution, finally agreed to merge
with the Russian S.F.S.R. On 30 December 1922, the 10th All-
Russian Congress of the Soviets (and the First All-Union
Congress) officially declared the formation of the Union of
Socialist Soviet Republics (U.S.S.R.), consisting of Russia,
the Ukraine, Byelorussia (White Russia), and Transcaucasia.
Russia effectively controlled central Asia, but the republics in
that region did not become part of the Soviet Union until 1924.
A Civil Aviation Administration
On 23 November 1922, the Institute of Engineers of the Red
Air Force (page 12) in Moscow became the Academy of the
Air Force, which was also named after its driving personali-
ty, Nikolai Zhukovskiy. On 1 December, as the threat of
war receded, the Revolutionary War Soviet of the Republic,
under the Chief Directorate of the Workers and Peasants of
the Red Army Air Force (Glavvozdykhoflot) was charged
with the responsibility of inspecting all civil aviation and
overseeing its technical activities. Simply put, this
Inspectorate of the Civil Air Fleet was akin to the U.S. Civil
Aeronautics Authority, and it paved the way for the establish-
Poster advertising the Junkers 'Aviakultura' flights between Moscow
and Nizhne Novogorod in 1922.
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Russian Aviation Recovery
By 1922, aviation in Russia was slowly recovering. The service
to Berlin (pages 12-13) carried 400 passengers and 18 tons of
mail. And some progress was being made elsewhere. On 8 July
1922 in Moscow, for example, the first experimental flight
was made spraying insecticide from the air, as a prelude to
developing aviation for agricultural use (page 82). Aerial pho-
tography was qUickly recognized to be ideal for mapping
14
..J
JUNKERS-JU 13 IN SOVIET SERVICE
The coloring, markings, and general configuration of this aircraft were those used for the inauguration of
the Dobrolet service from Khabarovsk to'Aleksandrovsk, the new capital of the U.S.S.R.'s part of Sakhalin
Island. The date was 9 January 1930, and the historic air connection was made by Mikhail Vodopyanov.
I' •
JUNKERS·W 33 IN SOVIET SERVICE
Regn. MSN Remarks
R-RDAH 2528 Dobrolet
R-RDAJ 2529 Dobrolet
R-RDAD Dobrolet
R-ROAU Dobralet
SSSR-144
SSSR-145 } based at Verkne Udinsk
SSSR-146 (Ulan Ude) for Urga
SSSR-147 IUlan Bator! raute, 1929-
SSSR-175
SSSR-176 } based at Irkusk for
SSSR-177 Yakutsk raute, 1929-
SSSR-182
SSSR-441 deld 2/30
SSSR-442 deld 2/30
SSSR-443 deld 3/30
SSSR-444 deld 4/30
SSSR-445 deld 3/30
Note: Some known names of otherwise-unidentified Ju 13s include: Prezidium
VSNCh, Tjervonets, Turkrespublike, Kirgizii, Sibiri, Dalili gu Vostoku. Mossoviet 2.
Nauka, Tsckebu, Krasnyj Pisjtjek, Prombank 2-j, &Krasnyj Ural.
Moscow, where a factory had been built in 1916 to produce the
Il'ya Muromets. The Fili-built F 13s were designated Ju 13s.
During 1923, under the title of Junkers luftverkehr
Russland, Ju 13s operated a trunk route from Moscow to
Baku, on the Caspian Sea, and center of the new oil industry.
It thus proVided a westbound airlink, via Moscow, with Berlin,
via Deruluft; and a potential eastbound connection to Persia -
an intriguing aerial variant of the Drag Nacht Oosten move-
ment that had, in 1889, seen the sponsorship of the Baghdad
Railway, in an effort to extend German influence in Asia.
German infiltration into Russian aviation dwindled by the
mid-I920s. The Moscow - Baku route was taken over by
Ukrvozdukhput (see next page). But Junkers aircraft were put
to good use all over the Soviet Union (see also pages 20 and 24).
Regn. MSN Remarks Regn. MSN Remarks Regn. MSN
I
Remarks
0226 638 (Deruluft, URSS-226) R-RDAC R-REeL 651 Bremse (Junkers Luftverkehr)
0230 641 IDeruluft) R-RDAD 655 Hornisse (Dobroletl R-RECJ 643 Wachtel
0261 653 Drohne (Dobrolet) R-RDAE 656 Hummel, Prombank (Dobralet) R-RECK 659 Albatross (Junkers Luftverkehr)
0269 657 Libelle (Dobraletl R-RDAG 659 Maskita (Dobralet) R·RDDB
0270 658 Matte (Dobralet) R-RDAM Sibrevkam (Dobralet) R·RUAZ
0307 670 (Deruluft) R-RDAD Krasnya Kamvo/'shcik (Dobroletl URSS-301 765 Kdn(gsfischer
0308 671 (Deruluft) R-RDAS also RR-DAS (Dobralet) URSS-307 723 Eismdwe
0424 702 Emmerling (Derul uftl R-RDAU (Dobrolet! URSS·308 720 Kdnigsadler
0558 752 Mauersegler(Deruluft) R-RECA 569 Albatros (RR-ECA) URSS·320 Sokol
RR 38 2017 (Deruluftl R·REC8 (Junkers Luftverkehrl SSSR-L85
RR 40 650 Eisvogel (Deruluft) R·RECD 572 Lerche IRR-ECD! SSSR·127 Masterskih
RR 41 757 SteinschmetzerlDeruluftl R·RECE 614 Papagei(Junkers Luftverkehr) SSSR-M752
R-ROAA Massaviet(Oobraletl R-RECG 693
R-RDAB 654 Fliege, Samolet(Dobrolet) R-RECH 636 Piepmatz
A Great Airliner
To the relief of the whole of Europe, the Armistice of 11
November 1918 brought an end to the Great War, Professor
Junkers drew on the experience of building military aircraft
almost entirely of metal, and designed one of the most suc-
cessful transport aircraft of the 1920s, and one of the great air-
liners of all time.
Designated the Junkers-F 13 - defying superstition - it
first went into service in Germany in 1919, and the last F 13
in scheduled service retired in Brazil in 1948. Constructed of
corrugated light-weight aluminum, it easily outlived the
wood-and-fabric steel-framed aircraft of the time, few of
which survived for more than two or three years - and would
not have lasted long in northern Russia or Siberia.
4 SEATS. 16Skm/h (10Smph)
Restrictive Practices
The F 13s were, like all German aircraft, handicapped by severe
restrictions imposed by the victorious Allies. In May 1920, all
German aircraft were confiscated by the occupying powers,
and under the terms of the 'London Ultimatum' of 5 May
1921, these were enforced with even more severity. Not until
14 April 1922 was the ban on aircraft construction finally lift-
ed, albeit with limitations on engine power and load carrying.
German companies evaded the letter - and the intent - of
the law by setting up production in other countries. It also
sponsored the formation of airlines in those countries which
had no aircraft industries of their own (and even one or two
that had) by setting up joint ventures. The host country sup-
plied the infrastructure of installations, airfields, and adminis-
trative staff; Junkers supplied the aircraft and technical support.
The little four-passenger F 13 carried its customers in a
comfortable cabin, in comfortable seats; however, the two
crew sat in a semi-open cockpit. Altogether, over 300 F 13s
were built, an astonishing production performance for the
period, and the F 13 formed the basis for later types such as
the W 33, and ultimately the Ju S2/3m. The F 13s were to be
seen all over Europe, in South America, and in other countries
such as Persia and South Africa.
Junkers-F 13
The F 13 in Russia
Junkers leaped at the chance of taking advantage of the
Treaty of Rapallo, signed on 16 April 1922, and in which
Germany became the first country to recognize the Soviet
Union. A production line was set up at Fili, a suburb of
15
Ukrvozdukhput and Zakavia
REGD
Djoulda
Baku
Rostov-on- Don
ZAKAVIA 1923
Orel UKRVOZDUKHPUT
1925
Kiev
Aircraft operated by Ukrvazdukhput included Darnier Kamet lis RRUAA. RRUAC.
RRUAD. RRUAE. RRUAF; Kamet Ills RRUAG. RRUAL. RRUAN; Kalinin K-4s RRUAB.
RRUAX; and Kalinin K-2 RRUAT.
REGD
Junkers Luftverkehr
• Kharkov
Junkers Luftverkehl"
Russ/and (1923)
Ukrvo:z.dukhput (1924-30)
Deruluft (1922-37)
Berlin
was Zakavia, derived from Zakavkazie, or Trans-Caucasus,
and there were also plans to form an airline called Kakavia,
but this never happened. Zakavia operated one route, to
Baku, Azerbaijan, probably with a Junkers Ju 13. Late in the
year, it was associated with Azerbajdzhanskogo dobro-
vol'nogo vozdushnogo flota, or Azdobrolet, which
existed for a few months. Beset by political upheaval, civil
wars, and surrounded by high mountains, Zakavia had the
odds stacked against it from the start, and after about two
years of frustrated effort, it combined with Ukrvozdukhput.
AIR ROUTE
TO THE EAST
1922-1932
REGD
Independence Lost
The Ukrainian airline took over the Junkers operation (see page
15) which, with the Zakavia franchise, gave it almost the whole
of the southern part of the European U.S.S.R. as its traffic catch-
ment area. Uzkrvozdukhput carried 3,050 passengers in 1928.
But its very success perhaps fell foul of government policy
centered in Moscow. One of the items contained in the first
Soviet Five-Year Plan was to create an all-Soviet airline which,
in 1930, not only inherited the Russian Dobrolet, but
engulfed Ukrvozdukhput as well.
Zakavia
A small airline was
also established, on
10 May 1923, at
Tiflis (Tbilisi) in
Georgia. Its name
This small building
was the hub of
Ukrvozdukhput at
Kharkov during the
19205.
An Airline for the Ukraine
In the Ukraine, the spirit of republican independence mani-
fested itself by the formation of an airline. On 1 June 1923,
less than three months after the formation of Dobrolet,
Ukrainskoe Obschestvo Vozdnzhnyk Shoobshcheniy
(The Ukrainian Airline Company) (abbreviated to
Ukrvozdukhput) was founded. Headquarters were at
Kharkov, a potential hub for air services throughout the
European part of the U.S.S.R.
Dornier Establishes a Presence
Ukrvozdukhput opened for business on 15 April 1925, when it
started to operate from Kharkov to Odessa and Kiev. Two
months later, on 15 June, routes to Moscow and Rostov-on-Don
completed a commendable spoke network centered on Kharkov.
The Kalinin aircraft factory was in that City, and a cooperative
arrangement was forged with the Dornier company. This latter
had connections with the German Lloyd transport group which,
in turn, was a partner in Deruluft. Ukrvozdukhput's first fleet
consisted of four-passenger Dornier Komet lIs, and a half a
dozen six-seat Dornier Komet Ills.
Recognition of the Soviet Union (see page 15) had given
Germany a doorway for trade, and effective control of the airlines
provided a pathway through that door. Aside from being a strong
influence on the airline operation, Dornier's methods of construc-
tion could clearly be detected on the first Kharkov-based Kalinin
aircraft, the K-l, K-2, K-3, and K-4. None went into service with
Ukrvozdukhput, but were later to see service with Dobrolet.
16
Deruluft Progress
Top Deruluft aircraft at Moscow-Khodinka during the 1920s. Four o(the airline's fleet o(the Fokker
F.IIIs can be seen, including RR2, RR9, and RRlO. (photo: Lufthansa)
Dornier Merkurs o(Deruluft. The lower picture is o(the airfield at
Konigsberg, the western terminus o(the line until 1927.
(photos: Lufthansa)
DERULUFT FLEET 1927-1937
Regn. MSN Remarks
Dornier Komel III
RR 16
I
RR 17
RR 18
Dornler Merkur
01102 87 Edelmander
RR 27 89 to 0 427
RR 28 94 to 0 1078 litis
RR 29 97 to 0 1082
RR 30 130 to 0 1451
RR 33 126 to 0 1465. Hermelin
01079 127 to 0'1079. Blaufuchs
01080 128 to 0 1080, Wiessfuchs
01081 129 to 0 1081, Kreuzfuchs
RR 34 173 to 0 1605, Kreuzfuchs
RR 35 174 to01595
RR 36 175 to 0 1629, Blaufuchs
01445 176 to 0 1445. Nerz
01455 177 to 0 1455. Wiessfol
01458 178 to 0 1458, Hermelin
01076 121 Silber/owe
URSS-304 122 to 0 1077, Wiesel
URSS-305 130 to 0 1451
RR 30,07087. &01076 to Aeroflot
Rohrbach Ro VIII Roland I
01280 I 35 Feldbei
Rohrbach Ro VIII Roland II
01712 45 Schonburg
01735 48 Marksburg
01729 43 Drachenfels
Tupolev ANT-9
URSS-0308 143 Chaika
URSS-0309 145 to 0 2831
URSS-0310 135 Orel
URSS-0311 160 Yastreb
URSS-0312 112 Korshun
URSS-0313 Golub
lunkers·lu 52/3m ge
O-AREN 4051 Crashed 31 Jan 35
O-AHUS 4049 Milan
O-AGIS 4048 Kormoran
O-AXES 4052 Kondor
O-AOAL 4046 Almenrdder/Flamingo
Note: Deruluft's Junkers Ju 13s are included in the table on page 75,
These vehicles did credit to Deruluft's ground service department.
Each has the Mercedes emblem on its radiator. (photo: Lufthansa)
Deruluft had handsome service vehicles, even in the embryo years.
(photo: Lufthansa)
During the mid-1920s, the Soviet aircraft manufacturing
industry was slowly getting on its feet. Not until the Kalinin
K-S was introduced in 1929, and the ANT-9 in 1931, did the
U.S.S.R. have anything to match the products of western
Europe. Meanwhile, however, the joint Soviet-German airline,
Deruluft, had the advantage of a steady source of supply from
Germany (see page 13).
The early Fokker F.IIIs were replaced by Dornier
Merkurs, transferred from Deutsche Luft Hansa (D.L.H.) from
1929 onwards. Bearing in mind the pioneering element of the
operating environment at the time, during a period when
commercial air transport was still feeling its way everywhere,
Deruluft's standards were high, and, as the illustrations show,
this was evident on the.ground as well as in the air.
17
Alma Ata
Pishpek (Frunze
Dzhambul " " " ' - - - - ~
ANT-3 RR-SOV Aviakhim S.S.S.R. Proletarii at Konigsberg during
Mikhail Gromov's circuit ofEurope in 1926. (photo: Lufthansa)
Tashkent
S'talinabad
(Dushanbe)
REGD
DOBROLET
IN
CENTRAL ASIA
1924
Khiva
In Central Asia
On 1 May 1924 - possibly to coincide with the May Day cel-
ebrations, and also as a practical measure to demonstrate the
benefits of rule from Moscow, Dobrolet began to operate
scheduled services in the area formerly under the Tsarist gov-
ernor-generalship of Turkestan. The Soviet Government had
replaced this, by setting up several Peoples' Republics in 1921
to supplant the khanates of Khiva and Bukhara; and by 1925
the new republics of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tadjikistan,
and Kirghizia were formally incorporated into the U.S.S.R.
Most probably with Junkers Ju 13s, Dobrolet opened a route
from Khiva to Dushanbe, via Bukhara. While hardly operating
with clockwork regularity and punctuality, it was reasonably
successful, as the alternative land transport was by horse or
camel. There were also boats on the Amu Darya river, but these
were often left stranded when the river shifted course.
At the end of their epic flight from the U.S.S.R. to the U.S.A. in
1929 the Soviet crew was welcomed by the Mayor of Oakland. Left
to right: the helmeted Sterligov, Shestakov, the Mayor, Bolatov, and
Fufayev. (photo: Eugene Altunin)
Dobrolet's First S t e ~
An Infant Aircraft Industry
Vladimir Lenin did not live to see the outcome of some of the
policies that he had instigated. He died on 21 January 1924,
and only a few days later, on 1 February, the British
Government recognized Soviet Russia, the first foreign power
to do so, excluding Germany, which had done so earlier.
Simultaneously with the easing of tension overseas, the
Russian industry, which had been laying dormant during the
political upheaval and economic disruption caused by the
Revolution, began to revive.
The aircraft manufacturing plants stirred into life. At FiJi,
in Moscow, the German Junkers company started a small pro-
duction line of the sturdy metal-built F 13, (known as the Ju
13 in Russia) and deliveries began to Dobrolet in 1924. At
least 24 aircraft are believed to have been completed. For sev-
eral years, reports of Ju 13s performing various services all
across the Soviet Union included, in addition to inaugurating
new routes, demonstrations of the benefits of air travel to the
amazed citizenry of remote lands, and joyrides for
workers who had shown special talents in exceeding their
assigned quotas.
Also, the TsAGI (see page 12), under the direction of
V.L. Alexandrov and V.V. Kalinin, completed, on 8 March
1924, the first test flight of the first successful transport air-
craft to be designed and built entirely in the Soviet Union
(also see page 12). The AK-I (AK for Alexandrov-Kalinin)
could carry three passengers and attained 146km/h
(90mph). It was a start, and on 15 June 1924, the AK-l was
assigned to Dobrolet's Moscow-Nizhne Novgorod-
Kazan route.
Reference has already been made (page 16) to the activi-
ty of K.A. Kalinin, the designer working in conjunction
with Dornier in Kiev. On 20 April 1925, a series of govern-
ment-supervised experimental flights was completed with
the K-I, Kalinin's first design. Back at TsAGI, A.N.
Tupolev had become head of the organization which had
an experimental laboratory, and was building engines and
aircraft, including the all-metal ANT-2, able to carry
two passengers.
Then on 20 August 1925, an improved version, the
ANT-3, was flown. Tupolev was proceeding cautiously. This
aircraft weighed only 2,100kg (960lb) but it flew at 201km/h
(l25mph), and was considered a worthy enough product to
carry the Soviet flag overseas (see opposite page). Tupolev was
on a roll. On 26 November 1925, the ANT-4 took to the air;
and more designs were to come.
18
Showing The Flag
Feeling Its Way
Following the exhausting civil war, Russian aviation had
struggled to pick up the pieces of a shattered industry.
Carefully, almost methodically, it had begun to rebuild.
Between 1918 and 1922, several exploratory flights were made
with foreign-made aircraft, Farmans, L.V.G.s, and British
types, not only from Moscow but in other parts of Russia and
Central Asia. From 16 to 20 September 1922, B.K. Bellint
made a round-trip in a Russian-built Junkers Ju 13 from
Moscow to the Crimea, and from 20 May to 1 June 1923 flew
another Ju 13 to Tashkent, as a prelude to Dobrolet's pioneer-
ing activities there (see page 18).
From 10 to 22 July, 1924, piloting an AK-I - the first
successful all-Soviet transport design - A.N. Tomashevskya
flew from Moscow to Kazan; and from 29 September to 1
October of the same year, P.Kh.Mezheraup, in a Polikarpov
R-I, flew to Kabul, Afghanistan. From 2 February to 8 April
the next year, V. Ch. Kopilov, in a Junkers Ju 13, made a
10,400km (6,SOOmi) round-trip circuit in the northeastern
and eastern regions of European Russia. And this kind of
activity increased in intensity throughout the year, culminat-
ing on 10 June 1925 when six aircraft (two R-1s, two Ju 13s,
an R-2, and an AK-l) took off from Moscow to Peking
(Beijing), China. Piloted by Mikhail M. Gromov (R-1), N.E.
Nadenov (Ju B), M.A. Volkovoynov (R-1), A. . Ekatov (R-2),
E.K. Polyakov (Ju 13), and A.E. Tomashevsky (AK-1), all six
aircraft covered the 6,476km (4,02Smi) in a little more than a
month, arriving on 17 July. Gromov capped the performance
by flying on to Tokyo, via Manchuria and Korea, from 30
August to 2 September.
(Left) Mikhail Gromov
(Right) SA Shestakov, pilot of the ANT-4 Strana Sovyetov (Land of
Soviets) and his flight engineer, D. V. Fufaev. (photo: Eugene Altunin)
Circuit of Europe
As if to emphasize that the products of TsAGI amounted to
more than drawings and announcements, the Russians began
to show their metal in western Europe where, because of the
dearth of information emanating from Moscow, foreign
politicians, press, and public alike were understandably skepti-
cal about reports of aircraft construction in the brave new
world of the Soviet Union. On 31 August 1926, Mikhail M.
Gromov made a courageous demonstration which was quite
literally a proving flight, as it proved to the skeptics that the
Russians did have flying hardware.
Gromov took his ANT-3 from Moscow to Konigsberg,
Berlin, Paris, Rome, Prague, Vienna, Warsaw, and then back to
Moscow. The Proletar;; (Proletariat) completed this European
circuit on 2 September, haVing covered the 7,lS0km
(4,444mi) in 34hr lSmin of flying time, at an average speed of
209km/h (130mph) (see map, p. 23).
Across the World
The follOWing year, the ANT-3 made another important flight
that must have given encouragement to the design team at
TsAGL On 20 August 1927, S.A. Shestakov flew an ANT-3
(RR-INT Osoaviakhim SSSR Nash Otvet (Our Answer) from
Moscow to Tokyo, arriving there on 1 September. The
22,OOOkm (13,670mi) round-trip was completed in 153 flying
hours, at a leisurely speed of 144km/h (89mph) and both the
pilot and his mechanic, D.V. Fufaev, were awarded the Order
of the Red Banner.
Two years later, with gaining confidence, Shestakov made
a more ambitious flight, this time with an ANT-4 (URSS-300
Strana Sovyetov (Land of Soviets). Between 23 August and 2
November 1929, he made an historic flight from the U.S.S.R.
to the U.S.A., via the Pacific northern rim. As with most Iong-
distance flights, high speed was not the objective. The
21,200km (13,200mi, about the same as the Moscow - Tokyo
round-trip) were covered in 137 flying hours, at an average
speed of lSSkm/h (96mph). The twin-engined aircraft was fit-
ted with floats at Khabarovsk for the occasion, and the arrival
in the U.S. was on Lake Washington, Seattle.
Note: The characteristics of the ANT-3 and ANT-4 aircraft featured on this
page are in the table on page 23.
" .. '
Sov,yetov- Soviet Nation:X
23 Aug. - 1 Nov.
./ " .'
.;
A. f)\)"
SHESTAKOV'S FLIGHTS ANT-4(Strana
MOSCOW Che/yabinsk novarsl< Seward
• K,-a
s
.J "e' 0\0) r- , .... 0
P
LlI
C\1itO op _
5a(0 e\O P J" . 5 itKa
1/!.AtSl' u "
Ir'" "oil'S'" Attu
e v IJ (c,
.,e Spaask
Yan'J'Iang
ANT-3(Nash Otvet-Our Answer)
REGD 20 Aug- -1 Sep. 1927 Okayama
19
Dobrolet Spreads Its
1930
Yakutsk
.p 1928 't-,110're
'1,-1
5

O/ekminsk.
o Bodaibo Okha
rI Ude 1930 Sf{o
Via P Aleksandrovs
a.ns -5
ib
erf. P
r J<.a.ilwayQ'1z ,
A/tan-Bu/ak 0-'/';'

1926
,<-0
'.Jo'3

IIEC/)
QOBROLET
Irkutsk-Yokutsk
NJuJo 1928 e
Olekminsk
A Dobrolet Junkers- W 33 (SSSR-175) atthe landing stage on the
Lena River at Yakutsk. (photo: Vladimir Pesterev)
00BROLET
In 1929, seven Junkers-W 33s were brought to Irkutsk by
the Trans-Siberian Raiway and assembled there. Four were
landplanes, to be based at Verkne Udinsk (Ulan Ude), and
three were float-planes, for the service to Yakutsk. These sturdy
aircraft maintained this pioneering route until the mid-1930s,
when Dornier Wals, together with two Douglas Dolphins
(four were imported by the Soviet Union) arrived. One crashed
in 1941 in a heavy landing; the other operated until 1947.
REGD
Breaking the Inertia
On 21 September 1926, Dobrolet was reorganized, follOWing a
decree issued by the Council of Peoples' Commissars, from a
purely Russian to an all-Soviet company. Ayear later, on 27 July
1927, the Council for Labor and Defense transferred responsi-
bility for technical supervision of civil aviation from the Air
Force to the Inspectorate for the Civil Aviation Fleet. Routes in
Central Asia were extended, so that all five central Asian
republics, including four of the capitals, now had air service.
On 15 May 1929, at last, regular air service began, for mail
only, on the arterial Moscow - Irkutsk route, cutting the
journey time of several days by rail to 35 hours. The aircraft is
believed to have been the Kalinin K-4, and was the first
route to be flown at night. Passenger service began on 1 May
1931. The K-4 had also started service from Moscow to
Tashkent, via Orenburg, on 27 June 1929.
Putting Aviation to Work
The first crop-dusting experiment in Russia - and perhaps
the world - took place in 1922 (see page 14). Aircraft started
to use chemical spraying on 8 May 1929 to control forest ver-
min in infected tracts in Siberia's Kyltykstom district. Other
ways of putting airplanes to good use had already been tried.
On 21 August 1924, one was delivered by ship to the
Matochkin Shar Polar Station, from which point - further
north than Alaska - B.G. Chukhnovsky made the first sortie
to aid ships navigating the polar ice. In September 1925, an
aviation photography agency was established. On 4 March
1926, for the first time, an aircraft located schools of whales.
The opportunities for putting aircraft to work seemed endless
for a country the size of the Soviet Union.
Dobrolet's function during the mid-1920s seemed to be
to provide air service only where the government required it,
in 1925, for example, to connect the goldfields on the
Siberian Aldan River, a tributary of the Lena, with the Trans-
Siberian Railway. Normal communication by packhorse along
forest paths took about 35 days.
International Service
For several years, Russia and Great Britain had sparred for
political control of Afghanistan. The Soviet Government won
a round by securing an agreement to begin direct communica-
tions and to advise .the king in forming an Afghan Air Force.
Dobrolet helped by opening, on 14 September 1926, an air
route from Tashkent to Kabul, via Samarkand and Termez. In
Mongolia, in lieu of a railway yet to be built (Ulan Ude - Ulan
Bator, in September 1926). Dobrolet started service on 20 July
1926, flown by V.L. Galishev in a Junkers Ju 13.
Air Service to Yakutsk
One important Siberian city, Yakutsk, traditional center for
trading and commerce and potential hub for extensive mining
prospecting and operation, was far removed from the Trans-
Siberian rail artery. The 'road' to Yakutsk had originally been
forged by Cossack conquerors in 1689, for mail; and even in
the 20th century, the 2,860km (1,780mi) journey to Irkutsk; by
the Lena-Angara River route, took 18 days by horse in winter,
15 days by boat (as far as Ust-Kut) and road in summer. On 1
October 1925, the first aircraft, a Sopwith 1
1
/
2
Strutter, piloted
by Piotr Faddayev, arrived at Yakutsk. Dobrolet started in
1928, when Aleksander Dyemchenko piloted a Junkers-Ju 13
from Irkutsk to Yakutsk (see map). He left on 21 August, arrived
on 27 August, and returned two days later.
20
.....
Kalinin K-S
8 SEATS. 155km/h (100mph)
Aeroflot Kalinin K-S SSSR-LS62. (photo: Boris Vdovienko)
M-22 (l X 480hp) • MTOW 3,600kg (7,900lb) • Normal Range 820km (500mi) • Length 16m (52ft) • Span 20m (66ft)
The Elliptical Wing
Some Kalinin aircraft pictures strongly suggest Dornier ancestry, and clearly the designer drew
some inspiration from the German company, which was closely associated with
Ukrvozdukhput, the Ukrainian airline which was based at Kharkov, and used Dornier Komets,
some of which were assembled in its workshops. Kalinin shared floor space in these shops.
But in one important respect, the Kalinin aircraft differed. Whereas both the leading and the
trailing edge of the Dornier and Merkur aircraft were parallel, a plan view of the Kalinin wing
showed an almost perfect ellipse.
Early work
Konstantin Alekseyevich Kalinin was born in December ~ 8 8 9 at Valuki, near Kharkov. In
1905 he was arrested for suspected revolutionary activities, but by 1912 he had entered the
Military School at Odessa. After serving in the Russian Army in the Great War, he entered the
Air Training School at Gatchina, near Petrograd, in 1916. When the 1917 Revolution broke
out, he was with the 26th Corps Aviation Squadron on the Romanian front. Emerging from
the civil war, he studied aviation, first at the Red Army's Aviation Institute, then at the presti-
gious Zhukovskiy Academy.
After many a brush with bureaucratic interference, Kalinin was finally able to design his first
aircraft, aided by some like-minded friends at Kiev. The K-I made its first flight on 26 July 1925,
was flown to Moscow on 11 April 1926, and used by Dobrolet for crop-spraying, aerial photog-
raphy, and as an air ambulance. Kalinin then transferred his base to Kharkov, and successive
designs followed (see table), using all-metal construction, rather than welded steel framework,
with wood and fabric. .
The Kalinin K-4
During the summer of 1928, Kalinin demonstrated the moderately successful K-4, which was
not used for passengers until the summer of 1929.
But on 27 June 1929, the K-4 inaugurated service on the important route from Moscow to
Tashkent; and in August, the Chervona Ukraina (Heart of Ukraine), piloted by M.A. Chyegirev,
demonstrated its performance and reliability by flying round-trip from Kharkov to Irkutsk, via
KALININ TYPES USED IN SERVICE
Type I
First Dimensions 1m) Pass. Engines MTOW Cruise No. First
Flight Seats kg Speed Built Airline
Date Length Span No. Type h.p. km/hr
K-1 26 Jul 25 10.72 16.76 4 1 Salmson 180 1.972 130 1 Dobrolet
K-2 May 26 11.17 16.70 4
1
1 BMW IV 240 2.236 140 1 Ukrvozdukhput
K-3 22 Oct 27 11.25 16.70 4
1
1 BMW IV 240 2.300 140 1 See note 3
K-4 Summer 28 11.35 16.75 4 1 Ju L5 310 2.350 145 22 Ukrvozdukhput
K-5 7Nov 29 15.70 20.50 8 1 M-22 480 3.600 157 260
2
Dobrolet
IJupiter)
K-6 9Aug 30 1500 20.00 (mail) 1 M-15 420 2.820 170 1 Dobrolet
IJupiter)
Notes: I Ambulance layout 2 Includes versions with M-I 5Jupiter and 175hp M-I 71 engines 3 Used in ambulance version by
Red Air Fleet
Moscow, a distance of 1O,800km (6,700mi). Twenty-two K-4s were built and used extensively on
Dobrolet's routes until the early 1930s.
The Kalinin K-S and the End of the Une
Kalinin's finest aircraft was the K-5, first flown by Chyegirev on 7 November 1929. It had vari-
ous engines, the Russian 450hp M-15 (for the prototype), the Pratt & Whitney Hornet, the
480hp M-22 radial based on the Bristol Jupiter, and the 730hp M17F water-cooled in-line, which
gave the K-5 a cruising speed of 170km/h (105mph). Of welded construction, it had dual con-
trols, a toilet, and baggage compartment. It could fly across the Caucasus, reducing the Moscow-
Tblisi distance by several hundred miles. Two hundred and sixty aircraft were built, retiring only
at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War in 1941.
As shown in the table, Kalinin built other types after the K-5, but none went beyond the pro-
totype stage. Of special mention is the K-7, a seven-engined twin-boom monster, designed to
carry 120 passengers. Chyegirev first flew it on 11 August 1933, made a few test flights, then
crashed on its ninth flight on 21 November, killing him and 14 of the total of 20 on board.
Seven years later, Kalinin himself was to die on 24 April 1940, a victim of Stalin's purges.
21
Dobrolet Becomes Aeroflot
Growth of an Aircraft Industry
The Polikarpov U-2 (or the Po-2 after the death of
Polikarpov in 1944) made its first flight on 8 January 1928. A
two-seat biplane, it was to become a maid-of-all-work, and
particularly an elementary trainer. Thousands of them were
built, used even for bombing in the Great Patriotic War, and
Nikolai Nikolayevich Polikarpov's design was an essen-
tial factor in the development of Soviet aviation, akin to the
role played by Britain's Tiger Moth and America's Piper Cub.
Production of the PO-2 continued until 1944, and was built
in Poland from 1948 until 1953. Produced for 35 years, it was
the most popular light aircraft in the Soviet Union.
Of aircraft in the transport category, the ANT (Andrei
Nikolayevich Tnpolev) series, prefaced by the Models 3
and 4 (see page 19) led to the ANT-9, which first flew on 1
May 1929, and is more fully reviewed on the page opposite.
The Kalinin series, already described on page 21, was estab-
lishing itself, especially the Model K-S. On 22 December
1930, Andrei Tupolev watched the first flight of his four-
engined bomber, the ANT-6, which was put to good use as a
transport airplane in 1937 in support of the Polar expeditions
(see pages 30-31). Often overlooked, or even ignored by west-
ern observers, this was a big aircraft, and no freak, in its time.
Then in 1931, the little Shavrov Sh-2 amphibian and the
Stal'2, designed by A.I. Putilov, made their appearance. Of
steel construction (Stal is Russian for steel) it could carry four
passengers. It first flew on 11 October 1931 from Frunze air-
field (Khodinka) in Moscow.
Air Pravda
On 3 June 1930, the first experimental delivery was made of
type matrices of the official Pravda newspaper, and on 4 June
Reorganization
On 29 October 1930, as a feature of the First Five Year Plan of
1928, Dobrolet was replaced by as an all-state airline, a joint-
stock company, Grazdansiy Vozduzhniy Flot (G.V.F.). It
acquired Ukrvozdukhput (page 16) and developed a domestic
hub at Moscow, with passenger services to all important
cities, as far east as Irkutsk.
926
1931, it appeared in Kharkov only eleven hours after being
type-set in Moscow. On 16 June, a special aviation section
was created to ensure matrix delivery to Leningrad, Kharkov,
Sevastopol, Pyatagorsk, Grozniy, Odessa, Kazan, Rostov-on-
Don, Tiflis, and Sverdlovsk.
A five-engined airliner, the ANT-14, first flew on 14
August 1931. With 36 seats, it was too large for the traffic on
airline routes but was used extensively by Pravda for sightsee-
ing and propaganda flights, mainly around Moscow. Only
one was built, and its only long-distance foray was to
Bucharest; but it carried 40,000 passengers during its ten-year
service life, quite an achievement for the time.
Maturity of an Airline
During the 17th Congress of the All-Soviet Communist Party,
held in Moscow from 30 January to 4 February 1932, a resolu-
tion was passed that "air travel should expand in all direc-
tions, as it is one of the important communication links with
remote rural regions, and with major industrial centers." On
25 February, Grazdansiy Vozduzhniy Flot (G.V.F.) was reorga-
nized as the Main Directorate of the Civil Aviation Fleet. On
26 March 1932 it was given the trading name of Aeroflot.
Aeroflot continued the good work of its predecessors. On
15 December 1933, the final link to the east was completed,
by an extension from Irkutsk to Vladivostok (see page 24).
Moving up the learning curve, an Aeroflot PS-9 (version of the
ANT-9) opened up the first all-Soviet westward route on 31
August 1935, to Prague, Czechoslovakia. The joint Soviet-
German airline Deruluft was wound up on 31 March 1937,
and in the same year Aeroflot service began from Leningrad
to Stockholm, Sweden, in cooperation with A.B.A. The expan-
sion of the Soviet airline was gathering momentum.
920
932
924
922
928
930
1
HDERULUFT
1
JUNKERS)
DOBROLET RUSSLAND ZAKAVIA
: I AZDOBROLET
1
[UKRVOZDUCHPUT1--J
1
1
DOBROLET 1
(AVIAARKTIKAY
G.V.F.'
AEROFLOT 1
(1937)---* :+-(1960)- R--
______________
1926
1920
1922
1924
1928
1930
1932
o
AEROF LOT SERVICE AIRCRAFT f929-35
ORIGIN OF MANUFACTURE
100%r------,---,---y---.,.-------,---,----,
80%1----+---+--+---+----+---+---1
The only example of the ANT-14, and one of the few five-engined
aircraft ever built. (photo: Boris Vdovienko)
The twin-elJgined PS-9 was the main production version of the
ANT-9. (photo: Boris Vdovienko)
20%
=c.LLL=----I100%
---+---+----j 80%
1932 1933 1934 1935 1931
---+---+---+----1---1 60%'
40%
1929 1930
SOVIET - BUILT
20%
o
60%
22
ANT-9
9 SEATS 170km/h (lOSmph)
Tupolev Makes His Mark
Andrei Tupolev produced his first multi-engined type, the ANT-9 nine-seat passenger trans-
port, which first flew on 7 May 1929, and was publicly presented in Red Square. It had a metal
corrugated fuselage and wing, fixed landing gear, and air-cooled engines, initially Gnome-
Rhone Titans. Compared with previous Tupolev designs, it not only looked more elegant and
aerodynamically efficient, its performance matched its looks.
Type First Dimensions (m) Pass. Engines MTOW Cruise Range No.
Flight Seats kg Speed (mi) Built
Date Length Span No. Type h.p. km/hr
ANT-3 r Aug 1925 94 13.2 see note 3 1 Liberty 400 2.085 150 880
ANT-4IG-11
2
26 Nov 1925 18.0 28.7 see note3 2 M-17 680 7.500 156 950
ANT-6IG-21 22 Dec 1930 244 39.5 see note3 4 M-17F 715 22,000 15.0 1,350 60?
ANT-7IP-6) 11 Sep1929 15.0 23.2 see note3 2 M-17 680 5.990 150 1,480
ANT-9
4
1May 1929 17.0 23.8 9 2/3 M-17 680 5.040 180 700 75
ANT-14 114 Aug 1931 26.5 404 36 5 GR9-AKX 480 17.530 195 900 1
IG,nome-Rh5neJupit,er)
Notes: lprolaterii. flown by Mikhail Gromov on European demonstration flight in 1926(see page 19)2Strana Sovyetov. flown by CA.
Shestakov from US.SR to US.A. in 1929(see also page 19)3Bomber types. some of which were used for specialflights. notably the
ANT-6 andANT-l on Polar expeditions (see pages 26-27)
4
Used by Gromov in hisWings of the Soviets European circuit (see map).
EARLY TUPOLEV TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT
23
The tri-motor ANT-9 prototype URSS-309 Krylya Sovyetov (Soviet Wings) at Berlin's Tempelhof
Airportin fuly 1929, during Mikhail Gromov's second European tour. Note the three waiters in the fore-
ground preparing champagne for the dignitaries. (photo: Lufthansa)
~
GROMOV'S EUROPEAN TOURS
ANT-3 (Proletarij) 31 Aug.- 1 Sep. 1926
ANT-9 (Wings of the SOViets) 10 Jul.- 8 AU9.1929
Rome
Paris
London
Wings of the Soviets
On 10 July 1929, the same day when a common flag was adopted for the civil aviation fleet of
the U.S.S.R., Mikhail Gromov took off in the prototype ANT-9, named Krylya Sovyetov (Soviet
Wings), on a tour of Europe that included five foreign capital cities. He returned in triumph on
8 August. For the first time, the Soviet Union had an airliner that was possibly the best in
Europe. Indeed, there is a report that, calling as it did twice in Berlin, it influenced the Junkers
firm to convert the Ju 52 from a single-engined aircraft into a tri-motor. The ANT-9 went into
service with Deruluft and Dobrolet early in 1931, !nitialiy as a tri-motor with M-26, later
U.S. engines. Production of the ANT-9 totaled 75, of which 60 were M-17-powered twins,
known as PS-9s, and the type remained in the fleet of Aeroflot until the end of the
Second World War.
L
REGD
Pilots ready for takeoff at Aleksandrovsk,
Sakhalin, in the early years when open-
cockpit Junkers-F 13s were the flagships
of the line. (photo: Far Eastern Regional
Directorate Museum, Khabarovsk)
K- 5 Vladivostok
Giving It The Boot
Vodopyanov himself recalls how resourceful and ingenious
were the ground crews who serviced the aircraft in those
times at the dawn of aviation in Russia's far east. During
the winter, with temperatures at 30
0
below zero (Celsius),
the engines were most reluctant to start, even after heating
the oil and other methods of coaxing them into life. He
remembers that, when all else failed, the crew would place
a knee-length rubber boot on the propeller, loop a rope
over the foot of the boot, haul on it very sharply, where-
upon, after several tries, the engine would fire, and the
boot would slip off, thus saving. the crew from a possible
whip-lash, at the very least. Dobrolet did not recommend
this process in the instruction manuals, but it worked.
Kalin in
The tiny terminal building at Okha,
Sakhalin, in 1933. At that time this
was 'the end of the line' for Aerofot.
(photo: Far Eastern Regional
Directorate Museum, Khabarovsk)
AEROFLOT

0.1
TRANS-51 BERIAN
ROUTE

1933 \0
pe)":
0' :2\. Nerchinsk
'1:-(0-
0
Chita
was divided between the U.S.S.R. in the
north and Japan in the south. The first
flight took eleven days, but as time went
on, the journey was normally flown in
two or three, and occasionally, in the
summer, in a single long day. It was a
true pioneering effort.
The Ju 13s were supplemented by the
diminutive Shavrov Sh-2 amphibians,
which also deputized for the S.55s in lat-
er years. First built in 1928, they were
used extensively along the great river
routes throughout Siberia.
U.S.S.R. Transcontinental
Dobrolet was gradually spreading its wings, as noted on
pages 20 and 22. It had expanded the route map to include,
by 1930, all the major cities of European Russia and the
Caucasus, and beyond to CentraJ Asia; and had reached
Irkutsk, beyond the Ural Mountains, in Siberia. On another
historic occasion, on 15 December 1933, after a new airport
had been built at Khabarovsk, and by which time Dobrolet
had become Aeroflot, the final section of the Trans-
Siberian air route was completed, from Irkutsk to
Vladivostok. The inaugural flight was made by a Kalinin K-
S, an aircraft that did not possess the appeal or reputation
of the ANT-9, but which nevertheless did more than its
share of the work.
By this time, as narrated on the page oppOSite, Aeroflot
had· also reached Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, ten time zones
away, and almost halfway round the earth.
REGD
AEROFLOT'S
FAR EAST
FLYING BOAT Savoia-Marchetti
ROUTE
1933-55 Okho-ts
Polikarpov U-2 Ayan (J
and ShavrovSh-2 t
1933 Nikolayevsk
na-Amuce
Svabodnijo
Bfagov- I Marins ets. etropovlovsk
I/eschen . Komchatski)
Arkhar -rambovsI<. ""'-:13 aKMlinskiy I· (1940-44
Nf%hn€ flo 'U-1
Khabarovsk· 1930-1933 Martin 156
and Consolidated 28(MP-7)
(1942-55)
Island Outposts
While the Soviet Union was, geographically, one vast land
area, there were a few offshore islands. Those in the Arctic
Ocean were of little commercial importance, although they
had some strategic value; but those in the far east were very
important strategically, and contained some natural
resources. If only because of a latent suspicion of Japanese
ambitions in the area, Moscow had to ensure close ties to the
extremes of its empire. The island of Sakhalin, though only a
few kilometers from the Asian land mass at one point, was
difficult to reach; while the peninsula of Kamchatka, separat-
ed from the rest of Russia by the Sea of Okhotsk, might as
well have been a distant island.
Aplan to build a railway from Khabarovsk to Nikolayevsk-
na-Amure was postponed because of the difficulties of build-
ing a line through the Amur swamplands. Instead, Dobrolet
was given the task of building an air route.
ToThe End of the Line
Pioneer Route
During 1929, Comrade Nijnakovsky blazed a trail by dog-sled
from Khabarovsk to Nikolayevsk. He laid down supplies of
fuel, food, shelter, and medical supplies (and not forgetting
waterproofed packets of matches), ready for any emergency
en route. Then, on an historic day, 9 January 1930, Mikhail
Vodopyanov left Khabarovsk in a Junkers Ju 13 floatplane
(illustrated on page 15), and flew to Aleksandrovsk-
Sakhalinskiy, the chief city of Sakhalin, which in those days
24
Flying Boats of the Far East
MARTIN 156
50 SEATS. 225km/h (140mph)
The Savoia-Marchetti S.55P
Local services began to develop in the Far East area. A circular route was established to some
small communities to the north and east of Blagoveschensk, with Polikarpov Po-2 and
Shavrov Sh·2 amphibians, and the Junkers Ju 13s were replaced with larger aircraft. Aeroflot
negotiated for five Savoia-Marchetti S.55P twin-boom flying boats, the same type that had
been used by Marshal Balbo in the famous trans-Atlantic squadron flight from Italy to Brazil in
1930. The S.55P inaugurated Aeroflot service to Petropavlovsk in 1933, by the circuitous route
around the Sea of Okhotsk (see map opposite), the aircraft having been delivered from Italy by a
circuitous route via the Black Sea, the great Russian rivers, as well as Lake Baikal.
The Russian Clipper
Flying to Sakhalin, and especially to Kamchatka, was an adventure, and the journey by S.55P to
Petropavlovsk usually took about five or six days in the summer. Accordingly, Aeroflot upgraded
to larger equipment, the Martin 156, the so-called 'Russian Clipper', an improved version of
the famous China Clipper Martin 130 delivered to Pan American Airways in 1935.
The Far East Region of Aeroflot needed an aircraft that could combine a good payload
with a good range, enough to traverse the southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk, preferably non-
stop from Khabarovsk to Petropavlovsk. The Glenn Martin (as it was always referred to in
Russia) could normally carry 50 passengers, and on shorter trips, for example, Khabarovsk to
Nikolayevsk-na-Amure, it could carry 70. The Martin 156 - designated SP-30 by Aeroflot -
was delivered in 1940 and operated successfully during the summer months until 1944, when it
had to be retired because of the difficulty in obtaining spare parts.
The Clipper was replaced by the Consolidated Catalina in 1943 or 1944. Three
Consolidated Model 28-1s had been imported from the U.S. in 1938 and, from 1940, license ero-
duction of the type was undertaken at Taganrov, on the Sea of Azov, as the GST (Gidro Samolyet
Transportnyi, or hydro aircraft transport) for the Soviet Navy. A few civil examples, designated
MP-7, were delivered to Aeroflot. Some Lisunov Li-2s are believed to have been used also.
The Martin 156 'Russian Clipper'. (photo: Far Eastern Regional Directorate Museum, Khabarovsk)
A Savoia-Marchetti S.SSP (msn 10528) used on the route from Khabarovsk to Petropavlovsk-
Kamchatsky in the mid-1930s. (photo: Far Eastern Regional Directorate Museum, Khabarovsk)
25
An Aviaarktika ANT-l (SSSR-N28) on skis. (Vdovienko)
The terminal building at Noriilsk, in nortltem Siberia. (Vdovienko)
The Chelyuskin Rescue
Soviet aviators won their spurs in a remarkable rescue
mission. In 1933, the good ship Chelyuskin left Leningrad
to attempt another circumnavigation of the Soviet
Union, at least as far as Vladivostok. It was almost within
sight of the Bering Strait when in November it stuck in
the ice. On 12 February it was crushed by an iceberg and
the entire ship's company were marooned. Dr Schmidt
organized a floating - and constantly moving - camp
on the ice flows, and built a landing field - also con-
stantly moving - in preparation for the rescue aircraft. A
whole team of aviators won their spurs, including
Mikhail Vodopyanov, and especially Vasily
Molokov. In a series of flights from a coastal airstrip near
the ship, they saved all 104 marooned personnel, a great
testimonial to the new aviation technology.
Siberia: the Ob, with a base at Omsk, on its tributary, the
Irtysh; on the Yenesei, at Krasnoyarsk; at Irkutsk, on the
Angara, near Lake Baikal; and on the Lena, at Yakutsk.
Expanding the Horizons
During the mid-1930s, Glavsevmorput sent out its long tenta-
cles throughout the sparsely populated Siberian lands that
occupy more than half of the area of Russia. Its achievement
could not be measured by conventional statistics - in 1933,
only 180 passengers and about 15 tons of mail were carried;
but Polar Aviation pilots were learning their trade. They car-
ried vital supplies, including medicines, doctors, and teachers
out-bound, and valuable furs inbound - furs that would oth-
erwise have taken two years to reach the stores in Moscow or
Leningrad. Gathering confidence, the aircraft flew further and
more often, with some pilots making some notable flights,
such as those of Chelyuskin hero Molokov, reviewed on the
opposite page.
~
-:-....-'i='
~ -
~ ~
~ ~ c .
- ~ - ~ ~ .
. - : : : ~ ~ . - ~ ~
Special container attached to the wing of the Polikalpov R-SC aircraft,
to rescue sU1vivors of the wrecked Chelyuskin in 1934. (Vdovienko)
Pavel Golovin (second from rigltt) with crew members (from left)
Volkov, Kyekusltev, and Terentiev, in front of the ANT-l reconnais-
sance aircraft on tlte Papanin expedition. (Vdovienko)
First Cautious Steps
As early as 1912, Igor Sikorsky himself had visualized the
possibility of using aircraft to survey and explore the frozen
wastes of Russia's northlands. Even before the Revolution,
this advice was soon followed, when, in 1914, Jan Nagursky
a Pole, flying a Farman, helped to locate the Sedov expedition
that was lost in the Arctic ice of Novaya Zembla. On 20 April
1920, barely two months after the last British troops had left
Arkhangelsk, the Northern Sea Route Committee was
formed, and this was reinforced in March 1921 by the forma-
tion of the Floating Naval Scientific Institute.
During 1924, Boris Chukhnovsky made a dozen flights
in a Junkers Ju 13 to survey the Barents and the Kara Seas;
while on 4 August 1925 Otto Kalvits reached Matochkin
Shar, at a latitude of 73
0
on Novaya Zembla. During the latter
1920s, led by Mikhail Babushkin, aircraft were used to aid
seal hunters and to gUide shipping. On 15 February 1929,
Ivan Mikheyev made a successful ambulance mission.
Soviet aviation was ready for the Arctic.
Aviaarktika
The Northern Sea Route Administration
Much in the same manner that western navigators had specu-
lated about the Northwest Passage from the Atlantic to the
Pacific, so did Russian seamen dream of linking Arkhangelsk
and Murmansk with Vladivostok via the Arctic Ocean and the
Bering Strait. The role of the airplane was fully recognized
from the start, and in 1 September 1930, Glavnoe upravle-
nie Severnogo morskogo puti, or Glavsevmorput
(Northern Sea Route Administration), was formed, head-
ed by Dr Otto Schmidt, known familiarly as the Ice
Commissar. He had made several voyages in the Arctic, reach-
ing Franz Josef Land, the northernmost islands of Eurasia.
Glavsevmorput's Department of Polar Aviation,
established at Krasnoyarsk on 1 September 1930, and familiar-
ly known as Aviaarktika, was headed by Schmidt's deputy
and right-hand man, Mark Shevelev. It moved to Moscow
in 1932, and survived independently from Aeroflot until 3
January 1960, when the state airline took over all its opera-
tions. Except for the wartime years and until he retired from
the Air Force, Shevelev was in charge throughout.
The Administration was equipped from the start with a
fleet of Junkers Ju 13 floatplanes and six Dornier Wal flying
boats. By 1933, the fleet had been increased to 42, including
among other types, the four-engined ANT-6 and the twin-
engined ANT-4. Much pioneer work was done in establishing
air routes with waterborne aircraft along the great rivers of
26
opening Up The North
Two Soviet Worlds
As Aeroflot settled down to its task of providing all Soviet
citizens with an air service (see page 33), it concentrated on
speeding up the journey times along the traditional main
arteries that had been built by the Russian railroads to con-
nect Moscow with all the main centers of population. Routes
in European Russia extended to Leningrad, the Black Sea, the
Caspian Sea, to Central Asia, and - keeping strictly to the
route of the Iron Road, the Trans-Siberian Railway, to the far
eastern port of Vladivostok. Except for one branch line from
Irkutsk to Yakutsk, along the Lena River, the Aeroflot network
was an aerial reflection of the railroad map. By the mid-1930s,
this had become the framework and foundation for an ever-
expanding system of air routes.
In contrast, Glavsevmorput (Aviaarktika) fashioned its
sorties into the far north of Russia by a different surface mode
of travel. It had to; for in the 1930s, rail lines to the north ran
only to Arkhangelsk and to Murmansk, the latter completed
only during the Great War of 1914-1918. Instead, therefore, of
follOWing the railway lines like Aeroflot, Aviaarktika followed
the rivers and waterways, the seas and the lakes; and in the
summer used flying boats and f1oatplanes, while in the winter
it exchanged the floats for skis. Only the largest aircraft, such
as the ANT-6, were ever fitted with wheels.
ANT-6 SSSR-N170, the four-engilled transport that led the squadron
of aircraft to the North Pole in 1937. Mikhail Vodop)'ano]l flew
/]lan Pa/"/anin and his scientific tealll frolll Rudolf/sland. This
picture was take/"/ in August, whell it retumed to Moscow.
(photo: Boris Vdo]lienko)
It's a Long Way to Krasnoyarsk
Vasily Molokov was one of many highly trained pilots who
flew for Aviaarktika, gaining experience with every flight into
the snows and the ice, the swamps and the marshlands of the
northlands. He came into the public eye when, in the famous
1934 Chelyuskin rescue saga, he carried 34 people - a third of
the total - to safety. The next year, on 11 February, he flew a
Polikarpov R-5 from Moscow to Krasnoyarsk, on the Yenesei
River, via Yanaul, near Izhevsk, and Tayga, near Tomsk. He
then made a flight to the mouth of the Yenesei, at Dickson, on
the Kara Sea coast, arriving on 19 March, to prove the feasibili
c
ty of an air route to link important locations of mineral
wealth, such as Noril'sk, with the vital Trans-Siberian trunk rail
line and the Aeroflot transcontinental airway.
Molokov then made two epic journeys that should rank
with other great, and much better known, pioneer aerial
explorations. In the first, flying a Dornier Wal, he left
Krasnoyarsk on 13 July 1935, and followed various rivers to
the northeast, picking up the Lena near Kirensk, thence via
Vasily Molokov's Siberian
CD ••••••••• PR-5. 11 Feb- 19 March 1935
® - - - - - Dornier Waf 16 JUly-I2.Sep. 1935
@ DornierWaJ 22July-f9 Sep.f936
AlQtoClJk".,
REGD
Yakutsk to a point near Magaden, on the Sea of Okhotsk, then
to the most easterly point of Russia, at Uelen (see map), and
returning along most of the north Siberian coastline, to arrive
at Dudinka on 12 September. He had covered a distance of
21,000km (13,OOOmi).
The following year, Molokov did even better. Leaving
Krasnoyarsk on 22 July 1936, he followed the same route
around Siberia, surveyed the Severna Zemlya islands to the far
north, and flew westwards via Arkhangelsk to arrive in tri-
umph in Moscow on 19 September. In both flights, he had
followed as much as possible the courses of the great rivers
and their tributaries, but east of Yakutsk, he had had to cross a
formidable mountain range, between the Aldan tributary of
the Lena, and the Sea of Okhotsk. From Moscow after the
1936 flight, he returned to base at Krasnoyarsk from 30
September to S October. The circumnavigation of Russia dur-
ing the three-month odyssey covered a distance of 31,000km
(16,400mi) in 200 flying hours. It was a pioneering perfor-
mance of immense trailblazing significance.
27
Dr Otto Schmidt (center) rests in front of an ANT-6 on 25 March 1937, en route to RudolfIsland and thence to the North Pole. On his left is
his pilot Mikhail Vodopyanoll and to the right of the picture is M.S. Babushkin, his co-pilot. (photo; Boris Vdollienko)
REGD
ANT-6
~ Rudolf Island 17 Apr. 1937
Mys ZheJanlya
C
h'Kin
",o'(.0 5l1ar
Amderma
. ~
g
l
f .t
~ ' Pap,anin returns
<;l 15 March 1938
,<,J- MurmQnsk
Papanin party. , ( , ~ ...-'r / - - - 0
'rescued D ~ - -.., - - --aliArkhangelsk
l
.
19 Feb 1936 ""turn In frlur11I .,
l\ Vologda
Moscow
dep. 22 March
1937
orr. is March
1938
shoreline, they rolled out a longer runway, with a slight slope
to assist take-off, on a dome-shaped plateau about 300m
(I,OOOft) above the base camp. The squadron of aircraft flew
up from Moscow, leaving on 18 March 1937. Reaching
Rudolf, they began final preparations. The ANT-6s were esti-
mated to need 7,300 liters (1,600USg) of fuel for the 18-hour
round-trip to the Pole, and 35 drums were needed for each
aircraft. Ten tons of supplies of all kinds were to be taken, and
elaborate steps were taken to design light-weight and multi-
purpose equipment.
There were frustrating delays, as they waited anXiously for
Boris Dzerzeyevsky, the resident weather-man, to report favor-
able conditions, and for Pavel Golovin, pilot of the ANT-7
reconnaissance aircraft, to confirm Dzerzeyevsky's forecasts,
and to test the accuracy of the radio beacons. On one flight,
Golovin was stranded for three days when he had to make a
forced landing on the ice. But eventually, the expedition
received the all-clear.
Flying an ANT-6 (registered SSSR-NI70), Mikhail
Vodopyanov, with co-pilot M. Babushkin, navigator I. Spirin
and three mechanics landed at a point a few kilometers
beyond the North Pole (just to make sure) on 21 May 1937, at
11.35 a.m. Moscow time. Ivan Papanin, with scientists
Yvgeny Federov and Piotr Shirsov, together with radio opera-
tor Ernst Krenkel, immediately established the first scientific
Polar Station (PS-l) on the polar ice, on which they eventual-
ly drifted on their private ice-floe in a southwesterly direction
until they were picked up off the coast of Greenland by a res-
cue ship on 19 February 1938.
ardous because of the severe climate and terrain, is feasible as
the tWin-island territory of Novaya Zemlya accounts for about
800km (500mi) of the distance from the Nenets region.
On 29 March 1936, Mikhail Vodopyanov set off with
Akkuratov in a two-plane reconnaissance of the possible air
route to Rudolf Island (see map). Flying blind for much of the
time, and having to contend with inconveniences such as
boiling six pails of water before starting the engines with
compressed air, they reached their destination, and reported
that the conditions, while not ideal, were not impossible. On
his return to Moscow on 21 May, Schmidt was sufficiently
satisfied to make plans. He arranged for the ice-breaking ship
Rusanoll to carry supplies to Rudolf, appointed Ivan
Papanin to lead the assault on the Pole, and selected a com-
bination of four ANT-6 (G-2) four-engined bomber trans-
ports, and one ANT-7 (G-l) twin-engined aircraft for the
task. Vodopyanov was to be the chief pilot.
The Assault
The working party sent to Rudolf did their work well. In addi-
tion to setting up a base camp and a small airstrip on the
The Preparations
Aviaarktika had already reached ever northwards during
the late 1920s and had spread its wings far and wide across
the expanses of the Soviet Union, in those areas where
Aeroflot had no reason to go, for lack of people to carry in a
vast mainly frigid region that was almost completely unpopu-
lated, except for isolated villages and outposts. Rather like
expeditions on the ground, such as those to the South Pole,
Otto Schmidt, assisted by his deputy, Mark Shevelev,
pushed further beyond the limits, very methodically.
The northernmost landfall in the Soviet Union is the tiny
Rudolf Island, an icy speck on the fringes of the island group
known as Franz Josef Land (named after an Austrian explor-
er). At a latitude of 82
0
North, Rudolf is only about 1,300km
(800mi) from the Pole and a good location for a base camp
and launching site. Access to Franz Josef Land, while haz-
The North Pole
28
The Arctic Experience
The Papanin Expedition team (left to right) E. T. Krenkel, radio operator; J.D. Papanin (expedition leader); Y,K. Fedorov, navigator;
and P,P. Shirshov. (all photos: Boris Vdovienko)
Il'ya Mazuruk, one ofthe veteran Arctic pilots
who launched the attack on the North Pole.
Mikhail Vodopyanov, Chief Pilot of the fleet
that carried Papanin to the Pole.
Dr Otto Schmidt, Director of the
Northern Sea Route Administration.
FLIGHT TO THE NORTH POLE, 1937
Well·Earned Fame
After the various great flights made by Soviet aircraft, the
pilots and crew were lavishly decorated, receiving many
medals and testimonials in the Soviet tradition. Moscow wit-
nessed receptions that were as impressive, if not quite so lav-
ish, as those bestowed in New York on Lindbergh, Earhart, or
Hughes. And they were well earned. Mikhail Vodopyanov,
for example, had built up hundreds of hours of flying in
remote parts of Russia, including the opening of the Dobrolet
route to Sakhalin (page 24). He had pioneered the route to
Rudolf Island, and had campaigned for aircraft landings on
the North Polar ice, in opposition to other views that the
Papanin party should be dropped by parachute. His crew
members Mikhail Babushkin and Ivan Spirin had both
flown big airplanes as early as 1921, in the Il'ya Murometsy,
no less. Vasily Molokov had been one of the heroes of the
Chelyuskin rescue, and his radio operator had been with him
on the long Siberian circuit (page 27). Anatoly Alexeyev
had flown on a relief party to the Severnaya Zemlya islands in
1934; while lIya Mazuruk and Pavel Golovin already had
outstanding records. When the Soviet Union decided to Go
For The Pole, it had the best cadre of trained and experienced
pilots in the world to face the daunting challenge.
Director of Operations Dr Otto Shmidt
Deputy Director of Operations Mark Shevelev
Meteorologist at Rudolf Island Boris Dzerdzeyevsky
ANT·6 N-170 Total on board
(Inc. Papanln party, below), 11
Pilot, M.V. Vodopyanov • Co-pilot. M.S. Babushkin • Navigator, I.T.Spirin
Radio Op., SA Ivanov· Air Mechanics. F. Bassein, Morozov, Petenin
ANT·6 N-l71 Total on board, 11
Pilot, V.S. Molokov • Radio Operator, Stromilov • Navigator, Ritsland
ANT·6 N-l72 Total on board, 11
Pilot, A.D.Alexeyev • Navigator, Zhukov, Moshkovsky
ANJ.6 N-169 Total on board,S
Pilot, I.P. Mazuruk • Rozlov, Akkuratov
ANT·7 N-166 Crew only, scout alrcraftl
Pilot, P.G. Golovin· Navigator, Volkov, Terentyev
• Mechanics, Shekurov, Timofeyev
Polar Party (with N-1701 Remained at the North Pole
leader, I,D. Papanln • Navigator. Y.K. Fedorov
• Radio Operator, E.T. Krenke!. PP. Shirshov
Total weight of supplies carried to the North Pole 9 tons
29
Life SU2POrt for APolar Station
Extra Fuel Tank
Polar flights
by
AVIAARKTIKA
Typical Loading
of
ANT-6
REGD
One of the North PoZe aircraft at Arkhangelsk, on the way back.
Two ANT-6s ofAviaarktika (SSSR-N211 and N212), warming up
to go to search for Levanevsky in October 1937.
An ANT-7 in a typical Arctic scene. (all photos: Boris Vdovienko)
PAPANIN EXPEDITION
TOTAL FUEL, FOOD, AND EQUIPMENT
Their Tiny Hands Were Frozen
During the final flight from Rudolf Island to the North
Pole, Mikhail Vodopyanov realized that one of the
ANT-6's engines was leaking water from its radiator, with
its precious anti-freeze liqUid disappearing into thin air.
Vodopyanov's trusted chief air mechanic, Flegont
Bassein, together with co-mechanics Morozov and
Petenin, crawled along the tunnel in the wing (see oppo-
site and diagram below) and tried to stop the flow. They
came up with an ingenious solution, by placing cloths
over the leak, soaking up the outflow, squeezing them out
into a container, and pouring the liqUid back into the
radiator. The engine kept going.
The mechanics did too, but barely. To reach the leak,
they had had to force an opening in the leading edge of the
wing, radiators obviously being exposed to the airflow. It
was an act of fortitude that nearly cost them their hands.
FOOD TAKEN ON PAPANIN EXPEDITION
Food, Fuel, and Equipment Tons
Food for 2.800 man-days (i.e 700 days for aparty of 4menI 3.5
Fuel for Primus Stoves, Lamps. Engines 25
Various Scientific Instruments 07
Radio Receiver-Transmitters 0.5
Power Apparatus 0.5
Clothing, Tents, Boats, Maps, Domestic Needs 13
Total 90
(Weights in Grams Igram =0.035 ounce)
1470 Fish Roe/Caviar 2500 Sugar 1000 Powdered Milk
1430 Milk 300 Salt 1000 Powdered Eggs
150 Tomatoes 5000 Pemmican 1250 Chicken Pate
2500 Sweet Butter 2500 Rye Biscuits 1250 Chocolate
2500 Lard 300 Bread Crumbs 600 Fruit Jelly
1250 Smoked Fish 120 Dried Onions 125 Tea
1250 Hunter's Sausage 700 Bean Soup 500 Cocoa
1000 Cream Cheese
I
240 Barley Soup 250 Coffee
1250 Rice 360 Borsch 120 Fruit Drinks
500 Green Peas 360 Fresh Necks 30 Pepper
500 White Flour 1250 Meat Cutlets 2 Bay Leave
93 Potato Flour 1250 Chicken Cutlets 300 Vitamin CCandy
100 Noodles 950 Chicken Stock 125 Dried
Strawberries
800 Stewed Fruit 1500 Beef Stock 5 Lemon Extract
500 Dried Potatoes 300 Beef Jerky
PAPANIN EXPEDITION
CLOTHES/PERSONAL ITEMS PER TEAM MEMBER
Test Bombing
Landing a 24-ton aircraft on an ice-floe, no matter how big,
was a speculative proposition. It was determined that the
minimum ice thickness required was 70cm (2ft); engineers
then devised a 9.5kg (21lb) ·bomb'. It was shaped like a pear
and fastened at its rear or trailing end was a 6-8m (20ft) line
with flags attached. If the ice was less than 70cm, the 'bomb'
went straight through. If more, it stuck, and the flags, draped
on the ice, indicated that landing was possible. This method
was first utilized on the Papanin expedition.
Weight Watchers
To equip the Papanin Expedition, every ingenious precau-
tion was taken to avoid superfluous weight. Tents were of
light-weight silk and aluminum. Utensils were of plastics or
aluminum. The aircraft ladders were convertible into sleds.
Special equipment such as the sounding line and the
bathymeter were re-designed to save weight. Both the aircraft
crews and the members of the expedition were eternally grate-
ful for the innumerable contributions made by the 'back-
room boys' in Leningrad, Moscow, and other sources of
equipment supply.
How Much Extra
To carry even this finely tuned total weight of nine tons,
divided between the four ANT-6 load-carrying aircraft, extra
fuel also had to be taken, in addition to the provisions listed in
the tables on this page. Almost two tons extra had to be car-
ried by each aircraft. But the dome-shaped airfield on the
plateau at Rudolf Island offered shallow slopes, down which
the departing aircraft could gain speed and lift; and every item
of nonessential equipment was stripped from the interior, and
every non-essential item of personal effects was left behind.
30
No. Item Pairs Item
2 Sleeping Bag 18 Socks/Stocking (Wooll
1 Cookware Set 4 Socks (Fur)
1 Shirt and Pants (cloth) 3 Sock-boots (Reindeer)
3 Shirt (cloth) 1 (Seal)
2 Combinations (clothl 2 Boots (Feltl (Mukluks)
1 Fur Trousers (Reindeer) 1 Boots ('Russian')
1 (Seal) 6 Gloves (Wooll
1 Fur Coat (Reindeer) 1 (Furl
3 Sweaters 12 (Canvas)
ANT-6
12 SEATS. 180km/h (112mph)
Aspecial feature in the design was a tunnel that permitted air mechanics to cra\vl along the whole length of
the wing, to inspect fuel tanks and cargo holds; and on one notable occasion (see opposite page) this was
used to perform some unusual maintenance on one of the engines.
AM-34RN (4 X 970hp) • MTOW 22,600kg (49,8201b) • Normal Range 1,350km (840mi)
A Great Airplane
Bill Gunston, renowned technical aviation authority and compiler of encyclopedic volumes
about aircraft, including a masterpiece on Soviet types, says this about the Tupolev-designed
ANT-6, also known as the TB-3 or the G-2: "This heavy bomber was the first Soviet aircraft to
be ahead of the rest of the world, and one of the greatest achievements in aviation history" and
that, "the design was sensibly planned to meet operational requirement and was highly com-
petitive aerodynamically, structurally, and in detail engineering." This was in 1930.
A Big Airplane - and Plenty of Them
Give or take a ton or two, depending on the version, the ANT-6 weighed, fully equipped for
take-off, about 22 tons. Most G-2s weighed 22,OSOkg (48,SOOlb). By comparison, the contempo-
rary German Junkers-G 38 weighed 24 tons, but only two were built, compared with no less
A rear view ofANT-6 SSSR-N-170 in which Vodopyanov took Papanin to the NOith Pole. This picture
well illustrates the excellent basic 1930 design of the world's first heavy tmnspolt that went into series
production. (photo: Boris Vdovienko)
Comparison with 11-86
LENGTH 25m (82ft) SPAN 40m (131ft)
than 818 ANT-6s. Of these, the vast majority were for the Soviet Air Force, painted dark green,
with sky blue undersides; about ten or twelve ANT-6s were allocated to Mark Shevelev's Polar
Aviation (Aviaarktika), and painted in the orange-red and blue colors. The four special versions
prepared for the Papanin expedition, according to Tupolev historians, were in bare metal, prob-
ably to save precious weight. The British and French industries had nothing in the same league,
and the U.S.A. had not yet thought of the B-17.
A Versatile Airplane Too
Designed primarily as a bomber, the type was adapt-
ed for other purposes. Design started way back in
May 1926, wind tunnel testing was completed in
March 1929, and Mikhail Gromov made the first
test flight on 22 December 1930. Throughout its
lifespan (production ceased early in 1937) it under-
went many improvements, culminating in the ANT-
6A, specially modified for Dr Otto Schmidt's
Aviaarktika's assault on the North Pole; and it was
also used during the 1930s by Aeroflot, reportedly
carrying as many as 20 passengers.
BREAKDOWN OF ANT-6 WEIGHT
Item Kilograms
Empty Weight on Skis 13.084
Radio and Navigation Equipment 297
Spare Parts and
Special Expedition Equipment 262
Crew of 81120kg each) 960
Provisions for crew (20kg eachl 160
Gasoline 7.200
Oil 640
Total 22.603
(excluding cargo carried for ice station)
31
The Great Polar Flights
t
~ ~ " : ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '
; j j ~
This dignified monument on an island near the shore of the Sea of
Okhotsk, commemorates the flight by Chkalov, Baidukov, and
Belyakov from Moscow to Udd Island in 1936. (photo: REG. Davies)
The Second Trans-Polar Flight
As if to trump Chkalov's ace - and perhaps to remind every-
one in the U.S.S.R. that he was once the premier Soviet pilot
- Mikhail Gromov, with Andrei B. Yumashyev and Sergei
A. Danilin, made a second trans-Polar flight only a month
after Chkalov. On 12-14 July, also in an ANT-2S, with its
bright red wings making a dramatic impact, this crew flew
from Moscow to a grass meadow near San Jacinto, in south-
ern California. This time the Great Circle distance of
lO,148km (6,306mi), flown in an even shorter time (62hr
17min) than Chkalov's, because of more favorable winds and
conditions, beat the world's distance record held by the
Frenchmen Codos and Rossi.
monument commemorates this notable flight of 9,374km
(S,82Smi) in S6hr 20min. The ANT-2S had made its case.
The First Trans-Polar Flight
The follOWing year, from 18 to 20 June 1937, they made the
historic flight that ranks as one of the greatest trail-blazing
conquests of the air, and one of the most dramatic. Flying at
first due north to the Pole and then continuing due south,
they made their way to Portland, Oregon, landing, however,
at the military Pearson Field at Vancouver, Washington State.
The ANT-2S had covered a distance of about 10,OOOkm
(6,200mi), officially recorded as a Great Circle distance of
8,S04km (S,28Smi) in 63hr 2Smin. The flight captured the
imagination of the whole world and Chkalov was hailed as
the Russian Lindbergh.
Tragic Postscript
One month later still, it was Levanevskiy's turn. Convinced
that a multi-engined aircraft was the best suited for long-diS-
tance flying (and who could argue this point today?) he set
off from Moscow on 12 August 1937, in a DB-A (URSS-N209).
Designed by Viktor Bolkovitinov, this was a mid-winged and
much-developed version of the veteran but well-trusted ANT-
6, the very same type that so successfully had made the
flights to the North Pole earlier in the year (see page 30).
Levanevskiy had a crew of five: Nikolai Kasteneyev (co-pilot),
Viktor Levchenko (naVigator), Grigory Pobezhimov (mechan-
ic), Nikolai Godovikov (mechanic), and Nikolai Galkovsky
(radio operator). After 17hr 3Smin, the radio station at Cape
Schmidt, in the far northeast of Siberia, heard a brief message,
reporting severe trouble. The DBA and its crew were never
heard of again, although repeated searches have been made.
The Meeting
On 3 August 1935, the latest product of the TsAGI design
organization, the ANT-2S, designed by Andrei Tupolev,
was on a proving flight over the Barents Sea, north of
Murmansk. The crew consisted of Sigismund Levanevskiy,
then considered to be the Soviet Union's leading pilot,
Georgy F. Baidukov, and Victor Levchenko. The aircraft had
fuel system problems and, nearing the point of no return,
Lavanevskiy turned back, landing near Novgorod, instead of
the Moscow base.
In mid-September, a meeting was held in Josef Stalin's
office in the Kremlin. It was attended by the three crew
members, faced across the table by Molotov, Voroshilov,
and Andrei Tupolev. At the head of the table, Stalin con-
ducted an enquiry, aided by his pipe, whose smoke drifted
over the room. He asked Levanevskiy about his plans,
whereupon the pilot said he did not trust the ANT-2S, and
Tupolev left the room in disgust. Stalin suggested that, for
the next flight into the Arctic, American assistance should
be sought; but Baidukov felt that the aircraft's problem
could be rectified. Answering Levanevskiy's allegation that
a single-engined aircraft (the ANT-2S) had a 100 percent
chance of disaster if an engine failed, Chkalov responded
with the remark "With four engines, you have a 400 per-
cent chance!" He won the day.
The Flight to Udd
Although Stalin had originally wished to make a prestige-seek-
ing flight across the Pole to the U.S.A., he decided, early in
1936, that, for political reasons, a flight to the U.S.S.R.'s Far East
would be preferable. Later, he was reported to have said that the
successful flight had been "worth two armies." By this time,
Baidukov had begun to work with Valery P. Chkalov, a pilot
with a reputation for taking risks, but a master of his trade. The
ANT-25's fuel problems were corrected.
On 20 July 1936, Chkalov, Baidukov, and navigator
Aleksander V. Belyakov flew the aircraft from Moscow, by a
route that took them first due north from Moscow and then by
a near-Great Circle course over eastern Siberia, aiming for
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, which, however, was blanketed by
impenetrable weather. Turning west, they made landfall across
the Sea of Okhotsk, on the tiny island of Udd, near the mouth
of the Amur River. On this island, now renamed Chkalov (along
with neighboring islands Baidukov and Belyakov), a dignified
32
In an amiable mood, the designer o(the ANT-25, Andrei Tupolev,
and Chkalov's co-pilot, Georgy Baidukov, meet at Moscow airport
in 1975. With them is General Bykov, Deputy Minister o(Aviation.
(photos: Boris Vdovienko)
The ANT-25 crew that flew from Moscow to Cali(ornia in 1937
(left to right) Danilin, Gramov, and Yumarshov.
I"
GeOlgy Baidukov ((rant),
pictured here with Gramov,
was Chkalov's co-pilot.
SPECIALIST LONG-RANGE AIRCRAFT COMPARED
This aerial view o(ANT-25
URSS-N025 clearly emphasizes
the fmge willg area and the high
aspect ratio.
Aircraft Year of IMTOW
Dimensions Fuel Range Achieved
Type Long Range (kg) (m) c a p a c ~ Distance
Flight Length Span (litres) (km) Route
-
Dewoitine 33 1931 9.200 14.4 280 8.000 10,367* Paris-
Siberia
(crashedl
Fairey Long- 1933 7.940 148 250 5,214 8,705 Cranwell,
Range England-
Monoplane II Walvis 8ay,
SWAfrica
ANT-25 1933 11,524 131 340 8,189 10,146 Moscow-
San Jacinto,
Cal.
Vickers 1938 8,364 12.0 227 5,863 11,517 Ismailia,
Wellesley Egypt-
Darwin,
Australia
Notes: All single-engined monoplanes, high aspect ratio wing 'Previously-achieved
close circuit Attempt to break distance record thwarted by engine failure.
Sigismund Levanevskiy, pilot o(
the third, and tragic attempt to
fly across the NO/th Pole in 1937.
Valely Chkalov, pilot o(the
first trans-Polar flight
0(1937.
ANT-25
Going For the Distance
For propaganda and prestige reasons alone, the goal of beat-
ing world records, especially in a technological field such as
aviation, was attractive to the Soviet Union during the early
1930s. Andrei Tnpolev realized that the existing long dis-
tance record was within its grasp, and obtained authorization
from the Revolutionary War Council on 7 December 1931 to
proceed with a new design, the ANT-25 RD (Rekord Dal'nost,
or record distance). It was a carefully-fashioned product. The
corrugated wing had an aspect ration of no less than 13-0,
with fuel tankage distributed along the whole length, to
relieve bending stress (later the corrugations were smoothed
over with fabric, and the drag coefficient was reduced by 36
percent.) The fuel load was eventually increased to 6.1 tons,
more than half the total gross weight of the airplane.
Instrumentation included the first Soviet gyro-compass, a 500
W, 12 V generator, MF and HF radios, and a sextant in a
hinged room station.
Mikhail Gromov made the first flight on 22 June
1933. After the modifications, a series of closed circuit
flights in 1934 culminated in Gromov, with A.1. Filin and
LT. Spirin, setting a new world's record on 10 September, at
12,411km (7,713mi) in a multi-lap triangular flight lasting
75hr 2min. Then, as preparations were made for a spectacu-
lar demonstration - trans-Polar flight - Gromov fell ill. In
August 1935, the reputable Sigismund Levanevskiy flew
towards the North Pole, but had to turn back (see opposite
page); and that led to the critical meetinlr with Stalin. As
the table below shows, the
ANT-25 was in a great tradi-
tion of long-range specialist
aircraft. And the honor of
matching words with deeds
fell to Valery Chkalov.
About 16 ANT-25s were
built. No more record-
breaking flights were
attempted, but the aircraft
were used for experimental
test flying.
33
The ANT-9 and the Junkers-Ju 52/3m, both flying for Deruluft just before it stopped service, were representative of the generation of airliners
that depended on conl.lgated metal for longitudinal stiffness. This picture was taken at Konigsberg. (photo: Lufthansa)
REGD
1940
- International"
Routes
The Lisunov Li-2, license-built version ofthe Douglas DC-3, super-
seded the old generation, at Moscow-Khodinka. (Boris Vdovienko)
Stockholm
Gaining Stature
By 1940, the unduplicated mileage of Aeroflot's route system
was close to 100,000, and in that year it carried 350,000 pas-
sengers. The productivity, measured in passenger-miles flown,
was 160 million. Aeroflot was now bigger than Deutsche
Lufthansa, Europe's biggest, and it was now the third biggest
airline in the world.
Aeroflot Consolidates
While all the headlines were being captured by AViaarktika,
with its brilliant support of the Papanin Expedition; by
Chkalov's and Gromov's trans-Polar flights, and by
Levanevskiy's tragic disappearance; Aeroflot was building
an air network, not so much by adding more routes (to
those shown on the map on page 27) but by introducing
better aircraft and more frequencies on the trunk lines and
by adding small feeder services and bush routes to connect
with the main arteries.
On 15 May 1937, for example, improved service from
Moscow to Tashkent was announced, to augment the flights
first started by Dobrolet in 1929, but which carried mainly
mail and Pravda matrices. Rather as in the formative years of
air transport in the United States in the 1920s, the passengers,
mainly government officials, had lower priority. But from 1937
onwards, there was a distinct upgrading of service standards.
ANationwide Airline
International Probing
The Prague route had opened, with PS-9 (modified ANT-9) ser-
Vice, on 31 August 1936, and following the demise of Deruluft
on 31 March 1937, Berlin was added to the Aeroflot map.
Service also started from Leningrad to Stockholm in 1937, but
this was superseded - handsomely - on 11 November 1940,
by a direct service from Stockholm to Moscow, via Riga and
Velikie Luki. Operated jointly with the Swedish Airline A.B.A.,
both airlines used the Douglas DC-3; the Soviets, however,
also flying the license-built Lisunov Li-2 version, production
of which had begun in 1938, a contract having been made
between Douglas and AMTORG (American Trading
Organization) in August 1935 (see page 37). In an interesting
preview of future events, the two airlines offered service from
Stockholm (neutral during World War II) and Tokyo, via the
Trans-Siberian Railway (interestingly, not by Aeroflot); while
an even more ambitious connection was offered, from
Scandinavia to San Francisco in 30 days, by Japanese ship
from Kobe. This, of course, did not last very long.
Other indications of Aeroflot's following the flag during
this confused period of uncertain world politics were the
opening of lines to Bucharest and Cluj, Romania, in 1938,
and to Sofia, Bulgaria, in 1939. In that year also, a joint
Soviet-Chinese air link was forged, from Alma Ata to Hami, in
northwest China, the two points giving a name to the airline:
Hamiata. But all hopes of further international expansion
were dashed when Hitler's Germany invaded the Soviet
Union with Operation Barbarossa on 22June 1941.
34
REGD
'*0
Moscow
Vodopyanov's Shortest Hop
When the famous pilot Mikhail Vodopyanov set off
on his epic survey flight of 29 March 1936, to determine
if a route to the North Pole was feasible via selected loca-
tions in Novaya Zemlya and Franz Jozef Land (see page
28), he was given an enthusiastic send-off by a crowd of
well-wishers at Moscow. He took off in a Polikarpov R-
5 (SSSR-N128), ostensibly en route to the Frozen North.
Little did the crowd know of a certain hesitancy in
the hero Mikhail's demeanour. For the day was a
Sunday, and he was superstitious about flying on a
Sunday. The first leg of his arduous route to the dreaded
Franz Jozef Land was as short as he could make it - just
over the rooftops and hedges to the nearest landing
strip; and out of sight of the adoring fans.
Polikarpov R-5 (SSSR-N127), one of only two built, and in which
Mikhail Vodopyanov made a flight to Novaya Zemlya in 1936.
Kokkinaki's Atlantic Flight, 1939
challenging the Arctic wastes.
Accordingly, a shorter route was chosen, the Great Circle
route westward from Moscow via Iceland and Greenland. The
pilot was Brig Gen Vladimir Kokkinaki, flying an
Ilyushin TsKB-30 (OB-3B) twin-engined bomber aircraft, the
Moskva (Moscow), the same one in which he had made a non-
stop flight to the Far East in June 1938. Accompanied by
Major Mikhail Kh. Gordiyenko, he took off from Moscow on
28 April 1939, and then proceeded to face filthy weather, tem-
peratures down to 54
0
C below zero, and, approaching the
North American continent, dense fog. They lost their way
and, with a certain amount of luck, managed to make a
wheels-up forced landing in an ice-covered marsh on the little
island of Miscou, New Brunswick, 6,250km (3,900mi) and
22hr 56min after leaving Moscow. They had actually flown
farther, while they were lost, and made their landing with
empty tanks.
Departure of the flight to Novaya Zemlya on 29 March 1936.
Vodopyanov's first segment, however, was only a few kilometers.
Vladimir
Kokkinaki
(photos: Boris
Vdovienko)
Flight of the Moscow
Against the far-reaching political events, the world of com-
merce and culture, as always, carried on until the guns and
torpedoes were actually fired. In the United States, New York
was planning a spectacular World's Fair, and rather surprising-
ly, the Soviet Union decided to mark the occasion by what
was intended to be a spectacular airplane flight. Although the
Chkalov and Gromov trans-Polar flights had been impressive,
the disappearance of Levanevskiy had tarnished the image;
and his death had further emphasized the severe dangers of
Flights Long and Short
The Lights Go Out Again
Europe was an unsettled part of the world in 1938 and 1939.
The seizure of Austria and the Sudentenland by azi troops
had put every country on a war-alert footing. Old-style diplo-
macy had been replaced by a policy of might-is-right, and war
seemed inevitable as Adolf Hitler pursued his insatiable desire
for power. While some countries took defensive measures -
France built its Maginot Line and Britain belatedly modern-
ized its Royal Air Force - the U.S.S.R, disenchanted with try-
ing to come to terms with the western democracies, signed a
non-aggression pact with Germany - the infamous Molotov-
Ribbentrop Pact - in August 1939. On 3 September, Germany
invaded Poland, and the Second World War began. Echoing a
famous phrase by British statesman Edward Grey in 1914, the
lights went out in Europe once again.
--
35
The Great Patriotic War
Mobilization
With shattering force, and with the element of surprise, Hitler's
Germany launched Operation Barbarossa and invaded the Soviet
Union on 22 June 1941. Within two or three days, at least half
of the Soviet Air Force had been destroyed before the aircraft
could take to the air. All Aeroflot services to the west were
immediately suspended - including the one to Berlin! - but
those to the east continued for a while, as did some of the
routes of Aviaarktika. On 25 June, Grazdansij Vozduzhnij
Flot (Aeroflot) effectively became a unit of the Soviet Air Force.
Vasily S. Molokov, hero of the Chelyuskin rescue, and veteran
of Polar aviation, was appointed head of the military transport
organization, with the rank of Major-General.
The Battle of Moscow
In October 1941, the Germans made a concentrated effort to
capture Moscow. The Soviet forces desperately defended their
capital. On 16 October, the Government transferred to
KUibyshev (Samara), although Stalin himself (in an uncharac-
teristic reflection of a similar decision by King George VI)
stayed in Moscow. Aeroflot was directly involved in the
defense of Moscow. The published statistics were impressive:
32,730 flights (845 behind enemy lines); 49,822 troops car-
ried; and 1,365 tons of supplies, arms, and medicines carried.
Organization
Late in 1942, two special groups were formed: the First
Transport Aviation Group (renamed in 1944 as the 10th
A Soviet Navy GST (license-built Consolidated 28 Catalina) at
Khabarovsk in the early 1940s. The military GST was also used for
passenger transport along with a few civil versions (designated MP-
7) built for Aeroflot. The pilot on the right is Mikhail Vodopyanov.
(photo: Far Eastern Regional Directorate Museum, Khabarovsk)
36
Guards Aviation Division); and the Special Communica-
tions Aviation Group (later to become the 3rd
Communications Aviation Division). The fleets were com-
posed of the former aircraft of Aeroflot, plus a number of
obsolete types no longer useful as military equipment, such as
the TB-3 (ANT-6) four-engined bomber, designed back in
1930, but still useful as a load-carrier. Additionally, 15
Detached Aviation Regiments were formed in 1943.
Equipped with Polikarpov V-2/Po-2s, these units were
highly mobile, providing close support to individual regi-
ments at the front line, with ambulance, reconnaissance, and
communications missions.
Reinforcements
With their backs to the wall in 1942 and the early part of
1943, the Soviet armed forces gladly accepted any help they
could get, from whatever source. Paramount among such
efforts was the American Lend-Lease program, and among the
thousands of aircraft ferried from the east (see opposite) were
hundreds of Douglas C--47s, which were promptly delivered
to the First Detached Aviation Division, for operations on the
Central Front, where they were joined by their matching
twins Lisunov Li-2s, manufactured at Tashkent under a
DC-3 license from Douglas, negotiated through AMTORG.
Other help to augment the meager resources of Aeroflot
during the desperate conflict came from an unexpected
source. Between 31 January and 2 February, the city of
Stalingrad was the site of one of the greatest victories of the
Great Patriotic War - or of any war. During the final days of
the doomed German armies, they had been supplied by a
large number of Junkers-Ju 52/3m transports. About 80 of
The Lisunov Li-2 was the transport workhorse for the Soviet Union
during the Great Patriotic War. (photo: Boris Vdovienko)
In the Arctic, aircraft frequently stuck in the snow when icing effec-
tively glued them to the runway. Such scenes as this were familiar
in the north. The aircraft is an ANT-7. (photo: Boris Vdovienko)
these abandoned 'Tante Ju's' were repaired and put into ser-
vice wi th Aeroflot.
A Great War Record
The Great Patriotic War ended on 9 May 1945. Aeroflot's con-
tribution to the war effort had been considerable, and was so
recognized: 15,000 of its staff received medals and honors; 15
pilots were proclaimed Heroes of the Soviet Union; six of the
Front-line Sections became Guards Units; and ten Sections
were awarded special medals. They had been well earned.
During the War, Aeroflot had carried 2,300,000 passengers
and 300,000 tons of freight, including materiel and medical
supplies. Of the passengers, 330,000 were wounded soldiers.
A Polikarpov U-2 (po-2), diminutive maid-of-all-work, was to be
seen everywhere during the War. This Aeroflot U-2 (SSSR-L3373)
pictured at Tobolsk in 1941 has a sliding canopy enclosed cockpit-
for the pilot, and three passenger windows in the filselage and con-
tainers underneath the wings. (photo: Boris Vdovienko)
Aeroflot Turns to Douglas
REGD
COMPARISON OF DOUGlAS DC-3 AND L1SUNOV L1-2
The old Yakutsk telminal building, in traditional Russian wood construction, first erected for the Lend-Lease
program, is still there, as this photo, taken in 1992, shows. Just down the street is the original building
which housed the offices ofthe Lend-Lease program during the vital years, 1942-1945. (R.E.G. Davies)
Type First Dimensions- Seats Engines mow Speed Range No.
Right mItt} kg km/h km Built
Date Length Span No. h.p. lib} (mph) (mi)
I 21-28 I
-
DC·3 17 Dec 19.66 28.96 2 Wright Cyclone I 860 11.430 290 2,000 11.413'
1935 (64,61 (95,0) p &WDouble Wasp 1,200 (25,2001 (1801 (1,2501
Li-2 11940
I
-

