UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA

THE UNIVERSITY MUSEUM PUBLICATIONS OF THE BABYLONIAN SECTION
VOL. X

No. 2

SUMERIAN LITURGICAL TEXTS
BY
g600@T

STEPHEN LANGDON
,! .,

'

PHILADELPHIA PUBLISHED BY T H E UNIVERSITY MUSEUM
1917

DIVINITY LIBRARY

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CONTENTS
INTRODUC1'ION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SUMERIAN LITURGICAL T E X T S : EPICAL POEMO N T H E O R I G I N S L I M E R I A NV I L I OF CI
ZATION

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LAMENTATION ARURU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TO . PENITENTIAL PSALMTO GOD A M U R R. U. . . . . . . . . . . . LAMENTATION THE INVASION B Y G U T I U M . . . . . ON .. LEGEND GILGAMISH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OF ... LITURGICAL HYMNTO UR-ENGUR . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . LITURGICAL HYMNTO DUNGI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LITURGICAL HYMNTO LIBIT-ISHTAR(?)R ISHMEO DAGAN(?). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LITURGICAL HYMNTO ISHME-DAGAN . . . . . . . . . . . . ... LAMENTATION T H E DESTRUCTION UR . . . . . . . . ON OF HYMNO F SAMSUILUNA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... LITURGY ENLIL.babbar-ri babbar.ri.gim. I N C L U D TO I N G A TRANSLATION OF SBH 39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FRAGMENT FROM T H E TITULAR LITANY A LITURGY OF LITURGICALY M N ISHME.DAGAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . H TO .. LITURGY I N N I N I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TO

ethical and religious problems. like the liturgies and hymns. For such reason the scribes ceased to propagate this the best and most important branch of all their literature." which really means. "Oh praise the goddess Nidaba. The poem published in Part I of this volume which is the Epic of Paradise. has as its colophon ["Nidabla lagsal.INTRODUCTION Under the title SUMERIAN LITURGICAL TEXTS author the has collected the material of the Nippur collection which belonged to the various public song services of the Sumerian and Babylonian temples. 4588. LANGDON. In this category he has included the epical and theological poems called lag-sal. T h e same note occurs a t t h e end of . They were read or sung in the temples and formed part of the corpus of sacred literature in Sumerian times. No. p. 18. b u t unfortunately these fine compositions composed in narrative and heroic style were eventually banished from the public readings. i i f o ~ i c a larid Keligioui Tcxtr. a hymn to lnnini. It occurs also as a scribal note a t the end of a hymn to DungL2 I POEBEL. or praise the art of writing. Oh praise the goddess of the reed. H Ni. These long epical compositions are the work of a group of scholars a t Nippur who ambitiously planned to write a series of poems concerning cosmological. 1. an impulsive note added by the scribe in admiration of the fine poem which he had just copied. T h e same colophon is probably to be restored a t the end of the poem on the Flood1 and the epical legend published as the first text in this volume. V PBS.

W i . "It is good to sing my p r a i ~ e . "It is good t o sing thy p r a i ~ e . For example a legendary poem to Enki the water-god in the Nippur collection in Constantinople ends with the note a-a d En-ki zag-sal.2 In any case zag-sal designates.~ a l . that is as part of the public song services. zag-sal-mu dug-gn-rim."" Although the rubric dNidaba zagsal is employed in the fanciful sense "Oh praise her of the stylus. . a poem of joyful character in distinction from such liturgical notes as eriemnza and kiiub which characterize a melody as sorrowful and attended by spiritual humiliation. 22. lag-sal-zu dug-ga-rim. 7071 (unpublished). . " ~ In similar manner a double column tablet ends ama d N i n a zag-snkzu dug-ga-rim. " ~ And a long epical composition to Nidaba ends with the line." Two hymns in ~ heroic measure sung to the mother goddess lnnini end with the rubric." nevertheless the line obviously purports to classify the composition as an epic and 1 Ln~coorr. p. of course. 2 See ril(3) in Sumerian Grammar 240. Hence a t the end of a long double column hymn concerning the earth-god the scribe adds the line a-a d En-lil z a g . T h c same rubric a t the end of Ni."Oh sing in praise of Enlil. 6 RADAU.also a hymn to Enki. in its proper usage.4059. 4 5 . "Oh mother Nina it is good to sing thy praise. 3 Ni. but evidence can be produced for the statement that this note when attached to poems and hymns really designates the text as liturgical. Miicellanrolri Sumerian Texli."' T h e word lag designates some kind of a n instrument perhaps and sal is a verb meaning to sing in joyful strain. "Oh sing in praise of father Enki. 9205 (unpublished) Ni. Historire2 mid Rciicioui Texts. 14065and 13859 (unpublished).1°4 U N I V E R S I T Y MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION This fanciful use of lag-sal. has per se no reference to the contents of the text nor t o the purpose for which it was written. No. For lag-sal or "praise" occurs frequently in its proper sense.

207. 19. So far as they add new material for knowledge of the corpus of liturgical literature and fill up gaps in hitherto imperfectly known prayer books.STEPHEN L A N G D O N . was to induce the temple choristers to incorporate their compositions in the corpus of public worship. TEXTS 105 liturgical. gave little scope for the varied melodies characteristic of the mournful liturgies. X I . they appear to have lost their incentive and their inspiration. Of this epical and theological class of literature part two of my volume contains only one text which introduces the hook. !ieder T h e term came t a he misused in t h e temple schools a n d hence we find i t a t t h e end of tablets which contain lists of names and other prosaic material.S U M E R I A N LITURGICAI. I T h e rubric is employed properly after a h y m n t o Nidaba in Z ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . . will be found here. of course.ho wishes to praise the excellence of t h e writlcn tablet.' When the cults no longer provided opportunity for the bards and philosophers to sing their epics in the hearing of the congregations. and these fine epics had that end in view. v. . these will be welcomed. has noted several e x a m ~ l e s this use of the term a t the end of in of . ends d ~ i d a b a ?agio!. a large tablet devoted t o t h e names of the gods. They appealed only to the thoughtful. Here. When this class of literature disappeared with the scribes and schoolmen of the lsin period Sumero-Babylonian religion and universal literature suffered an unknown loss.3889. DR. or to cause them to be sung by the temple choirs. such as survived almost exclusively and in great numbers into the Semitic cults of Babylonia and Assyria. k ' u l t No. Naturally these heroic measures and these ethical problems. CHIERA PRS. t h e note cannot have a liturgical reference but is a n impulse of t h e scribe u. so shrewdly propounded and answered in the recital of ancient legends. T h u s Ni. For we must bear in mind that writing to be read figured slightly in the imagination of authors who wrote painfully upon clay. Their only means of reaching the ears of a wider public. . Several texts belonging to the well-known liturgical type of daily prayer.

T h e most important group of texts in this volume (Nos. Another more powerful doctrine current in that philosophic age aroused a longing and prepared the way for their implicit belief in the kings as Messiahs who had a t last arrived to restore on earth the prediluvian paradise. 6. mission and rights of kings resulted a t last not alone in the deification of mortal rulers and the institution of cults for their worship. the doctrine of the deification of kings holds perhaps the foremost place in Sumerian theology and certainly the practice of this belief occupies the chief position in their liturgy. but in a widely spread Messianic hope. second king of the dynasty of Ur. by scholars and general readers. T h e doctrine of a divine right to rule was proclaimed by the early city kings of Sumer a t the dawn of history when they assumed the religious title patesi.I 06 UNIVERSITY M U S E U M . either to the exclusion of or in conjunction with the secular title lugal. T h e well-preserved epic published in Part I. During the long ages preceding the rise of the Ur dynasty in the twenty-fifth century the Sumerian people generally accepted this ancient dogma. Beginning with the early years of Dungi. show a well-known legend concerning a lost paradise where men toiled not and disease was not. always latent in Sumerian religion but especially characteristic of the scholastic period in which the Sumerian people became extinct. king. Arld this faith in the divine origin. I t may have been due to an aristocratic priesthood. 7. 9 and 14 of the contents) represent a great religious movement. 8. . but it was a belief which gave them peace and confidence because they believed themselves ruled by the vicars of god.B A B Y L O N I A N SECTION 1 trust. priest-king. lone survivor of the Flood. as well as the small fragment concerning Ziudsuddu. T h e consecutive publication of these liturgical texts will contain more tablets of this type.

. C. who ruled from 2475 to 2133 B. 7184 Obv.S T E P H E N LANGDON-SUMERIAN LITURGICAL T E X T S 1°7 Such doctrines naturally gave rise to an irrepressible hope that the gods would one time restore the lost prediluvian paradise. "He whom lnnini. In the hymn sung in the cult of Ishme-Dagan and translated on pages 143-9 of this volume the reader will find somewhat modest claims compared with other hymns of this class.' whose extremely long reign probably increased their faith in him as an immortal. 1 2 . mother Bau. I am. For hymns and liturgies t o Dungi see also the writer's Hirtorical and Religious Texlr. ~Even the catastrophe which befell the divine Ibi-Sin last king of Ur. See on the identification of these divine kings with Tarnrnuz the author's Tammu? and Irhlar. 26 f . and good things decreed in order that life of days may go forth f o r e ~ e r . begotten by the gods." says our hymn. whose city was pillaged by the Elamites and who himself took the way to Susa as a captive. as her beloved spouse has chosen. queen of heaven and earth. 30. made mortal that they might rule over men. failed to cool the ardor of their belief. pp. has looked with faithful eyes upon thee. Beginning with Dungi of Ur." for him the rivers brought abundance and the cellars overflowed with honey. More explicit in regard to the belief in his Messianic nature is the other hymn of his cult published here: "The maiden. the Sumerian people really believed that the divine deliverers had come. In the kings of Isin who succeeded them they placed the same confidence. " ~ This hymn claims for him a "crown that prolongeth the breath of life. and wedded to the great mother goddess h e r ~ e l f . Ni. T h e hymns sung to the deified kings of Ur and Isin. the fields bore grain in abundance and the sheepfolds were made more spacious. reveal clearly enough the state of mind which existed in that age.

I 08 U N I V E R S I T Y MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION The extreme length to which this worship of mortal rulers was carried. a t last supplanted the Sumerian race. Instead of enthusiastic chants and hymns which proclaimed the advent of god-sent rulers and the golden age.~ kings of lsin no cult hymns have been found. KL. o u r collerlion posqesses one liturgy. the Epic of Paradise and the Sumerian historical inscriptions abundantly prove. see ibid.4 sixth5 and e l e ~ e n t h . mentioned in t h e hymn to Enlil-bani. characterize the Ur and lsin period as one of the most remarkable and interesting in the history of religion. 'Two l i t u r ~ i c s this volurre and one in ZIMMERN. in Z I M M E R N .2 f o ~ r t h fifth. . in LANGDON. Some of these deified men in a way justified the faith which they inspired. Libit-lshlai. peaceful and violent.' third.~ i r r a .3979. who after centuries of conflict. but their names have the divine title. but sincc they did not rule a t Nippur until the period of Warad-Sin we cannot expect t o find m a n y hyrrns and liturgies of their cults a t N p p u r . or even to protect their people from the violence of foes. the Epic of Gilgamish. 200. T h a t it had a philosophic and legendary background supported by the ancient doctrine of the divine origin of kings. KL. i h e cantemporancous kings of Larra were also deified. Historical ard Religious TPXII NO. in N i . p. Liturgy lo. I s h r e .. ~For the last five . 199.33. Ni. in Libit-lshtai. T h e facts belied their claims and their fate took from them the last vestige of divine authority. Idin-Daean. Nevertheless all the kings of lsin were deified even to the last unfortunate Damik-ili-5u and we have liturgies to the first. For Sin-idinnam third king a t Larsa. Although a few tablets have been found which indicate the existence of 16. but they all failed t o banish toil and disease.see Su+n Gr. Enlil-bani. Liturgy to. 'l'he Semitic people. we now see the rise of the famous poem of pessimism. . joj2 ' l r h b i .E a g a n . H y m n to. the Messianic position which they occupied in the official cult. abolished the entire institution of king worship and with it the belief in the Messianic age.

The Epic of Gilgamish is obviously due to the wave of pessimism which followed upon the failure of the Messianic kingdom and the cults of the deified kings. The collection possesses a large number of similar texts which will be an important addition to the material now published. we now know. . The object of this volume is t o supply material for investigating in detail the great movements of that period which so directly affected the progress of all dogma.' nevertheless it is most improbable that it contains the elements (other than legendary) of the Semitic masterpiece. in the long tale about an ancient godlike hero. Its doctrine is the antithesis of the hope expressed in these hymns and liturgies which.S T E P H E N LANCDON-SUMERIAN LITURGICAL T E X T S log a Sumerian epic concerning Gilgamish. belief and practice. were the favorite songs in public worship from the twenty-fifth t o the twenty-second centuries. The major theological and ethical movements which stand out so clearly in that critical age of human history are only outlined here. that the pain of life and the fate of death are unavoidable and ordained by the gods. Here mankind is taught.