1966 28.96 118-28 2 Shvetsov 900
I
11,280 225
(64,6) (95,01 M-62 124,9001 (1401 11,0001
Notes: • This figure includes 10,493 military versions, mainly C-47s, built in the U.S.; 487 built in Japan; but only 433 commercial
DC·3s built specifically for airlines U-2 figure also includes production for military.
Technical Slowdown
Although the ANT-9 of the late 1920s had been on a par with the commercial aircraft of other
countries; and the ANT-6 had been an adequate heavy lifter, Soviet designers lost momentum dur-
ing the 1930s.Kalinin was executed. Tupolev himself spent much of his time under house arrest,
and escaped being shot only by the intervention of, of all people, Beria, head of the secret police.
Lend-Leases
Buying the Best
In August 1935, AMTORG (American Trading Organization) in New York, took delivery of the
first DC-2 (NCI4949, msn 1413) and Boris Lisunov was sent to California to prepare for the
licensed production of the Douglas twin. The Soviet-built Douglases were first designated PS-
84s (Pashazhyrski Samolyet, or passenger aircraft), and from 17 September 1942, Lisunov Li-
2s. These were standard DC-3s, with a right-side entry door. By the end of World War II,
2,258 had been built, The type remained in production until 1954, by which time a total of
6,157 had been built at Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
After the Nazi invasion of the summer of 1941, much of western Russia and the Ukraine had been
devastated or pillaged, In a mighty display of determination and improvised organization, all the
aircraft production lines in Europe were moved eastwards to cities beyond the Ural Mountains.
This massive logistics task took many months, and meanwhile the Air Force had to be reinforced.
At an Allied conference in Moscow on 31 july 1941, Harry Hopkins, President Roosevelt's
special envoy, laid the foundations of what was to become the Lend-Lease Program. Slow to get
under way at first - few aircraft arrived in time for the Battle of Moscow, and these were from
Britain, via Murmansk - the unprecedented machinery of the historic airlift began on 29
September 1942, when the first Bell P-39 Airacobra left Fairbanks, Alaska, and arrived in time to
go into action early in October.
Of the 18,700 aircraft supplied under the Allied Lend-
Lease program, 14,750 were flown along this route, by U.S.
pilots to Fairbanks, where Soviet flyers took over. Of these,
over 4,900 were P-39 Airacobras, 2,400 P-63 Kingcobras,
2,900 Douglas DB-7/A-20 Havocs, and 860 North American
B-25 Mitchells. About 640 were lost in transit. The Lend-
Lease aircraft accounted for 12% of the 136,800 of all types
used by the Soviet Air Force in the Great Patriotic War.
Of the several other types, other than those men-
tioned above, 700 were Douglas C-47s, the most widely
used of the military variants of the DC-3 workhorse trans-
port airplane. They were used everywhere. The Soviet
pilots liked them as much as did the U.S,A.A.F. 'Gooney
Bird' and the R.A.F. Dakota flyers. And they were to make
a solid contribution to Aeroflot's recovery after the con-
flict came to an end. On 1 March 1946, for instance, the
14th Cargo Aircraft Group of Aeroflot was formed at
Yakutsk. Fifteen C-47s were transferred from the Soviet air
fleet, together with, remarkably, three junkers-ju 52/3m's
that had been captured on the eastern front.
37
Post-War Strugglg
RECiD
25 Nov. 1946 Helsinki ~ Leningrad
RESUMPTION OF
EUROPEAN AIR SERVICES
1944-47
Dates shown
are of first fJjjht.
Regular services
i e'l!i'troduced later.
This picture was taken in 1959 but is representative of the Ilyushin
design team that produced the series ofpost-war airliners. Selgei
Ilyushin stands in the middle; his successor, Genrich Novozhilov, is
second from the left; and Vladimir Kokkinaki, technical advisor, is
on Ilyushin's immediate left. (photo: Boris Vdovienko)
Back in 1932, Aeroflot had taken on the task of agricul-
tural support in crop-dusting and crop-spraying, an activity
in which the U.S.S.R. had been a pioneer. In 1937, it had
added ambulance and medical supply flights to supple-
ment its other work, with a 'flying doctor' service. Now, on
23 September 1948, it added forestry patrol, ice reconnais-
sance and water-bombing; and on 30 November 1949, it was
given the additional task of supporting fishing fleets by sur-
veying the seas to locate shoals of fish.
Yet in spite of all the difficulties, Aeroflot must have been
doing something right. In 1950, it carried 3.8 million passen-
gers, and flew over a network of 75,600km (47,000mi).
throughout the Soviet Union. Yet to service this great plan,
Aeroflot had little more than a large fleet of Li-2s for the main
routes, and hundreds of little Polikarpov Po-2s.
This was the situation confronting Georgy Baidukov,
veteran crew member of the Chkalov trans-Polar flight of 1937,
and Stalin's personal envoy to the United States during the war
years, when he was put in charge of Aeroflot in 1947. The
equipment upgrading prospects were gloomy. Sergei
Ilyushin had made preliminary drawings for what was to
become the Ilyushin 11-12 as early as 1943, and this unpres-
surized tricycle-geared twin made its first public appearance on
18 August 1946. But this was no 'DC-3 Replacement'.
On the ground, airports were totally inadequate, with
poor runways, bad passenger buildings, and maintenance, as
often as not, in the open. Baidukov effectively made his point
by taking a party of officials, including Mikoyan, on a proving
flight from Moscow to Khabarovsk. The shortcomings were
only too obvious, and this inspection trip no doubt had some
effect on subsequent actions taken with the next Five Year Plan.
The First lIyushins
Making the best of a sub-standard inventory, Baidukov intro-
duced the Il-12, on a few selected routes, on 22 August 1947,
and more widely in the following year when the summer
schedules started on 23 May. Some relief was expected from
the 60-seat four-engined Ilyushin 11-18 (the piston-engined
one, not the later turboprop) but although it made its first
flight on 30 July 1947, and went into service - again on
selected trunk routes - at the end of 1948; it was too big and
complicated for the traffic and ground infrastructure of the
day, and very few were built. They were withdrawn from ser-
vice by 1950.
Baidukov fought off official skepticism and introduced
flight attendants on the more important routes; and he wit-
nessed the introduction of the amazing 12-seat Antonov
An-2 biplane, which made its first flight in March 1948.
Widening Responsibilities
After two and a half years, during which the Politburo often
accused him of poor management, Baidukov resigned - with-
out incidentally apologizing for anything, a procedure that was
the expected protocol in those times. He had been sorely tried.
For apart from the problems of inadequate aircraft, airfields,
ground services and engineering staff, pilots who were apt to
take on too much vodka and not enough fuel, and a meager
budget, he had been given additional responsibilities.
Resumption of European Services
The Soviet Union emerged from World War II (The Great
Patriotic War) weakened by its sustained and intensive efforts
to beat the Nazi war machine into the ground. Aeroflot had
to re-group as the national flag carrier, as Moscow began to
isolate itself from its allies in the west, at the same time trying
to dominate the countries on its borders, simultaneously
spreading the creed of communism and fashioning a cordon
sanitaire to guard against a repetition of the events of 1920.
In 1944, the U.S.S.R. had declined an invitation to attend
the historic Chicago Conference, at which most of the world's
nations hammered out the basis for what was to become the
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The Five
Freedoms of the Air were not wholly accepted in Moscow,
where, nevertheless, plans were qUickly made to spread
Aeroflot's wings westwards. By the end of 1945, services had
been reinstated, or started anew, to most of the capitals of
eastern and central Europe, and also to Teheran. At home, the
trans-Siberian and other main arterial routes were revived,
and the social work in the Arctic, which had continued even
during the war, was maintained.
Like the British, French, and nations other than the excep-
tionally well-equipped United States, the U.S.S.R. had to make
the best with what it had: the trusty Lisunov Li-2s and the
ex-Lend-Lease Douglas C-47s.
Baidukov Has Problems
The Fourth Five-Year Plan had provided for ambitious Aeroflot
expansion, with a target of 175,000km (lIO,OOOmi) of routes
The Ilyushin 18, first flown on 30 July 1947, was a 60-seat four-
engined airliner which never went into production. It was too large
for the traffic of the day and demanded ground support which
would not be available for years. (photo: Ilyushin Design Bureau)
I
Ii
38
Lisunov Li-2
r
.,..

18 SEATS. 225km/h (140mph)
Ll-25 differed from DC-3s in having an extra win-
dow aft of the cockpit, modified engine nacelles
and cowlings, and a right-hand passenger door.
This Li-2 did not have de-ieer boots.
Joint Ventures
The term 'joint venture' has become part of the language of international commerce during the
past few years,. But such a device was common in airline associations back in the early 1940s
when, for example, Pan American Airways set up such partnerships in Latin America. In
exchange for certain privileges, such as exclusive mail contracts, Pan Am would provide the
technical and administrative expertise, and supply aircraft at bargain rates, to set up local air-
lines, ostensibly as national carriers, but in reality Pan Am subsidiaries.
During the latter 1940s, as Europe rearranged itself into two halves of political persuasion,
the U.S.S.R. took a leaf out of Pan Am's book, and set up similar airlines in eastern Europe, with
Aeroflot as Big Brother. Ironically, the ubiquitous Douglas DC-3, in its Lisunov Li-2 disguise,
was invariably the basis of the small post-war communist-directed airline fleets, just as with Pan
American on the other side of the world.
The First Exports
Interestingly, therefore, a California-designed aircraft, license-built in the U.S.S.R., was the key
factor in this particular channel of political influence. The Lisunovs were the only aircraft in
adequate supply in 1945 and 1946; but they were to be the basis for a secure Soviet foothold in
what was later to become known as the Six-Pool group of eastern European airlines. This
foothold was to prevail for the next half-century.
JOINT VENTURE AIRLINES IN POST-WAR SOVIET SATELLITE COUNTRIES
Country Airline Date Date of Initial Date Remarks
Founded First Aircraft Terminated
Service Fleet
Poland LOT* 6 Mar Dec Li-2 (still Rejuvenated pre-war airline. Most of post-
1945 1945 Po-2 operatingI war fleet was Soviet-built.
Czechoslovakia CSA* 14 Sep 4 Mar DC-3 (stilll Rejuvenated pre-war airline. Used Soviet
1945 1945 Ju 52/3m operating) equipment exclusively after coup of 1968.
Hungary Maszovlet* 29 Mar 15 Oct Li-2 Late 1954 50% Soviet shareholding in new airline to
1946 1946 Po-2 succeed MALERT. Succeeded in turn by
MALEV, which used only Soviet aircraft.
Romania TARS* 1945 1947 Li-2 Late 1954 50% Soviet shareholding in new airline to
Ju 52/3m succeed LARES Succeeded in turn by TAROM
which used mainly Soviet aircraft.
Yugoslavia JUSTA Late Apr Li-2 1948 50% Soviet shareholding in new airline to
1946 1947 succeed Aeroput. Terminated when Tito
severed relations with Soviet Union.
Bulgaria BVS. Early 29 Jun Li-2 1954 50% Soviet shareholding in new airline.
1947 1947 Ju 52/3m Succeeded by TABSO* which used Soviet-.
built aircraft
North Korea SOKAO 1950 1950 11-14 1954 50% Soviet shareholding in new airline.
Succeeded by CAAK, which operated only
Soviet aircraft.
East Germany Deutsche 1Jul 4 Feb 11-14 1991 Name changed to Interflug* 13 Sep 1958.
Luft Hansa 1955 1956 Liquidated with German reunification.
Mongolia Air Mongol 1956 7Jul Li-2 (still Currently operates as Mongolian Airlines
1956 Po-2.11-12 operating) (MIAT-Mongolyn Irgeniy Agaaryn Teeverl.
*Members of Six-Pool, formed 15 February 1956
This Lisunov Li-2 is pictured at Mirnyy, the center of the diamond industry in the Yakut autonomous republic of eastern Siberia in 1961. The 'Russian DC-3' performed sterling work for over a quarter of a
century, and the Yakuts held it in such high esteem that they have preserved one on a pedestal at Chersky, near the delta of the Kolyma River, on the East Siberian Sea of the Arctic Ocean, 240km (lSOmi)
north of the Arctic Circle. (Y. Ryumkin, courtesy John Stroud)
39
Ilyushin Il-14 ofPolar Aviation at the Soviet scientific station SP-lO in 1962. (photo: BO/is Vdovienko)
might be 'Little Cornhuskers' and was a mark of their contin-
uing usefulness other than as a basic trainer, in which
Aeroflot pilots first won their wings.
The Ilyushin 11-12
While the first Soviet commercial aircraft (other than the
short-lived Ilyushin 11-18) to go into postwar airline service
had its problems (see page 38) the Ilyushin I1-I2
/
s contribu-
tion was important, if only because, in the transformation
from war-time military production, the manufacturing indus-
try cut its teeth, as it were, and learned some hard lessons of
what had to be done to produce a successful airliner. Even
though the improved 11-14 (see opposite) made its first flight
in 1953, its earlier relative was able to supplement the Lisunov
Li-2s. The Ilyushin 12, in fact, was on hand to inaugurate the
first sorties into western Europe in 1954, when Aeroflot broke
out of the Iron Curtain with services to Stockholm and Paris,
and in 1955, with services to Beijing (on 1 January), to Tirana
(a month later) from Kiev, and to Vienna (on 10 September).
An Ilyushin Il-12B at Helsinki-Malmi in 1951. (fohn Stroud)
U-2S Sanitamyi Samolyet, or ambulance aeroplane (msn 6350).
Soviet designers, A.S. Yakovlev (left) and N.N. Polikarpov
(right) compare notes.
Piston-Engined Twilight
The Kukuruzhnik
Reference has been made (page 38) to the widening responsibil-
ities of Aeroflot. In 1948 and 1949, forestry patrol and fisheries
support, respectively, were added to the normal air transport
work. Crop-spraying had already been taken on in 1932 and
ambulance flying-an early flying doctor service - in 1937.
Now, in 1953, aerial photography and mapping rounded off
the list of Aeroflot's responsibilities that were all-embracing.
Much of the supplementary work, other than airline
scheduling: was performed by the Polikarpov U-2, which,
after the death of the designer in 1944, became known as the
Po-2. During the Great Patriotic War, it had performed mag-
nificently, far beyond the ab initio training role for which
thousands of Soviet pilots affectionately remember it.
During that period of desperate defense, from July 1941 to
November 1942, the diminutive Polikarpovs made upwards of
450,000 flights over enemy territory, and rescued 580,000
people, including 150,000 wounded soldiers. They carried
almost 50,000 tons of supplies and materiel, and their versa-
tility extended to rescuing survivors of Lend-Lease convoy
ships lost on the supply route to Murmansk. Many of them
would fly quietly during the night, penetrating enemy lines,
and dropping saboteurs for aiding the partisans. The supreme
accolade was perhaps awarded by the Germans themselves:
the reward of 2,000 marks paid for downing a Po-2 was twice
that paid for a fighter aircraft.
After the war, in a close analogy to the 'swords into
ploughshares' metaphor, when squadrons of Polikarpovs were
deployed from battlefields to arable fields, they were to be
seen everywhere, crop-spraying and crop-dusting; and they
became such an essential part of the agricultural scene that
they were called Kukuruzhniks. Freely translated, this
40
Ilyushin 11-14
32 SEATS. 3S0km/h (217mph)
Shvetsov ASh-82T (2 x 1,900hp) • MTOW 17,SOOkg (38,S80Ib) • Normal Range 1,SOOkm (930mi)
The improved version of the Ilyushin Il-12, the Ilyushin 11-14, went into service on 30
November 1954. Although modified, the fuselage was substantially the same as its predecessor's
and passenger accommodation was unchanged because of its inability to carry a theoretical load
of 40 passengers. In any case, the traffic demand in the postwar U.S.S.R., consisting mostly of
bureaucrats serving the vast territory and military men visiting their regiments, was still dissi-
pated over hundreds of sparsely-patronized routes. Only a few inter-city and summer vacation
services required more than the 18 seats with which the initial Il-14P was fitted. Outwardly, the
main changes made to the Il-12 were to fit a new wing, clean up the engine cowlings, exhausts,
and nacelles, and to re-design the fin and rudder.
Once into production, the II-14M (Modifikatsiya) was introduced with a 1m (302ft) longer
fuselage to seat 24, eventually 32 passengers. The Il-14 was also built at Dresden, East Germany
(VEB 1I-14P), and in Czechoslovakia (as the Avia 14). About 80 of the former and about 200
of the latter were produced, adding to 1,502 Il-12s and Il-14s built at Tashkent. Although
In striking contrast to the rigors ofArctic conditions, this Aeroflot Il-14P (SSSR-61719) sits in the
warmth ofMakhachkala, on the shores of the Caspian Sea (at the same latitude as Barcelona).
(photo: Boris Vdovienko)
Comparison with Convair 240
LENGTH 22m (73ft) SPAN 32m (104ft)
/" - - -------------
,/
'-------
eclipsed by the advent of the Tupolev jet in 1956, the aircraft continued to give good service on
all the secondary routes within the U.S.S.R. and comprised the fleets of many of the communist
countries for several years. It proved to be a sturdy foot-soldier of the Aeroflot fleet, in its
freighter role (Il-14G) especially, and quite remarkably in its applications to Polar conditions it
became an essential component of the inventory. As will be shown later in this book, it is one
of the few aircraft that have seen regular service within the frigid zones north and south of the
Arctic and Antarctic Circles.
COMPARISON OF IL-12, IL-14, AND CONVAIR 240
Type First Dimensions (m) Pass. Engines MTOW Speed Range No.
Flight Seats kg km/h km Built
Date Length Span No. Type h.p. Ib (mph) (mi)
11-12 1945
1
21 32 18 2 Ash-82FN 1)75 17.250 350 1.250 200+
1701 (1041 138.0301 (2171 17501
11-14 1953 22 32 32 2 ASh-82T 1.900 17.500 350 800 1,582*
1731 (1041 138.5801 (2171 (5001
240 16 Mar 23 28 40 2 P&W R-2800 2,400 19,300 400 1.600 566
1947 (751 (921 (42.5001 12501 (1.0001
·Total Soviet 11-12/14 production 1.502 of which 839 were 11-14Ps. plus 3 prototypes. In addition. approx. 200 Avia 14s and80
VEB 11-14Ps were built under license. Note:
1
First flown with diesel engines.
41
Versatile Biplane
--
The Dark Horse
While the Soviet aircraft industry was pursuing the under-
standable goal of producing a main line aircraft to succeed the
Lisunov Li-2 (DC-3), first with the Ilyushin piston-engined
twins, the 11-12 and-14 series; and then with the twin-jet
Tupolev Tu-104; another little aircraft was put into production
in the late 1940s that at first passed almost unnoticed. Because
it was a birlane, a design formula considered to be obsolete
except for sporting aircraft, the aviation world as a whole dis-
missed it at the time as a serious contender for either technical
or economic acclaim. Yet few observers today would quarrel
with veteran aviation historian John Stroud's judgment, made
back in the early 1960s, that it was "absolutely unique and
must be regarded as one of the world's truly great biplanes."
The unique aircraft was the Antonov An-2, initially, in pro-
totype form, designated Skh-1 (Rural Economy 1).
Its first flight on 31 August 1947 did not attract head-
lines, but its appearance coincided with the expansion of
Aeroflot's responsibilities to include forestry patrol, fisheries
survey and support, and aerial mapping and photography.
These were added to the airline's air transport role during
the years following the introduction of the Kolkhoznik
(Collective Farmer), as the An-2 was at first known. It was
a partner of the Kukuruzhnik (Cornhusker) Polikarpov
Po-2, whose many roles the larger Antonov was progressive-
ly to complement, later to replace, and, in some areas, to
adopt the nickname.
The Ubiquitous An-Z
The An-2 was originally built to meet a specification of the
Soviet Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, a bureaucratic
agency that would seem to have been an unlikely source of
aeronautic inspiration. Yet in getting it just right, it excelled
the combined efforts of designers, engineers, and technicians
the world over. And Antonov's ability to fulfill the Ministry's
requirements produced a world-beater of which many vari-
ants were built. The An-2P (passenger version) had 12 seats,
and was put into service by Aeroflot in increasing numbers,
first a few here and a few there; then a dozen or so allocated
to different areas where the superb field performances - and
'field' was exactly appropriate, as any cow pasture was good
enough for the versatile Kolkoznik; and finally hundreds of
them deployed all over the Soviet Union.
The Antonov An-2, in many different versions, was built
in thousands, not only in Kiev, home of Antonov, but in sub-
stantial numbers in China and, from 1960, in Poland, which
42
took over complete production, and developed the turbine-
engined version, the An-3. It has been exported to dozens of
countries, mainly in the Soviet-oriented European east bloc,
and countries of Asia, Africa, and South America. Total pro-
duction perhaps has exceeded 20,000 (5,450 at Kiev, the
remainder mostly by Pezetel, at Mielec, Poland, as well as in
China), placing it ahead of the DC-3 and its variants as the
most produced commercial aircraft of all time.
Other aircraft, the sleek jets, the sturdy turboprop trans-
ports, and the remarkable helicopters, have entered service,
operated in the front line for periods varying from five to per-
haps 25 years, and then been superseded by other types. The
Antonov An-2, like the more famous DC-3, has been in opera-
tion for about 45 years, and shows no sign of flagging in the
tough roles assigned to it. Some of these are more fully
described in other sections of this book (pages 73 and 83).
The age of the biplane is not yet over.
Supreme Accolade
In 1991, Aeroflot was estimated to be operating about 2,500
Antonov An-2s, in everyone of its 32 regional sub-divisions,
especially those in the northern tundra and the taiga of
Siberia and the far eastern areas. For millions of mainly
Russian citizens, the An-2 has been their only form of public
transport, proViding the channels for communications, edu-
cation, and health services, apart from its other duties in
forestry and agriculture. In the annals of air transport history,
if ever a commercial aircraft deserved the supreme accolade, it
is the unlikely but nevertheless worthy Antonov An-2.
An An-2 fitted with skis, pictured at Nikolayevsk-na-Amure in
1990. The nonnal Aeroflot blue paint scheme is replaced by a red
one, for better visibility in snow and ice conditions. (R.E.G. Davies)
An An-2 (SSSR-92968) loading freight at Nikolayevsk-na-Amure in
1990. (photo: R.E.G. Davies)
ANTONOV AN-2 VARIANTS
Date Variants Application Description
1947 SKh-1 Prototypes First flew 31 Aug 1947
1948 An-2T Transport Initial version. Transportny
An-2SKh Agriculture Crop-dusting Isee also An-2M. below)
An-2ZA Meteorological First known as An·6
1949 An-2TP Aeroflot Standard scheduled service version. 12 seats
An-2P Aeroflot Passarzhirski: 14 lightweight seats
An-2S Ambulance Capacity for 6stretchers
An-2TD Parachute Capacity for 12 trainee parachutists
An-2V Floatplane Also known as AnA. Twin floats
An-2L Water-80mber Used for fire fighting
1955 An-2F Military Fedya. also known as An-2NRK/An-2K
1961 An-2PP Forest Patrol Floatplane. Water scooped up. carried,
and sprayed from floats
1964 An-2M Agricultural Modified version of An-2S
1965 An-2R Utility WSK-PZL-Mielec version
1982 An-3 Transport Turboprop version
An-2V floatplane versions of the Antonov maid-of-all-work.
Antonov An-2
12 SEATS •
Shvetsov ASh-621R (1 x I,OOOhp) • MTOW S,SOOkg (12,12Slb) • Normal Range 84Skm (S20mi)
l
This picture encapsulates the role of the Antonov An-2 in providing the rural bus
service to hundreds, perhaps thousands of small communities, such as this one in
northern Kamchatka. (photo: Boris Vdovienko)
AN-2
REGISTRATION
NUMBER
BLOCKS
(all prefixed SSSR-I
O1xxx-09xxx
13xxx
15xxx-17xxx
19xxx
23xxx
25xxx-25xxx
28xxx-33xxx
35xxx
40xxx-49xxx
50xxx
52xxx
54xxx-58xxx
52xxx
55xxx
58xxx
70xxx-72xxx
74xxx
79xxx
81 xxx-82xxx
84xxx-85xxx
87xxx-88xxx
91 xxx-94xxx
95xxx-98xxx
Aeroflot current-
/yhas some
2.500 An-2s
in service.
Comparison with 11-86
LENGTH 14m (47ft) SPAN 18m (60ft)
Unexplained Incident
The versatility of the An-2 'Annushka' became legendary. But on one occasion, it met its
match_ The story goes that, at a small community far from direct authority, a pilot had to
stop over at a weekend, having arrived with the mail and other contents on the Friday. The
local populace, fishermen all, persuaded him to make an unscheduled flight to a local river
which was reputed to be gushing fish. Fourteen good men and true piled on to the 12-seat
aircraft, together with complete fishing gear, and enough provisions to last a week.
The augmented load was too much for even such a willing horse as the An-2. It managed
to get off the ground, but only just. The pilot, realizing that he was not going to make it,
switched off the engine, to avoid a fire, if it crash-landed. And crash-land it did, ignomi-
nously, distributing pieces of aircraft around the field. The assembled company fled.
Came the dawn the next day, and the local constabulary investigated the tangled remains.
Strangely, nobody in the whole community had the slightest knowledge of the incident,
and the official report, in essence, decided that this was an unsolved mystery. Some dastard-
ly vandals from foreign parts, perhaps.
43
The World's First Sustained Jet Service
The last Tu-104 retired in 198\
THE WORLD'S FIRST TEN JET AIRLINES
Oops!
All aircraft have teething troubles, and some have more
than their share of introductory snags. On one occasion, at
Vnukovo Airport, Moscow, in 1961, a Tu-l04 was taking off
when, right at the intersection with a taxiway, another air-
craft, in tow by a ground service vehicle, moved leisurely
across its path. Not yet at take-off speed, the pilot neverthe-
less hauled back on the stick and, miraculously, the Tu-l04
'hopped' over the obstruction, carried on and took off. The
pilot received the Soviet equivalent of a gold watch.
TU-I04 REGISTRATION BLOCKS (ALL PREFIXED SSSR-)
Airline Date Aircraft Seats Route _I Remarks
1. B.OAC 2May 52 De Havilland
[36 London- I
Comet 1 Johannesburg .
2 UTA 19 Feb 53 De Havilland 140 Paris-Oak;:-- All services
Comet 1
C bl terminated
-- -- - -
-+ asa anca after two
3. Air France 26 Aug 53 De Havilland 44 Paris-Beirut crashes in
Comet lA 1954
... --l--
4. South 4Oct 53 De Havilland 36 Johannesburg·
African Comet lA London
Airways (BOAC. lease)
5. Aeroflot
<5 S ~ '" IT " " " ' ~ T " ' M '"
Moscow-Omsk- First sustained
Irkutsk. jet services
- . .
6. C.SA 9Dec 57 Tupolev Tu-l 04A 70 Prague- Second sus-
Moscow tained jet
IComet4
--f-
(BOAC I 4Oct 58 72 London- First trans-
New YOrk-! Atlantic jet
7. Pan Am 26 Oct 58 Boeing 707-100 160 New York- First'Big Jet'
Paris
- -
--
8. National 10 Dec 58 Boeing 707-100 160 New York- First U.S.
Airlines (Pan Am lease) Miami domestic jet
--
9. American 25 Jan 59 Boeing 707-100 160 Los Angeles- First U.S.
Airlines New York domestic jet
(own aircraft)
10 TWA. 20 Mar 59 Boeing 707-100 160 San Francisco-
New York
L5400-L5460 (some Tu-1 04AI 42399-42450 (Tu-1 04B)
42313-42398 (most Tu-1 04AI 42451-42456 (Tu-104A)
42457·42512 (Tu-104BI
Some aircraft in the L54xx block are believed to have been re-registered in the
423xx series. Not all registrations within blocks have been confirmed.
To Rangoon and Jakarta
31 Jan 62
t
Petrol?avlovsl<
rou es 24 Oct. 5
the best airliners regard these as a necessary amenity.
Andrei Tupolev's airliner quickly extended jet service
throughout the Soviet Union (see map below) and was the
standard-bearer of a new range of commercial aircraft that
pulled the Soviet Union and Aeroflot up from the technologi-
cal cellar to the upper floors of achievement, placing both
country and airline on a par with the West. Its true place in
history is illustrated in the accompanying table.
Tupolev Tu-104 SSSR-L5415 prepares for the world's first sus-
tained jet airline service, Moscow-Irkutsk, on 13 September 1956.
(photo: Boris Vdovienko)
Tashkent
14 Aug. 58
Dotes of first Tu-104
services shown in red
REGD
Surprise, Surprise
Under Stalin's rule, aviation progress seemed always to be
heavily censored. In air transport, by the 1950s, when western
aircraft manufacturers were making great strides in turboprop
and jet airliner development, the Soviet airline's flagship was
still, at the beginning of 1955, the twin-engined Ilyushin
Il-14, whose equivalent American counterpart, the Convair-
Liner, was faster and more efficient.
When, therefore, on 22 March 1956, the prototype
Tupolev Tu-104 (SSSR-L5400) made a special flight to
London, it caught the aviation world completely by surprise,
and the authorities at London's Heathrow Airport had prob-
lems keeping the journalists under control. While the Tu-l04
was clearly based on the Tu-16 (Tu-88) twin-jet bomber, the
conversion was certainly not a make-shift job.
A Place in History
The Tupolev Tu-l04 entered service on the Moscow - Omsk
- Irkutsk route on 15 September 1956. The seven-hour jour-
ney time superseded the 17hr 50min of the Ilyushin Il-12s
and Il-14s that it replaced, a remarkable improvement, cutting
the time by almost two-thirds. At first, the seating capacity
was only 50, but this was later increased. By western stan-
dards, the interiors appeared rather old-fashioned, with anti-
macassars on the seat headrests; but interestingly, today, all
44
T u ~ o l e v Tu-104
50 SEATS. 770km/h (480mph)
• • •
Mikulin AM-3M (2 x 8,700kg st, 14,8901b st). MTOW 76,OOOkg (l67,SOOlb) • Normal Range 2,6S0km (1,6S0mi)
The Break-Out
Six months after the Ilyushin Il-14 had entered service with Aerofjot on 30 November 1954, a
silver lining appeared behind the dampening clouds of modest piston-engined performance. On
17 June 1955, the Tupolev Tu-I04 jet airliner made its first flight. A conversion from a
bomber design, it was nevertheless commercially acceptable. Unusually for the Soviet manufac-
turing industry, normally conservative in its approach to launching new airliners, the Tu-l04
took the world by storm (see opposite page) and soon entered service with Aeroflot on 15
September 1956.
Not before time. Ominously, the British had gone back to the drawing boards and were pro-
ducing a new line of Comets, which had previously done their own world-storming in 1952, but
had met with tragedy two years later. More
ominously, the Boeing Company of Seattle,
U.S.A., had, on 15 July 1954, demonstrated the
Model 367-80 as a prototype for a future airlin-
er, the 707, which was to conquer all before
it. Curiously, the famous Boeing 'Big Jet' was
also developed from a bomber design, the B-47.
Andrei N. Tupolev.
(photo: Boris Vdovienko)
Comparison with 11-86
LENGTH 39m (127ft) SPAN 34m (113ft)
The Tupolev Tu-104 design team (with a model of the Tu-124). Left to right: A.R. Bokin, S.M. Eger,
A.N. Tupolev, A.A. Arkhangelski, B.M. Kondozski, and J.F. Nezval. (photo: courtesy Vasily Karpy)
45
THE WORLD'S FIRST JET AIRLINERS
First Aircratt Type
Dimensions-mitt)
Speed Mixed MTOW Normal First No.
Service km/h Class kg Range Airline Built
Date Length Span Imph) Seating lib) km Istm)
Initial version, before development
2May 1952 De Havilland 28 (93) 35 (115) 800 (500 36
1
52.300 2,400 BOAC 21
Comet 1 1115,0001 11,5001
15 Sep 1956 Tupalev 3911271 34 (1131 770 (480 50 76,000 2.650 Aeroflat 110
2
Tu-l04 (168.0001 (1.6501
26 Oct 1958 Boeing 44 (1451 40 (1311 96016001 132 112.000 4,800 Pan 141
707-100 (247.000) (3000) American
Representative developed versions
4Oct 195B De Havilland 34 (112) 35 (1151 Bl (5051 72 73.600 4,BOO BOAC 75
Comet 4 (162,0001 (3,000)
15 Apr 1959 Tupolev 40 (1311 34 (113) 770 (480) 100 76,000 2,650 Aeroflot 100
Tu-l04B 116B,0001 11,650)
26 Aug 1959 Boeing 4711531
45 (1461 I
960 (6001 144 153,000 6,400 Pan 580
707-300 1336,0001 14,0001 American
Notes: I The Comet I's seating was all first-class 2 Includes Tu-104A
In the Front Pack
Within three years, with Aeroflot carrying the banner, the
Soviet Union had rocketed from being an also-ran right into
the front pack of runners in the highly-competitive techno-
logical race. In almost every category of airliner, the design
bureaux of Tupolev, Ilyushin, and Antonov were producing
aircraft comparable in performance, if not in economics, with The passenger cabin of a Tupolev Tu-124.
equivalent airliners in the West.
Moscow to Khabarovsk on 21 May. The 90-seat Antonov
An-IO Ukraina turbo-prop, which had first flown on 7
March 1957, went into service on 22 July 1959.
~ ~ " ' - ~ ~ The galley of a Tupolev Tu-104B. (photo: Boris Vdovienko)
Tu-104 No. 29 operated the first service of the type to Vladivostok
on 19 January 1958. This was after a ceremonial circling of the
city and being 'talked down' by photographer Boris Vdovienko.
Tupolev Tu-104B SSSR-42431
at Moscow's Vnukovo Airport.
(photo: AerotIot)
Technical Transformation
Tupolev Sets The Pace
Because of the debut of the Tupolev TU-104, 1956 was a water-
shed year. But the years that followed were no less significant
in Soviet commercial aviation. The Ilyushin 11-18 Moskva
four-engined turboprop airliner, reliable workhorse for Aeroflot
(and other airlines) in the years to come, made its first flight
on 4 July 1957. At about the same time, Tupolev developed the
Tu-I04A, which proceeded to break a number of official load-
carrying and speed records for turbojets.
Then, to cap everything, the impressive Tupolev Tu-1l4
made its first flight on 3 November 1957. But this important
news of the world's largest airliner at the time (see pages 52-
53) was eclipsed on the following day, when, to the astonish-
ment and admiration of the world (and to the chagrin of
complacent defense agencies in Washington, D.C.) the
U.S.S.R. carved its name indelibly in the annals of world his-
tory by launching, with complete success, the world's first
man-made satellite, Sputnik.
Consolidation
During 1958, Aeroflot concentrated on expanding its Tu-104
services (see page 44) and opened its first scheduled helicopter
routes in the Crimea and on the Black Sea coast. Then, in
1959, the lOa-seat Tupolev Tu-I04B went into service on
the busy Moscow-Leningrad route on 15 April. Five days later,
the Ilyushin I1-18B also started service, on the equally busy
vacation route from Moscow to Adler (with helicopter con-
nection to Sochi). Not yet ready for scheduled service, the Tu-
114 demonstrated its range with a non-stop flight from
46
Tupolev Tu-124
1iJ •••••• • IiJ ••
Tu-124
FIRST GENERATION SHORT-HAUL JETS
Tu-104
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ : = d - -
d-.-.-.-.-IiJ-.-.-.---.-.-IiJ-.-.-.-.-.-.- ~ A
~ [ C ~ ~
Tupolev Tu-124 SSSR-45013 in flight. (photo: Boris Vdovienko)
First Aircraft Type Dimensions-m(ft}
Speed Mixed MTOW Normal First No.
Service km/h Class kg Range Airline Built
Date Length Span (mph} Seating (Ib} km(mi}
6May 1959 Sud SE 210 32 (1051 34 (1131 700 (4351 70 43.600 1.250 Air France 282
Caravelle (95.9001 (7801
2Oct 1962 Tupolev 31 (1001 26 (841 770 (4801 50 37,500 1,250 Aeraflot 112
Tu-124 (82,7001 (7801
TU-124 REGISTRATION
NUMBER BLOCKS
Tupolev Tu-124 SSSR-45028
shares the ramp at Vilnius,
Lithuania,on Christmas Day,
1962, with two Li-2s.
(photo: Boris Vdovienko)
(all prefixed SSSR-I
45000-45095
45135 45173
45146 45199
45158 64452
Nat all registrations in the 45xxx
black have been confirmed as
allocated to Tu-124s.
Momentum Maintained
With a variety of airliners coming off the production lines (see opposite) Aeroflot entered the
1960s with prospects of expansion and upgrading of equipment in all directions. On 3 January
1960, it took over Polar Aviation (Aviaarktika) and directed attention to the northern
routes, to new settlements on the Arctic Sea, and a new route to the Far East. On 24 April, a
Tupolev Tu-114 non-stop Moscow-Khabarovsk schedule inauguration immeasurably extended
the range potential. On 15 December 1961, a specially-equipped Ilyushin 11-18 became the
first airliner to fly to Antarctica, and this aircraft opened up new routes to several African
countries during the next few years. The Tupolev Tu-l04, too short in range for use on trans-
ocean routes, was nevertheless able to carry Aeroflot's flag to south-east Asia, with a service,
opened on 31 January 1962, to Jakarta, via Tashkent, Delhi, and Rangoon. By this time, Aeroflot
was carrying more than 20 million passengers each year (with
fares at railroad levels) with a total fleet of about 2,000 aircraft.
Junior Jet
The short-haul routes were not neglected. While the U.S.S.R.
was a country of vast distances, much of the western parts
embraced an area characterized by dozens of cities only an
hour's flight from Moscow. Many of these were of medium
size, not large enough to justify 100-seat aircraft such as the
Tu-104 or the !l-IS. To meet this need, the Tupolev design
bureau produced a scaled-down version of the Tu-l04, the
44- seat, later 56-seat Tupolev Tu-124, which entered ser-
vice on the Moscow - Tallinn (Estonia) route on 2 October
1962. Trailing the French Caravelle by over three years,
and a derivative, rather than an original design, it was,
however, ahead of British and American short-haul jets by a
similar margin.
47
Turboprop Workhorse
Ilyushin Keeps Pace
Believing that the turbopropeller solution to turbine-engined
power was a good alternative to that of the pure jet, the
British and American manufacturers had persevered with dif-
ferent designs. Following the successful four-engined (but only
medium-range) Vickers Viscount of 1952, the Bristol company
in England had developed the Britannia, a long-range four-
engined airliner that, but for slow production and unforeseen
engine problems, would have gone into service in 1956. Even
so, by 1957, the Britannias were making their mark around
the world. In the United States, Lockheed produced the Model
188 Electra, a smaller but efficient aircraft designed primarily
for U.S. domestic inter-city routes, but not with full transcon-
tinental range. Quickly brought into service early in 1959 -
too quickly perhaps - the Electra had severe problems with
the engine installation, and came close to being grounded
because of fatal accidents soon after entering service.
Coinciding with the announcement of the Sixth Five-Year
Plan, which once again emphasized the need to increase air
travel on all fronts, Sergei Ilyushin and his team produced
a Soviet four-engined turboprop which, as the table on the
opposite page shows, fell in between the Britannia and the
This dramatic picture of an Ilyushin II-IS was taken at Tiksi, on
the Arctic coast of northern Siberia, in 1960, during the long polar
night, as it was being serviced. (photo: Boris Vdovienko)
Two great aircraft designers, Andrei Tupolev (left) and Sergei
Ilyushin (right) photographed informally in 1963. (Vdovienko)
Electra in performance and size. In outward appearance, all
three aircraft looked somewhat similar.
Solid Performance
The Ilyushin 11-18 - at first called the Moskva - went into
Aeroflot service on 20 April 1959, on the Moscow-Adler
route, to provide needed extra capacity for Muskovite vaca-
tioners seeking the sun. Simultaneously, it started a non-stop
route from Moscow to Alma Ata, the fast-growing capital of
Kazakhstan. A direct Leningrad-Adler service, begun on 23
May, helped the citizens of Russia's former capital to enjoy
the sun too; and on 20 June, the 11-18 reached Alma Ata by a
circuitous route via Baku and Tashkent, the capitals of oil-rich
Azerbaijan and Uzbekistan, respectively.
The Polar Mainliner
Reference has already been made to the expansion of
Aeroflot's horizons in 1960 by its taking over Aviaarktika
(page 47), so that it could now study the potential for route
expansion on a broad front north of the Trans-Siberian
Railway. While Ilyushin had a set-back on 17 August of that
year, when an 11-18 crashed near Kiev, another 11-18 made a
proving flight on a new trans-Siberian route, by the great cir-
cle itinerary (as did also an Antonov An-l0) and on 10
January 1961, opened regular service to Magadan, via the
Arctic Sea port of Tiksi. Nine months later, another branch
brought Anadyr, in remote Chukotka, within only eleven
hours journey time of Moscow, eleven time zones away.
The Ilyushin 11-18 qUickly established a reputation as a
reliable, if not record-breaking airliner. It seemed to be at
home in frigid climates of the northlands, and soon it vyas to
experience an even more formidable challenge. For on 15
December 1961, it was selected to make the first flight by a
commercial airliner to the Last Continent, Antarctica. For
such a journey, extra tankage was provided, but later on, with
growing maturity, a long-range version of the turboprop, the
Ilyushin I1-18D, became almost standard equipment.
48
Mark Shevelev, the head ofPolar Aviation, responsible for the pio-
neering development by air of vast areas of northern Russia, greets
Sergei JIyushin (right), one of the aircraft designers who made his
work possible. (photo: Boris Vdovienko)
Ilyushin 11-18
100 SEATS. 625km/h (390mph)
CCCp·75406
• • •
o 00/1 0 T-
• ••• • •
c HJr-J8
Ivchenko AI-20M ( 4 x 4, 250ehp). MTOW 61,200kg (135,OOlb) • Normal Range 4,425km (2,750mi)
THREE lARGE FOUR-ENGINED TURBOPROPS COMPARED
II-ISs still serve in a variety of roles today. This modified aircraft (SSSR-75449) surveys the
extent of the polar ice pack from its Moscow-Sheremetyevo base.
(photo: Patrick Vinot-Prefontaine)
IL·18 REGISTRATION BLOCKS
(ail prefixed SSSR-)
L5811 prototype
L5818-L5821
04330 Polar division
04350 Polar division
04770 Polar division
33569
74250-74255
74256-74270 11-180
74288-74299
75400-75480 11-180
75481-75499
75500-75580 11-18V
75581 11-180 prototype
75582-75595 11-18V
75597-75598 11-180
75601-75714
75715-75903 11-18V
INot all registrations within blocks confirmed}
Comparison with 11-86
LENGTH 53m (174ft) SPAN 43m (142ft)
Sergei Ilyushin.
First Aircraft Type
Dlmensions-m(ft)
Speed Mixed MTOW Normal First No.
Service km/h Class kg Range Airline Built
Date Length Span (mph) seating lib) km(ml)
19 Dec 1957
1
Bristol 38 (124) 43(1421 62013851 110 84,090 6,000 B.O.A.C. 85
3
Britannia 310 1185,0001 13,750)
12Jan1959 Lockheed 188 32 (105) 30 (991 650 (405) 85 52,700 4,000 Eastern 170
Electra (116,0001 12,500) Airlines
20 Apr 1959 Ilyushin 11-18 36(1181 37 (123) 640 (400) 100 61,200
2
4,425
2
Aeroflot 565
(135,000) (2,7501
Notes. 7The medium-range Britannia 102 entered selVice on 1Feb 1957 2The long-range Ilyushin 11-780 had aMTOWof
64,000kg 1147,000Ib) and arange of 6,500km (4,000ml). 3AII Britannias including 100 Series.
49
AMainliner from Kiev
The Antonov An-8
Oleg Antonov's post-war Antonov An-2, whose versatility
as a small maid-of-all-work for feeder and bush operations
gave it a longevity which keeps it in production even today
(pages 42-43), was the harbinger of greater things to come.
For in 1956, the Soviet industry sprang another of its surpris-
es and put on display a new military aircraft that had first
flown a year earlier.
Though little known, and rarely seen outside its native
land, the twin-engined Antonov An-S deserves recognition
as one of the design trend-setters in aircraft construction
development history. Its main purpose was to carry troops,
military vehicles, and equipment into small unprepared fields
for front-line support, and as such, design aspects were direct-
ed without compromise to this objective. The An-S's wing was
on top of the fuselage and the landing gear housed in fuselage
fairings so that loading through its wide rear ramp/door did
not require special ground equipment. The high tail permit-
ted the rear-loading ramp plenty of space for ancillary loading
ground equipment. The twin tandem main wheels, four on
each side, distributed the load to aid the rough field perfor-
mance requirements. Antonov perfected the design for spe-
cialized freighter aircraft (pages 6S-69).
The Ukraina
While the An-S was strictly a military aircraft (although it
appeared in Aeroflot markings), a larger variant, the four-
engined, pressurized Antonov An-IO, at first called the
Ukraina, started to come off the production line in 1959.
The general aerodynamic lines were cleaned up, the outer sec-
tions of the wing were anhedral - a pronounced feature of
later developments of the breed - and behold, a new 90-seat
airliner was ready for Aeroflot.
An-lOA SSSR-11219 displays the definitive configuration with two
vertical fins and no endplate tailplone fins. (Courtesy John Stroud)
50
The military Antonov An-8, progenitor ofsubsequent all-purpose
commercial aircraft with the same basic design criteria. Although
Aeroflot never operated An-8s, aircraft appeared with the airline's
titles. (photo: Paul Duffy)
An-JO SSSR-11158 in original configuration with single vertical fin
and endplate fins on the tailplone. (Courtesy John Stroud)
Consolidation of Domestic Routes
As noted on the page opposite, the developed Antonov
lOA, the most successful of the basic type, was quickly
brought into service, on 10 February 1960, on the routes
from Moscow and Leningrad to the south. Production of
modern aircraft was now in full swing at the Antonov,
Ilyushin, and Tupolev factories and assembly plants scattered
throughout the U.S.S.R., and Aeroflot seemed to have come
of age at last. The fleet strength at this time was reported to
be 1,900 aircraft, of which about 120 were Tupolev Tu-104s,
60 Ilyushin Il-1Ss, 30 Antonov An-lOs. A Tu-104 flew to
Toronto for an aviation Expo on 6 September 1959, and an
An-l0 flew to the U.S.A. on 24 December. The Il-IS began
service to London, and in April 1960 started non-stop flights
to Cairo. The Moscow-Leningrad intercity service was
upgraded to a frequency of 15 daily flight on 1 June 1960,
and Aeroflot was now carrying more than 20 million passen-
gers a year.
Aeroflot to the Arctic
Coinciding with this widespread traffic upsurge, Aeroflot
expanded its route network. On 3 February 1960, all the oper-
ations of Polar Aviation (see pages 26-27) were transferred
to the state airline. An-lOs were deployed to the northern
wastelands, cargo flights starting on 5 April 1960. Then in
August, an An-lO had the honor of pioneering the great circle
route from Moscow to Khabarovsk, via Syktyvkar, Noril'sk),
and Yakutsk. By June 1961, it had become the standard air-
craft for the polar air routes, replacing the Lisunov Li-2 and
the Ilyushin Il-l4.
REGD
Antonov An-lOA
100 SEATS. 680km/h (423mph)
CCCP - 11171

Ivchenko AI-20K (4 x 4,OOOehp) • MTOW SS,200kg (121,SOOlb). Normal Range 1,200km (74Smi)
The Antonov An-IO
The commercial version of the An-S, the Antonov An-IO, piloted by Ya. 1. Vernikov and V. P.
Vazin, made its first flight on 7 March 1957 from Kiev, less than two years after the initiation of
the basic design. Following Soviet custom, the aircraft underwent thorough testing and proving
before it was allowed to venture into commercial service, and even then, during summer 1959,
the first An-lOs were freighters, which qUickly established a good reputation in the northern
frontiers of the Soviet Union along the fringes of the Arctic Ocean, not only for Aeroflot, but
also for Polar Aviation, which had not yet been assimilated by the national airline.
The 90-seat passenger version of the An-10 went into service on the Moscow-Simferopol
route on 22 July 1959, adding much-needed capacity to the popular holiday vacation move-
ment between the Russian capital and the sunny south of the Crimea.
The Antonov An-lOA
The Design Bureau must have realized that it had a winner, for it quickly moved on to stretch
the fuselage by 2m (604ft), so as to add two more seat rows and to proVide seating for 100 passen-
gers. The resultant An-lOA's seating capacity was thus the same as the Ilyushin II-IS's. Because
it was not designed for long-range operations, it was not normally deployed on international
routes, as was the II-IS; but it was used extensively throughout the Aeroflot domestic system,
especially in the Ukraine, the land of its birth.
THE FIRST ANTONOV AIRLINER FAMILY
First Aircraft Type
Dimensions-mlft)
Speed Mixed MTOW Normal No.
Service km/h Class kg Range Built
Date Length Span Imph) Seating lib) kmlmi)
1956
1
An-8 31 (101) 37 (1211 600 (3731 Cargo 38,000 (83,7701 2,500 (1,6001 100
22 Jul1959 An-l0 32 (105) 38 (1251 680 (4231 85 54,100 (119,0501 1,200 (7451 300
10 Feb 1960 An-lOA 34 (1121 38 (125) 680 (4231 100 55,200 (121 ,5001 1,20017451 300
1965
2
I
An-12 37 (1211 38 (125) 670 (4161 Cargo 61,000 (134,0001 3,600 (2,000) 250
3
Notes: 1Military transport only. 2Military type produced simultaneously with An-10, but not fully modified for commercial use
until 1965. 3Civil production only
Comparison with 11-86
LENGTH 34m (112ft) SPAN 38m (125ft)
AN-IO REGISTRATION
BLOCKS
lall prefixed SSSR-)
11134-11144
11146-11147
11148 An-lOA
11149-11169
11170-11172 An-lOA
11173
11174-11175 An-lOA
11179-11182
11184-11185 An-lOA
11188
11191-11195 An-lOA
11196
11202-11203 An-lOA
11205-11217
11219-11220 An-lOA
11221-11229
Not all aircraft within blocks have
been confirmed
Oleg Antonov. (Vasily Karpy)
51
Long-Range Turbo2ro2
The prototype Tupolev Tu-114 SSSR-L5611 atIdlewild, New York, in July 1959 (photo: Hany Sievers)
RE'GD
Tokyo
Delhi 19 Apr. 1967
25 March 1963
Tupolev T u ~ 1 1 4 routes
Tu-144 registrations were SSSR-L5411 (prototype) plus SSSR-76458 through -
76461 and 76463 through 76490 (total 33j. SSSR-76462 was the Tu-114D
Aeroflot Spreads Its Wings
The Soviet national airline took the Tupolev Tu-1I4 to its
heart, realizing that this aircraft could reach the furthestmost
points of the U.S.S.R. territory without intermediate stops;
and could fly to Havana, capital of its trans-Atlantic commu-
nist ally, Cuba. On 21 May 1959, the Tu-1I4 flew non-stop
from Moscow to Khabarovsk, carrying 170 passengers over
the 6,800km (4,200mi) distance. The follOWing month, on 28
June, it flew into the U.S.A., making the Moscow to New York
flight in lIhr 6min. The Tu-1I4 did not, however, operate on
schedule to the United States, this landmark being set by the
Ilyushin 11-62.
Aeroflot began scheduled Tu-1I4 service to Khabarovsk,
on 24 April 1961. The speed of the turboprop enabled it to
match the 960km/h (600mph) speed of the Tupolev Tu-l04
jet, because the latter's shorter range forced it to make at least
two stops. Scheduled service began to Havana on 7 February
1963. Normally carrying only 60 passengers on this very long
segment, the Tu-1I4 was routed via Murmansk, where it
made a technical stop, because it was not allowed, for politi-
cal reasons connected with NATO defense, to overfly
Scandinavia. Also, the Murmansk-Havana distance of
8,575km (5,328mi) was shorter by 971km (618mi) than that
to Moscow. Later negotiations, completed in 1968, enabled
Aeroflot to fly direct to Havana, as S.A.S. and other western
airlines were permitted to overfly the Soviet Union.
One shortcoming was the height of its landing gear. The
main deck was 5m (16ft) off the ground, requiring no little
stamina for boarding - the equivalent of climbing two full
flights of stairs. Nevertheless, the Tupolev Tu-1I4 was a truly
remarkable airliner. There was none other like it in the world,
and it raised a few technical and political eyebrows every time
it landed on foreign shores.
Havana
7/8 Jan.1963
The Tupolev Tu-1l4
The re-designed fuselage, some 4m (12.8ft) in diameter, was
wide enough for a comfortable six-abreast layout, and for
high density, even eight-abreast was possible, permitting a
maximum of 220 seats, though this version is unlikely to
have been used extensively. For the first time in any airliner,
the galley was located 'downstairs' in the lower deck, and food
and drinks were served by electric elevators. Seen in elevation,
the Tu-1I4 was of orthodox outline, but the similarity with
other large turbo-prop airliners of its day ended there, except in
the size. In particular, the wings were swept back - unusually
for a turbo-prop - and had pronounced anhedral. Mounted
on the wings were four powerful Kuznetsov engines, which
drove eight-bladed contrarotating propellers. In addition to the
large four-wheel landing gears units, there was not only a twin-
wheel nose gear, but also a small twin tail-wheel installation for
protection of the fuselage on take-off. The Tupolev Tu-1I4
could cruise at 770km/h (480mph) at an altitude of 8,000m
(25,500ft) over distances of up to 8,950km (5,560mi).
Tu-114 (SSSR-76470) after take-of(. (photo: Boris Vdovienko)
The Bigger The Better
The Soviets have always·been in the forefront in building
large aircraft. The tradition started in 1913 with Igor
Sikorsky's lI'ya Muromets, the world's first transport air-
craft, and is maintained today with the giant Antonov load-
carriers from Ukraine. Only one five-engined ANT-14 was
built in 1931, and only one eight-engined ANT-20 Maxim
Gorky ever flew, in 1934. Neither went into commercial air-
line service with Aeroflot. The six-engined ANT-20bis, as
the PS-124, saw limited service between 1939 and 1941.
Twelve years after the end of the Second World War, how-
ever, Andrei Tupolev produced the Tupolev TU-114, that,
for more than a decade, was the largest airliner in
the world.
The Tupolev Tu-1l4D
The Tupolev Tu-1I4 was a direct development of the Tu-20
(Tu-95) long-range turboprop bomber, itself a formidable
piece of military hardware. Although the commercial Tu-1I4
made its first flight on 3 November 1957, and was proudly
named the Rossiya (Russia), thoughts had already been
directed to a conversion, for civil use, of the bomber
fuselage. This Tu-116 first flew late in 1956 and was
accepted by Aeroflot and designated Tu-1l4D (Dalnyi, or
long-range). In 1958, the Tu-1I4D made several proving
flights, including a remarkable three-stop circumnavigation
of the entire Soviet Union, each stage designed not only
to test the long-range capability, but also to 'show the flag'
over all the capital cities of the 15 republics of the Union.
But the Tu-114D was too narrow,permitting only 30
seats in its pressurized rear fuselage section; only one
was built.
S2
CD/! 0 T-
• • • • • • • • • • • • • C C ~ ' 7 6 4 9 0
o
~
9 p
•••• • • • • •
JAPAN AIR LINES
Tupolev Tu-114
170 SEATS. 770km/h (478mph)
Kuznetsov NK-12M (4 x 12,OOOehp) • MTOW 17S,400kg (38S,800Ib). Normal Range 8,9S0km (S,S60mi)
Comparison with 11-86
LENGTH 54m (178ft) SPAN 51m (168ft)
The Tupolev Tu-114 was deployed on other routes, such as Moscow-Paris and Moscow-
Tashkent, but was superseded when the faster and more airport-compatible Ilyushin 11-62
came into domestic service in 1967, and on intercontinental routes in 1968 (see pages 54-55).
Every dog, it is said, has his day; and the Tupolev Tu-114, the largest aircraft in the world
until the advent of the
Boeing 747, was truly a
mastiff. Its only fatal acci-
dent was at Moscow, on
take-off, on 17 February
1966, and this was on a
non-scheduled flight.
Andrei Tupolev (right), seen
here with Eugene Loginov in
front of a Tu-124, at Vnukovo
Airport in Moscow in 1962.
Loginov was the head of all
civil aviation affairs in the
Soviet Union at that time.
(photo: Boris Vdovienko)
LONG-RANGE AIRLINERS OF THE LATE 1950s
New Lands To Conquer
On 25 March 1963, the Tupolev Tu-114 took over the direct Moscow-Delhi service from the
Tu-l04 and the II-18; and on 27 June of that year started service to Conakry, Guinea, with
flights extending to Havana, as an alternate route to that via Murmansk. On 19 April 1965,
the Conakry service was extended to Accra, Ghana. These were friendly countries, economi-
cally dependent on the U.S.S.R., but the following year the Tu-114 made its mark in the capi-
talist world.
On 4 November 1966, scheduled service began to Montreal, Canada, via Murmansk. The
journey time from Moscow was 11
1
/
2
hours for the 7,350km (4,568mi) at an average speed of
about 640km/h (400mph). Then, on 19 April 1967, after delicate negotiations and demonstra-
tion flights, a joint service opened non-stop from Moscow to Tokyo, a distance of 7,488km
(4,563mi). This was a remarkable achievement for both Aeroflot and for the Tupolev Design
Bureau. For the first time, a Soviet-built aircraft appeared in the markings of a non-communist
airline of world stature: Japan Air Lines. The aircraft was flown by the crews of both airlines,
and cabin service was provided immaculately by the Japanese carrier.
First Aircraft Type
Dimenslons-m(ft) Speed Mixed MTOW Normal First No.
Service km/h Class kg Range Airline Built
Date Length Span (mph) Seating lib) km(mi)
19 Dec 1957 Bristol 38 (1241 43 (142) 620 (385) 110 84.090 6.000 8.DAC. 85
1
Britannia 310 (185.0001 (3,7501
3Nov 1957 TupolevTu-114 54(1781 51 (16BI 770 (4781
3
150
3
175,400 8.950 Aeroflot 33
(385.8001 (5.5601
26 Oct 1958 Boeing 707-100 44 (1451 40 (1311 950 (6001 120 112,700 4.800 Pan 141
(248,0001 (3,0001 American
26 Aug 1959 Boeing 707-300 47 (153) 45(1461 960 (6001 140 152,700 6,450 Pan 580
2
(336,0001 (4,0001 American
Notes: 1AI/Britannia Series. 2AI/Boeing 707-300 Series. 31ntercontinental routes. The domestic Moscow-Khabarovsk route was
scheduled at 800 km/h (500 mph) with 170 seats
53
Long-Range Jet
Catching Up
The Soviet Union had had the honor of starting the world's
first sustained jet airline service, with the Tupolev Tu-l04 in
1956 (see pages 44-45) but this success had to be qualified with
the reservation that such service was only short-haul. When the
British Comet 4 and the American Boeing 707 launched the
North Atlantic jet services in 1958, this marked the true begin-
ning of the global jet age, and almost a decade was to pass
before Aeroflot was able to start jet service across the ocean.
Casting its eyes around for inspiration, the Soviet industry
undoubtedly reviewed it options, and selected the British
Vickers VC10, possibly the best of all the narrow-bodied long-
range jets of the west; although its specific operating costs -
less important in the Soviet-style economic environment -
were marginally worse than those of the Boeing 707s and
DC-8s. Much has been said about the apparent Soviet custom
of copying western designs; but there was no point in trying to
re-invent the wheel. Critics on this design aspect often choose
to forget the similarity to the Caravelle of the DC-9 and the
BAC One-Eleven, or between the Boeing 727 and the Trident.
The I1yushiu 11-62, the so-called copy of the VC10, had its
problems, but far more have been built, and it has lasted far
longer in front-line service than has its British look-alike.
The Ilyushin 11-62
It first flew on 3 January 1963, yet the first recorded proving
flight, from Moscow to Khabarovsk, was not made until 2
February 1966. This was apparently after problems with the
Kuznetsov turbofan engines and with the line of the leading
edge of the swept-back wing had been overcome. The rear-
engined configuration was apparently satisfactory. But anoth-
er year passed before a regular freight service began, on the
same route, on 1 March 1967. Aeroflot put the Ilyushin
I1-62 into full passenger service, from Moscow to Khabarovsk
and to Novosibirsk, on 10 March, and a third non-stop direct
route was added, to Tashkent, of 14 July.
Service to the United States
The Tupolev TU-114 had already established trans-Atlantic
service for Aeroflot, both to friendly Cuba and to fairly friend-
ly Canada (see pages 52-53). With the I1-62, the time now
seemed appropriate to start a commercial airline connection
directly to the U.S.A., even though the Cold War still raged in
a political atmosphere that was, if not actively hostile, cloud-
ed with deep suspicion on both sides. Moving methodically
towards its goal, Aeroflot first introduced the Il-62 on the
Montreal route, on a proving flight on 11 July 1967, then in
full scheduled service two months later, on 15 September.
The journey time of the jet airliner, 9hr 50min, compared
favorably with the superseded turboprop's 12hr 5min.
Preparations were made for one of the most important
inaugurals of Aeroflot's history. On 15 July 1968, the Ilyushin
Il-62 began scheduled service from Moscow to New York, via
Shannon, Ireland, and Gander, Newfoundland. As yet, the
aircraft could not make the journey in either direction with-
out making these two intermediate stops.
ATaste of the Sixth Freedom
During the introductory period of 1967, the I1-62 had also
entered service on some of the more prestigious routes into
western Europe, notably to Rome, on 9 October, and to Paris
five days later, as well as replacing the I1-18 and the Tu-104 on
the route to Delhi. The time-saving on these routes was not
significant, but on the longer ones, to the Far East, it was
enough to give Aeroflot an unprecedented opportunity to
exploit the geography of its sovereign airspace, by proViding a
swift connection from the European capitals to Japan.
Accordingly, on 29 March 1970, the Soviet airline began a
through service with I1-62s from Paris to Tokyo, via Moscow,
and by flying a great circle route across Siberia. This saved
time, by as much as six hours, over the so-called Polar route
flown by Air France, northwestwards across Greenland, and
stopping at Anchorage, Alaska.
This device of circumventing the familiar Fifth Freedom
traffic rights (to serve two countries by an airline foreign to
both) by a convenient technical stop at an intermediate
domestic point had been tried before, but had been
frowned upon by international agencies such as lATA and
ICAO. Possibly because the nations of Europe and else-
where cherished the prospect of over-flying the U.S.S.R.
themselves, Aeroflot's Sixth Freedom activity did not cause
too much international concern. London received the
Aeroflot privilege on 3 June 1970, Copenhagen on 31
March 1971, Rome on 11 June 1973, and Frankfurt on 31
July 1973.
Flight deck of an Ilyushin Il-62. This particular aircraft
(SSSR-86670) is now prese1Ved at Monino. (photo: Boris Vdovienko)
54
Il-62M SSSR-86521 at Khabarovsk in 1991. (photo: Vladimir Kuznetzov)
Ilyushin 11-62M
165 SEATS. 900km/h (560mph)
This drawing depicts a standard 11-62 (SSSR-88671) used
on the inaugural Moscow-New York passenger service
on 15 July 1968, and observed by this artist at Kennedy
International Airport.
Soloviev D·30KU (4 X 1l,OOOkg st, 24,2S01b st) • MTOW 16S,340kg (363,7S0Ib) • Normal Range 7,200km (4,SOOmi)
THE ILYUSHIN IL-62 AND THE VICKERS VC10 COMPARED
Comparison with 11-86
LENGTH 53m (174ft) SPAN 43m (142ft)
First First Aircraft Dimensions-m(ft) Speed Mixed MTOW Normal First No.
Right Service Type km/h Class kg Range Airline Built
Date Date Length Span (mph) Seating lib) km(mi)
29 Jun 29 Apr VC10 48 (159) 45 (1461 930 (580) 140 141,820 6,400 80AC 32
1962 1964 1312,000 14,0001
7May 1Apr Super 5211721 45 (1461 93015801 160 152,270 6,700 B.OAC. 22
1964 1965 VClD 1335,000) (4,200)
3Jan 10Mar 11-62 531174) 43 (1421 9001560) 166 162,340 6,400 Aeroflot 95
1963 1967 (357,000) 14,00)
1972 1974 11-62Ml 531174) 43 (1421 9001560) 165 165,340 7,200 Aeroflot 174
2
(363,7501 14,5001
Notes: 7A later variant the 11-62MK, came into service in about 7978, with higher MTOW, at 767,350kg 1368, 7601b)
2production scheduled to continue until 7995
The welcome of the arrival of the first Ilyushin Il-62 service to Alma Ata, Kazakhstan, on 17 October
1968, operated by SSSR-86670. (photo: Boris Vdovienko)
IL-62 REGISTRATION
BLOCKS
(all prefixed SSSR-)
86450-86451
86452-86542 11-62M
86544
86552
86553-86555 11-62M
86558 11-62M
86562-86565 11-62M
lex Interflug)
86605-86614
86616-86617
86618-86623 11-62M
86624-86625
86649-86657
86658 11-62M
86659
86661-86668
86670-86709
86710-86712 11-62M
Note: known prototypes were
06753/06756/06770/06776
/06300
Mixed Fortunes
The early 1970s were good for the 11-62 . On 4 November 1972,
it brought the Soviet airline to a new Latin American ally, Chile,
where a Marxist government under Salvador Allende assumed
power. The service was routed via Rabat, Havana, and Lima; but
was curtailed to the Peruvian capital when the Allende govern-
ment was overthrown after only two years in office.
Of great political importance was a second route to the
United States, inaugurated on 5 April 1974, with direct
Ilyushin 11-62 service from capital to capital, Moscow to
Washington. Still stopping at Shannon and Gander, a moder-
ate improvement was to omit either one or the other of these
technical stops with the introduction of the Ilyushin Il-62M
(1I-62M-200), a modified variant of the original design with
new engines and increased fuel capacity. For in spite of its
record of carrying Aeroflot's flag throughout the world's inter-
continental route network, there had been many technical
problems. On 13 October 1972, on a charter flight, an 11-62
crashed at Sheremetyevo Airport in Moscow, killing 176 peo-
ple. At the time, this was the greatest airline disaster on
record. But the 11-62 survived all vicissitudes and remains
today as Aeroflot's front-line airliner for all long-distance
routes beyond the non-stop capability of the wide-bodied
Ilyushin 11-86 (see page 89).
55
Short-Haul Turboprop
They Also Served
In the world of aviation, the headlines are always devoted to
spectacular events; or to the biggest and the fastest. The
smaller airliners, designed to match the traffic demand on
hundreds of routes to regions of low population density, have
passed almost unnoticed.
When the Antonov An-24 entered service on 9 October
1962, it attracted little attention. This was the year when the
Tupolev Tu-104 began service to southeast Asia, the Ilyushin
11-18 to West Africa, and the first Tupolev Tu-114 flights
began from Moscow to Havana. The little 40-seater twin was a
poor relation, compared with these.
Yet today, thirty years later, the Antonov An-24 is still to
be seen everywhere, throughout the vast expanses of
European Russia, Ukraine, and Siberia, dozens of them lined
up at every major traffic hub, and serving countless regional
route networks with regularity and reliability. While the larg-
er and faster jets grabbed the headlines, the An-24 quietly
got on with the job, serving the Soviet people in hundreds of
small communities. When, by 1967, Aeroflot was able to
claim to be the largest airline in the world, this was as much
because of the efforts of the diminutive An-24 as it was of
the giant Tu-114. And while the Tu-l04 and the Tu-114 are
now retired - honorably, it should be noted - and the Tu-
134 is approaching that status, the Antonov An-24 flies on.
Like its partner, the 12-seat An-2, which came out of the
same design bureau at Kiev, the now 48-seater will probably
still be serving Aeroflot into the next century. It has been
exported to several countries in eastern Europe, Africa, and
the Middle East.
Antonov An-24 SSSR-46521.
Antonov An-26 cargo aircraft at Nikolayevsk-na-Amur in 1990.
(R.E.G. Davies)
56
pellS\( ......"
q eSc' iAv'