11 1. the well preserved passage in Obv. I t is extremely regrettable that so little definite informa(111) . In any case. If the Flood is referred to a t the top of Obv. so in the poem to which I now call attention the god Enki of Eridu appears as the chief divine figure in the beginnings of civilization. I 1 mention Magan and Dilmun. I l l lo). In much the same way. I 1 1 tells of the glorious destiny decreed for Sumer by the wise god of Eridu. This decree follows immediately upon a few obscure lines which refer apparently to the Flood and a ship. Enki restores civilization after the Flood in the Epic of Paradise. They belong to a series of poems treating in epical style of the legends of prehistoric times. 4562 is a fragment of a legendary poem similar to the legendary poems of the Flood translated by Poebel (10673) and that of Paradise translated by myself (4561).SUMERIAN LITURGICAL T E X T S AN EPICAL POEMON THE O R I G I N S U M E R I ACIVILIZATION OF N No. but the references are extremely obscure. As in the epics of the Flood and of Paradise. Unfortunately the reverse is almost illegible. All three tablets are apparently from the same hand and are written in three columns on each side. I I must refer to prediluvian times. T h e fragment 4562 is the upper right corner of a tablet and contains only a small portion of the text. He decla'res the fate by which Sumer became the divinely chosen land of the universe (Obv. T h e fragmentary lines a t the top of Obv. then Col. On the reverse (I 16) we find the Anunnaki who also figure in the legend of the Fall of Man in the Paradise Epic.

a. ." Ranau. . . . r I . . May Magan the limits of heaven reach. SBP. 1 5 . . .. . The. ox for sacrifice. . . . .. . . . . . 5. . . . unweaned kid for sacrifice. . 6. . . kur-kur-ra-ranippur-(ki)-Sh te-nu-ah-tum I. zi-dug-gi-im-mi. . . . . kid for sacrifice. . 138. . [t-gal kalam-ma-]nu 2. I-nu-tukra 10. 4 h 5 Obviously the vowel e indicates the second person here and ga has the 8 forceof the imperative although ordinarily the optative of the first person. . . .. . . . . . .may be looked upon.I12 U N I V E R S I T Y MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION tion can be gleaned from the reverse. in I V R. . . 9. . . . a participle conjugated with the verb me to be. . Gr. . Note theverbzt-dug-gi. . . . Mircel. LANGDON. . U D bal-ih Be-mZ-e3 8. Dilnzun(ki)na gii-je-elz-dzi2 5.ge 7. . forms its imperative second singular in the unusual manner zi-ga-c-dhg=bif. . 2. . . bal-ih me-a. . 16= Sum. . .of Meluhha 7. Magan and. . . a Cf. in Drehem texts. . ne sal lid mu-un-ne-dl4 zi- 13. but its contents and relation to the other two epics must remain undefined until the tablet by good chance is restored. we have here another legend concerning the origin of civilization and religion in Sumer. . . . . . . la Rev.ra 12. . . . . . 12. ?-slg-sig-ga-bi ti-{a-dmdhg' 2." RA 9. . .who has no house 10. . . . . . . . . . its brilliant. mri-gun-(ki) dilmun-(ki)hi 3. . . . . CT. . 8.. 292. and forg>dsee $50.he established faithfully for them. I I . In any case. barzi. . . . . . . . . . 11 OBVERSE I . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . 2. [Mi]-gun-(ki)-na an-lag &-enla1 6. . . 'Possibly a loprur rolnmi for KA. . . . 4. . [The tribute?] of the foreign lands unto Nippur may he bring. behold. . May Dilmun. SRP. Drehem 21: L Z G R A ~ N lo: mdz-gix-dzi. 2gii-dti occurs regularly for the act of slaying animals for sacrifice: In the temple gii-66 dzi "he sacrificed. . . "I am beholding. gukkal gii-dzi. me-el-lu a 3. . . gud gii-da. . . . . ' T h e compound verb zi-dhg=bd!u. . . for which we have the variant d-gd-e-dl. . . 1 1 2 1 1 22. . . . . . . . . 2' No. . 1 A. . . T h e . . . 197. l e t him behold.. . Still another variant isd-dl-dhgfor d-go-e-dhg. . . . . Dilmun g. 9. For him [who from the palace of his land] had gone forth. . . . . . . . . .gi-lum me-lug-ga-(ki)-a. . dLg. . . . . .27. . Unto. passim 79.who exalts the pure decrees. . . . .en igi-ge-im-da-a-dug 4. .

I 10. . . . . 2.. The. . Liturgies 1 r 5. . The paragraph 25-40 probably describes Labamu or Damkina. . .. .. 4. . . . . . . ..said to him. COL.. en-ra s'smd-izi. . . . . she has the body of a fish and scales like a [serpent?l.. 17.. 16. CT. . A reading mir-ri(g) is possible. 'ligir-jig2 PA. . .treads. ... Ligirsig. . .a ba iu-ti-a 16. . . gir. 7. . .. . Their wail woefully(?) like the birds of heaven. 15.The. . . here Lahmu and Lahama are father~mothernames of Anu. 3.ne 20. 3 . en-ra mudur alag i u . 20.' For the high-priest upon a ship . .. . In CT. . . 24. . . . . .. . .possesses the far famed decrees. 96.. . . . 42.. . 1 a .gub1 5 . . . .. 7 .. . Cf. . Rm. lugal 2-nu-gub4 a-a den-ki kalamma-[. .. . flood. the Land [. . 1-12. . . . .. . To the high-priest a splendid scepter. . . The king. . Lahama in the abyss a flood .. I 121: I 1 27. . . cf. .STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN L I T U R G I C A L TEXTS 113 14. . . . .. .-md. . see Liturgies. .. . . 4.. . . erida-rane 2 I . . .en an-ki 14. . . 1. . In our passage Lahama clearly represents the ocean. .. . . .. .. . . . . . . .. 23. The [inhabitants] of Sumer z z ..... . They are the fathers of the gods 111 68 and counsel them against Tiamat 1 1 1 125. . ... . .lord of heaven and earth . la-ba-mn=Labamu. . . . . 2 I . 8. .. 20. who stands aloft. .. of the Creation Epic. 6. ... t-gal kalam-ma-na 2-a-[ra]. . . . . .. . p.Lara 19. .. . . . . . . . im-mi-ib-du3-ne 18. is glorified. . or emanations of the first principle Heaven. .dl*. .. 3a{. . . . ..who went forth 19. . 279.. father Enki. . . I I 1 I . ." for girre.. . ... 6. . . la-ka-ma3 engur-ra ?e-bi. . .. 17. .. . . . .. ki-en-gi-ra-gene 22. . .. . .. .. . 5. .. . . ' T h e scribe has obviously written his text erroneausly. . . . the female Lahamu belongs to the dragons of chaos. . 18. .. . g. . . The. . On the other hand. I 5 . As emanations of Heaven they probably represent the ocean and belong to the order of the gods. . ] 8.. Identical with Lahnma. . 5 . . Labmu and Lahamu are the first emanation$ who are called gods. .. 2. mu-nu-ab-bine 23. 14-24 Labmu is described as a sea-serpent and identified with Ea.of Eridu. .] For him who from the palace of his Land had gone forth. 1 1 1 31. . Creat. 89.. ka-ra-e-ne Ren-gum m u i e n an-na . .. . . in which case dingir mirii may perhaps mean "god of the flood.. I . kal-lad? me-ma8 I 7.. ... . female principle of Labmu.

land of Heaven and Earth. Far famed are thy decrees and unchangeable. den-ki-ge nam-im-mi-ib-tar-ri I I. ci. kur-gal a-a den-lil gii-slg4-gim dug-dhg-gi ia-mura-an-gib(ib) a-a kur-kur-ra-ge da-nun-na dingir-gal-gal-e-ne Fag-za ki-ur-ra iu-ba-ni-in-ti-ei z j . zo. Thy high-priest is the lord of the deep. umun-lid ki-an d-tnd-za an-gim iu-nu-te-gd 16. Tag-zu galam ken2 galu nu-paddt I 5. The Anunnakki. 24. sidim. 51 Cf. is employed in the title of Ea dingir idim. 13. I 7." ~gii-i2g=gii-rig=if~i i-fizigoru. well. i j o 22. man has not discovered it. as a name for the district about Nippur. ZA. 22. he turns back for thee the wicked ones(?). the divine king who within thesanctuary of heaven dwells. Like a wall. abyss. 14. Gr. "god o f the deep.i m d u r u n 19. 18. Surpassing abundance in heaven and earth he made. clad upon by a true form. 12. Thy heart is profound. K. As a true form (designed by) earth and heaven thou wast created. In thy great dark chambers they feed."4 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION 9. "Sumer. Offspring of an high-priest whose head is crowned. 21. the deep. father of all lands. from sunrise to sunset teaching the Land decrees.' the great mountain. like heaven intangible. 14. gi-gun-na gal-gal-?a h-mi-ni-ibsh-sh-ne 2I. etc. ie-ir-~i-gdr-rubabbar-2-ta babbarid-ui kulam-e me sum-mu me-~u me-mag iu-nu-tu-tu I 3. the great gods. I I . lugal-zu 20. 4558 11 14. . Sumer is here employed in its original signification. Offspring of a king. 10. ki-en-gi kur-gal ma-da an-ki 12. lugal d-tud ma?-lid key-di 17. 1 8. 22. Bearing a sheen of splendor. 1 9. je-gril an-ki-a pa-2 mu-na-ab-ag lo. > 5 Chapel of Ninlil in Ekur temple of Enlil. 387. 19. 1 1 R. 15. Rev. 23. 16. see Sum. en-zu en idim3 dingir lugal da bara-an-na-ka i . en d-tud sag m e n md-md 18. Thy king is the great mountain father Enlil. Enki issued a decree. Within thee Kenurra5 inhabited.

24. . 25.KL. 12. From the Hekal of Kesh she(?) abides afar. "lord of justice. 3. . I?. This leads t o the inference that our hymn applies t o Aruru of Nippur where she seems t o have been confused with Ninlil. . . 9. . 8. KL. . . 9." ZIM. . da-ru-ru [Er-]Sag3 &mat I-a-nu-ka I. . her glory was far-famed. and Babylon.STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN LITURGICAL TEXTS 115 24. 2. The glory of my lord abides far away. and a t Babylon. . . . Ninlud rir-ra. 5 . ci. in her Emah 6. In KeS where she was chiefly worshipped her temple is called Ur-iabba. Index. 2. en-a' ka-nu-dg-gd-ka bar-ta KUa-m2n lo. Which attains unto her glory. joz where she has the title Ninmah as in CT. . From the "Temple of Fate" she(?) abides afar. &-mamu-lu I-a-mu bar-ta KU-am2n 9.m2n l-e HAR-a d . . . ZIMMERN. 75. . 12. . amaf-fu ie-gar-gar udu-?u-geSdr-Sdr 24. . . thy stable(s) let be built. 13.I-mat I-a-nu-ka 4. 14 ff. . l C f . . 5 . 45 NEARLY COMPLETE LAMENTATION ARURU TO . . A queen thou art. . . . . . Larsa. Aruru sister of Enlil see part I . S A L f KU1-gal dmu-ullil-lri j.in that temple. 7. 2=z5. Enlil e-nc dg-tida-ge.of Emah2 her temple. I 1. . . . . [d-]ma-du-du-bi d-ma-ni mat me-en 7. For Emab a t Nippur and Larsa. . May thy sheepfold(s) be built and thy sheep be fat. . . the new moon thou knowest not. . Aruru procreative womb of Emah. see SBP. . . Cf. Emab appears t o have been applied t o temples of Aruru in Nippur. gu I-bi-Szi I-mat-a-ni-Szi 6. . 'The lord of the Land abides far away. 60 n. . . . . . For 'This text does not distinguish between the sign NIN=beltu and SAL+I<U=abatu. . . . IV p. . 4. . . . . 72. nzn-men ud-nu-fu zti dnanna15 nu-?u men 3. and may thy cattle be many. The glory of the lord of my temple abides far away. 65. 6-gal kej-(ki)-a-ka bar-ta KU-amln 12. . d-ma mu-lu-mu bar-fa KU-am2n 8. The day thou knowest not. . VAB. .4. The house(s) of Sumer. a C ~ n j e c t u r e drestoration from the name of Aruru's temple in Keg. . . see BL. . . I ki-en-gin tzir-3-14je-dE-diidb-?u je-lu-lu 25. I. I-ki-nam-ma-ka bar-fa KU-amln I I . . . BL. . 147. . .thou art. een-e probably refers to Enlil here. her temple. . . g r e a t sister of Enlil.

Like her whose child sleeps they sit. Babbar went but pacified her not. They whom Anu in earth begat' hastened. I 5. T h e sister of Enlil she is. 35. 122. Ninmah4 went but pacified her not. probably refer to the weeping of lnnini for Tammuz. zq8 n. 2378.= 18. 8. da-ru-ru t-a-nu gu-bi-nu-ma-anti 16. den-ki mu-nu-du nu-mu-ni-intug-e 22. ki-a an a-ri-a mu-un-nu-ldg-' ldg-gi-ex 13.CT. ' T h e Anunnaki. They whom Anu in heaven begats hastened. tu-mu-ni-gim nd-a ba-ni-in-dkrru-ne-ei-dm 18. "The ldl. dnannar mu-nu-du nu-mu-ni-intug-e 24. li-121 kur-ri-gdl mu-na-nb-iub. 27." R a o ~ u Mircel. 16 in HirtoriraL and Religious T e d r No. Nannar went but pacified her not. BL.a ba-ni-in-durru-ne-ei-dm I 7. e-ne-m=ana i d h . It designates also Aruru and Gula. 14. e-ne-ra5 da-nu-na mu-un-rta-ldgldg-ti-ei 26. "'The rY-id1 which is in a strange land he occupies. T o Aruru Anu went. Ninlil went but pacified her not. =babbar mu-nu-du nu-mu-ni-intug-e 25. 26. This signhas alsb the value . but pacified her not. an-a an a-ri-a mu-un-nu-ldg-ldggi-ei 27. ' Cf. 25. Like her whose husband slumbers they sit. Enki went but pacified her not. SALfKU dmu-ul-lil-ld nzln ba- ni-in-kui-zl ba-nad 14. II'. a See Sum. 16. A queen she is. a holy place she inhabits. 16. zj.(KING. Enlil went but pacified her not. ru. . Cv.I 16 U N I V E R S I T Y MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION 1 3 . T h e house LAL of the temple she inhabits not. 24. Lines 16 f. dam-a-ni-gim J .) hence we may have here some new value for LAL a "sanctuary. 22. da-ru-ru an mu-nu-du nu-muni-in-tug3-e 19. dnin-mak mu-nu-du nu-mu-niin-tug-e 23. also lhl-e hi-am-ga nnm-mi-indumn. T f . T h i s title applies here to Damkina. 20. 2 . den-lil mu-nu-du nu-mu-ni-intug-e 20. nin-m2n Li-kill t dg-nam-ma-anizi 15. Cf. pages 1 2 f." 24 ' Confusion with EDIN ir hardly t o be assumed in this period. she languishes. dnin-lil mu-nu-du nu-mu-ni-intug-e 2 1 . ' T h e lgigi. she sleeps. Unto her t h e Anunnaki hastened. 21. I 7. Aruru her temple has renounced." Cstpl. 2 8 . 19.

33. Oh. Aruru. sir-mu-naab-bi . or gi-im. VI 5 . . 1 j. t h e heroic ." See note on Dublin Text 1. . Introduction X X l 1 1 T o r this term applied both t o a lyre and a musician. . . . [ma-el]-gimgil-li-em-md ab. Cf.cow words of misery I restrain not. see IV R. I Cf. &-mu I-dub-a-geg NE-im-dnJO 40. t h e man of lamentation laments to thee. 35. . 39. mu-lu er-ri5eriul-tu-nammu uiumga16 mu-lu s'e-DU Ie-DU~u nam-mu da-ru-ru gd-7u mu-lu kzir-ra imme7 da-ru-ru er-zu mu-lu kzir-ra imme NU-NUNUZ-e ie-DU-tu mulu kzir-ra im-me d a-ru-ru an-72-ga nigin-e-bz-en bi-en chants. . 4 1 . 21-3. . 34. . 144. 14. 35. Aruru. . . 29. jjz. For gd-me. h e sings. 4. 40. Oh. . the man of threnody is thy threnodist. . . BL. The inmate of the house of letters implores. 3 7. 36. . . . g and RADAU. SBP. . T f . Gilgamish. 1 1 . 61. . thy songs a stranger utters. da-ru-rut-tzir amas'-a-ge nigin-e39. rei-n-ni ur-sag dgibilgamii. 1 like a . Miice1 17. 9 . woman. Literally. l 0 T h i s verb probably means "to pray. t h e man of weeping is thy sorrowful weeper. . 33. I iri-ab-gi-gi-mu 28. . . 30. . 10.ma mu-lu gzi-de gzi-de-tu nam-mu . Oh. . . SBH.RA. 38. . IV R. I . .NE-du. 27a 32 and for im-mr=ikabbi. 1 5 . implores. As for me like a . 34. . The great uium." " Probably emphatic particle gi-in. . 32. . . Oh. . . "His brother. . . J ' ." 31. 36." 37. t o the stalls and the sheepfolds return. return. i l b jo. jag-NEdu=unninu and Historical and Religious Texts 5 5 . Aruru. um-ma rir-sag-e' sir-mu-na-ra2 29. 3 1. 96. ? C f . see Tammar and Iihlar 1 1 5 n. . 12. . 38. . impiore:' Cf. a Cf. t h a t has fallen on calamity weeping withhold not. The artist the first 30. . . 66. RA. . ma-e-ginnab-al(?)-gim gzi-gig nugd-gd 41. "is thy lamenter. .the man of wailing wails to thee. . . 8 Rev.STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN LITURGICAL TEXTS 'I7 melody 28. "Cf. 32. dumu I-dub-hn=dup-jar. . 8Lines 34-6 probably refer to the conduct of the liturgies in the temples. Oh. BA. thy threnody a stranger utters.Aruru. i s . z. . My. . 2 2 .mu-lu ad-di ad-di-tu4nammu .thy liturgy a stranger utters. C-f. . [. . the seized away.

entirely distinct in origin from the prayers used in incantations. 6. T h e distinction probably consists in the fact that the erl'agtugmal was accompanied by music and liturgical formality. but the reverse continues with a psalm in Semitic. Shamash. that a prayer in an incantation ritual has both titles in 1V R. Several interlinear compositions of this kind are known which of course led us t o suppose that this class of religious literature originated in Sumer. HARPER. 9618 in BL. 124130. however. I 1 5 testifies. Since the erl'agtugmal was properly a penitential psalm of a liturgical character. 21* No. 10. see BE'HRENS. see for example 1V R. Psalms of this kind in pure Sumerian existed in the Assyrian period as K.Letters 437. Note. 5 5 No. Also ZIMMERN.UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION 35 PENITENTIAL PSALM TO THE GOD AMURRU This tablet. an eriagtugmal. 2 Rev.Briefe 97. so that the two groups of private prayers were confused. unfortunately broken in such manner that only the introductory and concluding lines . yields us the first ancient example of a private penitential psalm in pure Sumerian. 5 1 . but hitherto the total absence of material of this kind in early Sumerian supported the contention that perhaps the psalms of private penance were a Semitic creation. In the interlinear redactions of the library of ASurbanipal these compositions have the title er-Zag-tkg-mal. 2 . BL. they were employed also in funeral dirges. No.' This title has not yet been .are preserved. 4795 in GRAY. describes a ritual to accompany KL. or prayers used in incantations. Closely allied to the eriagtugmal are the Su-ila. A penitential psalm in pure Sumerian redacted in the Assyrian period is K. which there clearly belongs to an incantation.

. . . 8... of ii. Adad. 2. 3 . . a-m-[zu. . . who was worshipped in Sirar a quarter of Lagash. . . .a is a title of Ea as god of pottery... r and 66 No.. 5.. 6.... dzngzr gu-ul-gu-ul edm-na edinnu ba-zi-ga dingir edin-na dingir gu-ul-guul edin-na edin-nu ba-ti-ga 3.I ' nun-&-. 72. Amurru 9.. He that directs my limbs. . SBP. . is really a married type. Faithful prince. . . . becomes the father of the irrigation goddess in theological speculation. . . . the great god on the hills. itr-sag dingir-zi-da m2n dAmurru 6. although ZIMMERN in his Busspsalmen included IV R.. .. I . Amurru.. t h o u dost 3. Amurru. the title would probably be rendered muii#?ir meireti-in. . ''R. Supplication... therefore... nunur i n our passage probably represents nunir>nunur= Rammnn ?a nzebri.. . .. .. Amurru. . of battle. I I Raw.. . . .. faithful god thou art.. . He that gave life unto my form. lu. BVar. . on t h e hills.. I. . on the hills advances.. councilor.. ." CT. ..] 2. father of the great queen... The god of the hills... . . . 2...... z . .. dAmurrudingir-zi-da m2n dAmurru 7. a western title of lmmer.. Heroic. 58... a western ba'nl. . 3. di-li-ri-mri-mu d. 29. the rain-god. . 7. 63. who after his identification with lmmer becomes a composite and illogical character. 61 No. . The great god... 4.. .. 284... e-gi zi-di a-ba ga-?a-an gu-la2 r . . .. I. 5 f. in this class of literature. .. 24. 5... . lit e-ri di[m-me-ir-bi la-a-zu-fa mu-un-kur-el .... lord nunur. The man who [ . .4murru 9. bar-bi mu-lu-ga-bi . This western Amurru.STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN LITURGICAL TEXTS 119 found attached to any pure Semitic psalm... *This title designates Nina the water goddess in BL. MAR-TLI. on the hills advances.. Amurru..... .. yea Amurru. .. a faithful god thou art. . If a man has [ . 2 .. a3-dr-sd-sd-mu dAmurru 8. . 41.... dAmurru it-[mu]-unnun-itrl sdmal-ge 4. 57.

. .. . "Give heed t o t h e people. cf. It is enough! T h y mercy is unsearchable. Like a childbearing mother. Cf.. .. . 3 . see ASKT. lines y f.. . . and the Land . . . Cf. . 'it is enough'. ir-gi-in. IV R.I20 U N I V E R S I T Y MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION .. of Zag-dib= kis libbi. . 6 . V A T . . 6. 10. iaf appears to have been omitted. . conquest of Sumer by Gutium. See ol I ) ." let be said (to thee). 8. . I1 .] 6. uam-da-ad8 gu-ud iu-bar-lid9 sagdi-ibLO-?a gi 8. galan-mu e-ri-lu-lh ib-ri ba-nb-dkg. below. l& e-mi-da' [. C ' 5 . like a strong man in thy hand take' m y hand. 122. 7. . May t h y heart like the heart of a childbearing mother return t o its place. . uku-e pad Ri-ni-ib-bi ka-nu-mi tu-su 9. Literally uggolzl molbl. I have regarded iumur as a variant of hgnr=gimiliu. . . 2 7 . T h e sin overlook. Like a mighty hero. ... . ] 4. " 4577 A LAMENTATION ON THE INVASION O F S U M E K Y B OF G U T I U M THE PEOPLE This interesting tablet probably refers to t h e . M a n . for thy servant say unto him. . Also ki=kin=kimn. 2 5 . ] bi la-a[lu-ta ag-a-nil 5 ." also l3L izz. field. 2 7 ~guru=gz*rui=idiu. 14. l o Vai. ie-gim. "Oh my queen. . &P-gu-ud ki-in5 gu-ru6-ki-in iulu-a iu-mu iu-a1 7." moil. and thine anger turn away. Xu-al=iu-iln=kat8 naizi(l). 8 For nnm-fag. . ama du-di a--a du-da-a-ki ki-bi Ra-ma-gi-gi 5 . "it is enough:" a phrase characteristic of penitential psalms. . Vai. Tommu? V 9. 4. 6 1 7 in LA. .n. 202.... Note also the omission of mu in Obv. . roa 34. "the wrath is full. . a people who enjoyed the suzerainty of - Probable variant of nggig. . ib-si2 SU-mu-ra-?u3 mi-ni-SU-ud Zag-lu gi-im-ii-[. 17a 38. I 1. 201. May t h y heart . Su. Gr. like a begetting father return t o its place. . . jag-7u iag-a-ma du-da-ki ki-bi ja-ma-gi-gi 10. IV R. aiaga>aiada. . 5 Forgim >gin > hin=himo. . If a man [has. faithfully remove.