AEROFLOT
IN THE 19605
(before Tupolev Tu-114!lIyushin services)
REGD
'.-
Antonov An-24
48 SEATS. 450km/h (280mph)
A3PO
Ivchenko AI-24 (2x 2,lOOehp) • MTOW 21,OOOkg (46,300Ib) • Normal Range 600km (375mi)
THE ANTONOV TWINS
First First Aircraft
Dlmenslons-mlft)
Speed Seats MTOW Normal First No.
Right Service Type km/h kg Range Airline Built
Date Date Length Span Imph) lib) kmlml)
20 Dec 9Oct An-24 24 29 450 48 21,000 600 Aeroflot 1,100
1959 1962 (791 (951 1280) (46,300) (3751
1968 1969 An-26 24 29 440 Freight 24,000 960 Aeroflot 1,200+
(791 (95) 1273) (52,900) (6001
1976 1977 An-32 24 29 470 Freight 27,000 860
.
50+
(791 195) 1292) (59,5251 (5301
• Operated in Aeroflot colors by various ministries.
THE TWIN-ENGINED TURBOPROPS
First First
I
Aircraft
Dlmensions-mlft)
Speed Seats MTOW Normal First No.
Flight Service Type km/h kg . Range Airline Built
Date Date Length Span (mph) lib) kmlmi)
24 Nov 27 Sep Fokker F.27 23 29 415 40 17,900 640 West Coast 787
1
1955 1958 (Fairchild F-27) (76) 195) 1258} 139,4001 (4001 Airlines
11 Mar 17 May Handley Page 23 29 430 44 19,500 640 Jersey 48
1958 1961 Dart-Herald (761 195) 1270) 143,0001 14001 Airlines
24 Jun 1Apr Avro/Hawker 20 30 420 40 20,225 700 Skyways 381
1960 1961 Siddeley/ 1671 (98) 1260) (44,4951 14401
8Ae 748
20 Dec 9Oct Antonov 24 29 450 48 21,000 600 Aeroflot 1,100
1959 1962 An-24 (791 1951 1280) 146,300) (3751
30 Aug 20 Sep NAMC YS-l1 26 32 450 64 25,000 1050 Japan 182
1962 1965 (861 11051 (2801 (55,0001 16501 Domestic
Notes: 'Includes all Dutch-built Friendships and u.s. (Fairchild) F-27s and(Fairchild-Hiller) FH-227 developments. Production con-
tinues as Fokker 50.
Comparison with 11-86
LENGTH 24m (79ft) SPAN 29m (95ft)
Antonov An-32 SSSR-69306 at Rshevka in July 1991. (Gary Jennings)
57
Short-Haul Jet
250
REGD 0
1990 1980
f-------jf-----,,L----j 200
-+----,r.--rt-----1150
1970
_ J
. ""'1-
-.
'JC'
'" ";1
1960
The Tupolev Tu-134 was the first Soviet jet airliner to find
widespread approval in eastern Europe. The one (Tu-134A SSSR-
65892) was leased from Aeroflot by MALEV. (Bob Neumeier)
Tu-134A-3 SSSR-65717. (Paul Duffy)
GROWTH OF
AEROFLOT
compared to other
la rge airlines
(ranked in 1990)
50
200
Billions
of 150 t----
Passenger-
Kilometers
100
U.S.S.R., measured in terms of percentage of discretionary
income, were (and still are, even in the post-Soviet era)
extremely low. With state- subsidized cheap housing, public
utilities, and public transport, and with cheap food, the aver-
age Soviet citizen could take an air trip to visit relatives or to
take a vacation without diving too deeply into the family
budget, meager though this may have appeared by a straight
comparison with western income levels. The first Tu-134 ser-
vice was from Moscow to Sochi, the Black Sea seaside resort,
an event that was possibly symbolic of the momentum for
growth that was sustained by Aeroflot during the 1970s.
An early production Tu-134 at Helsinki in 1972. (John Wegg)
Eugene Loginov was the U.S.S.R.
Minister ofCivil Aviation during the
1960s, and effectively the head of
Aeroflot. He was in charge when the
Soviet airline became the largest airline
in the world, measured by passenger
boardings. (Boris Vdovienko)
Workhorse for the Seventies
While the giant Tupolev Tu-1l4 was making headlines during
the latter 'Sixties with its trans-Atlantic and long-haul serv-
ices to east Asia, another aircraft from the same Design Bureau
entered the Aeroflot scene rather qUietly. Produced at
Kharkov, the Tupolev Tu-134 was a much-modified Tu-124,
so modified, in fact, with engines moved to external nacelles
at the rear and vertical stabilizer at the top of the fin, in the
fashion of the BAC One-Eleven and the DC-9, that the origi-
nal designation Tu-124A, was soon dropped. Rather like the
Antonov An-24, its wider deployment on Soviet domestic,
rather than international routes, meant that its extensive use
was not at first realized by western observers. But, after enter-
ing service on 9 September 1967, the new short-haul jet
qUickly made its mark, as its export potential was greater than
that of any previous Soviet airliner.
A Standard Airliner
Because of the sharp political barriers between east and west
that prevailed during the Cold War, .the Tupolev Tu-134 was
not seen much in western Europe; but it quickly became a
common sight at all the major airports in eastern Europe. The
six countries of the 'East Bloc' as well as an airline in commu-
nist Jugoslavia, all bought substantial numbers of the rear-
engined short-haul jet. This success was aided by, if not
inspired by, the Berlin Agreement of 27 October 1965, signed
by Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and
east Germany, known familiarly as the 'Six-Pool'. Though
outnumbered by the larger Tupolev Tu-154, the smaller twin-
jet was still to be seen here and there throughout the former
Soviet Union well into the 1990s, a quarter of a century after
its introduction.
The World's Largest Airline
The Tupolev Tu-134's debut coincided with a notable mile-
stone in Aeroflot's history. For several years, annual
announcements by the Soviet Ministers for Civil Aviation (for
which Aeroflot was effectively its operating division) suggest-
ed that its statistical stature was growing to the level of parity
with the largest western airlines. By 1967, the Soviet airline
was able to claim that it was the largest airline in the world,
whether measured in passenger journeys made, or in passen-
ger-miles flown. As Aeroflot's presence in overseas markets
was still modest, and often unobtrusive, most of this achieve-
ment was drawn from the domestic network. Fares within the
58
Tupolev Tu-134
72 SEATS. 800km/h (SOOmph)
o
Soloviev D-30 (2 x 6,SOOkg st, 15,OOOlb st) • MTOW 44,OOOkg (97,OOOlb). Normal Range 2,OOOkm (1,250mi)
THE TUPOLEV TU-134s
First First Aircratt
Dimensions-m(tt)
Speed Seats MTOW Normal First No.
Right Service Type km/h kg Range Airline Built
Date Date Length Span (mph) lib) km(mi)
29 Jul 12 Sep Tu-134 34 29 800 72 44,000 2,000 Aeroflot
1963 1967 (115) (95) (5001 (97,0001 (1,2501
700+
1
1970 Tu-134A 37 29 780 76 47,000 1,890 Aeroflot
(121) (951 14851 1103,6001 11,1701
Notellncludes 80196-seat Tu-7348 without navigator's position firstflown in 7980.
THE SHORT-HAUL lWIN-JETS COMPARED
First First Aircratt Dimensions-m(tt) Speed Typical MTOW Normal First No.
Flight Service Type km/h Seating kg Range Airline Built
Date Date Length Span (mph) lib) km(mi)
20 Aug 9Apr BAC 28 27 800 74 39,450 1,600 British 244
1963 1965 One-Eleven 1941 (891 15001 (87,0001 11,0001 United
25 Feb 8Dec Douglas 32 27 800 80 41,600 2,735 Delta 2,030
1
*
1965 1965 DC-9 (1041 1891 (5001 (91,500) (1,7001
29 Jul 9Sep Tupolev 35 29 800 72 47,600 2,000 Aeroflot 700+
1963 1967 Tu-134 (1151 (95) (500) (104,7001 (1,250)
9Apr 10 Feb Boeing 103 45,700 2,900 Lufthansa 2,350
*
29 28 800
1967 1968 737 (941 (931 (5001 (100,500) (1,800)
9May 28 Mar Fokker F.28 27 23 700 65 29,450 1,200 Braathens
4352*
1967 1969 1901 (771 14201 (65,0001 (800)
Notes: 7Includes subsequent developments iDC-9-80 series and MD-88); 21ncludes subsequent developments iF28-0lOOIFokker
700); * production continues.
Comparison with 11-86
LENGTH 34m (115ft) SPAN 29m (95ft)
Flexible Seating
The Tupolev Tu-134's cabin was narrower than that of its comparable western types, with
four-abreast, rather than five- abreast (and, in the case of the Boeing 737, six-abreast) seating,
With this aircraft, the air traveling world in general became familiar with the standard Soviet
airliner seat. Rather flimsy, and less luxurious than any western type, it was nevertheless effi-
cient in many respects. The seat bottom could be folded upwards - a convenience for storing
otherwise bulky baggage; and the seat backs could also be folded forward to a level position, a
convenience which has been cheerfully put to good use by Soviet air travelers.
The Tupolev Tu-134 was designed to be able to use what are sometimes referred to as
unprepared strips, with gravel or grass surfaces, Whether using these or asphalt or concrete
runways, the aircraft's take-off distance was long and its landing speed high, tending to draw
the comment that this was more like the performance of a military airplane. Such commen-
tary was also directed towards the 'bomb-aimer's window' in the lower part of the fuselage
nose, in which the navigator took his position during flight, with the two pilots separated by
the 'oven-door' access. This position for the navigator is the best possible for a wide, almost
360
0
panoramic view; and in the Soviet Union during the 1970s, the navigator had a special
responsibility for guiding his crew across the limitless and featureless taiga and tundra, with
few navigational aids.
59
The Mini-Liners
The Smallest Jetliner
The Soviet industry had, by the late 1960s, acquired a reputa-
tion - deserved, no doubt, in some cases - of copying western
aircraft designs. But one aircraft owed nothing to western influ-
ence. The Yakovlev Yak-40 was a small jet, seating up to 32
passengers, for use on feeder routes which did not generate
enough traffic to justify even the 40-48-seat Antonov An-24.
The distinguishing feature of the Yak-40 was its tri-jet
engine configuration, with two in fuselage-mounted pods,
and one fared into the vertical stabilizer, all at the rear, like
the engines in the Trident, the Boeing 727, or the Tupolev Tu-
IS4, but on a much smaller scale. The normal entrance was
by a ventral stair. A.S. Yakovlev, who had produced the
Yak-9 and Yak-3 fighter aircraft that did such an outstanding
job in the Great Patriotic War, thus made his debut in the
commercial arena with a unique formula. Not only that, but
in so doing, and allOWing for certain shortcomings such as a
shortage of baggage space (only one overhead rack, as a rule,
on the right side; and no under-floor hold), Yakovlev pro-
duced a small jet airliner for successful inter-city use; and this
accomplishment has not been matched in the West.
The Yak-40 made its first flight on 21 October 1966 and
entered service with Aeroflot on 30 September 1968. More
than 1,010 were built at the Saratov production line and 130
were exported to 17 countries.
right for Aeroflot as a replacement for the aging Antonov
An-2.rn the event, it did not completely replace, but was a
worthy complement to the 'Annuchik' in its versatility in
using grass or gravel strips.
Like the Yak-40, the L410's baggage hold is at the back,
but access is through a hydraulically actuated door in the left
rear fuselage. Unlike the small tri-jet, however, there are no
overhead baggage racks in the three-abreast configuration. A
total of 902 of the Czech mini-airliners were exported to the
Soviet Union.
Let L410 SSSR-67544 at Khabarovsk.
Cabin ofa Yak-40 in 24-seat layout. In this version, baggage racks
are open and on one side only. (Photos: R.E.G. Davies)
The Smallest Turboprop
Not long after the introduction of what may be described as
the world's first mini-airliner, another small aircraft, designed
for a similar air transport role, appeared on the scene. This
was the IS-seat Let L410 (later produced as a 19-seater),
sometimes known as the Turbolet, and was produced by the
Let Narodni Podnik (Let National Corporation) in
Czechoslovakia. The pre-war Czech aircraft industry had been
obliterated by the Nazi occupation, but it pulled itself togeth-
er again after the War, and by the late 1960s, was ready with
innovative designs. The small turboprop seemed to be just
Line-up of more than 20 Yak-40s at Krasnoyarsk in 1992.
Yakovlev Yak-40 at Nikolayevsk-na-Amure in March 1990.
A.S. Yakovlev
Yakovlev pro-
duced a mini-air-
liner that has no
eqUivalent in the
west. -(courtesy:
Von Hardesty)
60
Yakovlev Yak-40 and Let L410UVP-E
CCCP-87560 <--/-/
19 SEATS. 3S0km/h (220mph)
A3POCPIlOT
32 SEATS. SOOkm/h (290mph)
Ivchenko AI-2S (3 xl ,SOOkg st,3,300Ib st) • MTOW 13,700kg (30,200Ib) • Normal Range 600 km (320mi)
THE MINI-AIRLINERS
First First Aircraft
Dimensions-m(ft) Speed Seats MTOW Normal No.
Comparison with 11-86
Flight Service Type km/h kg Range Built
LENGTH 20m (67ft) SPAN 25m (82ft)
Date Date length Span (mph) lib) km(mi)
21 Oct 30 Sep Yakovlev 20 25 500 32 16,200 600 1,010
~ ~
1966 1968 Yak-40 (671 182) 1290) 135.7101 (3201
16Apr Let L410 14 20 350 19 6,400 530 1,272
1969 (47) (65) (2201 (14,100) 1330)
Motorlet M60lE (2 x 1,7S0shp) • MTOW 6,400kg (14,1l0lb). Normal Range S30km (330mi)
61
Standard Trikl
Tupolev Tu-154M SSSR-85663 taking offfrom Moscow-
Sheremetyevo. (Paul Duffy)
Cabin of the Tu-154. (Boris Vdovienko)
VL4,&>rVOSTOK
I I I
D--------
J
: :
Harbin : ~ - - D
: Niigata
Pyongyang 0 - - - - -'
- - - - - - - International Routes
given in its application to the aircraft that produced, by the
1990s, about half of the passenger-kilometers of the entire
Aeroflot fleet, or perhaps alone as much as the total output of
anyone of the three leading airlines of the United States.
As Ilyushin had already found (page 55), the Kuznetsov
NK-8 turbofan was a thirsty one and fuel burn could be
greatly improved by replacing it with the Soloviev D-30KU as
had been done in the II-62. The Tupolev design bureau was
slow to accept this possibility, and it was not until 1982, ten
years after the Tu-154 entered service, that a prototype
Tn-154M with derated Soloviev D-30KU engines was pro-
duced by converting a standard production Tu-154B-2. New
engine nacelles were developed from those fitted to the II-
62M, with the same type of clamshell thrust reversers, and
several aerodynamic improvements were made. The first two
production aircraft from the Kuybyshev factory were deliv-
ered to Aeroflot on 27 December 1984, and the type remains
in production.
(Right) Flight deck of the Tupolev Tu-154. (Boris Vdovienko)
Frunze G.)=======:::"-./ Sochi •
LENINGRAD
TupoJev Tu-154
trans- U.S.S.R. routes
Europe(or Central ASia)through services to For East destinations only
r=lk------...... (excludes intra-Regional routes) Ust' Ulinsk
1990
REGD
Tortoise and Hare
The Tnpolev Tn-154 and the supersonic Tupolev Tu-144
both got out of the starting gate at about the same time. The
trijet made its first flight on 3 October 1968, and the Soviet
SST followed only three months later, on the last day of the
year (see pages 64-65). The slower aircraft went into service
with Aeroflot on 9 February 1972, on the route from
Moscow to the health resort Mineralnye Vody. But the event
was almost unnoticed while the world of aviation underwent
the hypnosis of supersonic aspirations.
Workhorse
Like all new civil airliners, the Tu-154 had its problems in the
early years. But Tupolev and Aeroflot pressed on with what
was designed to be - to quote John Stroud - "an aircraft
with the range of the II-18, the speed of the Tu-104, and the
take-off and landing performance of the An-10." Of these,
only the Tu-104 was emulated in this specification, but the tar-
gets were substantially met. And, as the map on this page illus-
trates, the sometimes overworked equine metaphor can be for-
62
TU20lev Tu-154
164 SEATS. 900km/h (580mph)
q
ccC p. 8:...:5:..=2..:::.8.:....7-"':::::::===-.-1
Kuznetzov NK-8-2 (3 x 9,SOOkg,20,9S0Ib) • MTOW 90,OOOkg (198,41Slb). Normal Range 2,8S0km (1,770mi)
Unlikely Champion
For those interested in records, in terms of the greatest, the fastest, or the 'mostest', the
Tupolev Tu-154 offers a fascinating exercise in statistics. The work output of the Aeroflot fleet
of this type is arguably the most productive of any individual aircraft type by any individual air-
line in the world, measured by the standard method of calculation, based on the annual aggre-
gate output of passenger miles.
This is not to suggest that the Tu-lS4 is therefore the most economical aircraft of any of its
contemporary rivais. But in producing the aircraft and in operating it under the Soviet condi-
tions of financial and operating criteria, the Tupolev Design Bureau and Aeroflot have
served their country well. For offsetting the higher seat-mile costs is the excellent performance
which includes the ability to take off and land at almost any reasonable airport, even those
without paved runways.
THE TRIJETS COMPARED
First First Aircraft
Dimensions-mlftl
Speed seats MTOW Normal First No.
Right Service Type km/h kg Range Airline Built
Date Date Length Span Imphl IIbl kmlmil
9Jan 11 Mar DH 35 29 930 84 59.000 1.900 BEA 117
1962 1964 Trident 1115) 195) 15801 1130.000) 11.2001
9Feb 1Feb Boeing 40 33 930 94 76,650 3,200 Eastern 572
1963 1964 727-100 (1331 (108) (580) (169,000) (2,000)
27 Jul 14 Dec Boeing 47 33 970 140 94,300 2,400 Northeast 1,260
1967 1967 727-200 (153) (108) 16051 (208,000) 11,5001
3Oct 9Feb Tupolev 48 38 164 90,000 2,850 Aeroflot 1,000
.
900
1968 1972 Tu-154 (157) (123) (5801 (198,4151 (1,7701
Notes: •Production continues.
(Right) Passengers disembark from the inaugural Tu-154 flight to Simferopol; main airport for the
Crimean resort area. (Boris Vdovienko)
Comparison with 11-86
LENGTH 48m (157ft) SPAN 38m (123ft)
63
Supersonic Diversion
Welcoming crowd for the inaugural Tu-144 flight at Alma Ata.
Behind the heads can be seen the local fleet ofAntonov An-2s -
piston-engined impudence against supersonic dignity.
(Below) Tu-144 SSSR-77109 at Alma Ata, with the Kungey Alatau
mountains in the background. (courtesy: Von Hardesty)
u '
seemed impracticable. The engines could not be programmed
to operate at full efficiency in alternating subsonic and super-
sonic speeds; high fuel consumption inhibited long range
operations; the sonic boom limited the operational scope;
and the cabin noise level was unacceptably high.
Ultimately, the entry of the Tupolev Tu-144 into airline
service was almost a token gesture. Cargo flights began from
Moscow to Alma Ata on 26 December 1975; passenger flights
on the same route began on 1 November 1977; and these con-
tinued intermittently for only a few months before the service
ended on 1June 1978, after 102 flights. The dream had ended.
(Above) The Tupolev Tu-144, nose drooped, ready to take off on
the inaugural passenger service from Moscow to Alma Ata on
1 November 1977. (Boris Vdovienko)
Sharing The Dream
While many in the West tended to dismiss the Topolev To-
144 supersonic airliner project as being a copy of the Anglo-
French Concorde, with allegations of much industrial espi-
onage worthy of James Bond himself, the two aircraft were
developed and produced simultaneously. The Tu-144, as
many have surmised, was not copied, and did not follow the
Concorde. In fact, it was the first to fly, and it was the first to
go into service, albeit for air cargo service only, almost as a
series of proving flights before the passenger service.
The Tupolev Tu-144, with its extensive use of titanium
structure, and its advanced aerodynamics, gained the respect
of American engineers and designers as no other Soviet air-
craft had ever done before. But the Soviet supersonic program
gradually lost momentum as the engineers and operator
(Aeroflot) came face to face with reality; and the dream of
supersonic airline schedules across the length and breadth of
the U.S.S.R. faded.
Success - and Tragedy
The Tupolev Tu-144 had its moment of glory. Test pilot E.V.
Yelian made the maiden flight on 31 December 1968, a date
said to have been a political imperative, to be ahead of the
Concorde, which first flew two months later. Both aircraft
attracted world-wide publicity but then came disaster and
tragedy. At the Paris Air Show, on 3 June 1973, a Tupolev Tu-
144 disintegrated as it pulled out of a steep dive. At first
thought to be structural failure, then pilot error, or a combi-
nation of both, later analysis has suggested that both pilot
and aircraft could have been victims of enforced program-
ming changes that jeopardized a well-disciplined demonstra-
tion routine. Whatever the reason, it was a shattering blow to
the hopes and aspirations of the Soviet aircraft industry.
Curtailed Service Record
Nevertheless, production continued. At first wholly support-
ive of the SST, Bugayev, head of Aeroflot, faced formidable
problems and the operation of the revolutionary aircraft
TU-144 PRODUCTION
SSSR-68001/68002 Flying prototypes (2 more airframes used for static tests)
SSSR-77101/77115 Production aircraft One painted as '77144' for display at
Paris Air Show 1975.
77102 crashed at Paris, 3June 1973.
One Tu-1440 crashed near Ramenskoye on 23 May 1978
CCCP-11109
64
Tupolev Tu-144
60-70 SEATS. 2,SOOkm/h (l,SOOmph)
__ A3POCPAOT
"-
~
[lOO
Kuznetzov NK-144 (4 x 20,OOOkg, 44,OOOlb). MTOW 180,OOOkg (397,OOOlb) • Normal Range 3,SOOkm (2,200mi)
THE TUPOLEV TU-144 AND CONCORDE COMPARED
Comparison with 11-86
LENGTH 66m (216ft) SPAN 29m (95ft)
Given a specific set of performance and operational parameters, designers are usually faced with
few options. Thus, at first glance, western observers tended to conclude the Tu-144 was a direct
copy of the Concorde. Closer scrutiny reveals that the Tu-144 was the result of independent
thinking by Andrei Tupolev's design bureau, the most noticeable external differences to
Concorde being the wing planform as shown here, and the grouping of the engines underneath
the fuselage. An impressive machine by any standard, despite a lengthy gestation in three con-
siderably diverse versions, the Tu-144 was unable to achieve sustained commercial service.
However, two Tu-144s are currently in use for ozone research flights from Zhukovskiy, home of
the Central Aerohydrodynamics Institute (TsAGI), near Moscow.
First First Aircraft Dimensions-mlft) Speed Seats MTOW Normal First No.
Flight Service Type km/h kg Range Airline Built
Date Date Length Span Imph) lib) kmlml)
31 Dec 26 Dec 1975
2
Tupolev 65.7 288 2,500 60-70 180,000 3,500 Aeroflot 17
4
1968
1
1 Nov 1977
3
Tu-144 (2161 (95) (1,500) 1397,0001 (2,2001
2 Mar 21 Jan 1976 8AC-Aero- 61.6 25.6 2,150 100 185,000 6,400 8ritish 20
5
1969 spatiale Airways
Concorde 12021 (841 11,3501 (408,0001 (4,000) Air France
Notes: I. Prototyoe - six meters shorter, and oeneral/v smal/er and liohter than the oroduction version. 2. Freioht onlv.
3. Passenoer service, sustained until 1June 1978 4. Includes two orototyoes and three Tu-144D, MTDW 190,OOOko
(419,OOOkg), with greater tankage, and which ffewafter the Tu-144 and made only a few proving ffights. 5. Includes two
prototypes and two pre-production.
Comparison Tupolev Tu-144 Concorde
Although superficially similar, the Tu-144 wing is simpler and lacks the aerodynamically complex shaping found on
Concorde. Some 4m (14ft) longer than Concorde, production Tu-144s have a wing area of 438m
2
(4,71Ssq ft) compared to
Concorde's 3S8m
2
(3,8S6sq ft). However, structural differences allow Concorde a lower empty weight and a higher maxi-
mum take-off weight.
65
Air Freighter Development
First First Aircraft
Dimensions-m(ft) Speed Cargo MTOW Normal No.
Flight Service Type km/h Capacity kg Range Built
Date Date Length Span (mph) kg lib) lib) km(mi)
1958 18 Feb Antonov 33 38 580 20.000 61.000 3.600 300 ?
1965' An-128 (1091 (125) 1360) (44.0901 (134.480) (1.9401
27 Feb 1968 Antonov 58 64 600 88.000 250.000 5.000 55
1
1965 An-22 (1901 (211) 13801 (194.00) (550.0001 (3.1251
Notes: • Earlier service with WSNTA(Soviet Air Force/Transport Command) 1Not including prototypes
..-!!k
~
Unloading an Antonov An-12 at Ice Station 10 in August 1962, an
Antonov An-12 (below) loading cargo at Tiksi in 1962, and an
Antonov An-12 SSSR-04366 at Ice Station 10 in 1962.
1I
The aircraft's main cargo hold was not pressurized; but it
had some interesting features. An overhead gantry crane
could move loads of up to two tons up and down the cargo
hold, and, like all Soviet aircraft, the An-l2 was built for
rough field performance and for operations in extreme
climatic conditions. The Soviet aircraft builders had been spe-
cialists in skis since the earliest days of Polar exploration by
air (see page 26). Antonov was no exception. Those
fitted to the An-l2 for Arctic use had a braking device and
were heated.
Son of Poseidon
Obviously satisfied with the success of its all-freighter design,
Oleg Antonov's team went on to build essentially a giant
version of the An-12. The Antonov An-22 was named
Antei, or Antheus, the giant son of the Greek god of the
oceans, Poseidon. All An-22s are operated by the military,
although many appeared with Aeroflot titles.
(Left) Oleg Antonov (right) presents a model of the An-12 to
Aleksander Afanasiev, ofAviaarktika, at Tiksi, February 1962.
(all photographs by Boris Vdovienko)
THE FIRST ANTONOV FREIGHTERS
The Antonov An-12
The Antonov Design Bureau at Kiev quickly realized the
potential of its basic An-10 design for transporting cargo; in
fact the Antonov An-12 was developed in parallel with the
passenger version and production - at Ulan Ude, Voronesh,
and Tashkent - is estimated to have exceeded 800 aircraft
in the military An-12BP version, in which 100 paratroopers
could be carried. It first flew in 1958, went into military ser-
vice in 1959, and the version for Aeroflot, the Antonov
An-12B, began work in 1965.
66
Antonov An-22
100 tons - 680km/h (410mph)

Kuznetzov NK-12MA (4 X 15,OOOshp) • MTOW 250,OOOkg (551,1601b) • Normal Range 5,OOOkm (3,lOOmi)
The World's Largest
The four-engined Antonov An-22, complete with contra-rotating propellers, made it first
flight on 27 February 1965, and four months later, on 15 June 1965, it made its international
debut at the Paris Air Show, to the wonderment of the world. Habitually critical, sometimes dis-
dainful, of the products of the Soviet aircraft industry, western observers were forced to take
notice. Quite simply, this was a huge airplane.
It weighed 250 tons and had a payload of 100 tons. It could carry large battle tanks such as
the T-62, the T-72, or the T-80, which did not complain against the customary lack of pressur-
ization in the main cargo hold. The rear-end loading door was a neat device that not only pro-
vided the ramp, but could also form an extension to the rails along the sides of the hold, carry-
ing the ten-ton load gantry crane. The floor was of reinforced titanium.
FolloWing time-honored tradition, even this mammoth machine could be used on rough
strips. Such extraordinary performance was made possible by an extraordinary landing gear. In
each of the two fuselage fairings were three tandem wheels, for a total of twelve, to spread the
load; and the tire pressure could be controlled during flight.
An Antonov An-22 prototype (SSSR-56391) on take-off. (Boris Vdovienko)
Comparison with 11-86
LENGTH S8m (190ft)
SPAN 64m (211ft
Antonov An-22 SSSR-09344 offloading relie(supplies at Moscow-Sheremetyevo in April 1992.
(Malcolm Nason)
67
Arctic Ice Stations
ARCTIC ICE STATION SUPPLY LINES'
Mcgadct'lo
~
J>
o ",,,,«$
Cape
Schmidt ~ n a d y r
ONizhne Kolymsk
o Chokurdakh
ARCTIC
o Jgarka
over thousands of miles of ocean, at night, to save the crew.
And so the work went on, with 11-14s, An-12s, and Mil
Mi-2s, supporting 'North 69' (SP-16, 17, 18), and delivering
and setting up 70 automatic weather stations on the drifting
floes. In 1971, under the direction of Mark Shevelev (who
had been Dr Otto Schmidt's aviation man in the pioneer
years of the Northern Sea Route Administration) the Arctic
Aviation Service of Aeroflot was subdivided into three groups,
the North European, based at Arkhangelsk; the Yamal-
Tyumen, and the Tamyr-Krasnoyarsk. In 1975, the high-lati-
tude Sever-7S was supported by the Aeroflot Noril'sk station
while in 1976/77, Kamov Ka-lS helicopter crews based on
the atomic-powered icebreakers Lenin and Arktika partici-
pated in an expedition to Yamal.
On 17 August 1977, the Arktika reached the North Pole,
supported by Arctic pilots, who reached the ship in nine
hours flying and spent two hours in reconnaissance. In June
of the follOWing year, when Captain Myshevsky completed
the sea passage from Arkhangelsk to Magadan, via the Arctic
Ocean, he was guided through the treacherous and ever-
changing ice packs and floes from four aviation bases at Tiksi,
Murmansk, Igarka, and Kalimo-Idigarsk, flying Antonov An-
24s and An-26s, Ilyushin 11-14s, and Mil Mi-2s. They carried
360 tons of supplies and equipment, and made 710 landings
on the ice. For Polar Station SP-23 alone, 100 tons of cargo,
as well as the complete expedition itself, were transported. In
March 1980, work continued with SP-32, and the I1ynshin
11-76 began work in the Arctic, followed later by the
Antonov An-n.
(Below) Ilyushin Il-14D at Ice Station 9.
(Right) Inspecting the engine ofa ski-equipped Lisunov Li-2, during a
series offerry flights to Ice Station 10, 1,000km (600mi) n01th ofthe
Siberian Arctic coast, in 1962. (Photos: Boris Vdovienko)
Back To The Ice Floes
The pioneering work performed by the historic Papanin expe-
dition of 1937 (see pages 28-31) has been well documented
and is widely known. Less familiar to western students of
Soviet work in the Arctic Ocean is the series of more than
thirty Polar Stations (Severny Polius, or North Pole Station)
that have been established on the Arctic ice since 1950.
Polar Station SP-2 (Papanin's was recognized as SP-l)
was established on 1 April 1950. Commanded by M.M.
Somov, Doctor of Geographic Sciences, Polar Aviation sup-
port was provided by veteran Arctic pilots M.V. Vodopyanov
and E.P. Mazuruk, together with V.M. Perov and M.A. Tutlov,
using Lisunov Li-2s - the trusty DC-3 still indispensable.
SP-2 was more of a reconnaissance survey, but the ice stations
that followed were complex stations, with difficult living con-
ditions. With Mazuruk still in command, the Arctic Aviation
Service had a tremendous task in maintaining the supply lines
to the drifting ice floes. For E.G. Petrov's SP-4, helicopters
were used for the first time.
During the mid-1950s, the program gained momentum.
When SP-S began its drift in 1955, a regular aviation link
with the mainland was flown by a small fleet of specially
equipped aircraft that included Ilyushin 11-14s and the
ubiquitous Antonov An-2s. In addition to servicing the sta-
tion, the aircraft also carried scientists on missions deep into
the Arctic Ocean Ice deserts. On 21-23 March 1958, V.K.
Kokkinski made a remarkable visit to Polar Station SP-6, flying
an Ilyushin 11-18 four-engined turboprop, no less, from
Moscow via Irkutsk, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatksky, and Tiksi.
But the main workhorse of the Arctic supply route was the
Ilyushin 11-14, which transported thousands of tons of cargo
and scientists, notably to SP-9, located at some points of their
drift 1,600km (I,OOOmi) from the mainland.
Aeroflot Takes Over
Polar Aviation was transferred to Aeroflot on 3 January
1960, but for the Polar aviators, it was 'business as usual'. In
summer 1962, the Antonov An-12 and Mil Mi-4, as well as
the ubiquitous An-2, supported the Sever-62 (North-62)
expedition. This was followed by the high-latitude Sever-6S,
in which more than 5,000 landings were made on the Arctic
ice fields transporting more than 2,000 tons of cargo.
In 1968, in a truly heroic sortie, Arctic helicopter pilots res-
cued a crew from the Ineyi, a hydrographic vessel in distress in
the East Siberian Sea, where it had encountered a hurricane. The
helicopters battled giant waves and 100km/h (65mph) winds
68
-
Ice Floe Air Service
(Top) The ice-breaker Lenin at Ice Station 10, with a Kamov Ka-15
in attendance. (All photos: Boris Vdovienko)
(Center) Members of the scientific team ofIce Station 10,
measuring the ice thickness - typically many meters - with their
ski-equipped Lisunov Li-2 flying laboratoly.
(Top) Aerial support for Ice Station 10: Kamov Ka-15 on the left,
Lisunov Li-2 - the 'old faithful' on the right.
(Above) Ski-equipped Lisunov Li-2 alights on the strip at
Ice Station 10, April 1962.
(Top) Ilyushin I1-14D atIce Station 11 in 1962.
(Center) The ski landing gear of a Lisunov Li-2 at Ice Station 10.
The station was managed by Comrade Kamarov, and was unoffi-
cially called Kamarovka - a satirical reference also to the Russian
for mosquito, kamar, where even that insect fears to fly.
(Below) Determined not to be left out of the act, an Antonov An-2 (SSSR- 04351), far away from its
more familiar cornfields of the Black Earth of Central Russia and the Ukraine, plays its part on the
White Ice ofIce Station 10, April 1962.
(Below) Ilyushin I1-14D at Ice Station 10 in April 1962. This picture well illustrates the airfield condi-
tions on the Arctic ice - and the improvised unloading ramp.
69
Antarctica
Preparations
By the time the Soviet Union had established its fifth scientif-
ic station on the Arctic ice floes in 1955, it was ready to join
nations at the other end of the world, in Antarctica, the Last
Continent. The first expedition was mounted on 30
November of that year, commanded by the Director of
Geographic Sciences, M.M. Somova, 133 years after a Russian
sea captain, P.G. von Bellingshausen,' had been the first to set
eyes on the Antarctic mainland. With Somova was an avia-
tion detachment, under the command of E.E. Cherevechnova,
who made the initial flights from the base that was to become
Mirnyy, and who had the first taste of the harsh conditions
of operating from the huge icy land mass.
During the next two years, two more bases were estab-
lished, with P.P. Moskalenko and B.C. Ossipov in charge of
aviation. In 1958-1959, the airmen encountered temperatures
of -70
o
C but managed to deliver much-needed supplies from
Mirnyy to the new scientific station Novolazarevskaya, a
distance of 3,600km (2,240mi). In December 1958, an aircrew
commanded by V.M. Petrov, from Novolazarevskaya, was
able to rescue the crew and passengers of a Belgian aircraft
that had made an emergency landing, well out of reach by
land from the Belgian Roi Baudouin base about 500km
(300mi) away.
Historic Flights
In 1961, an important milestone was reached in Soviet
Antarctic exploration. Headed by the veteran of the Polar
Aviation Directorate, M.E. Shevelev, two large turboprop air-
craft flew from Moscow to Mirnyy. An Ilyushin 11-18 (A.S.
Polyakov) and an Antonov An-12 (B.S. Osipov) left Moscow
on 15 December and arrived on Christmas Day, returning on
25 January to arrive triumphantly from a 52,800km
(32,800mi) round trip on 2 February 1962. The two aircraft
were able to deliver supplies and instruments. The An-12
showed its prowess on skis, while the 11-18 made a round trip
to McMurdo Sound to help save an Australian mechanic who
had become ill.
Encouraged by the success of these flights, two more
Ilyushin I1-18s made the long trip to the Antarctic in 1963,
carrying members of the 9th Soviet Expedition. Flights were
also made inland to the Vostok station, established on the
top of Dome Charlie, the gigantic icecap of East Antarctica,
where the record low temperature of -89
0
C was recorded on
21 July 1983. Vostok is 3,488 meters (1l,440ft) above sea lev-
el, and the ice thickness is 200m (650ft) more than that. It is
70
l,420km (880mi) from the main Mirnyy base on the coast,
and can claim to have a runway that is as thick as it is long.
By 1975, the Soviet Union had six permanent scientific sta-
tions and some other temporary satellites in Antarctica.
In 1973, the diesel-electric boat Db, bringing the winter
shift to Antartica, was lost. The Nabarin, supported by Mil Mi-
2 and Mi-8 helicopters and Antonov An-2s (they are every-
where!) rescued 57 men and 6 tons of precious cargo for the
Molodezhnaya and Mirnyy stations.
Communication between the four main ones, Mirnyy,
Molodezhnaya, Novolazarevskaya, and Vostok, was main-
tained by a small fleet of aircraft that included five heli-
copters - Mil Mi-4s in the early years, then half a dozen of
Crew o(the Ilyushin II-IS, before taking off(or the Antarctic in 1963.
Pilot (right-hand seat) o(an Ilyushin II-IS.
(Both photos: Boris Vdovienko)
the larger Mil Mi-6s and Mi-8s, with up to ten Ilyushin 11-
14Ms, even a couple of Antonov An-2s, based at
Molodezhnaya and Mirnyy. These aircraft also provided links
to the bases of other nationalities, U.S., British, French, and
Australian, in an area where the formalities of international
bureaucracy could be dispensed With, politics and their
encumbrances having been cast aside by the Antarctic Treaty.
New Route
In 1980, a new route was forged to Antarctica. Previbusly (see
map) the Soviet aircraft had flown the same path as the
American and Australian flights, from Christchurch, New
Zealand (which boasts the only ticket counter with Antarctica
on the destination board); but this had entailed a long flight
through Asia. Now, with a special version of the Ilyushin 11-18,
the 11-180, under the command of B.D. Grubly, Moscow was
connected by a shorter route, through Africa (see map) made
possible by the ability of the 11-180 to cover the longer dis-
tance from Maputo to Molodezhnaya - 5,000km (3,100mi)
with no en route alternates. This flight, in support of the 25th
Antarctic Expedition, made the outbound journey from 10-13
February and returned from 19-23 February. The 45,600km
(28,380mi) round trip was made in 78hr 54min flying time.
The Last Continent
--- Services by
smaller aircraft types,
inclLlding helicopters,
based in Antarctica
(fop right) TI,e fl-76TD
on the long, solid ice,
runway at Novolazarev-
skaya, Antartica. The
bases's name betrays a
wry sense ofhumor: the
'old'Lazarevskaya is a
sunny resort on the Black
Sea coast.
(Left) The II-76m unloads
at Molodezhnaya, Antarc-
tica. (All: Vasily Karpy)
(Bottom right) To prepare
for the big freighter, the
ground crew at the base
rolled the packed snow
runway for a whole year.
AEROFLOT'S ACCESS
TO THE
ANTARCTIC
Ch
. t h McMurdo Sound
rlS C urch
REGD
A Very Special Flight
In the interests of time and economy of effort in delivering
supplies to the Arctic Expeditions, and in spite of the now reg-
ular annual trips by the Ilyushin 180s, a decision was made in
1985 to use a bigger aircraft, a real heavy lifter, the Ilyushin
76TD, weighing in at a 190,000kg (420,000lb) - say 200 tons
at take-off - and able to carry a 50-ton payload over a dis-
tance of 3,650km (2,270mi). Already equipped as a specialized
freighter, with winches and ramps, and able to use the
so-called unprepared strips, i.e. without concrete or paving,
the one destined to make this historic trip was fitted
with 90 seats, plus kitchen, medical, and life-saving equip-
ment. On 18 February 1986, the Il-76TO took off from
Moscow, and flew by a slightly different African route direct
to Novolazarevskaya, then to Molodezhnaya, and arrived back
home on 4 March 1986.
And Very Special Landings
While the thickness of the ice that formed the runway at
Novolazerevskaya may not have reached the astonishing
proportions of Vostok (see opposite page), it was, however,
a slick surface, and all of the 3,000 meters (10,000ft, or
almost two miles) length was needed for the Il-76TO to
slow to a stop after touching down. Molodezhnaya, on the
other hand, presented a different problem. The runway was
long enough, again 3,000 meters; and wide enough - 90
meters (300ft). But the composition of the runway was not
of ice; it was of snow, 82 meters thick. When properly pre-
pared this was all right for most aircraft; but the Ilyushin Il-
76 weighed 200 tons.
The ground staff at Molodezhnaya must have heard the
story of the English gardener who, when asked by an
American tourist how he had produced such a perfect
lawn, suggested that it may have been the result of mow-
ing it once a week, and rolling it once a week ... for 500
years. Overcoming difficulties of alternate melting during
long summer days of unbroken sunshine and crusting of
surfaces with repeated freeZing, the ground staff rolled and
rolled and rolled the runway ... for a whole year. The Il-76
landed and took off successfully.
71
. 0
Diksoh
OSeyakha
REGD
OCape Kamennyy
Laborovaya
Lob'h
kotrovo 0
'Zh Salekhard
(Top) Summer homes in
the Yamal Nenets district
of northwestern Siberia.
The tents, of slender tree
trunks and animal skins,
are called yaranga.
Normal transport, even in
the untrozen brief sum-
mer, is by sled, but the
ubiquitous Antonov
An-2, seen here to the
right, has added a new
dimension to travel.
(Bottom) Children trom
the Yamal Nenets village
ofLaborovaya are
shipped out to the await-
ing Antonov An-2V, to
attend secondaly school.
(Center) The Antonov An-
2 pilot invites a family to
send the children to school.
On board the An-2, the children appear somewhat apprehensive at
the prospect of attending school at Katrovozh, near the 'big city'
ofSalekhard.
Siberian School Bus
Antonovs Everywhere
Not content with providing normal air service to small com-
munities, supporting the Arctic ice stations, surveying fishing
grounds, agricultural work of all kinds, supporting railroad
construction, and laying out oil-pipe lines, the Antonov
An-2 demonstrated its almost unlimited flexibility and versa-
tility by being a school bus in places where wheeled vehicles
did not dare to venture.
In this picture-essay - once again the product of Boris
Vdovienko's peripatetic camera - an An-2V is seen at the
tiny community of Laboroveya, in the Poluostrov Yamal (the
Yamal Peninsula), just north of the Arctic Circle in northwest-
ern Siberia. Invited by the Aeroflot pilot from their 'yaranga'
houses in the treeless tundra, the children are taken to the
secondary school at Katrovozh, near Salekhard, the 'big city'
of the Yamal Nenets Autonomous District.

Anna Maximovna, teacher of the secondmy school at Katrovozh,
near Salekhard, keeps a watchful eye on the children en route to
start the term. (All photos: Boris Vdovienko)
72
An-2s in the Far East
4petropoVI05k
Khabarovsk
The maintenance shed at Nikolayevesk-na-Amure - inclined to be
draughty in winter. (R.E.G. Davies)
Okhotsx\-.
The aITival of the Antonov An-2 at Khailinko, in northern Kamchatka. (Boris Vdovienko)
REGD
The local bus se/vice at Novo Kurovka, a small village northwest of
Khabarovsk. (R.E.G. Davies).
Four ofthe local Antonov An-2 networks in the Far East Region ofthe Soviet Union, where 120 towns and villages are se/ved by about the same
number ofaircraft. More than 60 such networks link about 2,000 communities throughout the vast U.S.S.R., now the CIS.
Antonovs For Ever
In an area of Siberia much larger than the United States,
where no railways exist and roads are a rare luxury, the
Antonov An-2 is the only link with civilization itself. Many
hundreds of the versatile 12-seater carry people to work, to
school, to the shops, and to visit friends and relatives. The
maps and the photographs on this page proVide a glimpse of
such aerial bus services in the Far East Region of Aeroflot.
In the areas ofRussia where the snows seem to be ever-present, air-
craft are painted red for better Visibility. (Paul Duffy)
Aeroflot's charming terminal buidling at Nikolayevesk-na-Amure.
The friendly airport bus awaits. (R.E.G. Davies)
73
Airline Helicopters
Reviving a Tradition
Back in the days of Tsarist Russia, Igor Sikorsky had made
some experiments with helicopter designs, and was to revive
his ambitions to pioneer vertical lift flights in America where
he had emigrated at the outbreak of Revolution in St
Petersburg in 1917. Not until the late 1940s did the helicopter
spin its way upwards again in the Soviet Union, and not until
the late 19S0s was it put into commercial operation.
By this time, commercial helicopters had been innovative-
ly introduced in the United States, to operate subsidized mail
and passenger services in Los Angeles, New York, and
Chicago; in Belgium, where a vigorous hub was established in
Brussels for international services; and sporadically in Great
Britain, for mail and passenger services. Interestingly, in the
Soviet Union, though for different reasons, the program of
helicopter operational development never became a promi-
nent part of the scheduled passenger air network. But Aeroflot
helicopters did carve important niches in areas where even
the An-2 could not reach adequately.
Mikhail Mil, father of the famous series ofSoviet helicopters,
surveying the scene in 1959. (Boris Vdovienko)
74
Routes in the Crimea
Aeroflot's first helicopter services were in the Crimea, where
mountainous terrain on the popular coastal vacation area pre-
vented the establishment of airports with long paved run-
ways; and even the laying down of strips for the Antonov An-
2. On IS December 1958, a Mil Mi-4 eight-seater made the
first flight from the main airport at Simferopol to Yalta, one
of the delightful destinations of what may be termed the
Crimean Riviera. This was followed shortly afterwards by a
similar service on the Black Sea coast of the Russian Caucasus,
from the main airport at Adler to the big resort of Soch!. Mi-
4s from Adler also connected to Gagra, Khosta, Lazarevskaya,
and Gelendzhik.
City Services
In 1960, further helicopter routes were opened. On 2 March,
Mi-4s began a shuttle service from the Caspian oil capital of
Baku to Neftune Kamne, an artificial island offshore and site
of highly productive oil wells. On 19 July a helicopter station
opened at Khodinka (Frunze) airfield, where Aeroflot's central
bus terminal had been established on Leningradski prospekt,
only four miles from Red Square. Mil Mi-4s carried passengers
to Sheremetyevo Airport, and on 1 November a similar con-
nection was made to Vnukovo and Bykovo Airports. Moscow's
fourth airport, Domodedovo, was added the next year.
For about a year, in 1964-65, the Mi-4 was also used for an
A Mil Mi-2 on Chkalov (formerly Udd) Island, in the Bay of
Sakhalin. On the left can be seen the tiny pole, erected as a
commemorative monument by Vadim Romanuk, helicopter
mechanic and founder of the local air museum. This was before the
erection of the permanent monument (see page 32). (R.E.G. Davies)
' I : . ~
wnm, <:::::ij" "..
, --~ . t : : J f
I -
....
A Mil Mi-4 (SSSR-3S277) alights on the roof of the main Post Office
building in the center ofMoscow. The helicopter mail service lasted
about two years in 1964-65, but was terminated because a certain
'important lady' complained about the noise. (Boris Vdovienko)
experimental postal service, carrying mails directly from the
roof of the post office in the center of Moscow to the airports.
Such services had been tried as early as 1939, in Philadelphia,
U.S.A., using a Kellett autogiro, but lasted only about one
year. The Aeroflot services were rumored to have been termi-
nated because the wife of a prominent political figure com-
plained of the noise.
A Public Utility
Although helicopter services were tried in Australia, Canada,
Italy, Pakistan, and Japan during the 1960s, none was sus-
tained for very long, simply because helicopters are very expen-
sive to operate. In the United States, where the three big city
helicopter companies had been augmented by a fourth, at San
Francisco, these too went into decline, partly because the Civil
Aeronautics Board withdrew subsidy in 1965, and partly because
of well-publicized fatal accidents. All were finished by 1979.
In the Soviet Union, on the other hand, where profit-and-
loss statements were non-existent, and all air services were
proVided as a public utility, helicopter services continued to
flourish in any region of the far-flung territory where they
were needed: delivering mail in the northern tundra to outly-
ing communities of the Arctic, or to inaccessible places in the
mountains of Tadjikistan or Kirghizia, or to villages in north-
ern Kamchatka, where even the An-2 was vulnerable. The use
of helicopters is dictated by operational necessity, not eco-
nomic feasibility, judged by western criteria; and they are
often to be found in the regional timetables of Aeroflot,
deployed interchangeably with other feeder aircraft.
--
First of the Mils
The Mil Mi-!, of orthodox helicopter design, with a single main rotor and anti-torque rotor
mounted on a tail boom, was the first Soviet helicopter to go into series production. As the first
of the long line, making its first flight in 1948, it went through the teething troubles of all
infants, and its early years were almost in the nature of experimental research. Most Mi-1s had
three-bladed rotors, and during the development period, the life of both the blades and the
rotor head were considerably improved, while the overhaul of the Ivchenko engines went from
TBOs of about 150 up to more than 1,000. They were used mainly by the Soviet Air Force, but
Aeroflot began to take delivery in May 1954, using them for agriculture, forest patrol, ambu-
lance, and other aerial work, and occasionally for carrying passengers in mountainous areas.
P-23315
Equally, the Mi-2's range was inferior to that of both predecessors; but this could be
improved by supplementary tanks, if necessary. In compensation, the Mi-2's speed was 25 per-
cent more than the Mi-4's and 50 percent more than the Mi-1's.
Rotor-blade technology was impressive. Of bonded construction entirely, the three-bladed
main rotor was equipped with leading-edge electro-thermal de-icing, with a 2,000-hour or more
life. The anti-torque tail rotor had only two blades. Altogether, the Mil Mi-2 emerged as a thor-
oughly reliable, modern aircraft of advanced construction, and it took its place in Aeroflot's
inventory from 1967 onwards as a standard type which has stood the acid test of time and strin-
gent operational conditions.
The Mi·2 appeared in a wide variety of color schemes depending on its mis-
sion. Agricultural sprayers were generally a gloss olive green; Medevac aircraft
were red and white; and passenger versions appeared in several variations of
orange and blue finishes, one of which is shown here.
8 SEATS. 20Skm/h (12Smph)
Mil Mi-2
The Mil Mi-4
Carrying only three passengers besides the pilot, the Mil Mi-1's work load was limited. By 1952,
in response to a specification, directly from the Kremlin, for a larger machine, Mil produced the
Mi-4 (there was no Mi-3; and the Mi-2,. curiously, came later), in competition with Yakovlev's
Yak-24 design. It too had early problems, but necessity was the mother of invention. Four-blad-
ed rotors made from a steel tube/wooden rib/plywood-and-fabric combination gave way to all-
metal construction, including honeycomb sections. Magnesium corrosion led to replacement by
aluminum parts. But when all was done, a good aircraft emerged and, as noted on the opposite
page, the Mi-4 had the honor to open the first regularly scheduled helicopter airline service in
the Soviet Union, carrying between eight and eleven passengers on each flight.
The Mil Mi-2
Mikhail Mil had already taken advantage of the light weight of turbine engines when he pro-
duced the Mil Mi-6, world's largest helicoptfr at the time, in the autumn of 1957. He then turned
his attention to sharpening the performance of the smaller craft. In essence, he used two smaller
and lighter turbine engines to make a new version of the Mi-l. By placing the engines above the
fuselage, there was room enough for eight passengers. This was almost as much as the larger Mil
Mi-4 could carry, so that essentially the Mil Mi-2 was able to replace both of the older types.
True, the passenger cabin was a little more cramped. The Mi-2's 4.47m (14ft 8in) length was
a foot longer than the Mi-4's; but its l.2m (4ft) width and l.4m (4ft 7in) height were almost two
feet narrower and more than a foot shorter, respectively. But this did not seem to matter, as
helicopter journeys are invariably of short duration, and the clientele does not need either to
stand up or to move about.
THE SMALLER MIL HELICOPTERS
First First Aircraft Dimensions-m{ft) Speed
I
Seats MTOW Normal No.
Right Aeroflot Type
F u s e l a ~ e Rotor km/h kg Range Built
Date Service Lengt Diam. (mph) (lb) km{mi)
Sep May Mi-l 12.1 14.5 135 3 2.500 350 2.0001
1948 1954 (399) (4771 (731 15.5001 11801
Aug 1954 Mi-4 17.8 21.0 160 8-11 7.350 520 3.500+
1952 (5511 168111 (861 116.2001
I
13201
--
I
1961 1967 Mi-2 11.9 14.5 205 8 3.500
I
240 2.800+
13921 14771 (1271 (7,7151 (1451
THE LARGER MIL HELICOPTERS
First First Aircraft Dimensions-m{ft) Speed Seats MTOW Normal No.
Flight Aeroflot Type Fuselage Rotor km/h kg Range Built
Date ServiCe Length Diam. (mph) (lb) km(mi)
1961 1967 Mi-8 18.3 21.3 200 28 12.000 360 6,000+
(6011 (69101 (125) (26,450) (223)
1957 1961 Mi-6 33.2 35.0 250 65 42,500 1.050 850+
(108101 (11410) 11551 193.7001 1650)
-
1960 1967 Mi-l0 329 35.0 180 28 43,450 400 60+
1107.9) (114101 11121 (95.790) (2501
75
"We Built ARailroad"
This map shows how Aeroflot, from bases strategically situated along the Trans-Siberian Railway, was able to maintain an aerial supply
network to the working parties who buit the BAM railroad.
The Beginning
Throughout the history of the Soviet Union, the extension of
the railroad system has always been a constant economic objec-
tive, to provide the logistics connection between the sources of
wealth, particularly mineral wealth, and especially in the far
reaches of the Asian territories. Gradually, branches of line
sprouted from the Trans-Siberian Railway, often linking it
with northerly ports on the great rivers, the Ob, the Yenesei,
and the Lena. Of these, the most remote was the Lena, whose
source is close to Lake Baikal, but which flows northeast
through what was, until recently, largely uncharted territory.
By 1950, a line had reached Bratsk, site of a huge hydro-
electric station under construction, and during the next
decade, this was extended to Ust' Kut, on the Lena. For the
first time, albeit only during the May-October summer sea-
son, when the Lena was ice-free, the historic trading center of
Yakutsk, surrounded by newly-established satellite mining
sites of great wealth, was linked with Moscow by a modern
surface transport system.
Rail-Air Cooperation
Aviation, including the resources of Aeroflot, supported
BAM during the entire period of its construction, with main-
line connections to cities on the trans-Siberian Railway, and
countless sorties by feeder aircraft, fixed wing and rotary
Wing. Other than the 3,500km (2,175mi) of track, the mainly
Komsomol teams built 2,237 bridges, established 60 cities,
some of them now large centers, as well as many villages.
Hundreds of thousands of passenger flights were made, and
supplies for the 22 special construction trains and 37 mecha-
nized columns, and the hundreds of bridging and tunneling
units, were carried largely by air, until the BAM line was pro-
gressively completed.
October 1974, and in the follOWing year, in a Soviet equiva-
lent of "Go West Young Man," teams of Komsomol (Young
Communist Workers League) headed east in their thousands.
The preliminary surveying for the BAMRailroad was carried out
largely with the help of helicopters, such as this Mil Mi-4 in the
early 1970s. (Both photos: Vladimir Kuznetzov)
One of the legacies of the fine work done by hundreds ofaircraft,
including squadrons ofhelicopters, was the foundation ofsmall
cities along the route of the BAM, outgrowths of the first labor
encampments that housed the construction teams. REGD
Birth of the BAM
On 8 July 1974, the Supreme Soviet officially declared the cre-
ation of a railroad constructionprogram of great magnitude.
The Baikal-Amur Magistral (Main Line, or Artery), or the
BAM, was to parallel the Trans-Siberian Railway over about
3,500km (2,200mi) of its eastern length. This action took
place at a time when relations between the Soviet Union and
China were cool, and the BAM was widely perceived as a
defensive measure against the possible cutting of the Trans-
Sib by an attacking force. But the BAM also opened up vast
possibilities for improving the access to the riches of Siberian
mineral wealth.
Preliminary surveys had started on 30 April 1974, using
Mil Mi-2 and Mi-8 helicopters. But progress at first was
handicapped by the onset of an early winter - in August!
Housing for the workers was incomplete, and one of the first
tasks for the growing armada of supporting aircraft was to
bring 2,500 tons of heating equipment to the first construc-
tion sites. The first workers arrived on the Ulkan River on 28
TO
..
.
HJ:LP'S
I
FIXED WING
AIRCRAFT DEPLOYMENT
Antonov An- 12
" Yakovlev Yak-40
ilyushin 11-14
• Antonov An-2
® Main Aeroflot Bases
76
A Mil Mi-8 (SSSR-22703) in the harsh tundra terrain near Dikson,
in northern Siberia.
gUt
- - ~
A Mil Mi-8 comes in to land at North Pole Station 27, at a lati-
tude of83
0
N, in 1980.
Mil Mi-8
The Thoroughbred
Rather as the Mil Design Bureau had developed the Mi-l into
the far superior Mi-2 by conversion to turbine power, so, in
1960, it turned its attention to doing the same with the Mi-4.
The Mil Mi-8 first flew in 1961, and by the following year had
been further improved with a five-blade rotor. It could carry 28
passengers - about the same as a DC-3/Li-2 - and for freight
use, its rear fuselage was fitted with clam-shell doors.
Such a combination of characteristics made the Mi-8 into
a thoroughbred aircraft, reliable and versatile. For example,
during the construction of the BAM Railroad during a typi-
cal year, 1976, seventeen construction organizations together
employed helicopters for almost 22,000 flying hours. Almost
exactly half of these were with Mil Mi-8s.
28 SEATS. 200km/h (125mph)
Helicopter Capital of the World
The Tyumen region of Russia, with its world's largest deposits
of natural gas, and one of the world's largest producers of
crude oil, has been remarkable for its extensive use of heavy-
lift helicopters for pipe-laying and as flying cranes for build-
ing tall towers for electricity transmission lines. Thus, the
Mi-8 was quickly found to be an essential maid-of-all-work.
The Tyumen sub-division of Aeroflot (or Tyumen
Aviatrans, T.A.T. under the new reorganization) lists 450
helicopters in its fleet inventory of 660 aircraft. 0 less than
360 of the rotorcraft are Mil Mi-8s. Other regions of Aeroflot
do not boast such numbers, but more than 1,000 Mi-8s are to
be found east of the Urals alone.
Holiday-makers disembark from a Mil Mi-8 at the helicopter pad at
Yalta. (Boris Vdovienko)
A Mil Mi-8 on an improvised 'pad' of oil pipes on the Yamal
Peninsula, in northwest Siberia.
The good ship Inniy, stuck in the Arctic ice, but with a Mil Mi-8
available to prove that all is not lost. (Photos: Vasily Kmpy)
77
Kamov Virtuosig
First First Aircraft Dimensions-m(ft) Speed Seats MTOW Normal No.
Flight Aeroflot Type
F u s e l a ~ e Rotor km/h kg Range Built
Date Service Lengt Diam. (mph) (Ib) km(mi)
1952 1955 Ka-15 6.2 10.0 125 2 1,410 390 300+
12051 (32.81 1781 13.1001 (2401
1957 1959 Ka-18 7.0 10.0 115 4 1,480 165 200+
(2311 (32.81 1721 (3.2601 (1021
1965 1967 Ka-26 7.75 13 110 6 3,250 400 600+
(255) (4281 (701 (7,1651 12501
1980 1983 Ka-32 11.3 15.9 230 16 11,000 800 200+
1371) (522) 11431 124,2501 15001
(Bottom) Reminiscent of the Los Angeles freeways and the control
thereof, this Kamov Ka-26 keeps an eye on the traffic in
Vladivostok. (Vladimir Kuznetzov)
(Top) A Kamov Ka-32, on fish-spotting patrol, hovers over its depot
ship, the Kherluf Bidstrup, in the Sea of Okhotsk.
form the previous Kamovs in such activities as mapping, geo-
logical survey, fish-spotting, fire-fighting, and ice reconnais-
sance; AerofIot needed one for normal passengers, mail, and
freight, as well as for general agricultural use, and gas and oil
pipeline patrolling. To quote John Stroud: "What Kamov pro-
duced was a most ingenious multi-purpose helicopter capable
of almost any task except feeding itself."
The Kamov Ka-26 was larger than the Ka-15 and Ka-18
but smaller than the Ka-25. But it was far more efficient than
any previous design. Like the Ka-25, it was twin-engined, but
unlike it, the tail unit was supported by twin booms, rather
than by an extension of the fuselage. Its unique feature was
what can only be described as the come-apartness of the fuse-
lage. The rear half of what would normally be a complete
fuselage could be interchanged, according to the require-
ments: a small cabin for up to seven passengers, a pallet for
cargo, or apparatus for crop-spraying, including a large hop-
per. This could spray dry chemicals as an alternative to liquid
spraying throughout extended spray-bars, and the downwash
of the rotors served to disperse the powder or granules in a
uniform manner.
Later versions of the Ka-26 improved the performance
and capability. The Ka-226, for example (fitted with Allison
engines) could carry a chemical load of almost 1,000kg
(compared with the 530kg
of the Ka-26) on a 1 liz-hour THE KAMOV CONTRA-ROTATING FAMILY
mission, with full reserves.
Throughout the develop-
ment of the versatile
Kamovs, the accent was
always on economy of oper-
ations - for even under the
Soviet system, considerable
accountability was often
exercised. To borrow a
sporting term, in this
respect, the Kamov Ka-26
was the top seed.
Contra-Rotation
Rather overshadowed by the preponderance of the Mil heli-
copters in service throughout the Soviet Union, and some-
times forgotten as world-wide interest tended to concentrate
on the Mil giants (see pages 80-81), the generally smaller
Kamovs deserve attention. Just as Mil perfected the tech-
niques of single main rotor-plus-anti-torque tail rotor combi-
nations, so did Nikolai Kamov solve the mechanical com-
plexities of coaxial contrarotating main rotors, thus
eliminating the need for any anti-torque device.
Getting under way with his first designs after the end of
the Second World War, Kamov's first light helicopters were
for the Soviet Army, for observation and reconnaissance. But
as time went on, opportunities for civilian use arose.
The Kamov Ka-15, Ka-18, and Ka-25
As with subsequent designs, the first effective Kamov heli-
copter, the Ka-15, first produced in 1952, had two contra-
rotating rotors, each with three blades. The Ka-15 demonstrat-
ed a brisk performance, and it went into service with
Aeroflot in a variety of working roles: crop-spraying, power-
line patrol, gas pipeline patrol, and ambulance work.
The slightly larger Ka-18 incorporated an improved fuse-
lage structure, which was slightly longer, and with modified
twin vertical stabilizers, but had the same rotors as the Ka-15.
In the Ka-18, however, the rotor blades could easily be removed
individually, and this made the aircraft especially useful for
reconnaissance in the Arctic Ocean, where the convenience of
storage space on the depot ships was at a premium.
A further stage of adaptability was achieved in the new
Ka-25 which made its first appearance in 1961. This had the
novel arrangement by which the individual rotor blades could
be folded, under power, so as to be aligned together while not
in use; such mechanical ingenuity was a great credit to the
Kamov design team. Also, the Ka-25K featured a small cabin
underneath the main flight deck. This contained a backward-
facing seat, for controlling operations when the helicopter
was being used as a fIying crane.
The Kamov Ka-26
All aircraft manufacturers have problems with reconciling
conflicting requirements from different customers. In
Kamov's case, these appear to have been stringent demands
for versatility both from the State Scientific Institute and from
AerofIot. The former wanted a helicopter that could out-per-
78
79
35
KtJ-15 :
.
3"2"
. . .
Ko-32:
-
5 10 15 20 25 30
Fuseloge Lenqth- Meters
o
EGD
AEROFLOT '5
HELICOPTERS
ON THE SAME SCALE
. ..
. . . .

• :
lades . Mil: Mi-1 :
8
Sheer VersatililJ
(Top right) AKamov Ka-25K (SSSSR-2111 0). (f.M.G. Gradidge via John Stroud) (Right) A Mil Mi-l 0 transports an electricity transmission tower.
A lmge percentage of the nationwide high-tension electricity powerline grid of the Soviet Union was constructed with the help of flying cranes.
(V. Grebnev) (Top left) The Mil Mi-26T, developed from the Mi-6, with more powerful engines to drive and eight-bladed rotor, is the champion heavy-
lifter, able to lift vertically a load oftwenty tons. (REG. Davies) (Bottom left) A Kamov Ka-26 (SSSR-19529) on ambulance duty. (V. Grebnev)
The pictures and drawings on this page summarize the
amazing diversity of the range of helicopters that have been
put into use by Aeroflot, ranging from the diminutive 20-
foot-long Kamov Ka-18 to the 10S-foot-long Mil Mi-IO.
They can carry everything, from band-aids to buses,
paramedics to pipelines. They have - unlike their opposite
numbers in the West - taken their place alongside the
fixed-wing aircraft, wherever they are needed, for carrying
people from inaccessible villages, where even the Antonov
An-2 dares not land (I.e. cliff faces or swamps), and for haul-
ing large and ungainly cargoes like transmission towers for
electric power lines. With these fine aircraft, the helicopter
design bureaux of the Soviet Union have secured their place
in aeronautical development history.
HeaV! Lifters
The Mil Mi-6
When, late in 1957, the Mil Mi-6 made its first flight, the reac-
tion was justifiably one of awe. It was as long as an Ilyushin
II-18 and weighed almost as much. John Stroud, never inclined
to use superlatives, described it as "truly enormous." Each of
the five rotor blades was 17m (55ft 9in) long, and, as with pre-
vious Mils, they had electro-thermal leading edge de-icing.
Small, removable wings were fitted to the middle section of the
fuselage. Two Soloviev D-25V turbine engines, rated at
5,500shp take-off power, enabled the Mi-6 to carry a load of
12,000kg (26,500Ib) - this alone is the all-up weight of a DC-3.
Its rugged floor could accommodate trucks, drilling rigs,
tanks, any large or bulky object. Its electric winch could han-
dle a slung load of 9,000kg (almost ten tons) and in a fire-
fighting role, it could carry 14,000kg (15 tons) of water. It was
used almost exclusively in specialized air-lifting roles, but
could carry 75 passengers if necessary. Deliveries began to
Aeroflot in 1961, and it was first used in Turkmenistan on
10 August of that year. The airline had about 100 of these
impressive aircraft by the late 1960s, and about half of these
were allocated to the oil and gas fields of West Siberia.
(Above) The two-ton capacity crane inside the Mil Mi-26, for
heavy-duty in the oilfields of the Tyumen region.
(Below) A Mil Mi-lO (SSSR-04103), carrying a bus. (Vdovienko)
80
The Mil Mi-lO
A direct development of the Mi-6, the Mil Mi-IO had the
same enormous rotor and transmission, with are-designed
fuselage of about the same length, with long landing gear legs
to make room for a platform underneath the fuselage and
supported by hydraulic grips attached to the gear legs. If the
Mi-6 could carry a small truck, the Mi-10 could carry a bus.
To assist the crews in maneuvering at touch-down, the flight
deck had closed circuit television monitors. The Mi-IOK
(Korotkonogyi, or Short-Legged) version featured a special
cabin under the nose, with rearward-facing controls for coor-
dination with the winching crew. At Tyumen, base airfield for
the region containing the world's largest reserves of oil and
gas, the demand is matched by the supply of helicopter
strength (see page 77) of which the Mil Mi-10s, fitted with
both internal and external extra tankage, can carry out mis-
sions of up to 5 1/2 hours duration. In the desolate areas of
Heroic Mission
If ever a case was to be made for the advantages of heli-
copter operations over those of fixed wing aircraft - and
many were made in the U.S.S.R. in many diverse indus-
trial activities, in the oilfields, the cotton fields, and the
fishing grounds - it was made, under the most tragic
circumstances, in 1986. On 26 April of that year, a nucle-
ar reactor at Chernobyl, in the northern Ukraine,
exploded with devastating effect, spreading a radioactive
cloud over the area and for hundreds of miles around.
With a Hind military helicopter, with its gyro-stabilized
gunsight, acting as a pathfinder for precise observation of
the 1200
0
C 'target', the molten reactor, Mi-6s and Mi-26s
plugged the lethal opening laid bare in the concrete struc-
ture. After several unsuccessful attempts to solve a problem
that had a hundred unknown factors, by dropping
graphite, sand/boron, gravel, lead composite, and con-
crete, the Mi-6s dropped a total of 250 tons of prefabricat-
ed 14-ton cubes, containing special filtering/ventilation
units to shut off the radiation emission.
Ground staff, clad in lead-lined suits, and teams of heli-
copter pilots carried out this elaborate plan. The cost was
high as everyone involved risked their lives by the delib-
erate exposure to the dangers of radiation. Many were
affected and one, Anatoly Grishchenko, died as a
result. But the reactor was capped, and the world
breathed a sigh of relief.
Most of this brave work was performed by the Soviet
Army's helicopters, flown by some of the top test pilots.
But Aeroflot played its part, supplying some observation
Mi-6 and Mi-8 helicopters, and Antonov An-24s for
inspection of the radiation-affected area.
taiga and tundra, with little surface communication, and
opportunities for airfield construction rare, such vertical lift
performance is priceless.
The Mil Mi-26
This development of the Mil Mi-6 also calls for superlafives.
The Lotarev D-136 turbine engines develop 1l,240shp, so as
to drive on eight-bladed rotor (the Mi-6 had five). This enables
the Mil Mi-26 to lift 20,000kg (20 tons). Inside the roomy fuse-
lage - the size of that of a Lockheed C-130 - is a gantry crane
able to carry two tons along the available space.
The Kamov Ka-32
While not aspiring to the dimensions of the mighty Mils,
Kamov did not allow the grass to grow under its rotor blades.
It produced, in the early 1980s, the Ka-32, a larger version of
the multi-purpose Ka-26, about the same size and of the same
capability and performance than the Mil Mi-8, but of the
Kamov traditional technology and design, and with the
advantage of two decades of developmental experience.
(Top) The supplementary control cabin of the giant Mil Mi-lO.
Rearward facing, the pilot has direct control of the helicopter, work-
ing in unison with the winch controller. (photos; R.E.G. Davies)
(Bottom) This picture of the Kamov Ka-32 (with another hovering
behind) illustrates the contrarotating rotorhead mechanism.
(V. Grebnev)
CCCP-0412
Mil Mi-6P
Mi-lOK
The dimensions and performance of these two large heli-
copters, together with those of the Mil Mi-26, are tabulated on
page 75. Their size is dramatically illustrated by comparison
with two well-known western fixed-wing aircraft on page 79.
(Right) This picture of the huge rotorhead of the Mil Mi-6, indicates
the extent of the engineering of this large helicopter.
(Far right) The enormous Mil V-12 used two sets ofMi-6 engines,
gearboxes and lifting rotors, mounted on stub wings. First flown in
July 1968, it never entered se/vice although it was extensively
demonstrated in Aeroflot titles (photos: Boris Vdovienko)
81
Seventy Years of Aviation Aid to Agriculture
I
Making the Case
Certain entomologists realized the possible applications of air-
craft as aids to agriculture very early in the history of powered
flight; B. Rosinski, as early as 1913; N. Yatsky, in 1919; and
N.N. Bogdanov-Katkov, in 1921. Also, in 1921, N.D. Fedotov
suggested the use of aircraft for crop-spraying with insecticide.
In 1922, a group of pilots presented a paper to the National
Colegium of Agriculture of the R.S.F.S.R., and with the help of
Professor V. F. Boldyrev, a special commission was formed to
study the subject and to carry out experiments. During the
summer, 32 experimental flights were made, in which 4.5
hectares were treated per flying hour, and these experiments
continued during the next two years.
The techniques were put to the test in 1925. Under P.A.
SViridyenko's direction, aircraft were sent to combat a plague
of locusts in the flood plains of the Kuma River, in the north-
ern Caucasus region, and during the next four years, similar
operations were carried out in Daghestan, Tadjikistan,
Kazakhstan, the Ukraine, and other districts in European
Russia; and even as far off as Lake Baikal. A total of 111,000
hectares was treated.
Getting Under Way
In 1930, the wholesale practical application of aviation to
agriculture began. An all-Soviet joint-stock company was
formed, with a fleet of eleven Polikarpov U-2 aircraft; and
60,000 hectares were worked during that year. In 1931, the
fleet had increased to 65 and the work in corresponding mea-
sure. Authority passed, in 1932, to Vsesoyuznyi Naychno-
Issledovatyelskiy Institut Selskokhozyastvennoy I
Lecnoy Aviatsiy (NIISKHA) (the All-Soviet Scientific
Research Institute for Farming and Forestry Aviation,
GROWTH OF CROP-DUSTING/SPRAYING
(MILLIONS OF HECTARES, 1940-1965)
Type of Work 1940 1951 1955 1960 1965 1980
Insecticide Spraying 0.90 3.00 6.29 13.70 26.84 54
for Agriculture
and forest
Weed spraying 002 015 1.50 9.69 20
Fertilization 0.01 093 310 4.10 16.76 31
Defoliation and 0.22 038 080 175 3
desiccation (forestry)
TOTAL 1.91 4.17 992 2010 5004 108
82
which set up branches in Chimkent, Krasnodar, and
Leningrad. Finally, in 1934, the responsibility for agriculture
aviation passed to the Civil Aviation Fleet Aeroflot), and
during the next few years activity grew until by 1940, almost
a million hectares were covered by agricultural aircraft.
Post-War Expansion
As shown in the table on this page, aircraft were deployed
widely after the end of the Second World War for agricultural
work. The workload increased from 4 to SO million hectares in
the IS years from 1951 to 1965. It doubled again during the
next 15 years, reaching a peak of 108 million hectares in
1980. Nevertheless, during the next five-Year Plan, 463 mil-
lion hectares were covered, or 40 percent of the total agricul-
tural work. Of this, about 40 percent was in Russia, 20 percent
in Kazakhstan, 18 percent in the Ukraine, and 15 percent in
North Caucasus.
,.....
King of the Crop Sprayers
During the summer months, upwards of 2,500 Antonov An-2s are engaged in crop-dusting and -spraying, and other agricultural work
throughout Russia and the former Soviet republics. This one is spraying cotton in Tadjikistan. (V. Grebnev)
Antanav An-2, preparing for a day's crop-spraying. (V. Grebnev) View of a typical landing strip, about 300 meters (1,000 feet) long,
in a collective farm district near Navgorod. (R.E.G. Davies)
Double Duty
To fly the crop-sprayers, hour after hour, day after day, is
demanding on the pilots, who must exercise strict control
and discipline, with no margin for error. The An-2s fly at an
altitude of three meters (10ft), and each crew makes between
30 and 50 per day, each flight lasting
and 15 minutes.
Seventy percent of Aeroflot captains start flying in agricul-
tural aviation, working their way up from the grass roots -
almost literally. Many an Ilyushin Il-86 or Il-62 captain will
look back on his agricultural apprenticeship with a certain
affection, which is also directed at the veteran biplane, the
Annachik, or, as it is sometimes called, by the name that it
inherited from the PoIikarpov U-2, the Kukuruzhnik.
Productivity
During the peak period of chemical spraying, more than
3,000 aircraft are put to use, although the number is declining
as ecological concerns have reduced the activity in some
areas. Ninety-five percent of the work is performed by the
Antonov An-2, Jor which, in this application, the much-
used word 'workhorse' is perfectly apt. The remainder, special-
ized work in small gardens, vineyards, and small fields, is
done by helicopters.
The productivity is impressive. In pollination work, for
example, the An-2s can cover 400 times as much area as by
manual applications; and for crop-spraying, the factors in at
least 600- fold.
Pilot's-eye view of a field being dusted with fertilizer, from the
cockpit of an Antonov An-2. (R.E.G. Davies)
83
IlYushin 11-76
50 TONS. 750km/h (470mph)
Soloviev D·30KP (4 x 12,OOOkg 5t, 26,4551b 5t) • MTOW 170,OOOkg (375,OOOlb) • Normal Range 3,650km (2,190mi)
The Second Big Freighter
The Antonov An-22 (see page 67) had captured the aviation world's attention during the mid-
1960s, with its impressive size and the ability to carry 80 tons of cargo. When the Ilyushin 11-76
made its maiden flight at Moscow's almost-downtown Khodinka airfield on 25 March 1971, it
did not attract quite as much publicity, possibly because it did not beat any records in sheer size.
Its all-up weight was about 44 tons less than the big Antonov's, but it was nevertheless just as
impressive, and appears to have been more popular with the operators, as far more 11-76s are to
be seen the length and breadth of Russia and the former Soviet republics than its larger rival.
The big freighter went into series production for civil use as the 11-76T in 1975, and deliveries
began to Aeroflot in 1976. Like the Antonov series of heavy lifters, the 11-76 had a pronounced
anhedral wing, and - also like the An-22 (and the Lockheed C-141) - it had superb short-field
and rough-field performance, thanks to the manner in which the total weight of the aircraft was
distributed among the multiple-wheeled landing gear. Sixteen main wheels are mounted in fuse-
lage pods, and are arranged in banks of tandem axles, four abreast on each side. The 11-76 can car-
ry 40 tons, but habitually carries loads of around 20 tons over ranges of about 7,000km (4,000mi),
i.e. nonstop from Moscow to Khabarovsk or Yakutsk. It can moreover make this performance to
and from airfields with runways about 1,700 meters (one mile) in length.
Universal Popularity
Such versatility makes it almost indispensable for long-range cargo operations, especially as its
24-meter (almost 80ft) -long cargo hold is more than 3m (10ft) high and wide. Every main traf-
fic center of Aeroflot, and especially the big air traffic centers in Siberia, enjoys regular air cargo
connections with all corners of the system, from Murmansk to Vladivostok; and it is especially
welcomed at Yakutsk, which is not served by rail, and where road and river traffic is burden-
some and restricted to a short season. Alonger range variant, the 11-76TD, went into production
in the early 1980s.
The Ilyushin 11-76'5 finest hour, however, was almost certainly when it made a flight to
Antarctica in 1986, and repeated the performance in 1987 and 1989. For this operation, it was
able to alight on packed snow and on slick ice, both challenges to airmanship and aircraft
integrity. These remarkable long-distance heavy-lift sorties are described on page 71.
84
Comparison with 11-86
LENGTH 47m (153ft) SPAN 50m (165ft)
An Ilyushin Il-76TD (SSSR-76478) with red fuselage trim and outer wing panels. (Paul Bannwarth)
Yakolev Yak-42
120 SEATS. 740km/h (400mph)
D
CCCP-42526
Lotarev D-36 (3 X 6,SOOkg st, 14,3301b st) • MTOW S6,SOOkg (124,S60Ib) • Normal Range 2,200km (1,320mi)
Early Promise
Soviet aircraft that traditionally attracted attention in the West, notably at such shop windows
as the Paris Air Show, did so because they were bigger or faster than had ever been seen before.
The Yakovlev Yak-42 was different. When it first flew on 7 March 1975 (as a 100-seater), and
when Aeroflot ordered 200 of the new trijet in June 1977, the world sat up and took notice;
because at last, it was suspected, the Soviet Union had produced an airliner that could compare
with equivalent western types, not only in performance, but also in operating. efficiency.
Although Aeroflot discussed the possibility of the 120-seat Yak-42 being a replacement for a
wide range of obsolescent types, from the Antonov An-24 to the Ilyushin 11-18, it was directed
mainly to supersede the Tupolev Tu-134 80-seat twin. Certainly, the figures look promising. The
l20-seat six-abreast Yak-42 was only five tons heavier than the four-abreast Tu-134, and was not
much bigger. It needed only two crew members, instead of the three or four of the Tupolev. It had
good short-field performance, could use rough airstrips, and had the additional features of built-in
airstairs and baggage racks on each side of the door entrances. It seemed to fit halfway between the
Tupolev Tu-134 twin and the Tupolev Tu-154 trijet, and a great future seemed assured.
The Pace Slackens
The Yakovlev Yak-42 entered service with Aeroflot in November 1980, on routes such as
Moscow-Kostroma and Leningrad-Helsinki. Later on, it was introduced as a back-up to the
heavy air corridor traffic to the Caucasus; and it operated to Prague, both from Kiev and Lvov.
The introduction of the Yak-42 was marred by many technical problems and, following an
in-flight structural failure of the tailplane, the type was withdrawn from service in the early
1980s. After more than 2,300 design changes, it re-entered Aeroflot service in the late 1980s and
quickly gained an impressive reputation for reliability, efficiency, and economy.
In 1990, the longer range l20-seat Yak-42D was introduced, and is probably one of the most
comfortable Russian-built aircraft in the Aeroflot fleet. By June 1992, 115 Yak-42s and SO Yak-
42Ds had been delivered to Aeroflot.
Comparison with 11-86
LENGTH 36m (119ft) SPAN 35m (115ft)
A Yak-42D (SSSR-42368). (Paul Duffy)
85
World Airline Status
Slow But Steady
For several decades, Aeroflot was not its own master; indeed,
under the Soviet system, it probably never was; but in later
years, as the Cold War thawed, it acquired more autonomy
and could influence the course of its own route expansion
and aircraft development. In the international arena, almost a
decade was to pass after the end of the Second World War
before an Aeroflot aircraft was seen in western Europe, when
an Ilyushin 11-12 resumed service to Stockholm in 1954.
Subsequently, progress to other continents was slow.
Back in the 1920s, Dobrolet had made connections to
Mongolia and Afghanistan, and experimental flights had been
made to China. Now, in 1955, as the Soviet Union formed a
close alliance with Mao's People's Republic, Aeroflot opened a
link with Peking (Beijing); and the next year resumed flights
to Kabul. More far-reaching tentacles reached out, with
Tupolev Tu-l04 service to India in 1958, to Jakarta in 1962,
and Tupolev Tu-114 service to Japan in 1967. Vietnam
PROGRESS TOWARDS A GLOBAL NETWORK
Continent or First Destination First Service Aircraft
Major Country Date Type
Western Europe Stockholm 11 Nov 1940 Li-2
China Peking (Beijing) 1Jan 1955 11-14
Southern Asia Delhi-Bombay 14 Aug 1958 Tu-l04
North Africa Cairo 5Dec 1958 Tu-l04
South Polar Region' Mirnyy 15 Dec 1961 11-18An-12
Southeast Asia Jakarta 31 Jan 1962 Tu-l04
West Africa Conakry 11 Sep 1962 1118
Caribbean Havana 7Jan 1963 Tu114
Middle East Damascus 23 May 1963 1118
Canada Montreal 4 Nov 1966 Tu-114
Japan Tokyo 19 Apr 1967 Tu-114
East Africa Mogadishu- 1Jan 1968 11-62
Dar es Salaam
U.SA (East Coastl New York 15Jul1968 11-62
Central Africa 8angui 1Nov 1969 11-62
South America Santiago 4Nov1972 11-62
North Polar Region Longyearbyen 11 Sep 1975 11-18
USA IWest CoastI San Francisco 19 May 1991 11-62M
, Occasional flights only
86
came on stream in 1970.
ext continent was Africa, with an Ilyushin 11-18 service
to Cairo in 1958; then to West Africa, to Guinea, in 1962.
During the period of the rise of African nationalism and the
collapse of colonialism, the Soviet Union was anxious to capi-
talize (if that is the right word) on the situation; and Aeroflot
was often the emissary, opening up links with Moscow
throughout the 1970s and 1980s.
To The New World
These routes in the Eastern Hemisphere had been undertaken
mainly with the Tupolev Tu-104 and the Ilyushin 11-18. Not
until the introduction of the big turboprop Tu-114 in 1961
did Aeroflot feel confident enough, and the Soviet Union feel
proud enough, to span the Atlantic. Service to Havana started
in 1963 and to Canada in 1966. When the Ilyushin 11-62
was ready, Aeroflot was able to claim some slots at New York's
Kennedy International Airport.
And just as it had made its first landfall in North America
in Fidel Castro's Cuba, so it repeated the pattern by opening
the first service to South America when Chile voted in a
Marxist government, and Aeroflot promptly began to fly to
Santiago, via Gander and Havana, in 1972. Eleven years later
it started service to Buenos Aires; and later on to Nicaragua,
where the left-wing Sandanistas had ousted the Somosas.
Political Ups and Downs
While in most parts of the world, politics did not interfere
with, although they sometimes helped, sometimes hindered,
Aeroflot's ambitions to forge a global network. The relation-
ship with the United States was so precariously balanced that
the smooth continuance of scheduled air service between New
York (and Washington, from 5 April 1974) and Moscow was
never assured. In December 1981, all pretense of tolerance was
thrown aside when martial law was declared in Poland, and
one of the knee-jerk reactions of the Reagan administration
was to terminate Aeroflot's service to the U.S.A. Less than two
years later, on 15 September, even the Aeroflot offices in the
U.S. were closed down after a Korean airliner had been shot
down by Soviet jets off the coast of Kamchatka.
Other countries had also imposed a ban after the 'Flight
007' incident, but in time the political climate eased and
Aeroflot continued to build its route system. Not until 29
April 1986, however, was Aeroflot able to resume service to
the States, after Presidents Reagan and Gorbachev had met in
Geneva in the fall of the previous year. By 7 December 1987,
when Mikhail made a state visit to Washington, the Ilyushin
Il-62M was not even remarked upon by the press. Aeroflot
was part of the scene.
Polar Specialist
Not all of Aeroflot's routes and services were politically moti-
vated or necessarily linked with political strategy. The same
could be said for the airlines of other nations, although it is
arguable that Aeroflot was, as a branch of the Soviet Civil Air
Administration, more directly the instrument of policy than
were some other flag carriers or 'chosen instruments'. The
pioneering of some routes, however, while haVing certain
political undertones, were just as much examples of the true
spirit of airline enterprise and development.
On 10 September 1975, for example, Aeroflot opened a
twice-monthly service to Longyearbyen, in Spitzbergen
(Svalbard), a Norwegian territory of the Arctic on which there
were two Soviet-operated coal mines. Questions were occa-
sionally raised as to why the U.S.S.R., with all its extensive
wealth of coal within its own borders, should need a couple
of mines in Spitzbergen. Such suspicions aside, it did give
Aeroflot, along with S.A.S., the privilege of operating to the
most northerly airport in the world open to the public.
At the other end of the globe, on the opposite polar axis,
Aeroflot was also active, haVing made its first flight to
Antarctica as early as 1961 (see pages 70-71). The Soviet
national air carrier thus carried the flag to every continent
except Australia, and operated both to the Arctic and the
Antarctic - though service to Mirnyy and Molodezhnaya was
not exactly frequent, roughly once or twice a year.
Round-The-World
Aeroflot was eventually to join the ranks of those airlines that
offered service completely around the world - or nearly
enough to qualify for that claim. On 19 May 1991, from its
well-established far eastern terminal of Khabarovsk, an
Ilyushin Il-62M started service to San Francisco, via
Anchorage. On 29 March 1992, this route was augmented by
a direct flight, also via Anchorage, from Moscow.
Pan American Airways used to be proud of its round-the-
world flights but Juan Trippe and his successors never did fill
the domestic gap across the U.S.A. until it purchased National
Airlines in 1978. The supreme irony was that, at the end of
the same year when Aeroflot achieved round-the-world status,
Pan American Airways, one of the world's great airlines,
closed its offices and terminated all its services.
AGlobal Network
15 Jun.73
EUROPEAN
ROUTES
MOSCOW
REGD
MINSK
INTERCONTINENTAL ROUTES
FROM MOSCOW, ST: PETERSBURG, KIEV
AND TRANS-BORDER ROUTES
FROM TASHKENT, ALMA ATA, KHABAROVSK,
IRKUTSK, AND YEREVAN
Lusaka
1977
Harare
25 Mar. 92
-Maputo
4Jul76
(Salvador)
Service discontinued
at points shown as •
Shannon


o
o .f" ?f'
Marseilles ".$' -i/" oQ.(j,
7 Jun.73 'v ,>'lJ!lJ
EUROPEAN l
FROM KIEV
MINSK,LVOV, BAKU.
AND KISHINEV ,) ,
Mexico City
9 JurJ" 19/7
San Francisco
12 May 1991
1
iii""