75 n. . ' I. has been annihilated with calamity. .bil. mui-da-ge kidur kenaggd-ni gir-kzir ba-ra-an-dur z. The canal which rejoices the hearts of the cattle waters the fields no more. . ZaggZ wails repeatedly. . . 5 . As for .the city.in. . which has been seized . See for a discussion of this method Babylonian Liturgies. This composition possesses a liturgical refrain a gifgal-gul-la Cgul-la. . my destroyed temple -shall their misery be? 6.. p. .e 5 . . id-b< iag-rug-ga ni-gdl' a-nu-unde . mushda. lo . xlii. 4. T h e Constantinople fragment belongs to column two of a large four-column tablet which probably used an excerpt from this short composition. ( k i ) u r u ba-diba iu-~2%ba-ab-dug . . . a giigal-gul-la 4-guGla-mu gig- ga-bi ni-im-me 6. These two redactions differ considerably. . Both texts belong to the lsin period when the method of constructing long services by compiling from ancient liturgies was already in vogue. nitalam-a-ni dingir n a m . X6g-ga-a er. .. . . which recurs after each section describing the sorrows of some city. . 3-4. . . It evidently represents a numerous series of liturgical compositions which commemorated this great calamity. p. . .bil. . . . .STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN LITURGICAL TEXTS I21 this land for a long period in the interval between the period of the Sargonic dynasty of Agade and Ur-Engur. How long my destroyed habitations. . . . . . . Liturgies. 2. 11.. for a duplicate from the same period has been found in the Nippur collection in Constantinople.. ISee Bab. . . see Historical and Religious Texts No. . a fact which can only be explained by supposing that this liturgy had been handed down for many generations and had passed through many redactions. . . I. . etc. . . his beloved abode the foot of a stranger inhabits. 'lis spouse N a m . 3 .

dmlil-li dur M I ( ? ) . weeps bitterly. and ki-mu-ri. 8. "has been placed outside.. dzil E'iiar-bi gir-gim ba-murmur2 dub-bi sig-gun ba-ab-dzi3 nig-dr-tab-tab an-glr-ge ni numu-ni-ib-te-en-te-en 12. the binder of heaven and earth. p. the land is watered not. from diig to cast and hi to utter. 13. see Sum.122 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION 7. princess of the Land. id den-ki-ge nam-kud-du-gim sag1-bi-a ba-fil 7. 12. a-Fag-ga ie-gn nu-gdl kalam-e nu-nag-e 9. furnace. is the original of the regular farm rag-be. . Historical and Religious Texlr.. The variant has a somewhat different text. As for Ninzu-anna. to heat. . 229. [All of N i p p u r ] . 19. 8. . 9. p. ? 16. The "Canal of Enki. In lsin mercy and salvation arenot: . The domestic animals as many as are four-footed of the. dlugal-(l)-da-ge uru-ni-ta bar-ta ha-da-tzim4 13. Literally. 10. not. [ a giigal-gul-]la L-gzil-la-na gig[a-bi im-me 18. jz. 17." 6 Restored from ZIMMERN. . How long of her destroyed habitations and her destroyed temple shall the misery be? 15. . her beloved abode the foot of stranger entered. 14. d[nin i-]si-in-nu sag-kalam-ma-ge er-gig ni-dug-ga 17. from his city has been taken away. . become heated like an oven and its stores are scattered. The Lady of Isin.. [nigin nippur](ki)-as dur-an-kik a mitta ba-an-sig 19. add is employed as a variant of dhg. 29. < O rgub. K-L. . "nin-zu-an-[nu?] ki-dur kenag-gdni gar-khr ba-ra-an-dzir I I. I I . Lugal-7-da-ge. a giigal-gul-la 6-gul-la-na gig-gabi im-me I 5. 199 11 5 1 . 14. . Cr.] in his city Nippur a deluge was sent. The garden cellars are. . boil. How long of her destroyed habitations and her destroyed temple shall the misery be? 18. [igi den-lil-li] uru-ni nippur(ki-)a ela ba-ah-gar 1 rag-bi=mnmit. . is brought to nought. by the death dealing weapon is smitten. .. The four-footed animals of the plains repose not. For the root mur. In the fields rain is not. The god. . [Before Enlil." like a malediction by a curse. i-si-in-(ki) nigin kar-ri nu-me-a a-e KU-e-DAR 16.

Gutium rebelled in his heart and exalted his race. 4-an-[nu]ti gd-pdr apg-ga erim-e igi i-ni-in-bar 3 I . . adds izi. . 3 1 . which is necessary to the sense. . . 2 1 . . see hum. zlnzl. . son 65.abthm 34.. How long of her destroyed habitations and her destroyed temple shall the misery be? 28. . .. This line is omitted on the variant. . . [gd-pdrlazag nam-en-na:ba iuba-e-71al-1d 32. omits. . abode of the "Dark Chamber. and VR. p. . . Eanna. . Adab-bu-(hi) t id-bil-ld a-ri a-e ba-da-ab-dim 24. .. . edin-na-apg-ga iulil-ld-ba-ab-dug 29. . seeSurn.in the holy plain he has razed like the wind. . $ ~ j z . Cr. . 32. ." the foe beheld. erim-e ba.. . . [a] giigal-gul-la t-gul-la-nu gigga-bi-im2 [Kei-](ki)an-edin-nu-di du-a ?ulil-ld. [ama d]nin-lil nin ki-zir-ra-[gel 20. . . ".ba. . 35 note 6. .ab."". . . .dzig 30. 22. read bo-la-lal. . . .of lnnini is plundered and cursed. Nintud because of his deeds weeps bitterly. 27.dzig 23. . weeps sorrowfully. a Var. Of theholy "Dark Chamber" the priestly rites are suspended. Gu-ti-[um-ki]-Sag-ba ni-bal-bal numun(!) ba-ni-ib-i-i 26. dinnind ba-da-an-kar ki-erim-es ba.. KeS which is built on the plain he has razed like the winds. .STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN LITURGICAL TEXTS 123 zo. 23. Hirloriinl and Religious Texts. I-lostile Gutium made there his resting place.? 24. For Iu-lal. 34. Var. . to bind. 30. . . 29. 25. 26.a-gi Mother Ninlil. How long of her destroyed habitations and her destroyed temple shall the misery be? Var. Gr. How long of her destroyed habitations and her destroyed temple shall the misery be.from the "Dark Chamber" has been plundered. mistress of Kiurra. the stranger wreaked destruction. 33. abstracts formed with pretcxed k t .. . er-gig ni-it?-ibSL 2 1 .. In Adab the temple placed by the new canal. . v. 28. . . .the foe carried away.. ' e is evidently not an indication of the second person here but ~roducesthe effect of an umlaut on the vowel a. . .. dnin-tud-ri nig-dim-dim-ma-ni3 . k i r Gzr-ti-um-ge ki-nad ha-ni-ibgar ki-bal iu-ba-ab-dhg 22. p. .ge-par-za oa-da-an-kar 33. . 7 1. restrain.ab." er-gig-nz-ses-ses 2 7 a4 giigal-gul-la I-gul-la-nuS gigga-bi-im-me 25. mu. [a gixgall-gul-la I-gul-la-nu gigga-bi im-me The variant has er-gig mu-un-iii-ili. 18. .

q8 1. I 1 14 and 16 the companion of Gilgamish is mentioned (en-gi-du(g)).is seized light in darkness is overwhelmed. 4564 Rev. 196 1 7. 14. 196 11 21 . . 196 Rev. 2-an-na occurs in KL. in VAT." abd kilalldn ( i r i PI. "his brother. Although the dealer who sold the Berlin tablet asserted Dilbat as the source. published by ZIMMERN his Kultlieder No. 5 5 are the only parts yet recovered of a series of Sumerian tablets containing the legend of Gilgamish. 6 2 8 1 . yet it is more likely that this tablet was filched from the excavations of Nippur. 11 17. 196 should be assigned to the same source. Obv. . "To his king praise he uttered. alag d i m h i occurs in Historical and Religious Texts No. 171. 16. .' As in the Semitic epic of Gilgamish so also in these three tablets the city Erech and its goddess lnnini are frequently mentioned. (ki)lum-kur-ba-ba-dib u d gigga ha-e-ri(g) 35.). see HAUFT. p. [In Erech?] its. . 24. I t is probable that a similar double column and nearly complete text in Berlin. 5 5 . . In KL. . 16. 196 Rev. These were certainly excavated a t Nippur. This fragment together with one in the Nippur Collection of Constantinople published in my Historical and Religious Texts No. 4 5 6 4 ." KL. and lugala-ni-ir dCibilgamii g&-mu-un-du "(Enkidu) to his king Gilgamish spoke. T h e temple of Innini in Erech. Nimrodepoi.124 U N I V E R S I T Y MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION 3 5 ." Ni. KL. . Ni. ' T h e Semitic epic of Gilgamish calls them "brothers. and the Constantinople tablet begins seS-a-ni. T h e style of all three texts and their epigraphy show that they belong together. Note also lugal-a-ni-ir lag-sal mu-nu-bi." which clearly refers to Enkidu.

mu-ui-kin-ti kn-nag-gd. On the city wall. "the skilled work(?)of the land. 25. the lofty wall she(?) s t o ~ d . T h e great gods their decrees had instituted.S T E P H E N LANGDON-SUMERIAN LITURGICAL T E X T S 125 I am unable to make a connected translation of any of these tablets although many lines are intelligible. Cilgamish Epic. . will enable us to translate these obscure lines and place in our hands the Sumerian prototype of the Gilgamish Epic. VI 174." Cf. however. Gilgamish the lord of Hallab 7'0 their strong men cried. 35. 'Applied to a temple(?) in SBH. 15-18of Ni. 'My strong men behold!' " I cannot discover in any of these tablets a reference to the fight of Gilgamish and Enkidu with the divine bull. Additional material. " ~ And Reverse 9-1 3 : unug-(ki)-gadim-ma-bi ba-sug dgi-bil-ga-miS en Hallab-ge3 ur-sag-bi-ne-ir git-mu-na-de-e ur-sag-mu-ne igi-mu-un-sui-sud-it-ne "In Erech his work was confounded. Same title Obv. gq. 4564 may be rendered: Obverse unug-(ki) giS-kin-ti1 dingir-ri-e-ne-ge t-an-na t-an-ta 2-ne dingir-gal-gal-e-ne me-bi ba-an-ag-ei-dm bdd-gal bdd-an-ni ki-us-sa "In Erech the skillfully made work of the gods. From Eanna the lofty house they went forth.

as in the case of Hammurapi.UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION Right half of a large tablet originally containing six columns and about 240 lines. The 'THUREAU-DANGIN. IV 16. 1V the king makes a pathetic reference to his wife. Col. his conquest of seven strange lands and the tribute that flowed to his capitol. I 1 1 begins an interesting section continued for about eighty lines on the offerings made by the king to various gods and goddesses. See also CLAY. Nippur. since it throws some light upon the events which led up to the founding of the dynasty of Ur. Larsa. a clay peg from Lagash. At the end of Col. Kesh. The founder of this dynasty has left us no other important literary documents. I 1 the poem mentions the king's expeditions unto unknown lands. The second column of this hymn continues a panegyric on the character of the king. The longest of his previously known inscriptions. A hymn t o Ur-Engur and of historical importance. 16. a subject which certainly filled up the whole of the first column. Beginning with line 24 of Col. mentions extensive irrigation works and the institution of righteous laws for the empire which. Rev. .' These merely mention the building of temples in Ur. The references to the god Gilgamish as "his brotherm2for whom weeping is ordered and as the beloved of the queen of Arallu3 afford indispensable material for the history of the Tammuz cult. for the few inscriptions hitherto known concerning this king are too brief to be considered important. Erech. 186SAK. No. Mircel. the king promulgated under the guidance of Shamash the sun-god.

% u r . . . . 2. . . Ur-Engur never received the honor of deification in his lifetime. . The fact that his successors did not elevate Ur-Engur to this rank and build a temple t o his cult tends to prove that the divinity of kings depended upon a sacrament of some kind administered t o the living king. . T h e others are wearisome laudations composed for public worship. . . Ur-'Enguy I-ka-ra. . . . i n his palace he lies. .. Dungi himself does not appear to have received this title until he had reigned many years. or to Ishme-Dagan in this volume. however.' T h e unecclesiastical spirit of this hymn to him accords with the other historical facts which we know concerning the evolution of emperor worship in the dynasty of Ur. V refer to the institution of righteousness in the land and the banishment of sin. .~ i n .It is curious indeed that the founder of this dynasty and father of the second king Dungi did not receive divine honors. 4 and 5. awe Ur-Engur. . 4563. Ni.STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN LIlURGlCAL T E X T S 127 fragmentary lines of Col. -1% . . Evidently this practice and religious theory had not been adopted in the reign of the iirst king. . . After Dungi the kings of U r receive this title immediately upon accession to the throne. . . ni-te I. . Only in this hymn to him do we gather many facts of profane history. he will discover a t once the immense change which came into the royal panegyrics after the reign of Ur-Engur. . d ~ i m i l . . z . . 4562 which. I. . neither did his successors found a cult to him.s i n . . I . t-gal-a-na ni-nad . is a real liturgical composition to a king who had been deified. . Nos. In material structure this six column text resembles the six column tablet No. If the reader will compare the liturgical hymns to Dungi published in my Historical and Religious Texts. Religious ideas which controlled this cult of emperor worship prevented the elevation of a dead king to the rank of a god. ' A tablet in the Rodleian Library dated in the first year of "bi-sin mentions offerings to the cults of his divine predecessors. 29 No. or the long liturgy to Bur-Sin and Gimil-Sin in I ~ A D A UBE. * ~ u n g i .

like. . . . . . . .. . his understanding is changed 17. ra-gim im-ma-sud megim-bi . . . . . 8. the royal house: probably in SBP. . . . . . 8. . la(?)lzi nu-p4-A-ne i-im-bal-bale-ne 18.of Ur-Engur like one that drinks milk they bestowed.. that day was not. . . . . . 19. 5 . . .p fa-dm-(id-gid. . . . . . . . . . .. . Their. . 13. . . . . U R U LU-da-. . . . . . 17. . 12. .they altered. . like. . 9. . . . . . a-ni-da dam-a-ni-gim. . 6. I I I 179. 'See Bnb. . .his. . . .. I 3. . 11.iag-gi iunu-gid i-im-me 5. . 14. a-ni da-nun-na-ge-ne kuiim-ma-an-[?] 14. M l m . 1 % . . 14.ra ni-nad gi?-lal-bi im-gub leg-sag3 gim.which he loves. like. . . . ." where dlm refers to Tammuz. dim-ma-ru ki-nx-un-gam a m n i . . .-sal-la Ur-dEngur ga-gar-gim a-ba-ni-in-ru-a! 19. !ar a-gim I-gal. p. . . .I 28 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION 3. .. For dim in the sense of "king. . . . thy sheepioldr are demolished. . .. . . . . .. . .. Hirtori~aland R~ligiourTexts.. . whose limbs. . 292. . . . . 18. . ." see SBP. . .raging. . .. 7. lo. .dC ki-ba-lig-gd-bi igi-gdl-bi ba-kzir 17. . . I5.. . . . . I n . .na -(u mu-ni-in-. . . . . . . 7. . is long. . .. . . . . . . . .he lies. . . .thou standest. 9. . . . .dEml-e kenag-md gzi-nu-mu-ungi-gi(sic!) 4. .. . . . .szir-ba RU-TE 3. . ..m a . . 12. 16. [nlad? nitailam a-ni. . . . turns not back the breast. . the bridal chamberz he occupies. . . . thou art. . The lord. 'The sign is perhaps ba. . . . . 1d I I . whose thoughts are unattainable. . 4. . 6. .a-dzig-ga-izi teg . . 14 ' REC. =go. . . . . . . . .laba-gdl 16. . . . my beloved. . . 19'3. 277. . ..ceases not. . . . see for this form PSBA. a-ni im-bdr-gid-da-gim gal-bi im-ii-cub 20. .. 10. . .nu-gd-gd-a nig. ba-e-gub nd-bi la-ba-niib-si 15. . 20. 1 5 . "thy lord is not reverenced. Cf. grandly he mounted. . .ga-ni DI-mu-dii G I B I L KUS a-la-nu-ba. nig-dug-ga la-ba-an-lag-gi Iu-gib-ba . .

captures!' . &Thisterm appears to coincide with Sumer here. .in a place which was unknown his ships were known. Those whom he plundered followed with him in tears.k i nu-zu-nu '"md-bi ba-daab-p3 26.of the Land rebelled. .da. . .." probably an adjective for cedar. . . .was severed. 30 No. . . . a The text has rzc clearly. a tree god. The chariot was overthrown. . Oars of cedar5 its wealth to Cuedinqrought 28. '"ititerally. . . . z . 25. ." 8According to I 1 R. 10.was made. . . 27. p. a kind of garment." ZIM. . . 2 C f . . '99 11 43.e 2I. a t that time brought with him the gifts of KiS(?) 31. . 22. . 3 1 5 . . See Sum. v. CT. ni-l@-eF-a2 er-mu-da-ab.STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN LITURGICAL TEXTS 129 Ur-dEngur me li-e-a' nam-mu . . . . potash. . RTC. [Gu-edin-]nu dub-ba-da-ab-dzig bal-bi ba-tar 29. . SBH. 5 and SBP. . . . and employed also in the divine name Nin-gii-ti-da. . it was heaped up. . gi-mu1 gii-?i Re-gdl-la-bi gzi-edin baabdu 28. .. 65. . 54. 23..S U (with or without determinative t&l) ordinarily means tabiu. . 8. 3 and 35. SAK. k i sak-ki kalam-ma-iu 23. . . .. . .US. . . . . 3 . * T h e foreign expeditions of this king are referred to in a date formula of his reign. Literally. . . ." THUREAU-DANGIN.ii A-SU7ba-da-gar saiar-iei- a8 ba-tzim 30. .he was hurled down. . kalam-ma-ge ba-da-bal u r kalam-ma ba-kzir 21. [dingir-Inin-sun enim-dug-li-na ba-da-du 24. cf. . . . 32. For ta passive. . ' A . . . idranu. . ~ ~~~. . 32." "Su-nigin occurs as a verb also in KL. . Gr. 22. "route. . 228d). 14. In Cuedin(?)..ab. 29. . 5." 26. . . .. but he was not captured. Tammzt? and Irhtor 7 n. . in lessive was washed (?) 30. the expedition'" was annihilated. Ninsun with comforting words walked with him. 24. 25. The sign A is written min="two. . . - - . z. . KL. 33. . . "it gathers. . but it is probably to be regarded as an error. . . . "let it be proclaimed. . . and its exchange value was fixed. §zoo and ta-ma-ta-d&g. ?e-[?I ba. "faithful wood. 19. BL. "Year when Ur-Eneur the kine from beiow to above directed his footsteos. 221 Rev. the foe showed himself hostile t o the Land. . 'anahuarmmnznr. ud-da-ba r u K i i ( k i ) mu-un-di-ni-ib-tzim 3 1. . . .far 27. . Iumu-zm-nipin-e. Ur-Engur! I will praise. .

. . 98 n. ge 4 1 . . ." Sic without determinative ddg. 36. . ur-'engur nidab-kur-ra-ge gii-imma-ab-fag-gi 3. Ur-Engur freewill offerings of the mountains brought as sacrifice. '8 and SBH. Nip. . 39. . mountainlike might. . . . I. . excellence.whom he slew . a t thy name terror in the land of the stranger produced. galu nig-gal-gal-la=% rapati i a atrilli. . . .of the mountain. . . . .a 37. a r u ~ d m a-kur-ra ziru-nudm 42. . nig-gal-gal-la3 ba-ii-in-dzirru-ne-es' 41. gud-dh mdi-dzi udu-ieg en-na-abdu-du-a 4. . t h e expedition was annihilated. ~ - For ki-el For kum. .Eiiginar ba-da-iui iar-ra-an im-ma-da-sag iu-nu-um-manigin 34. .130 34. k u r l r a imin-bi nig-ba ba-ab-summu 36. md-ab-kum-e2 u d u . (?) mu-un-~u-ui kur-ra lap a d g mu-un-gar 39. 35. 2. . e a t . 37. . . j. . . . . 86.a sword with sharp edge. 4. . 40. . . . T h e seven foreign lands gave presents. . ' 'Cf 6-kzr-ra. . BL. . 38." Voc. a Cf. ba-dig-gi-eS. SBP.im-maab-Sar-ri 40. ." v. . . "he of greatness. Sleek oxen. . . . . 43. . . fat sheep. . . lugal-e nidab-kur-ra-ge ma-ab-fag-gi gii-im- 2. I. 4577. . . Hittite. An high priesf he is. . . . Cf. 28 n. Fag-ga-ni mu-un-ru 35. . . "boomerang. . jg. gii-kdk-dig6 gii-s'ir-gal"-mar-nr* gii-kak-Sir gir-ka-sil T h e king freewill offerings of the mountains brought as sacrifice. . A "death dealing weapon" of marble. a quiver. .his heart knows.4 a n high priest he is. sleek kids. . a n kur. a KAKSIR. . UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION . . . "sickle. . the sheep become fat. nin-dingir-dig-ga gi-e1 ba-dab-ba $3." or mittu. The Semitic rendering is oplubtu.t h e chariot was overthrown. . "to eat. . I . but he was not captured. .ra43. . 42. . . . . . 3. . . . priestess of the dead o n fhe earth caused to repose. . . 2. I n . t h e y dwell. j. as many as he had brought. . . 7455.

16. 20. The shepherd Ur-Engur in his palace offered. . The shepherd Ur-Engur in his palaceZoffered. I I . 6. 24. . L U . .garment. . . mi-ib-an-na-ge ug-gim kur-izi dag-gar-ra-a. . 15. 19. ur-sag-gd. . No. . . . . dnin-(3). p. im-ma-ab-tag-gi 8. the title "lord of the mountain" refers also to the underworld. 19. Cyl. of the temple that glorifies the decrees of the world.. . A pure staff. . . . . . EBELING. dnI-unu-gal den-lil kur-ra- ra 7. .kur-ra 16. . . Cf. . . . . . . . . . 8. .. . . . '3ULU-KU=lubba. . . .a-bara 17. . 9. occurs in the preceding line. . . . . So. . 33. Surudu? Cf. . . . . . la-TUL-gid tzig-namnin' nam-nin-a I 5. panther of Anu. .. A bow. IV Raw.beloved of Erishkigal. . 80. . . A . roars against the strange land. . Rev. t l d i k bdldtim. . . iu zagin 20. to Nergal. . POEBEL. . . . . gi?-gid-da kui-lu-zib-kalag(?)sim2-a i-mi-ib-ug3-an-na3 9." Cud. . . . . . Cf. . . . see H n o z ~ u Ninrag p. . . . . en-nu. . .] 18. BL.. A copper(?)-KE~DA. . t h a t treads the. . . ~ib[ur-~engur-ge I-gal-la-na giiim-ma-ab-tag-ti] 18. 3 ki-us-sa d namlo.S U M E R I A N LITURGICAL TEXTS I?' 6. [. PBS. . .smiter of battle. A long. pa alag-pi. . KTA. strength of heroism.STEPHEN L A N G D O N . . probably not "temple. . . . . . tzig. Gilgamish. .into which oil is poured. . T U M S I L [I]-Ra-da-gar kenag derii-ki-gal-la dgibil-ga-mes lugal-kur-rage sib ur-dengur-ge I-gal-la-nu gi?im-ma-ah-tag-gi 13. gii-keida a cult utensil. sib ur-dengur-ge I-gal-a-na gi?. .. . . 17. . 16. .~ 12. . I mi-dalla me. the Enlil of the mountains 7. . . . 14. . .. The shepherd [Ur-Engur in his palace offered." see Ex$oiitory Timer X X 457. Biknz-ma=iziluhu. . 5]-kei-da id ba-ni-in-de-a bur-?agan6 iu-dzi-a 14. lo. . variegated leather pouch which." for the royalty. . .. lo. 12. . 'Since Erishkigal.lazuli.. a well-made stone ointment bowl. . a "royal garment. . . . the imib-weapon. V 154 V 6 f. . queen of the underworld. . . . 20. 4 Obv. . . . 18. . ddumu-zi-tzim-ma kenag dinxixira which is worthy of Tammuz8 the beloved of lnnini. . Unto Nin-sun. T o . 38b 14. . No. . . like a lion. 5. . . B 7. 14. 13. lord of the mountaii~. . . . I I. . . "The weapon Mi-ib of Anu which. . 2b 3.

is only another form of the goddess who holds the tablet on which the hour of death for each man was written. that which is appropriate to the gods. Ur-Engur. . . laid by the mother goddess upon man and executed by her herald the "God of Fate. who is the messenger of this same Allatu or Eriikigal. CT.covered(?). whose wood. . VI 209 n. . B. gir-zir dar-dar. consort of the god of fates. 5=z5." keido-orag is a title of Arallu in CT. . Of pure porphyry.with golden. . . 34. In her later evolution this duty of keeping the roll of fate fell t o the inferior deity RuSbiSag or more frequently to Nidaba or Geitinanna when she became the patroness of letters. zq. in his palace offered. 215. . A beautiful gilsa. j. ibid. 31. . For Neigal as scrutinizer of the dead. 6. . gii-keida-alae dig-gug-tag-ga gii-bi gu-?-sal-a 28. . . 24. CT. T o Namtar lord of fates. 2 5 . Nin-geitin-na. Choix 214. The goddess Mar-urulal-an-ki ad-gi-gi (ndi nbubi jam2 u irsitim miilikntu).t-gal-a-na gii~e im-ma-ab-tag-gi 30. . 95. . The shepherd. The shepherd.~ e n g uL-gal-a-na gii-imr ma-ab-tag-gi 2 2 .95. . 5. z7b 29. gil-sa' s'u-dzi-a kLi-Za?ag-gi mriguy-bi sul-lag-ga 2 3 . a title of the mother goddess Innini. a name ior Allatu is the mother of the god of fate Namtar. gir k i gir-ug . SAK. . A Keida-azag fashioned of porphyry.. . 16. . 32. The shepherd Ur-Engur in his palace offered. identified with the western mother goddess b11it rEri (and related to the grain goddess Nidaba). a sacred K E S ( ? ) whose skiff.132 21. . A wagon. . CT. dub-bas lagin. T o RuibiSag. T h e title dupiarrot aralli (scribe of Arallu). see Tammu? and Irhtor 1 5 . . 30. For Nidaba as the scribe who holds a tablet and knows the secrets of the stars and all wisdom. 5. 25. . 48 V 14. . 29. fates prohably reiers to the summons to die passed on the living b the lord and queen of Arallu (Nergal and Allatu). For ru-lag-gn cf. . vine goddess. dig-gug-slag nig-dzi dingir-ri-ene 24. of the nether world as she who possesses the tablet of A tendency to regard the v . . . d. . . .~ e n ~ u r b-gal-a-na gii-imma-ab-tag-gi 2 6 . in his palace offered. is employed of types of the queen of the land of the dead. . 28. gii-gar s'u-?.of the fate of Arallu. hence he is a pest god. Namtar in probably the herald whom the queen of Arallu rends forth to cause men to die and bring them to her realm. 16.~ e n g u r . This function originally belonged to the great mother goddess. . dRui-bi-ihg d a m dnam-tar-ra-ra 29.in-[no]-nn-na. 3 2 . 4. . . 47. 3 I . 'gil-ra reiers t o a definite object here as in Gud. A tablet of lazuli. UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN 21. 27. DHORME. 3 I = 24. 8. 34. Probable value of REC. . f. . IV R. . . atag-gi-ta ri(l)-a 27. 32.nam-irigal-a-ge 22. 'The goddess Rujbi?ag his consort.29. 3. dnam-tar galu nam-tar-tar-ra-ra 2 5 . SECTION sib ~ r . . 23. . 76. Ur-Engur.. T h e main fact to be emphasized is the theory of the divine summons t o die. especially in her capacity as queen of the land of the dead. see Rab. rib ~ r . sib ~ r . 26.