') Soviet airlines
1992 ROUTE NETWORK
(
. S1; Petersbur
Technlca I stops shown
in parentheses)
EUROPEAN
ROUTES
Lon9'1earbyen
10 Sep 75
FROM
ST. PETERSBURGMufiit"a
9
r\sl<
RIGA, TALLINN, 4 Nov 72
AND MURMANSK ST. PETERSBURG Sant..
14- Ap' /
Anchorage
f2 May9f
87
An 11-86 (SSSR-86119) being towed past five others at Moscow-Sheremetyevo. (Palll Duffy)
The First Soviet Airbus
Standard Overhead Racks
ILYUSHIN IL- 86
CARRY-ON BAGGAGE

Shannon then sold to other carriers, including, ironically, U.S.
military VIP flights. Soviet travelers also liked the duty-free
'shopping amenities, and Aeroflot and the airport authorities
in Russia invited the Irish to set up similar facilities in
Moscow and Leningrad. Ilyushin 11-86s began to call at
Shannon in the mid-1980s and Aeroflot became the airport's
biggest customer. In 1990, the Soviet airline began to take
advantage of liberal international regulations as the airline
world deregulated, and began to promote Ireland as a destina-
tion from the United States. Far from being a necessary evil,
Shannon has become an Aeroflot asset.
The II-86's cany-on baggage
arrangements are excellent.
Passengers can deposit their
'not wanted on voyage' items
on the 'left-luggage' shelves.
from London's Hyde Park or ew York's Central Park - or
even down Washington's Mall. Production was at Voronezh.
The first Aeroflot scheduled Ilyushin 11-86 service was in
December 1980, from Moscow to Alma Ata, capital of
Kazakhstan, and the destination city of the only Soviet super-
sonic airline service. Right from the start, the aircraft had nev-
er been promoted as a long-range airliner and it was com-
pared unfavorably with western wide-bodied types. But with
state-supplied fuel and with no competitive pressure, this was
not an issue for Aeroflot's operational requirements.
Virtue Out of Necessity
As time went on, with most of Aeroflot's transatlantic flights
of necessity stopping at Shannon, the spirit of free enterprise
and innovative minds generated opportunities for coopera-
tion between Aer Rianta, the Irish airport authority, and
Aeroflot, to their mutual advantage. Aeroflot set up its own
fuel 'farm' and thus avoided haVing to payout scarce hard
currency. Aeroflot paid for airport charges with fuel, which
WIDE-BODIED AIRLINERS COMPARED
Long Gestation
By the time the Soviet Aircraft industry got under way with its
first wide-bodied airliner, the Boeing 747 had already entered
service. News filtered through to the West during summer
1971 that the Ilyushin Design Bureau, with Genrikh
Novozhilov taking over from Sergei Ilyushin's design leader-
ship, was working on a four-engined wide-bodied airliner, with
podded engines on the wing. The 350-seat Ilyushin 11-86 had
two aisles, permitting eight- or nine-abreast seating, and like
most large Soviet aircraft, had a multiple-wheeled landing
gear, 14 altogether, with main wheels mounted on three tan-
dem-mounted pairs of four. The center one of the three was
mounted in the fuselage, like the long-range Douglas DC-lO's.
This was - again following Soviet design custom - intended
to provide soft-field, but not necessarily short-field perfor-
mance. When delivered, the 11-86 normally needed about
2,500m (8,000ft) of paved runway for airline service.
Five years elapsed before the first flight, on 22 December
1976, at Khodinka, only a few kilometers from Red Square.
This was almost like a new big jet making its maiden flight
First First Aircraft Dimensions-m(ft) Speed Seats
I
II1TOW Normal First No.
Flight Service Type
1
km/h kg Range Airline Built
Date Date Length Span (mph) (Ib) km(mi)
--
712
1
9Feb 22 Jan Boeing 70 60 B75 450 333.390 8.800 Pan
1969 1970 747-100 1231) (1961 (5401 (710.000) (5.5001 American
29 Apr 8Feb Boeing 70 64 875 470 394.630 11.000 Northwest 200'
1988 1989 747-400 (231) (2111 (540) (870.0001 (6.9001
29 Aug 5Aug MDD2 55 47 920 360 206.385 4.500

1970 1971 DC-l 0-1 0 (1811 (1551 (5751 1445.0001 12.8001 Airlines
10 Jan 20 Dec MOD 61 52 875 276 276.690 9.270 Finnair 50'
1990 1990 MD-ll (2011 (170) (540) (610.0001 (5.760)
16 Nov 15Apr lockheed 54 47 795
I
270 945,000 4.800 Eastern 200
3
1970 1972 TriStar 1 (178) (1551 (4951 (430,001 (3,0001
16 Oct 7May
lockheed I 50
I
50 780 240 231,330 6,935
British I
50
1978
I
1979 TriStar 500 (1641 (1641
I
(4851 (510,00011 (4,3001 Airways
28 Oct 23 May Airbus 54 45 875
I
265
1
171
,500
2,560 Air 375'
1972 1974 A300 (1771 (1471 (5401 (378,5351 (1,6001 France
3Apr 12Apr Airbus 47 44 875 230 I 164,000 5,100 lufthansa I 210'
1982 1983 A310 (1531 (1441 15401 1361,5601 (3,2001
22 Dec 26 Dec Ilyushin 60 48 900 350 208,000 2,500 Aeroflot 120'
1976 1980 11-86 (1951 11571 (5601 (458.5601 (1,5501

Notes: 7Includes all -100/-200/300s. 2 McDonnell Douglas. 3 includes all versions, 'production continues.
88
Ilyushin 11-86
350 SEATS. 900km/h (540mph)
~ A 3 P O
D
~ O T
Kuznetsov NK-86 (4 x 13,OOOkg st, 28,6601b st) • MTOW 208,OOOkg (458,560Ib) • Normal Range 2,500km (1,500mi)
Made For The Market
The Il-86 had some good features, apart from substantially improved cabin and galley furnish-
ings - even the seats were more comfortable than those that had served Aeroflot since time
immemorial. The passenger entrance was through doors in the fuselage lower level up self-con-
tained collapsible steps. Immediately on entering, passengers could take advantage of one of the
airliner's best features, and one that other manufacturers could well copy. This was a downstairs
luggage compartment, where all excess carry-on baggage - and Russians always travel with
excess - could be deposited, in a 'not-needed-on-voyage' aerial equivalent of shipping practice.
Incidentally, anticipating extremes of temperature at such destinations as Yakutsk, plastic wing
covers were made for the Il-86.
The critics of the Soviet aircraft industry concentrated on its wide-bodied candidate's lack of
range. It could not carry a full payload across the Atlantic, unless it stopped at Shannon and
Gander - a necessity that had been dispensed with as long ago as 1957, with the introduction
of the Bristol Britannia and the Douglas DC-7C. The critics should have put themselves in the
shoes of the Ilyushin market researcher. Not a single intercontinental long-range route required
the services of an airliner bigger than the Ilyushin Il-62M. The density of traffic on routes such
as Moscow-New York, or Moscow-Tokyo did not come close to that on routes such as London-
New York or Los Angeles-Tokyo, and could certainly not justify a 350-seat airliner. And Ilyushin
had no illusions about the slim chances of breaking into the world market against Boeing,
McDonnell Douglas, Lockheed, and Airbus.
Domestically, the requirement was quite different. Only two major cities in the far east,
Khabarovsk and Vladivostok, were far enough away from the big cities of European Russian and
Ukraine to demand an aircraft larger than the Il-62M. The main markets from Moscow,
Leningrad, and Kiev were to the Black Sea and Caucasian resorts, and to destinations such as
Novosibirsk, Tashkent, and Krasnoyarsk - within Il-86 range. Whatever the shortcomings of
the Ilyushin wide-bodied airliner for long ranges, it was just right for Aeroflot.
One of the best features of the Il-86 is the lower level baggage compartment, where passengers can stow
carry-on items that are not needed during the journey. (R.E.G. Davies)
LENGTH 60m (195ft) SPAN 48m (157ft)
89
World's Biggest
The Mostest
Sheer size has always fascinated people in all walks of life. The tallest building, the longest
bridge, the biggest ship, the highest mountain, the longest river; all these have excited a natural
curiosity, and though the world's natural wonders are unchanging, mankind has constantly
tried to build things bigger, even if they are not better. The Russians have shared this urge and
attempted, none too successfully, to build outsize aircraft during the 1930s. After the Second
World War, the banner for bigness was taken up by the Ukraine, whose Antonov Design Bureau
produced a fine series of large freighter aircraft.
The pictures and the diagrams on this and the following page tell their own story. Except for
its six-engined cousin (see below), the ADtODOV AD-124 RuslaD, tipping the scales at more
than 400 tons, is, by a comfortable margin - 55 tons - the world's largest aircraft to be pro-
duced in quantity.
Standard payload for the An-124 is 150 tons. On one occasion, it carried 171 tons to an alti-
tude of 10,750m (3S,260ft), or the normal cruising height of most long-range airliners-about
seven miles. To help load such weights, the freight hold is equipped with two overhead travel-
ing cranes, each one able to lift ten tons. Heavy duty floors, roller-tracks, and winches match
this capability, which, incidentally, makes the giant freighter virtually self-supporting.
The An-124 has an upward-hinging front loading door, and a rear-loading ventral door. Both
are equipped with heavy duty ramps, and the aircraft can be tilted to the fore or to the aft to
assist the loading procedures.
As Antonov built them bigger, it just added wheels to accommodate the heavy loads and
to maintain the low wheel loading for use on soft surfaces, including packed snow. The An-
124 has 24 wheels; five pairs mounted in tandem in fuselage pods on each side, and two twin
nose-gear wheels.
The Mriya
Exceeding the American Lockheed C-SA in all departments, the Ruslan was unchallenged in
the Guinness Book of Records throughout the 1980s - until the last month of 1988. An
even larger aircraft, a stretched-fuselage modification of the An-124 the AntoDoV AD-225
Mriya (Dream), with a larger wing to add two extra engines, was produced specifically to
carry the Soviet Space Shuttle Buran. The Ruslan had only been able to carry the huge SS20
missile (or the fuselage sections of almost any airliner). With Antonov's two giant machines,
the store of superlatives is almost exhausted. Fortunately for the world, the Cold War has
ended, the Arms Race is over, and the need for quantities of giant air freighters has declined.
Only one Mriya has been completed. However, this aircraft is of considerable general interest
and is included in this book if only to escape criticism for omitting it by applying too strictly
the qualifying definition.
(Top) On one special flight, on 6-7 May 1987, the Antonov An-124 circumnavigated the U.S.S.R., flying
a closed circuit distance of20,151km (l2,524mi)-slightly more than half1vay round the earth at the
equator; the flight took 25hr 30min.
(Center) Before 1991, all civil aircraft in the Soviet Union-and many non-civil-were required to
wear Aeroflot colors or did so under a 'flag of convenience'. Although many An-124s appeared in Aeroflot
colors, none was part of the airline's fleet. This Ruslan (SSSR-82008) is operated jointly by the manufac-
turer al/d UK clllgo airline AirFoyle. (Malcolm Nason)
(Bottom) The Antonov An-225 Mri)'a, world's biggest aircraft, canys the space shuttle Buran.
90
Antonov An-124 Record Flight
(Distance in Closed Circuit) 6-7 May1987
REG-D
Antonov An-124
150 TONS. 800km/h (500mph)
Lotarev D-18T (4 x 113,700kg st, 51,5901b st) • MTOW 405,OOOkg (892,900Ib) • Normal Range 4,500km (2,700mi)
Comparison with 11-86
LENGTH 70m (227ft) SPAN 73m (241ft)
Lockheed e-5A
THE HEAVY FREIGHTERS
First Aircraft Dimensions-m(ft) Speed Max Engines MTOW Normal No.
Flight Type km/h Payload No Type ehp (or (tons) Range Built
Date Length Span (mph) (tons) thrust) km(mi)
23 Aug Lockheed 34 40 480 23 4 Allison 4,500 70 2,500 2,000'
1954 C-130 (1131 (1331 (300) 501-D22A (1,500)
IL-l00)
27 Feb Antonov 58 64 600 88 4 Kuznetzov 15,000 250 5,000 55
1965 An-22 (1901 1211) (3801 NK-12MA 13,1251
30 Jun Lockheed 75 68 830 118 4 GE TF39 19,500 379 5,500 81
1968 C-5A (2481 (2291 (5151 (43,000) (3,400)
30 Nov 80eing 70 60 940 112 4 P&W 24,830 377 8,000 69
1971 747-200F 12311 (1961 15901 JT9D (54,750) (5,0001
26 Dec Antonov 69 73 865 150 4 Lotarev 23,450 405 4,500 45'
1982 An-124 12271 (2411 (537) D-18T 151,6001 12,8001
21 Dec Antonov 84 88 750 250 6 Lotarev 23,450 600 4,500 1
1988 An-225 (2761 1290) (4701 D-18T 151,600) 12,800)
Notes: Boeing 747-200Fmay also be powered with Rolls-Royce RB211 and Gf CF6 engines: An-22 production total does not
include prototypes. 'Production continues
747 (side door)
Lockheed C-130
Boeing
91
Into The Nineties
Metamorphosis
After Mikhail Gorbachev launched the policies of glasnost
and perestroika in the mid-1980s, the Soviet Union was never
the same again. The fires of communist revolutionary spirit,
long dampened, were extinguished as the smoldering embers
of independence broke into flames when Boris Yeltsin led
the final overthrow of communist power in 1991. In the capi-
tals of the autonomous republics, political and social instincts
combined to proclaim regional identities and to break away
from the perceived domination of centralized Moscow con-
trol. But in a country that stretched almost halfway around
the earth, complete balkanization would have led to chaos,
and recognizing practical and economic realities, eleven of
the states of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.)
were proclaimed the Commonwealth of Independent
States (CIS) on 22 December 1991.
Problems of Fragmentation
The three Baltic republics had already reclaimed their inde-
pendence. The remaining twelve states came to grips with the
challenge to replace a 70-year-old economic system. The 29
local regions (other than the four Moscow entities and the
three Baltics of Aeroflot) took steps to go their own way.
The sheer magnitude of sharing out some 11,000 aircraft
and more than 600,000 staff was an awesome prospect.
Nevertheless, aircraft, ground installations, airfields and air-
ports, navigational services, and personnel of the old A"eroflot
giant would be reidentified with the new regional airlines,
with the transfers amounting almost literally to no more than
the signing of documents. At the time of the publication of
this book, however, only a handful of aircraft have been paint-
ed in the new color schemes of the independent companies.
The New Aeroflot
Even before the creation of the CIS, the decision was made in
Moscow that the Aeroflot name should remain as that of the
official flag carrier of Russia's international air routes.
Effectively, it simply adopted the fleet of Sheremetyevo II,
Moscow's main international airport, formerly one of the 36
regional subdivisions. Of the 103 aircraft, 28 were long-range
Ilyushin 11-62s and 18 were Ilyushin Il-86 Airbuses
The new Russian International Airlines was no longer
inhibited by an obligation to operate only Soviet-built air-
craft, although Aeroflot Soviet Airlines remained as the legal
name until 23 July 1992. As described on page 93, it leased a
small fleet of Airbus A310s. A new era had begun.
92
Desiglled specifically for Arctic alld
Alltarctic operatiollS, the Antollov
An-N is .derived from the A11-72 light
transport. With a crew of five, it has
more fuel capacity, advanced avion-
ics, and provision for a wlleel/ski
landing gear.
Superficially similar to the I1-86, the
300-seat Ilyushin I1-96 long-range
wide-body is a new design. First flown
on 28 September 1988, it should enter
.Ie/vice with Aeroflot early in 1993.
Powered by four Soloviev PS-90A tll/-
bofmls, the stretched fuse/age 3S0-seat
I1-96M with Pratt & Whitney PW2037
ellgines is due to make its first flight in
March 1993. (photos: Paul Duffy)
Following two prototypes (the second,
SSSR-S4001, is illustrated), the first
production I1-114 turboprop made its
first fligilt at Tashkent on 7 August
1992. Designed as an An-24 replace-
mellt and first flowlI Oil 29 Marcil
1990, the 60-seat I1-114 was sched-
uled to ellter selvice with the Uzbeki
Civil Air Department (formerly a divi-
sioll ofAeroflot) by the end of 1992.
(photos: lean-Luc Altherr)
The twin-turbofan 200-seat Tu-204·
first flew on 2 /anuary 1989. Initial
versions have Soloviev PS-90ATs, a
Rolls-Royce RB211-S3SE4-powered
variant first flew on 14 August 1992.
Its sponsor, BRAVIA (British Russian
Aviation Co), expects CIS certification
(wittl CIS-built avionics) by the end of
1993 and international certification
with Western aviollics ill mid-199S.
• I I I I I
This color scheme was used during the latter
months of 1992 on the Airbus A31O. Selection of a
permanent insignia for the whole Aeroflot fleet has
yet to be decided.
• I I I I


I ; f
193 SEATS. 875km/h (540mph)
Airbus A310-300
Development History
The first truly European airliner project, the wide-bodied 250/280-seat Airbus A300B made its
maiden flight on 28 October 1972, and entered service with Air France in May 1974. After a
slow start, the order book began to fill up after the twin had proved its economic worth and
operational reliability. To compete effectively with US manufacturers, Airbus built up a family of
twin-jet derivatives of the A300B, each incorporating the most modern technology.
Launched in spring 1979, the 200/220-seat A3tO-200 (originally called A300BlO), designed for
short-to-medium-range routes, featured a two-crew digital or so-called 'glass cockpit' and an
advanced wing. A long-range version, the A31O-300, which incorporated an additional fuel tank
in the tailplane, made its first flight on 8 July 1985 and proved to be a popular choice with airlines
as ETOPS (Extended-range Twin-engine Operations), pioneered by Airbus, became commonplace.
Comparison with 11-86
LENGTH 47m (l53ft) SPAN 44m (l44ft)

•••••••••••••• , •••• 1
1
....

Aeroflot's First Western Jetliner
Although much improved over the original model, the Il-62M's long-range nonstop capability
was limited (see page 55) and Aeroflot turned to the West to solve the problem. In October
1989, it announced its intention to order five A31O-300s (plus five options) and confirmed its
plan on the follOWing January 24, with deliveries between ovember 1991 and June 1992.
Following guarantees by the Russian government to the French creditors, the first aircraft was
handed over on 2 July 1992.
FollOWing a period of crew familiarization (some pilots had already been trained in antiCipa-
tion of the lease arrangement), the A310 entered service with Aeroflot on 4 August 1992 on
European routes. Eleven days later it flew the inaugural service from Moscow to Hong Kong.
The five Aero(lot A31O-308s were originally painted at Toulouse with Aero(lot's blue-winged h(/il/lIIer-
and-sickle logo on the (orward (uselage as shown in this photo o( F-OCQR (the (ourth aircraft delivered
to Aero(lot). Be(ore lwndover to Aero(lot, a small Russian (lag was applied to the tip o( the rudder, but
the third aircraft (F-OCQQ Tchaikovski), illustrated in Mike Mac/wt's sideview above, adopted the new
double-eagle logo o(Aero(lot-Russian International Airlines. (photograph: Airbus Industrie)
93
I
Metamorphosis
REGD
Moscow Center
In·;:_>1 Russian Regions/Centers
1"-'.... 0 .. ::./ Other Republican Regions/Centers
o Moscow Airports (Regional Status)
AEROFLOT'S
Type Number Type Number
Mainline Jets Freighters
<'
Iyushin 11-62/62M 180 Antonov An-12 150
Ilyushin 11-86 90 Antonov An-26 450
TupolevTu-134 450 Antonov An-74 10
Tupolev Tu-154/154M 600 Ilyushin 11-18 20
Yakovlev Yak-42 150 Ilyushin 11-76 200
----
total 1,470 total 830
Feeder Jets
Yakovlev Yak-40 750
Feeder Pistons
Turboprops
Antonov An-2 3,000
Ilyushin 11-18 10
Helicopters
Feeder Turboprops
Kamov Ka-26/Ka-32 200
Mil Mi-2 1,000
Antonov An-24 750
Mil Mi-8/Mi17 2,000
Antonov An-28 50
Mil Mi-6/Mi-10/Mi-26 200
Let L410 650
total 3,400
total 1,450
TOTAL (derived from best estimatest 10,800-11,000
THE AEROFLOT FLEET 1991
Many Aeroflot fleet figures have been quoted, ranging from
"about 3,500" to "as many as 8,000". The following data have
been compiled from consultation with regional administrations.
THE NEW CIS AIRLINES
Independent Companies
Aerolicht (ALAK) Moscow-DME
Aerosher Express Moscow-SVD
Air Russia (Aeroflot/British Airways) Moscow-OME
Air Transport School... . Zhukovskiy
AJT Air/(Asian Joint Transport).. .. Moscow-VKO
ANTK (Tupolev Aviation Complexl Zhukovskiy
ASA (American St Petersburg Airiinesl St Petersburg
ASOA Moscow
Aveko Nikolaev
Avial Moscow-OME
Bosfor-V.. . Vladivostok
Elf Air.. . Zhukovskiy
Ecological Concern Rescue Service St Petersburg
Interfreight... Moscow
KMZ (Antonov Machine Works) Kiev
Liana Nikolaev
L11 (Gromov Flight Research Centrel Zhukovskiy
ORBI .Tblisi
PO Transport Aviation Moscow
Polair Moscow
Polet... . Omsk
1
Progress' Factory.. . Samara
Russia (Avia Rossi.. . Moscow
Saiakhat. .. Alma Ata
SGA.. . Moscow
SPA Aero... . Ekaterinburg
Sterkh... .. Mirnec
Soyuz... Moscow
Taiga-1.. .. Moscow
Ukrainian Air Leasing.. . Kiev
VolgaOniepr.. .. Ulyanovsk
Yak Air Service.. .. Moscow
Not all of the above were issued with operating-Jicences or had
started operations by the end of 7992.
State/Government Companies
(Former Aeroflot directorates are shown in bold type)
Aerollat - Russian International
Airlines (CUMVS).. .. Moscow-SVO
Aerovalga.. . Kazan
Air Ukraine Kiev
Archangelsk CAD Archangelsk
Armenian Airlines Yerevan
Azerbaijan Airlines (AZALI Baku
Baikalavia.. . .. Irkutsk
Bashkir Airlines.. . Ufa
Belarus CAD... .. Minsk
Domodedevo PO.. . Moscow-OME
Far Eastern Avia.. .. Khabarovsk
Georgian CAD.. .. . Tbilisi
Goniiga State Scientific
and Research Institute... . .. ...... Moscow-SVO
Independent United
Air Detachment.. . Moscow-VKO
Kazakh CAD Alma Ata
Kirghizi CAD.. . Bishkek
Komi Avia.....Syktyvkar
Krasnoyarskavia .. . Krasnoyarsk
Leningrad ACA.... .. St Petersburg
Magadan Avia .. .. Magadan
Mineralvodskoe PO.... .. Mineralnyevody
Moldavian CAD .. . Kishinev
Nerungri Sakha Corp.. . . Yakutsk
NPO PANKH.. . Krasnodar
Sibavia.. .. Novosibirsk
Southern Airlines.. .. .. Rostov-on-Don
Tadzhik CAD Oushanbe
Tatarstan Airlines Kazan
Tyumenavia Trans Tyumen
Transaero... . Moscow-SVO
Turkmenavia.. .. Ashkhabad

Urals CAD Ekaterinburg
Uzbeki CAD Tashkent
Vnukovo CAD Moscow-VKO
Yakutavia.. .. Yakutsk
Notes. ACk Association of Civif Aviation, CAD. Civif Air
Department, PANKH: Aerial Work Detachment, PO: Production
Association
DME = Domodeaevo
SVD = Sheremetyevo
VKD = Vnukovo
94
POPULATION OF CITIES
[I.... More than 5,000,000
D.· .. 2,000,000- 5,000,000
0 1,000,000 - 2,000,000
0 500.000- 1,000,000
Like No Other
Industrial Giant
In the early 1990s, the world witnessed the dissolution of a
political and industrial empire. In the production of many min-
eral and agricultural resources, it was among the world's lead-
ers. Though marked by a uniformity of design, Soviet manufac-
turing continuously revealed impressive statistics of volume
production. This demanded concentrated labor and equipment,
concentrated into big cities. In this respect, the Soviet Union
was no different from the United States, Europe, or Japan.
Urban Concentrations
By 1990, the U.S.S.R. had 52 cities with more than half a mil-
lion inhabitants each. About half of these had populations of
more than a million. Leningrad had five million, and
Moscow's eleven ranked it among the top half dozen conurba-
tions in the world. Thirty of the 52 are in Russia, a reminder
that the new regime is still a powerful force in the industrial
world. Nine are in Ukraine, which, of the breakaway
republics, alone has a balanced economy of world stature.
Of great significance to
Aeroflot is the geographi-
cal distribution of the Distance
urban concentrations. Of
the 52 big cities, only 15
are more than 2,000km
(1,250mi) and only three
are more than 4,000km
(2,500mi) from Moscow.
The domestic market for a
long-range Ilyushin 11-86 is
thus very small.
Conversely, only three
major cities are within
400km (250mi) of Moscow,
and only Gorki (Nizhni
Novgorod) has more than
one million people. It was
the destination for
Dobrolet's first service in
1923, but is hardly a natu-
ral air route in the jet age.
St Petersburg (Leningrad), is
connected to Moscow by a
good railway service, with
future high-speed rail
potential.
Aeroflot's Challenge and Achievement
Aeroflot, therefore, has always provided air
service on a bewildering permutation of
medium-haul routes that comprise the
majority of the city pairs. This accounts for
the preponderance of Tupolev Tu-154s
(see page opposite) which are deployed
mainly throughout an area roughly the size
of the U.S. (see map and page 62) and also
the bulk of the capacity on the trans-
Siberian and trans-Turkestan trunk arteries.
Equally praiseworthy, however, has been
Aeroflot's dedication in proViding countless
local services to thousands of otherwise iso-
lated communities. The ubiquitous
Antonov An-2, a humble piston-engined
biplane, made an outstanding contribution
to the welfare of the Soviet peoples, from
the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean.
U.S.S.R. V U.S.A.(x3)
SIZE COMPARISON
toOl>
D
D
()
l>
t>
a
REGD
95
Skctchn
SibCli,1 alld t!le For [(lSi, lw
LV. AllUllin Uniwrsity, 1990)
North bv Altunin
Magadan, 1976),
by Altunin (Eastern
Siberian Irl\utsl\,1981)
\\'aitiIlS liJI" Take-Olt" by V. Danilenko
(Khalmovsk l'ublishcrs,Khabilrovsl\, 1990)
OnT \'okutio bv LV. j\'laxill1ov
and Zyev (Yakutsk !\Jblisl1('rs, 1986)
Mosco\v,
Finne
and Von
Institution Press,
19N7, first publish('d in
1Y.W) ITH'als a
tile Il'\'a i\lurllllll'ts, the
aircraft.
Some English language IJooks haw
been published in the SO\'il't Union,
including:
OnT ti,e .l/die by I\likhaii V.
Vodopyanov (Foreign
Publishing House, \IOSCOII',
delightful ilccount of bush
.·\eronot in and
into the Arctic, the I'apanin
Polar Expedition, \\'hich
Vodupyanov was the Chief Pilot.
books have been published in
tile Union on all aspects of avia·
tion. These include (the titles haH' bcel1
translated for readers' con\'enience):
Tlic Firsl Flisllts Anass tile Arctic by
Georgy Baidukov (Dy('lskaya Lit('ratura,
Moscow, 1987)
Ci\'if Al'iation or tI,C U.S.S.R. (Chief
Editor: C.r. Bezborodov) (Ministrv of
Civil 1967)-
ill t!le U.s.S.R,
(Chid Boris Bugayev) (Air
I"ransport, Moscow, 19(7)
,jiranft COl/stru((iull ill I/Ii'
.'judd Two volumes, bv V.lI.
Shavrov (Machinostrovenie,
1986-1988) -
SOl'let .-lircraft COII.\trudOfS by A.N.
Gonoma ledate]stvo, 1990)
lI\'lIsllin bv G.V.
NO\:OZhilov) ,
Moscow, 1983 and
SOI'id T. b\' HOI\'arcl Moon
(Orion, N('I\" York, '19S9) allillvzes OIle
of the most COlltro\Trsial transport air-
nait produccd in the Soviet Union.
/(1I).lill/l LillrllJ('I"glJ by
Baiduko\', Edited b\' Von Hardl'st\
(Smithsonian Press, \\'ashington, D.C:,
1991; first published by I\lolodaya
Guardia, Mosco\\", 1975) is a tribute to
Valerv Chkalov.
ill IIli, Ardic by "1".,\. Taraconzio
(1\ki\lillan, New York. 1938) provides
an authoritatiw insight into the work
oi the U.S.S.R. in exploring and dewl-
oping th(' nort!1C'rn regions of Eurasia,
lJ\" land, sea, and air.
Uti' Oil Ille k(' no(' by I.V. I'ap:min (I.
)\lessll('r, NC'I\' York, 19391 is the diary of
thC' dramatic four-man \'isit to the :--Jarth
Pole in 1937.
1300l\s about I\eroflot, and even those
relating to Soviet aviation or air
transport, arC' difficult to obtain, none
of them having enjoyed wide
circulation. NOlablv, however, threc
wer(' published ab:ut tll"O dccades ago,
and deserve much commendation as
pioneer \\"orks:
BIBLIOGRAPHY
- Sol'iet Ail {wI/sport Silt(c
J923 Hugh \'!acDonald (Putnam,
London, 1975) assl'mblC'd everv detail
of Aeroflot that was practically iJOssible
at the time - wl1('n almost l'\'l'J"V
avenue of research was closed; .
Ru.\Siali ..-\ircmlt Siltce 1940 by JE'an
·\Iexander (I'utnam, London, 1975) is a
good complement to Stroud's ground-
breaking effort
More
VernikO\', YJ. 1., SI
Vick('rs VUO, S-I-, 5S
Vickers Viscount. -I-H
Vodopyanov, Mikhail,
Pionecrs rOllte to Sal\halin, 15, 2-1-
C/I('Il'mkill reSC\l(', 26
1\orih-Pol(' L\pec1itioll, 28·29
Surwy flight tn Ihe nmth, 35
Catalina, Far East. 36: c\rctic, 66
Vokov, r\. 1\ .. 7
VolkO\'ovnO\', 1\1. A" 18
r\. S., 12
Vostok, Antarctic Base, 70-71
H'iIlSS or tire S()\'ict" .. \NT·9 aircraft, 23
Yakovlc", A. S., Develops Yak--I-O, 60
Yakolev, Yak-40, 60-61
Yakolev, Yak-42, 85
First service, 20
Yatsky, 82
L 6-1
AndreI, 32
Zakavia, 16-17
ZhavaronkO\', S. F., 7
Zhul\ovsl\iy Acadellly, 12
Zhukovskiy, Nikolai E., 6, 12, 1-1-
Acquirl'd by C.V.F.. 22
Unshlicht. 1. S.. 7
U.S.S.R., forlllatiull of, 1-1-
SO\'i('t Im'"'I''''' ,"",nr
lohn Slroud
all that seasunC'u """Icc,,,,. ';00<'0"
22, ,H
airrraft, 19
nr, 12, 15, 16
/'rdl'dl/
/'!(l/ut"rii,
Sud CaravC'lle,
S\'iridyenko, P. 1\., 82
T,-\BSO,
rr\RO!'vt,39
I"i\RS (Romania), 39
Tkachev, I. F.. 7
Tomas!1evsky, "" E.. 18, 19
Trotsl\v, Leon, 11
rs.-\Cjl: 12, 18
I"umanskiy, A. K" 12
Tllpole\', Andrei Nikolayevich,
Deputy to 12
Farly \\"(Jrk with lH
.. \NT·9, 22-23; ANT-25, 32·33
l"u-1O-I-,H--I-5
Tllpolcv Tu-l04, 44·45
Tu-IO-iAm developments, -1-6
Compared with Com('t, Boeing 707, -1-6
Service to Asia, -17: to Toronto', SO
Rctirl'ment,88
Tupole\' Tu-114 Rossiya, 52-53
First fligtlt and sC']"\'ice,-i7
1"1Ipoiev Tu-124, 46-47
Tupolev Tu·134, 58-59
Tupolev TII-144, 64-65
Tnpole\' Tu-154, 62-63
Tupole\' Tu-204, 92
lutlov, 1\1. A., .. \rctic Ice Stations, 6S
Tyu1l1en r\viatrans, 77
U-1 and U-2 aircraft, 1-1-
Ukrailla (s('e '\nlonO\' ..\n·l0)
Ukrvozdllkhpul. I{outes, lS, 16-17
Savoia-Marchetti S.55 and (S.62), 25
Schmidt, Otto,
Heads G1avsC'vlllorput, 26
Organizes CI/c1,'IISkill rescue, 26
North-l'olC' Expedition, 28-29
Shannon Airport, RS
Shavrov Sh·2 amphibian,
Introduced,22
Far Fast fl'ec!('r route, 25
Sheslakov, CA., 19
Shcvclev, Mark,
Deputy to Otto Schmidt, 28-29
With Sergei lIyllshin, -i8: Arctic, 6N
Antarctic flights, 70
i\fikhail, 8-9
P.F.,7
28·29
aircraft: BoIs/wi Baltiski)',
lI'pl.\lI1IUII/CtZ, l'it)'lli'
Sikorsky, Igor, First
aircraft,8-9, 11
Visions of northern survev, 26
Sikorskv S-GB, 9 .
- M. :\., 21
(North Korea), 39
Solovov, M. A., 12
Sotllova, M. M.. 70
Sopwitll, 1 1/2 Strutter. 20
Spirin, Ivan, 2,s·29, 33
Spitzb('rgen, R6
Stal'2 aircrait, 22
Stalin, Josef,
Historic meeting, t"""'I','acfligl1ls,32
Remains in Moscow,
siege, 36
Slmoo.';""!',('/o;, r\NT--I- aircraft. 19
Russian Clipper (Martin 156), 25
c/,,,,,,, ,"',,,'S-9
H""ko·Ball:iski \'agoni Zd\'od (BVZj, 9
II.,
Rossi\'a (sec Tupo!e\' Tu-tl-l-)
Roun·d-thc.\Vorld s('n'iCl', ,s(l
Rudoli Island, 2H-29
!\.IISIIIIUI', i(e-IJreilkcr, 20
Ruslall (s('(' !\lltonO\' An-12-1-)
Nadenav, N. E.. 18
Nagursk)', Jan, 26
Nt\MCYS-1I,5
NIHil 011'('\, ANT-3 Ai-rcrait, 19
NlISKHA (farming, forestry, institute), 82
Nijnakovsky,2-1-
Northern Sea Route
Committee/Administration, 26
NovolalOf('vskaya, ,\ntarctic Base, 70-71
Osipov, B. c., 70
Pan American r\irwavs, :19, 4-1-, 86
I'aniokov, 13. YC'" 7 -
Papanin Expedition, 30-31
Papallin, Ivan,
North-Pole Expedition, 28-29
Perov, V. lVI., 68
PetC'nin, air Ill('chanic, 29-:10
l'etro\', L G., 68
l'etrov, V. M., 70
Pobezhimov, Grigory, 32
Polar Aviation (SCC A\'iaarktika)
Polar Stations in Arctic, 68-69
Polikarl'0v, N. N., First designs, 22
l'olikarpo\l R-l , 19
Polikarpo\l R-5,
Molokov flight. 26·27
Vodop)'ano\' flight, 35
Polikarpo" V-2 (Po-2)
First civil aircraft. 22
Far East, 25; Wartime, 36, -10
Post-war !\('roflot, 38
KlIklll"lli'llIlik,-I-O: Agricultural usc, H2
Polyakov, E. K., 18
Marlin 156, 25
MJszovlC't (Hungary). W
i\lazuruk, lI'ya, :'Jortll-I'ol(' , 29
-\rctic,68
Ivkzheraup, P. Kh., 19
Mikhey('\', Ivan, 2G
i\fill\fi-l
1\'liI's iirst helicoptC'r, 75
Comparison 79
Mil Mi-2, 75: Mctic, 68
Br\lvl Railroad, 76
Comparison 79
i\fill\fi-4,75;
Crimea, Bal\u, Mosco\\", 7-1-
Comparison, drawings. 79
Mil Mi-6, 80-81; Antarctic. 70
Comparison with Mi-8 etc., 7S
Con'lwi"",d""',,ngs, 79
Chl'rnob)'l,
Mill\fi-8, 77-78; Arctic, GH; t\ntarctic, 70
Comparison with Mi·2,dc., 75
BAM Railroad, 76
Comparison drawings, 79
Mil Mi- 10,80-81
Comparison with other Mil
hclicopters,75
Comparison drawings, 79
!'",fil V-12, 81
Mil Mi-26, 80·81
Work at ChernobyL 80
Mil, Ivlikhail, 74-75
Antarctic base, 70-71
First services, 20
So,"iet·SpO'lSOCet airline, 39
i'vlolodezhnaya, Antarctic Base, 70-71
Molokov, Vasily,
Director General. Aeroflot(C.V.F.), 7
Cllell'lIskill r('scue, 26
Circ;Jlar survev of Siberia, 27
North-Pole EXIJcdition, 29
Wartime appointll1C'nt, 3(}
MOl'ozov, air mechanic, 29-30
Moscow, Batlle of, 37
Moskalenko, P. 1'., 70
Moskm, DB·3B bOOl'b('r 3S
MaskYa (sec Jlvushin
l\fozhaisky, Aleksander E, 6
Mriya, (see Antonov .'\n·225)
MALElrf/MALEV,39
Maxirnova, Anna, 72
McDonnell Douglas MD-tl, 88
Hamiata, 3-1-35
Hand!l'\ 57
Iluphin's, 37
Kalinin aircraft: K-l, K-2, 16,21
Kalinin K--I-, 16,20-21
Kalinin K-5, 21
Starts trans-Siberian routc, 2-1-
Kalinin K-7, 21
Kalinin, K. A., 18, 21
Kalinin, V. V.. 18
Kalvits, Otto, 26
Kamov Ka-15, 78·79; Icc Station, 69
Kamov Ka·18, 78-79
Kamov Ka-25, 78-79
Kamov Ka-269, 78-79, NO
Kamov Ka-32, 78, NO
Kamov, Nikolai, 78
Nikolai,32
airfield,12
Kokkinaki, Vladimir, 35
KolklwZllik (Anlonov An-2), 42-43
Kopil6v, V, Ch., 19
Krenl\el, Ernst, 28·29
K"klll7lzllllik, (Polikarpov Po-2), 40
Larin, A. r\., 7
Lend-lease Program, 37
l.('I/il/, ice-breal\er, 69
Lenin, Vladimir, II, 12
Let L41O, 60-61
Levanevskiy, Sigismulld, 32-33
I.evchenko, Viktor, 32
Lisunov Li-2, 38·39; Far Eas\. 25
Route to Stockholm, 19-10, 3-1-
Wartime 36-37
Post-war
Polar Stations in
Lloyd group, 13
l.ockhecd 188 Electra,-I-I)
Lockhccd L-lOl1 TriStar, 88
Lockheed C-5A, 91
Lockheed 91
Logino\', Ye. 53
LOT (Poland),
Crulliv, B. I).. 70
Gunston, I"IiII. 31
IC\O,38
I1'ya Mummets, 8·]()
Ilyushin 11-12, :1H,-I-0
Ilyushin 11-14, (and 11-140), 41
Arctic, 68-69: ,\ntMctic, 70-71
lIvllshin 11-18 (19-1-7). 38
Ilyushin 11-18 (turboprop)
\'105\..:va, 48-49
First flight, -I-(l: Antarctica,-I-7
Compared with Britallnia, Electra, -1-9
r\rClic 68·69: Antarctic Flights, 70·7l
Ilyushin 11-62 (and 11-62M), 54-55
\'!ikhail Gorbachev's statc visit, 86
Ilyushin 11-76, 84: Arctic, 68
Antarctic, 71
Ilyushin 11-86, 88-89
Ilyushin 11-96, D('scription, 92
Ilyushin 11-114, 92
Ilyushin, Scrgei, 11-12, 3S: 11·18,48-49
Interflug,39
[apan Air Lines, (Tu-ll-1- service), 53
Junkcrs-F 13, (orJu 13). 14-15
Central Asia, 18; Crimea,Tashkent, 19
Yakutsk, Ulan Bator, 20: Sakhalin, 2-1-
Gla\'sevlllorput, 26
[unl\ers-Ju 52/,1m, 34, 36
lunl\ers-W 33, 20
lunkers, I'rof('ssor Hugo, 15
Junkers Luftverl\ehr Russland, 1S
IUSTA (Yugmla\'ia), 39
Faddayev, Piotr, 20
Federov, 2S·29
Fedotov, N.
Filin, i\. 1.,33
Fishing fleet survC'y, 38
Fokker LIII, 13
Fokker F27 Friendship, 57
Fokker F28, 59
Forestry patrol,:1
Fufaev, D. F., 19
Ekatov, r\. N., 1N
Escadra vozduzhnvkh korablie
ILV.K.), 10, 11: 12
Galislll'v, V. 20
Galkovsk\', 'Q
Glavsev'morpllt, Formation, 26-27
GlaV\'ozdvkhoilot, 12, 1-1-
"Glcnn 'Martin" (Martin 156). 25
Godoviko\', Nikolai, 32
Golovin, Pavel. 28-29
Gorbachev, l'",likhail, 11,86
Gordienko, !",Iikhail, :1.';
Gm",I, 8-9, to
Graz,dansiy Vozdllzhlliy Flot
(G.V.F.),22
Grishcl1enko, "\l1atoh', 80
GrollJov, Mikhail
Flics to Peking, IN
ANT-3 Prolatarii flight, 19
ANT-9 or till' flight, n
rest Trans-Polar flight, n
ClIelyllSkill rescuC', 26
Clll'rC'\'C'chnova, L 70
ChC'rIlobvl. 80
C/lCl'fO/ld'Ukmilla (Kalinil1 K--I-), 21
Chkalov, Valery, 32-33
Chul\hnovsky, S. G., 20, 26
r\ll-Russian (1917),12
Bureau oi (1917). 12
ConcordC', 65
ConsolidJted PBY-5A, Catalina, 36
Crop-Sprayers, First use, 1-1-, 38
Boeing 727, 63
I)m'ing 737, S9
Ilocing 747, KH, 91
BogdalHH'-KatI\O\', :--J, :--J.,K2
l}uld\Te\', Professor V. 1-"., K2
Ho/,;'wi Ralthkiy, ,s-9
Brest I.ilonl\, 11
Bristul Britannia, -1-9, .'d
liugaev, B. P., 7
Flllmll Space Shuttle, 90
I3.V.S. (Bulgaria), 39
])anilin, 32
De Comet, ·t-I---I-5, -1-6, 5-1-
De Havilland Trident, 63
Deruluft, First sC[\'icC's, 12-13
17: TC'rlllination, 22
Lui! Hansa, 13
DeutschC' Luft Hal1sa (Interilug), 39
Dobrolct, Formation, 14-15
First 18
Yaklltsl\,
servicC's,20
by t\('roflot, 22; Far East, 24
KOJ1l('l III, 16
Dornicr Mcrkur, 17
Dornier \Val. ServicC' to Yakubk, 20
Gl",',,,,'mocpul. 26
Moloko\' 27
Douglas
Douglas C-47 (DC-3)
\Vartimc role, 36-37
Post-war recowry, 38-39
Douglas DC-9, 59
Douglas DC-lO, NN
Douglas 20
Dy,'meh""ko, r\leksand('r, 20
U"',,eY"',;ky, floris, 2H-29
A. H. A. (Swedish airline). 34
Aerial mapping. 14
,\ero-Union, 13
Agricultural aviation (,l11d airuaftj
First USE', 1-1., 19.12, 3N; I-liston', 82
AK-l ilircrilft (I's'\cjI), IN, 19 .
AkkatllrO\', pilul with VudOpyilllO\',
21)-29
Airbus. 88
Airbus A31O, 92-93
Air i'vlongol.
AI('xandrm", V. L.. [I)
29
Amllndameaicecaft. 38
AlvlTORG, 36-:P
Amltlcllik ,\n-2J
ANT-2 I
ANT-3 aircraft. 18. 19.23 (table)
ANl-4 aircraft. First flight. 18
ShC'stakov flight, 19
Table, 23, Glavscvlllorput, 26
ANT-6 G-21. First flight. 22;
rable.
North-Pole,28-31
Glavsevmorpul, 26-27; Wartime, 36
ANT-? Table, 23
North-Pole Expedition. 26, 28-29.
ANT-9,22-23
rable. 23; Derulufl, 34
AlltolJoV AI1-2, 38; 42-43; :\retic, 68-69
Antarctic operations, 70-71
"Siberiilll School Bus," 72
rar East 73
Ceop spcayi"g 83
INDEX
Babusl1kin, \'likhail, 26. 2H-29
BAC One-Eleven, 59
Baidllkov, Georgy.
Director-General, ,\croflol
(G.V.L), 7. 38
rrans-l'oJar flight. 32-33
BAM (Bail\al-A1l1ur l\'lagistral)
Railroad, 76-77
Baranov, P. I., 7
Bilsscin, Flegont, air Illechanic, 29-30
Bclial\ov, Alebandl'r, 32-33
Bellingshausen, F. G. von, 70
Bl'Ilint, B. K., 19
Boeing 367-80, -1-5
Boeing 707, -1-6, 5-1-
ANT-ZO, Maxim
t\NT-20 bis (PS-124J,
ANT-2S, 32-33
Antci (Anthcusj (seE' Antonov I\n-22)
Antonov An-8, 50-51
Antonov An-H) Ukra ina, SO-51
Antonov An-12, 66
Compared to An-l 0, S1
,\relic. 68; Antarctic flights, 70
Antonov An-22, AnlhclIs. 66-67
COll1pzHison with 1\n-124. etc., 9\
AntOllov An-24 (An-Z6, 30. 32), 56-57
Arelic Icc Stations, 68
Anlollov An-74, 92; Arctic, 68
Antollov An-124, Rnslau, 90-91
Antonov An-225. Miriya, 90
AntOIlov, Olcg, Develops An-2, I\n-8, SO
,..1.rktikll, iccbrl'ah'r, 68
,\strakav, F. A. , 7
Aviaarktika (Polar Aviation),
b>ly pionereing, 26·27
Pol" hpedlitinn, 28·29
t\zdobroJet. 16
96
A3P
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ISBN 0-962-6483-1-0

AEROFLOT: AN AIRLINE AND ITS AIRCRAFT

An Illustrated History ofthe Worldls Largest Airline

OTHER BOOKS BY R.E.G. DAVIES
A History of the World's Airlines Airlines of the United States Since 1914 Airlines of Latin America Since 1919 Continental Airlines - the First Fifty Years Rebels and Reformers of the Airways Pan Am: An Airline and Its Aircraft Lufthansa: An Airline and Its Aircraft Delta: An Airline and Its Aircraft

G.AEROFLOT: AN AIRLINE AND ITS AIRCRAFT An Illustrated History ofthe Worldls Largest Airline By R.E. Davies Illustrated by Mike Machat PALADWR PRESS .

In dedicating this book to him. MD 20850. USA Manufactured in Hong Kong Designed by R. Patricia. He has researched. electronic or mechanical. integrity. Published by Paladwr Press. and meticulously edited countless books.E.O. P. including photocopy. John Stroud has devoted a lifetime of painstaking work to the cause of air transport. RockVille. and enthusiasm. without the written permission of the publisher. recording.- DEDICATION With the support of his dear wife.G.E. Box 1467P. Davies Artwork by Mike Machat Edited and Produced by John Wegg Typesetting/Layout by Fisher & Day. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means. Text and maps copyright © 1992 by R. many of which are of such renown that they are referred to simply as 'Stroud'. Davies Art illustrations copyright © 1992 by Mike Machat All rights reserved. written. I have been inspired by John's zeal.G. or any information storage and retrieval system. I hope also that I shall come up to his own exacting standards. San Francisco Prepress and Press Management by The Drawing Board ISBN 0-9626483-1-0 First Edition .

.22-23 24-25 A Social Service Ice Floe Air Service The Last Continent 68-69 ...............................................Ill Junkers-F 13 Deruluft Progress Showing the Flag Kalinin K-5 12-13 14-15 16-17 18-19 20-21 The First Big Air Freighter Tupolev Tu-144 64-65 The First Soviet Air Services Formation of Dobrolet Ukrvozdukhput and Zakavia Dobrolet's First Steps Dobrolet Spreads Its Wings Aeroflot's Early Years Air Freighter Development Arctic and Antarctic Activity Antonov An-22 66-67 Arctic Ice Stations Antarctica ANT-9 Flying Boats of the Far East.......42-43 The World's First Sustained Jet Service Technical Transformation Turboprop Workhorse A Mainliner from Kiev Long-Range Turboprop Tupolev Tu-104 Tupolev Tu-124 Ilyushin I1-18 Antonov An-lOA Tupolev Tu-114 44-45 46-47 ........................... 96 ............. 96 . 6-7 Prelude to Air Transport The First Multiengined Transport The Early Airlines I1'ya Muromets A Country in Chaos : 8-9 10-11 Long-Range Jet Short-Haul Turboprop Short-Haul Jet The Mini-Liners Standard Trijet The SST Ilyushin I1-62M Antonov An-24 Tupolev Tu-134 Yakolev Yak-40 and Let L41OUVP-E Tupolev Tu-154 54-55 56-57 58-59 60-61 62-63 Supersonic Diversion Fokker F.......................CONTENTS Introduction Prelude .................124 Airbus A31 0-300 Like No Other 84-85 86-87 88-89 90-91 92-9 3 94-95 ....................................... Aeroflot Turns to Douglas 34-35 36-37 Seventy Years of Aviation Aid to Agriculture The New Jet Age King of the Crop Sprayers 82-83 Post-War Struggle Piston-Engined Twilight Versatile Biplane The Jet Age Lisunov Li-2 Ilyushin I1-14 Antonov An-2 38-39 40-41 .................................................. ........70-71 Dobrolet becomes Aeroflot To The End of the Line Airline to the Arctic Siberian School Bus Opening Up the North The Arctic Experience ANT-6 A T-25 26-27 28-29 30-31 32-33 The Helicopters An-2s in the Far East 72-73 Aviaarktika The North Pole Life Support for A Polar Station The Great Polar Flights Aeroflot Expands Airline Helicopters "We Built a Railroad" Kamov Virtuosity Heavy Lifters Agriculture Mil Mi-2 Mil Mi-8 Sheer Versatility Mil Mi-6P and Mil-10K 74-75 76-77 78-79 80-81 A Nationwide Airline The Great Patriotic War Post-War Pistons Flights Long and Short.....48-49 50-51 52-53 Ilyushin I1-76 World Airline Status The First Soviet Airbus World's Biggest Into the Nineties Metamorphosis Index Bibliography Yakovlev Yak-42 A Global Network Ilyushin I1-86 Antonov An.....

and Deputy Chief Vladimir Bolovsky. I received generous help from many others. Chaplygin. television director of aviation documentaries and author of magazine articles on famous Soviet airmen. I must not forget the eminent British writers who have contributed so much to the annals of Soviet aviation history during times when information was most difficult to obtain. editor of Vozduzhny Transport. At Nikolayevsk-na-Amure. In Leningrad/St Petersburg. it was moving under its own power. the other of ten. as were the three four-bladed propellers. At Krasnoyarsk. he approached the Russian Techmcal Society with a request to demonstrate his apparatus. such as S. he traveled to England in 1880 to obtain. the War Ministry granted 3. I was hosted by the Academy of Civil Aviation. In Moscow. Nina Nekrasovich. gave me a personal insight into the workings of the old Aeroflot. Bob Ruffle. as was Nikolei Klimenko at Yeneseisk.U. also gave me much assistance. University.) from 1872. Some time in 1884. Mikhail Vasilev and others introduced me to the special problems of operations in Yakutia. who examined my credentials and first approved the book project. General Georgy Baidukov.T. His continued studies led to the publication of the law governing lift in 1906. Much of the Russian documentation was translated by Alex Kampf. I was able to sample the crop-spraying versatility of the remarkable Antonov An-2. Anatoli Golovanov. He flew kites and designed propellers. I was able to meet Genrikh Novozhilov. Yuri Popov. and on 23 March 1878 Mozhaisky outlined an ambitious 'large apparatus' able to lift a man. one of 20hp. Back in Moscow. Director of the Far Eastern Region of Aeroflot. K. and with the supervision of Vladimir Masenkov. and Sergei Agavilyan.'s own aerodynamics laboratory in 1910.A. Vladimir Sokolnikov and Peter Osharov were generous hosts. and Georgy Sheremetev. Aleksander Glushko. and the Academy's librarian.000 rubles for further tests. proof-read the text and gave valuable advice. Natella Safronova.l. By the end of the year. and M. afforded me the extraordinary privilege of making a helicopter pilgrimage to the dignified monument on Chkalov (formerly Udd) Island. once a senior flight attendant (she flew on the Tupolev Tu-114 to Havana and to Tokyo).Introduction Father of Russian Aviation The Constructor No book on Russian aviation is complete without reference to the inventor Aleksander Fedorovich Mozhaisky (1825-1890). Through the courtesy of Vladimir Skripnik. thanks to the Chief of the Sub-Region. founded Europe's first aerodynamic institute in 1904. an unknown pilot attempted to fly Mozhaisky's apparatus. The team consisted of Vadim Suvarov. local helicopter mechanic and historian. In Novgorod. an enthusiastic student of Aeroflot history. Professor of the Civil Aviation Institute in Moscow. General Director. 6 . Mozhaisky ordered more powerful engines from the Obukhovsky steelworks. Valery Dolmatov. He was launched down a sloping ramp. and during the next 20 years.S.R. Chernov. Leonid Nagorny. and. and Aleksander Domdukov and Evegeny Tarassov. Veteran pioneer pilot. Other Russian scientists and inventors. as well as the 353m2 (3. including a demonstration of the acrobatic prowess of the An-2. and Tatiana Vinogradova. Veteran author and authority John Stroud. but died before the work was completed. Oleg Borisov. with steel angle brackets. Irene Volkova. and technical specialist Bill Gunston have all produced pioneering works that have become standard references (see bibliography) for latterday writers such as myself. In Tyumen. Similarly. two small steam engines. veteran pilot of the Great Patriotic War. Yuri Salnikov. He began to study bird flight when aged 31. Aleksander Shakhnovich.S. Isiolkovsky. In Khabarovsk.800sq ft) square planform wing. Vladimir Lenuk. At Irkutsk. and Vladimir Kuznetzov. and Hemkiens. He died in 1921. He published many important monographs on aerodynamic theory. and analyses of propeller tip vortices in 191213. experimented with models. Zhukovskiy graduated at Moscow University in 1868. Vitaly Pinaev. at Yakutsk. towed by a team of three horses. the Father of Russian Aviation - The Scientist It was left to a notable scholar of the next generation to examine the scientific principles of flight and to publish analyses of his research. simultaneously at the Vozduzhny Transport correspondent. Together the team helped to ensure that errors in early drafts were corrected and accuracy ensured. who assembled a team to proVide data essential for the work. all made considerable contributions to aeronautical knowledge during the 1890s. Director Vladimir Illarionov and especially Mikhail Ponomarev opened my eyes to the helicopter capital of the world. Later. On 3 November 1981. who inspired the erection of the monument.V. I interviewed veteran Aeroflot pilots such as Constantin Sepulkin and Aleksander Vitkovsky.000 rubles.Ye. generously supplied pre-war fleet data and scrutinized the text. of Tupolev. Nikolai Yegorovich Zhnkovskiy (1847-1921) is recognized in Russia as the founder of modern aerodynamics and hydrodynamics. Nikolai Zhukovskiy was chosen to head the prestigious Central Aero-Hydrodynamics Institute (TsAGI). Tatiana Vinogradova. Son. stalwart of Air-Britain's Russian Aviation Research Group. he received a 'Privilege' to build his flying machine. In 1876 he himself flew in a large kite. were most helpful. Carl Bobrow and Harry Woodman provided expertise on the Il'ya Muromets and Paul Duffy's camera work and information bulletins on post-U.T. of the Ilyushin Design Bureau. I received great support from my good friend Yuri Salnikov. profiles of aerofoils and propellers in 1910-11. Vitaly Khalikov. The fuselage and the tail. and I met Vadim Romanuk. Baker. and covered with varnished silk fabric.V. Granted a further 2.U. Gleb Mahetkin. of Yakovlev. developments (not to mention his scoop in ascertaining the Lisunov Li-2 production total) have been invaluable. the center one of which was 8. Igor Katyrev. Parts were constructed at the Baltiisky factory at St Petersburg and assembled at the Krasny Selo military field. from R. taught at the Moscow Higher Technical School (M. On 31 January 1883. has been a catalyst for some thrilling research. In 1877. In 1918. He introduced me to Vladimir Samoroukov. and a first-hand account of the historic meeting with Josef Stalin in 1936. Vasily Karpy. Head of the Nikolayevsk station and also a deputy to the Russian Parliament in Moscow. and my gUide to the excellent museum there was Professor-Doctor Yvgeny Altunin. at least on the ground. Deputy Director Boris Kovchenkov was most hospitable.75m (28ft 7in) in diameter. and supervised the construction of his first wind tunnel in 1902. Deputy Director Anatoly Khvostovsky. and S. where Professor-Director Georgy Kryzhanovsky. photographer par excellence. from whose magnificent collection I was able to draw. and to aviation historians Ivan Nygenblya and Vladimir Pesterev. airline chronicler Klaus Vomhof. He continued teaching in Moscow. aviation historian and author from Irkutsk University. Valery Chkalov's right hand on his epic 1937 polar crossing. were built of wood. Acknowledgements The compilation of this book would not have been possible without the cordial cooperation of the International Commercial Depa~tment of Aeroflot. but such was his stature that TsAGI became known as the Zhukovskiy Institute. and Viktor Temichev arranged the programs of visits . I learned much about the airline's provincial operations. He also introduced me to Boris Vdovienko. from 1886. Boris Urenovsky. under the direction of Vladimir Tikhonov. Vasily Karpy. but failed to take to the air because of inadequate power.no easy task during often-congested traveling schedules. who succeeded Skripnik in 1991 (and whose 50th birthday party I shall long remember).

With the aircraft specifications. sometimes to argue . Larin 7 . has been and still is interpreted in English in several ways. feeder.Mike Machat. with the proclamation of the first Soviet Five Year Plan. Business travel no longer existed as there were no private businesses. but inevitably. Telling the story. I must record the great pleasure of working once again with the 'Old Firm' who produced the previous books in the series: Pan Am. A Tupolev Tu-114. a language with vowel and consonant sounds different from most others. In the Soviet Union. could fly 10.F. Everywhere. and Sverdlovsk. power lines. forestry. which. once again. but of which little was known. and meeting some of the people who have contributed to it. and construction. made a pilgrimage to the dignified monument to the Chkalov crew on the former Udd Island. and I have identified a host of different versions of the airline's logo. Paniokov A. in the equivalent of America's Greyhound Bus. listing did not preclude essential text.S. therefore. to meet its pilots. I began to feel the pulse of Aeroflot. To consult. Instead. Welcomed everywhere with courtesy and enthusiasm.. relevance. Dozens of lettering styles were used for the word AEROFLOT. Baranov 1957-59 I. although senior officials usually received preferential treatment. and to organize . The Law states (as some readers will know) that for any single type of airliner.I exclude the feeder types.F.N. to be contemporarily correct. But the people's airbus service.I. I co'htinued the mission. and only filtered down to economy-class and group travel levels in later years. . and Delta Air Lines.Author This book started a long time ago. when Mikhail Gorbachev drew aside the curtain. Kuibyshev. counterpart) the Soviet flag remained constant.000km (6. and railroads. public utilities. Dobriolot. Baidukov 1991-92 S. and the generally accepted Dobrolet. Piazza of The Drawing Board. I made the decision to begin this book. and several major cities. but its mission began in 1930. and to visit the museums of the great design bureaux. with fares set low. As Aeroflot grew. flew in the Antonov An-2 and An-24. Producer/Editor This book is designed according to the successful formula set by its predecessor volumes on Pan American World Airways. for example. not for meals and amenities. but could not do so with a full payload. and even in the decades that followed. whose color schemes are legion . it was politically undesirable. Dobrolyot.E. The International Department responded admirably.G. Lufthansa. did some simulated cropdusting at Novgorod.S. to selected tourist destinations. we have been conscious of the dangers of misrepresenting performance by associating. I made a whistle-stop tour of Siberia (by this time the Soviet Union had become the CIS) and gained first-hand knowledge of the array of different roles played by Aeroflot. fishing patrol. it was impossible to attempt to include individual air· craft details as in the previous volumes-even if they were available. . Profit-making was irrelevant. but normality correctly expressed. I was privileged to sit at the desks of the late Andrei Tupolev and Sergei IlYUShin. and Delta. pipelines. Molokov 1987-90 FA Astakhov 1990-91 G. respectively) even while this book was being written. and. and rounded off a round-the-world trip (all on Aeroflot) by visiting old friends in Khabarovsk. The computerized layout of the text and final design according to Ron Davies's original plan was fashioned and polished by Kimberley Fisher.F. Spelling presented real difficulties. and totally fulfilling experience. has been an exciting and stimulating exercise. I have used the Ilyushin I1-86. drawings. An almost impenetrable curtain shrouded all but a trickle of information from Moscow. Aeroflot's largest wide-bodied aircraft. and bush services of the vast domestic network. We have done our best to be consistent. charged the airline with proViding an air service for all the people.000mi). Such a true People's Airline. for politicians and peasants alike. has been alien to the minds of many western commentatorS. for example. Unshlikht 1959-70 I. Loginov B. where used. an opportunity seemed at last to be in sight. I visited the Far Eastern Division. The term normal. to plan. changed back to their pre-Revolution names (St Petersburg. I was fascinated by the Soviet airline that seemed to be performing an enormous task. Travel was severely restricted. and asked to see the workings of the secondary. Leningrad. and in return it performed a public service for the State. Every region of Aeroflot has its historians. did it need to cope with first-class cabin standards. mainly during the past three decades. however. roughly comparable with the McDonnell Douglas DC-10. in agriculture. In the size comparisons. the maximum range with maximum passenger and/or cargo load. of Fisher & Day. -John Wegg. The People's Airline Aeroflot traces its direct ancestry back to 1923. First-class service was therefore not required. no two individual aircraft are painted exactly the same. with very high fares. to review. in the text. Volkov B. In 1990. In 1991. especially in oilfields. when I was researching material for my HistOlY of the World's Airlines. airport facilities. or other tabular data. Shigarev Ye.A. ambulance and emergency work.P. Transliteration from the Russian. and selected post-war types where the Aeroflot Director-Generals 1930-33 1933-35 1935-38 1938-42 1942-47 1947-49 1949-57 B. Lufthansa. On the return to the U.and yes. With a current fleet alone in the region of 11. Some place names have changed according to political decree. among other objectives. We have attempted. and Ekaterinberg. Machat's Law has been a constant and often unwelcome companion. the reverse was the case. Returning to Moscow. and Paladwr Press is much indebted to her and Brian Day for their enthusiastic support and professional advice. which latter. some problems arose. In 1988. and ground services from the State. Indeed. and the maps. In the West. In recent years.F. the tables. Printing. In the late 1950s. Aeroflot's enormous fleet of front-line aircraft . Aeroflot's predecessor airline has been spelled Dobroliot. because it omits the y sound. it was able to offer extremely cheap travel to tens of millions of Soviet people. its managers. (if at times strenuous). justly proud of their heritage. when Soviet aircraft design bureaux seemed to delight in individualism. Finally. Zhavaronkov P. is not a retreat to a broad generalization. Only when the airline expanded its horizons into the western world. I made the first reconnaissance to Moscow.have carried more or less standardized markings. air travel was at first the privilege of the rich. I visited the Leningrad Aviation Academy. fuel. with passengers paying only for the transport. and just as affordable for the ordinary citizen. Artist As with previous books in this series. But this was not the case in years gone by. Davies. for example. and to realize that this huge airline was as dedicated to its task as any other airline of world stature. is misleading. or an urban subway system. and balance have been set. was accomplished under the professional direction of Scott .000 aircraft.with my good friends artist Mike Machat and producer/editor John Wegg has been a rewarding. In 1992. an obligation as essential as public housing.S. Tkachev 1970-87 V.S. in a Mil Mi-2. and I once again approached the Soviet Embassy for permission to visit Aeroflot. I enjoyed visits to museums. and its staff. Aeroflot received its aircraft.R. Samara. The same standards of accuracy. Fortunately (and unlike its U. Aeroflot has done its job superbly.Ye. photographs. and very few carry their original paint scheme for the whole of their lives. in fact.F. my appetite was whetted for more. emphasis has been placed on the pre-war non-Soviet aircraft. Bugaev A. was scanty and sporadic.