. . gi-dub-ba rig-bar-ra nig-namdub-iar-ra-ge 41. 2. variant of Bn. . we have g i CAR (ninda)-na=ko-an [nindanakul. For Nannar sacred disks to stand a t his side. . . . tz.. To the shepherd. . KAK-US. 39. . of marble. A S A R . .D A of gold and silver. . (ms-un-iu-ub). 3. . . 4.STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN LITURGICAL TEXTS I33 33. tzig-sakkad gii-pituk-mag-galu-7u gi3-Fir-gal 40. d u b . IZO. . . . . 2. . .ra l i . 36. 41. syn. Evidently some distinction exists between these words.-a-bi 4. . and equals twelve cubits or between five and six JA. 79.. 3. .. . . . . . . . a badarnna=hol-tar-ri (or pa-tar-ri?). . who . For the full form PA+USAN see also D j ~ V 14. . 39. . . . 2. . 40. . . 7 .. p. and RTC. 47 1 1 1 25. 97. CT. VR. . 1909.. . Miicel. . dnannar a?-me-alag-gi lag-ga-na gub-bu-dt. 33. 43 I. . The mighty. 2 1 =PI.. .. p. sword. "reed one ninda long. .. . . which is exceedingly brilliant. i j as the full form of USAN (ru-ub)=ri-e-urn. ? -gun-?kur gi-dii-nindd3. . . . . . . . BL. . WEISBBACN. a-ni nin. . .. . A headdress for the great sage. LX1 1 6 and ASKT. . . 37. 76 1 3. 35. 1558.da 35. . means a reed yards. . the pastor. . ddg-dub-lagin ba-da-ra-ni2 ld-a 37. . 43. . 34. . border.. 4658 (nindo)=itla. . . n a ? a b . . . . see THUREAU-DANGIN. . . . the learned. sib munsub' a34. . 1654. ... . d u n ur-sag u3-e dnin-gii-Zi. . the valiant NingiSzida. I. measure 12 cubits long. . a rod measuring reed ( m a d e o f . . . . SAI. . . SCAR when employed as a standard of linear measure has probably the value ninda. polru. SAR-DI-da guSkin kubabbar sagbi rui-ma 38. side. 42. . . Our text has kan iMen nindanoku. 30. .. . . sib ur-'engur-ge t-gal-a-na gi3im-ma-ab-tag-gi 36." SAI. ." which verifies Meisnner's restoration. The shepherd Ur-Engur in his palace offered. For the usual gi-ninda-gan= kan nindanaku. b 1 PA+USAN is given in CT. . sib and muniub are both rendered by re'u shepherd which maker their conjunction here inexplicable. . . . 38. . . A tablet of lazuli attached to a handle. or USAN l ' . .D I . . Hence the word kon nindanaku. . instrument of the art of writing. . . . . . A stylus of bronze. "reed of the side of a field. 43. Note also [gi-BAR-NINDA]=knn[miiil nindnnakil or a reed % nirzdn long. . . 32. . where it forms a proper name. . . . XI.) 42. .

. lo.. Ur-Engur t o their place. . . n u mu-z~n-. . m e n as many as. . the. . . . . See Tammu? and lihiar 40. By the injunctions of Ereshkigal. . ur. . fhe shepherd. We expect here a reference to the perishing of Gilgamish. . 15.] of. . directed. . . . I 2. the. My king the lamentations of Sumer. lugal-mu i-si-ii ki-en-gi-ra-ge sd-nam-bi mu-ni-ib-dzig 20. . 20. When the seventh day and the tenth dawned. . 6.. The foreign lands which paid h i m obeisance he directed. h e directed 9. .a I 4. 5 5 I. That one.d engur-ra-ge en-nu-ha. . . [Ur-Engur.i m i n ud-u-dm ha-as' k u r . 2 1 . . The wicked men as many as . . . 16. u d . . erim giZ-KU[? ?I 5. 7. es'. . .engur ki-hi-Fzi. . . . . Ur-Engur the lamentations of Sumer. an ancient king who died for his ~ m p l in the r6le of Tammuz. 31 NO. . [ ~ r . ur. ] of the lands directed. . . . . [sib(?). . them. e a T h e scribe seems t o have omitted a line here referring t o the rebuilding of the wall and palace of Ur. im-ma-absum-mu-ne d 1 5 . . . . lufal-la Zu-ni-izi . 13. ~ 18. . [ B y the command. RE. I . u7-nengur i-si-ii ki-en-gi-ra-ge sd-nam-bi mu-ni-ib-dzig 21. .. v. . . LCf. . Ur-Engur who. . The wall of Ur which had become old. galu nam-tag-ga en-na-ba. bad uri-(ki)-ma mu-un-fil-la-ni 22. The palace which b y fire was . .. . . .~ E n g sib(?)]kur-ra-ge si-btur in-sba-la 7. . 22.commanded. 12. . .commanded.m n i bar-ri ba-zal-la-ba 19.the lands pacified.. . . .. kur-ra k i . 8. . 19. Whom into the hand of the king they gave. I I .134 U N I V E R S I T Y MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION 5. 17. . 2 . [By the command of the lord] of Arallu he directed. . . . rendered judgment f o r h i ~ l a n d . 6-gal-izi-na mu-un-l-ni. . mu-na-mi-md bd 9. 14. . sd-kur-ra-ni-dh e-ne 18. . . ] of the lands directed.? -la 13.and was seen n o more. For his beloved brother Gilgamish.urugal-la-ge b i mu-ni-ib-tzig-u bt lo. .]kur-ra-ge si-bt-in-sda-fa 6. . who t o bless his land. [ T h e shepherd t h e . . .

T o the Anunnaki whom with riches I have glorified.. . ... an-ki mal-la-ba e-du-la mu-la ba- ni-ib-sCd3-di 34. 1 34.. a m I.. t h e gunufied form of this sign with values 5 x 2 . ...ne-izi IM-an-ta-dm-md gim 38.. da-[nun-na-]ge-nege-gdl-la pa- made. 208 dag 2. favorable omen.. ta bCin-aga-ni 24. ... 23. .. .. T h e shepherd whose home by . 34.. . Cyl. A .. .. .. . 33. whatsoever (was revealed t o me) by favorable omen this I made beautiful like heaven for them. dam-a-ni 25. J . As for me whatsoever I have 30. . 27. . 29. t h e part of t h e bed on which t h e ~ i e e p e reposed.. .. .one 25.. md-e nil ne-e and lament in f e a r . . iud=maidbu.. 26. 9.. . .. . 6 1 1 1 : KING. .. (. . . . 36... 61. .. . . 26. 26a 1 5 and sub. . 28. . . 1 . .. sib-bk 6-a-ni.nu-muun-gi-a-ni dumu-ni da-ba-na li-be-in-pefa-ni . lo. . 32... mu-ne-2-a-ni 32. ... . B. 3 1 .. . . . Obv. la inubha Cf. dng.. . i For R = i u d . 35 No. All there roots sug.. 26.. .. iub have t h e meaning shine.. gij-nad h-lagin' dig-ga-ba gilsa mu-ne-gar-ra-mu 33. 79. wailing . Whose son grew not up on his knees. da-du-d nu-tzig-md-abdim-ma-ni-ti1 37. .. ha- aga-a-mu 29... T h e faithful shepherd. see IV Raw. lud. . had not restored.. dingir-ri-e-ne-ir mu-ne-gub-bu- nam ?-zir mu-ne-gdl 31. . h a d been plundered(?). I 1 R. 37..fa-e-asig uri-(ki)-ma-SkZunu-um-ma-nigin" 'Cf. 30. LIH. For obrig-zdb.. see Sunz. da-gub-ba DI-a-mi-a-na Su-ba-ni-fi 36. . T o the gods verily I erected.. me-en nig-abrig-s'dg-ga4-nzu an-gim mu-ne-xu-ud 35.. .. Cud.. rud. 27. 9. RA. . and ... ... dr-ra-nu. with a covering like the stars I made bright. cf. 28.. 8: 17. Whose wife to his bosom. sib-lid i-lu nig-me-gar ni-te-na 24.r. Like heaven and earth constructed. .. sub. 38. .S T E P H E N LANGDON-SUMERIAN LITURGICAL TEXTS '35 23. A bed of lazuli whose couchZ with a precious work I constructed. .. 35. ..

te ana-ge gi-gi en kalama gi-en-gi-ir-(ki)dug-ga 3." P C f . . . 52 n. . im-ma-ni-in-si-ig enim iunu-mu-un-di-ni-ib-gi 15. . . . .1 3 ~ U N I V E R S I T Y MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION 39. . . . . . . . Of my faithful wife whom I had known. . . . . of heaven. speakest. . . 5 . 17. . . nu-ub-ltc. . . . I j. . . . . 7. I I . 12. . . .fixed and revoked not? I. . . p. . . .' 40. . . . .not. . me ni-te-nu.upon his head not did he I I. ... . . 70. . . . . . . the merciful(?). The heart of bitter sorrow I made glad. . . . . . . . . 3 . . . . . . ro.. . . . . Whom Enlil as the everlasting shepherd of the Land [did choose?l I. "he knew . . f.. .. 5. dhg. I 'For 7u in the same sense. see PBS. . .. 14. .. . . 4. . . (Her) heart of bitter sorrows I made glad..en ddi-im-iirKU-ta nu-nn- 7. . . . . . the lord Sin. . . . na-ge d-mag-a-ni sag-gd-na li-be-in-gi-en 12... . . . imi-sur-ra ba-ra-ab-jig giiur nu-mu-id&?). 2. . Who causest his devastation to befall the foreign land.idg-ga-ni bar-ta ba-da-gub lo. 2.. . . . .his mighty arm upon his head not did he lay. rid giflam-mu mu-un-?u-dm 40. X pt. . idg-ga-ni sag-gd-na li-bk-in. . . 9. . . .nun-ki-ga-ge ba-ra ba-ra-taan-) 1 4 . den-lil sib da-ri kalam-ma. . 8. but of animals.. Who fearful decrees.of Eridu caused t o go far away. . SAK.. . .. iL-Ti-in-tu-ra-l 8. . 13. .THUREAU-DANGIN. .stood aside. . . Lord who makest glad the land of Sumer. . . . . [Tag? a-nir] nig-gig-ga-a nd-mini-ib-~al-7aGe 9. . . . ri . [Fag?]a-nir nig-gig-ga-a ud-mini-ib-zal-ral-e 39. . . siL-un siL-un-nu-ni kur-ra dib-dib- bi 4. . . not. . . .