The Myth While reports of these events were published. German. By February 1914. the extra engines were moved to line abreast along the wing.00 a. it stayed aloft for 61 hours. the I1'ya Muromets. it was inspected by Tsar Nicholas II. First flown in that form on 23 July (Julian). so that the Il'ya Muromets was well known in Russia. they returned to St Petersburg. came off the 'production line'. and gave a good account of themselves. The aircraft was even regarded as something of a freak.200kg (9. with six passenThe cabin of the II'ya Muromets was as comfortable as those of many a post-World War I passenger aircraft. Sikorsky was the son of a professor at the Imperial University of St Vladimir.add 13 days to convert to the modern. in June. with a crew of three as well as Sikorsky in command. It was adequately furnished. as many liked to think. on demonstrations and test flights over the city of St Petersburg. from Korpusnoi airfield.800m (6. Re-designed.for the time .600Ib) at 80km/h (SOmph). The Sikorsky aircraft were put into production. Built of wood and fabric by skilled carpenters. Shidlovsky was impressed. and featured electric lighting and a toilet in the rear. and with two extra engines fitted in tandem. early in 1912. at Orsha. engulfed in the demands of the Great War. and while designers in other countries were still dabbling with single-engined light aircraft. But a month later. While the French.060km (660mi) in only 13 hours.240Ib) and carry a load of 700kg (1. then in its embryo stage and. During that summer. and British aircraft manufacturers. Igor Sikorsky. the four-engined giant was able to carry 11 tons .000ft). Sikorsky advocated more than one engine because of the notorious unreliability of power plants at that time. Gregorian. records indicate that at least 80 aircraft. He quickly embraced the science of aeronautics. Taking off at 1. to refuel.same as western calendar from 1 January 1918) the Sikorsky Le Grand made its maiden flight at the Komendantsky airfield. (photo: United Tecbnologies) Petersburg to Kiev. <:> St Petersburg THE EPIC FLIGHT OF THE II'yo Muromets 30 June-12 Ju~ 1914 . flew from St The famous picture of the II'ya Muromets .flying low over the airfield at St Petersburg in 1913 or 1914. Because of its . an altitude already achieved by the summer.Prelude to Air Transport Igor Sikorsky . Development of a Magnificent Machine On IS March 1913 (Julian calendar . but it deserves an heroic place in the reality of aviation's Hall of Fame. first flew in October 1913 (Julian). was able to propose the idea of a multi-engined aircraft to Mikhail Shidlovsky. Sikorsky forged ahead. the Il'ya Muromets. in acceptable comfort. however.m. On 30 June of that year. On 12 July. and was fortunate in being able to study at Kiev Polytechnic Institute and also in Paris. with four tractor engines mounted in line along the wings. Any doubts about its performance. Less than ten years after the historic flight of the Wright brothers on 17 December 1903.probably the Russian Knight prototype . were quickly dispelled. and Russia was swept into the Great War. to be used for reconnaissance and for bombing. and it was again renamed the Russkiy vityaz (Russian Knight). calendar . only one or two were thought to have been built. or little credit given to. with only one stop. Sikorsky built a multi-engined giant that began to carry respectable loads of passengers. and possibly more. (photo: United Technologies) gel's aboard. Far from being a transitory experiment. the I1'ya Muromets was the greatest advance in aircraft technology since the Wrights. little notice was taken of. and that they were unsuccessful.Aviation Genius For many years during the early development of the commercial airliner.' Orsha 8 . the Lights Went Out in Europe. it would eventually weigh 4. it was soon called the Bolshoi Baltiskiy (Great Baltic).at that time more than any other aircraft's total weight. the western European countries seemed not to believe the bulletins. and continuously improved the breed. the crew arrived triumphantly at Kiev in the early afternoon of the next day.awesome size. and authorized construction of the world's first four-engined aircraft on 30 August 1912. this time covering the 1. the remarkable achievements of the Russian designer. The Il'ya Muromets was named after a legendary Russian folk hero. The Great Flight The pictures taken of the Il'ya Muromets in 1914 necessarily show the aircraft at low altitude. paid little attention to the obvious potential of the multi-engined aircraft so ably demonstrated in St Petersburg. because few other aircraft could position themselves to match the Sikorsky giant at 1. Born in Kiev in 1889. chairman of the Russo-Baltic Wagon Company at St Petersburg.

a table. during a competition for military airplanes. built up an extensive rail network.2601b). built. electric lights. Fortunately. Le Grand Early in 1912. and then. On 17 September 1912. but now the capital of Latvia . and on 2 August set a world record by carrying seven passengers for Ihr 54min. Sixteen ieuport IV wheels. The most remarkable feature was the cabin. Mikhail V. braced with piano wire and additional pine tie-rods. and ahead of foreign rivals by at least two years. The Big Baltic The twin-engined aircraft made its first flight on 15 March 1913 Gulian) (see oppOSite page). from 1891 to 1904. The engine made a direct hit on the Russkiy vityaz which was. Sikorsky had. after earlier experimental types. as the familiar phrase has it. curtained windows. building French aircraft. a type favored by Sikorsky until the Great War cut off supplies. 9 . including foreign entries. covered with a skin of 4mm (0. mainly those designed by Roger Sommer. Shidlovsky. The Riga works also turned out farm machinery and tramcars. he persuaded Shidlovsky (who. the R-BVZ started to build motor cars. producing the Russobalts. Its fuselage was Comparison with 11-86 LENGTH 20m (66ft) SPAN 28m (92ft) made of four main ash longerons. mounted in tandem. was built by master carpenters. Igor Sikorsky became the chief designer of R-BVZ's aircraft works in St Petersburg.11'~a Muromets The pioneer of all ll1ulti-engined aircraft. which featured wicker armchairs. framed by transverse and vertical members of pinewood. It was a company of considerable stature in the Russian industrial world. in eight pairs were used for the landing gear. it was parked at Korpusnoi when. it widened its horizons further by forming an aeronautical division. the 6 SEATS. in line abreast rather than in tandem. and this became the basic design for all subsequent versions of the big aircraft.200kg (9. 80km/h (SOmph) first I1'ya Muromcts. He was not yet 23 years old. persuaded the R-BVZ board and the Russian Army) to allow him to build a twin-engined version of the S-6B. which was to become Le Grand. The flight lasted 20 minutes and Sikorsky was carried shoulder-high in triumph by the awaiting crowd that had assembled. the prototype came to an unusual end. during the nineteenth century. and even a toilet in the rear. with two extra engines. Normal Range 170km (lOSmi) The Russo-Baltic Works In 1838. the Russo-Baltic Wagon Works. Argus (4 X lOOhp). On 14 March he established a record by carrying four passengers at a speed of 106km/(65mph). and on the advice of Baron General Kaulbars.the Russko-Baltiski Vagoni zavod (R-BVZ). this time as the Russkiy vityaz (Russian Knight) it first flew on 23 July 1913. On 11 September. His attention was drawn to the creative talents of a young man from Kiev. in Riga under Tsarist Russia. The doped fabric-covered wings had the high aspect ration of 12-1. in the area known as Courland. Again renamed. mainly in Europe. glass paneled doors between the cabin and thecockpit. but extending. Igor Sikorsky was already building its successor. It became the largest builder of railroad cars in Russia which. Such progressive fleXibility was inspired by the remarkable general director of R-BVZ. and renamed the Bolshoi Baltiskiy (Big Baltic) it made an impressive demonstration on 13 May 1913 at the Korpusnoi military airfield. damaged beyond repair. some of which were purchased by the Tsar. powered by a 100hp German Argus engine. The S-6B then won a competition against seven other aircraft. but Sikorsky decided to eliminate the ever-present danger of disaster through engine failure. was founded. In 1905. simply by haVing more than one.15in) Kostovich Arborit. MTOW 4. in turn. who decided to move the aeronautical division to St Petersburg in 1912. a Russian patented plywood. flown by a Polish pilot. In 1910. to occupy some old factory buildings on the north bank of the eva River. the S-6B biplane. the engine fel! off a Mellor tail boom pusher type aircraft. with the help of friends from the Kiev Polytechnic. The next step was to rearrange the engines. This aircraft. to the Pacific Ocean via the Trans-Siberian Railway.

. where Russia was engaged in a lifeor-death struggle with the Central Powers. to perform flying duties on the Eastern Front. until 19921 220 8 EIYe·1 ) EIYe-2) 19161918 Aenault 220 Largest and most advanced of all the II'ya Muromets types. By 1915.. and the excellent visibility of the cabin.000ft. British Sunbeams. with bomb loads of up to and even exceeding 680kg (1.V. Hall·Scott. Mikhail Shidlovsky. Type 2 4 4 Argus Argus Argus H. gravity-feed fuel tanks. The E. with 4 engines paired in tandem Same aircraft. and in December 1914 he was instructed to create the Escadra vozduzhnykh karablei (E.300m (ll.). with larger wing Crew of six. 54 minutes Also flown as floatplane. because engines were unavailable.. 24 Bigger load. used only for training. Argus.-- The First Multi-engined Transport SIKORSKY MULTI-ENGINED AIRCRAFT. 2 engines Same aircraft. with special modifications and aerodynamic improvements. he demonstrated Il'ya Muromets performance by climbing to 2. and in Galicia. with increased bomb load and as many as 8 machine guns. Center rudder removed to install tail gun Advanced military version. and other types. or the Squadron of Flying Ships. on 25 July. Name (if any) Date of First Flight I Engines No. ~~. TOTAL. with 2xl15hp Argus + 2x200 Salmson engines Made the epic long distance flight. 1913-17 Aircraft Variant Type - PRODUCTION BY TYPE Remarks No. On 24 January 1915. with Igor Sikorsky and crew of three. On 1 August Germany declared war on Russia. .P. St. the Stavka. convinced the Russian High Command. Aenault. with detachable wings." ~.V. "Kievsky II" was squadron name Production version of Type B(Veh) Smaller and lighter model. Built Ploughshares into Swords Just before the first !I'ya Muromets made its historic round-trip from St Petersburg to Kiev (page 8). attained a One G2 with height of 17.V. and then climbing to 3. respectively) 1916 1915 4 4 150 150 ) 13 1 G1 G2 1915 1916 I 2 2 Aenault A-BVZ various: ABVZ. Petersburg-Kiev (750 miles!. the home-built RBVZs.OOOft). and back. A few sub-assemblies were never put together."II~ .K.500m (8. Oil. on 28 June the Austrian Archduke Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo and Austria declared war on 'Serbia a month later. Sikorsky's plans for his fine machine came to an end.Moscow·Nizhne Novgorod (later Gorky.K. had only two engines Military version. Aenault 220 150 G3 G4 1917 1917 ) 4 4 I Production version of Gseries '''"'"''00Beardmore engines. All information based on original research and detailed data compiled by Carl J. at least for commercial purposes. Crew of eight. Grand: Bolshoi { March Baltiskiy 1913 (Great Balticl April 1913 Grand: Russkiy vityazl Russian KnigM July 1913 - Il'ya Muromets Kievsky (proto· type military conversion) October 1913 Spring 1914 4 Argus Argus Argus Argus or Salmson Argus Argus 100 100 125 140 140 140 125 150 150 I 1 1 1 5 1 36 The E.K. 30 June 1914 Five aircraft adapted for military use. near Warsaw. Amid frantic mobilization for war. First 2 had engines in tandem Improved version of 01. for ease of rail transport 3 rudders. carried out bombing missions. that it had military applications. at a time when the cry should have been "send us more Sikorskys. and had already suffered a massive defeat at the Battle of Tannenburg at the end of August 1914. more defensive power Used in 1921 for first commercial air route in Soviet Union. with 4 engines on leading edge. Sikorsky then began to install different engines: French Renaults."". Bobrow and Harry Woodman 91 This picture of the Il'ya Muromets shows the engine mountings. the first units were deployed at Jablonna.500Ib). ail multi-engined types The numbers built include all airframes constructed Some of these never flew..000ft) in 49 minutes. Some. (photo: United Technologies) 10 . to support Serbia. yet the reception by the front-line commanders was lukewarm. which had decided. Set a world record by carrying 7 passengers for 1hour. ea." A I 2 2 4 4 2 2 4 4 B(Behl BIVeh) (Series production of military conversion) Kievsky II Imilitary versionI' 1914 B(Veh) 01 DIM (IM= Il'ya Murometsl 1914 1915 I Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam Sunbeam 02 B(Vehl Modified as prototype for the Gseries Familiarly known as "Aussovalts" or "Aenobalts" according to the engine type used IA-BVZ or Aenault.. The Russo-Baltic Works chairman. But the ability of the !I'ya Muromets to carry heavy loads over long distances was noted by many military minds. 1100 100 100 Original prototype.

one.A... 1>1'~.~. and the Peace of Riga on 18 March 1921 ended the war with Poland... '~'" 1f>\ . and Poland.. both on land and in the Black Sea..3Nay t918 .:JKu. S'tatUte Miles'.~¥. under the leadership of Admiral Kolchak.on map'. 'peace at any price'. .. the Red Army s TRANSCAUeASL.. During the next year. ~I DecJ9J7\11~:-r. Slar 7 Dates of PeaceTreaties):·/·. \'. a contingent of British troops had landed at Murmansk.:· .'. I:Baku.-.' 1 J II .qW~~\\\ / ... arriving in New York on 30 March 1919. ~~~.f Forces~~~n..)'''\ ).c. e1920 \ arkovO Genera~"'71.MiJNIl?iffsR~AIJ~tf::.A Country In Chaos o ./-2c eglO "...' '. like thousands of other educated technicians and scholars... ~White"/Entente . The White forces under General Wrangel evacuated southern Russia. were sent to the western and southern fronts.ense. ".~ ..~.~. By the time the infrastructure of armaments. ."''. counter-attacked in the east on 28 April 1919..-'11=-/l /11 ~ (' j '.. !.~\..E. By 6 September. ..\0.:aptured 2. the Bolshevik. independent republics were formed (see map)..'" ':'5 ' · . •. 1/1 (C" h L ..~\\\ \.' . ~\'~i)~ ~ ~ ~ \.~.:-. But the tide turned. Of several political parties. :d~~eral .: ---:'. ich~.'.s):J.. . !! .::. >:>i. I. . :.~.~.'.l._~}jol{QIII_..::::r.\R'..·:." ( III Gener~1~.. . Brest-Litovsk One of the Bolshevik policies had been.. reached the shores of Lake Onega. ~ Red Army ..". JApr11 1919 '. the Red Army.\llf :/V-'j'. Germany 16 Apr..~.9~~s.. ' 600'" 200 400 GOO ~CALE recaptured.. \ • fOOO' . stiff resistance from the Poles. Feb..f920r ( / .. '!I~.. . in a westward march to outflank the Russians. ~" . 200 400 600·. ·. .. ~."'·''''' --r- . . actually set up a Government of West Siberia at Omsk on 1 July 1918. r.-~ \ " . Ad 'Aug.•. t·:.: ..:::::::::-.. meeting. 11 .)O.NO vaI.:-o:.'~7'..:.. The Russo·Baltic Works ceased production. 'II ~240 OM' y\. ' GEORGI...:.':r:</v j Cossack Denrkin~c..:(.recaPture~4). /I Naval Forces 'C o'.}--'[2J~n_191~'f{ ).•. .'i.•. 121 Jun. ::v:G . FINLAND '\ \\ .K..PTHUAN/:d..e.i 14 Oct. In April 1918....:\ I-~--------.•. encircling the besieged Bolsheviks with a ring of opposing forces that became known as The Whites.A:.. As the map shows. at Murmansk and Archangelsk.. ...-~~ I' III! . .~~~ 18 Mar 1921 . . The Bolshevik leader Vladimir I. British and French troops landed at Vladivostok.. : :'.f?. But as the map shows.. _.r~192~~~1tISh)~:/1 s' '4: ::d I.~. ".::.. But by the end of 1920..?-'2"lJ~n 19)8:4 Rostov-on..'S". the Bolshevik forces steadily re-occupied the lost territories. ":':'. -. When' it signed the Treaty of Brest Litovsk on 3 March 1918..a~.. . Lost Opportunity One of the casualties in the terrible conflict had been the dismemberment of the Escadra vozduzhnykh korablei E./ 6 Decf917 .d Orec~ptured 5 July 1920. The autocratic monarchy was replaced by an idealistic but ruthless ruling class. . '/':.: : < LatVia Finland 11 Aug.. Russia lost all the western provinces as... who had reached the Volga at Samara..> .:..-:: ~ ~180 recaptured Q 0 B~'" . 1918-Sep.·:.. ...cl.. a makeshift army including Czech prisoners-of-war./. Forces recapture. Kiiometer. 1920cf .!I .'t.territory that Josef Stalin was to regain (Finland and Poland excepted) after World War II.. ..j.· :0 ovorosSls .. Just as the British troops in the north.." .\N 27 ~ ./".1920' ~ Against the WhIte 1<:·'. took up arms in a bloody civil war.Jdn. RE:GD and .J ..~( ~~ B. tj·~. was forced to surrender territory as the price of peace .I. Estonia 2 Feb..-'. ~ .126 May 1918". j919.••. reinforced by White Russians.nterventl~nlst 28 Ma 1918'\ .J I~ . ::::f.)_T45 ~~ T\I Samara'--::~)' November 19f9 /..:.7 MorcH:1920... ~~/."!.J..B" " ' . its armies lacked good logistics.:". the Red Army went on to the offensive against General Denikin in the Ukraine and against General Yudenich on the Baltic front.•.i~~rcJ~hedkorce~-.' .. pn .. .:.\. .. "-Hwhl~{.sk'i.'...·-.>'::> y . On 8 August of that year. Y I..·:D)··.'..). WQ-r5./:-J2 \" ~ ~ . Although possessing far superior numbers. :: of ~~.-~.<. . the massive foreign invasion after the Bolshevik Revolution postponed any development in this direction.)..".a U K R_A IN E Qr 9 ~'\:" "'-.' o~c~'&' ·f "" Omsko+ Polish' Force'S. it was all over.·n ~\i'~ ~ 1j: . ' ..'"'. Lenin..:C) Dates of Declarations of. and the destruction of many of the Il'ya Muromets aircraft. at first in support of its Russian ally.~..·... 19~O 1200 pilots and 250 observers FEDERATION <.:·.. of the Entente .... the British and Japanese had reached Chita.-: '~" . and.:/ 1 Counter-attacks ' Revolution The Great War did not go well for Russia. under the direction of Leon Trotsky. . were joined by the troops and naval forces of many nations. 1918 .' ~ (Bahle of POLA~15 L'~&ill'''' "'. For.. ~\\\. ffllnS k /-/""~v /~~-j ~ \\\ recaptu~rd J Gene·t:..1':~.000 flights April-Juh..a:f. Igor Sikorsky himself was on the wrong side.... In the east.:. one after another.•.•. succeeded in mounting a coup in Petrograd (the new westernized name for St Petersburg) and the October Revolution of 24-26 October 1917 changed the course of history.. C K f'. ~.Ot .' Lithuania 12 July 1920. In October. he fled to the West. and changed its name to the All-Russian Government on 18 November 1918. and clothing supplies were shOWing signs of improvement. Independence ..e: f I:·.:.. ' mode about 20.~/'~L~t\nl0Rt9CiI . "... ': .~··:'"·'·iJ'NCouca' 7' fl'C. ~r -- . (White) ~.?4FebI918 '1/~~S7 .... to be joined by the Japanese on 12 August and the Americans on 15 August. however. "lev '" Odess. A few were assembled near Moscow and in spring 1920.'ia.'!\.. who won a great victory under General Pilsudski.B}. .13Marchl920 . /\ f'!'."'..::I'·. .". with considerable losses on the Russian side. Many Russians themselves...y.V...H: Mdl.~~<~$:fT6jJ}~trP~tro9rad III A9miral Kolchak I~ 'vII ) ) Worsaw~~Y1t9Au9. Siege and Counter-Attack The agony was not yet over."··. repulsing the Czechs.den.j.:R=--/l 30 ( III . J( .: .' . /1.J."' vances MUl"ma!:. 1920 ~ ~..::. food. with their Slavic cousins in the Ukraine. O' K _~ ".~ca tured Had civil war not intervened in Russia.. and were generally badly led.. ~ ~ == Defensive Line ..nt. 1 ~':.'!'-" 7/ J. . 1922 Poland forces. Irgor Sikorsky's Il'ya Murometsy might have put his country in the forefront ofair transport in Europe.J{:'·"{". /·:··. Byelo-Russia. but qUickly becoming part of an international alliance of intervention whose objective was to destroy the threat of a communist Russian state.. (see page 10).. to distinguish them from the Bolshevik Reds./V- l. the intervention was Widespread. " Krasnov '/II) 7~ ~ '~'\~ "'~'" WffH. effectively.iKt~. '.]11 . t\" 2.rkhan.. . . '. The British in the North. . _.s . posing a threat to Petrograd.c. the administration of the Tsarist government had collapsed..

Solovov and A. or Deruluft.K. commanded by A. in March 1918. on 9 August 1921. As early as 10 November 1917. On 1 May 1921. or commission for heavy aviation) had been formed under the chairmanship of Zhukovskiy. On 13 September 1919. the Collegium was replaced by the Main Directorate of Workers aud Peasants of the Red Army Air Force (Glavvozdykhoflot). with a view to creating a Soviet Air Force.F. Then again. And in spite of the chaotic conditions inflicted by the waging of civil war. started a new route via Tallinn (Reval) to Leningrad (renamed from Petrograd on 22 April 1920) on 6 June 1928. a companion volume to this book. The First Commercial Air Service The successor to the Tsarist E. (lI'yo Muromets) 1 May . at least until the 1930s. On 1 December 1918. to review the aviation assets of the country. and maintained both routes until 31 March 1937. Germany signed the Treaty of RapaIlo. The frequency was two or three services per week. a Ryazan Moscow n-----:. The country needed help badly.correctly . his deputy was Andrei N. The first Soviet detachment.S. before the service ended on 11 October.by historians as a device to evade the harsh conditions of the Peace Treaty imposed on Germany on 7 May 1919. to replace St Petersburg/Petrograd. Tumanskiy. was formed to defend Petrograd against General Krasnov's forces. of the American Relief Administration. and one sequel was the establishment. Deruluft Resulting from Lenin's advocacy. Vorodnikof. the Centralyni Aero Gydrodynamichesky Institut (TsAGI) or Central Aerodynamics and Hydrodynamics Institute was established under the direction of Nikolai Eo Zhukovskiy.V. This Directorate was charged with uniting all air units "in the interests of protecting the Soviet Motherland.V. the Peace Treaties had been signed. Then on 29 December 1917. Another manifestation of this widening scope was the formation of a joint Soviet-German airline on 24 November 1921. although it was not yet officially in existence. KOMTA (Kommassiy po Tyazheloi Aviatsiy. On 26 January a further decree set aside 3 million gold rubles for an aviation development program under the jurisdiction of Glavvozdykhoflot. Civil Aviation Begins On 17 January 1921.K.R. carried the first official mail and passengers from Moscow to Kharkov. with a modest contingent of twelve crews. Tupolev. an airfield was opened at Khodinka. It proved almost incapable of flight. there were 27 aircraft factories and seven more were being built.S. called Komta (Comet). (Its history is related in Lufthansa: An Airline and Its Aircraft. the nucleus of an aviation industry was taking shape. interpreted . . Zhukovskiy formed the Moscow Technical Aviation College.A. to allow limited participation by private firms or indiViduals. later reorganized as the Institute of Engineers of the Red Air Force.. recognized the importance of aviation as a new industry. Lenin supported aviation and agreed to its receiving priority. Tsarist Russia had been far from backward in the new science.V.G. and a total of 43 flights were made over a period of five months.) On 16 April 1922. Before the Revolution. Lenin signed a decree to regulate travel in the airspace over Soviet territory. the new Soviet Russia was ready to go to work. Yakovlev. on 24 May 1918. widening its scope to cover all facets of aviation and aeronautics. two weeks after the Ten Days That Shook The World.) that broadened the base of commerce and trade. in March 1922. only 6km (4mi) to the northwest of Moscow's Red Square.. the New Economic Policy (N. a Bureau of Commissars for Aviatiou and Aerouautics was formed.P.E. Deruluft opened its first service to Moscow from Konigsberg (later Kaliningrad) on 1 May 1922. the Bureau became the All-Russian Collegium for the Administration of the Air Fleet. o a Voronezh Koni95ber9_"'~_~ Tilsit An Historic Airfield On 21 September 1919." still the site of Aeroflot's central bus terminal and design bureaux of Ilyushin. (f922) (until (935) OreI • ROUTE OF THE E. three converted Sikorsky I1'ya Muromets four-engined bombers of the 2nd Otryad (Detachment). under the direction of Herbert Hoover.The First Soviet Air Services An Embryo Organization The Bolshevik leaders. and known familiarly as the Zhukovskiy Academy.Great Britain was next. Sixty passengers and six tons of mail were carried altogether. where.I. On 3 December 1920. the Deutsch-Russische Luftverkehrs A.~. Most of the aircraft used were German. and the design was abandoned. Almost two years were to follow before any other nation recognized the Soviet Union . to help to relieve the great famine of 1922.11 Oct 1921 Kursk __ 0. via Ore!. - . and the airline was known everywhere by its German name. and so was most of the organization and administration. was completed in March 1922. in all sectors of the economy. at first headed by M. The terrible civil war between the Reds and the Whites was over. this man was named The Father of Russian Aviation for his outstanding efforts. the D.K. the Bolshevik party had established its capital in the Kremlin. by a decree signed by Lenin. and a sixleight-passenger twin-engined triplane. It is Danzi Smolensk (until 193/) \~'l. (Divisionye Vozdushniy Korablei or Flying Ships Division) had a small part to play in this revival of activity. V.K. In spring 1920. Soviet Russia adopted.S. now beginning to call themselves Soviet. Building a TechniUlI Base All this took place before the official establishment of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic (R. and Sukhoi are adjacent to it.) in July 1918.'OI Kharkov REGO lV°1l' Berlin DERULUFT 1922-1937 REGD 12 . Germany recognized the Soviet Union. on 1 February 1924. by decree.

and at least one PolikarpovPM-7. its shares were acquired by Deutsche Luft Hansa when all the German airlines were amalgamated on 6 January 1926. (photo: Lufthansa) 13 . involVing shipping lines.IIIs. Most aircraft factories were in ruins and even the I1'ya Murometsy survived only in small numbers. it was designated Crulich VIa. & RR 7 to Ukrvozdukhput s a A Fokker F. In this guise. third in the line of famous early transport aircraft.Fokker F. In practice. tail unit. and the first post-war scheduled airline in the world. East Prussia.L. RR 6. and -latera Bristol Jupiter radial engine. oppOSite page). aircraft manufacturers.H. there were close links with the German flag carrier. however. Its first aircraft were Dutch-built Fokker F. MSN Se~ce 4/22-26 4/22-26 4/22-5/28 4/22-26 8/22-30 5/22-26 5/22-26 8/22-26 5/22-26 7/22-26 Remarks RR 1 RR 2 RR 3 RR 4 RR 5 RR 6 RR 7 RR 8 RR ~ RR 10 1653 1656 1658 1660 1530 1531 Rebuilt as Grulich Vl. backed by the A. F 777 RR 3. to Moscow (see map. But Deruluft. When Deruluft was founded on 24 November 1921. to 0 902 to 0 1389 to 0 904 Rebuilt as Grulich Vl. the service was opened to the public. RR 5. and in turn. The large Lloyd group. to 0 180 Notes. One of these was Aero-Union. Vl a to 0 906 to 0 200 to 0 910 Zugspitze ex H-NABR ex H-NABS. to H-NACR.76a 07727 {IOI07}. and landing gear.E. (photo: Lufthansa) Aero-Union The Russian aircraft industry had been severely handicapped by the ravages of the Great War.III DERULUFT FOKKER F. took over Aero-Union on 6 February 1923.III RR 5 was converted by Deutscher Aero Lloyd at Berlin-Staaken (directed by technical manager Dr Ing Karl Crulich). Deruluft's First Aircraft Deruluft began services on 1 May 1922 from Konigsberg. with wood-covered tubular steel-framed fuselages. remained legally independent. cockpit. Deruluft carried only mail and officials. The pilot was seated on the port side of the engine.llls Regn. with a revised fuselage. with its joint ownership with the Soviet Union. Fokker FVII RR 27 (4845). and states or cities which sponsored the many small companies. to Deruluft from 1922. At first. its first aircraft were acquired through the 50% shareholding held by Aero-Union. A few were produced in the early 1920s but only the AK-} and the ANT-2 (page 18) were suitable for air transport. Ten Fokker F. direct descendant of Deutsche Luft Reederei. Fokker F. but on 27 August 1922.IJI ofDeruluft. company. ex H-NABW.IIIs were leased by D. LVG CVI RR 71 (46443). Albatross L. ex 0723. backed by the Nord-Deutscher Lloyd shipping line.' Oeruluft also operated Fokker FVRR 73 (2050).G. German airlines sprang up in a profusion of interlocking relationships. in front of the passenger cabin. and the characteristically thick wooden wing construction of Fokker aircraft.

e. On 1 December.BOKOrO JlBOP"B.O §lInOTbl. the Soviet Council of Labour and Defence issued a decree whereby the establishment of airlines was entrusted to Glavvozdykhoflot. the first Soviet-built aircraft made its debut in Leningrad. 6YfleTbi "enpaulUl: l·fl T. npewIIIYlllec: rao H CKIIAK" KYOIlBIUHIlI a60HelolOHTHbl.-T" l.R. On 30 December 1922.S. 46. On 8 July 1922 in Moscow.R. Other than Deruluft.or .R. when the Far Eastern Republic.900kg (4. the Council for Labour and Defence established a three-year program to expand air travel. Dobrolet's capital was increased in 1923 to 2 million rubles. 6 A r A . on 14 March 1923. which was planning to establish an assembly plant in Moscow (see opposite). And some progress was being made elsewhere. . the Institute of Engineers of the Red Air Force (page 12) in Moscow became the Academy of the Air Force.S.O 16 '1aCOB no lHeM3110ii AOPOre e t-ro aJarycTa no 25·e ceUTH6pH . ment of civil air transport. The service operated until 25 September. but also to Turkestan.F.. as well as 120 of the Mu-1 floatplane version. This influential body was patronized at this meeting by senior party members such as Frunze.28..S. from Moscow to Leningrad. tJ.eeTHorD ~" c. the 10th AllRussian Congress of the Soviets (and the First All-Union Congress) officially declared the formation of the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics (U. and named Red Pilot. . Ill! 1 lJH~O (120 HHnIUIOHoaj.ll.6 nOA'f31l.eiu.eepcKAs·RMCKUfl.. the operation was.)1(: C p. 46 to 10 yrpa JlO 6 ee~epA) II 8 I1K<!>opl'lal\1I01l1l0lt ~a~T~ Llyc'a IlCHX. Its first chairman was Krasnoschekov.eJlOBo/l Ailop."BOBlYWHOE COOBI1IEHHE KOM'I>opTaOen . (photo: Lufthansa) 14 . under the Chief Directorate of the Workers and Peasants of the Red Army Air Force (Glavvozdykhoflot) was charged with the responsibility of inspecting all civil aviation and overseeing its technical activities. The Red Air Fleet lent various makeshift types imported from overseas: de Havilland D. flights began between Moscow and Nizhne Novgorod. .).H..Formation of Dobrolet Russian Aviation Recovery By 1922.. and 57 flights were made. S HKlIfMCH: rllil8Kl>lIt )lOM. 4 nyu OnlJA~HBaBTcll KtlK Ollne.JIcra. Political consolidation was delayed until the end of 1922. . the All-Russian. Echoing the Junkers service of the previous year. and Kharkov. '. carrying 209 passengers and 2. )l. and carried 229 passengers and 1. designated the U-1.. RpMal'0~"blii 1\0' MHTeT. 3·60·63 (~4-11 Q. consisting of Russia. Nikolai Zhukovskiy. Byelorussia (White Russia).. in conjunction with the annual fair.DOBET 21 ~ACA . and Junkers. cBepx 20-TII-I51>IIIJIII. which was also named after its driving personality. The service to Berlin (pages 12-13) carried 400 passengers and 18 tons of mail.aMoneTa . Vickers Vimys. and by Lenin himself. finally agreed to merge with the Russian S. The result was the organization. B MoellBe: XOIlNHHB..{.200lb) of freight. Dobrolet started a short-lived service from Moscow to Nizhne Novgorod. the first experimental flight was made spraying insecticide from the air. CnpallKlt 0 CBo60AKb'H . A Civil Aviation Administration On 23 November 1922. was offered in 1922. As a result. The aircraft used were Junkers-F 13s. lent by the German Junkers firm. another small air transport service. as a prelude to developing aviation for agricultural use (page 82). to Mongolia.000 rubles. the Revolutionary War Soviet of the Republic. PapaapKa. for example. only a few other flights were made. the Ukraine. "I'. The U-2 was built in 1928. H3 HIDKHEro: liS MOCKBIlI: 9 '10eOR yrpa. CaMoneTa 1 -=. On 1 August. which had declared independence during the turmoil of the Revolution.ll a nSlTHHlla 20 <I>)'HT. Civil Aeronautics Authority. IIABIIJlbOI\ 6..HIIK py6nd B onKH lcoHell.800Ib) of freight over the 420km (260mi) distance. through the Inspectorate of the Air Fleet. who was also chairman of the Russian Mercantile Trading Bank. the Russian authorities ordered 20 Junkers-F 13s for future use. Except for this brief interlude. Junkers-F 13fe RR 38 ofDeruluft. Poster advertising the Junkers 'Aviakultura' flights between Moscow and Nizhne Novogorod in 1922. Simply put. Formation of the U. with a capital of 500. Dnan 120 a MHJtn. of the All-Russian Volunteer Air Fleet. Russia effectively controlled central Asia. ". and the national budget for aviation purposes was raised to 35 million rubles.== 2 aMi". aviation in Russia was slowly recovering. as the threat of war receded. Some 700 are reported to have been built.J .10 H k E P CII lleTannH~ec. "ABHAKYBbTYPf' H~~meUBO "IDHR[P[" StOpa: foft TaepcICaR·JfMcKas. Tell. On 9 February 1923. 8·60·66).)o. With the support of the post office and other government agencies." Ha6"He . n 0 C A Jl i< lene</!.600kg (5. or Rossiskoye Obshestvo Dobrovolnogo Vozduzhnogo Flota (Dobrolet).. c nYAa. in turn. It was a small training model. "KCnO MECT OrPAHH-totO. placed under a full-time Civil Aviation Board (or Council) and this event is recognized as the official birth date of Aeroflot.TKB nefp. and ambitiously. During 1922 also. but the republics in that region did not become part of the Soviet Union until 1924. Kursk. Aerial photography was qUickly recognized to be ideal for mapping Russia's vast eastern expanses.yKC (rpahlS"'" .S. and it paved the way for the establish- Formation of Dobrolet On 8 March 1923.. almost totally devoid of surface transport north of the trans-Siberian Railway.. Kazan. eKse HlllluKyHe nQ. A. MOCKBA~HH}KllJIil·HOBrOPO~ B.OOC"~BTHO..S. ecTale 6 M<\. an important meeting was held by the Obshestvo Druzhny Vozduzhnovo Flota (Society of Friends of the Air Fleet).lIo Ht 'OOJlOO OAIIOro nYlla lIa naecaIKHpa. But on 19 October 1923. B bl nET: nOHep. this Inspectorate of the Civil Air Fleet was akin to the U.. and Transcaucasia..9s. Dzerzhinsky. but these were neither regular nor open to the public.S..~epa) II c 6· 8 8l!~epa •.". not only within European Russia.

R-RDAH R-RDAJ R-RDAD R-ROAU SSSR-144 SSSR-145 SSSR-146 SSSR-147 SSSR-175 SSSR-176 SSSR-177 SSSR-182 SSSR-441 SSSR-442 SSSR-443 SSSR-444 SSSR-445 MSN 2528 2529 Remarks Dobrolet Dobrolet Dobrolet Dobralet } based at Verkne Udinsk (Ulan Ude) for Urga IUlan Bator! raute. But Junkers aircraft were put to good use all over the Soviet Union (see also pages 20 and 24). and the historic air connection was made by Mikhail Vodopyanov. Mossoviet 2. on the Caspian Sea. In May 1920. The Moscow . Restrictive Practices The F 13s were. It also sponsored the formation of airlines in those countries which had no aircraft industries of their own (and even one or two that had) by setting up joint ventures. The Fili-built F 13s were designated Ju 13s. and the F 13 formed the basis for later types such as the W 33. over 300 F 13s were built.S. markings. and ultimately the Ju S2/3m.'s part of Sakhalin Island.S. Dalili gu Vostoku. & Krasnyj Ural. in an effort to extend German influence in Asia. URSS-226) IDeruluft) Drohne (Dobrolet) Libelle (Dobraletl Matte (Dobralet) (Deruluft) (Deruluft) Emmerling (Derul uftl Mauersegler(Deruluft) (Deruluftl Eisvogel (Deruluft) SteinschmetzerlDeruluftl Massaviet(Oobraletl Fliege. 1929deld 2/30 deld 2/30 deld 3/30 deld 4/30 deld 3/30 Moscow. in 1889. Junkers supplied the aircraft and technical support. During 1923. Tsckebu. I' • JUNKERS-JU 13 IN SOVIET SERVICE Regn. like all German aircraft. R-RDAC R-RDAD R-RDAE R-RDAG R-RDAM R-RDAD R-RDAS R-RDAU R-RECA R·REC8 R·RECD R·RECE R-RECG R-RECH MSN 655 656 659 Remarks Hornisse (Dobroletl Hummel. Professor Junkers drew on the experience of building military aircraft almost entirely of metal. and in which Germany became the first country to recognize the Soviet Union. Kirgizii. 15 . handicapped by severe restrictions imposed by the victorious Allies. it easily outlived the wood-and-fabric steel-framed aircraft of the time. a suburb of The coloring. the two crew sat in a semi-open cockpit. all German aircraft were confiscated by the occupying powers. Not until 14 April 1922 was the ban on aircraft construction finally lifted.Baku route was taken over by Ukrvozdukhput (see next page). in South America. in comfortable seats. with Berlin. R-REeL R-RECJ R-RECK R·RDDB R·RUAZ URSS-301 URSS-307 URSS·308 URSS·320 SSSR-L85 SSSR·127 SSSR-M752 MSN 651 643 659 I Remarks Bremse (Junkers Luftverkehr) Wachtel Albatross (Junkers Luftverkehr) 765 723 720 569 572 614 693 636 Kdn(gsfischer Eismdwe Kdnigsadler Sokol Masterskih Note: Some known names of otherwise-unidentified Ju 13s include: Prezidium VSNCh. the Armistice of 11 November 1918 brought an end to the Great War. Turkrespublike. and administrative staff. these were enforced with even more severity. via Deruluft. The date was 9 January 1930. and one of the great airliners of all time.R. Samolet(Dobrolet) Regn. 0226 0230 0261 0269 0270 0307 0308 0424 0558 RR 38 RR 40 RR 41 R-ROAA R-RDAB MSN 638 641 653 657 658 670 671 702 752 2017 650 757 654 Remarks (Deruluft. and a potential eastbound connection to Persia an intriguing aerial variant of the Drag Nacht Oosten movement that had. Prombank 2-j. few of which survived for more than two or three years . under the title of Junkers luftverkehr Russland. Designated the Junkers-F 13 .and would not have lasted long in northern Russia or Siberia. Tjervonets. Nauka. The F 13 in Russia Junkers leaped at the chance of taking advantage of the Treaty of Rapallo.it first went into service in Germany in 1919. JUNKERS·W 33 IN SOVIET SERVICE Regn. German infiltration into Russian aviation dwindled by the mid-I920s. The little four-passenger F 13 carried its customers in a comfortable cabin. Constructed of corrugated light-weight aluminum. and the last F 13 in scheduled service retired in Brazil in 1948. Krasnyj Pisjtjek. where a factory had been built in 1916 to produce the Il'ya Muromets. the new capital of the U. airfields. It thus proVided a westbound airlink. 16Skm/h (10Smph) A Great Airliner To the relief of the whole of Europe. Sibiri. German companies evaded the letter . 1929} based at Irkusk for Yakutsk raute.and the intent . and under the terms of the 'London Ultimatum' of 5 May 1921. and in other countries such as Persia and South Africa.of the law by setting up production in other countries. Altogether. seen the sponsorship of the Baghdad Railway.Junkers-F 13 4 SEATS. and designed one of the most successful transport aircraft of the 1920s. via Moscow. albeit with limitations on engine power and load carrying.defying superstition . and center of the new oil industry. an astonishing production performance for the period. however. signed on 16 April 1922. Prombank (Dobralet) Maskita (Dobra let) Sibrevkam (Dobralet) Krasnya Kamvo/'shcik (Dobroletl also RR-DAS (Dobralet) (Dobrolet! Albatros (RR-ECA) (Junkers Luftverkehrl Lerche IRR-ECD! Papagei(Junkers Luftverkehr) Piepmatz Regn. A production line was set up at Fili. The F 13s were to be seen all over Europe. The host country supplied the infrastructure of installations. and general configuration of this aircraft were those used for the inauguration of the Dobrolet service from Khabarovsk to'Aleksandrovsk. Ju 13s operated a trunk route from Moscow to Baku.

But its very success perhaps fell foul of government policy centered in Moscow. but this never happened. Zakavia had the odds stacked against it from the start. K-3. or Azdobrolet. and Kalinin K-2 RRUAT. RRUAF. in 1930. Headquarters were at Kharkov. but were later to see service with Dobrolet.Ukrvozdukhput and Zakavia An Airline for the Ukraine In the Ukraine. On 1 June 1923. The Kalinin aircraft factory was in that City. on 10 May 1923. • Kharkov Junkers Luftverkehl" Russ/and (1923) Ukrvo:z. was Zakavia. the K-l. Ukrainskoe Obschestvo Vozdnzhnyk Shoobshcheniy (The Ukrainian Airline Company) (abbreviated to Ukrvozdukhput) was founded. and after about two years of frustrated effort. gave it almost the whole of the southern part of the European U. Aside from being a strong influence on the airline operation. Azerbaijan.S. Kamet Ills RRUAG. None went into service with Ukrvozdukhput. Ukrvozdukhput's first fleet consisted of four-passenger Dornier Komet lIs. Recognition of the Soviet Union (see page 15) had given Germany a doorway for trade. civil wars. Two months later. RRUAN. Zakavia A small airline was also established. which existed for a few months. it combined with Ukrvozdukhput. it was associated with Azerbajdzhanskogo dobrovol'nogo vozdushnogo flota. Rostov-on. RRUAD. TO THE EAST REGD 1922-1932 Junkers Luftverkehr 16 . and effective control of the airlines provided a pathway through that door. and a half a dozen six-seat Dornier Komet Ills. RRUAE. the spirit of republican independence manifested itself by the formation of an airline. Uzkrvozdukhput carried 3. with the Zakavia franchise. not only inherited the Russian Dobrolet. or Trans-Caucasus. at Tiflis (Tbilisi) in Georgia.050 passengers in 1928. RRUAC. Dornier's methods of construction could clearly be detected on the first Kharkov-based Kalinin aircraft.S. One of the items contained in the first Soviet Five-Year Plan was to create an all-Soviet airline which. and surrounded by high mountains. was a partner in Deruluft. RRUAL. and a cooperative arrangement was forged with the Dornier company.R. a potential hub for air services throughout the European part of the U. routes to Moscow and Rostov-on-Don completed a commendable spoke network centered on Kharkov.dukhput (1924-30) AIR ROUTE This small building was the hub of Ukrvozdukhput at Kharkov during the 19205. when it started to operate from Kharkov to Odessa and Kiev. but engulfed Ukrvozdukhput as well.S. Zakavia operated one route. and there were also plans to form an airline called Kakavia. K-2.S. Late in the year. derived from Zakavkazie. and K-4. Kalinin K-4s RRUAB.R. Its name Independence Lost The Ukrainian airline took over the Junkers operation (see page 15) which. Beset by political upheaval. as its traffic catchment area. in turn. RRUAX. less than three months after the formation of Dobrolet. Orel UKRVOZDUKHPUT 1925 Kiev Dornier Establishes a Presence Ukrvozdukhput opened for business on 15 April 1925. This latter had connections with the German Lloyd transport group which. to Baku.Don REGD ZAKAVIA 1923 Baku REGD Djoulda Deruluft (1922-37) Berlin Aircraft operated by Ukrvazdukhput included Darnier Kamet lis RRUAA. probably with a Junkers Ju 13. on 15 June.

IIIs were replaced by Dornier Merkurs. (photo: Lufthansa) RR 30. Not until the Kalinin K-S was introduced in 1929. Bearing in mind the pioneering element of the operating environment at the time. Meanwhile. Deruluft's standards were high. this was evident on the. the western terminus o(the line until 1927. The early Fokker F. RR9. (photo: Lufthansa) During the mid-1920s. Blaufuchs to 0 1445. (photo: Lufthansa) URSS-0308 URSS-0309 URSS-0310 URSS-0311 URSS-0312 URSS-0313 O-AREN O-AHUS O-AGIS O-AXES O-AOAL lunkers·lu 52/3m ge Crashed 31 Jan 35 Milan Kormoran Kondor Almenrdder/Flamingo Note: Deruluft's Junkers Ju 13s are included in the table on page 75. have anything to match the products of western Europe. Hermelin to 0'1079. (photos: Lufthansa) 17 . Kreuzfuchs to01595 to 0 1629. even in the embryo years. transferred from Deutsche Luft Hansa (D. Hermelin Silber/owe to 0 1077. did the U. Wiessfuchs to 0 1081.S. Dornier Merkurs o(Deruluft. Wiessfol to 0 1458. the Soviet aircraft manufacturing industry was slowly getting on its feet. had the advantage of a steady source of supply from Germany (see page 13). Deruluft. as the illustrations show.H. Dornier Komel III MSN Remarks RR 16 RR 17 RR 18 01102 RR 27 RR 28 RR 29 RR 30 RR 33 01079 01080 01081 RR 34 RR 35 RR 36 01445 01455 01458 01076 URSS-304 URSS-305 I 87 89 94 97 130 126 127 128 129 173 174 175 176 177 178 121 122 130 Edelmander to 0 427 to 0 1078 litis to 0 1082 to 0 1451 to 0 1465. Blaufuchs to 0 1080.07087. however.L. and RRlO. & 01076 to Aeroflot Rohrbach Ro VIII Roland I 01280 01712 01735 01729 Tupolev ANT-9 I 35 45 48 43 143 145 135 160 112 Golub 4051 4049 4048 4052 4046 Feldbei Schonburg Marksburg Drachenfels Chaika to 0 2831 Orel Yastreb Korshun Rohrbach Ro VIII Roland II Deruluft had handsome service vehicles. and the ANT-9 in 1931. Wiesel to 0 1451 Dornler Merkur Top Deruluft aircraft at Moscow-Khodinka during the 1920s. including RR2. the joint Soviet-German airline. Kreuzfuchs to 0 1605. These vehicles did credit to Deruluft's ground service department. Nerz to 0 1455.IIIs can be seen. and. The lower picture is o(the airfield at Konigsberg. Each has the Mercedes emblem on its radiator.ground as well as in the air.) from 1929 onwards.Deruluft Progress DERULUFT FLEET 1927-1937 Regn.R. Four o(the airline's fleet o(the Fokker F.S. during a period when commercial air transport was still feeling its way everywhere.

The AK-I (AK for Alexandrov-Kalinin) could carry three passengers and attained 146km/h (90mph).S. He died on 21 January 1924. (photo: Lufthansa) At the end of their epic flight from the U. the TsAGI (see page 12). the Mayor. The aircraft manufacturing plants stirred into life. Tupolev was proceeding cautiously. an improved version. Kalinin.S. which had been laying dormant during the political upheaval and economic disruption caused by the Revolution. excluding Germany. The Soviet Government had replaced this. This aircraft weighed only 2. and only a few days later. Back at TsAGI. the AK-l was assigned to Dobrolet's Moscow-Nizhne NovgorodKazan route.R. Left to right: the helmeted Sterligov. by setting up several Peoples' Republics in 1921 to supplant the khanates of Khiva and Bukhara. ANT-3 RR-SOV Aviakhim S.N. While hardly operating with clockwork regularity and punctuality. the German Junkers company started a small production line of the sturdy metal-built F 13.V. Most probably with Junkers Ju 13s. Turkmenistan. the ANT-3. and also as a practical measure to demonstrate the benefits of rule from Moscow. It was a start.R. completed.A.S. Kalinin's first design. and more designs were to come. (known as the Ju 13 in Russia) and deliveries began to Dobrolet in 1924. in 1929 the Soviet crew was welcomed by the Mayor of Oakland. in Moscow. the designer working in conjunction with Dornier in Kiev. Shestakov.S.A. Tupolev was on a roll. On 20 April 1925. There were also boats on the Amu Darya river. Bolatov. able to carry two passengers. on 8 March 1924. in addition to inaugurating new routes. and joyrides for workers who had shown special talents in exceeding their assigned quotas. At least 24 aircraft are believed to have been completed. Dobrolet opened a route from Khiva to Dushanbe. the first foreign power to do so. via Bukhara.possibly to coincide with the May Day celebrations. Tadjikistan. Reference has already been made (page 16) to the activity of K. a series of government-supervised experimental flights was completed with the K-I. and on 15 June 1924. Dobrolet began to operate scheduled services in the area formerly under the Tsarist governor-generalship of Turkestan. the British Government recognized Soviet Russia. the first test flight of the first successful transport aircraft to be designed and built entirely in the Soviet Union (also see page 12). Ste~ In Central Asia On 1 May 1924 .Dobrolet's First An Infant Aircraft Industry Vladimir Lenin did not live to see the outcome of some of the policies that he had instigated.100kg (960lb) but it flew at 201km/h (l25mph). Also.S. and Fufayev. and Kirghizia were formally incorporated into the U. Tupolev had become head of the organization which had an experimental laboratory. On 26 November 1925. and was considered a worthy enough product to carry the Soviet flag overseas (see opposite page). (photo: Eugene Altunin) DOBROLET IN Alma Ata Pishpek (Frunze Dzhambul """'----~ CENTRAL ASIA 1924 Khiva Tashkent S'talinabad (Dushanbe) REGD 18 . on 1 February. as the alternative land transport was by horse or camel.L. but these were often left stranded when the river shifted course.S. it was reasonably successful. under the direction of V. Proletarii at Konigsberg during Mikhail Gromov's circuit ofEurope in 1926. including the all-metal ANT-2. and by 1925 the new republics of Uzbekistan.S. Then on 20 August 1925. the Russian industry. At FiJi. the ANT-4 took to the air.R. demonstrations of the benefits of air travel to the amazed citizenry of remote lands. was flown. to the U. For several years. Alexandrov and V. Simultaneously with the easing of tension overseas. A. reports of Ju 13s performing various services all across the Soviet Union included. Kalinin. and was building engines and aircraft. which had done so earlier. began to revive.

/ " _ . Ch.ef\7"e. Tomashevsky (AK-1). and from 20 May to 1 June 1923 flew another Ju 13 to Tashkent. from 30 August to 2 September. . Between 23 August and 2 November 1929. . press..SOOmi) round-trip circuit in the northeastern and eastern regions of European Russia. Note: The characteristics of the ANT-3 and ANT-4 aircraft featured on this page are in the table on page 23. and an AK-l) took off from Moscow to Peking (Beijing). ~~29 .R. arriving there on 1 September.e Spaask u Attu A.A. Shestakov made a more ambitious flight. Bellint made a round-trip in a Russian-built Junkers Ju 13 from Moscow to the Crimea. an R-2. Polyakov (Ju 13).A. high speed was not the objective.the first successful all-Soviet transport design . and A.AtSl' FLIGHTS novarsl< .Mezheraup. From 2 February to 8 April the next year. A. Rome.' 5 itKa Ir'" "oil'S'" ~\(\ e v IJ (c.200km (13. he made an historic flight from the U.. ' ANT-3(Nash Otvet-Our Answer) REGD Yan'J'Iang Okayama 20 Aug. 1924. China. Seattle. Two years later. and then back to Across the World The follOWing year. made a 10.N. D. this time with an ANT-4 (URSS-300 Strana Sovyetov (Land of Soviets).S. N. flew to Kabul.E. at a leisurely speed of 144km/h (89mph) and both the pilot and his mechanic.".G. P.. Carefully. MOSCOW • SHESTAKOV'S Che/yabinsk LlI 1/!. two Ju 13s. not only from Moscow but in other parts of Russia and Central Asia. (photo: Eugene Altunin) Circuit of Europe As if to emphasize that the products of TsAGI amounted to more than drawings and announcements. Moscow.lS0km (4.."t~v( rJ" ~ .OOOkm (13. Berlin.S.-a s 5a(0 P C\1itO " e\O op"e' 0\0) "'\~ P c. via the Pacific northern rim. The twin-engined aircraft was fitted with floats at Khabarovsk for the occasion.400km (6. Paris. because of the dearth of information emanating from Moscow. Shestakov flew an ANT-3 (RR-INT Osoaviakhim SSSR Nash Otvet (Our Answer) from Moscow to Tokyo.A. D. the Russians began to show their metal in western Europe where. On 31 August 1926.V.K. as it proved to the skeptics that the Russians did have flying hardware.Showing The Flag Feeling Its Way Following the exhausting civil war. p. and from 29 September to 1 October of the same year. was on Lake Washington.ef\~ oet(Or~aJ11 oa~ _t\O. (Proletariat) completed this European circuit on 2 September. Piloted by Mikhail M. Ekatov (R-2).476km (4.s. all six aircraft covered the 6. as a prelude to Dobrolet's pioneering activities there (see page 18). at an average speed of lSSkm/h (96mph). foreign politicians. . Mikhail M. And this kind of activity increased in intensity throughout the year.K. Gromov (R-1). were awarded the Order of the Red Banner. Gromov took his ANT-3 from Moscow to Konigsberg. V. several exploratory flights were made with foreign-made aircraft. L. about the same as the Moscow . in a Polikarpov R-I. Kopilov. haVing covered the 7. almost methodically. to the U. 1927 19 ..yetov. S. Russian aviation had struggled to pick up the pieces of a shattered industry. Tomashevskya flew from Moscow to Kazan. Fufaev. 0 ANT-4(Strana Sov. Volkovoynov (R-1). pilot of the ANT-4 Strana Sovyetov (Land of Soviets) and his flight engineer. The 21.. piloting an AK-I . and the arrival in the U.S. Afghanistan.1 Nov. 23). and British types. E. f)\)" " .S.A. The Proletar. arriving on 17 July..V. with gaining confidence.~J(tS"j . and public alike were understandably skeptical about reports of aircraft construction in the brave new world of the Soviet Union.670mi) round-trip was completed in 153 flying hours.E. Farmans. M.444mi) in 34hr lSmin of flying time. it had begun to rebuild. From 10 to 22 July. culminating on 10 June 1925 when six aircraft (two R-1s..Tokyo round-trip) were covered in 137 flying hours. Fufaev. From 16 to 20 September 1922. (Left) Mikhail Gromov (Right) SA Shestakov. V. ver~f\j . in a Junkers Ju 13. The 22.Kh. at an average speed of 209km/h (130mph) (see map.-1 Sep. Warsaw.J K. Gromov capped the performance by flying on to Tokyo. Gromov made a courageous demonstration which was quite literally a proving flight.02Smi) in a little more than a month. Vienna. .200mi. via Manchuria and Korea.Soviet Nation:X Seward 23 Aug. Prague. B. Between 1918 and 1922. Nadenov (Ju B). As with most Iongdistance flights. the ANT-3 made another important flight that must have given encouragement to the design team at TsAGL On 20 August 1927.

¥fJ IIEC/) Breaking the Inertia On 21 September 1926. He left on 21 August. at last. for the first time. Air Service to Yakutsk One important Siberian city. follOWing a decree issued by the Council of Peoples' Commissars. took 18 days by horse in winter. Chukhnovsky made the first sortie to aid ships navigating the polar ice. the other operated until 1947. and even in the 20th century. seven Junkers-W 33s were brought to Irkutsk by the Trans-Siberian Raiway and assembled there. to be based at Verkne Udinsk (Ulan Ude). on 27 July 1927.110're o Via O/ekminsk. Dobrolet started in 1928.n s -5 ib erf. In September 1925. for mail. The opportunities for putting aircraft to work seemed endless for a country the size of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Government won a round by securing an agreement to begin direct communications and to advise . from a purely Russian to an all-Soviet company. Yakutsk. In 1929. On 15 May 1929. Four were land planes.-f--. On 4 March 1926.<-0 '.and perhaps the world . These sturdy aircraft maintained this pioneering route until the mid-1930s. On 1 October 1925. via Orenburg. Galishev in a Junkers Ju 13. regular air service began. by the Lena-Angara River route. flown by V.B. arrived at Yakutsk.Jo'3 REGD 20 . The aircraft is believed to have been the Kalinin K-4. together with two Douglas Dolphins (four were imported by the Soviet Union) arrived.a. QOBROLET P--. Aircraft started to use chemical spraying on 8 May 1929 to control forest vermin in infected tracts in Siberia's Kyltykstom district. a tributary of the Lena. arrived on 27 August. The 'road' to Yakutsk had originally been forged by Cossack conquerors in 1689. the first aircraft. Bodaibo rI ~((\U 1930 . . NJuJo Irkutsk-Yokutsk 1928 e Olekminsk. In Mongolia. 0-'/'. The K-4 had also started service from Moscow to Tashkent.L.. for the service to Yakutsk. A year later. an air route from Tashkent to Kabul. and three were float-planes. in September 1926).'(.J\O~\ P ~ P Aleksandrovs Sf{o A/tan-Bu/ak 1926 . the 2. on 14 September 1926.-1 5 't-.the king in forming an Afghan Air Force. now had air service. Russia and Great Britain had sparred for political control of Afghanistan. International Service For several years. and was the first route to be flown at night.. a Sopwith 11/ 2 Strutter. on 27 June 1929.cJ.W 33 (SSSR-175) atthe landing stage on the Lena River at Yakutsk.. the Council for Labor and Defense transferred responsibility for technical supervision of civil aviation from the Air Force to the Inspectorate for the Civil Aviation Fleet.Dobrolet Spreads Its Win~ Putting Aviation to Work The first crop-dusting experiment in Russia . when Aleksander Dyemchenko piloted a Junkers-Ju 13 from Irkutsk to Yakutsk (see map). was far removed from the TransSiberian rail artery. J<.' r a.~.G. when Dornier Wals. cutting the journey time of several days by rail to 35 hours.. 15 days by boat (as far as Ust-Kut) and road in summer. one was delivered by ship to the Matochkin Shar Polar Station. Dobrolet started service on 20 July 1926. an aviation photography agency was established. via Samarkand and Termez. with the TransSiberian Railway. on the arterial Moscow . Dobrolet helped by opening. and returned two days later.. in lieu of a railway yet to be built (Ulan Ude .further north than Alaska .took place in 1922 (see page 14). Normal communication by packhorse along forest paths took about 35 days. Routes in Central Asia were extended.Ulan Bator.p 1928 Yakutsk o\~'l ~~ Okha '1.c~-'O.ilwayQ'1z ~ho'oor -. Ude 1930 . so that all five central Asian republics. Dobrolet's function during the mid-1920s seemed to be to provide air service only where the government required it.. including four of the capitals.r. On 21 August 1924. for example.Irkutsk route. from which point . A Dobrolet Junkers. for mail only. (photo: Vladimir Pesterev) ~ 00BROLET ~DL. Passenger service began on 1 May 1931. traditional center for trading and commerce and potential hub for extensive mining prospecting and operation. piloted by Piotr Faddayev. in 1925. an aircraft located schools of whales.780mi) journey to Irkutsk.860km (1. to connect the goldfields on the Siberian Aldan River. Dobrolet was reorganized. Other ways of putting airplanes to good use had already been tried. One crashed in 1941 in a heavy landing.

retiring only at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War in 1941. Emerging from the civil war. After serving in the Russian Army in the Great War. piloted by M. some of which were assembled in its workshops.75 20. Chyegirev first flew it on 11 August 1933. It could fly across the Caucasus. near Petrograd. Two hundred and sixty aircraft were built. aided by some like-minded friends at Kiev. and in August. but by 1912 he had entered the Military School at Odessa. Kalinin shared floor space in these shops. first at the Red Army's Aviation Institute. In 1905 he was arrested for suspected revolutionary activities. a distance of 1O. designed to carry 120 passengers. which was closely associated with Ukrvozdukhput.70 16. Chyegirev. and used by Dobrolet for crop-spraying. Seats No.600 2.50 20. After many a brush with bureaucratic interference. killing him and 14 of the total of 20 on board. which was not used for passengers until the summer of 1929. and as an air ambulance. When the 1917 Revolution broke out. the 480hp M-22 radial based on the Bristol Jupiter. Of welded construction.35 15. Of special mention is the K-7. Whereas both the leading and the trailing edge of the Dornier and Merkur aircraft were parallel. a victim of Stalin's purges. . 155km/h (100mph) Aeroflot Kalinin K-S SSSR-LS62. a seven-engined twin-boom monster. with wood and fabric. the Ukrainian airline which was based at Kharkov.72 11.17 11. which gave the K-5 a cruising speed of 170km/h (105mph). It had various engines.25 11. but none went beyond the prototype stage. demonstrated its performance and reliability by flying round-trip from Kharkov to Irkutsk. a plan view of the Kalinin wing showed an almost perfect ellipse.800km (6.70 1500 Span 16. Notes: I Ambulance layout 2 Includes versions with M-I 5 Jupiter and 175hp M-I 71 engines 3 Used in ambulance version by Red Air Fleet Moscow. 180 240 240 310 480 420 MTOW kg 1. and used Dornier Komets.236 2. and the 730hp M17F water-cooled in-line. aerial photography.600kg (7. Twenty-two K-4s were built and used extensively on Dobrolet's routes until the early 1930s. The Kalinin K-4 During the summer of 1928. 4 41 41 4 8 (mail) 1 1 1 1 1 1 Engines Type Salmson BMW IV BMW IV Ju L5 M-22 IJupiter) M-15 IJupiter) h. Kalinin built other types after the K-5. it had dual controls.A. first flown by Chyegirev on 7 November 1929.900lb) • Normal Range 820km (500mi) • Length 16m (52ft) • Span 20m (66ft) The Elliptical Wing Some Kalinin aircraft pictures strongly suggest Dornier ancestry. Kalinin himself was to die on 24 April 1940. reducing the MoscowTblisi distance by several hundred miles.00 Pass. using all-metal construction. he studied aviation. he entered the Air Training School at Gatchina. the Russian 450hp M-15 (for the prototype). Kalinin demonstrated the moderately successful K-4. Seven years later. Kalinin was finally able to design his first aircraft. the K-4 inaugurated service on the important route from Moscow to Tashkent. via 21 . The K-I made its first flight on 26 July 1925.300 2. Built First Airline 26 Jul 25 May 26 22 Oct 27 Summer 28 7 Nov 29 9 Aug 30 1 Dobrolet 1 Ukrvozdukhput 1 See note 3 22 Ukrvozdukhput 2 260 Dobrolet 1 Dobrolet Early work Konstantin Alekseyevich Kalinin was born in December ~889 at Valuki.972 2. Type K-1 K-2 K-3 K-4 K-5 K-6 KALININ TYPES USED IN SERVICE I First Flight Date Dimensions 1m) Length 10.700mi). and baggage compartment. the Pratt & Whitney Hornet. a toilet. rather than welded steel framework. As shown in the table. then at the prestigious Zhukovskiy Academy. and successive designs followed (see table). made a few test flights. But in one important respect.350 3.820 Cruise Speed km/hr 130 140 140 145 157 170 No.70 16. the Chervona Ukraina (Heart of Ukraine). was flown to Moscow on 11 April 1926.p. (photo: Boris Vdovienko) M-22 (l X 480hp) • MTOW 3. the Kalinin aircraft differed. But on 27 June 1929.76 16. in 1916. near Kharkov. he was with the 26th Corps Aviation Squadron on the Romanian front. Kalinin then transferred his base to Kharkov.Kalinin K-S 8 SEATS. and clearly the designer drew some inspiration from the German company. The Kalinin K-S and the End of the Une Kalinin's finest aircraft was the K-5. then crashed on its ninth flight on 21 November.

and particularly an elementary trainer. (photo: Boris Vdovienko) 22 . It acquired Ukrvozdukhput (page 16) and developed a domestic hub at Moscow..' 1932 ORIGIN OF MANUFACTURE AEROFLOT (1937)---* ______________ :+-(1960)R-~---------------~D- 100%r------. and Nikolai Nikolayevich Polikarpov's design was an essential factor in the development of Soviet aviation.LLL=----I100% 1934 1935 The twin-elJgined PS-9 was the main production version of the ANT-9.F. a jointstock company. but it carried 40. it appeared in Kharkov only eleven hours after being type-set in Moscow. o Maturity of an Airline During the 17th Congress of the All-Soviet Communist Party. and no freak. Of aircraft in the transport category. Dobrolet was replaced by as an all-state airline. Only one was built. akin to the role played by Britain's Tiger Moth and America's Piper Cub. and one of the few five-engined aircraft ever built. Moving up the learning curve. prefaced by the Models 3 and 4 (see page 19) led to the ANT-9. it was the most popular light aircraft in the Soviet Union. On 22 December 1930.I. the little Shavrov Sh-2 amphibian and the Stal'2. and in the same year Aeroflot service began from Leningrad to Stockholm.). with passenger services to all important cities. With 36 seats. used even for bombing in the Great Patriotic War. and was built in Poland from 1948 until 1953. the final link to the east was completed. Rostov-onDon. the ANT-14. Odessa. quite an achievement for the time. Grazdansiy Vozduzhniy Flot (G. the first experimental delivery was made of type matrices of the official Pravda newspaper. in its time. Produced for 35 years. Grozniy.A. Often overlooked. and with major industrial centers. and its only long-distance foray was to Bucharest. Sevastopol. to Prague.F. the ANT (Andrei Nikolayevich Tnpolev) series. as far east as Irkutsk.V.. A two-seat biplane. and on 4 June 1920 HDERULUFT 1931. Then in 1931. a resolution was passed that "air travel should expand in all directions. it was too large for the traffic on airline routes but was used extensively by Pravda for sightseeing and propaganda flights. Sweden. It first flew on 11 October 1931 from Frunze airfield (Khodinka) in Moscow. an Aeroflot PS-9 (version of the ANT-9) opened up the first all-Soviet westward route on 31 August 1935.----.V. and is more fully reviewed on the page opposite. (photo: Boris Vdovienko) The only example of the ANT-14.---.-------. Tiflis. Production of the PO-2 continued until 1944. as it is one of the important communication links with remote rural regions.000 passengers during its ten-year service life. made their appearance.BUILT 60% ~--+--+--+--___I'----+---1 40% ---+---+---+----1---1 20% 60%' ---+---+----j 80% o 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 =c. in cooperation with A. first flew on 14 August 1931. On 16 June. Air Pravda On 3 June 1930.F. Aeroflot continued the good work of its predecessors.---y---.V. Thousands of them were built. especially the Model K-S. which first flew on 1 May 1929. it was to become a maid-of-all-work. as a feature of the First Five Year Plan of 1928. and Sverdlovsk. this was a big aircraft. already described on page 21. Grazdansiy Vozduzhniy Flot (G. Putilov. On 15 December 1933.---. Kharkov. held in Moscow from 30 January to 4 February 1932." On 25 February. Andrei Tupolev watched the first flight of his fourengined bomber. A five-engined airliner.B. Kazan. or even ignored by western observers.Dobrolet Becomes Aeroflot Growth of an Aircraft Industry The Polikarpov U-2 (or the Po-2 after the death of Polikarpov in 1944) made its first flight on 8 January 1928. AEROF LOT SERVICE AIRCRAFT f929-35 Reorganization On 29 October 1930. mainly around Moscow. which was put to good use as a transport airplane in 1937 in support of the Polar expeditions (see pages 30-31). On 26 March 1932 it was given the trading name of Aeroflot. 80% 1----+---+--+---+----+---+---1 20% SOVIET . was establishing itself. a special aviation section was created to ensure matrix delivery to Leningrad. 1920 1922 1922 DOBROLET 1924 JUNKERS) RUSSLAND ZAKAVIA : I AZDOBROLET [UKRVOZDUCHPUT1--J 1924 1926 1926 1928 1928 1930 DOBROLET (AVIAARKTIKAY GLAVSEVMORPUT~ 1930 1932 G. The expansion of the Soviet airline was gathering momentum. Czechoslovakia. by an extension from Irkutsk to Vladivostok (see page 24). Pyatagorsk. Of steel construction (Stal is Russian for steel) it could carry four passengers. designed by A. The joint SovietGerman airline Deruluft was wound up on 31 March 1937. the ANT-6. The Kalinin series.) was reorganized as the Main Directorate of the Civil Aviation Fleet.

it influenced the Junkers firm to convert the Ju 52 from a single-engined aircraft into a tri-motor.R. Seats No.040 17.S..S. and was publicly presented in Red Square. which first flew on 7 May 1929. during Mikhail Gromov's second European tour.480 700 900 Wings of the Soviets On 10 July 1929.p. It had a metal corrugated fuselage and wing. !nitialiy as a tri-motor with M-26. on a tour of Europe that included five foreign capital cities. Indeed.1 Sep.2 28.500 22. EARLY TUPOLEV TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT Type First Flight Date Aug 1925 26 Nov 1925 22 Dec 1930 11 Sep1929 1May 1929 114 Aug 1931 Dimensions (m) Length 94 18..S.8 AU9. Mikhail Gromov took off in the prototype ANT-9. (photo: Lufthansa) L 23 .SR to US.1929 Rome The tri-motor ANT-9 prototype URSS-309 Krylya Sovyetov (Soviet Wings) at Berlin's Tempelhof Airportin fuly 1929.990 5. engines. it not only looked more elegant and aerodynamically efficient. in 1929 (see also page 19)3 Bomber types.5 23.085 7. the ANT-9 nine-seat passenger transport.2 23.350 1. the same day when a common flag was adopted for the civil aviation fleet of the U. kg Speed (mi) Built km/hr 2. MTOW Cruise Range No. He returned in triumph on 8 August.A. of which 60 were M-17-powered twins. named Krylya Sovyetov (Soviet Wings). Production of the ANT-9 totaled 75. ANT-3 r ANT-4IG-11 2 ANT-6IG-21 ANT-7IP-6) ANT-9 4 ANT-14 Liberty see note 3 1 400 M-17 see note3 2 680 M-17F see note3 4 715 M-17 see note3 2 680 M-17 680 9 2/3 GR9-AKX 480 36 5 IG. the Soviet Union had an airliner that was possibly the best in Europe.0 17.7 39.0 26.000 5.5 Span 13. notably the ANT-6 and ANT-l on Polar expeditions (see pages 26-27) 4 Used by Gromov in his Wings of the Soviets European circuit (see map). fixed landing gear.530 150 156 15. 1926 ANT-9 (Wings of the SOViets) 10 Jul.ANT-9 9 SEATS 170km/h (lOSmph) Tupolev Makes His Mark Andrei Tupolev produced his first multi-engined type. its performance matched its looks. later U. flown by Mikhail Gromov on European demonstration flight in 1926 (see page 19)2Strana Sovyetov. Shestakov from US. Compared with previous Tupolev designs.0 244 15. some of which were used for specialflights.nome-Rh5neJupit. and the type remained in the fleet of Aeroflot until the end of the Second World War.8 404 Pass. known as PS-9s. there is a report that. calling as it did twice in Berlin. initially GnomeRhone Titans. The ANT-9 went into service with Deruluft and Dobrolet early in 1931. Engines Type h. London Paris ~ GROMOV'S EUROPEAN TOURS ANT-3 (Proletarij) 31 Aug.0 150 180 195 880 950 1. For the first time. and air-cooled engines.er) 60? 75 1 Notes: lprolaterii. flown by CA. Note the three waiters in the foreground preparing champagne for the dignitaries..

Dobrolet was given the task of building an air route. at the very least. 9 January 1930. (photo: Far Eastern Regional Directorate Museum.5 Vladivostok 24 . while the peninsula of Kamchatka. Those in the Arctic Ocean were of little commercial importance.R. and by which time Dobrolet had become Aeroflot. geographically. It was a true pioneering effort. and the boot would slip off. and almost halfway round the earth. as narrated on the page oppOSite. I/eschen ~QVitay<l. in Siberia. Aeroflot had· also reached Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy. Nerchinsk Chita Kalin in K . although they had some strategic value. one vast land area. It had expanded the route map to include. on 15 December 1933. the engine would fire.S. Sakhalin.I Marins ets. on an historic day. after several tries. and had reached Irkutsk. (photo: Far Eastern Regional Directorate Museum. the journey was normally flown in two or three.S. Sakhalin. separated from the rest of Russia by the Sea of Okhotsk. the engines were most reluctant to start. from Irkutsk to Vladivostok. loop a rope over the foot of the boot. but which nevertheless did more than its share of the work.~~ .S. He remembers that. Comrade Nijnakovsky blazed a trail by dog-sled from Khabarovsk to Nikolayevsk. ten time zones away. as noted on pages 20 and 22. 'Alettf. there were a few offshore islands. The Ju 13s were supplemented by the diminutive Shavrov Sh-2 amphibians. was divided between the U. and contained some natural resources. but as time went on. and flew to AleksandrovskSakhalinskiy. If only because of a latent suspicion of Japanese ambitions in the area. an aircraft that did not possess the appeal or reputation of the ANT-9. ROUTE Savoia-Marchetti (J t etropovlovsk Komchatski) Okho-ts ~~n na-Amuce Svabodnijo Bfagov. He laid down supplies of fuel. which also deputized for the S. On another historic occasion. and occasionally. in the early years when opencockpit Junkers-F 13s were the flagships of the line. beyond the Ural Mountains. U. ready for any emergency en route. when all else failed. Khabarovsk) Pioneer Route During 1929. but those in the far east were very important strategically. even after heating the oil and other methods of coaxing them into life. in the north and Japan in the south. The first flight took eleven days. the chief city of Sakhalin. in the summer. Then. and medical supplies (and not forgetting waterproofed packets of matches). thus saving. haul on it very sharply. Giving It The Boot Vodopyanov himself recalls how resourceful and ingenious were the ground crews who serviced the aircraft in those times at the dawn of aviation in Russia's far east. The island of Sakhalin. after a new airport had been built at Khabarovsk. the crew would place a knee-length rubber boot on the propeller. the crew from a possible whip-lash. A plan to build a railway from Khabarovsk to Nikolayevskna-Amure was postponed because of the difficulties of building a line through the Amur swamplands. During the winter. By this time. might as well have been a distant island. whereupon. in 1933.To The End of the Line Island Outposts While the Soviet Union was. At that time this was 'the end of the line' for Aerofot. which in those days AEROFLOT'S FAR EAST FLYING BOAT 1933-55 Dobrolet was gradually spreading its wings. in a single long day. the final section of the TransSiberian air route was completed. Mikhail Vodopyanov left Khabarovsk in a Junkers Ju 13 floatplane (illustrated on page 15). Khabarovsk) Pilots ready for takeoff at Aleksandrovsk. and beyond to CentraJ Asia.S. though only a few kilometers from the Asian land mass at one point.55s in later years.1 1933 '1:-(0- 'U-1 (1940-44 \0 pe)": 0 Khabarovsk· 1930-1933 Martin 156 (PC~30) and Consolidated 28(MP-7) (1942-55) REGD 0' :2\. by 1930. Instead. shelter.R. Arkhar -rambovsI<. The inaugural flight was made by a Kalinin KS. with temperatures at 300 below zero (Celsius). was difficult to reach. First built in 1928. Moscow had to ensure close ties to the extremes of its empire. they were used extensively along the great river routes throughout Siberia. all the major cities of European Russia and the Caucasus. Dobrolet did not recommend this process in the instruction manuals. Transcontinental The tiny terminal building at Okha. food. ""'-:13 aKMlinskiy I· Nf%hn€ flo Polikarpov U-2 Ayan and ShavrovSh-2 1933 41o~ Nikolayevsk AEROFLOT TRANS-51 BERIAN ROUTE Rukhlov~~~ REGD ·COMPLETED~ ~ )~ 0. but it worked.

as the GST (Gidro Samolyet Transportnyi. with Polikarpov Po-2 and Shavrov Sh·2 amphibians. The Clipper was replaced by the Consolidated Catalina in 1943 or 1944. from 1940. The Martin 156 'Russian Clipper'. A few civil examples. and especially to Kamchatka. The Martin 156 . license eroduction of the type was undertaken at Taganrov. Khabarovsk) A Savoia-Marchetti S. the same type that had been used by Marshal Balbo in the famous trans-Atlantic squadron flight from Italy to Brazil in 1930. The Glenn Martin (as it was always referred to in Russia) could normally carry 50 passengers. preferably nonstop from Khabarovsk to Petropavlovsk. The Far East Region of Aeroflot needed an aircraft that could combine a good payload with a good range. when it had to be retired because of the difficulty in obtaining spare parts.designated SP-30 by Aeroflot was delivered in 1940 and operated successfully during the summer months until 1944. designated MP-7. the so-called 'Russian Clipper'. 225km/h (140mph) The Savoia-Marchetti S. and the journey by S. by the circuitous route around the Sea of Okhotsk (see map opposite).55P Local services began to develop in the Far East area.Flying Boats of the Far East MARTIN 156 50 SEATS. an improved version of the famous China Clipper Martin 130 delivered to Pan American Airways in 1935. enough to traverse the southern part of the Sea of Okhotsk. for example.SSP (msn 10528) used on the route from Khabarovsk to PetropavlovskKamchatsky in the mid-1930s. A circular route was established to some small communities to the north and east of Blagoveschensk. Khabarovsk) 25 . or hydro aircraft transport) for the Soviet Navy.55P twin-boom flying boats. it could carry 70. were delivered to Aeroflot.55P to Petropavlovsk usually took about five or six days in the summer. and on shorter trips.S. Aeroflot negotiated for five Savoia-Marchetti S. the great Russian rivers. The Russian Clipper Flying to Sakhalin. as well as Lake Baikal. Khabarovsk to Nikolayevsk-na-Amure. and the Junkers Ju 13s were replaced with larger aircraft. was an adventure.55P inaugurated Aeroflot service to Petropavlovsk in 1933. (photo: Far Eastern Regional Directorate Museum. on the Sea of Azov. Aeroflot upgraded to larger equipment. the aircraft having been delivered from Italy by a circuitous route via the Black Sea. Accordingly. the Martin 156. Three Consolidated Model 28-1s had been imported from the U. Some Lisunov Li-2s are believed to have been used also. (photo: Far Eastern Regional Directorate Museum. The S. in 1938 and.

such as those of Chelyuskin hero Molokov. this advice was soon followed. Even before the Revolution.-'i=' ~ ~- ~~c. Glavsevmorput's Department of Polar Aviation.also constantly moving . in nortltem Siberia. The Administration was equipped from the start with a fleet of Junkers Ju 13 floatplanes and six Dornier Wal flying boats. and in 1 September 1930. During 1924. (Vdovienko) Expanding the Horizons During the mid-1930s. -~-~~ ~~ . (Vdovienko) The Chelyuskin Rescue Soviet aviators won their spurs in a remarkable rescue mission. They carried vital supplies. with some pilots making some notable flights. in front of the ANT-l reconnaissance aircraft on tlte Papanin expedition. During the latter 1920s. known familiarly as the Ice Commissar. and familiarly known as Aviaarktika. a great testimonial to the new aviation technology. at Krasnoyarsk. On 15 February 1929. reviewed on the opposite page. to rescue sU1vivors of the wrecked Chelyuskin in 1934. Except for the wartime years and until he retired from the Air Force. the good ship Chelyuskin left Leningrad to attempt another circumnavigation of the Soviet Union. and this was reinforced in March 1921 by the formation of the Floating Naval Scientific Institute. the four-engined ANT-6 and the twinengined ANT-4. helped to locate the Sedov expedition that was lost in the Arctic ice of Novaya Zembla. and especially Vasily Molokov. in 1914. on the Yenesei. barely two months after the last British troops had left Arkhangelsk.. In a series of flights from a coastal airstrip near the ship. at a latitude of 73 0 on Novaya Zembla. near Lake Baikal. On 12 February it was crushed by an iceberg and the entire ship's company were marooned. on its tributary. and built a landing field . while on 4 August 1925 Otto Kalvits reached Matochkin Shar. at Yakutsk. led by Mikhail Babushkin. (Vdovienko) Pavel Golovin (second from rigltt) with crew members (from left) Volkov. and Terentiev. It was almost within sight of the Bering Strait when in November it stuck in the ice. The Northern Sea Route Administration Much in the same manner that western navigators had speculated about the Northwest Passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific. -~~ . and valuable furs inbound . headed by Dr Otto Schmidt. or Glavsevmorput (Northern Sea Route Administration). with a base at Omsk. Jan Nagursky a Pole. only 180 passengers and about 15 tons of mail were carried. and on the Lena. Shevelev was in charge throughout. On 20 April 1920. Soviet aviation was ready for the Arctic. Igor Sikorsky himself had visualized the possibility of using aircraft to survey and explore the frozen wastes of Russia's northlands. Boris Chukhnovsky made a dozen flights in a Junkers Ju 13 to survey the Barents and the Kara Seas.. In 1933.and constantly moving . at least as far as Vladivostok. including medicines. reaching Franz Josef Land. at Irkutsk. doctors. Glavnoe upravlenie Severnogo morskogo puti.camp on the ice flows. including among other types.furs that would otherwise have taken two years to reach the stores in Moscow or Leningrad. the northernmost islands of Eurasia. A whole team of aviators won their spurs.in 1933. Gathering confidence. the Irtysh. Ivan Mikheyev made a successful ambulance mission. the fleet had been increased to 42. Siberia: the Ob. and teachers out-bound. they saved all 104 marooned personnel. was formed. The role of the airplane was fully recognized from the start. was headed by Schmidt's deputy and right-hand man. Its achievement could not be measured by conventional statistics . Glavsevmorput sent out its long tentacles throughout the sparsely populated Siberian lands that occupy more than half of the area of Russia. the Northern Sea Route Committee was formed. It moved to Moscow in 1932. aircraft were used to aid seal hunters and to gUide shipping. established at Krasnoyarsk on 1 September 1930. Mark Shevelev. -:-. the aircraft flew further and more often. He had made several voyages in the Arctic. so did Russian seamen dream of linking Arkhangelsk and Murmansk with Vladivostok via the Arctic Ocean and the Bering Strait. including Mikhail Vodopyanov.. Much pioneer work was done in establishing air routes with waterborne aircraft along the great rivers of An Aviaarktika ANT-l (SSSR-N28) on skis. and survived independently from Aeroflot until 3 January 1960. on the Angara. but Polar Aviation pilots were learning their trade. Kyekusltev. -:::~~. Special container attached to the wing ofthe Polikalpov R-SC aircraft. By 1933.Aviaarktika First Cautious Steps As early as 1912. 26 . when.in preparation for the rescue aircraft. Dr Schmidt organized a floating . (Vdovienko) The terminal building at Noriilsk. when the state airline took over all its operations. flying a Farman.

ANT-6 SSSR-N170. such as Noril'sk.a third of the total . he left Krasnoyarsk on 13 July 1935. at Uelen (see map). He then made a flight to the mouth of the Yenesei. By the mid-1930s. were ever fitted with wheels.400mi) in 200 flying hours. to Central Asia. the Black Sea. the Trans-Siberian Railway. but east of Yakutsk.. It had to. via Yanaul. to prove the feasibili c ty of an air route to link important locations of mineral wealth. From Moscow after the 1936 flight. and much better known. Only the largest aircraft. (photo: Boris Vdo]lienko) REGD 27 . Mikhail Vodop)'ano]l flew /]lan Pa/"/anin and his scientific tealll frolll Rudolf/sland. thence via Yakutsk to a point near Magaden.keeping strictly to the route of the Iron Road.000km (13. Vasily Molokov's Siberian CD ••••••••• PR-5. Molokov then made two epic journeys that should rank with other great. such as the ANT-6.. in the famous 1934 Chelyuskin rescue saga.000km (16. Instead. he followed the same route around Siberia. whell it retumed to Moscow. between the Aldan tributary of the Lena. arriving on 19 March. gaining experience with every flight into the snows and the ice. on 11 February. the Aeroflot network was an aerial reflection of the railroad map. surveyed the Severna Zemlya islands to the far north. near Tomsk. and the Sea of Okhotsk. he had had to cross a formidable mountain range..Dornier Waf 16 JUly-I2. it concentrated on speeding up the journey times along the traditional main arteries that had been built by the Russian railroads to connect Moscow with all the main centers of population.Sep. Routes in European Russia extended to Leningrad. for in the 1930s. the four-engilled transport that led the squadron ofaircraft to the North Pole in 1937. It was a pioneering performance of immense trailblazing significance. It's a Long Way to Krasnoyarsk Vasily Molokov was one of many highly trained pilots who flew for Aviaarktika. to the far eastern port of Vladivostok. The following year. therefore. at Dickson.. and Tayga. the seas and the lakes. and flew westwards via Arkhangelsk to arrive in triumph in Moscow on 19 September. Glavsevmorput (Aviaarktika) fashioned its sorties into the far north of Russia by a different surface mode of travel. In both flights. He had covered a distance of 21. pioneer aerial explorations. to arrive at Dudinka on 12 September. the latter completed only during the Great War of 1914-1918.. he returned to base at Krasnoyarsk from 30 September to S October. of follOWing the railway lines like Aeroflot. This picture was take/"/ in August.19 March 1935 ® . The next year. this had become the framework and foundation for an everexpanding system of air routes. Except for one branch line from Irkutsk to Yakutsk. and .f936 AlQtoClJk". he flew a Polikarpov R-5 from Moscow to Krasnoyarsk. rail lines to the north ran only to Arkhangelsk and to Murmansk. along the Lena River. picking up the Lena near Kirensk. In contrast. the Caspian Sea. In the first. Aviaarktika followed the rivers and waterways.OOOmi). Leaving Krasnoyarsk on 22 July 1936. The circumnavigation of Russia during the three-month odyssey covered a distance of 31. on the Yenesei River. he had followed as much as possible the courses of the great rivers and their tributaries. 1935 @ DornierWaJ 22July-f9 Sep. with the vital Trans-Siberian trunk rail line and the Aeroflot transcontinental airway. on the Sea of Okhotsk. He came into the public eye when. and followed various rivers to the northeast.opening Up The North Two Soviet Worlds As Aeroflot settled down to its task of providing all Soviet citizens with an air service (see page 33). 11 Feb. flying a Dornier Wal. then to the most easterly point of Russia. on the Kara Sea coast.to safety. the swamps and the marshlands of the northlands. while in the winter it exchanged the floats for skis. Molokov did even better. and in the summer used flying boats and f1oatplanes. he carried 34 people . and returning along most of the north Siberian coastline. near Izhevsk.

But eventually.0 'rescued D~ . with co-pilot M. they began final preparations. for lack of people to carry in a vast mainly frigid region that was almost completely unpopulated. at 11. pilot of the ANT-7 reconnaissance aircraft. He arranged for the ice-breaking ship Rusanoll to carry supplies to Rudolf.-. Flying blind for much of the time. Moscow dep. navigator I. 1937 g .OOOft) above the base camp.The North Pole The Preparations Aviaarktika had already reached ever northwards during the late 1920s and had spread its wings far and wide across the expanses of the Soviet Union. immediately established the first scientific Polar Station (PS-l) on the polar ice. Reaching Rudolf.t <. The squadron of aircraft flew up from Moscow. to report favorable conditions. Babushkin.-'r / .o'(. 22 March 1937 Dr Otto Schmidt (center) rests in front ofan ANT-6 on 25 March 1937.m.35 a.J- MurmQnsk 19 Feb 1936 ""turn In frlur11I l\ orr.S. on a dome-shaped plateau about 300m (I. such as those to the South Pole. on which they eventually drifted on their private ice-floe in a southwesterly direction until they were picked up off the coast of Greenland by a rescue ship on 19 February 1938. Ivan Papanin. en route to RudolfIsland and thence to the North Pole.. Vologda l. Ten tons of supplies of all kinds were to be taken. In addition to setting up a base camp and a small airstrip on the shoreline.<. and reported that the conditions. to confirm Dzerzeyevsky's forecasts. appointed Ivan Papanin to lead the assault on the Pole.300 liters (1.0C 5 l1ar Amderma Pap. except for isolated villages and outposts. Rather like expeditions on the ground.--aliArkhangelsk . On 29 March 1936. Mikhail Vodopyanov. an icy speck on the fringes of the island group known as Franz Josef Land (named after an Austrian explorer). Otto Schmidt. as they waited anXiously for Boris Dzerzeyevsky. Mikhail Vodopyanov set off with Akkuratov in a two-plane reconnaissance of the possible air route to Rudolf Island (see map). his co-pilot. There were frustrating delays. Spirin and three mechanics landed at a point a few kilometers beyond the North Pole (just to make sure) on 21 May 1937. in those areas where Aeroflot had no reason to go. Vodopyanov was to be the chief pilot. and for Pavel Golovin. On one flight.. (photo. Rudolf is only about 1. Boris Vdollienko) 28 . with scientists Yvgeny Federov and Piotr Shirsov.. with a slight slope to assist take-off.l l Mys ZheJanlya h'Kin ". were not impossible. . while haz- ardous because of the severe climate and terrain. Moscow time.. the expedition received the all-clear. and 35 drums were needed for each aircraft.~ . Babushkin. REGD ~ Rudolf Island 17 Apr. leaving on 18 March 1937.~ ANT-6 f . assisted by his deputy.300km (800mi) from the Pole and a good location for a base camp and launching site.. At a latitude of 82 0 North.anin returns 15 March 1938 ~' Papanin party. Schmidt was sufficiently satisfied to make plans. pushed further beyond the limits. the resident weather-man. they rolled out a longer runway. On his return to Moscow on 21 May. they reached their destination. while not ideal. The northernmost landfall in the Soviet Union is the tiny Rudolf Island.600USg) of fuel for the 18-hour round-trip to the Pole.. Flying an ANT-6 (registered SSSR-NI70). and having to contend with inconveniences such as boiling six pails of water before starting the engines with compressed air. and to test the accuracy of the radio beacons. The Assault The working party sent to Rudolf did their work well. On his left is his pilot Mikhail Vodopyanoll and to the right of the picture is M. very methodically. Mark Shevelev. Access to Franz Josef Land. is feasible as the tWin-island territory of Novaya Zemlya accounts for about 800km (500mi) of the distance from the Nenets region..(. together with radio operator Ernst Krenkel. Golovin was stranded for three days when he had to make a forced landing on the ice. is March 1938 .. and elaborate steps were taken to design light-weight and multipurpose equipment. . The ANT-6s were estimated to need 7. and selected a combination of four ANT-6 (G-2) four-engined bomber transports. and one ANT-7 (G-l) twin-engined aircraft for the task.

V.6 N-169 Total on board.V. Timofeyev Polar Party (with N-1701 Remained at the North Pole leader. radio operator. Anatoly Alexeyev had flown on a relief party to the Severnaya Zemlya islands in 1934. PP. 11 The Papanin Expedition team (left to right) E. 29 . Krenkel. or Hughes. navigator.. Y. in the Il'ya Murometsy. one ofthe veteran Arctic pilots who launched the attack on the North Pole. 11 Pilot. Papanln party. Director of the Northern Sea Route Administration. He had pioneered the route to Rudolf Island. Papanin (expedition leader). P.K. Vasily Molokov had been one of the heroes of the Chelyuskin rescue. Y.D. (all photos: Boris Vdovienko) Pilot. Akkuratov ANT·7 N-166 Crew only. Mazuruk • Rozlov.T. and had campaigned for aircraft landings on the North Polar ice. J. the pilots and crew were lavishly decorated. Stromilov • Navigator. for example. SA Ivanov· Air Mechanics.D. F. Ritsland ANT·6 N-l72 Total on board. Fedorov. no less. Shekurov. ChiefPilot of the fleet that carried Papanin to the Pole. And they were well earned. in opposition to other views that the Papanin party should be dropped by parachute. Krenke!. M. Fedorov • Radio Operator. I. Morozov.S Pilot. receiving many medals and testimonials in the Soviet tradition.P. below).G. Mikhail Vodopyanov. scout alrcraftl Pilot. Zhukov. His crew members Mikhail Babushkin and Ivan Spirin had both flown big airplanes as early as 1921. A. Petenin ANT·6 N-l71 Total on board.D. and his radio operator had been with him on the long Siberian circuit (page 27). 1937 Director of Operations Deputy Director of Operations Meteorologist at Rudolf Island ANT·6 N-170 Dr Otto Shmidt Mark Shevelev Boris Dzerdzeyevsky Total on board (Inc.Spirin Radio Op. Babushkin • Navigator.S.S. When the Soviet Union decided to Go For The Pole. I. 11 Pilot.The Arctic Experience Well·Earned Fame After the various great flights made by Soviet aircraft. as those bestowed in New York on Lindbergh. Moshkovsky ANJ. Earhart. while lIya Mazuruk and Pavel Golovin already had outstanding records. if not quite so lavish. including the opening of the Dobrolet route to Sakhalin (page 24). Golovin· Navigator. Papanln • Navigator. it had the best cadre of trained and experienced pilots in the world to face the daunting challenge.P.Alexeyev • Navigator. Moscow witnessed receptions that were as impressive. Shirshov Total weight of supplies carried to the North Pole 9 tons Dr Otto Schmidt. Il'ya Mazuruk.T. T.K. Shirshov. FLIGHT TO THE NORTH POLE. Volkov. Molokov • Radio Operator. M. Mikhail Vodopyanov. Bassein. I. E. Terentyev • Mechanics. Vodopyanov • Co-pilot. and P. had built up hundreds of hours of flying in remote parts of Russia.

The aircraft ladders were convertible into sleds. Tons 3. Domestic Needs Total Typical Loading of Polar flights by ANT-6 REGD AVIAARKTIKA One of the North PoZe aircraft at Arkhangelsk. the 'bomb' went straight through. An ANT-7 in a typical Arctic scene. they had had to force an opening in the leading edge of the wing. Boats.5kg (21lb) ·bomb'. Tents were of light-weight silk and aluminum. 2 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 3 Extra Fuel Tank Their Tiny Hands Were Frozen During the final flight from Rudolf Island to the North Pole. How Much Extra To carry even this finely tuned total weight of nine tons. It was an act of fortitude that nearly cost them their hands. PAPANIN EXPEDITION TOTAL FUEL. divided between the four ANT-6 load-carrying aircraft. every ingenious precaution was taken to avoid superfluous weight. It was shaped like a pear and fastened at its rear or trailing end was a 6-8m (20ft) line with flags attached. with its precious anti-freeze liqUid disappearing into thin air. Vodopyanov's trusted chief air mechanic. Test Bombing Landing a 24-ton aircraft on an ice-floe. Lamps. no matter how big. by placing cloths over the leak. and every item of nonessential equipment was stripped from the interior. They came up with an ingenious solution. It was determined that the minimum ice thickness required was 70cm (2ft). crawled along the tunnel in the wing (see opposite and diagram below) and tried to stop the flow. was a speculative proposition. and other sources of equipment supply. extra fuel also had to be taken. but barely.5 25 07 0. Utensils were of plastics or aluminum. To reach the leak. together with co-mechanics Morozov and Petenin. Fuel. PAPANIN EXPEDITION CLOTHES/PERSONAL ITEMS PER TEAM MEMBER No. Maps. and every non-essential item of personal effects was left behind. Engines Various Scientific Instruments Radio Receiver-Transmitters Power Apparatus Clothing.e 700 days for a party of 4 menI Fuel for Primus Stoves.5 13 90 FOOD TAKEN ON PAPANIN EXPEDITION (Weights in Grams Igram 1470 1430 150 2500 2500 1250 1250 1000 1250 500 500 93 100 800 500 Fish Roe/Caviar Milk Tomatoes Sweet Butter Lard Smoked Fish Hunter's Sausage Cream Cheese Rice Green Peas White Flour Potato Flour Noodles Stewed Fruit Dried Potatoes =0. warming up to go to search for Levanevsky in October 1937. If the ice was less than 70cm. and pouring the liqUid back into the radiator. Special equipment such as the sounding line and the bathymeter were re-designed to save weight.800 man-days (i. and Equipment Food for 2. AND EQUIPMENT Food. Mikhail Vodopyanov realized that one of the ANT-6's engines was leaking water from its radiator. If more. Both the aircraft crews and the members of the expedition were eternally grateful for the innumerable contributions made by the 'backroom boys' in Leningrad.035 ounce) Sugar Salt Pemmican Rye Biscuits Bread Crumbs Dried Onions Bean Soup Barley Soup Borsch Fresh Necks Meat Cutlets Chicken Cutlets Chicken Stock Beef Stock Beef Jerky 1000 1000 1250 1250 600 125 500 250 120 30 2 300 125 Powdered Milk Powdered Eggs Chicken Pate Chocolate Fruit Jelly Tea Cocoa Coffee Fruit Drinks Pepper Bay Leave Vitamin CCandy Dried Strawberries 5 Lemon Extract Item Sleeping Bag Cookware Set Shirt and Pants (cloth) Shirt (cloth) Combinations (clothl Fur Trousers (Reindeer) (Seal) Fur Coat (Reindeer) Sweaters Pairs 18 4 3 1 2 1 6 1 12 Item Socks/Stocking (Wooll Socks (Fur) Sock-boots (Reindeer) (Seal) Boots (Feltl (Mukluks) Boots ('Russian') Gloves (Wooll (Furl (Canvas) I 2500 300 5000 2500 300 120 700 240 360 360 1250 1250 950 1500 300 Two ANT-6s ofAviaarktika (SSSR-N211 and N212). engineers then devised a 9. draped on the ice. (all photos: Boris Vdovienko) 30 . on the way back. Almost two tons extra had to be carried by each aircraft. radiators obviously being exposed to the airflow.Life SU2POrt for A Polar Station Weight Watchers To equip the Papanin Expedition. indicated that landing was possible. down which the departing aircraft could gain speed and lift. The engine kept going. squeezing them out into a container. FOOD. The mechanics did too. Moscow. and the flags. But the dome-shaped airfield on the plateau at Rudolf Island offered shallow slopes. in addition to the provisions listed in the tables on this page. This method was first utilized on the Papanin expedition. it stuck. Tents.5 0. Flegont Bassein. soaking up the outflow.

"the design was sensibly planned to meet operational requirement and was highly competitive aerodynamically. wind tunnel testing was completed in March 1929. Of these. The British and French industries had nothing in the same league.084 297 262 960 160 7. AM-34RN (4 X 970hp) • MTOW 22. 180km/h (112mph) A special feature in the design was a tunnel that permitted air mechanics to cra\vl along the whole length of the wing." This was in 1930. renowned technical aviation authority and compiler of encyclopedic volumes about aircraft. the type was adapted for other purposes. culminating in the ANT6A. structurally.603 31 . and in detail engineering. This picture well illustrates the excellent basic 1930 design of the world's first heavy tmnspolt that went into series production. compared with no less A rear view ofANT-6 SSSR-N-170 in which Vodopyanov took Papanin to the NOith Pole.OSOkg (48. By comparison. but only two were built. Throughout its lifespan (production ceased early in 1937) it underwent many improvements. and painted in the orange-red and blue colors. Design started way back in May 1926. and on one notable occasion (see opposite page) this was used to perform some unusual maintenance on one of the engines.S. and Mikhail Gromov made the first test flight on 22 December 1930.350km (840mi) A Great Airplane Bill Gunston. (photo: Boris Vdovienko) Comparison with 11-86 LENGTH 25m (82ft) SPAN 40m (131ft) than 818 ANT-6s. fully equipped for take-off. The four special versions prepared for the Papanin expedition.600kg (49.and Plenty of Them Give or take a ton or two.SOOlb). the vast majority were for the Soviet Air Force. A Big Airplane . about 22 tons. specially modified for Dr Otto Schmidt's Aviaarktika's assault on the North Pole.200 640 22. the ANT-6 weighed. and one of the greatest achievements in aviation history" and that. and the U. says this about the Tupolev-designed ANT-6.A. with sky blue undersides. had not yet thought of the B-17. depending on the version. BREAKDOWN OF ANT-6 WEIGHT Item Kilograms Empty Weight on Skis Radio and Navigation Equipment Spare Parts and Special Expedition Equipment Crew of 81120kg each) Provisions for crew (20kg eachl Gasoline Oil Total (excluding cargo carried for ice station) 13. Most G-2s weighed 22. A Versatile Airplane Too Designed primarily as a bomber. to inspect fuel tanks and cargo holds. also known as the TB-3 or the G-2: "This heavy bomber was the first Soviet aircraft to be ahead of the rest of the world. according to Tupolev historians. probably to save precious weight. about ten or twelve ANT-6s were allocated to Mark Shevelev's Polar Aviation (Aviaarktika). including a masterpiece on Soviet types. reportedly carrying as many as 20 passengers. the contemporary German Junkers-G 38 weighed 24 tons. painted dark green.ANT-6 12 SEATS.8201b) • Normal Range 1. and it was also used during the 1930s by Aeroflot. were in bare metal.

The crew consisted of Sigismund Levanevskiy.S.jj~ The Second Trans-Polar Flight As if to trump Chkalov's ace . commemorates the flight by Chkalov. heard a brief message. monument commemorates this notable flight of 9. t ~~":'''''''''' .200mi). Viktor Levchenko (naVigator). Baidukov. they made their way to Portland. On this island. Washington State. After 17hr 3Smin. this was a mid-winged and much-developed version of the veteran but well-trusted ANT6. Baidukov.S. He asked Levanevskiy about his plans. however. and Tupolev left the room in disgust. in the far northeast of Siberia. he was reported to have said that the successful flight had been "worth two armies. The flight captured the imagination of the whole world and Chkalov was hailed as the Russian Lindbergh. but a master of his trade. Stalin conducted an enquiry. the ANT-2S. nearing the point of no return. landing. officially recorded as a Great Circle distance of 8. Yumashyev and Sergei A. Chkalov. This time the Great Circle distance of lO. you have a 400 percent chance!" He won the day. near the mouth of the Amur River. This dignified monument on an island near the shore of the Sea of Okhotsk. now renamed Chkalov (along with neighboring islands Baidukov and Belyakov). they made the historic flight that ranks as one of the greatest trail-blazing conquests of the air. a pilot with a reputation for taking risks. The First Trans-Polar Flight The follOWing year. and navigator Aleksander V. north of Murmansk. At the head of the table. by a route that took them first due north from Moscow and then by a near-Great Circle course over eastern Siberia. and Belyakov from Moscow to Udd Island in 1936. The ANT-2S had made its case.28Smi) in 63hr 2Smin. although repeated searches have been made. reporting severe trouble. however. in a DB-A (URSS-N209). Answering Levanevskiy's allegation that a single-engined aircraft (the ANT-2S) had a 100 percent chance of disaster if an engine failed. 32 . Designed by Viktor Bolkovitinov. On 20 July 1936. The aircraft had fuel system problems and. The ANT-25's fuel problems were corrected. and Victor Levchenko. a flight to the U. it was Levanevskiy's turn. a dignified Tragic Postscript One month later still.R. Grigory Pobezhimov (mechanic).S04km (S. designed by Andrei Tupolev. (photo: REG. was on a proving flight over the Barents Sea.S. Chkalov responded with the remark "With four engines. Convinced that a multi-engined aircraft was the best suited for long-diStance flying (and who could argue this point today?) he set off from Moscow on 12 August 1937. On 12-14 July. Stalin suggested that. Georgy F. The DBA and its crew were never heard of again. beat the world's distance record held by the Frenchmen Codos and Rossi. Flying at first due north to the Pole and then continuing due south. American assistance should be sought. which. they made landfall across the Sea of Okhotsk. the very same type that so successfully had made the flights to the North Pole earlier in the year (see page 30).S. Lavanevskiy turned back. Later. that." By this time. Levanevskiy had a crew of five: Nikolai Kasteneyev (co-pilot).R. Danilin. a meeting was held in Josef Stalin's office in the Kremlin. early in 1936.OOOkm (6. and one of the most dramatic.. Voroshilov. he decided. because of more favorable winds and conditions.306mi). faced across the table by Molotov. aiming for Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy.and perhaps to remind everyone in the U. Baidukov. Baidukov had begun to work with Valery P. Turning west.82Smi) in S6hr 20min. and Nikolai Galkovsky (radio operator). with Andrei B.The Great Polar Flights The Meeting On 3 August 1935.148km (6.374km (S. from 18 to 20 June 1937. instead of the Moscow base. for the next flight into the Arctic. Belyakov flew the aircraft from Moscow. It was attended by the three crew members. Davies) The Flight to Udd Although Stalin had originally wished to make a prestige-seeking flight across the Pole to the U. at the military Pearson Field at Vancouver. in southern California. Nikolai Godovikov (mechanic).A. this crew flew from Moscow to a grass meadow near San Jacinto. was blanketed by impenetrable weather. that he was once the premier Soviet pilot . also in an ANT-2S. whereupon the pilot said he did not trust the ANT-2S. made a second trans-Polar flight only a month after Chkalov. then considered to be the Soviet Union's leading pilot. In mid-September. the latest product of the TsAGI design organization. and Andrei Tupolev. whose smoke drifted over the room. aided by his pipe. landing near Novgorod. but Baidukov felt that the aircraft's problem could be rectified.S. with its bright red wings making a dramatic impact. Oregon. on the tiny island of Udd. the radio station at Cape Schmidt. Chkalov. flown in an even shorter time (62hr 17min) than Chkalov's.'s Far East would be preferable.Mikhail Gromov. The ANT-2S had covered a distance of about 10. for political reasons.

ANT-25 Going For the Distance For propaganda and prestige reasons alone. was Chkalov's co-pilot. SPECIALIST LONG-RANGE AIRCRAFT COMPARED Aircraft Type - Fuel Range Achieved Year of IMTOW Dimensions (m) Long Range (kg) capac~ Distance Flight Length Span (litres) (km) Route 1931 9.1. Andrei Tnpolev realized that the existing long distance record was within its grasp. (photos: Boris Vdovienko) I" Valely Chkalov.200 14. In an amiable mood. with A. The ANT-25 crew that flew from Moscow to Cali(ornia in 1937 (left to right) Danilin. at 12. and tragic attempt to fly across the NO/th Pole in 1937. GeOlgy Baidukov ((rant). and Chkalov's co-pilot.0 227 5. No more recordbreaking flights were attempted. MF and HF radios.trans-Polar flight .705 Cranwell.367* ParisSiberia (crashedl 8.1 tons. and the drag coefficient was reduced by 36 percent. to relieve bending stress (later the corrugations were smoothed over with fabric. meet at Moscow airport in 1975. The corrugated wing had an aspect ration of no less than 13-0. setting a new world's record on 10 September. With them is General Bykov. and obtained authorization from the Revolutionary War Council on 7 December 1931 to proceed with a new design. Ismailia. the reputable Sigismund Levanevskiy flew towards the North Pole.524 131 340 8.189 10. Spirin.713mi) in a multi-lap triangular flight lasting 75hr 2min. and that led to the critical meetinlr with Stalin.000 10. Georgy Baidukov. Instrumentation included the first Soviet gyro-compass. the ANT-25 was in a great tradition of long-range specialist aircraft. a 500 W. And the honor of matching words with deeds fell to Valery Chkalov.940 148 250 5. It was a carefully-fashioned product. pilot o(the first trans-Polar flight 0(1937. SWAfrica MoscowSan Jacinto. the ANT-25 RD (Rekord Dal'nost. Sigismund Levanevskiy.) The fuel load was eventually increased to 6. Filin and LT. Then. EnglandWalvis 8ay. 33 . as preparations were made for a spectacular demonstration . As the table below shows. or record distance). pilot o( the third. Andrei Tupolev. 12 V generator.517 Notes: All single-engined monoplanes.411km (7.214 1933 11. and a sextant in a hinged room station. was attractive to the Soviet Union during the early 1930s. Mikhail Gromov made the first flight on 22 June 1933. pictured here with Gramov. high aspect ratio wing 'Previously-achieved close circuit Attempt to break distance record thwarted by engine failure. but had to turn back (see opposite page). but the aircraft were used for experimental test flying.146 Vickers Wellesley 1938 8. a series of closed circuit flights in 1934 culminated in Gromov. In August 1935. more than half the total gross weight of the airplane. About 16 ANT-25s were built. Cal. the goal of beating world records. and Yumarshov. After the modifications. with fuel tankage distributed along the whole length. Deputy Minister o( Aviation. This aerial view o(ANT-25 URSS-N025 clearly emphasizes the fmge willg area and the high aspect ratio.863 11. especially in a technological field such as aviation. Gramov. the designer o(the ANT-25.Gromov fell ill. EgyptDarwin.4 280 8. Australia Dewoitine 33 Fairey LongRange Monoplane II ANT-25 1933 7.364 12.

(photo: Lufthansa) Stockholm - International" Routes 1940 REGD 34 . from Scandinavia to San Francisco in 30 days. improved service from Moscow to Tashkent was announced. Berlin was added to the Aeroflot map. by Japanese ship from Kobe.on 11 November 1940. in northwest China. for example. Aeroflot was building an air network. In that year also. did not last very long. but which carried mainly mail and Pravda matrices. Service also started from Leningrad to Stockholm in 1937.000 passengers. Operated jointly with the Swedish Airline A. measured in passenger-miles flown. in 1938. production of which had begun in 1938. On 15 May 1937. not by Aeroflot). there was a distinct upgrading of service standards. by a direct service from Stockholm to Moscow. however. the two points giving a name to the airline: Hamiata. with PS-9 (modified ANT-9) serVice. and by Levanevskiy's tragic disappearance. not so much by adding more routes (to those shown on the map on page 27) but by introducing better aircraft and more frequencies on the trunk lines and by adding small feeder services and bush routes to connect with the main arteries. This. The ANT-9 and the Junkers-Ju 52/3m. in 1939.handsomely . a joint Soviet-Chinese air link was forged. both airlines used the Douglas DC-3. the passengers. and in that year it carried 350. also flying the license-built Lisunov Li-2 version. of course. mainly government officials. Other indications of Aeroflot's following the flag during this confused period of uncertain world politics were the opening of lines to Bucharest and Cluj. with its brilliant support of the Papanin Expedition. This picture was taken at Konigsberg. Bulgaria. from Alma Ata to Hami. but this was superseded . by Chkalov's and Gromov's trans-Polar flights. while an even more ambitious connection was offered. In an interesting preview of future events. Romania.000.lgated metal for longitudinal stiffness. a contract having been made between Douglas and AMTORG (American Trading Organization) in August 1935 (see page 37). on 31 August 1936. the Soviets. license-built version ofthe Douglas DC-3. the two airlines offered service from Stockholm (neutral during World War II) and Tokyo. Rather as in the formative years of air transport in the United States in the 1920s. Aeroflot was now bigger than Deutsche Lufthansa.A. The Lisunov Li-2.A Nationwide Airline Aeroflot Consolidates While all the headlines were being captured by AViaarktika.. via Riga and Velikie Luki. (Boris Vdovienko) International Probing The Prague route had opened. to augment the flights first started by Dobrolet in 1929. both flying for Deruluft just before it stopped service. had lower priority. were representative of the generation ofairliners that depended on conl. via the Trans-Siberian Railway (interestingly. and following the demise of Deruluft on 31 March 1937. But all hopes of further international expansion were dashed when Hitler's Germany invaded the Soviet Union with Operation Barbarossa on 22June 1941. superseded the old generation. at Moscow-Khodinka. the unduplicated mileage of Aeroflot's route system was close to 100.B. Gaining Stature By 1940. and to Sofia. was 160 million. Europe's biggest. But from 1937 onwards. The productivity. and it was now the third biggest airline in the world.

and out of sight of the adoring fans. challenging the Arctic wastes. the Moskva (Moscow). and war seemed inevitable as Adolf Hitler pursued his insatiable desire for power. 1939 35 . Little did the crowd know of a certain hesitancy in the hero Mikhail's demeanour. the same one in which he had made a nonstop flight to the Far East in June 1938. They had actually flown farther. In the United States. New Brunswick. the lights went out in Europe once again. On 3 September. one ofonly two built.S. The first leg of his arduous route to the dreaded Franz Jozef Land was as short as he could make it . and.S. Accordingly. For the day was a Sunday. however. He took off in a Polikarpov R5 (SSSR-N128). Old-style diplomacy had been replaced by a policy of might-is-right. carried on until the guns and torpedoes were actually fired. as always. Germany invaded Poland. Vodopyanov's first segment. They lost their way and. to determine if a route to the North Pole was feasible via selected locations in Novaya Zemlya and Franz Jozef Land (see page 28).Flights Long and Short The Lights Go Out Again Europe was an unsettled part of the world in 1938 and 1939. Echoing a famous phrase by British statesman Edward Grey in 1914. he took off from Moscow on 28 April 1939. Flight of the Moscow Against the far-reaching political events. Polikarpov R-5 (SSSR-N127). approaching the North American continent. REGD '*0 Moscow Kokkinaki's Atlantic Flight. and he was superstitious about flying on a Sunday. flying an Ilyushin TsKB-30 (OB-3B) twin-engined bomber aircraft.900mi) and 22hr 56min after leaving Moscow. Vodopyanov's Shortest Hop When the famous pilot Mikhail Vodopyanov set off on his epic survey flight of 29 March 1936. while they were lost. Gordiyenko. While some countries took defensive measures France built its Maginot Line and Britain belatedly modernized its Royal Air Force . dense fog. Although the Chkalov and Gromov trans-Polar flights had been impressive. 6. a shorter route was chosen. the world of commerce and culture. and his death had further emphasized the severe dangers of Vladimir Kokkinaki (photos: Boris Vdovienko) Departure of the flight to Novaya Zemlya on 29 March 1936. New York was planning a spectacular World's Fair. and rather surprisingly. the disappearance of Levanevskiy had tarnished the image. temperatures down to 54 0 C below zero. Accompanied by Major Mikhail Kh. The pilot was Brig Gen Vladimir Kokkinaki. the Great Circle route westward from Moscow via Iceland and Greenland. he was given an enthusiastic send-off by a crowd of well-wishers at Moscow. the Soviet Union decided to mark the occasion by what was intended to be a spectacular airplane flight. disenchanted with trying to come to terms with the western democracies.the infamous MolotovRibbentrop Pact . managed to make a wheels-up forced landing in an ice-covered marsh on the little island of Miscou. and then proceeded to face filthy weather. ostensibly en route to the Frozen North. was only a few kilometers. with a certain amount of luck.just over the rooftops and hedges to the nearest landing strip. signed a non-aggression pact with Germany . and in which Mikhail Vodopyanov made a flight to Novaya Zemlya in 1936.250km (3.in August 1939.the U. The seizure of Austria and the Sudentenland by azi troops had put every country on a war-alert footing. and made their landing with empty tanks. and the Second World War began.R.

arms.or of any war. The Battle of Moscow In October 1941. diminutive maid-of-all-work. The aircraft is an ANT-7. The pilot on the right is Mikhail Vodopyanov. they had been supplied by a large number of Junkers-Ju 52/3m transports. The Lisunov Li-2 was the transport workhorse for the Soviet Union during the Great Patriotic War. About 80 of In the Arctic. Reinforcements With their backs to the wall in 1942 and the early part of 1943.365 tons of supplies. Such scenes as this were familiar in the north. the Soviet armed forces gladly accepted any help they could get. and communications missions. Aeroflot was directly involved in the defense of Moscow. The fleets were composed of the former aircraft of Aeroflot. 49. Vasily S. and three passenger windows in the filselage and containers underneath the wings. On 25 June.but those to the east continued for a while. Khabarovsk) A Polikarpov U-2 (po-2). (photo: Boris Vdovienko) 36 . They had been well earned. and ten Sections were awarded special medals. including materiel and medical supplies. Between 31 January and 2 February. On 16 October. Aeroflot had carried 2. with ambulance.000 were wounded soldiers. from whatever source. six of the Front-line Sections became Guards Units. (photo: Boris Vdovienko) A Soviet Navy GST (license-built Consolidated 28 Catalina) at Khabarovsk in the early 1940s. Within two or three days.822 troops carried. Of the passengers. and with the element of surprise. the city of Stalingrad was the site of one of the greatest victories of the Great Patriotic War . but still useful as a load-carrier. and medicines carried. was appointed head of the military transport organization. 15 Detached Aviation Regiments were formed in 1943. Equipped with Polikarpov V-2/Po-2s.000 tons of freight. and 1. Additionally. aircraft frequently stuck in the snow when icing effectively glued them to the runway. 15 pilots were proclaimed Heroes of the Soviet Union. and veteran of Polar aviation. (photo: Far Eastern Regional Directorate Museum. This Aeroflot U-2 (SSSR-L3373) pictured at Tobolsk in 1941 has a sliding canopy enclosed cockpitfor the pilot. and among the thousands of aircraft ferried from the east (see opposite) were hundreds of Douglas C--47s. Other help to augment the meager resources of Aeroflot during the desperate conflict came from an unexpected source. manufactured at Tashkent under a DC-3 license from Douglas. A Great War Record The Great Patriotic War ended on 9 May 1945. Hitler's Germany launched Operation Barbarossa and invaded the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941. was to be seen everywhere during the War. designed back in 1930. providing close support to individual regiments at the front line. Molokov. two special groups were formed: the First Transport Aviation Group (renamed in 1944 as the 10th Guards Aviation Division). reconnaissance. Grazdansij Vozduzhnij Flot (Aeroflot) effectively became a unit of the Soviet Air Force. During the War. the Germans made a concentrated effort to capture Moscow. Organization Late in 1942. the Government transferred to KUibyshev (Samara). The military GST was also used for passenger transport along with a few civil versions (designated MP7) built for Aeroflot. plus a number of obsolete types no longer useful as military equipment. The published statistics were impressive: 32. these units were highly mobile. During the final days of the doomed German armies. which were promptly delivered to the First Detached Aviation Division. such as the TB-3 (ANT-6) four-engined bomber.000 of its staff received medals and honors. hero of the Chelyuskin rescue. at least half of the Soviet Air Force had been destroyed before the aircraft could take to the air.730 flights (845 behind enemy lines). with the rank of Major-General.including the one to Berlin! . 330. Paramount among such efforts was the American Lend-Lease program. negotiated through AMTORG. although Stalin himself (in an uncharacteristic reflection of a similar decision by King George VI) stayed in Moscow. and was so recognized: 15. where they were joined by their matching twins Lisunov Li-2s.300. for operations on the Central Front.000 passengers and 300. (photo: Boris Vdovienko) these abandoned 'Tante Ju's' were repaired and put into service wi th Aeroflot. Aeroflot's contribution to the war effort had been considerable. All Aeroflot services to the west were immediately suspended . The Soviet forces desperately defended their capital. and the Special Communications Aviation Group (later to become the 3rd Communications Aviation Division).The Great Patriotic War Mobilization With shattering force. as did some of the routes of Aviaarktika.

01 .96 118-28 (95.258 had been built. The LendLease aircraft accounted for 12% of the 136. Engines Type~ mow kg h. Dakota flyers.800 of all types used by the Soviet Air Force in the Great Patriotic War. 'Gooney Bird' and the R.900 were P-39 Airacobras.700 aircraft supplied under the Allied LendLease program.280 (1401 Speed km/h (mph) Range km (mi) No.0001 11. and 860 North American B-25 Mitchells.493 military versions. and the ANT-6 had been an adequate heavy lifter.Aeroflot Turns to Douglas Technical Slowdown Although the ANT-9 of the late 1920s had been on a par with the commercial aircraft of other countries. for instance. mainly C-47s. by which time a total of 6. These were standard DC-3s. The old Yakutsk telminal building. Of the 18. pilots to Fairbanks.96 (95.the unprecedented machinery of the historic airlift began on 29 September 1942. 14. AMTORG (American Trading Organization) in New York.200 860 I 900 11.few aircraft arrived in time for the Battle of Moscow.2001 Buying the Best In August 1935.A. all the aircraft production lines in Europe were moved eastwards to cities beyond the Ural Mountains. Type First Right Date COMPARISON OF DOUGlAS DC-3 AND L1SUNOV L1-2 DimensionsmItt} Length Span Seats No. taken in 1992. via Murmansk . This massive logistics task took many months. The Soviet pilots liked them as much as did the U.400 P-63 Kingcobras. with a right-side entry door. over 4. head of the secret police. of all people. three junkers-ju 52/3m's REGD that had been captured on the eastern front. 700 were Douglas C-47s. Beria.S.750 were flown along this route. 1942-1945. where Soviet flyers took over.. Soviet designers lost momentum during the 1930s. The Soviet-built Douglases were first designated PS84s (Pashazhyrski Samolyet. Fifteen C-47s were transferred from the Soviet air fleet.2501 11. Davies) 37 . Uzbekistan.290 (1801 . in traditional Russian wood construction.0) I 21-28 I 2 2 Wright Cyclone p & W Double Wasp Shvetsov M-62 I 1. In a mighty display of determination and improvised organization. 487 built in Japan.A. shows. the most widely used of the military variants of the DC-3 workhorse transport airplane. first erected for the Lend-Lease program. remarkably.900 Douglas DB-7/A-20 Havocs. 2.F. other than those mentioned above.E. and these were from Britain. built in the U. Harry Hopkins. Alaska. And they were to make a solid contribution to Aeroflot's recovery after the conflict came to an end.000 (1. as this photo. and meanwhile the Air Force had to be reinforced. lib} DC·3 Li-2 17 Dec 1935 11940 19.S. or passenger aircraft). At an Allied conference in Moscow on 31 july 1941.A. On 1 March 1946. 28. 2.157 had been built at Tashkent. Tupolev himself spent much of his time under house arrest. Lend-Leases After the Nazi invasion of the summer of 1941. About 640 were lost in transit.413' I 124. msn 1413) and Boris Lisunov was sent to California to prepare for the licensed production of the Douglas twin. 2. took delivery of the first DC-2 (NCI4949. and from 17 September 1942. Slow to get under way at first . The type remained in production until 1954. is still there.66 (64. the 14th Cargo Aircraft Group of Aeroflot was formed at Yakutsk.S. and arrived in time to go into action early in October. together with. Built 2. when the first Bell P-39 Airacobra left Fairbanks. and escaped being shot only by the intervention of.p. Of these. laid the foundations of what was to become the Lend-Lease Program.G. Of the several other types.6) 28.225 11. but only 433 commercial DC·3s built specifically for airlines U-2 figure also includes production for military. by U.61 1966 (64. (R. President Roosevelt's special envoy.Kalinin was executed.430 (25.F. Just down the street is the original building which housed the offices ofthe Lend-Lease program during the vital years. By the end of World War II.9001 l':I6.1~ Notes: • This figure includes 10. Lisunov Li2s. They were used everywhere. much of western Russia and the Ukraine had been devastated or pillaged.

is on Ilyushin's immediate left. plans were qUickly made to spread Aeroflot's wings westwards. had to make the best with what it had: the trusty Lisunov Li-2s and the ex-Lend-Lease Douglas C-47s. ground services and engineering staff. or started anew. the U. is second from the left. a procedure that was the expected protocol in those times. it had added ambulance and medical supply flights to supplement its other work. and more widely in the following year when the summer schedules started on 23 May. and very few were built. By the end of 1945. on a few selected routes. Genrich Novozhilov. to most of the capitals of eastern and central Europe. Aeroflot had taken on the task of agricultural support in crop-dusting and crop-spraying. The Ilyushin 18. It was too large for the traffic of the day and demanded ground support which would not be available for years. with poor runways. first flown on 30 July 1947. (photo: Boris Vdovienko) Back in 1932. I This picture was taken in 1959 but is representative of the Ilyushin design team that produced the series ofpost-war airliners. at which most of the world's nations hammered out the basis for what was to become the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The Five Freedoms of the Air were not wholly accepted in Moscow. he had been given additional responsibilities. it carried 3. Yet to service this great plan. and flew over a network of 75.at the end of 1948. as Moscow began to isolate itself from its allies in the west. Baidukov resigned .600km (47. Like the British. and nations other than the exceptionally well-equipped United States. it was given the additional task of supporting fishing fleets by surveying the seas to locate shoals of fish. For apart from the problems of inadequate aircraft. Widening Responsibilities After two and a half years. simultaneously spreading the creed of communism and fashioning a cordon sanitaire to guard against a repetition of the events of 1920. Aeroflot must have been doing something right. at the same time trying to dominate the countries on its borders. technical advisor. Selgei Ilyushin stands in the middle. and the social work in the Arctic. 1946 Ii Baidukov Has Problems The Fourth Five-Year Plan had provided for ambitious Aeroflot expansion. on 23 September 1948. At home. Sergei Ilyushin had made preliminary drawings for what was to become the Ilyushin 11-12 as early as 1943. which made its first flight in March 1948.Post-War Strugglg Resumption of European Services The Soviet Union emerged from World War II (The Great Patriotic War) weakened by its sustained and intensive efforts to beat the Nazi war machine into the ground. The shortcomings were only too obvious. during which the Politburo often accused him of poor management. throughout the Soviet Union. where. On the ground. and also to Teheran.without incidentally apologizing for anything. and a meager budget. and maintenance. Now. nevertheless. In 1937. airports were totally inadequate. which had continued even during the war. on a proving flight from Moscow to Khabarovsk. the U. on 22 August 1947.000km (lIO. as often as not. This was the situation confronting Georgy Baidukov. Some relief was expected from the 60-seat four-engined Ilyushin 11-18 (the piston-engined one. bad passenger buildings. Baidukov introduced the Il-12. was a 60-seat fourengined airliner which never went into production. and this unpressurized tricycle-geared twin made its first public appearance on 18 August 1946. He had been sorely tried. airfields. They were withdrawn from service by 1950. including Mikoyan. Aeroflot had little more than a large fleet of Li-2s for the main routes. Yet in spite of all the difficulties.S. ice reconnaissance and water-bombing.S. in the open. and on 30 November 1949. it added forestry patrol. veteran crew member of the Chkalov trans-Polar flight of 1937. and Stalin's personal envoy to the United States during the war years. and went into service . and he witnessed the introduction of the amazing 12-seat Antonov An-2 biplane. Baidukov effectively made his point by taking a party of officials. it was too big and complicated for the traffic and ground infrastructure of the day. when he was put in charge of Aeroflot in 1947. pilots who were apt to take on too much vodka and not enough fuel. was maintained.OOOmi) of routes The First lIyushins Making the best of a sub-standard inventory. Helsinki ~ Leningrad RESUMPTION OF EUROPEAN AIR SERVICES 1944-47 Dates shown are of first fJjjht.R. had declined an invitation to attend the historic Chicago Conference.S. (photo: Ilyushin Design Bureau) RECiD 38 . and hundreds of little Polikarpov Po-2s.S. an activity in which the U. the trans-Siberian and other main arterial routes were revived. his successor. French.S. The equipment upgrading prospects were gloomy.000mi). Aeroflot had to re-group as the national flag carrier. In 1950. and Vladimir Kokkinaki. and this inspection trip no doubt had some effect on subsequent actions taken with the next Five Year Plan.again on selected trunk routes . services had been reinstated.R. with a target of 175. But this was no 'DC-3 Replacement'. In 1944. not the later turboprop) but although it made its first flight on 30 July 1947.R. had been a pioneer. with a 'flying doctor' service. Baidukov fought off official skepticism and introduced flight attendants on the more important routes.8 million passengers. 25 Nov.S. i e'l!i'troduced Regular services later.

Most of postwar fleet was Soviet-built. Succeeded in turn by MALEV.S. near the delta of the Kolyma River. formed 15 February 1956 This Lisunov Li-2 is pictured at Mirnyy.R. During the latter 1940s. and supply aircraft at bargain rates.r Lisunov Li-2 18 SEATS. 50% Soviet shareholding in new airline. 240km (lSOmi) north of the Arctic Circle.. but in reality Pan Am subsidiaries. was the key factor in this particular channel of political influence. In exchange for certain privileges. just as with Pan American on the other side of the world. the U. Terminated when Tito severed relations with Soviet Union. Currently operates as Mongolian Airlines (MIAT-Mongolyn Irgeniy Agaaryn Teeverl. 50% Soviet shareholding in new airline to succeed Aeroput. Pan American Airways set up such partnerships in Latin America. (Y. ostensibly as national carriers. Joint Ventures The term 'joint venture' has become part of the language of international commerce during the past few years. built aircraft 50% Soviet shareholding in new airline. and a right-hand passenger door. Succeeded by CAAK.R. which used only Soviet aircraft. JOINT VENTURE AIRLINES IN POST-WAR SOVIET SATELLITE COUNTRIES Country Airline Date Founded 6 Mar 1945 14 Sep 1945 29 Mar 1946 1945 Date of First Service Dec 1945 4 Mar 1945 15 Oct 1946 1947 Initial Aircraft Fleet Li-2 Po-2 DC-3 Ju 52/3m Li-2 Po-2 Li-2 Ju 52/3m Li-2 Date Terminated (still operating I (stilll operating) Late 1954 Remarks Poland LOT* Rejuvenated pre-war airline. 225km/h (140mph) . modified engine nacelles and cowlings..S. but they were to be the basis for a secure Soviet foothold in what was later to become known as the Six-Pool group of eastern European airlines. -'--. as Europe rearranged itself into two halves of political persuasion. which operated only Soviet aircraft.-IIIJ!!!!·!IIIII!!!!·!!!!IIIIII!!·~II!!!!·!IIIIII!!·!!!IIIII!!·~I!!!·!!IIC-C-C"'P---8-4-7-1-1 ~3PO:g Ll-25 differed from DC-3s in having an extra window aft of the cockpit. Early 1947 29 Jun 1947 Li-2 Ju 52/3m 11-14 1954 North Korea SOKAO 1950 1950 1954 East Germany Mongolia Deutsche Luft Hansa Air Mongol 1 Jul 1955 1956 4 Feb 1956 7 Jul 1956 11-14 Li-2 Po-2.. This Li-2 did not have de-ieer boots.S. Liquidated with German reunification. license-built in the U. the center of the diamond industry in the Yakut autonomous republic of eastern Siberia in 1961. 50% Soviet shareholding in new airline to succeed MALERT. on the East Siberian Sea of the Arctic Ocean. Rejuvenated pre-war airline. to set up local airlines. courtesy John Stroud) 39 . This foothold was to prevail for the next half-century. and the Yakuts held it in such high esteem that they have preserved one on a pedestal at Chersky. such as exclusive mail contracts. for example. But such a device was common in airline associations back in the early 1940s when. with Aeroflot as Big Brother. in its Lisunov Li-2 disguise. took a leaf out of Pan Am's book. Name changed to Interflug* 13 Sep 1958. Czechoslovakia Hungary CSA* Maszovlet* Romania TARS* Late 1954 Yugoslavia JUSTA Late 1946 Apr 1947 1948 Bulgaria BVS. Ironically. Succeeded by TABSO* which used Soviet-. 50% Soviet shareholding in new airline to succeed LARES Succeeded in turn by TAROM which used mainly Soviet aircraft. therefore. The 'Russian DC-3' performed sterling work for over a quarter of a century. the ubiquitous Douglas DC-3. Ryumkin. The First Exports Interestingly. Used Soviet equipment exclusively after coup of 1968.. Pan Am would provide the technical and administrative expertise.S.11-12 1991 (still operating) *Members of Six-Pool. was invariably the basis of the small post-war communist-directed airline fleets.. and set up similar airlines in eastern Europe. The Lisunovs were the only aircraft in adequate supply in 1945 and 1946. a California-designed aircraft.

when Aeroflot broke out of the Iron Curtain with services to Stockholm and Paris. penetrating enemy lines. after the death of the designer in 1944. in fact. A. when squadrons of Polikarpovs were deployed from battlefields to arable fields. its earlier relative was able to supplement the Lisunov Li-2s. in the transformation from war-time military production. aerial photography and mapping rounded off the list of Aeroflot's responsibilities that were all-embracing. forestry patrol and fisheries support. During the Great Patriotic War. was on hand to inaugurate the first sorties into western Europe in 1954. After the war.000 tons of supplies and materiel. (fohn Stroud) 40 .N. Even though the improved 11-14 (see opposite) made its first flight in 1953.000 wounded soldiers.000 flights over enemy territory. Yakovlev (left) and N. U-2S Sanitamyi Samolyet. and in 1955. in a close analogy to the 'swords into ploughshares' metaphor. became known as the Po-2. the diminutive Polikarpovs made upwards of 450. In 1948 and 1949. Now.000 people. The Ilyushin 11-12 While the first Soviet commercial aircraft (other than the short-lived Ilyushin 11-18) to go into postwar airline service had its problems (see page 38) the Ilyushin I1-I2 /s contribution was important. from July 1941 to November 1942. including 150. and to Vienna (on 10 September). the manufacturing industry cut its teeth. The supreme accolade was perhaps awarded by the Germans themselves: the reward of 2. and they became such an essential part of the agricultural scene that they were called Kukuruzhniks. An Ilyushin Il-12B at Helsinki-Malmi in 1951. if only because. Polikarpov (right) compare notes. in which Aeroflot pilots first won their wings. and their versatility extended to rescuing survivors of Lend-Lease convoy ships lost on the supply route to Murmansk. as it were. were added to the normal air transport work. or ambulance aeroplane (msn 6350). which. other than airline scheduling: was performed by the Polikarpov U-2.in 1937.Piston-Engined Twilight Ilyushin Il-14 ofPolar Aviation at the Soviet scientific station SP-lO in 1962. and learned some hard lessons of what had to be done to produce a successful airliner. to Tirana (a month later) from Kiev. respectively. Many of them would fly quietly during the night. this might be 'Little Cornhuskers' and was a mark of their continuing usefulness other than as a basic trainer. (photo: BO/is Vdovienko) The Kukuruzhnik Reference has been made (page 38) to the widening responsibilities of Aeroflot. far beyond the ab initio training role for which thousands of Soviet pilots affectionately remember it. Freely translated. During that period of desperate defense. and dropping saboteurs for aiding the partisans. Soviet designers.S. They carried almost 50. Much of the supplementary work. The Ilyushin 12. they were to be seen everywhere. and rescued 580. in 1953. with services to Beijing (on 1 January). it had performed magnificently. crop-spraying and crop-dusting. Crop-spraying had already been taken on in 1932 and ambulance flying-an early flying doctor service .000 marks paid for downing a Po-2 was twice that paid for a fighter aircraft.

It proved to be a sturdy foot-soldier of the Aeroflot fleet. In any case. The Il-14 was also built at Dresden. plus 3 prototypes.502 Il-12s and Il-14s built at Tashkent.S.Ilyushin 11-14 32 SEATS. approx.5001 Speed km/h (mph) 350 (2171 350 (2171 400 12501 Range km (mi) 1. it is one of the few aircraft that have seen regular service within the frigid zones north and south of the Arctic and Antarctic Circles.250 138. the traffic demand in the postwar U.S. and nacelles. (photo: Boris Vdovienko) ·Total Soviet 11-12/14 production 1. was still dissipated over hundreds of sparsely-patronized routes.400 MTOW kg Ib 17.300 (42. COMPARISON OF IL-12.900hp) • MTOW 17. 200 Avia 14s and 80 VEB 11-14Ps were built under license.S.502 of which 839 were 11-14Ps. adding to 1.600 (1. Only a few inter-city and summer vacation services required more than the 18 seats with which the initial Il-14P was fitted.p. As will be shown later in this book. and comprised the fleets of many of the communist countries for several years. the main changes made to the Il-12 were to fit a new wing. IL-14. Note: 1 First flown with diesel engines. 1)75 1.R.250 17501 800 (5001 1. on the shores of the Caspian Sea (at the same latitude as Barcelona).S80Ib) • Normal Range 1. the II-14M (Modifikatsiya) was introduced with a 1m (302ft) longer fuselage to seat 24. In addition.582* 566 11-12 11-14 240 1731 23 (751 In striking contrast to the rigors ofArctic conditions. 18 32 40 2 2 2 Engines Type Ash-82FN ASh-82T P&W R-2800 h. Although modified.0001 No. clean up the engine cowlings. in its freighter role (Il-14G) especially. 3S0km/h (217mph) Shvetsov ASh-82T (2 x 1. Although Comparison with Convair 240 LENGTH 22m (73ft) SPAN 32m (104ft) /" -- ------------- . and to re-design the fin and rudder. East Germany (VEB 1I-14P). the aircraft continued to give good service on all the secondary routes within the U.. this Aeroflot Il-14P (SSSR-61719) sits in the warmth ofMakhachkala. and in Czechoslovakia (as the Avia 14).SOOkm (930mi) The improved version of the Ilyushin Il-12. AND CONVAIR 240 Type First Flight Date 1945 1953 16 Mar 1947 1 Dimensions (m) Length 21 1701 22 Span 32 (1041 32 (1041 28 (921 Pass. Once into production.SOOkg (38. went into service on 30 November 1954.R. consisting mostly of bureaucrats serving the vast territory and military men visiting their regiments.0301 17. exhausts. the Ilyushin 11-14. eventually 32 passengers. Built 200+ 1.900 2. Outwardly.S.500 138. 41 . the fuselage was substantially the same as its predecessor's and passenger accommodation was unchanged because of its inability to carry a theoretical load of 40 passengers. About 80 of the former and about 200 of the latter were produced. Seats No. and quite remarkably in its applications to Polar conditions it became an essential component of the inventory./ '------eclipsed by the advent of the Tupolev jet in 1956.5801 19.

Twin floats An-2L Water-80mber Used for fire fighting An-2F 1955 Military Fedya. proViding the channels for communications. and finally hundreds of them deployed all over the Soviet Union. home of Antonov. initially. education.-Versatile Biplane The Dark Horse While the Soviet aircraft industry was pursuing the understandable goal of producing a main line aircraft to succeed the Lisunov Li-2 (DC-3). operated in the front line for periods varying from five to perhaps 25 years. in Poland.and 'field' was exactly appropriate. another little aircraft was put into production in the late 1940s that at first passed almost unnoticed. also known as An-2NRK/An-2K 1961 An-2PP Forest Patrol Floatplane. Other aircraft. and the remarkable helicopters. made back in the early 1960s. The Ubiquitous An-Z The An-2 was originally built to meet a specification of the Soviet Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. but its appearance coincided with the expansion of Aeroflot's responsibilities to include forestry patrol. and developed the turbineengined version. at Mielec. In the annals of air transport history. engineers. Because it was a birlane.000 (5. carried. Water scooped up. the 11-12 and-14 series. 12 seats An-2P Aeroflot Passarzhirski: 14 lightweight seats An-2S Ambulance Capacity for 6 stretchers An-2TD Parachute Capacity for 12 trainee parachutists An-2V Floatplane Also known as AnA. The Antonov An-2. but in substantial numbers in China and. in some areas. Yet in getting it just right. whose many roles the larger Antonov was progressively to complement. pictured at Nikolayevsk-na-Amure in 1990. mainly in the Soviet-oriented European east bloc. below) An-2ZA Meteorological First known as An·6 1949 An-2TP Aeroflot Standard scheduled service version. placing it ahead of the DC-3 and its variants as the most produced commercial aircraft of all time. later to replace. it is the unlikely but nevertheless worthy Antonov An-2. especially those in the northern tundra and the taiga of Siberia and the far eastern areas. (photo: R.450 at Kiev. if ever a commercial aircraft deserved the supreme accolade.E. Poland.500 Antonov An-2s. a bureaucratic agency that would seem to have been an unlikely source of aeronautic inspiration. the An-3.G. that it was "absolutely unique and must be regarded as one of the world's truly great biplanes.G. first a few here and a few there. as well as in China). Davies) ANTONOV AN-2 VARIANTS Date Variants Application 1947 1948 Description Supreme Accolade In 1991. the sleek jets. For millions of mainly Russian citizens.E. Some of these are more fully described in other sections of this book (pages 73 and 83). Its first flight on 31 August 1947 did not attract headlines. Yet few observers today would quarrel with veteran aviation historian John Stroud's judgment. An An-2 (SSSR-92968) loading freight at Nikolayevsk-na-Amure in 1990. and technicians the world over. the remainder mostly by Pezetel. not only in Kiev. And Antonov's ability to fulfill the Ministry's requirements produced a world-beater of which many variants were built. then a dozen or so allocated to different areas where the superb field performances . from 1960. and. which took over complete production. Transportny An-2SKh Agriculture Crop-dusting Isee also An-2M. in prototype form. and health services. in many different versions. a design formula considered to be obsolete except for sporting aircraft. has been in operation for about 45 years. The An-2P (passenger version) had 12 seats. designated Skh-1 (Rural Economy 1). fisheries survey and support. as the An-2 was at first known. and then been superseded by other types. The Antonov An-2. the An-2 has been their only form of public transport. the aviation world as a whole dismissed it at the time as a serious contender for either technical or economic acclaim. Aeroflot was estimated to be operating about 2. and aerial mapping and photography. and shows no sign of flagging in the tough roles assigned to it. was built in thousands. An An-2 fitted with skis. for better visibility in snow and ice conditions. Total production perhaps has exceeded 20. apart from its other duties in forestry and agriculture. in everyone of its 32 regional sub-divisions. Africa. It has been exported to dozens of countries. The nonnal Aeroflot blue paint scheme is replaced by a red one. (R." The unique aircraft was the Antonov An-2. and countries of Asia. These were added to the airline's air transport role during the years following the introduction of the Kolkhoznik (Collective Farmer). Davies) SKh-1 Prototypes First flew 31 Aug 1947 An-2T Transport Initial version. It was a partner of the Kukuruzhnik (Cornhusker) Polikarpov Po-2. as any cow pasture was good enough for the versatile Kolkoznik. the sturdy turboprop transports. and then with the twin-jet Tupolev Tu-104. have entered service. first with the Ilyushin piston-engined twins. 42 . like the more famous DC-3. The age of the biplane is not yet over. and was put into service by Aeroflot in increasing numbers. and South America. to adopt the nickname. it excelled the combined efforts of designers. and sprayed from floats 1964 An-2M Agricultural Modified version of An-2S 1965 An-2R Utility WSK-PZL-Mielec version An-3 1982 Transport Turboprop version An-2V floatplane versions of the Antonov maid-of-all-work.

500 An-2s in service. in essence. Came the dawn the next day. The augmented load was too much for even such a willing horse as the An-2. fishermen all.12Slb) • Normal Range 84Skm (S20mi) AN-2 REGISTRATION NUMBER BLOCKS (all prefixed SSSR-I O1xxx-09xxx 13xxx 15xxx-17xxx 19xxx 23xxx 25xxx-25xxx 28xxx-33xxx 35xxx 40xxx-49xxx 50xxx 52xxx 54xxx-58xxx 52xxx 55xxx 58xxx 70xxx-72xxx 74xxx 79xxx 81 xxx-82xxx 84xxx-85xxx 87xxx-88xxx 91 xxx-94xxx 95xxx-98xxx Aeroflot current/yhas some Comparison with 11-86 LENGTH 14m (47ft) SPAN 18m (60ft) Unexplained Incident The versatility of the An-2 'Annushka' became legendary. The pilot. decided that this was an unsolved mystery. to avoid a fire. realizing that he was not going to make it. and the local constabulary investigated the tangled remains. perhaps.OOOhp) • MTOW S. such as this one in northern Kamchatka.l-~ Shvetsov ASh-621R (1 x I. if it crash-landed. This picture encapsulates the role of the Antonov An-2 in providing the rural bus service to hundreds. The assembled company fled. at a small community far from direct authority. l 43 . a pilot had to stop over at a weekend. Strangely. nobody in the whole community had the slightest knowledge of the incident.Antonov An-2 12 SEATS • 190k:m~/~h~(I~I~7~m~Ph~)~ ~fj. (photo: Boris Vdovienko) 2. having arrived with the mail and other contents on the Friday. The local populace. switched off the engine. perhaps thousands of small communities. And crash-land it did. It managed to get off the ground. Some dastardly vandals from foreign parts. but only just. together with complete fishing gear.SOOkg (12. persuaded him to make an unscheduled flight to a local river which was reputed to be gushing fish. ignominously. it met its match_ The story goes that. But on one occasion. distributing pieces of aircraft around the field. Fourteen good men and true piled on to the 12-seat aircraft. and enough provisions to last a week. and the official report.

all Oops! All aircraft have teething troubles. on 13 September 1956. when western aircraft manufacturers were making great strides in turboprop and jet airliner development. domestic jet (own aircraft) 9. American Airlines 10 TWA. it caught the aviation world completely by surprise. Aeroflot - 4 Oct 53 <5 S~ '" I T"""'~T"'M . THE WORLD'S FIRST TEN JET AIRLINES Tupolev Tu-104 SSSR-L5415 prepares for the world's first sustained jet airline service.SA 9 Dec 57 4 Oct 58 26 Oct 58 10 Dec 58 25 Jan 59 Tupolev Tu-l 04A 70 . Airline Date Aircraft Seats Route _I Remarks I . but this was later increased. moved leisurely across its path. therefore. By western standards. a Tu-l04 was taking off when. 5 (BOAC I 7. On one occasion. with antimacassars on the seat headrests. Not all registrations within blocks have been confirmed.Irkutsk route on 15 September 1956. While the Tu-l04 was clearly based on the Tu-16 (Tu-88) twin-jet bomber.OAC 2 UTA -- 2 May 52 19 Feb 53 -- De Havilland Comet 1 De Havilland Comet 1 De Havilland Comet lA De Havilland Comet lA (BOAC.Omsk . Moscow. the prototype Tupolev Tu-104 (SSSR-L5400) made a special flight to London. placing both country and airline on a par with the West. carried on and took off. Pan Am 8. today. jet services Second sustained jet rout es Petrol?avlovsl< 24 Oct. the conversion was certainly not a make-shift job. cutting the time by almost two-thirds. All services terminated after two crashes in 1954 1.. on 22 March 1956. right at the intersection with a taxiway. the seating capacity was only 50. another aircraft. A Place in History The Tupolev Tu-l04 entered service on the Moscow . 58 Dotes of first Tu-104 services shown in red The last Tu-104 retired in 198\ TU-I04 REGISTRATION BLOCKS (ALL PREFIXED SSSR-) L5400-L5460 42313-42398 (some Tu-1 04AI (most Tu-1 04AI 42399-42450 42451-42456 42457·42512 (Tu-1 04B) (Tu-104A) (Tu-104BI REGD To Rangoon and Jakarta 31 Jan 62 Some aircraft in the L54xx block are believed to have been re-registered in the 423xx series. lease) [36 1 40 LondonJohannesburg -+ 44 . The seven-hour journey time superseded the 17hr 50min of the Ilyushin Il-12s and Il-14s that it replaced. miraculously. at the beginning of 1955. The pilot received the Soviet equivalent of a gold watch. Moscow-Irkutsk. When. and some have more than their share of introductory snags. (photo: Boris Vdovienko) the best airliners regard these as a necessary amenity. the Soviet airline's flagship was still.The World's First Sustained Jet Service Surprise. Air France 26 Aug 53 Paris-Oak. At first. whose equivalent American counterpart. aviation progress seemed always to be heavily censored. 36 3. Its true place in history is illustrated in the accompanying table. the ConvairLiner. C. the Tu-l04 'hopped' over the obstruction. South African Airways 5. domestic jet First U. Moscow-Omsk. by the 1950s.First sustained Irkutsk. '" 6. at Vnukovo Airport. in tow by a ground service vehicle.. and the authorities at London's Heathrow Airport had problems keeping the journalists under control. the pilot nevertheless hauled back on the stick and.:-C bl asa anca Paris-Beirut Johannesburg· London --l-- 4. Andrei Tupolev's airliner quickly extended jet service throughout the Soviet Union (see map below) and was the standard-bearer of a new range of commercial aircraft that pulled the Soviet Union and Aeroflot up from the technological cellar to the upper floors of achievement. 160 Los AngelesNew York 160 San FranciscoNew York 20 Mar 59 Boeing 707-100 Tashkent 14 Aug. National Airlines I Comet4 Boeing 707-100 Boeing 707-100 (Pan Am lease) Boeing 707-100 -. in 1961. but interestingly. B. Not yet at take-off speed.S. Surprise Under Stalin's rule. In air transport. the twin-engined Ilyushin Il-14. 44 .S.London72 f- PragueMoscow First transNew YOrk-! Atlantic jet First'Big Jet' - 160 New YorkParis 160 New YorkMiami - -- -- First U. was faster and more efficient. a remarkable improvement. the interiors appeared rather old-fashioned.

Tu~olev

Tu-104
•••

50 SEATS. 770km/h (480mph)

Mikulin AM-3M (2 x 8,700kg st, 14,8901b st). MTOW 76,OOOkg (l67,SOOlb) • Normal Range 2,6S0km (1,6S0mi)
The Break-Out
Six months after the Ilyushin Il-14 had entered service with Aerofjot on 30 November 1954, a silver lining appeared behind the dampening clouds of modest piston-engined performance. On 17 June 1955, the Tupolev Tu-I04 jet airliner made its first flight. A conversion from a bomber design, it was nevertheless commercially acceptable. Unusually for the Soviet manufacturing industry, normally conservative in its approach to launching new airliners, the Tu-l04 took the world by storm (see opposite page) and soon entered service with Aeroflot on 15 September 1956. Not before time. Ominously, the British had gone back to the drawing boards and were producing a new line of Comets, which had previously done their own world-storming in 1952, but had met with tragedy two years later. More ominously, the Boeing Company of Seattle, U.S.A., had, on 15 July 1954, demonstrated the Model 367-80 as a prototype for a future airliner, the 707, which was to conquer all before it. Curiously, the famous Boeing 'Big Jet' was also developed from a bomber design, the B-47.

Comparison with 11-86
LENGTH 39m (127ft) SPAN 34m (113ft)

The Tupolev Tu-104 design team (with a model of the Tu-124). Left to right: A.R. Bokin, S.M. Eger, A.N. Tupolev, A.A. Arkhangelski, B.M. Kondozski, and J.F. Nezval. (photo: courtesy Vasily Karpy)

Andrei N. Tupolev. (photo: Boris Vdovienko)

45

Technical Transformation
Tupolev Sets The Pace Because of the debut of the Tupolev TU-104, 1956 was a watershed year. But the years that followed were no less significant in Soviet commercial aviation. The Ilyushin 11-18 Moskva four-engined turboprop airliner, reliable workhorse for Aeroflot (and other airlines) in the years to come, made its first flight on 4 July 1957. At about the same time, Tupolev developed the Tu-I04A, which proceeded to break a number of official loadcarrying and speed records for turbojets. Then, to cap everything, the impressive Tupolev Tu-1l4 made its first flight on 3 November 1957. But this important news of the world's largest airliner at the time (see pages 5253) was eclipsed on the following day, when, to the astonishment and admiration of the world (and to the chagrin of complacent defense agencies in Washington, D.C.) the U.S.S.R. carved its name indelibly in the annals of world history by launching, with complete success, the world's first man-made satellite, Sputnik. Consolidation During 1958, Aeroflot concentrated on expanding its Tu-104 services (see page 44) and opened its first scheduled helicopter routes in the Crimea and on the Black Sea coast. Then, in 1959, the lOa-seat Tupolev Tu-I04B went into service on the busy Moscow-Leningrad route on 15 April. Five days later, the Ilyushin I1-18B also started service, on the equally busy vacation route from Moscow to Adler (with helicopter connection to Sochi). Not yet ready for scheduled service, the Tu114 demonstrated its range with a non-stop flight from

~~"'-~~

The galley of a Tupolev Tu-104B. (photo: Boris Vdovienko)

Tu-104 No. 29 operated the first service of the type to Vladivostok on 19 January 1958. This was after a ceremonial circling of the city and being 'talked down' by photographer Boris Vdovienko.
Moscow to Khabarovsk on 21 May. The 90-seat Antonov An-IO Ukraina turbo-prop, which had first flown on 7 March 1957, went into service on 22 July 1959.

In the Front Pack Within three years, with Aeroflot carrying the banner, the Soviet Union had rocketed from being an also-ran right into the front pack of runners in the highly-competitive technological race. In almost every category of airliner, the design bureaux of Tupolev, Ilyushin, and Antonov were producing aircraft comparable in performance, if not in economics, with equivalent airliners in the West.
Tupolev Tu-104B SSSR-42431 at Moscow's Vnukovo Airport. (photo: AerotIot)
First Service Date
2 May 1952 15 Sep 1956 26 Oct 1958

The passenger cabin ofa Tupolev Tu-124.

THE WORLD'S FIRST JET AIRLINERS
Aircratt Type Dimensions-mitt) Length
De Havilland Comet 1 Tupalev Tu-l04 Boeing 707-100 De Havilland Comet 4 Tupolev Tu-l04B Boeing 707-300 28 (93) 3911271 44 (1451

Span
35 (115) 34 (1131 40 (1311

Speed km/h Imph)
800 (500 770 (480 96016001

Mixed Class Seating
36 1 50 132

MTOW kg lib)
52.300 1115,0001 76,000 (168.0001 112.000 (247.000) 73.600 (162,0001 76,000 116B,0001 153,000 1336,0001

Normal First Range Airline km Istm)
2,400 11,5001 2.650 (1.6501 4,800 (3000) 4,BOO (3,000) 2,650 11,650) 6,400 14,0001 BOAC Aeroflat Pan American BOAC Aeroflot Pan American

No. Built

Initial version, before development

21 110 2 141

Representative developed versions

4 Oct 195B 15 Apr 1959 26 Aug 1959

34 (112) 40 (1311 4711531

35 (1151 Bl 34 (113)

(5051 770 (480)

72
100 144

75 100 580

45 (1461

I

960 (6001

Notes: I The Comet I's seating was all first-class

2 Includes T u-104A

46

Tupolev Tu-124
Momentum Maintained With a variety of airliners coming off the production lines (see opposite) Aeroflot entered the 1960s with prospects of expansion and upgrading of equipment in all directions. On 3 January 1960, it took over Polar Aviation (Aviaarktika) and directed attention to the northern routes, to new settlements on the Arctic Sea, and a new route to the Far East. On 24 April, a Tupolev Tu-114 non-stop Moscow-Khabarovsk schedule inauguration immeasurably extended the range potential. On 15 December 1961, a specially-equipped Ilyushin 11-18 became the first airliner to fly to Antarctica, and this aircraft opened up new routes to several African countries during the next few years. The Tupolev Tu-l04, too short in range for use on transocean routes, was nevertheless able to carry Aeroflot's flag to south-east Asia, with a service, opened on 31 January 1962, to Jakarta, via Tashkent, Delhi, and Rangoon. By this time, Aeroflot was carrying more than 20 million passengers each year (with TU-124 REGISTRATION fares at railroad levels) with a total fleet of about 2,000 aircraft. NUMBER BLOCKS Junior Jet (all prefixed SSSR-I 45000-45095 The short-haul routes were not neglected. While the U.S.S.R. 45135 45173 was a country of vast distances, much of the western parts 45146 45199 embraced an area characterized by dozens of cities only an 45158 64452 hour's flight from Moscow. Many of these were of medium Nat all registrations in the 45xxx size, not large enough to justify 100-seat aircraft such as the black have been confirmed as Tu-104 or the !l-IS. To meet this need, the Tupolev design allocated to Tu-124s. bureau produced a scaled-down version of the Tu-l04, the 44- seat, later 56-seat Tupolev Tu-124, which entered serTupolev Tu-124 SSSR-45028 vice on the Moscow - Tallinn (Estonia) route on 2 October shares the ramp at Vilnius, 1962. Trailing the French Caravelle by over three years, and a derivative, rather than an original design, it was, Lithuania,on Christmas Day, however, ahead of British and American short-haul jets by a 1962, with two Li-2s. (photo: Boris Vdovienko) similar margin.