19. Zi-il-la4 t(?)igi-h-ni-in-dt gZi d? Z-de-de 14. ' .. 4 1 . . en azagl sb-bi-ga-nu.~ 13. . . lord of wailing. . 6. mu-1% ad-di a d . . . . . . 8. Oh divine Dungi king of Ur thou art. On that day melody befitting a king. ga. . . The army. . mu-je-gbl-la thb-bi ? ? -da 20. When he turns his regard he speaks faithfully. . Oh magnified one the temple behold ! give command ! 14. . . I 5 . BA.. . . . .d i . bglu kamonu. . . IV R. . ddun-gi lugal uri-ma me-en 7. mulu ad-dn-ge= btl niirdti. . For the root ad.. T h i s tittle of Ninurash an god of the planet Saturn occurs in other texts only in the late period. . . . . CT. . 6 . . .cause to repose in years of plenty. Iga 13. Wailing in the upper land far away. 2I. THUREAU-DANGIN. . which is not entered in my vocabulary. . . . ra 19. . sib. RA. . . 22. 75. . ddun-gi me ka-zag-sal uri-(ki) fhb-bi-m2. . I I . . lum. .. rz I1 3 . etc.ta a-da-ge7 nim bad-du ma-al-Z-fum mu-Xi-gar-gar-ri-e! For this title see also ALLOTTE E D 2. . I I az3. him that causes Ur to repose. . umun ginna. Whom the "god of the steady star" upon a foundation. . e. . . pious works in the universe he e~tablished. Camby. . . . ZIMMERN. 19. . . ... A-il-la=ink9. igi-dug. . . . . . f z . . 8. . i. me-en 12. Rev.md 18. enim dnin-lil-ld ki-gar ibg-ga kiiar-ra ma-ldg 13. . . 80 1. dnannar me2 dam-kar . wailing. . ud-bi nam(Z)-sir-ra lugal(?)dzi . 1 2 . 101 Rev. note the followingpassages: ad-dn=ina riggim. . 17. . bestows. .they caused. I 7. . . the goddess. . 18. Who the gods. . . . zo. S R H .. . . 'Cf. . . . . . . . I I. IV R. ' T h e interpretation of this line is uncertain. . . . . . . . recorder. 47. . . 1908. dnin-tud-ras nig-ma. .. . . . ad-du=niriotu. 21. 4596. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shepherd. dgenna is a regular title of Saturn in astronomical texts of the late period. 15. .of Nannar thou art. . For me-e. . . . Ni.thou art. 12. . . 7. . ad-mu=rigmi. . . me-m I I . Whom Nintud.(has spoken). . SBH.gi-mu-nezu enim nin-mud . lo. . . . .n 16..STEPHEN LANGOON-SUMERIAN LITURGICAL TEXTS '37 6. Also the signs idg and ki are uncertain. . Sic. me-en lo. . . V 620. 16. . 57. PSBA. DP. um-mi-a. 31 in this volume. dmul-geuna6 sugui-a K A .ga ju f a bi. . 81 111. 7. my wail. . .. nzuluad-du-ge. . . F a r e and e-en as inflections of the second singular see RA. LA FuYE.-bar-ra-na gzi-?id ma-niin-de 8. . ... . By thecommand whichmy lady.thou art. Probably ra emphatic. 43 RTC. B y the command of Ninlil.p nam-ma. .thou art. dingir-ri-e-ne ni-DU. 22. ' 9. . . . . . -sig 9. . . K-L. t i . "Dungi I praise. . . .. Holy priest who peace. . . 17. . . . 1 2 . . 400 Rev. . T o .

. . . . . . . . SAK. . cf. 72. 38.of sweet voice 36. . probably. 360 27 and SBP. Bnl-Rul-li-ma1 dug-dug-gi-ma1 34. 86. . . rir-gid-da teg ki-gir-gin-na-ge nam-lugal. . . ja-am occurs in lines 38 and 56. 35. With a long song befitting royal power.I j8 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION 23. . 37. . Upon the violent foreign land far away. . . Redactions of Sumerian laws existed before t h e first Semitic dynasty and served as a model for the great Code of Hammurapi.he approached.he caused to stand aside.didst cause to be uttered. . . . . Gladness causing. . . . 35. (?I 33. . . I. flute. ?a-am faam4. . n i la1 2 4 kur-nim-izi zi-?-gal-gim. . . . . . 30. h e stretched. a fragment of such a code has been published by P n o F ~ s s o n CLAY. . nig-gi-gi-no. . la-ba-gub-bu-neen-na-mu 37. igi-nim-fa kalama ie-gim dul-li ni-la1 26. . . . .. . 26. . . . . 25. . The weapon. . .. . 27. . The doers of rebellion from the ways.la 30. . 31. . thou art. 34. . . . Se: aim N i . . 28. . . ddl iu-si gii-ka-silim. ud iar-iar-ra gar-ra-bl-g61 maan-ru-a-mri 33. . nig-d-nzi-gi-a5 'Sic! i u twice. . . . T h e inflection iu after the verb md-ar indicates a plural object. He that tirelessly causes anarchy to depart. . sig tzig-ma1 iu ab-e-bal. . iu-?-a 29. kur dGn bad-du-6i ag. . . OLZ.3 32. . p. 28. . dug-gar nu-kui-d M-al-2 me 36. . lul iu-iul-ag karkal. . . . IuGbolag-a ranug ja-am ja-am. . . . . . .ta-gubma1 28. . t h e word occurs in connection with a word for flute (ligzi). prosperity causing. . . gid- da 25. a meditation I will compose for it. 4574 in this volume. When the writings are set forth. . bad-du-mdi nig-bal-bal-e ga-muii-gar-gar-ra 3 I . ni-la1 27. . . 200. ... . . . Unto the upper land like a great. . . From the upper land over Sumer beneficently a shadow he stretched. sing. . Uncertain. nam-dup-iar-m nig-gi-gi-7u2 gamu-ii-mi-ar-md-ar-Xu 32. . . . . . In the lower land songs of pacification thou . . . ri-ri ?d-izl LU. .Inom contains. . . . . . . 24. . . . . second per. here after gi-gid(=malilu). In writing thy laws2 I will set forth. .. . . 17. Also in K-L.914. . see I1 R. the element jo. . . The unopposed which is not restrained. 29. la immnhoru. . . . . fil-la 23.

The name of Sin who a city fated. see BM.. nig-dzig-gn =adannu. . . $7. . 40.a m ?a-am ga-mu-Si-mdar-md-ar-Su 39. 46.dispel 49. Who as one clean and pious brings about purity. den-lil nig-dzig-ga-ni iu-nu-balle-ne 4'. . . The name of the divine king transcends all. Royal power. 71 1 line qz. The name of Shamash attendant of the gods. .u m . 41. May the musician on his lyre . O n thejlule. 91-5-9. 112~4 d e ~ ~ . baghl-la 52.s Zg-s ig-ga d a m 5 ba-ra-ni-dzig 46.8..m u n i g . 1 3 . galu nam-kud-du-ni nig-gig sajar-ra-ka 43. My prayer which is unequaled let no wife utter.ge da-maa1 ga-tum(?jRe-dzi ' T h e sign has one superfluous wedge a t t h e end. 50. 9 . . . . 53. . whose splendor is not to be supported. sag > i n 6 for the root sag is here found for t h e first time. . . . in CT. gi-gid l a . Divine Dungi! I . nam-lugal-? sal-lid nin-je-nidzig 5 1 . . also RADAU. 1 ~ ba-lag-na 1 Re. .. My music let no man make. 45. 48. (The name) of Enlil whose fixed decreeZis not transgressed. . 4. ." .S T E P H E N LANGUON-SUMERIAN LITURGICAL TEXTS I39 38. 49. 31ttm in this passage has clearly t h e same meaning as t h e cognate lam. .-en 53. . . "fixed t i m e in which things occur.. . . T h i s form of the sign DAM is probably peculiar to t h e script of 1.m d 38. ara8-ibg-ga-gim ldg-ldg-ga. Whose curse the unclean purges. nig-lul-li-du-md galu ba-ra-mani-in-gar 45. I will set forth (these matters). Instituting culture. 39. m a y care for faithfully. li-du-mi a-da-du. M y chief song. . in CT.. 44.. and 88-5-12. . . 47. Compare SBP. The shepherd who fulfills the decrees as many as there be. s u b . . sib me-nig-na-me zag-fil-til-lamd 50.r u~ izanz-kud-da-ni uz lum3-bi nu-g&r-ra-[nil 42. . mu dbabbar nzaikim4 dingir-rie-ne 44. . 51. . ddun-gi me sd ni-ma1 dirig-ga sir-ra ma-ra-an-gbl 47. 96. T o r PA f DU instead of PA+DU gunujied. . 42. . 43. May my melody weeping . 279.n u .in song institute for thee. ro and ?jz. 52.arsa where this tablet war apparently written. . . Miriel. mu dingir-lugal sag-bi-Szi 2-a 40. . mu nig-li-du-md li-na. . When my melodies in future days a r e . 6. .

PRLCHT. has 2 T h e first sign resembles U R more than LIL. V pl. or perhaps ga is omitted. POEBEL given the entire text in PRS. . In that case the fragment does not contain the name of the king. 30. . 19797~ name of the the fourteenth king has remained undeciphered for the tablet is badly weather-worn at this point. Both Hilprecht and Poebrl's copies are inexact. 139541 . At any rate this name offers a possible identification and since the fragment obviously reveals a hymn to one of the kings of Isin. Perhaps this particular king of the Isin dynasty never received this distinction. iv. The name itself is new among royal names of the period and no alternative remains but to identify him with one of the unknown sixteen kings of the Isin dynasty. 56. . In a long song befitting royal power. I have collated the line again and find the reading li12-ayag possible but not certain. The flute. . sir-gid-da leg nam-lugal- la 55. since this name occurs in Ni.. 29 pl. 4566 forms the upper left corner of a large three column tablet belonging t o the group of historical hymns to deified emperors. published the reverse of this tablet on which the names of t h e sixteen kings of lrin stood. . 55. HII. bad-du-mdz' nig-bal-bal ie-im 56. HILPRECHT'S copy shows traces of a name containing not more than three signs and these agree admirably with lil-ayag-ga. In the dynastic list Ni. . . . [The name of the fourteenth king is probably Ur-azag. this seems to be a solution unless lil-arag be taken as a mere epithet of the king. a meditation let be. BE.140 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION 54. . gi-gid ?a-am ?a-am ge-im 54. Ni.let be. The name of the king Lilazag has not the sign for "god" before it and the fragment contains no reference to his deification.

See also UL. a temple he founded. 5 . 14 No.. . . . 6.575.. fifth king of the lsin dynasty.. Cst. ..." and probably recurs in the title mg-X.. ... 3752. . I 1 Title ordinarily applied to the river god. I<.... .. . . The far away land he subdues.. 7. ZIMMERN. 10.. . . .chapel he made.of the foreign lands.. 9. .. LITURGICAL TEXTS 141 LiCatag ab numun-i-i1 nu-aragga mu-dug-ga sd-a s'zb-ba a-lu3 lugal RU-TIG4 lugal ti-Zig-lig-gi k-malga-sud eri bdr naragin-na ni-in-iu-bu-un(?) 2.... . . T h e reference in Rev. 132. As to a temple in the holy city. Whose heart is. 69.. 4.. 2.of the dark headed people. BL.. who declares the fate of his city. a Cf. . CT. 22. 199 Rev. the king who makes glad the soul. . The great. 5 T h e sign is REC. I. SBH. 199. 8. the holy man.. the king . . 'See also Hirtorical and Religious Texts. lo in HE. . Eight temples of Rau . "The Temple of Wisdom" in the clean city with lapis lazuli he made splendid. 20rif these syllables are simply an epithet we may translate "the holy wind." but here the sign obviously conveys a sense synonymous with "shepherd. k eri-arag izib l be-in. t h e clean city... L. . . . Obv.. 10. ." a reference.. the .... ." See also Ni... . A . . .. KL. 19.STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN 1. seed. . guide. a-ru-gal sag-gig-ga nameri-tar-ri dingir-alag-ga ki-el ama dba-h 8. I V R. Cst. 7 to a temple of the Mul-mu1 T h e same epithet is applied to Libit-lshtar. 2. . . dumu-sag bara-la-ku be-ine d ba-h. named by a good name.. . . kur-sud-sud es'bar me-i-i ?it-e kaiu-gil 5 . . j ... 1 1 g mentions Hallab... It has ordinarily a meaning synonymous with "canal. . r gar" .gub 9. . The. 4. X X X I . . . IV ja jj. No. 8 7.. L i l a ~ a gof~the house of exalted .. . .. . Cf. 46.. .. 1378. having recounted unto them the observance of laws and decrees. qq7=SAI. First born son of the holy goddess. 4. . 8. 7'84. . "he exalted his race. . ?U nun Sag-lal-sud kalamma XGur-kurra 6... 3. merciful prince of the Land.. . 9. . to the divine spirit of the deified king. 40. mother Bau. No. .... . . On the reverse occurs the goddess Ama of Agade for whom this king constructed seven temples. numun ma-xi-i-i.. did-lu-~U-7'~C... the woman.

see WARD. Also t h e identification with Nergal i n F R A N K . See J E N S E N . was inclined to identify these seven balls with the seven planets.ibid. IV I). . Venus and the Pleiades." But the figure 7 is never written in this way and the sign really means i a X g i S + g i S or 5X (6of60) =Goo. t . T h e seven gods who are designated by the words mul-mu1 are probably of astronomical origin and originated in a religious fancy concerning the Pleiades. ZIMMERN.BE. T h e Semitic translation is ilani sibitti or the seven gods. According to I I R. in astronomy mul-mu1 ordinarily designates R Taurus. It is. zg is certainly erroneous. 132 No.~ lgigi were eight in n ~ m b e r hence they probably are confounded and identified with the Pleiades. Ser. a theory wholly impossible. l T h e identification with the Igigi has been defended also for the reason that they are represented by the symbol dingir V + I I. 25 h 69 and 39 No.Rilddr p. a seal with an agricultural scene and in the upper field the moon. 3 p . 26 I 1 1 63. They appear as seven small balls or irregular little figures on seal cylinders from the earliest period. Note for example WARD'S Seal Cylinders o j Western Asia. 372. K B . H I N K E . . The identification with the lgigi has been inferred from the correspondence between the symbols and the divine names on the rock relief a t Bavian.) the . 245. commonly taken for "god 7. . 2 (Add. I .. These seven balls recur in the glyptic and figured monuments of all periods and seem t o have represented the Igigi or heaven spirits whose number was six hundred. probable t h a t in practice mul-mu1 really represents the Igigi.I42 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION contains the earliest mention of these astronomical deities. There is no evidence for the statement that the lgigi were seven in number. therefore. V l 587. p.D Vol. .