Tupolev Tu-124 SSSR-45013 in flight. (photo: Boris Vdovienko)

Tu-124

• IiJ ••

d-.-.-.-.-IiJ-.-.-.---.-.-IiJ-.-.-.-.-.-.-~A ~ [C~ ~
FIRST GENERATION SHORT-HAUL JETS
First Service Date Aircraft Type Dimensions-m(ft} Length Span Speed km/h (mph} Mixed Class Seating MTOW kg
(Ib}

~~~~~~:=d--

1iJ • • • • • •

Tu-104

Normal Range km(mi}

First Airline

No. Built

6 May 1959 2 Oct 1962

Sud SE 210 Caravelle

32 (1051 31 (1001

34 (1131 26 (841

700 (4351 770 (4801

70 50

43.600 (95.9001 37,500 (82,7001

1.250 (7801 1,250 (7801

Air France Aeraflot

282 112

Tupolev Tu-124

47

at first called the Moskva . a long-range version of the turboprop. A direct Leningrad-Adler service. another 11-18 made a proving flight on a new trans-Siberian route. on the Moscow-Adler route. via the Arctic Sea port of Tiksi. Two great aircraft designers. and came close to being grounded because of fatal accidents soon after entering service. The Ilyushin 11-18 qUickly established a reputation as a reliable. Quickly brought into service early in 1959 too quickly perhaps . by the great circle itinerary (as did also an Antonov An-l0) and on 10 January 1961. which once again emphasized the need to increase air travel on all fronts. greets Sergei JIyushin (right). during the long polar night. all three aircraft looked somewhat similar. in 1960. on the Arctic coast of northern Siberia. respectively. and on 20 June. It seemed to be at home in frigid climates of the northlands.went into Aeroflot service on 20 April 1959. became almost standard equipment. Coinciding with the announcement of the Sixth Five-Year Plan. the fast-growing capital of Kazakhstan. Following the successful four-engined (but only medium-range) Vickers Viscount of 1952. opened regular service to Magadan. Andrei Tupolev (left) and Sergei Ilyushin (right) photographed informally in 1963. within only eleven hours journey time of Moscow. Mark Shevelev. as the table on the opposite page shows. While Ilyushin had a set-back on 17 August of that year. and soon it vyas to experience an even more formidable challenge. when an 11-18 crashed near Kiev. For on 15 December 1961. begun on 23 May. domestic inter-city routes. but for slow production and unforeseen engine problems. would have gone into service in 1956. the Bristol company in England had developed the Britannia. Nine months later. but not with full transcontinental range. as it was being serviced. in remote Chukotka. (photo: Boris Vdovienko) 48 . Sergei Ilyushin and his team produced a Soviet four-engined turboprop which. another branch brought Anadyr. Antarctica. helped the citizens of Russia's former capital to enjoy The Polar Mainliner Reference has already been made to the expansion of Aeroflot's horizons in 1960 by its taking over Aviaarktika (page 47). In the United States. the Ilyushin I1-18D. Solid Performance The Ilyushin 11-18 . the 11-18 reached Alma Ata by a circuitous route via Baku and Tashkent. the capitals of oil-rich Azerbaijan and Uzbekistan. it was selected to make the first flight by a commercial airliner to the Last Continent. so that it could now study the potential for route expansion on a broad front north of the Trans-Siberian Railway. a long-range fourengined airliner that.S. with growing maturity. a smaller but efficient aircraft designed primarily for U. to provide needed extra capacity for Muskovite vacationers seeking the sun. fell in between the Britannia and the This dramatic picture ofan Ilyushin II-IS was taken at Tiksi. (Vdovienko) Electra in performance and size. eleven time zones away. (photo: Boris Vdovienko) the sun too. In outward appearance. the Britannias were making their mark around the world. extra tankage was provided. the British and American manufacturers had persevered with different designs. the head ofPolar Aviation. one of the aircraft designers who made his work possible. Even so. responsible for the pioneering development by air ofvast areas of northern Russia.Turboprop Workhorse Ilyushin Keeps Pace Believing that the turbopropeller solution to turbine-engined power was a good alternative to that of the pure jet. if not record-breaking airliner.the Electra had severe problems with the engine installation. Simultaneously. For such a journey. Lockheed produced the Model 188 Electra. it started a non-stop route from Moscow to Alma Ata. but later on. by 1957.

200 2 (2.7501 Normal Range km(ml) 6.0001 100 (135.090 13.4252 First Airline B.000 4.C. (photo: Patrick Vinot-Prefontaine) INot all registrations within blocks confirmed} 49 .750) 52. IL·18 REGISTRATION BLOCKS (ail prefixed SSSR-) L5811 L5818-L5821 04330 04350 04770 33569 74250-74255 74256-74270 74288-74299 75400-75480 75481-75499 75500-75580 75581 75582-75595 75597-75598 75601-75714 75715-75903 prototype Polar division Polar division Polar division 11-180 11-180 11-18V 11-180 prototype 11-18V 11-180 11-18V Sergei Ilyushin.000ml).200kg (135.OOlb) • Normal Range 4. 3AII Britannias including 100 Series.O. This modified aircraft (SSSR-75449) surveys the extent of the polar ice pack from its Moscow-Sheremetyevo base.0001 85 (116.000Ib) and a range of 6.000kg 1147.500km (4. Eastern Airlines Aeroflot No. MTOW 61.700 12.425km (2. 625km/h (390mph) • • c HJr-J8 o 00/1 0 T - • ••• ••• CCCp·75406 Ivchenko AI-20M ( 4 x 4.A.000) MTOW kg lib) 84. II-ISs still serve in a variety of roles today. Built 85 3 170 565 Comparison with 11-86 LENGTH 53m (174ft) SPAN 43m (142ft) Bristol Britannia 310 Lockheed 188 Electra Ilyushin 11-18 38 (124) 32 (105) 36(1181 Notes.750mi) THREE lARGE FOUR-ENGINED TURBOPROPS COMPARED First Service Date 19 Dec 1957 1 12Jan1959 20 Apr 1959 Aircraft Type Dlmensions-m(ft) Length Span 43(1421 30 (991 37 (123) Speed km/h (mph) 62013851 650 (405) 640 (400) Mixed Class seating 110 1185. 250ehp).Ilyushin 11-18 100 SEATS. 7The medium-range Britannia 102 entered selVice on 1 Feb 1957 2The long-range Ilyushin 11-780 had a MTOWof 64.000 4.500) 61.

The Moscow-Leningrad intercity service was upgraded to a frequency of 15 daily flight on 1 June 1960. on 24 December. the most successful of the basic type. Noril'sk). An-lOs were deployed to the northern wastelands. Antonov perfected the design for specialized freighter aircraft (pages 6S-69). Production of modern aircraft was now in full swing at the Antonov.S.A. 30 Antonov An-lOs. a new 90-seat airliner was ready for Aeroflot.R. and Aeroflot was now carrying more than 20 million passengers a year. a larger variant. progenitor ofsubsequent all-purpose commercial aircraft with the same basic design criteria.. the developed Antonov lOA. The high tail permitted the rear-loading ramp plenty of space for ancillary loading ground equipment. an An-lO had the honor of pioneering the great circle route from Moscow to Khabarovsk. and in April 1960 started non-stop flights to Cairo. cargo flights starting on 5 April 1960. The military Antonov An-8. the outer sections of the wing were anhedral . at first called the Ukraina. Although Aeroflot never operated An-8s. Consolidation of Domestic Routes As noted on the page opposite. The Ukraina While the An-S was strictly a military aircraft (although it appeared in Aeroflot markings). Ilyushin. via Syktyvkar. and Aeroflot seemed to have come of age at last. and equipment into small unprepared fields for front-line support. A Tu-104 flew to Toronto for an aviation Expo on 6 September 1959. all the operations of Polar Aviation (see pages 26-27) were transferred to the state airline. military vehicles. Then in August.900 aircraft. the Soviet industry sprang another of its surprises and put on display a new military aircraft that had first flown a year earlier. and an An-l0 flew to the U. and rarely seen outside its native land. An-JO SSSR-11158 in original configuration with single vertical fin and endplate fins on the tailplone. the twin-engined Antonov An-S deserves recognition as one of the design trend-setters in aircraft construction development history. was quickly brought into service.A Mainliner from Kiev The Antonov An-8 Oleg Antonov's post-war Antonov An-2. and Tupolev factories and assembly plants scattered throughout the U.and behold. pressurized Antonov An-IO. For in 1956. aircraft appeared with the airline's titles.S. The fleet strength at this time was reported to be 1. (Courtesy John Stroud) An-lOA SSSR-11219 displays the definitive configuration with two vertical fins and no endplate tailplone fins. and Yakutsk. Its main purpose was to carry troops. Though little known. was the harbinger of greater things to come. The general aerodynamic lines were cleaned up. design aspects were directed without compromise to this objective. On 3 February 1960. (photo: Paul Duffy) Aeroflot to the Arctic Coinciding with this widespread traffic upsurge. four on each side. whose versatility as a small maid-of-all-work for feeder and bush operations gave it a longevity which keeps it in production even today (pages 42-43). started to come off the production line in 1959.S. (Courtesy John Stroud) REGD 50 . on the routes from Moscow and Leningrad to the south. Aeroflot expanded its route network.a pronounced feature of later developments of the breed . 60 Ilyushin Il-1Ss. distributed the load to aid the rough field performance requirements. of which about 120 were Tupolev Tu-104s. replacing the Lisunov Li-2 and the Ilyushin Il-l4. on 10 February 1960. The twin tandem main wheels. The Il-IS began service to London. and as such. The An-S's wing was on top of the fuselage and the landing gear housed in fuselage fairings so that loading through its wide rear ramp/door did not require special ground equipment. By June 1961. it had become the standard aircraft for the polar air routes. the fourengined.

Because it was not designed for long-range operations.OOOehp) • MTOW SS. Built 100 300 300 250 3 An-8 An-l0 An-lOA 31 (101) 32 (105) 34 (1121 37 (1211 Cargo 85 100 I An-12 Cargo Not all aircraft within blocks have been confirmed Notes: 1 Military transport only.000) No.11171 • Ivchenko AI-20K (4 x 4. for it quickly moved on to stretch the fuselage by 2m (604ft). The resultant An-lOA's seating capacity was thus the same as the Ilyushin II-IS's. made its first flight on 7 March 1957 from Kiev. not only for Aeroflot. the Antonov An-IO.200 (7451 1. Normal Range 1. 3Civil production only Oleg Antonov. adding much-needed capacity to the popular holiday vacation movement between the Russian capital and the sunny south of the Crimea. Vernikov and V. piloted by Ya.0001 Normal Range kmlmi) 2.600 (2. so as to add two more seat rows and to proVide seating for 100 passengers. Vazin. the land of its birth.200kg (121. The Antonov An-lOA The Design Bureau must have realized that it had a winner.200km (74Smi) The Antonov An-IO The commercial version of the An-S.000 (83.Antonov An-lOA 100 SEATS. 2Military type produced simultaneously with An-10. but not fully modified for commercial use until 1965. and even then.000 (134. during summer 1959.200 (121 . The 90-seat passenger version of the An-10 went into service on the Moscow-Simferopol route on 22 July 1959. as was the II-IS. the first An-lOs were freighters.SOOlb). Following Soviet custom. which had not yet been assimilated by the national airline. the aircraft underwent thorough testing and proving before it was allowed to venture into commercial service. 1. especially in the Ukraine.5001 61.20017451 3. P.0501 55.500 (1. which qUickly established a good reputation in the northern frontiers of the Soviet Union along the fringes of the Arctic Ocean. but it was used extensively throughout the Aeroflot domestic system. less than two years after the initiation of the basic design.6001 1. (Vasily Karpy) 51 .7701 54. THE FIRST ANTONOV AIRLINER FAMILY First Service Date 1956 1 22 Jul1959 10 Feb 1960 19652 Comparison with 11-86 LENGTH 34m (112ft) SPAN 38m (125ft) AN-IO REGISTRATION BLOCKS lall prefixed SSSR-) 11134-11144 11146-11147 11148 11149-11169 11170-11172 11173 11174-11175 11179-11182 11184-11185 11188 11191-11195 11196 11202-11203 11205-11217 11219-11220 11221-11229 An-lOA An-lOA An-lOA An-lOA An-lOA An-lOA An-lOA Aircraft Type Dimensions-mlft) Length Span 37 (1211 38 (1251 38 (125) 38 (125) Speed km/h Imph) 600 (3731 680 (4231 680 (4231 670 (4161 Mixed Class Seating MTOW kg lib) 38. 680km/h (423mph) CCCP . but also for Polar Aviation.100 (119. it was not normally deployed on international routes.

and food and drinks were served by electric elevators. This Tu-116 first flew late in 1956 and was accepted by Aeroflot and designated Tu-1l4D (Dalnyi. In 1958. The Tu-1I4 did not. Seen in elevation. however.8ft) in diameter. except in the size. One shortcoming was the height of its landing gear. was wide enough for a comfortable six-abreast layout.328mi) was shorter by 971km (618mi) than that to Moscow. On 21 May 1959. which drove eight-bladed contrarotating propellers. In addition to the large four-wheel landing gears units. territory without intermediate stops. however. in July 1959 (photo: Hany Sievers) Delhi 19 Apr. realizing that this aircraft could reach the furthestmost points of the U. Nevertheless. operate on schedule to the United States. But the Tu-114D was too narrow. to overfly Scandinavia.500ft) over distances of up to 8. saw limited service between 1939 and 1941. the Tu-1I4D made several proving flights. Tu-144 registrations were SSSR-L5411 (prototype) plus SSSR-76458 through 76461 and 76463 through 76490 (total 33j. For the first time in any airliner. itself a formidable piece of military hardware. Only one five-engined ANT-14 was built in 1931. SSSR-76462 was the Tu-114D The Tupolev Tu-1l4D The Tupolev Tu-1I4 was a direct development of the Tu-20 (Tu-95) long-range turboprop bomber. but also a small twin tail-wheel installation for protection of the fuselage on take-off. only one was built. enabled Aeroflot to fly direct to Havana. though this version is unlikely to have been used extensively. Cuba. on 28 June. for civil use. each stage designed not only to test the long-range capability. permitting a maximum of 220 seats.Long-Range Turbo2ro2 The Bigger The Better The Soviets have always·been in the forefront in building large aircraft. on 24 April 1961. The Tupolev Tu-1I4 could cruise at 770km/h (480mph) at an altitude of 8. there was not only a twinwheel nose gear. the Tupolev Tu-1I4 was a truly remarkable airliner. The follOWing month. but also to 'show the flag' over all the capital cities of the 15 republics of the Union. for more than a decade.the equivalent of climbing two full flights of stairs. In particular. it flew into the U.000m (25. even eight-abreast was possible. but the similarity with other large turbo-prop airliners of its day ended there..A. Andrei Tupolev produced the Tupolev TU-114.200mi) distance. the world's first transport aircraft.S. where it made a technical stop. as S. Neither went into commercial airline service with Aeroflot. The main deck was 5m (16ft) off the ground. completed in 1968.575km (5. Aeroflot began scheduled Tu-1I4 service to Khabarovsk. Although the commercial Tu-1I4 made its first flight on 3 November 1957. this landmark being set by the Ilyushin 11-62.unusually for a turbo-prop . the Murmansk-Havana distance of 8. The Tupolev Tu-1l4 The re-designed fuselage. Twelve years after the end of the Second World War. Later negotiations. and was proudly named the Rossiya (Russia). Mounted on the wings were four powerful Kuznetsov engines.950km (5. making the Moscow to New York flight in lIhr 6min. Tu-114 (SSSR-76470) after take-of(. or long-range). The speed of the turboprop enabled it to match the 960km/h (600mph) speed of the Tupolev Tu-l04 jet. (photo: Boris Vdovienko) Tupolev Tu~114 routes Tokyo Havana 7/8 Jan.1963 The prototype Tupolev Tu-114 SSSR-L5611 atIdlewild. that.permitting only 30 seats in its pressurized rear fuselage section. and for high density. in 1934. the wings were swept back .S. the Tu-1I4 was routed via Murmansk.R. the Tu-1I4 was of orthodox outline. Also. was the largest airliner in the world. New York.560mi). Scheduled service began to Havana on 7 February 1963. of the bomber fuselage. and is maintained today with the giant Antonov loadcarriers from Ukraine. and could fly to Havana. Aeroflot Spreads Its Wings The Soviet national airline took the Tupolev Tu-1I4 to its heart. and only one eight-engined ANT-20 Maxim Gorky ever flew.S.S. because the latter's shorter range forced it to make at least two stops. and other western airlines were permitted to overfly the Soviet Union. 1967 25 March 1963 RE'GD S2 .800km (4. the Tu-1I4 flew non-stop from Moscow to Khabarovsk. some 4m (12. requiring no little stamina for boarding . The tradition started in 1913 with Igor Sikorsky's lI'ya Muromets. because it was not allowed. thoughts had already been directed to a conversion. Normally carrying only 60 passengers on this very long segment. including a remarkable three-stop circumnavigation of the entire Soviet Union. and it raised a few technical and political eyebrows every time it landed on foreign shores.and had pronounced anhedral. for political reasons connected with NATO defense.A. the galley was located 'downstairs' in the lower deck. capital of its trans-Atlantic communist ally. as the PS-124. There was none other like it in the world. carrying 170 passengers over the 6. The six-engined ANT-20bis.

and on 27 June of that year started service to Conakry. Built 85 1 33 141 Bristol Britannia 310 TupolevTu-114 Boeing 707-100 Boeing 707-300 38 (1241 54(1781 44 (1451 47 (153) The Tupolev Tu-114 was deployed on other routes.8001 112.9S0km (S. 2AI/Boeing 707-300 Series.Tupolev Tu-114 170 SEATS. and on intercontinental routes in 1968 (see pages 54-55). Then. The domestic Moscow-Khabarovsk route was scheduled at 800 km/h (500 mph) with 170 seats Andrei Tupolev (right). LONG-RANGE AIRLINERS OF THE LATE 1950s First Service Date 19 Dec 1957 3 Nov 1957 26 Oct 1958 26 Aug 1959 Comparison with 11-86 LENGTH 54m (178ft) SPAN 51m (168ft) Aircraft Type Dimenslons-m(ft) Length Span 43 (142) 51 (16BI 40 (1311 45(1461 Speed km/h (mph) 620 (385) 770 (47813 950 (6001 960 (6001 Mixed Class Seating 110 1503 120 140 MTOW kg lib) 84.7501 8. a joint service opened non-stop from Moscow to Tokyo. on take-off. Pan 580 2 American Notes: 1 AI/Britannia Series.0001 175. Loginov was the head ofall civil aviation affairs in the Soviet Union at that time. at Vnukovo Airport in Moscow in 1962. These were friendly countries.450 (4. but the following year the Tu-114 made its mark in the capitalist world. Aeroflot Pan American No.0001 152.400 (385. and cabin service was provided immaculately by the Japanese carrier.568mi) at an average speed of about 640km/h (400mph). Every dog. seen here with Eugene Loginov in front ofa Tu-124.DAC.563mi).000 (3.400kg (38S.350km (4. a distance of 7. and the Tupolev Tu-114.R. with flights extending to Havana.700 (248. it is said.5601 4. (photo: Boris Vdovienko) 53 . On 4 November 1966. via Murmansk. but was superseded when the faster and more airport-compatible Ilyushin 11-62 came into domestic service in 1967.950 (5.S. Ghana.0001 First Airline 8.090 (185. after delicate negotiations and demonstration flights.700 (336. the Tupolev Tu-114 took over the direct Moscow-Delhi service from the Tu-l04 and the II-18.0001 6.OOOehp) • MTOW 17S. on 19 April 1967.S60mi) New Lands To Conquer On 25 March 1963. and this was on a non-scheduled flight. economically dependent on the U.0001 Normal Range km(mi) 6. The aircraft was flown by the crews of both airlines. scheduled service began to Montreal. Guinea. The journey time from Moscow was 11 1/ 2 hours for the 7. the largest aircraft in the world until the advent of the Boeing 747. On 19 April 1965. This was a remarkable achievement for both Aeroflot and for the Tupolev Design Bureau. such as Moscow-Paris and MoscowTashkent. as an alternate route to that via Murmansk. Its only fatal accident was at Moscow. For the first time. 770km/h (478mph) •• •• • JAPAN AIR LINES 9 •••• p o CD/! ~ T• • • • • • • • • • • • • 0 CC~'76490 Kuznetsov NK-12M (4 x 12.800Ib). Normal Range 8. has his day. 31ntercontinental routes. on 17 February 1966. was truly a mastiff.800 (3.488km (4. a Soviet-built aircraft appeared in the markings of a non-communist airline of world stature: Japan Air Lines.S. Canada. the Conakry service was extended to Accra..

although its specific operating costs less important in the Soviet-style economic environment were marginally worse than those of the Boeing 707s and DC-8s. This saved time. was not made until 2 February 1966. Possibly because the nations of Europe and elsewhere cherished the prospect of over-flying the U. but on the longer ones. possibly the best of all the narrow-bodied longrange jets of the west. The time-saving on these routes was not significant.. with the Tupolev Tu-l04 in 1956 (see pages 44-45) but this success had to be qualified with the reservation that such service was only short-haul. and Gander. on 1 March 1967. But another year passed before a regular freight service began. Preparations were made for one of the most important inaugurals of Aeroflot's history. from Moscow to Khabarovsk. Copenhagen on 31 March 1971. Aeroflot put the Ilyushin I1-62 into full passenger service. This particular aircraft (SSSR-86670) is now prese1Ved at Monino. London received the Aeroflot privilege on 3 June 1970. With the I1-62.Long-Range Jet Catching Up The Soviet Union had had the honor of starting the world's first sustained jet airline service. When the British Comet 4 and the American Boeing 707 launched the North Atlantic jet services in 1958. of 14 July. but far more have been built. it was enough to give Aeroflot an unprecedented opportunity to exploit the geography of its sovereign airspace. A Taste of the Sixth Freedom During the introductory period of 1967. Alaska.S. the time now seemed appropriate to start a commercial airline connection directly to the U. compared favorably with the superseded turboprop's 12hr 5min. This device of circumventing the familiar Fifth Freedom traffic rights (to serve two countries by an airline foreign to both) by a convenient technical stop at an intermediate domestic point had been tried before. and to Paris five days later. On 15 July 1968. then in full scheduled service two months later. to the Far East. by as much as six hours. on 9 October. northwestwards across Greenland. and by flying a great circle route across Siberia. Aeroflot first introduced the Il-62 on the Montreal route. on a proving flight on 11 July 1967.S. Service to the United States The Tupolev TU-114 had already established trans-Atlantic service for Aeroflot. The journey time of the jet airliner. Moving methodically towards its goal. Accordingly. and almost a decade was to pass before Aeroflot was able to start jet service across the ocean. on 15 September. to Tashkent. if not actively hostile. yet the first recorded proving flight. both to friendly Cuba and to fairly friendly Canada (see pages 52-53). 9hr 50min. as well as replacing the I1-18 and the Tu-104 on the route to Delhi. by proViding a swift connection from the European capitals to Japan. themselves. and a third non-stop direct route was added. and it has lasted far longer in front-line service than has its British look-alike. clouded with deep suspicion on both sides. even though the Cold War still raged in a political atmosphere that was. via Shannon. the I1-62 had also entered service on some of the more prestigious routes into western Europe. had its problems. over the so-called Polar route flown by Air France. Much has been said about the apparent Soviet custom of copying western designs. notably to Rome.R. from Moscow to Khabarovsk and to Novosibirsk. Flight deck ofan Ilyushin Il-62. Casting its eyes around for inspiration. Newfoundland. on the same route. and Frankfurt on 31 July 1973. the Soviet airline began a through service with I1-62s from Paris to Tokyo. This was apparently after problems with the Kuznetsov turbofan engines and with the line of the leading edge of the swept-back wing had been overcome. via Moscow. but had been frowned upon by international agencies such as lATA and ICAO. and selected the British Vickers VC10. The Ilyushin 11-62 It first flew on 3 January 1963. As yet. this marked the true beginning of the global jet age. the Ilyushin Il-62 began scheduled service from Moscow to New York. on 10 March. (photo: Boris Vdovienko) Il-62M SSSR-86521 at Khabarovsk in 1991. the aircraft could not make the journey in either direction without making these two intermediate stops. and stopping at Anchorage. but there was no point in trying to re-invent the wheel. Critics on this design aspect often choose to forget the similarity to the Caravelle of the DC-9 and the BAC One-Eleven. on 29 March 1970. The I1yushiu 11-62. the so-called copy of the VC10. the Soviet industry undoubtedly reviewed it options.A.S. Rome on 11 June 1973. The rearengined configuration was apparently satisfactory. Ireland. Aeroflot's Sixth Freedom activity did not cause too much international concern. or between the Boeing 727 and the Trident. (photo: Vladimir Kuznetzov) 54 .

but was curtailed to the Peruvian capital when the Allende government was overthrown after only two years in office. Moscow to Washington.000) 165. Aeroflot Aeroflot No. Soloviev D·30KU (4 X 1l.7S0Ib) • Normal Range 7. and observed by this artist at Kennedy International Airport. 55 . a moderate improvement was to omit either one or the other of these technical stops with the introduction of the Ilyushin Il-62M (1I-62M-200). On 4 November 1972. operated by SSSR-86670. Built 32 22 95 1742 Comparison with 11-86 LENGTH 53m (174ft) SPAN 43m (142ft) Notes: 7 later variant the 11-62MK. 7601b) A 2production scheduled to continue until 7995 IL-62 REGISTRATION BLOCKS (all prefixed SSSR-) 86450-86451 86452-86542 86544 86552 86553-86555 86558 86562-86565 86605-86614 86616-86617 86618-86623 86624-86625 86649-86657 86658 86659 86661-86668 86670-86709 86710-86712 11-62M 11-62M 11-62M 11-62M lex Interflug) 11-62M 11-62M 11-62M The welcome of the arrival of the first Ilyushin Il-62 service to Alma Ata.340 (357. 24. it brought the Soviet airline to a new Latin American ally. killing 176 people. this was the greatest airline disaster on record. on a charter flight.400 14. For in spite of its record of carrying Aeroflot's flag throughout the world's intercontinental route network.7501 Normal Range km(mi) 6. Havana.SOOmi) THE ILYUSHIN IL-62 AND THE VICKERS VC10 COMPARED First Right Date 29 Jun 1962 7 May 1964 3 Jan 1963 1972 First Service Date 29 Apr 1964 1Apr 1965 10Mar 1967 1974 Aircraft Type VC10 Super VClD 11-62 11-62Ml Dimensions-m(ft) Length 48 (159) 5211721 531174) 531174) Span 45 (1461 45 (1461 43 (1421 43 (1421 Speed km/h (mph) 930 (580) 93015801 9001560) 9001560) Mixed Class Seating 140 160 166 165 MTOW kg lib) 141. a modified variant of the original design with new engines and increased fuel capacity. there had been many technical problems. with direct Ilyushin 11-62 service from capital to capital. and Lima.0001 6.5001 First Airline 80AC B. where a Marxist government under Salvador Allende assumed power.200km (4.700 (4.200) 6. But the 11-62 survived all vicissitudes and remains today as Aeroflot's front-line airliner for all long-distance routes beyond the non-stop capability of the wide-bodied Ilyushin 11-86 (see page 89).820 1312. on 17 October 1968. On 13 October 1972. with higher MTOW. Of great political importance was a second route to the United States. 900km/h (560mph) This drawing depicts a standard 11-62 (SSSR-88671) used on the inaugural Moscow-New York passenger service on 15 July 1968. (photo: Boris Vdovienko) Note: known prototypes were 06753/06756/06770/06776 /06300 Mixed Fortunes The early 1970s were good for the 11-62 . at 767.200 14.400 14.270 1335.OOOkg st. came into service in about 7978.OAC.000) 162. inaugurated on 5 April 1974.Ilyushin 11-62M 165 SEATS. an 11-62 crashed at Sheremetyevo Airport in Moscow. The service was routed via Rabat.340kg (363.350kg 1368.340 (363.2S01b st) • MTOW 16S. At the time. Chile.000 152. Still stopping at Shannon and Gander.00) 7. Kazakhstan.

the Antonov An-24 flies on. which came out of the same design bureau at Kiev. by 1967. the An-24 quietly got on with the job.'(I-~. and the first Tupolev Tu-114 flights began from Moscow to Havana. Africa. have passed almost unnoticed. the now 48-seater will probably still be serving Aeroflot into the next century. Ukraine. dozens of them lined up at every major traffic hub.honorably. It has been exported to several countries in eastern Europe. the Antonov An-24 is still to be seen everywhere. Yet today. The little 40-seater twin was a poor relation. it should be noted .- C'~I'l\ pellS\( _WJ. or to the biggest and the fastest. Davies) '. While the larger and faster jets grabbed the headlines. When the Antonov An-24 entered service on 9 October 1962. the Ilyushin 11-18 to West Africa.. (R. the headlines are always devoted to spectacular events. it attracted little attention. designed to match the traffic demand on hundreds of routes to regions of low population density. Antonov An-24 SSSR-46521.." q eSc' iAv' B'II~D" ~i~O" AEROFLOT IN THE 19605 (before Tupolev Tu-114!lIyushin ~1-62 services) 56 REGD .and the Tu134 is approaching that status. and serving countless regional route networks with regularity and reliability.. this was as much because of the efforts of the diminutive An-24 as it was of the giant Tu-114.Short-Haul Turboprop They Also Served In the world of aviation. the 12-seat An-2.. throughout the vast expanses of European Russia. This was the year when the Tupolev Tu-104 began service to southeast Asia. serving the Soviet people in hundreds of small communities. thirty years later. And while the Tu-l04 and the Tu-114 are now retired . Aeroflot was able to claim to be the largest airline in the world. compared with these. Antonov An-26 cargo aircraft at Nikolayevsk-na-Amur in 1990. The smaller airliners.G. Like its partner. and the Middle East. When. and Siberia..E.

27 (Fairchild F-27) Handley Page Dart-Herald Avro/Hawker Siddeley/ 8Ae 748 Antonov An-24 NAMC YS-l1 Dlmensions-mlft) Length 23 (76) 23 (761 20 1671 24 (791 26 (861 Span 29 195) 29 195) 30 (98) 29 1951 32 11051 Speed km/h (mph) 415 1258} 430 1270) 420 1260) 450 1280) 450 (2801 Seats MTOW Normal kg . THE TWIN-ENGINED TURBOPROPS First Flight Date 24 Nov 1955 11 Mar 1958 24 Jun 1960 20 Dec 1959 30 Aug 1962 First Service Date 27 Sep 1958 17 May 1961 1Apr 1961 9 Oct 1962 20 Sep 1965 I Aircraft Type Fokker F. 450km/h (280mph) A3PO Ivchenko AI-24 (2x 2.4951 21.200+ .225 (44.000 146. Built 40 44 40 West Coast 787 1 Airlines Jersey Airlines Skyways 48 381 48 64 Aeroflot Japan Domestic 1.0001 640 (4001 640 14001 700 14401 600 (3751 1050 16501 First Airline No.000 (59.100 182 Notes: 'Includes all Dutch-built Friendships and u. (Fairchild) F-27s and (Fairchild-Hiller) FH-227 developments. 50+ • Operated in Aeroflot colors by various ministries. Production continues as Fokker 50.900) 27.500 143.0001 20.s.Antonov An-24 48 SEATS.000 (46.4001 19.000 (52.100 Comparison with 11-86 LENGTH 24m (79ft) SPAN 29m (95ft) Aeroflot 1.5251 Normal Range kmlml) 600 (3751 960 (6001 860 (5301 First Airline Aeroflot No.000 (55.900 139.300) 25.lOOehp) • MTOW 21.300Ib) • Normal Range 600km (375mi) THE ANTONOV TWINS First Right Date 20 Dec 1959 1968 1976 First Service Date 9 Oct 1962 1969 1977 Aircraft Type An-24 An-26 An-32 Dlmenslons-mlft) Length 24 (791 24 (791 24 (791 Span 29 (951 29 (95) 29 195) Speed km/h Imph) 450 1280) 440 1273) 470 1292) Seats MTOW kg lib) 48 Freight Freight 21. Built 1. Antonov An-32 SSSR-69306 at Rshevka in July 1991.300) 24. (Gary Jennings) 57 . Range lib) kmlmi) 17.OOOkg (46.

For several years.S.44<~ Eugene Loginov was the U. the Black Sea seaside resort.. annual announcements by the Soviet Ministers for Civil Aviation (for which Aeroflot was effectively its operating division) suggested that its statistical stature was growing to the level of parity with the largest western airlines. public utilities. The World's Largest Airline The Tupolev Tu-134's debut coincided with a notable milestone in Aeroflot's history. the Tupolev Tu-134 was a much-modified Tu-124. most of this achievement was drawn from the domestic network. The first Tu-134 service was from Moscow to Sochi..S. measured by passenger boardings.the Tupolev Tu-134 was not seen much in western Europe. if not inspired by. and east Germany.--rt-----1150 PassengerKilometers f-----+-----+-~---I--.S.250 GROWTH OF 200 Billions AEROFLOT compared to other la rge airlines t---- f-------jf-----.1 The Tupolev Tu-134 was the first Soviet jet airliner to find widespread approval in eastern Europe. was soon dropped. But. Czechoslovakia. Bulgaria. the smaller twinjet was still to be seen here and there throughout the former Soviet Union well into the 1990s. Hungary. The six countries of the 'East Bloc' as well as an airline in communist Jugoslavia. (John Wegg) Tu-134A-3 SSSR-65717. in fact. and public transport. the Berlin Agreement of 27 October 1965. Rather like the Antonov An-24. with engines moved to external nacelles at the rear and vertical stabilizer at the top of the fin.. another aircraft from the same Design Bureau entered the Aeroflot scene rather qUietly..--. and often unobtrusive. meager though this may have appeared by a straight comparison with western income levels. Minister ofCivil Aviation during the 1960s. Though outnumbered by the larger Tupolev Tu-154. the new short-haul jet qUickly made its mark.subsidized cheap housing. Produced at Kharkov. all bought substantial numbers of the rearengined short-haul jet. the Soviet airline was able to claim that it was the largest airline in the world..r-----____. Romania. This success was aided by. (Bob Neumeier) _ J An early production Tu-134 at Helsinki in 1972. and effectively the head of Aeroflot.r. . measured in terms of percentage of discretionary income. and with cheap food. By 1967. even in the post-Soviet era) extremely low.R. (Paul Duffy) 250 r-----~---r---__. rather than international routes. The one (Tu-134A SSSR65892) was leased from Aeroflot by MALEV. signed by Poland. meant that its extensive use was not at first realized by western observers.R. in the fashion of the BAC One-Eleven and the DC-9. He was in charge when the Soviet airline became the largest airline in the world. the average Soviet citizen could take an air trip to visit relatives or to take a vacation without diving too deeply into the family budget. or in passenger-miles flown. As Aeroflot's presence in overseas markets was still modest. an event that was possibly symbolic of the momentum for growth that was sustained by Aeroflot during the 1970s. but it quickly became a common sight at all the major airports in eastern Europe. were (and still are. ""'1'JC' '" ". a quarter of a century after its introduction. Fares within the U. its wider deployment on Soviet domestic. (Boris Vdovienko) 50 REGD 0 1960 1970 1980 1990 58 . With state. so modified. that the original designation Tu-124A. as its export potential was greater than that of any previous Soviet airliner. after entering service on 9 September 1967. -..L----j 200 of 150 100 (ranked in 1990) -+----. A Standard Airliner Because of the sharp political barriers between east and west that prevailed during the Cold War.S.Short-Haul Jet Workhorse for the Seventies While the giant Tupolev Tu-1l4 was making headlines during the latter 'Sixties with its trans-Atlantic and long-haul services to east Asia. whether measured in passenger journeys made. known familiarly as the 'Six-Pool'. .

almost 360 0 panoramic view.7001 45.SOOkg st. and in the Soviet Union during the 1970s. with few navigational aids.7001 2.1701 First Airline Aeroflot No. the navigator had a special responsibility for guiding his crew across the limitless and featureless taiga and tundra. with the two pilots separated by the 'oven-door' access.0001 Normal Range km(mi) 1.000 (1. it was nevertheless efficient in many respects. The seat bottom could be folded upwards .600 11.0001 41. Flexible Seating The Tupolev Tu-134's cabin was narrower than that of its comparable western types.450 (65.000 (97. and the seat backs could also be folded forward to a level position. Built 244 2.abreast (and. in the case of the Boeing 737. Normal Range 2.350 * Braathens 435 2* Notes: 7Includes subsequent developments iDC-9-80 series and MD-88). 21ncludes subsequent developments iF 28-0 lOOIFokker 700).250mi) THE TUPOLEV TU-134s First Right Date 29 Jul 1963 First Service Date 12 Sep 1967 1970 Aircratt Type Tu-134 Tu-134A Dimensions-m(tt) Length 34 (115) 37 (121) Span 29 (95) 29 (951 Speed km/h (mph) 800 (5001 780 14851 Seats MTOW kg lib) 72 Normal Range km(mi) 2. This position for the navigator is the best possible for a wide.Tupolev Tu-134 72 SEATS. tending to draw the comment that this was more like the performance of a military airplane. Built Comparison with 11-86 LENGTH 34m (115ft) SPAN 29m (95ft) 44.OOOkm (1.500) 47. THE SHORT-HAUL lWIN-JETS COMPARED First Flight Date 20 Aug 1963 25 Feb 1965 29 Jul 1963 9Apr 1967 9 May 1967 First Service Date 9 Apr 1965 8 Dec 1965 9 Sep 1967 10 Feb 1968 28 Mar 1969 Aircratt Type BAC One-Eleven Douglas DC-9 Tupolev Tu-134 Boeing 737 Fokker F.030 1* 700+ 27 (891 27 1891 29 (95) 28 (931 23 (771 103 65 Lufthansa 2.250) 2.800) 1. With this aircraft. 59 .0001 2.600 (91.200 (800) First Airline British United Delta Aeroflot No.OOOlb). and less luxurious than any western type.700 (100.0001 47. Whether using these or asphalt or concrete runways.OOOlb st) • MTOW 44. with four-abreast.900 (1. 800km/h (SOOmph) o Soloviev D-30 (2 x 6. with gravel or grass surfaces.OOOkg (97.890 11. Rather flimsy. the air traveling world in general became familiar with the standard Soviet airliner seat.2501 1.000 1103. The Tupolev Tu-134 was designed to be able to use what are sometimes referred to as unprepared strips. the aircraft's take-off distance was long and its landing speed high.500) 29. Such commentary was also directed towards the 'bomb-aimer's window' in the lower part of the fuselage nose.450 (87. * production continues. in which the navigator took his position during flight.28 Dimensions-m(tt) Length 28 1941 32 (1041 35 (1151 29 (941 27 1901 Span Speed km/h (mph) 800 15001 800 (5001 800 (500) 800 (5001 700 14201 Typical Seating 74 80 72 MTOW kg lib) 39.735 (1. 15. rather than five.6001 700+ 1 Aeroflot 76 Notellncludes 80196-seat Tu-7348 without navigator's position firstflown in 7980. a convenience which has been cheerfully put to good use by Soviet air travelers. six-abreast) seating.600 (104.a convenience for storing otherwise bulky baggage.000 (1.

Line-up ofmore than 20 Yak-40s at Krasnoyarsk in 1992.The Mini-Liners The Smallest Jetliner The Soviet industry had.E. designed for a similar air transport role. who had produced the Yak-9 and Yak-3 fighter aircraft that did such an outstanding job in the Great Patriotic War. with two in fuselage-mounted pods. Like the Yak-40. Unlike the small tri-jet. the Boeing 727. but was a worthy complement to the 'Annuchik' in its versatility in using grass or gravel strips. In this version. in some cases . (Photos: R. sometimes known as the Turbolet. This was the IS-seat Let L410 (later produced as a 19-seater). but on a much smaller scale. however. appeared on the scene. A. A. A total of 902 of the Czech mini-airliners were exported to the Soviet Union.G. on the right side. acquired a reputation . but it pulled itself together again after the War. The small turboprop seemed to be just right for Aeroflot as a replacement for the aging Antonov An-2.S. The pre-war Czech aircraft industry had been obliterated by the Nazi occupation. The Yakovlev Yak-40 was a small jet. was ready with innovative designs. and allOWing for certain shortcomings such as a shortage of baggage space (only one overhead rack. baggage racks are open and on one side only. like the engines in the Trident.of copying western aircraft designs. and no under-floor hold). But one aircraft owed nothing to western influence. and by the late 1960s. Yakovlev produced a small jet airliner for successful inter-city use. by the late 1960s.deserved. and was produced by the Let Narodni Podnik (Let National Corporation) in Czechoslovakia. but access is through a hydraulically actuated door in the left rear fuselage. it did not completely replace. or the Tupolev TuIS4. but in so doing. -(courtesy: Von Hardesty) Yakovlev Yak-40 at Nikolayevsk-na-Amure in March 1990. Let L410 SSSR-67544 at Khabarovsk. all at the rear. the L410's baggage hold is at the back. Yakovlev Yakovlev produced a mini-airliner that has no eqUivalent in the west. thus made his debut in the commercial arena with a unique formula. Cabin ofa Yak-40 in 24-seat layout. and one fared into the vertical stabilizer.rn the event. The Yak-40 made its first flight on 21 October 1966 and entered service with Aeroflot on 30 September 1968. The distinguishing feature of the Yak-40 was its tri-jet engine configuration. More than 1. The normal entrance was by a ventral stair. no doubt. The Smallest Turboprop Not long after the introduction of what may be described as the world's first mini-airliner.010 were built at the Saratov production line and 130 were exported to 17 countries. there are no overhead baggage racks in the three-abreast configuration. and this accomplishment has not been matched in the West. for use on feeder routes which did not generate enough traffic to justify even the 40-48-seat Antonov An-24.S. Yakovlev. Davies) 60 . another small aircraft. Not only that. seating up to 32 passengers. as a rule.

7S0shp) • MTOW 6.Yakovlev Yak-40 and Let L410UVP-E 32 SEATS.400 (14. 3S0km/h (220mph) CCCP-87560 < ./ A3POCPIlOT Ivchenko AI-2S (3 xl .1l0lb).7101 6.. Normal Range S30km (330mi) 61 .200 135.400kg (14. Built Comparison with 11-86 LENGTH 20m (67ft) SPAN 25m (82ft) 21 Oct 1966 16Apr 1969 30 Sep 1968 Yakovlev Yak-40 Let L410 20 (671 14 (47) 25 182) 20 (65) 500 1290) 350 (2201 32 19 16. SOOkm/h (290mph) 19 SEATS.272 ~~ Motorlet M60lE (2 x 1.700kg (30.010 1./ .300Ib st) • MTOW 13.3.200Ib) • Normal Range 600 km (320mi) THE MINI-AIRLINERS First Flight Date First Service Date Aircraft Type Dimensions-m(ft) length Span Speed km/h (mph) Seats MTOW kg lib) Normal Range km(mi) No.SOOkg st.100) 600 (3201 530 1330) 1.

by the 1990s.." Of these.)=======:::"-.. and the take-off and landing performance of the An-10. on the last day of the year (see pages 64-65)."an aircraft with the range of the II-18. Workhorse Like all new civil airliners.J Harbin Sochi • REGD Frunze : ~--D Niigata : : G. (Right) Flight deck of the Tupolev Tu-154. But Tupolev and Aeroflot pressed on with what was designed to be . and the type remains in production.R.-': International Routes Cabin of the Tu-154. the Tu-154 had its problems in the early years. (Boris Vdovienko) 62 .&>rVOSTOK I I I D-------. (Paul Duffy) 1990 LENINGRAD r=lk------.. The trijet made its first flight on 3 October 1968.S. The first two production aircraft from the Kuybyshev factory were delivered to Aeroflot on 27 December 1984. But the event was almost unnoticed while the world of aviation underwent the hypnosis of supersonic aspirations. the sometimes overworked equine metaphor can be forgiven in its application to the aircraft that produced.to quote John Stroud . and several aerodynamic improvements were made. that a prototype Tn-154M with derated Soloviev D-30KU engines was produced by converting a standard production Tu-154B-2. (Boris Vdovienko) Tupolev Tu-154M SSSR-85663 taking offfrom MoscowSheremetyevo.. The slower aircraft went into service with Aeroflot on 9 February 1972.- . and the Soviet SST followed only three months later. but the targets were substantially met. And.. the Kuznetsov NK-8 turbofan was a thirsty one and fuel burn could be greatly improved by replacing it with the Soloviev D-30KU as had been done in the II-62. New engine nacelles were developed from those fitted to the II62M.. routes Europe(or Central ASia)through services to For East destinations only (excludes intra-Regional routes) Ust' Ulinsk VL4.../ Pyongyang 0 .. or perhaps alone as much as the total output of anyone of the three leading airlines of the United States. as the map on this page illustrates.Standard Trikl Tortoise and Hare The Tnpolev Tn-154 and the supersonic Tupolev Tu-144 both got out of the starting gate at about the same time. about half of the passenger-kilometers of the entire Aeroflot fleet.. only the Tu-104 was emulated in this specification. ten years after the Tu-154 entered service. on the route from Moscow to the health resort Mineralnye Vody... The Tupolev design bureau was slow to accept this possibility.S. and it was not until 1982.U.. As Ilyushin had already found (page 55). TupoJev Tu -154 trans. the speed of the Tu-104. with the same type of clamshell thrust reversers.

900 11.000) 76. 900km/h (580mph) cc C p.TU20lev Tu-154 164 SEATS.7-"':::::::===-.=2.000) 94. 8:.000) 90.. Notes: •Production continues. Normal Range 2.260 Aeroflot 1.:.000 (198.5001 2. For offsetting the higher seat-mile costs is the excellent performance which includes the ability to take off and land at almost any reasonable airport.8. in terms of the greatest..2001 3.000 . Airline Built BEA Eastern 117 572 Northeast 1.20. the fastest..7701 First No.. even those without paved runways.OOOkg (198.000) 2.8S0km (1. But in producing the aircraft and in operating it under the Soviet conditions of financial and operating criteria.650 (169. based on the annual aggregate output of passenger miles. or the 'mostest'.. main airport for the Crimean resort area.4151 Normal Range kmlmil 1.SOOkg. THE TRIJETS COMPARED First Right Date 9 Jan 1962 9 Feb 1963 27 Jul 1967 3 Oct 1968 Comparison with 11-86 LENGTH 48m (157ft) SPAN 38m (123ft) First Service Date 11 Mar 1964 1 Feb 1964 14 Dec 1967 9 Feb 1972 Aircraft Type DH Trident Boeing 727-100 Boeing 727-200 Tupolev Tu-154 Dimensions-mlftl Length 35 1115) 40 (1331 47 (153) 48 (157) Span 29 195) 33 (108) 33 (108) 38 (123) Speed km/h Imphl 930 15801 930 (580) 970 16051 900 (5801 seats 84 94 140 164 MTOW kg IIbl 59.200 (2. (Boris Vdovienko) 63 ..:5:.:::. measured by the standard method of calculation.300 (208.400 11.770mi) Unlikely Champion For those interested in records. The work output of the Aeroflot fleet of this type is arguably the most productive of any individual aircraft type by any individual airline in the world. the Tupolev Design Bureau and Aeroflot have served their country well.-1 q Kuznetzov NK-8-2 (3 x 9. This is not to suggest that the Tu-lS4 is therefore the most economical aircraft of any of its contemporary rivais.000 1130. the Tupolev Tu-154 offers a fascinating exercise in statistics..850 (1. (Right) Passengers disembark from the inaugural Tu-154 flight to Simferopol.9S0Ib) • MTOW 90.41Slb).

or a combination of both. the entry of the Tupolev Tu-144 into airline service was almost a token gesture. The dream had ended. later analysis has suggested that both pilot and aircraft could have been victims of enforced programming changes that jeopardized a well-disciplined demonstration routine. 3 June 1973. and the cabin noise level was unacceptably high. it was a shattering blow to the hopes and aspirations of the Soviet aircraft industry. ready to take offon the inaugural passenger service from Moscow to Alma Ata on 1 November 1977. nose drooped. Bugayev. At first thought to be structural failure. The Tu-144. after 102 flights.S. One Tu-1440 crashed near Ramenskoye on 23 May 1978 seemed impracticable. the two aircraft were developed and produced simultaneously. 77102 crashed at Paris. with its extensive use of titanium structure. albeit for air cargo service only. the sonic boom limited the operational scope. which first flew two months later. The Tupolev Tu-144. was not copied. a date said to have been a political imperative. and it was the first to go into service. it was the first to fly. Ultimately. Curtailed Service Record Nevertheless. with the Kungey Alatau mountains in the background. almost as a series of proving flights before the passenger service.Supersonic Diversion Sharing The Dream While many in the West tended to dismiss the Topolev To144 supersonic airliner project as being a copy of the AngloFrench Concorde. faded. At first wholly supportive of the SST. head of Aeroflot. and did not follow the Concorde. production continued. with allegations of much industrial espionage worthy of James Bond himself. (Above) The Tupolev Tu-144. passenger flights on the same route began on 1 November 1977. The engines could not be programmed to operate at full efficiency in alternating subsonic and supersonic speeds. In fact. Cargo flights began from Moscow to Alma Ata on 26 December 1975. to be ahead of the Concorde. Whatever the reason. and its advanced aerodynamics. gained the respect of American engineers and designers as no other Soviet aircraft had ever done before. Yelian made the maiden flight on 31 December 1968. then pilot error.and Tragedy The Tupolev Tu-144 had its moment of glory. (courtesy: Von Hardesty) CCCP-11109 64 . At the Paris Air Show.R. and the dream of supersonic airline schedules across the length and breadth of the U. u' Welcoming crowd for the inaugural Tu-144 flight at Alma Ata.V. Success . Test pilot E. a Tupolev Tu144 disintegrated as it pulled out of a steep dive. as many have surmised. (Boris Vdovienko) (Below) Tu-144 SSSR-77109 at Alma Ata. Behind the heads can be seen the local fleet ofAntonov An-2s piston-engined impudence against supersonic dignity. and these continued intermittently for only a few months before the service ended on 1 June 1978. faced formidable problems and the operation of the revolutionary aircraft TU-144 PRODUCTION SSSR-68001/68002 SSSR-77101/77115 Flying prototypes (2 more airframes used for static tests) Production aircraft One painted as '77144' for display at Paris Air Show 1975. high fuel consumption inhibited long range operations.S. on 3 June 1973. Both aircraft attracted world-wide publicity but then came disaster and tragedy. But the Soviet supersonic program gradually lost momentum as the engineers and operator (Aeroflot) came face to face with reality.

OOOkg (397. and which ffew after the Tu-144 and made only a few proving ffights. 3. 44. Includes two prototypes and two pre-production.000 (408.OOOko (419.OOOlb). at first glance. and oeneral/v smal/er and liohter than the oroduction version. near Moscow. 2.OOOkg).6 12021 Span 288 (95) 25.500) 2. MTOW 180. However.Tupolev Tu-144 60-70 SEATS. THE TUPOLEV TU-144 AND CONCORDE COMPARED First Flight Date 31 Dec 1968 1 2 Mar 1969 First Service Date 26 Dec 19752 1 Nov 19773 21 Jan 1976 Aircraft Type Tupolev Tu-144 8AC-Aerospatiale Concorde Dimensions-mlft) Length 65. and the grouping of the engines underneath the fuselage. the Tu-144 wing is simpler and lacks the aerodynamically complex shaping found on Concorde. structural differences allow Concorde a lower empty weight and a higher maximum take-off weight.8S6sq ft). despite a lengthy gestation in three considerably diverse versions.2001 6.SOOkm (2.500 (2.3501 Seats MTOW kg lib) 180. western observers tended to conclude the Tu-144 was a direct copy of the Concorde. Closer scrutiny reveals that the Tu-144 was the result of independent thinking by Andrei Tupolev's design bureau. sustained until 1June 1978 4. home of the Central Aerohydrodynamics Institute (TsAGI).OOOlb) • Normal Range 3. 5.000 1397. the Tu-144 was unable to achieve sustained commercial service. Some 4m (14ft) longer than Concorde.SOOkm/h (l. two Tu-144s are currently in use for ozone research flights from Zhukovskiy.0001 Normal Range kmlml) 3. Airline Built Aeroflot 8ritish Airways Air France 17 4 20 5 60-70 100 Concorde Tupolev Tu-144 Comparison Although superficially similar.7 (2161 61.0001 185. 65 .500 (1.000) First No. An impressive machine by any standard. Prototyoe .150 11.400 (4.71Ssq ft) compared to Concorde's 3S8m 2 (3. Freioht onlv. designers are usually faced with few options. MTDW 190. with greater tankage. Notes: I.6 (841 Speed km/h Imph) 2. However.OOOkg. production Tu-144s have a wing area of 438m 2 (4. Thus. 2. Includes two orototyoes and three Tu-144D. Passenoer service.200mi) Comparison with 11-86 LENGTH 66m (216ft) SPAN 29m (95ft) Given a specific set of performance and operational parameters. the most noticeable external differences to Concorde being the wing planform as shown here.SOOmph) __ A3POCPAOT ~ "- [lOO Kuznetzov NK-144 (4 x 20.six meters shorter.

0001 Normal Range km(mi) 3. The Soviet aircraft builders had been specialists in skis since the earliest days of Polar exploration by air (see page 26).at Ulan Ude. or Antheus. began work in 1965. an Antonov An-12 (below) loading cargo at Tiksi in 1962.000 (134. Oleg Antonov's team went on to build essentially a giant version of the An-12. and the version for Aeroflot.00) MTOW kg lib) 61. Poseidon. An overhead gantry crane could move loads of up to two tons up and down the cargo hold. (all photographs by Boris Vdovienko) THE FIRST ANTONOV FREIGHTERS First Flight Date 1958 27 Feb 1965 First Service Date 18 Feb 1965' 1968 Aircraft Type Antonov An-128 Antonov An-22 Dimensions-m(ft) Length 33 (1091 58 (1901 Span 38 (125) 64 (211) Speed km/h (mph) 580 1360) 600 13801 Cargo Capacity kg lib) 20. Unloading an Antonov An-12 at Ice Station 10 in August 1962. and Tashkent . and.1251 No.600 (1. It first flew in 1958.000 (194. Voronesh. and an Antonov An-12 SSSR-04366 at Ice Station 10 in 1962. Built 300 ? 55 1 1 . at Tiksi. Antonov was no exception.. although many appeared with Aeroflot titles. the giant son of the Greek god of the oceans. The aircraft's main cargo hold was not pressurized. like all Soviet aircraft.-!!k ~ I Notes: • Earlier service with WSNTA (Soviet Air Force/Transport Command) 1 Not including prototypes 66 .000 (44. Son of Poseidon Obviously satisfied with the success of its all-freighter design. the An-l2 was built for rough field performance and for operations in extreme climatic conditions. (Left) Oleg Antonov (right) presents a model of the An-12 to Aleksander Afanasiev.Air Freighter Development The Antonov An-12 The Antonov Design Bureau at Kiev quickly realized the potential of its basic An-10 design for transporting cargo. but it had some interesting features. the Antonov An-12B. in fact the Antonov An-12 was developed in parallel with the passenger version and production . ofAviaarktika. All An-22s are operated by the military. February 1962. in which 100 paratroopers could be carried.9401 5.480) 250.000 (3.0901 88.is estimated to have exceeded 800 aircraft in the military An-12BP version. Those fitted to the An-l2 for Arctic use had a braking device and were heated. went into military service in 1959.000 (550. The Antonov An-22 was named Antei.

OOOshp) • MTOW 250. An Antonov An-22 prototype (SSSR-56391) on take-off. Habitually critical. made it first flight on 27 February 1965. it made its international debut at the Paris Air Show. sometimes disdainful.680km/h (410mph) • Kuznetzov NK-12MA (4 X 15. the T-72. and four months later. It weighed 250 tons and had a payload of 100 tons. Such extraordinary performance was made possible by an extraordinary landing gear. for a total of twelve.Antonov An-22 100 tons .lOOmi) Comparison with 11-86 LENGTH S8m (190ft) SPAN 64m (211ft The World's Largest The four-engined Antonov An-22. (Malcolm Nason) 67 .1601b) • Normal Range 5. or the T-80. carrying the ten-ton load gantry crane. and the tire pressure could be controlled during flight. of the products of the Soviet aircraft industry. but could also form an extension to the rails along the sides of the hold. even this mammoth machine could be used on rough strips. Quite simply. The rear-end loading door was a neat device that not only provided the ramp.OOOkm (3. It could carry large battle tanks such as the T-62.OOOkg (551. In each of the two fuselage fairings were three tandem wheels. FolloWing time-honored tradition. complete with contra-rotating propellers. to spread the load. to the wonderment of the world. which did not complain against the customary lack of pressurization in the main cargo hold. on 15 June 1965. The floor was of reinforced titanium. western observers were forced to take notice. (Boris Vdovienko) Antonov An-22 SSSR-09344 offloading relie(supplies at Moscow-Sheremetyevo in April 1992. this was a huge airplane.

In March 1980. Polar Station SP-2 (Papanin's was recognized as SP-l) was established on 1 April 1950. during a series offerry flights to Ice Station 10. Mazuruk. work continued with SP-32. located at some points of their drift 1. no less. Vodopyanov and E. Igarka. from Moscow via Irkutsk. For Polar Station SP-23 alone. In 1968. Perov and M.«$ J> ~ Cape Schmidt ~nadyr ONizhne Kolymsk o Chokurdakh Mcgadct'lo o Jgarka (Below) Ilyushin Il-14D at Ice Station 9. and Mil Mi-2s. the Antonov An-12 and Mil Mi-4. the program gained momentum.000 tons of cargo. where it had encountered a hurricane. An-12s. 17. together with V. he was guided through the treacherous and everchanging ice packs and floes from four aviation bases at Tiksi. in a truly heroic sortie. Doctor of Geographic Sciences. (Right) Inspecting the engine ofa ski-equipped Lisunov Li-2. 100 tons of cargo. supporting 'North 69' (SP-16. 18).. in 1962. and delivering and setting up 70 automatic weather stations on the drifting floes. with difficult living conditions. Murmansk. ARCTIC ICE STATION SUPPLY LINES' ARCTIC o ". and the Tamyr-Krasnoyarsk. a hydrographic vessel in distress in the East Siberian Sea.Arctic Ice Stations Back To The Ice Floes The pioneering work performed by the historic Papanin expedition of 1937 (see pages 28-31) has been well documented and is widely known.OOOmi) from the mainland. SP-2 was more of a reconnaissance survey. in which more than 5. V.. via the Arctic Ocean. Somov. For E. and the I1ynshin 11-76 began work in the Arctic.600km (I. based at Arkhangelsk. The helicopters battled giant waves and 100km/h (65mph) winds 68 . flying an Ilyushin 11-18 four-engined turboprop. to save the crew. Ilyushin 11-14s.G. During the mid-1950s. and Tiksi. They carried 360 tons of supplies and equipment. Less familiar to western students of Soviet work in the Arctic Ocean is the series of more than thirty Polar Stations (Severny Polius. the high-latitude Sever-7S was supported by the Aeroflot Noril'sk station while in 1976/77. In June of the follOWing year. and Mil Mi-2s. under the direction of Mark Shevelev (who had been Dr Otto Schmidt's aviation man in the pioneer years of the Northern Sea Route Administration) the Arctic Aviation Service of Aeroflot was subdivided into three groups. notably to SP-9. or North Pole Station) that have been established on the Arctic ice since 1950. Commanded by M. Tutlov.K. the Arktika reached the North Pole.A. On 21-23 March 1958. But the main workhorse of the Arctic supply route was the Ilyushin 11-14.M. but for the Polar aviators.000km (600mi) n01th ofthe Siberian Arctic coast. Kamov Ka-lS helicopter crews based on the atomic-powered icebreakers Lenin and Arktika participated in an expedition to Yamal. Polar Aviation support was provided by veteran Arctic pilots M. Petrov's SP-4. as well as the complete expedition itself. as well as the ubiquitous An-2. but the ice stations that followed were complex stations. the YamalTyumen. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatksky. it was 'business as usual'. the aircraft also carried scientists on missions deep into the Arctic Ocean Ice deserts. and made 710 landings on the ice. This was followed by the high-latitude Sever-6S. Arctic helicopter pilots rescued a crew from the Ineyi. which transported thousands of tons of cargo and scientists. And so the work went on. helicopters were used for the first time. flying Antonov An24s and An-26s. In 1975. Aeroflot Takes Over over thousands of miles of ocean.P.M. supported the Sever-62 (North-62) expedition. On 17 August 1977. the North European. using Lisunov Li-2s . In summer 1962. 1. When SP-S began its drift in 1955. With Mazuruk still in command. supported by Arctic pilots.000 landings were made on the Arctic ice fields transporting more than 2. (Photos: Boris Vdovienko) Polar Aviation was transferred to Aeroflot on 3 January 1960. In addition to servicing the station. Kokkinski made a remarkable visit to Polar Station SP-6. with 11-14s.. the Arctic Aviation Service had a tremendous task in maintaining the supply lines to the drifting ice floes. who reached the ship in nine hours flying and spent two hours in reconnaissance.V. were transported. and Kalimo-Idigarsk. at night.the trusty DC-3 still indispensable. a regular aviation link with the mainland was flown by a small fleet of specially equipped aircraft that included Ilyushin 11-14s and the ubiquitous Antonov An-2s. followed later by the Antonov An-n. when Captain Myshevsky completed the sea passage from Arkhangelsk to Magadan. In 1971.

with their ski-equipped Lisunov Li-2 flying laboratoly. This picture well illustrates the airfield conditions on the Arctic ice . and was unofficially called Kamarovka . (Top) Ilyushin I1-14D atIce Station 11 in 1962. April 1962. an Antonov An-2 (SSSR. (All photos: Boris Vdovienko) (Center) Members of the scientific team ofIce Station 10.04351). far away from its more familiar cornfields of the Black Earth of Central Russia and the Ukraine. (Below) Determined not to be left out of the act. (Center) The ski landing gear of a Lisunov Li-2 at Ice Station 10.- Ice Floe Air Service (Top) Aerial support for Ice Station 10: Kamov Ka-15 on the left. kamar. measuring the ice thickness . with a Kamov Ka-15 in attendance.a satirical reference also to the Russian for mosquito. plays its part on the White Ice ofIce Station 10. where even that insect fears to fly. (Top) The ice-breaker Lenin at Ice Station 10. (Above) Ski-equipped Lisunov Li-2 alights on the strip at Ice Station 10. Lisunov Li-2 . 69 .typically many meters . April 1962.the 'old faithful' on the right.and the improvised unloading ramp. (Below) Ilyushin I1-14D at Ice Station 10 in April 1962. The station was managed by Comrade Kamarov.

and Australian. a new route was forged to Antarctica. carrying members of the 9th Soviet Expedition.M. established on the top of Dome Charlie. who made the initial flights from the base that was to become Mirnyy. Pilot (right-hand seat) o(an Ilyushin II-IS. New Route In 1980. An Ilyushin 11-18 (A. Now. through Africa (see map) made possible by the ability of the 11-180 to cover the longer distance from Maputo to Molodezhnaya . then half a dozen of the larger Mil Mi-6s and Mi-8s. Petrov. The two aircraft were able to deliver supplies and instruments. with up to ten Ilyushin 1114Ms. and can claim to have a runway that is as thick as it is long. Previbusly (see map) the Soviet aircraft had flown the same path as the American and Australian flights. British. It is l. an important milestone was reached in Soviet Antarctic exploration. Polyakov) and an Antonov An-12 (B.5. from Christchurch. Historic Flights In 1961.600km (28. an aircrew commanded by V.E. returning on 25 January to arrive triumphantly from a 52.420km (880mi) from the main Mirnyy base on the coast.600km (2. two more bases were established. The An-12 showed its prowess on skis. it was ready to join nations at the other end of the world. Ossipov in charge of aviation. two large turboprop aircraft flew from Moscow to Mirnyy.440ft) above sea level. bringing the winter shift to Antartica. Moscow was connected by a shorter route.S. in an area where the formalities of international bureaucracy could be dispensed With. even a couple of Antonov An-2s. The Nabarin. where the record low temperature of -89 0 C was recorded on 21 July 1983. commanded by the Director of Geographic Sciences. was maintained by a small fleet of aircraft that included five helicopters . based at Molodezhnaya and Mirnyy. in Antarctica. During the next two years.000km (3. and Vostok.D.380mi) round trip was made in 78hr 54min flying time. from Novolazarevskaya. Vostok is 3. the airmen encountered temperatures of -70 o C but managed to deliver much-needed supplies from Mirnyy to the new scientific station Novolazarevskaya. under the command of E. French.488 meters (1l. Flights were also made inland to the Vostok station. the gigantic icecap of East Antarctica. under the command of B. In 1958-1959.G. two more Ilyushin I1-18s made the long trip to the Antarctic in 1963.800mi) round trip on 2 February 1962. By 1975. Headed by the veteran of the Polar Aviation Directorate. The first expedition was mounted on 30 November of that year. This flight. Mirnyy. Shevelev. but this had entailed a long flight through Asia. was able to rescue the crew and passengers of a Belgian aircraft that had made an emergency landing. supported by Mil Mi2 and Mi-8 helicopters and Antonov An-2s (they are everywhere!) rescued 57 men and 6 tons of precious cargo for the Molodezhnaya and Mirnyy stations. P.P. the Last Continent. (Both photos: Boris Vdovienko) 70 . M. Molodezhnaya.800km (32. The 45. with P. Osipov) left Moscow on 15 December and arrived on Christmas Day. and the ice thickness is 200m (650ft) more than that. These aircraft also provided links to the bases of other nationalities..M. Grubly.Antarctica Preparations By the time the Soviet Union had established its fifth scientific station on the Arctic ice floes in 1955. the Soviet Union had six permanent scientific stations and some other temporary satellites in Antarctica. in support of the 25th Antarctic Expedition. New Zealand (which boasts the only ticket counter with Antarctica on the destination board). Cherevechnova. while the 11-18 made a round trip to McMurdo Sound to help save an Australian mechanic who had become ill. Somova. with a special version of the Ilyushin 11-18. Encouraged by the success of these flights. the 11-180.Mil Mi-4s in the early years.100mi) with no en route alternates. Novolazarevskaya.240mi). von Bellingshausen. Communication between the four main ones. the diesel-electric boat Db.E.C. politics and their encumbrances having been cast aside by the Antarctic Treaty. M. U. 133 years after a Russian sea captain. Crew o(the Ilyushin II-IS. In 1973.' had been the first to set eyes on the Antarctic mainland. well out of reach by land from the Belgian Roi Baudouin base about 500km (300mi) away. made the outbound journey from 10-13 February and returned from 19-23 February. before taking off(or the Antarctic in 1963.S. a distance of 3. With Somova was an aviation detachment. and who had the first taste of the harsh conditions of operating from the huge icy land mass. Moskalenko and B.S. In December 1958. was lost.

Already equipped as a specialized freighter. The Il-76 landed and took off successfully. suggested that it may have been the result of mowing it once a week.e. when asked by an American tourist how he had produced such a perfect lawn. (All: Vasily Karpy) AEROFLOT'S ACCESS TO THE ANTARCTIC . and flew by a slightly different African route direct to Novolazarevskaya. and rolling it once a week . and in spite of the now regular annual trips by the Ilyushin 180s. (fop right) TI... but the Ilyushin Il76 weighed 200 tons. with winches and ramps. Antartica.and able to carry a 50-ton payload over a distance of 3. then to Molodezhnaya. plus kitchen. Overcoming difficulties of alternate melting during long summer days of unbroken sunshine and crusting of surfaces with repeated freeZing.000ft. without concrete or paving. based in Antarctica . The runway was long enough. and all of the 3. runway at Novolazarevskaya. On 18 February 1986.e fl-76TD on the long..000 meters. and able to use the so-called unprepared strips. presented a different problem. the ground crew at the base rolled the packed snow runway for a whole year. or almost two miles) length was needed for the Il-76TO to slow to a stop after touching down. it was of snow. weighing in at a 190.000lb) . The ground staff at Molodezhnaya must have heard the story of the English gardener who. medical.. The bases's name betrays a wry sense ofhumor: the 'old'Lazarevskaya is a sunny resort on the Black Sea coast. on the other hand. Molodezhnaya. t h McMurdo Sound Ch rlS C urch REGD 71 . And Very Special Landings While the thickness of the ice that formed the runway at Novolazerevskaya may not have reached the astonishing proportions of Vostok (see opposite page).000 meters (10. Antarctica. When properly prepared this was all right for most aircraft.90 meters (300ft).Services by smaller aircraft types. 82 meters thick. for 500 years. it was. solid ice.650km (2. the ground staff rolled and rolled and rolled the runway ..270mi). inclLlding helicopters. the Il-76TO took off from Moscow. and life-saving equipment.. the one destined to make this historic trip was fitted with 90 seats. and wide enough . however. a slick surface. again 3. the Ilyushin 76TD. a decision was made in 1985 to use a bigger aircraft. and arrived back home on 4 March 1986.The Last Continent A Very Special Flight In the interests of time and economy of effort in delivering supplies to the Arctic Expeditions. (Bottom right) To prepare for the big freighter. i.000kg (420. But the composition of the runway was not of ice.say 200 tons at take-off . (Left) The II-76m unloads at Molodezhnaya. for a whole year. a real heavy lifter.

once again the product of Boris Vdovienko's peripatetic camera . is by sled. and laying out oil-pipe lines.. the 'big city' of the Yamal Nenets Autonomous District. agricultural work of all kinds. (Top) Summer homes in the Yamal Nenets district of northwestern Siberia. but the ubiquitous Antonov An-2.. teacher of the secondmy school at Katrovozh. (Bottom) Children trom the Yamal Nenets village ofLaborovaya are shipped out to the awaiting Antonov An-2V.Siberian School Bus Antonovs Everywhere Not content with providing normal air service to small communities. has added a new dimension to travel.. seen here to the right. the children appear somewhat apprehensive at the prospect of attending school at Katrovozh. Normal transport. In this picture-essay . just north of the Arctic Circle in northwestern Siberia.Jj. to attend secondaly school. near Salekhard. Diksoh . (All photos: Boris Vdovienko) kotrovo 'Zh Salekhard REGD 72 . are called yaranga. supporting railroad construction.an An-2V is seen at the tiny community of Laboroveya. near Salekhard. near the 'big city' ofSalekhard. the Antonov An-2 demonstrated its almost unlimited flexibility and versatility by being a school bus in places where wheeled vehicles did not dare to venture. 0 OSeyakha \lOl"kll~' Lob'h /~non9. keeps a watchful eye on the children en route to start the term. surveying fishing grounds. even in the untrozen briefsummer. The tents. Invited by the Aeroflot pilot from their 'yaranga' houses in the treeless tundra. ofslender tree trunks and animal skins. in the Poluostrov Yamal (the Yamal Peninsula). ~ 0 OCape Kamennyy Laborovaya Anna Maximovna. supporting the Arctic ice stations. On board the An-2.Aj. 1ll!l!!!!!!!'~r. the children are taken to the secondary school at Katrovozh. (Center) The Antonov An2 pilot invites a family to send the children to school.

The friendly airport bus awaits.E.G.An-2s in the Far East Antonovs For Ever In an area of Siberia much larger than the United States. to school.000 communities throughout the vast U. More than 60 such networks link about 2.inclined to be draughty in winter. Davies). (Boris Vdovienko) In the areas ofRussia where the snows seem to be ever-present. Khabarovsk 4petropoVI05k REGD Aeroflot's charming terminal buidling at Nikolayevesk-na-Amure.. The aITival of the Antonov An-2 at Khailinko. the Antonov An-2 is the only link with civilization itself. (R. where no railways exist and roads are a rare luxury. (R. 73 .E. (Paul Duffy) The maintenance shed at Nikolayevesk-na-Amure .S. a small village northwest of Khabarovsk.S. The maps and the photographs on this page proVide a glimpse of such aerial bus services in the Far East Region of Aeroflot. aircraft are painted red for better Visibility.G. Davies) The local bus se/vice at Novo Kurovka. Okhotsx\-. in northern Kamchatka. to the shops. where 120 towns and villages are se/ved by about the same number ofaircraft.R. Many hundreds of the versatile 12-seater carry people to work. and to visit friends and relatives. now the CIS. (R. Davies) Four ofthe local Antonov An-2 networks in the Far East Region ofthe Soviet Union.G.E.

to operate subsidized mail and passenger services in Los Angeles. This was followed shortly afterwards by a similar service on the Black Sea coast of the Russian Caucasus. All were finished by 1979. Mil Mi-4s carried passengers to Sheremetyevo Airport. Pakistan. (R. and partly because of well-publicized fatal accidents. a Mil Mi-4 eight-seater made the first flight from the main airport at Simferopol to Yalta. one of the delightful destinations of what may be termed the Crimean Riviera. Igor Sikorsky had made some experiments with helicopter designs. Not until the late 1940s did the helicopter spin its way upwards again in the Soviet Union. Mi-4s began a shuttle service from the Caspian oil capital of Baku to Neftune Kamne. The use of helicopters is dictated by operational necessity. or to inaccessible places in the mountains of Tadjikistan or Kirghizia. not economic feasibility. where even the An-2 was vulnerable. but lasted only about one year. father of the famous series ofSoviet helicopters. This was before the erection of the permanent monument (see page 32). where Aeroflot's central bus terminal had been established on Leningradski prospekt. none was sustained for very long. On 2 March. or to villages in northern Kamchatka. and was to revive his ambitions to pioneer vertical lift flights in America where he had emigrated at the outbreak of Revolution in St Petersburg in 1917. the program of helicopter operational development never became a prominent part of the scheduled passenger air network. New York. and Japan during the 1960s. The Aeroflot services were rumored to have been terminated because the wife of a prominent political figure complained of the noise. where a vigorous hub was established in Brussels for international services. But Aeroflot helicopters did carve important niches in areas where even the An-2 could not reach adequately. Canada. was added the next year. though for different reasons. judged by western criteria.t::Jf . helicopter services continued to flourish in any region of the far-flung territory where they were needed: delivering mail in the northern tundra to outlying communities of the Arctic. In the Soviet Union. and not until the late 19S0s was it put into commercial operation. from the main airport at Adler to the big resort of Soch!. and sporadically in Great Britain. and on 1 November a similar connection was made to Vnukovo and Bykovo Airports. By this time. helicopter mechanic and founder of the local air museum. partly because the Civil Aeronautics Board withdrew subsidy in 1965. Domodedovo. For about a year. deployed interchangeably with other feeder aircraft. where profit-andloss statements were non-existent. Khosta. in the Soviet Union. at San Francisco. and even the laying down of strips for the Antonov An2. On 19 July a helicopter station opened at Khodinka (Frunze) airfield. Davies) 74 . in the Bay of Sakhalin.. using a Kellett autogiro. an artificial island offshore and site of highly productive oil wells. Routes in the Crimea Aeroflot's first helicopter services were in the Crimea.. and all air services were proVided as a public utility.. U. in Belgium. In the United States. erected as a commemorative monument by Vadim Romanuk. (Boris Vdovienko) experimental postal service. commercial helicopters had been innovatively introduced in the United States. . Such services had been tried as early as 1939. Moscow's fourth airport. 'I:. in 1964-65.". On the left can be seen the tiny pole..A. Interestingly. and Chicago. Lazarevskaya. and Gelendzhik.S.~ <:::::ij"~. Italy. Mi4s from Adler also connected to Gagra. only four miles from Red Square. (Boris Vdovienko) A Mil Mi-2 on Chkalov (formerly Udd) Island. wnm.G. surveying the scene in 1959. -. The helicopter mail service lasted about two years in 1964-65. in Philadelphia. the Mi-4 was also used for an A Mil Mi-4 (SSSR-3S277) alights on the roof of the main Post Office building in the center ofMoscow..E. simply because helicopters are very expensive to operate. where mountainous terrain on the popular coastal vacation area prevented the establishment of airports with long paved runways. A Public Utility Although helicopter services were tried in Australia. further helicopter routes were opened.Airline Helicopters Reviving a Tradition Back in the days of Tsarist Russia. carrying mails directly from the roof of the post office in the center of Moscow to the airports. but was terminated because a certain 'important lady' complained about the noise. for mail and passenger services. On IS December 1958. these too went into decline. I - City Services In 1960. on the other hand. and they are often to be found in the regional timetables of Aeroflot. Mikhail Mil. where the three big city helicopter companies had been augmented by a fourth.

500+ 2.5 14771 135 (731 160 (861 205 (1271 2. in competition with Yakovlev's Yak-24 design.-- Mil Mi-2 8 SEATS. the Mi-2's speed was 25 percent more than the Mi-4's and 50 percent more than the Mi-1's.1 (399) 17.450) 42. he used two smaller and lighter turbine engines to make a new version of the Mi-l. This was almost as much as the larger Mil Mi-4 could carry. and during the development period. Medevac aircraft were red and white. directly from the Kremlin. Rotor-blade technology was impressive. In essence. It too had early problems.7001 43. the life of both the blades and the rotor head were considerably improved.3 (6011 33.350 116. THE LARGER MIL HELICOPTERS First Flight Date First Aeroflot ServiCe Aircraft Type Dimensions-m{ft) Fuselage Rotor Length Diam. modern aircraft of advanced construction. but Aeroflot began to take delivery in May 1954. He then turned his attention to sharpening the performance of the smaller craft. and passenger versions appeared in several variations of orange and blue finishes. The Mil Mi-2 THE SMALLER MIL HELICOPTERS First Right Date First Aeroflot Service Aircraft Type Dimensions-m{ft) Rotor Fusela~e Lengt Diam. respectively. Most Mi-1s had three-bladed rotors. True.500 (7. Speed km/h (mph) Seats MTOW kg (lb) Normal Range km(mi) No. the Mil Mi-2 emerged as a thoroughly reliable. Built 1961 1957 1960 1967 1961 1967 Mi-8 Mi-6 Mi-l0 18. it went through the teething troubles of all infants. Mil produced the Mi-4 (there was no Mi-3. Altogether. but this could be improved by supplementary tanks.7151 350 11801 520 13201 240 (1451 2.800+ I 1961 I I Mikhail Mil had already taken advantage of the light weight of turbine engines when he produced the Mil Mi-6. and it took its place in Aeroflot's inventory from 1967 onwards as a standard type which has stood the acid test of time and stringent operational conditions. for a larger machine.000 (26. but its l. They were used mainly by the Soviet Air Force. but necessity was the mother of invention.3 (69101 35.000. the Mi-4 had the honor to open the first regularly scheduled helicopter airline service in the Soviet Union. Four-bladed rotors made from a steel tube/wooden rib/plywood-and-fabric combination gave way to allmetal construction. As the first of the long line.. with a single main rotor and anti-torque rotor mounted on a tail boom. as helicopter journeys are invariably of short duration. By 1952. 20Skm/h (12Smph) P-23315 The Mi·2 appeared in a wide variety of color schemes depending on its mis- sion. The Mil Mi-4 Equally.0 168111 14. world's largest helicoptfr at the time. in the autumn of 1957. and the clientele does not need either to stand up or to move about.2 (108101 329 1107.8 (5511 11. and other aerial work.450 (95.000-hour or more life.500 15. Magnesium corrosion led to replacement by aluminum parts. But when all was done. ambulance.5 (4771 21.5001 7. The Mi-2's 4. using them for agriculture.790) 360 (223) 1.2001 3. so that essentially the Mil Mi-2 was able to replace both of the older types.0001 3. the three-bladed main rotor was equipped with leading-edge electro-thermal de-icing. In compensation. if necessary. a good aircraft emerged and. the passenger cabin was a little more cramped. with a 2. as noted on the opposite page. there was room enough for eight passengers. while the overhaul of the Ivchenko engines went from TBOs of about 150 up to more than 1. Speed km/h (mph) Seats I 3 8-11 8 MTOW kg (lb) Normal Range km{mi) No.500 193. came later).9) 21. Carrying only three passengers besides the pilot. forest patrol.4m (4ft 7in) height were almost two feet narrower and more than a foot shorter. Agricultural sprayers were generally a gloss olive green. First of the Mils The Mil Mi-!.2m (4ft) width and l. in response to a specification. The anti-torque tail rotor had only two blades. including honeycomb sections.0 (114101 75 . the Mi-2's range was inferior to that of both predecessors. Built Sep 1948 Aug 1952 -- May 1954 1954 1967 Mi-l Mi-4 Mi-2 12.000+ 850+ 60+ 35.47m (14ft 8in) length was a foot longer than the Mi-4's. the Mil Mi-1's work load was limited.9 13921 14. Of bonded construction entirely. By placing the engines above the fuselage. one of which is shown here. and its early years were almost in the nature of experimental research.0 (11410) - 200 (125) 250 11551 180 11121 28 65 28 12. making its first flight in 1948. But this did not seem to matter. and the Mi-2. carrying between eight and eleven passengers on each flight. and occasionally for carrying passengers in mountainous areas. was the first Soviet helicopter to go into series production.050 1650) 400 (2501 6. of orthodox helicopter design. curiously.

But progress at first was handicapped by the onset of an early winter . particularly mineral wealth. By 1950. a line had reached Bratsk. albeit only during the May-October summer season.237 bridges. Gradually. established 60 cities. and the hundreds of bridging and tunneling units. surrounded by newly-established satellite mining sites of great wealth. as well as many villages. from bases strategically situated along the Trans-Siberian Railway. such as this Mil Mi-4 in the early 1970s. was to parallel the Trans-Siberian Railway over about 3. largely uncharted territory. the most remote was the Lena. the Ob. site of a huge hydroelectric station under construction. to provide the logistics connection between the sources of wealth. but which flows northeast through what was. were carried largely by air. and the BAM was widely perceived as a defensive measure against the possible cutting of the TransSib by an attacking force. Other than the 3. supported BAM during the entire period of its construction. often linking it with northerly ports on the great rivers.. until the BAM line was progressively completed. Hundreds of thousands of passenger flights were made. was the foundation ofsmall cities along the route of the BAM. the mainly Komsomol teams built 2. on the Lena. HJ:LP'S . For the first time. or the BAM. TO The preliminary surveying for the BAM Railroad was carried out largely with the help ofhelicopters. including the resources of Aeroflot. or Artery).175mi) of track. But the BAM also opened up vast possibilities for improving the access to the riches of Siberian mineral wealth. and one of the first tasks for the growing armada of supporting aircraft was to bring 2. in a Soviet equivalent of "Go West Young Man. and the Lena. and during the next decade. This map shows how Aeroflot. when the Lena was ice-free. The first workers arrived on the Ulkan River on 28 October 1974.500km (2. this was extended to Ust' Kut. branches of line sprouted from the Trans-Siberian Railway.200mi) of its eastern length." teams of Komsomol (Young Communist Workers League) headed east in their thousands. I . fixed wing and rotary Wing. Preliminary surveys had started on 30 April 1974. with mainline connections to cities on the trans-Siberian Railway. Rail-Air Cooperation Aviation. and supplies for the 22 special construction trains and 37 mechanized columns. the Supreme Soviet officially declared the creation of a railroad construction program of great magnitude. using Mil Mi-2 and Mi-8 helicopters. some of them now large centers. (Both photos: Vladimir Kuznetzov) FIXED WING AIRCRAFT DEPLOYMENT Antonov An. was linked with Moscow by a modern surface transport system.500 tons of heating equipment to the first construction sites. Of these. until recently. was able to maintain an aerial supply network to the working parties who buit the BAM railroad. outgrowths of the first labor encampments that housed the construction teams. and countless sorties by feeder aircraft.500km (2."We Built A Railroad" The Beginning Throughout the history of the Soviet Union. the historic trading center of Yakutsk.in August! Housing for the workers was incomplete. and in the follOWing year. and especially in the far reaches of the Asian territories. 76 . The Baikal-Amur Magistral (Main Line.12 " Yakovlev Yak-40 ilyushin 11-14 • Antonov An-2 REGD ® Main Aeroflot Bases One of the legacies of the fine work done by hundreds ofaircraft. whose source is close to Lake Baikal. Birth of the BAM On 8 July 1974. including squadrons ofhelicopters. the Yenesei. the extension of the railroad system has always been a constant economic objective. This action took place at a time when relations between the Soviet Union and China were cool.

T. --~ gUt A Mil Mi-8 comes in to land at North Pole Station 27. in northwest Siberia. It could carry 28 passengers . stuck in the Arctic ice. the Mi-8 was quickly found to be an essential maid-of-all-work. at a latitude of83 0 N. (Boris Vdovienko) A Mil Mi-8 on an improvised 'pad' ofoil pipes on the Yamal Peninsula. but more than 1. The Tyumen sub-division of Aeroflot (or Tyumen Aviatrans. it turned its attention to doing the same with the Mi-4.000 flying hours.and for freight use. and by the following year had been further improved with a five-blade rotor.A. A Mil Mi-8 (SSSR-22703) in the harsh tundra terrain near Dikson. during the construction of the BAM Railroad during a typical year. 1976. has been remarkable for its extensive use of heavylift helicopters for pipe-laying and as flying cranes for building tall towers for electricity transmission lines. (Photos: Vasily Kmpy) 77 . Holiday-makers disembark from a Mil Mi-8 at the helicopter pad at Yalta. but with a Mil Mi-8 available to prove that all is not lost. and one of the world's largest producers of crude oil. in 1960. Such a combination of characteristics made the Mi-8 into a thoroughbred aircraft. in northern Siberia. For example. Helicopter Capital of the World The Tyumen region of Russia.about the same as a DC-3/Li-2 . Thus.000 Mi-8s are to be found east of the Urals alone. Almost exactly half of these were with Mil Mi-8s. in 1980. under the new reorganization) lists 450 helicopters in its fleet inventory of 660 aircraft. The Mil Mi-8 first flew in 1961. Other regions of Aeroflot do not boast such numbers. seventeen construction organizations together employed helicopters for almost 22. 0 less than 360 of the rotorcraft are Mil Mi-8s. T. 200km/h (125mph) The Thoroughbred Rather as the Mil Design Bureau had developed the Mi-l into the far superior Mi-2 by conversion to turbine power. The good ship Inniy. so. reliable and versatile. with its world's largest deposits of natural gas. its rear fuselage was fitted with clam-shell doors.Mil Mi-8 28 SEATS.

81 12051 1781 13.0 10. mail.3 230 16 11. the accent was Ka-15 1955 6.410 1952 (32. in this Ka-32 15. so as to be aligned together while not in use. In the Ka-18. considerable (2311 (32.000 respect. for controlling operations when the helicopter was being used as a fIying crane. The slightly larger Ka-18 incorporated an improved fuselage structure.0 125 2 1. Also. geological survey. (Bottom) Reminiscent of the Los Angeles freeways and the control thereof.Kamov Virtuosig Contra-Rotation Rather overshadowed by the preponderance of the Mil helicopters in service throughout the Soviet Union. this Kamov Ka-26 keeps an eye on the traffic in Vladivostok.9 1980 1983 11. The Ka-15 demonstrated a brisk performance. Normal Range km(mi) No. Like the Ka-25. Just as Mil perfected the techniques of single main rotor-plus-anti-torque tail rotor combinations. the rotor blades could easily be removed individually. Getting under way with his first designs after the end of the Second World War. In Kamov's case. for observation and reconnaissance. thus eliminating the need for any anti-torque device. The Ka-226. and with modified twin vertical stabilizers. and Ka-25 As with subsequent designs. according to the requirements: a small cabin for up to seven passengers. fish-spotting.2501 was the top seed. Built 390 (2401 165 (1021 400 12501 800 15001 300+ 200+ 600+ 200+ 78 . the generally smaller Kamovs deserve attention. The former wanted a helicopter that could out-per(Top) A Kamov Ka-32. rather than by an extension of the fuselage. (Ib) Date ment of the versatile Kamovs. which was slightly longer. a pallet for cargo. and sometimes forgotten as world-wide interest tended to concentrate on the Mil giants (see pages 80-81). had two contrarotating rotors. fire-fighting.2601 1721 accountability was often Ka-26 1965 1967 7. each with three blades. the first effective Kamov helicopter. so did Nikolai Kamov solve the mechanical complexities of coaxial contrarotating main rotors. the Ka-15. under power. and ice reconnaissance. and gas and oil pipeline patrolling. however. (Vladimir Kuznetzov) form the previous Kamovs in such activities as mapping. Its unique feature was what can only be described as the come-apartness of the fuselage.75 13 110 6 3. This contained a backwardfacing seat. such mechanical ingenuity was a great credit to the Kamov design team. Kamov's first light helicopters were for the Soviet Army.2 10. gas pipeline patrol.1651 sporting term. with full reserves. To quote John Stroud: "What Kamov produced was a most ingenious multi-purpose helicopter capable of almost any task except feeding itself. the Kherluf Bidstrup. powerline patrol. The Kamov Ka-26 All aircraft manufacturers have problems with reconciling conflicting requirements from different customers. opportunities for civilian use arose. the tail unit was supported by twin booms. Later versions of the Ka-26 improved the performance and capability. and freight. Ka-18. Dimensions-m(ft) Aircraft Speed Seats First First MTOW Throughout the developType km/h Flight Aeroflot kg Rotor Fusela~e (mph) Service Lengt Diam. in the Sea of Okhotsk. for example (fitted with Allison engines) could carry a chemical load of almost 1. these appear to have been stringent demands for versatility both from the State Scientific Institute and from AerofIot. or apparatus for crop-spraying. But as time went on. and ambulance work.0 4 1.250 exercised. the Ka-25K featured a small cabin underneath the main flight deck. The Kamov Ka-15. But it was far more efficient than any previous design. as well as for general agricultural use. where the convenience of storage space on the depot ships was at a premium. including a large hopper. AerofIot needed one for normal passengers." The Kamov Ka-26 was larger than the Ka-15 and Ka-18 but smaller than the Ka-25. it was twin-engined.81 (3. and the downwash of the rotors served to disperse the powder or granules in a uniform manner.1001 always on economy of operations . but unlike it. on fish-spotting patrol. and it went into service with Aeroflot in a variety of working roles: crop-spraying. and this made the aircraft especially useful for reconnaissance in the Arctic Ocean.000kg (compared with the 530kg THE KAMOV CONTRA-ROTATING FAMILY of the Ka-26) on a 1 liz-hour mission. but had the same rotors as the Ka-15. This had the novel arrangement by which the individual rotor blades could be folded. the Kamov Ka-26 (522) 1371) 11431 124. hovers over its depot ship. To borrow a (255) (4281 (701 (7.480 Soviet system. first produced in 1952. A further stage of adaptability was achieved in the new Ka-25 which made its first appearance in 1961. The rear half of what would normally be a complete fuselage could be interchanged. This could spray dry chemicals as an alternative to liquid spraying throughout extended spray-bars.for even under the Ka-18 115 1957 1959 7.

(REG. paramedics to pipelines. . able to lift vertically a load oftwenty tons. . Grebnev) o EGD 5 10 15 20 25 Fuseloge Lenqth.taken their place alongside the fixed-wing aircraft. Ko-32: - !3x2~ KtJ-15 : .. and for hauling large and ungainly cargoes like transmission towers for electric power lines. is the champion heavylifter.G. AEROFLOT '5 HELICOPTERS . . . ranging from the diminutive 20foot-long Kamov Ka-18 to the 10S-foot-long Mil Mi-IO.Sheer VersatililJ The pictures and drawings on this page summarize the amazing diversity of the range of helicopters that have been put into use by Aeroflot. Gradidge via John Stroud) (Right) A Mil Mi-l 0 transports an electricity transmission tower. 8 (Top right) A Kamov Ka-25K (SSSSR-2111 0). : : 3"2" . wherever they are needed. (V. where even the Antonov An-2 dares not land (I. developed from the Mi-6.Meters 30 35 79 . They can carry everything. (V.M. ON THE SAME SCALE ot~~~ll: • lades . . A lmge percentage ofthe nationwide high-tension electricity powerline grid ofthe Soviet Union was constructed with the help offlying cranes. for carrying people from inaccessible villages. With these fine aircraft. (f.unlike their opposite numbers in the West . Davies) (Bottom left) A Kamov Ka-26 (SSSR-19529) on ambulance duty. cliff faces or swamps). They have . from band-aids to buses.e. Mil: Mi-1 3~: . Grebnev) (Top left) The Mil Mi-26T. the helicopter design bureaux of the Soviet Union have secured their place in aeronautical development history. with more powerful engines to drive and eight-bladed rotor. .

The Kamov Ka-32 (Above) The two-ton capacity crane inside the Mil Mi-26. with little surface communication. The cost was high as everyone involved risked their lives by the deliberate exposure to the dangers of radiation. the pilot has direct control of the helicopter. about the same size and of the same capability and performance than the Mil Mi-8. Rearward facing. but of the Kamov traditional technology and design. If the Mi-6 could carry a small truck. R. sand/boron. by dropping graphite. Anatoly Grishchenko. The Mil Mi-26 This development of the Mil Mi-6 also calls for superlafives.000kg (26.the size of that of a Lockheed C-130 . a larger version of the multi-purpose Ka-26. but could carry 75 passengers if necessary. Kamov did not allow the grass to grow under its rotor blades. Mi-6s and Mi-26s plugged the lethal opening laid bare in the concrete structure. The Lotarev D-136 turbine engines develop 1l. At Tyumen.000kg (15 tons) of water.it was made. acting as a pathfinder for precise observation of the 12000 C 'target'. enabled the Mi-6 to carry a load of 12. died as a result. late in 1957. and Antonov An-24s for inspection of the radiation-affected area.R. removable wings were fitted to the middle section of the fuselage. and with the advantage of two decades of developmental experience. or Short-Legged) version featured a special cabin under the nose. base airfield for the region containing the world's largest reserves of oil and gas. gravel.this alone is the all-up weight of a DC-3. (Vdovienko) If ever a case was to be made for the advantages of helicopter operations over those of fixed wing aircraft . it could carry 14. as with previous Mils. such vertical lift performance is priceless. But Aeroflot played its part. and it was first used in Turkmenistan on 10 August of that year. Inside the roomy fuselage .000kg (almost ten tons) and in a firefighting role. carrying a bus. the Mil Mi-6 made its first flight. the Mi-6s dropped a total of 250 tons of prefabricated 14-ton cubes. The Mi-IOK (Korotkonogyi. the Mi-10 could carry a bus. and. Two Soloviev D-25V turbine engines. the cotton fields. the flight deck had closed circuit television monitors. in many diverse industrial activities. Ground staff. can carry out missions of up to 5 1/2 hours duration. tanks. Small. (Top) The supplementary control cabin of the giant Mil Mi-lO. With a Hind military helicopter. A direct development of the Mi-6.is a gantry crane able to carry two tons along the available space. the demand is matched by the supply of helicopter strength (see page 77) of which the Mil Mi-10s. exploded with devastating effect. with are-designed fuselage of about the same length. working in unison with the winch controller. Grebnev) 80 . under the most tragic circumstances. and the world breathed a sigh of relief. It produced.S. Most of this brave work was performed by the Soviet Army's helicopters. John Stroud. flown by some of the top test pilots. It was as long as an Ilyushin II-18 and weighed almost as much. spreading a radioactive cloud over the area and for hundreds of miles around. Many were affected and one. they had electro-thermal leading edge de-icing. in 1986. (Below) A Mil Mi-lO (SSSR-04103). in the oilfields.S. Davies) (Bottom) This picture of the Kamov Ka-32 (with another hovering behind) illustrates the contrarotating rotorhead mechanism.500shp take-off power. It was used almost exclusively in specialized air-lifting roles.500Ib) . drilling rigs. The airline had about 100 of these impressive aircraft by the late 1960s.240shp. so as to drive on eight-bladed rotor (the Mi-6 had five). in the early 1980s. This enables the Mil Mi-26 to lift 20. with its gyro-stabilized gunsight. Deliveries began to Aeroflot in 1961. rated at 5. clad in lead-lined suits. (V. But the reactor was capped. supplying some observation Mi-6 and Mi-8 helicopters. the reaction was justifiably one of awe." Each of the five rotor blades was 17m (55ft 9in) long.E. Its rugged floor could accommodate trucks. for heavy-duty in the oilfields of the Tyumen region. containing special filtering/ventilation units to shut off the radiation emission. with long landing gear legs to make room for a platform underneath the fuselage and supported by hydraulic grips attached to the gear legs. a nuclear reactor at Chernobyl. described it as "truly enormous. (photos. and the fishing grounds .HeaV! Lifters The Mil Mi-6 The Mil Mi-lO When. After several unsuccessful attempts to solve a problem that had a hundred unknown factors. the molten reactor. On 26 April of that year. and about half of these were allocated to the oil and gas fields of West Siberia. While not aspiring to the dimensions of the mighty Mils. Its electric winch could handle a slung load of 9. with rearward-facing controls for coordination with the winching crew. and opportunities for airfield construction rare. in the northern Ukraine. In the desolate areas of Heroic Mission taiga and tundra. never inclined to use superlatives.G.and many were made in the U. the Ka-32. the Mil Mi-IO had the same enormous rotor and transmission. any large or bulky object. fitted with both internal and external extra tankage. To assist the crews in maneuvering at touch-down. and concrete.000kg (20 tons). lead composite. and teams of helicopter pilots carried out this elaborate plan.

Their size is with two well-known performance of these two large helithose of the Mil Mi-26. together with page 75. First flown in July 1968. indicates the extent of the engineering of this large helicopter. it never entered se/vice although it was extensively demonstrated in Aeroflot titles (photos: Boris Vdovienko) 81 . are tabulated on dramatically illustrated by comparison western fixed-wing aircraft on page 79. (Right) This picture of the huge rotorhead of the Mil Mi-6. mounted on stub wings. (Far right) The enormous Mil V-12 used two sets ofMi-6 engines. gearboxes and lifting rotors.Mil Mi-6P Mi-lOK CCCP-0412 The dimensions and copters.

76 175 5004 20 31 3 108 82 . Fedotov suggested the use of aircraft for crop-spraying with insecticide. as early as 1913. a special commission was formed to study the subject and to carry out experiments. The workload increased from 4 to SO million hectares in the IS years from 1951 to 1965. similar operations were carried out in Daghestan. 1940-1965) Type of Work Insecticide Spraying for Agriculture and forest Weed spraying Fertilization Defoliation and desiccation (forestry) TOTAL which set up branches in Chimkent. and Leningrad. SViridyenko's direction. Nevertheless.S. or 40 percen t of the total agricultural work.Seventy Years of Aviation Aid to Agriculture Making the Case Certain entomologists realized the possible applications of aircraft as aids to agriculture very early in the history of powered flight. in 1921. in 1919. the responsibility for agriculture aviation passed to the Civil Aviation Fleet Aeroflot).R. almost a million hectares were covered by agricultural aircraft.50 4. and with the help of Professor V. Bogdanov-Katkov. During the summer. and other districts in European Russia. GROWTH OF CROP-DUSTING/SPRAYING (MILLIONS OF HECTARES. to Vsesoyuznyi NaychnoIssledovatyelskiy Institut Selskokhozyastvennoy I Lecnoy Aviatsiy (NIISKHA) (the All-Soviet Scientific Research Institute for Farming and Forestry Aviation. Yatsky. Krasnodar. N.00 1955 6. and 60. lion hectares were covered. Authority passed. B. Of this. in which 4. 32 experimental flights were made. Tadjikistan. in 1934. 463 mil- 1940 0.17 015 310 038 992 1. Also.90 1951 3. 20 percent in Kazakhstan. It doubled again during the next 15 years. aircraft were deployed widely after the end of the Second World War for agricultural work.01 093 0. Post-War Expansion As shown in the table on this page. 18 percent in the Ukraine. Boldyrev. and N.29 1960 13. and 15 percent in North Caucasus. In 1931. Getting Under Way In 1930. Under P. Rosinski. the fleet had increased to 65 and the work in corresponding measure.000 hectares were worked during that year.84 1980 54 I 002 0.N. reaching a peak of 108 million hectares in 1980. An all-Soviet joint-stock company was formed. and even as far off as Lake Baikal. and during the next four years. A total of 111. the wholesale practical application of aviation to agriculture began.A. F.D. and these experiments continued during the next two years.F. the Ukraine.91 4.. in 1932. aircraft were sent to combat a plague of locusts in the flood plains of the Kuma River. and during the next few years activity grew until by 1940.S. Kazakhstan.22 1.69 16. in 1921.5 hectares were treated per flying hour. with a fleet of eleven Polikarpov U-2 aircraft. during the next five-Year Plan. N.70 1965 26. Finally.000 hectares was treated. The techniques were put to the test in 1925. in the northern Caucasus region. In 1922. about 40 percent was in Russia. a group of pilots presented a paper to the National Colegium of Agriculture of the R.10 080 2010 9.

and other agricultural work throughout Russia and the former Soviet republics. the factors in at least 600. and for crop-spraying. working their way up from the grass roots almost literally. Davies) During the summer months. with no margin for error. vineyards. by the name that it inherited from the PoIikarpov U-2. The productivity is impressive. (V..... the An-2s can cover 400 times as much area as by manual applications. King of the Crop Sprayers Productivity During the peak period of chemical spraying.E. The An-2s fly at an altitude of three meters (10ft). from the cockpit ofan Antonov An-2.E. more than 3. and small fields. day after day. and each crew makes between 30 and 50 flig~ts per day. although the number is declining as ecological concerns have reduced the activity in some areas.000 feet) long. (V. Double Duty To fly the crop-sprayers. in a collective farm district near Navgorod. This one is spraying cotton in Tadjikistan. (R. In pollination work. specialized work in small gardens. View ofa typical landing strip. for example. is done by helicopters. as it is sometimes called. Ninety-five percent of the work is performed by the Antonov An-2. or. preparing for a day's crop-spraying. Davies) Antanav An-2. hour after hour. in this application.G. Grebnev) 83 . which is also directed at the veteran biplane. Seventy percent of Aeroflot captains start flying in agricultural aviation. Jor which.000 aircraft are put to use.500 Antonov An-2s are engaged in crop-dusting and -spraying. the Kukuruzhnik. Grebnev) Pilot's-eye view ofa field being dusted with fertilizer. about 300 meters (1. who must exercise strict control and discipline. upwards of2.fold. (R. Many an Ilyushin Il-86 or Il-62 captain will look back on his agricultural apprenticeship with a certain affection. the Annachik.. The remainder. each flight lasting betwe~n fou~ and 15 minutes. the muchused word 'workhorse' is perfectly apt. is demanding on the pilots..G.

Every main traffic center of Aeroflot. It can moreover make this performance to and from airfields with runways about 1. was almost certainly when it made a flight to Antarctica in 1986. however.650km (2.OOOlb) • Normal Range 3. enjoys regular air cargo connections with all corners of the system. with its impressive size and the ability to carry 80 tons of cargo.e. When the Ilyushin 11-76 made its maiden flight at Moscow's almost-downtown Khodinka airfield on 25 March 1971. 750km/h (470mph) Soloviev D·30KP (4 x 12.it had superb short-field and rough-field performance. (Paul Bannwarth) Universal Popularity Such versatility makes it almost indispensable for long-range cargo operations.also like the An-22 (and the Lockheed C-141) . the 11-76 had a pronounced anhedral wing. and especially the big air traffic centers in Siberia. Like the Antonov series of heavy lifters. A longer range variant. it was able to alight on packed snow and on slick ice. it did not attract quite as much publicity. both challenges to airmanship and aircraft integrity. as far more 11-76s are to be seen the length and breadth of Russia and the former Soviet republics than its larger rival. and where road and river traffic is burdensome and restricted to a short season.700 meters (one mile) in length.OOOkg 5t. nonstop from Moscow to Khabarovsk or Yakutsk. and . and appears to have been more popular with the operators. Its all-up weight was about 44 tons less than the big Antonov's. four abreast on each side. thanks to the manner in which the total weight of the aircraft was distributed among the multiple-wheeled landing gear. but it was nevertheless just as impressive. and it is especially welcomed at Yakutsk. The Ilyushin 11-76'5 finest hour. i. the 11-76TD. Sixteen main wheels are mounted in fuselage pods. For this operation. from Murmansk to Vladivostok. The big freighter went into series production for civil use as the 11-76T in 1975.OOOkg (375. and deliveries began to Aeroflot in 1976. possibly because it did not beat any records in sheer size.000km (4. 84 . which is not served by rail.000mi). went into production in the early 1980s. and are arranged in banks of tandem axles. 26.190mi) The Second Big Freighter The Antonov An-22 (see page 67) had captured the aviation world's attention during the mid1960s. especially as its 24-meter (almost 80ft) -long cargo hold is more than 3m (10ft) high and wide.IlYushin 11-76 50 TONS.4551b 5t) • MTOW 170. These remarkable long-distance heavy-lift sorties are described on page 71. The 11-76 can carry 40 tons. Comparison with 11-86 LENGTH 47m (153ft) SPAN 50m (165ft) An Ilyushin Il-76TD (SSSR-76478) with red fuselage trim and outer wing panels. but habitually carries loads of around 20 tons over ranges of about 7. and repeated the performance in 1987 and 1989.

3301b st) • MTOW S6. and it operated to Prague. the figures look promising. and had the additional features of built-in airstairs and baggage racks on each side of the door entrances. the world sat up and took notice.S60Ib) • Normal Range 2. 14. and a great future seemed assured. because at last. not only in performance. and economy. After more than 2. 115 Yak-42s and SO Yak42Ds had been delivered to Aeroflot. efficiency. following an in-flight structural failure of the tailplane. from the Antonov An-24 to the Ilyushin 11-18. (Paul Duffy) The Pace Slackens The Yakovlev Yak-42 entered service with Aeroflot in November 1980. it was directed mainly to supersede the Tupolev Tu-134 80-seat twin. 740km/h (400mph) D CCCP-42526 Lotarev D-36 (3 Early Promise X 6.320mi) Soviet aircraft that traditionally attracted attention in the West. Certainly. it re-entered Aeroflot service in the late 1980s and quickly gained an impressive reputation for reliability. on routes such as Moscow-Kostroma and Leningrad-Helsinki. In 1990. Comparison with 11-86 LENGTH 36m (119ft) SPAN 35m (115ft) A Yak-42D (SSSR-42368). and when Aeroflot ordered 200 of the new trijet in June 1977. and was not much bigger. it was suspected.SOOkg st. It needed only two crew members.200km (1. It seemed to fit halfway between the Tupolev Tu-134 twin and the Tupolev Tu-154 trijet. The introduction of the Yak-42 was marred by many technical problems and. did so because they were bigger or faster than had ever been seen before. 85 .Yakolev Yak-42 120 SEATS. Although Aeroflot discussed the possibility of the 120-seat Yak-42 being a replacement for a wide range of obsolescent types. It had good short-field performance. it was introduced as a back-up to the heavy air corridor traffic to the Caucasus. instead of the three or four of the Tupolev. When it first flew on 7 March 1975 (as a 100-seater). both from Kiev and Lvov.SOOkg (124. By June 1992. the Soviet Union had produced an airliner that could compare with equivalent western types. notably at such shop windows as the Paris Air Show. The Yakovlev Yak-42 was different. but also in operating. The l20-seat six-abreast Yak-42 was only five tons heavier than the four-abreast Tu-134. Later on. the type was withdrawn from service in the early 1980s. efficiency. the longer range l20-seat Yak-42D was introduced. and is probably one of the most comfortable Russian-built aircraft in the Aeroflot fleet.300 design changes. could use rough airstrips.

Pan American Airways. Aeroflot opened a link with Peking (Beijing). were just as much examples of the true spirit of airline enterprise and development. the privilege of operating to the most northerly airport in the world open to the public. and Aeroflot was often the emissary.. Aeroflot was able to claim some slots at New York's Kennedy International Airport. a Norwegian territory of the Arctic on which there were two Soviet-operated coal mines. politics did not interfere with. where the left-wing Sandanistas had ousted the Somosas. under the Soviet system. via Gander and Havana. ext continent was Africa.SA (East Coastl Central Africa South America North Polar Region USA IWest Coast I . to span the Atlantic. Back in the 1920s. The supreme irony was that. progress to other continents was slow. however. To The New World These routes in the Eastern Hemisphere had been undertaken mainly with the Tupolev Tu-104 and the Ilyushin 11-18. Service to Havana started in 1963 and to Canada in 1966.A. On 10 September 1975. The pioneering of some routes. were closed down after a Korean airliner had been shot down by Soviet jets off the coast of Kamchatka. Aeroflot was also active. During the period of the rise of African nationalism and the collapse of colonialism.S. and one of the knee-jerk reactions of the Reagan administration was to terminate Aeroflot's service to the U. in Spitzbergen (Svalbard).S. Vietnam came on stream in 1970. one of the world's great airlines. Polar Specialist Not all of Aeroflot's routes and services were politically motivated or necessarily linked with political strategy. Not until the introduction of the big turboprop Tu-114 in 1961 did Aeroflot feel confident enough. it did give Aeroflot. after Presidents Reagan and Gorbachev had met in Geneva in the fall of the previous year. More far-reaching tentacles reached out. Questions were occasionally raised as to why the U. was Aeroflot able to resume service to the States. Other countries had also imposed a ban after the 'Flight 007' incident. closed its offices and terminated all its services. and experimental flights had been made to China. Aeroflot was part of the scene.. from its well-established far eastern terminal of Khabarovsk. all pretense of tolerance was thrown aside when martial law was declared in Poland. with an Ilyushin 11-18 service to Cairo in 1958.S. The same could be said for the airlines of other nations. sometimes hindered. Aeroflot was not its own master. By 7 December 1987. although they sometimes helped. with Tupolev Tu-l04 service to India in 1958. however. via Anchorage. Now. from Moscow. more directly the instrument of policy than were some other flag carriers or 'chosen instruments'. and the Soviet Union feel proud enough. although it is arguable that Aeroflot was. on the opposite polar axis. Such suspicions aside. At the other end of the globe. On 19 May 1991.or nearly enough to qualify for that claim. haVing made its first flight to Antarctica as early as 1961 (see pages 70-71). in 1962.A. in 1972. Less than two years later. On 29 March 1992. almost a decade was to pass after the end of the Second World War before an Aeroflot aircraft was seen in western Europe. The relationship with the United States was so precariously balanced that the smooth continuance of scheduled air service between New York (and Washington. Aeroflot opened a twice-monthly service to Longyearbyen. and Tupolev Tu-114 service to Japan in 1967. it acquired more autonomy and could influence the course of its own route expansion and aircraft development. the Soviet Union was anxious to capitalize (if that is the right word) on the situation. In the international arena.S. Aeroflot's ambitions to forge a global network. should need a couple of mines in Spitzbergen. the Ilyushin Il-62M was not even remarked upon by the press. indeed. to Guinea. in 1955.though service to Mirnyy and Molodezhnaya was not exactly frequent. until it purchased National Airlines in 1978. and operated both to the Arctic and the Antarctic .S.A. so it repeated the pattern by opening the first service to South America when Chile voted in a Marxist government. this route was augmented by a direct flight. And just as it had made its first landfall in North America in Fidel Castro's Cuba. Dobrolet had made connections to Mongolia and Afghanistan. Pan American Airways used to be proud of its round-theworld flights but Juan Trippe and his successors never did fill the domestic gap across the U. but in time the political climate eased and Aeroflot continued to build its route system. when Mikhail made a state visit to Washington. Subsequently. then to West Africa. it probably never was. to Jakarta in 1962. as the Cold War thawed. 86 . PROGRESS TOWARDS A GLOBAL NETWORK Continent or Major Country First Destination First Service Date Aircraft Type Western Europe China Southern Asia North Africa South Polar Region' Southeast Asia West Africa Caribbean Middle East Canada Japan East Africa U. as the Soviet Union formed a close alliance with Mao's People's Republic. while haVing certain political undertones. with all its extensive wealth of coal within its own borders. Not until 29 April 1986. Political Ups and Downs While in most parts of the world. Eleven years later it started service to Buenos Aires. as a branch of the Soviet Civil Air Administration. from 5 April 1974) and Moscow was never assured. along with S. for example. but in later years. even the Aeroflot offices in the U. When the Ilyushin 11-62 was ready. when an Ilyushin 11-12 resumed service to Stockholm in 1954.S. opening up links with Moscow throughout the 1970s and 1980s.World Airline Status Slow But Steady For several decades. an Ilyushin Il-62M started service to San Francisco.R. In December 1981. and later on to Nicaragua. The Soviet national air carrier thus carried the flag to every continent except Australia. on 15 September. and the next year resumed flights to Kabul. roughly once or twice a year. and Aeroflot promptly began to fly to Santiago. at the end of the same year when Aeroflot achieved round-the-world status. Occasional flights only Stockholm Peking (Beijing) Delhi-Bombay Cairo Mirnyy Jakarta Conakry Havana Damascus Montreal Tokyo MogadishuDar es Salaam New York 8angui Santiago Longyearbyen San Francisco 11 Nov 1940 1 Jan 1955 14 Aug 1958 5 Dec 1958 15 Dec 1961 31 Jan 1962 11 Sep 1962 7Jan 1963 23 May 1963 4 Nov 1966 19 Apr 1967 1 Jan 1968 15Jul1968 1 Nov 1969 4Nov1972 11 Sep 1975 19 May 1991 Li-2 11-14 Tu-l04 Tu-l04 11-18An-12 Tu-l04 1118 Tu114 1118 Tu-114 Tu-114 11-62 11-62 11-62 11-62 11-18 11-62M Round-The-World Aeroflot was eventually to join the ranks of those airlines that offered service completely around the world . also via Anchorage.

AND YEREVAN 1992 ~t:=(~Anchorage f2 May9f ~=:::.LVOV.>'lJ!lJ oQ.Ap' Kir~enes 9 Lusaka 1977 MOSCOW -Maputo 4Jul76 Service discontinued at points shown as • Harare 25 Mar.73 San Francisco 12 May 1991 Mexico City 9 JurJ" 19/7 EUROPEAN ROUTES FROM Lon9'1earbyen 10 Sep 75 EUROPEAN ROUTES (Salvador) 4 Nov 72 ST. IRKUTSK.) . o ~~ ?f' l MINSK.. ALMA ATA.A 5~ / Shannon MINSK iii"" ~~~~~~:&~~pKIEV ~( 1 Marseilles 7 Jun. BAKU.j-:a~~.$' 'v o .:~Y~5 INTERCONTINENTAL ROUTES FROM MOSCOW.~ ') Soviet airlines ROUTE NETWORK S1.73 EUROPEAN ROUTE~ FROM KIEV ~~~:/ ~~ o-~ ". KIEV AND TRANS-BORDER ROUTES FROM TASHKENT. 92 AND MURMANSK ST. 'f'~"\~.!\. Petersbur . REGD 87 . PETERSBURGMufiit"a r\sl< RIGA.A Global Network A3PO~AOT Lon9Yf~Q.f" -i/" .' AND KISHINEV . Ro~~~j~rcl 14. ( Technlca I stops shown in parentheses) 15 Jun.(j. ST: PETERSBURG. KHABAROVSK. TALLINN. PETERSBURG Sant.

from Moscow to Alma Ata. capital of Kazakhstan.560 (1.760) 4. the Irish airport authority. and Aeroflot and the airport authorities in Russia invited the Irish to set up similar facilities in Moscow and Leningrad. Production was at Voronezh. Virtue Out of Necessity As time went on.The First Soviet Airbus Long Gestation By the time the Soviet Aircraft industry got under way with its first wide-bodied airliner.5001 11. the Soviet airline began to take advantage of liberal international regulations as the airline world deregulated. and Aeroflot. The 350-seat Ilyushin 11-86 had two aisles. and the destination city of the only Soviet supersonic airline service. Far from being a necessary evil. The first Aeroflot scheduled Ilyushin 11-86 service was in December 1980. like the long-range Douglas DC-lO's. military VIP flights.000 (6.000) 394.800 (5. Built 9 Feb 1969 22 Jan 1970 8 Feb 1989 5Aug 1971 20 Dec 1990 15Apr 1972 Boeing 747-100 Boeing 747-400 MDD2 DC-l 0-1 0 MOD MD-ll lockheed TriStar 1 lockheed TriStar 500 Airbus A300 Airbus A310 Ilyushin 11-86 70 1231) 70 (231) 55 (1811 61 (2011 54 (178) 60 (1961 64 (2111 47 (1551 52 (170) 47 (1551 50 (1641 45 (1471 44 (1441 48 11571 B75 (5401 875 (540) 920 (5751 875 (540) 795 (4951 333.500 (1. U.3001 2.500 12.390 (710.0001 6. on 22 December 1976. Aeroflot paid for airport charges with fuel.6001 5.500 (378.0001 945. Ilyushin 11-86s began to call at Shannon in the mid-1980s and Aeroflot became the airport's biggest customer.intended to provide soft-field.385 1445.9001 4.000 (458.or even down Washington's Mall. with main wheels mounted on three tandem-mounted pairs of four. permitting eight. The center one of the three was mounted in the fuselage. News filtered through to the West during summer 1971 that the Ilyushin Design Bureau. But with state-supplied fuel and with no competitive pressure.330 (510. which II1TOW kg (Ib) ILYUSHIN IL. 29 Apr 1988 29 Aug 1970 10 Jan 1990 16 Nov 1970 16 Oct 1978 28 Oct 1972 3Apr 1982 22 Dec 1976 Northwest 200' American~ Airlines Finnair Eastern 50' 200 3 I 270 240 265 I 7 May 1979 23 May 1974 12Apr 1983 26 Dec 1980 I 50 (1641 54 (1771 47 (1531 60 (1951 I I 780 (4851 875 (5401 875 15401 900 (5601 British Airways Air France I 50 375' I 230 350 I 171 . with most of Aeroflot's transatlantic flights of necessity stopping at Shannon.935 (4. Soviet travelers also liked the duty-free 'shopping amenities. the 11-86 normally needed about 2. 'production continues. to their mutual advantage.000 (430. at Khodinka. Shannon has become an Aeroflot asset.500m (8. with Genrikh Novozhilov taking over from Sergei Ilyushin's design leadership. In 1990.690 (610. Five years elapsed before the first flight.00011 1 8.001 231. When delivered. with podded engines on the wing. had a multiple-wheeled landing gear.100 (3. including.2001 2.again following Soviet design custom .000ft) of paved runway for airline service. only a few kilometers from Red Square. the aircraft had never been promoted as a long-range airliner and it was compared unfavorably with western wide-bodied types. An 11-86 (SSSR-86119) being towed past five others at Moscow-Sheremetyevo. This was almost like a new big jet making its maiden flight from London's Hyde Park or ew York's Central Park . Shannon then sold to other carriers. This was .000 1361. Right from the start.S.5351 164. and began to promote Ireland as a destination from the United States. but not necessarily short-field performance. ironically.800 (3.5601 208. the Boeing 747 had already entered service.0001 206. 14 altogether.630 (870.270 (5. this was not an issue for Aeroflot's operational requirements.8001 9. Aeroflot set up its own fuel 'farm' and thus avoided haVing to payout scarce hard currency.5501 Pan American 712 1 The II-86's cany-on baggage arrangements are excellent. and like most large Soviet aircraft. (Palll Duffy) 88 .86 CARRY-ON BAGGAGE Standard Overhead Racks CONVENIE~N~C~E~::::::::hg:=i::::::J==::d WIDE-BODIED AIRLINERS COMPARED First Flight Date First Service Date Aircraft Type Dimensions-m(ft) Length Span Speed km/h (mph) Seats I 450 470 360 276 -- 1 Normal Range km(mi) First Airline No. 2 McDonnell Douglas.5601 lufthansa I 210' Aeroflot 120' ~ Notes: 7 Includes all -100/-200/300s. Passengers can deposit their 'not wanted on voyage' items on the 'left-luggage' shelves.0001 276. was working on a four-engined wide-bodied airliner.or nine-abreast seating. the spirit of free enterprise and innovative minds generated opportunities for cooperation between Aer Rianta. 3 includes all versions.

Khabarovsk and Vladivostok. Whatever the shortcomings of the Ilyushin wide-bodied airliner for long ranges.could be deposited. Davies) 89 . or Moscow-Tokyo did not come close to that on routes such as LondonNew York or Los Angeles-Tokyo. and Krasnoyarsk .6601b st) • MTOW 208.G.within Il-86 range. Leningrad. Not a single intercontinental long-range route required the services of an airliner bigger than the Ilyushin Il-62M.even the seats were more comfortable than those that had served Aeroflot since time immemorial.500km (1.500mi) Made For The Market The Il-86 had some good features. The critics of the Soviet aircraft industry concentrated on its wide-bodied candidate's lack of range. unless it stopped at Shannon and Gander . The main markets from Moscow. anticipating extremes of temperature at such destinations as Yakutsk. in a 'not-needed-on-voyage' aerial equivalent of shipping practice. plastic wing covers were made for the Il-86. it was just right for Aeroflot. LENGTH 60m (195ft) SPAN 48m (157ft) One of the best features of the Il-86 is the lower level baggage compartment.Ilyushin 11-86 350 SEATS. where passengers can stow carry-on items that are not needed during the journey. Domestically. 28. Lockheed. And Ilyushin had no illusions about the slim chances of breaking into the world market against Boeing. (R.OOOkg (458. The passenger entrance was through doors in the fuselage lower level up self-contained collapsible steps. Immediately on entering.560Ib) • Normal Range 2. passengers could take advantage of one of the airliner's best features.a necessity that had been dispensed with as long ago as 1957. where all excess carry-on baggage . Tashkent.E. and Airbus. This was a downstairs luggage compartment. and one that other manufacturers could well copy. the requirement was quite different. with the introduction of the Bristol Britannia and the Douglas DC-7C. 900km/h (540mph) ~A3PO ~OT D Kuznetsov NK-86 (4 x 13. It could not carry a full payload across the Atlantic. and Kiev were to the Black Sea and Caucasian resorts. Incidentally.and Russians always travel with excess . apart from substantially improved cabin and galley furnishings . McDonnell Douglas.OOOkg st. and to destinations such as Novosibirsk. The critics should have put themselves in the shoes of the Ilyushin market researcher. The density of traffic on routes such as Moscow-New York. Only two major cities in the far east. and could certainly not justify a 350-seat airliner. were far enough away from the big cities of European Russian and Ukraine to demand an aircraft larger than the Il-62M.

with a larger wing to add two extra engines. the store of superlatives is almost exhausted. the highest mountain. the Arms Race is over. tipping the scales at more than 400 tons.. it just added wheels to accommodate the heavy loads and to maintain the low wheel loading for use on soft surfaces. Both are equipped with heavy duty ramps.R. Standard payload for the An-124 is 150 tons. each one able to lift ten tons. flying a closed circuit distance of20. the longest river. the ADtODOV AD-124 RuslaD.260ft). However. to build outsize aircraft during the 1930s. (Top) On one special flight. all these have excited a natural curiosity. Heavy duty floors. The tallest building. The An-124 has an upward-hinging front loading door. is. the banner for bigness was taken up by the Ukraine.55 tons .S. After the Second World War. this aircraft is of considerable general interest and is included in this book if only to escape criticism for omitting it by applying too strictly the qualifying definition. which. the longest bridge. a stretched-fuselage modification of the An-124 the AntoDoV AD-225 Mriya (Dream).the world's largest aircraft to be produced in quantity. including packed snow. Antonov An-124 Record Flight (Distance in Closed Circuit) 6-7 May1987 REG-D The Mriya Exceeding the American Lockheed C-SA in all departments. and two twin nose-gear wheels. 90 . whose Antonov Design Bureau produced a fine series of large freighter aircraft. mankind has constantly tried to build things bigger. incidentally. Except for its six-engined cousin (see below). on 6-7 May 1987. the Ruslan was unchallenged in the Guinness Book of Records throughout the 1980s . The An124 has 24 wheels. The Ruslan had only been able to carry the huge SS20 missile (or the fuselage sections of almost any airliner). was produced specifically to carry the Soviet Space Shuttle Buran. and the need for quantities of giant air freighters has declined. world's biggest aircraft. As Antonov built them bigger.524mi)-slightly more than half1vay round the earth at the equator. the flight took 25hr 30min. none was part of the airline's fleet. roller-tracks. To help load such weights. the Antonov An-124 circumnavigated the U. and though the world's natural wonders are unchanging. (Malcolm Nason) (Bottom) The Antonov An-225 Mri)'a. The pictures and the diagrams on this and the following page tell their own story. and a rear-loading ventral door.750m (3S. all civil aircraft in the Soviet Union-and many non-civil-were required to wear Aeroflot colors or did so under a 'flag ofconvenience'. The Russians have shared this urge and attempted. the biggest ship. by a comfortable margin . none too successfully. This Ruslan (SSSR-82008) is operated jointly by the manufacturer al/d UK clllgo airline AirFoyle. Only one Mriya has been completed. it carried 171 tons to an altitude of 10.S. or the normal cruising height of most long-range airliners-about seven miles. An even larger aircraft.World's Biggest The Mostest Sheer size has always fascinated people in all walks of life. Fortunately for the world.until the last month of 1988. (Center) Before 1991. five pairs mounted in tandem in fuselage pods on each side. Although many An-124s appeared in Aeroflot colors.151km (l2. With Antonov's two giant machines. canys the space shuttle Buran. On one occasion. the Cold War has ended. makes the giant freighter virtually self-supporting. and winches match this capability. and the aircraft can be tilted to the fore or to the aft to assist the loading procedures. the freight hold is equipped with two overhead traveling cranes. even if they are not better.

000 19.500 (1.000' Lockheed C-130 88 118 112 150 250 4 4 4 4 6 15. 51.450 151.000 (5.500 12.000 13.750) 23.6001 23.900Ib) • Normal Range 4.700mi) Comparison with 11-86 LENGTH 70m (227ft) SPAN 73m (241ft) THE HEAVY FREIGHTERS Lockheed e-5A Boeing 747 (side door) First Flight Date Aircraft Dimensions-m(ft) Type Length Span Speed km/h (mph) Max Payload (tons) No Engines Type ehp (or thrust) MTOW (tons) Normal Range km(mi) No.Antonov An-124 150 TONS.830 (54.600) 250 379 377 405 600 55 81 69 45' 1 P&W JT9D Lotarev D-18T Lotarev D-18T Notes: Boeing 747-200F may also be powered with Rolls-Royce RB211 and Gf CF6 engines: An-22 production total does not include prototypes. Built 23 Aug 1954 27 Feb 1965 30 Jun 1968 30 Nov 1971 26 Dec 1982 21 Dec 1988 Lockheed C-130 IL-l00) Antonov An-22 Lockheed C-5A 80eing 747-200F Antonov An-124 Antonov An-225 34 (1131 58 (1901 75 (2481 70 12311 69 12271 84 (2761 40 (1331 64 1211) 68 (2291 60 (1961 73 (2411 88 1290) 480 (300) 600 (3801 830 (5151 940 15901 865 (537) 750 (4701 23 4 Allison 501-D22A Kuznetzov NK-12MA GE TF39 4.5901b st) • MTOW 405.1251 5.700kg st.500) 5.400) 8.800) 2. 'Production continues 91 .000) 24.OOOkg (892.450 151.500km (2.500 70 2.500 (3. 800km/h (500mph) Lotarev D-18T (4 x 113.8001 4.500 12.500 (43.0001 4.

28 were long-range Ilyushin 11-62s and 18 were Ilyushin Il-86 Airbuses The new Russian International Airlines was no longer inhibited by an obligation to operate only Soviet-built aircraft. First flown on 28 September 1988. although Aeroflot Soviet Airlines remained as the legal name until 23 July 1992. political and social instincts combined to proclaim regional identities and to break away from the perceived domination of centralized Moscow control. the 60-seat I1-114 was scheduled to ellter selvice with the Uzbeki Civil Air Department (formerly a divisioll ofAeroflot) by the end of 1992. In the capitals of the autonomous republics. the decision was made in Moscow that the Aeroflot name should remain as that of the official flag carrier of Russia's international air routes. eleven of the states of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U. Effectively. But in a country that stretched almost halfway around the earth. were extinguished as the smoldering embers of independence broke into flames when Boris Yeltsin led the final overthrow of communist power in 1991. formerly one of the 36 regional subdivisions. The remaining twelve states came to grips with the challenge to replace a 70-year-old economic system. it should enter . Following two prototypes (the second. advanced avionics. navigational services. complete balkanization would have led to chaos. a Rolls-Royce RB211-S3SE4-powered variant first flew on 14 August 1992.000 aircraft and more than 600. Of the 103 aircraft. The 29 local regions (other than the four Moscow entities and the three Baltics of Aeroflot) took steps to go their own way.R. aircraft.000 staff was an awesome prospect. is illustrated). The twin-turbofan 200-seat Tu-204· first flew on 2 /anuary 1989. (photos: Paul Duffy) The New Aeroflot Even before the creation of the CIS. As described on page 93. however. Designed as an An-24 replacemellt and first flowlI Oil 29 Marcil 1990. it simply adopted the fleet of Sheremetyevo II. the Soviet Union was never the same again. it leased a small fleet of Airbus A310s. airfields and airports. and provision for a wlleel/ski landing gear. Desiglled specifically for Arctic alld Alltarctic operatiollS. with the transfers amounting almost literally to no more than the signing of documents. ground installations. Powered by four Soloviev PS-90A tll/bofmls. only a handful of aircraft have been painted in the new color schemes of the independent companies. the Antollov An-N is . expects CIS certification (wittl CIS-built avionics) by the end of 1993 and international certification with Western aviollics ill mid-199S. and recognizing practical and economic realities. Problems of Fragmentation The three Baltic republics had already reclaimed their independence. the first production I1-114 turboprop made its first fligilt at Tashkent on 7 August 1992. Moscow's main international airport.Into The Nineties Metamorphosis After Mikhail Gorbachev launched the policies of glasnost and perestroika in the mid-1980s. Its sponsor.) were proclaimed the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) on 22 December 1991. it has more fuel capacity. The sheer magnitude of sharing out some 11. and personnel of the old A"eroflot giant would be reidentified with the new regional airlines. The fires of communist revolutionary spirit.derived from the A11-72 light transport. With a crew of five.S. BRA VIA (British Russian Aviation Co). the stretched fuse/age 3S0-seat I1-96M with Pratt & Whitney PW2037 ellgines is due to make its first flight in March 1993. A new era had begun. Initial versions have Soloviev PS-90A Ts.S. Nevertheless. (photos: lean-Luc Altherr) 92 . Superficially similar to the I1-86. long dampened. SSSR-S4001. the 300-seat Ilyushin I1-96 long-range wide-body is a new design. At the time of the publication of this book.Ie/vice with Aeroflot early in 1993.

Airbus A310-300
193 SEATS. 875km/h (540mph)
This color scheme was used during the latter months of 1992 on the Airbus A31O. Selection of a permanent insignia for the whole Aeroflot fleet has yet to be decided.

'~~'Flci~':""'[]""""""""'"

~,

I

;

f

• I I I

I

I I I

• I

I

Development History
The first truly European airliner project, the wide-bodied 250/280-seat Airbus A300B made its maiden flight on 28 October 1972, and entered service with Air France in May 1974. After a slow start, the order book began to fill up after the twin had proved its economic worth and operational reliability. To compete effectively with US manufacturers, Airbus built up a family of twin-jet derivatives of the A300B, each incorporating the most modern technology. Launched in spring 1979, the 200/220-seat A3tO-200 (originally called A300BlO), designed for short-to-medium-range routes, featured a two-crew digital or so-called 'glass cockpit' and an advanced wing. A long-range version, the A31O-300, which incorporated an additional fuel tank in the tailplane, made its first flight on 8 July 1985 and proved to be a popular choice with airlines as ETOPS (Extended-range Twin-engine Operations), pioneered by Airbus, became commonplace.

Comparison with 11-86 LENGTH 47m (l53ft) SPAN 44m (l44ft)

Aeroflot's First Western Jetliner
Although much improved over the original model, the Il-62M's long-range nonstop capability was limited (see page 55) and Aeroflot turned to the West to solve the problem. In October 1989, it announced its intention to order five A31O-300s (plus five options) and confirmed its plan on the follOWing January 24, with deliveries between ovember 1991 and June 1992. Following guarantees by the Russian government to the French creditors, the first aircraft was handed over on 2 July 1992. FollOWing a period of crew familiarization (some pilots had already been trained in antiCipation of the lease arrangement), the A310 entered service with Aeroflot on 4 August 1992 on European routes. Eleven days later it flew the inaugural service from Moscow to Hong Kong.

~~~

....

1 •••••••••••••• , •••• 1 •

The five Aero(lot A31O-308s were originally painted at Toulouse with Aero(lot's blue-winged h(/il/lIIerand-sickle logo on the (orward (uselage as shown in this photo o( F-OCQR (the (ourth aircraft delivered to Aero(lot). Be(ore lwndover to Aero(lot, a small Russian (lag was applied to the tip o( the rudder, but the third aircraft (F-OCQQ Tchaikovski), illustrated in Mike Mac/wt's sideview above, adopted the new double-eagle logo o(Aero(lot-Russian International Airlines. (photograph: Airbus Industrie)

93

I

Metamorphosis
Many Aeroflot fleet figures have been quoted, ranging from "about 3,500" to "as many as 8,000". The following data have been compiled from consultation with regional administrations.

AEROFLOT'S

THE AEROFLOT FLEET 1991
Type
Mainline Jets

Number

Type
Freighters

Number

<'
150 450 10 20 200

Iyushin 11-62/62M Ilyushin 11-86 TupolevTu-134 Tupolev Tu-154/154M Yakovlev Yak-42 total
Feeder Jets

180 90 450 600 150 1,470 750 10 750 50 650 1,450

Antonov An-12 Antonov An-26 Antonov An-74 Ilyushin 11-18 Ilyushin 11-76 total
Feeder Pistons

----

830

Yakovlev Yak-40
Mainli~e

Turboprops

Antonov An-2
Helicopters

3,000
Moscow Center

Ilyushin 11-18
Feeder Turboprops

Antonov An-24 Antonov An-28 Let L410 total

Kamov Ka-26/Ka-32 Mil Mi-2 Mil Mi-8/Mi17 Mil Mi-6/Mi-10/Mi-26 total

200 1,000 2,000 200 3,400

In·;:_>1 Russian Regions/Centers
1"-'....

0 . ::./ Other Republican Regions/Centers

o

Moscow Airports (Regional Status)

TOTAL (derived from best estimatest

10,800-11,000
REGD

THE NEW CIS AIRLINES
Independent Companies

Aerolicht (ALAK) Aerosher Express Air Russia (Aeroflot/British Airways) Air Transport School... . AJT Air/(Asian Joint Transport).. .. ANTK (Tupolev Aviation Complexl ASA (American St Petersburg Airiinesl ASOA Aveko Avial Bosfor-V.. . Elf Air.. . Ecological Concern Rescue Service Interfreight... KMZ (Antonov Machine Works) Liana L11 (Gromov Flight Research Centrel ORBI PO Transport Aviation Polair Polet... .

Moscow-DME Moscow-SVD Moscow-OME Zhukovskiy Moscow-VKO Zhukovskiy St Petersburg Moscow Nikolaev Moscow-OME Vladivostok Zhukovskiy St Petersburg Moscow Kiev Nikolaev Zhukovskiy .Tblisi Moscow Moscow Omsk

1

Progress' Factory.. Russia (Avia Rossi.. Saiakhat. SGA.. SPA Aero... Sterkh... Soyuz... Taiga-1.. .. Ukrainian Air Leasing.. VolgaOniepr.. Yak Air Service..

. . .. . . ..

. .. ..

Samara Moscow Alma Ata Moscow Ekaterinburg Mirnec Moscow Moscow Kiev Ulyanovsk Moscow

Not all of the above were issued with operating-Jicences or had started operations by the end of 7992.
State/Government Companies

(Former Aeroflot directorates are shown in bold type) Aerollat - Russian International Airlines (CUMVS).. .. Moscow-SVO Aerovalga.. . Kazan Air Ukraine Kiev Archangelsk CAD Archangelsk Armenian Airlines Yerevan

Azerbaijan Airlines (AZALI Baku Baikalavia.. . .. Irkutsk Bashkir Airlines.. . Ufa Belarus CAD... .. Minsk Domodedevo PO.. . Moscow-OME Far Eastern Avia.. .. Khabarovsk Georgian CAD.. .. . Tbilisi Goniiga State Scientific and Research Institute... . .. ......Moscow-SVO Independent United Air Detachment.. . Moscow-VKO Kazakh CAD Alma Ata Kirghizi CAD.. . Bishkek Komi A v i a . . . . . S y k t y v k a r Krasnoyarskavia .. . Krasnoyarsk Leningrad ACA.... .. St Petersburg Magadan Avia .. .. Magadan Mineralvodskoe PO.... .. Mineralnyevody Moldavian CAD .. . Kishinev Nerungri Sakha Corp.. . . Yakutsk NPO PANKH.. . Krasnodar Sibavia.. .. Novosibirsk

Southern Airlines.. Tadzhik CAD Tatarstan Airlines Tyumenavia Trans Transaero... . Turkmenavia.. .. Urals CAD Uzbeki CAD Vnukovo CAD Yakutavia..

.. .. Rostov-on-Don Oushanbe Kazan Tyumen Moscow-SVO Ashkhabad Ekaterinburg Tashkent Moscow-VKO Yakutsk

~~..~K~~~

..

Notes. ACk Association of Civif Aviation, CAD. Civif Air Department, PANKH: Aerial Work Detachment, PO: Production Association DME = Domodeaevo SVD = Sheremetyevo VKD = Vnukovo

94

Like No Other
Industrial Giant In the early 1990s, the world witnessed the dissolution of a political and industrial empire. In the production of many mineral and agricultural resources, it was among the world's leaders. Though marked by a uniformity of design, Soviet manufacturing continuously revealed impressive statistics of volume production. This demanded concentrated labor and equipment, concentrated into big cities. In this respect, the Soviet Union was no different from the United States, Europe, or Japan. Urban Concentrations By 1990, the U.S.S.R. had 52 cities with more than half a million inhabitants each. About half of these had populations of more than a million. Leningrad had five million, and Moscow's eleven ranked it among the top half dozen conurbations in the world. Thirty of the 52 are in Russia, a reminder that the new regime is still a powerful force in the industrial world. Nine are in Ukraine, which, of the breakaway republics, alone has a balanced economy of world stature. Of great significance to Aeroflot is the geographical distribution of the Distance urban concentrations. Of the 52 big cities, only 15 are more than 2,000km (1,250mi) and only three are more than 4,000km (2,500mi) from Moscow. The domestic market for a long-range Ilyushin 11-86 is thus very small. Conversely, only three major cities are within 400km (250mi) of Moscow, and only Gorki (Nizhni Novgorod) has more than one million people. It was the destination for Dobrolet's first service in 1923, but is hardly a natural air route in the jet age. St Petersburg (Leningrad), is connected to Moscow by a good railway service, with future high-speed rail potential. Aeroflot's Challenge and Achievement Aeroflot, therefore, has always provided air service on a bewildering permutation of medium-haul routes that comprise the majority of the city pairs. This accounts for the preponderance of Tupolev Tu-154s (see page opposite) which are deployed mainly throughout an area roughly the size of the U.S. (see map and page 62) and also the bulk of the capacity on the transSiberian and trans-Turkestan trunk arteries. Equally praiseworthy, however, has been Aeroflot's dedication in proViding countless local services to thousands of otherwise isolated communities. The ubiquitous Antonov An-2, a humble piston-engined biplane, made an outstanding contribution to the welfare of the Soviet peoples, from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean.

U.S.S.R.

V

U.S.A.(x3)
toOl>

SIZE COMPARISON

l>

t>

a

REGD

D

D
()

POPULATION OF CITIES [I.... More than 5,000,000
D.· .. 2,000,000- 5,000,000 0 1,000,000 - 2,000,000 0 500.000- 1,000,000

95

First flight. 32·33 l"u-1O-I-. r\.s.).·\eronot in and into the Arctic.dc. K. 20 Gl".'d liugaev.lI. 7S Con'lwi"". S. Mark.. 7 Aviaarktika (Polar Aviation).INDEX A. Russian Clipper (Martin 156). 19 Shcvclev. Piotr. 26 1\orih-Pol(' L\pec1itioll. 26 [unl\ers-Ju 52/. 80 GrollJov. 19 Mikhey('\'. Boeing 707. 36-:P Amltlcllik . 25 Sheslakov.l11d airuaftj First USE'. '19S9) allillvzes OIle of the most COlltro\Trsial transport airnait produccd in the Soviet Union. 18 Nagursk)'. 64-65 Tnpole\' Tu-154. Ulan Bator. 80 C/lCl'fO/ld'Ukmilla (Kalinil1 K--I-). 29-30 Moscow. 18. 8-9 P.. 18. A. 28·29 K"klll7lzllllik. 25. 1\. Mosco\\".jiranft COl/stru((iull ill I/Ii' . t"""'I'. F. M~scow. 16-17 ZhavaronkO\'. r\leksand('r. 60 Yakolev.dansiy Vozdllzhlliy Flot (G. K-:~. 84: Arctic. RS Shavrov Sh·2 amphibian.F . :--J. 26-27.W) ITH'als a tile Il'\'a i\lurllllll'ts. 25 . 12. 13 Fokker F27 Friendship.). Antarctic Base. 14 . 78·79. 29 -\rctic. 36 38 rable. . 26 Organizes CI/c1.Tashkent. II. 76 Comparison drawings. P.. Vladimir. :19. Ardic by "1". by Altunin (Eastern Siberian Irl\utsl\. K" 12 Tllpole\'.38 I1'ya Mummets.\strakav. D('scription. 57 Fokker F28. 19 ANT-9 till' S()l'il'l~ flight.-I-0 Ilyushin 11-14. r\. Yak-40. Far Eas\. n Marlin 156. 21 Starts trans-Siberian routc. or tire S()\'ict" . 77-78. 88 Lockheed C-5A.\ntarctic Base. first published by I\lolodaya Guardia. S. 26 Kamov Ka-15.75 Comparison drawings.-\ircmlt Siltce 1940 by JE'an ·\Iexander (I'utnam. 20 Galkovsk\'. 72 McDonnell Douglas MD-tl. CA. 79 Chl'rnob)'l. 19N7. 76-77 Baranov." 72 rar East 73 Ceop spcayi"g 83 ANT-ZO. 29-:10 l'etro\'..C:. 20 Yatsky.20-21 Kalinin K-5. 32-33 Bellingshausen. Viktor."iet·SpO'lSOCet airline.V.""!'. 28·29 c. 68 Antollov An-124. First flight. and deserve much commendation as pioneer \\"orks: SO\'i('t (Chid Boris Bugayev) (Air I"ransport. P. 32 De Comet... 32 Polar Aviation (SCC A\'iaarktika) Polar Stations in Arctic. 38-39 Douglas DC-9.'. 18. Aleksander E. K2 Ho/. "\l1atoh'. Yak-42. MALElrf/MALEV. 29 Wartime appointll1C'nt. V. 86 I'aniokov... Molokov flight. 1-". :--J. 31 Hamiata. (Polikarpov Po-2). Moscow. ANT-25. A" 18 Vorodni~of. Mikhail. Derulufl. 68 Br\lvl Railroad.V. 3-1Wartime 36-37 Post-war Polar Stations in Lloyd group. lohn Slroud all that seasunC'u - Im'"'I''''' . 26 NovolalOf('vskaya. S1 . Alebandl'r. 39 i'vlolodezhnaya. Antarctic flights.s(l Rudoli Island. M. I. Sigismulld .I.IISIIIIUI'.S..V. II.62). Mikhail ~I. 38 rrans-l'oJar flight. First use. 70 Antonov An-22.. 1975) assl'mblC'd everv detail of Aeroflot that was practically iJOssible at the time . 19 Boeing 367-80. 18 Kalvits. 70-71 First services. . 19 Table.'IISkill rescue. 70 J 923 Hugh \'!acDonald (Putnam. 58-59 Tupolev TII-144. 25 Route to Stockholm. 13. 12. :\retic. 5-1- or Pan American r\irwavs. -i8: Arctic. 63 Deruluft. 14-15 First 18 Yaklltsl\. Kh. Wartime. 78-79 Kamov Ka-269. 32 Lisunov Li-2. 22 Lui! Hansa. N.32 airfield. 37 l.evchenko. SO Rctirl'ment. NO Kamov. \rctic Ice Stations. K-2. :\. 2H-29 Ekatov. 79 !'"...r. 15. 1990) lI\'lIsllin bv G.22-23 rable. Josef. -1-6 Service to Asia. 11-12. 22. . 32-33 Antci (Anthcusj (seE' Antonov I\n-22) Antonov An-8. F. 21 Kalinin. r\. V. Bezborodov) (Ministrv of Civil 1967)- or ill t!le U. 82 T. ill IIli. l'it)'lli' Sikorsky..55 and (S. 40 Larin. 38·39.. Crimea. Ye. 35 Catalina. F.. 70 Pobezhimov. !". 36: c\rctic.5 NIHil 011'('\. to Graz. 69 Lenin. 5S Vickers Viscount. Far East. 36-37 Post-war recowry. 39 Solovov. 26-27 GlaV\'ozdvkhoilot. 96 .39 I"i\RS (Romania). sea. 20 Ruslall (s('(' !\lltonO\' An-12-1-) c/. 19 Sud CaravC'lle.80-81 Comparison with other Mil hclicopters. 68 Antarctic.\croflol (G. 16 Babusl1kin. 26 ANT-6 G-21.-I-7 Compared with Britallnia.. 21 Kalinin. IN. Uti' Oil Ille k(' no(' by I. 42-43 Kopil6v. 18.V. 36 lunl\ers-W 33. :1. Heads G1avsC'vlllorput. 6S Tyu1l1en r\viatrans.. arC' difficult to obtain. Arctic. 2-1C/I('Il'mkill reSC\l('.\ntMctic. 20 U"'. S\'iridyenko. \'likhail. 1\1. Develops Yak--I-O. 2.aircraft. D. M. 88 21)-29 Airbus. 70-71 Osipov. P.. 7 Flllmll Space Shuttle. A.. 7 VolkO\'ovnO\'. . 16. 12-13 17: TC'rlllination. S9 Ilocing 747. K. 2-1Gla\'sevlllorput. 7 U.-lircraft COII. SO . 66 Compared to An-l 0. 14-15 Central Asia. 20 So. 79 Mil Mi.8-9. 26·27 Pol" hpedlitinn. i\. NO\:OZhilov) . E.-i7 1"1Ipoiev Tu-124. 1-1. 39 ClIelyllSkill rescuC'. 1-1- Finne and Von Institution Press.39 Maxirnova. Nikolai.N. 2-1Kalinin K-7.K.S. 34. 90 I3.V. 38 KlIklll"lli'llIlik. B.e . 78-79. 7-1Comparison. 82 AK-l ilircrilft (I's'\cjI). Maxim t\NT-20 bis (PS-124J.'mocpul.Khabilrovsl\. Flics to Peking. 1987) tI.H--I-5 Tllpolcv Tu-l04. 9 . 12 ConcordC'. Batlle of. (Bulgaria). 22 l'olikarpo\l R-l . S. 70 Comparison with Mi-8 etc. (Chief Ci\'if Al'iation Editor: C. 70·7l Ilyushin 11-62 (and 11-62M). 82 Nijnakovsky. 65 ConsolidJted PBY-5A. 7 Zhul\ovsl\iy Acadellly. S. 32-33 BAM (Bail\al-A1l1ur l\'lagistral) Railroad . GH.F. Vasily. 34 :~6 AlltolJoV AI1-2.. 26. 'Q Glavsev'morpllt. 19391 is the diary of thC' dramatic four-man \'isit to the :--Jarth Pole in 1937. -I-H Vodopyanov. Andrei Nikolayevich. -1-9 r\rClic 68·69: Antarctic Flights. b\' HOI\'arcl Moon (Orion. however. P.'.'acfligl1ls. Electra.1. 6 Mriya. 59 Douglas DC-lO. Formation. 19.. 22. 1\. 70-71 lIvllshin 11-18 (19-1-7). 1975) is a good complement to Stroud's groundbreaking effort More SibCli. 19 Trotsl\v. 11: 12 Faddayev. 56-57 Arelic Icc Stations. Grigory.2-1Northern Sea Route Committee/Administration. none of them having enjoyed wide circulation. .. L 70 ChC'rIlobvl. YC'" 7 Papanin Expedition. '. 11 rs. j\'laxill1ov and Zyev (Yakutsk !\Jblisl1('rs. 41 Arctic. 6N Antarctic flights. V. Far East.V.fil V-12.00<'0" Skctchn Sol'iet Ail {wI/sport Silt(c AntOllov An-24 (An-Z6. (see Antonov .\NT·9 aircraft. lI'ya.75.. 23.nr """Icc. 19 Krenl\el. 19 NlISKHA (farming. i(e-IJreilkcr. 1-1Ukrailla (s('e '\nlonO\' . -1-6. 3N. 22.'wi Ralthkiy.20 by t\('roflot. 22-23. 26. NC'I\' York. 62-63 Tupole\' Tu-204. ANT-9. and even those relating to Soviet aviation or air transport. 1976). first publish('d in 1Y.1 alld t!le For [(lSi. 15. 57 Iluphin's. 1986) t\zdobroJet. 63 I)m'ing 737.. G. forestry. 26·27 Vodop)'ano\' flight. M. AkkatllrO\'. 92 Ilyushin 11-114. Gm".. 70 Moskm. 22 Stalin. 19 Yakutsk.. lw LV. 92 lutlov. 25 Godoviko\'. lJ\" land. 26 Circ. [I) 29 Amllndameaicecaft..ockhecd 188 Electra.S. iccbrl'ah'r. N. 70-71 Molokov. S-I-.. B. ANT-3 Ai-rcrait. 59 Baidllkov.Jlar survev of Siberia."'. 32). I"IiII.. F.39 [apan Air Lines. 7 Cllell'lIskill r('scue. 70 Shidlov. 68-69 Polikarl'0v.S. 28-29 Gorbachev. "" E.. Otto.-\BSO. 32-33 I.'meh""ko. 18 ShC'stakov flight.-I-I) Lockhccd L-lOl1 TriStar. Historic meeting. Arctic.ngs. 7 Tomas!1evsky. 79 Mil Mi-6. 70 Sopwitll. bv V. 30-31 Papallin. 88-89 Ilyushin 11-96. 2G i\fill\fi-l 1\'liI's iirst helicoptC'r. NO Kamov Ka-32.. 91 Lockheed 91 Logino\'. -17: to Toronto'. t\ntarctic..-I-O: Agricultural usc. Filin. 27 North-Pole EXIJcdition. 35 KolklwZllik (Anlonov An-2). 36. Wartime. the I'apanin Polar Expedition. 81 Mil Mi-26. 19 Acquirl'd by C. 8·]() Ilyushin 11-12. 1990) North bv Altunin Magadan.\n·l0) Ukrvozdllkhpul. Mill\fi-8. 28-29 With Sergei lIyllshin. 20 Federov. 16 Dornicr Mcrkur. 39 Tkachev. Some English language IJooks haw been published in the SO\'il't Union.28-31 Glavsevmorpul. 9\ ])anilin.\NT·9. 2S·29 Fedotov.rktikll.:1 Fufaev.S. 53 Junkcrs-F 13. Bal\u. 25 Schmidt..33 Fishing fleet survC'y. 25 MJszovlC't (Hungary). ServicC' to Yakubk. First designs. books have been published in tile Union on all aspects of avia· tion.. Director-General. Anna. First aircraft. forlllatiull of. 20 Spirin.1981) \\'aitiIlS liJI" Take-Olt" by V. H. Olcg.. -I-(l: Antarctica.48-49 Interflug. 39 Kalinin aircraft: K-l..'. 17 Dornier \Val. 77 U-1 and U-2 aircraft. 28-29 Shannon Airport. P. Ivan. 68 l'etrov. F.likhail. N. N. 1975) is a tribute to Valerv Chkalov. I).ilonl\. 68-69 Antarctic operations.s·29. pilul with VudOpyilllO\'. . Develops An-2. 7 Lend-lease Program.12 Kokkinaki. 74-75 Antarctic base.-\Cjl: 12. 70 Gunston. L G. 26 Moloko\' 27 Douglas Douglas C-47 (DC-3) \Vartimc role. 21 Chkalov. 20: Sakhalin. 11 Visions of northern survev. YJ. Aeroflot(C.R. and air. 78 Nikolai. 37 Moskalenko...\n-2J ANT-2 I ANT-3 aircraft.. Jan. 1938) provides an authoritatiw insight into the work oi the U. 26 Clll'rC'\'C'chnova..22 Grishcl1enko. air mechanic. 60-61 Levanevskiy.('/o. 76 Comparison 79 i\fill\fi-4. Otto. A.H airrraft..).23 (table) ANl-4 aircraft..K2 l}uld\Te\'. AllUllin Uniwrsity.. A. 86 Ilyushin 11-76. 90-91 Antonov An-225. 70 Comparison with Mi·2. (Tu-ll-1. SI Vick('rs VUO. Ivan. \\'hich Vodupyanov was the Chief Pilot. 38 Ilyushin 11-18 (turboprop) \'105\. 35 Polikarpo" V-2 (Po-2) First civil aircraft. :1H. Vladimir.. 39 Dobrolct.R.s-9 Brest I..d""'.88 Tupole\' Tu-114 Rossiya. V. Ch. 19 Polikarpo\l R-5.. institute).. 21 (North Korea). 26 r\ll-Russian (1917). Pionecrs rOllte to Sal\halin. 92. KH. 24 KOJ1l('l III. Ivlikhail. 22 Unshlicht. Crop-Sprayers. Nikolai E. 18 SOI'id T.. Deputy to 12 Farly \\"(Jrk with lH . 59 Forestry patrol. Flegont. 19-10. 68-69: .. 54-55 \'!ikhail Gorbachev's statc visit.. I.32 Remains in Moscow.~ky. 1-1-.C U. Antarctic. Formation. London. 70-71 H'iIlSS nr. /(1I). 80-81. First sC[\'icC's.. r\NT--I.. 1.1m. Crimea. 28-29 Perov.eY"'. 19. 1'. siege. I-liston'. servicC's. 19(7) . 44·45 Tu-IO-iAm developments. 8-9.. 68. 1983 and Mosco\v. I'rof('ssor Hugo. 1\1. 78. N. Gonoma ledate]stvo. 36 ANT-? Table. B. 42-43. 3-1-35 Hand!l'\ H~'rald. 30. -1-6 Compared with Com('t.\lI1IUII/CtZ.22 Far Fast fl'ec!('r route. D. 12 Sotllova. R6 Stal'2 aircrait.. 69 Kamov Ka·18. Edited b\' Von Hardl'st\ (Smithsonian Press.ky...S. 19 Galislll'v. 26 North-l'olC' Expedition. 15 Junkers Luftverl\ehr Russland. 28-29. i\fikhail. V. AnlhclIs.. Ernst. 75: Mctic. 32 Golovin. 82 L 6-1 AndreI. 88 Airbus A31O. 18 I"umanskiy. 13 l. Crulliv. 38 AlvlTORG. 60-61 Yakolev. Miriya. 75 Comparison dra\\"iIlg~. 13 Agricultural aviation (.. 22 Far East.V. DB·3B bOOl'b('r 3S MaskYa (sec Jlvushin l\fozhaisky.S. :~.12 Bureau oi (1917).. (Swedish airline). 32-33 Chul\hnovsky. Ru.. 33 Spitzb('rgen.L).. 16. 16-17 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1300l\s about I\eroflot. \\'ashington. V. etc. A. I\n-8.. (orJu 13). 92-93 Air i'vlongol. 32 Zakavia. Pavel. A. air Ill('chanic. 1990) OnT \'okutio bv LV.S.12. 13 DeutschC' Luft Hal1sa (Interilug). -10 Post-war !\('roflot. b>ly pionereing. Shavrov (Machinostrovenie. 71 Ilyushin 11-86..'\n·225) Nadenav. Igor. Deputy to Otto Schmidt. lS. 26 Sikorskv S-GB.\ero-Union. North-Pole. Leon. -1-5 Boeing 707. Catalina. Rnslau. I{outes. von. . Georgy.. 29-30 Bclial\ov. Moscow. 70-71 "Siberiilll School Bus. NOlablv. 3S: 11·18. These include (the titles haH' bcel1 translated for readers' con\'enience): Tlic Firsl Flisllts Anass tile Arctic by Georgy Baidukov (Dy('lskaya Lit('ratura. 1. \IOSCOII'. Taraconzio (1\ki\lillan.\. 20. 11 Bristul Britannia. Professor V. B. 68 . Introduced.M..'judd Two volumes . 34 Aerial mapping. 1991. 68 PetC'nin. H2 Polyakov. 7. l'". 66 Vokov. Vodopyanov (Foreign Publishing House. 1. 5-1De Havilland Trident. 50-51 Antonov An-H) Ukra ina.68 Ivkzheraup. 2H-29 BAC One-Eleven. ice-breal\er. ·t-I---I-5. 26 Nt\MCYS-1I.86 Gordienko.\Siali . -1-6. 78-79 Kamov Ka-25. 16 Rossi\'a (sec Tupo!e\' Tu-tl-l-) Roun·d-thc. 1-1VernikO\'.. 2H-29 !\. 92 Ilyushin.. M. IN ANT-3 Prolatarii flight. Moscow. ANT-2S.\Vorld s('n'iCl'. 68 Anlollov An-74.. Glavscvlllorput.R. . 12. 52-53 First fligtlt and sC']"\'ice..\trudOfS by A. 4-1-.R. 23 Yakovlc". 36 Slmoo. London .'S-9 H""ko·Ball:iski \'agoni Zd\'od (BVZj. . 12 Let L41O.lill/l LillrllJ('I"glJ by (jl'()rg~ Baiduko\'.F. 1986-1988) SOl'let . Ivan... Icc Station. 1 1/2 Strutter. air Illechanic. 75 BAM Railroad. '~9 AI('xandrm". G. 66-67 COll1pzHison with 1\n-124. r\. 6. L. V. /'rdl'dl/ /'!(l/ut"rii. the transpo~t aircraft.. 28·29 Surwy flight tn Ihe nmth. n rest Trans-Polar flight. Antarctic Base. drawings. 12 Zhukovskiy. 80·81 Work at ChernobyL 80 Mil. 9 Savoia-Marchetti S. 37 IC\O. SO-51 Antonov An-12. N('I\" York.wl1('n almost l'\'l'J"V avenue of research was closed. Valery. delightful ilccount of bush . Director General. . 53 LOT (Poland).Iikhail. Mosco\\". 70 Bl'Ilint. )\lessll('r.\relic. 90 AntOIlov. I'ap:min (I.21 Kalinin K--I-. NN Douglas 20 Dy.('I/il/. A. 12 Vostok..10.. -1-9. 91 BogdalHH'-KatI\O\'.. lI'pl. A. 3(} MOl'ozov. floris. lVI. 79 Mil Mi-2. 85 First service. New York.J.service). Boeing 727. :'Jortll-I'ol(' . Scrgei. 1N Escadra vozduzhnvkh korablie ILV.7 28·29 aircraft: BoIs/wi Baltiski)'.. 23. E. Danilenko (Khalmovsk l'ublishcrs. (and 11-140).""..l/die by I\likhaii V. 38 Fokker LIII.F. 7 Bilsscin. 1S IUSTA (Yugmla\'ia). K. 1-1"Glcnn 'Martin" (Martin 156). S.:va. 48-49 First flight. including: I\'illg~ OnT ti. 23 North-Pole Expedition. 20 lunkers. 19 . in exploring and dewloping th(' nort!1C'rn regions of Eurasia. 11. 38. W i\lazuruk. 10. threc wer(' published ab:ut tll"O dccades ago. Nikolai. :~9 rr\RO!'vt. 46-47 Tupolev Tu·134.. North-Pole Expedition.

_ I 180'E o f-. R EGD ------------___.A3P D ·c.-IJTles o 2. • _ -.-"r~ -.(.) 800 120C' 11300 K'lometer5 ISBN 0-962-6483-1-0 .-1---'---1 ·iO.(' 406 6Ge soo ICOO "..