20." After a considerable gap in our fragment. gu-mu-un-per-pel-e.s i . . contains a long address t o the divine king by the liturgists and choir. "the regular offerings may he double. ["Divine Ishme-Dalgan son of Dagan I am. Noticeable among these phrases are the appeals to the king for the bestowal of wealth and increase upon the land. T h e disobedient he crushed (nu-Ie-ga Ih-a. . my king may the protecting genius make abundant. . This goddess is entered The first intercession probably appealed to Enlil. 1. [May the god.% the king is referred t o in the third person throughout. Note especially Rev. . Ninurash. 7 ) . I lugal-md alad Be-xi-far-iar-ri. 21. With line 2 1 of Rev. 11 line j begins with an address to the Moon-god. . "may he multiply. 3) and compelled the foreign land t o submit (kur-ri ka-Su-gdl. . 11 17 to the nine children of N i n . mi2 ka-bar-a-gim Be-ni-bal-bal. 1. Shamash. . 1. . like a pastor may he store up. . .I1 decree me prosperity. Addresses to Nusku. 19. if I understand correctly its obliterated phrases. Col." 1 2 "." Of particular interest is the probable reference in Rev." sri-dzig Re-ni-tab-lab.K A . With line I y begins the long series of intercessions t o various gods which forms the greater part of the liturgy." . i n the temple of . . . . . I1 lo. and Innini follow and this series of intercessions ends with an appeal to various mlnor gods. " m y . . . 1 refer t o conquests of the king who in his own land secured obedience (gh-ur-e md-mal. [To m y reign] prosperous years may he announce. .S T E P H E N LANCDON-SUMERIAN LITURGICAL T E X T S The remnants of Col. . 9) and one line speaks of victories (Su-sig-sig-ge-dam 15). I begins a section which.

SAI. Since Nin-KA-si follows immediately upon Sabil. Her nine children are: ( I ) SiriS. 25. but here his consort is Sa-bil. 24. ( 3 ) Siril-kal-gig. In this aspect of a fire goddess she is the sister of Gibil the fire god. referring to lshtar as patroness of government. 22. hut it is probably . or S ~ . to be corrected to n2ulu 3510. 156 appears as consort of Pa-te-en-dug. 14 No. both are probably the consort of Pages'tindug and . "She of the pure decrees. as in the abbreviated list I 1 R. however. and under the original title Pa-geltindug(du) =rnuln2 ne-sag-g&-ge(Sa ni-ki-i) the same god is entered in the official list immediately before Nin-KA-si. sister of Tammuz. or GeRinanna." (4) Me-&?. who is thus a vine goddess whose fruit is offered in sacrifice as well as the goddess that presides over the fires which consume the sacrifice. lo. where Nin-KA-si is identified with the goddess GaStinnarn. 30. 7. I . and Nin-KA-si presides over the mixing bowl. CT. lord of sacrifices (la ni-ki-i). 28. although GAS-TIN has the Sernilic value ki~rtrn. 20. I 56. who in SBP. 24 among the inferior deities of the court of Enlil. to burn. 10. ( 5 ) Me-alag. 24." a title also of Ishtar bElit ilani. dgaS-tiv~-nam nin-KA-si-ra." likewise a deity that presides over sacrifices. a special kind of liquor. 59 Obv. 32 and SBP. She ordinarily appears as a vine goddess. 1V K." (6) Erne1 -~ Hardly to be read kurun-nnm. ( 2 ) Siril-kaS.' goddess of the vine. IV R. and in IV R. 1 4 No. KING'S copy has dumu.v. In any case Nin-KA-si is a vine goddess. 1. whose name became a loan-word in Semitic for an intoxicating liquor. 26 is identified with her daughter Siril.C'abil is but another name for Nin-KA-si. 2 Rev. C T . "The black liquor sirifkaf. 46. This goddess is probably identical with Geltin. mar nikl. e .144 U N I V E R S I T Y MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION in the theological list CT. i.~ a "she who causes g. "She of the terrible decrees. 14 No.

1 4 No. KA-a-si-a. C T . This composition has passages which are strikingly similar to many in Gudea's inscriptions. B. Nin-KA-si. as we have seen. the vine goddess. I 1 R. (8) Nusilig-g~. AJSL. Gud. 59. 2 I . 78.~ Ninmada. Kultliede~No. 10." a description of Nin-KA-si. Ninmada is the original form. I No. ZIM. (9) Var. 156.. KL.) She is the fourth patron of humanity in the Epic of Paradise and her father is Ea supreme patron of the arts.Shurpu g. BP. (See now PRINCE. She appears as a goddess of purificatory rites. xx n. "The skilful woman. 156. A hymn t o Nin-KA-si is published in ZIMMERN'S. or some similar meaning. diigar-ra(=rapiu). X X X I I I 40-44. j. Ninmadim. evidently has the meaning wine. 5. which makes the resemblance all the more remarkable. I ial tuk-tuk dngar-m me-leg gnr=rinnirtu ilpeitu unzmu i n nna rimmi iohnat. 1 5 . z and MYHRMAN. 24. T h e element KA-si. Of these nine daughters five are patronesses of liquors. For dagal >dogar. VI 6 nin-KA-a-si-a is used as an epithet of Geitinanna. is an epithet of Gaftinnam. . cf. K-L.S T E P H E N LANGDON-SUIMERIAN LITURGICAL T E X T S I45 teg. 4. the mother who is sent to do what is seemly. 46. and see especially Liturgies.ZIMMLKN. ZIMMERN. 4. %Cf. p. 156. "She of the abode of festivity. Cyl.l (7) Kidurkalal. 10. one cannot refrain from comparing IV R. 'So I would interpret this ideogram. "She of seemly tongue" (liian simti). Perhaps la pititu. 33. intervenes between Ishme-Dagan and Gudea." referring probably to her connection with drinking liquors. 15 I 2. in SBP. g. Several centuries. Its author evidently knew the literature of Gudea extremely well and one is impressed repeatedly by a similarity of style. liquor. 56 and RA. perhaps a millennium. In Ur-Bau's Statue Col.

. KTA. . . I 6. lo. 14. dnu-nam-nirz enim-md &mani-in-gub 14. .146 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION OBVERSE 11 I. C . iui-rig (IV R. I I. . ki-gub-buni-feg-gd-e-Eta-ma-antar rag den-lil-ld dagal-la-dm fa-& mi-gi-in1 %in-uras' ur-sag kalag-ga den-lilId-ge 12. dumu-sag den-liG[ld-ge] 4. . tam=kinu." probably from the same root. . . . V R. . . . 2. dnusku sukkal den-lil-ld-ge 8. May he fashion unto far away days a restless scepter. . Ninura?. 5. The divine prince of valor my commands may make sure for me. gii-pitug imin-a tu-gal ta-mi+ib-dzi] 2. tn(nz)-gin is probably one of those intensives made by compounding two roots of similar meanine. . 3.2 . 13. 2Variant of dnun-nam-nir and ordinerily an epithet of Enlil.9. . 5 . I 5. 4. May he with understanding of the seven (numbers) grandly [adorn me]. ud-szi-du-iii gii-dzir. 1 4 . 5 . 12. . 46 and io has the meanr1 ing kaftu. a-ar Ru-mu-nu-ab nam-lugal-la pal-mu Re-ne-indirig Whatsoever things are named . . 3. . . 'la-gi-in. ZA. May Nusku the messenger of Enlil." SRP. "to encourage his soul. 8. . 9. 43. z i . The heart of Enlil like (the heart of) a mother may he make faithful. 33. as mal-gar. I.4 (instead of the reading ug-gi there given). 16a 62). .iui-ru. gii-gu-?a nam-lugal-la.. . . nig-a-nu mu-sd. bl-in-tag 7. . 1" this passage it rcfers to NinuraS as in BA. . bara nam-en-nu sag-ga-id. ka-idg-ga den-lil dnin-lil-ld mdI 5. . Into my hand a regal scepter place. Also gin has the meaning kinu. . . With royal power may he cause my reign to he surpassing. .. A favorable word to Enlil and Ninlil for me may he speak. . . I I . . CT. 13. In Ekur oracles unto me may he reveal.. . 6. Wheresoever I go. 6. 328. 6-kur-ra 6-bi da-ma-an-pud-pad 10. giidur nam-lugal-la s'u-md ka-mani-gar y. of Shamash. A throne of royalty. . . 5. his awe may he lend me. I would compare with tam-gin in Bar-bi ianz-gin-di. V 644.. . . the valiant hero of Enlil. . frequently of AIur. . "form. 3 . 7. . IV 245. 24. Sin first horn son of Enlil. In a chamber of ruling loftily [may.

24.. . . gij-KU-lig-ga kur-kur gum-gum-e 20. 21. .. .. 17... may he fill my faithful hand. 26. 9. 24. t-kur-ra s'u-ju-mu-da-gdl-gdl' 19. With a valiant weapon subduing the foreign lands. Maythesun-godplacejusticeand righteousness in my mouth. With lordship may he cause me to be. 8 Cf. . . . 20. ' S e e F. 2. giver of decision. The protecting genius of my royalty may he be... Not t o justify the slander(?) of a sister against the elder (brother) to a mother. V I l l 17.. 16. 18. Not to place the weak a t the disposal of the strong a man . . 1 r I 13. . . THUREAU-DANGIN. That the rich man may not do whatsoever is in his heart. Who makes justice exceedingly good... nam-en-nu ma-e ie-im-mi-?-en DA(d)-taj-mu je-e I 7. I . z 4md-nzd is an intensive formation from md=banll. 23. who directs the Land. si-ig-ga kalig-ga-ra nu-mal-ma1 galu.STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN LITURGICAL TEXTS I47 16.. A mighty arm. . . d-tuk nig-s'ag-ga-na nu ag galu galu Bab-nu-gar nig-erim nig-d-rig-gas ja-lam-e nig-si-sd mi-mi4 I.. RA. Wickedness and hostility he destroyed justice he instituted. SAI<.. courage he ensures. T o justify brother with brother to the father. In Ekur may he take me by the hand. 214 1 1 7. . . ri-da-tuk ur-ku-e2 erim-du jalam-me 25. S A L f K U gal-ra ka-dug-na nusli ama-ra IM-SU-NE 27. . 108. . the wicked he destroys. 2. that one man to another do not anything disgraceful. p. XeS-ge SeS-ra nig-gi-nu-sd a-a-ra 26. my helper may he be. 27. . 25. . and Nouveller Fouiller de Tallo. sd-tar-ru ka-&bar kalam-e sish-e 23.. da-maj 8%-ri-da-mu je-ne-in-si dbabbar nig-si-sd ka-gi-nu k a . X %Variantof ui-kQ-e=padQ. . 19. The transgressor(?) he pardons. 22. nig-gi-nu sag-ga-S& Sdg 2I . The judge. . .m i ja-ma-ni-in-gar 22.

.

A n holy command which is unchanged may she utter. a sphere wholly foreign to the powers of the earth gods. 2 u l for nzul. . . 278 ff. Enul and Ninul. . Divine ishme-Dagan son of Dagan thou art. 150. 13. indirect construct for ko. suggests itself and the reading Be-o-ax may be preferable. . . 199. . . . 24. 2 2 . kullab-(ki) me-ldm-mu dul-'luda I 5. . .( k i ) alad Ckur-ra-ge-ne dingir-gal-gal-e-ne3 a nam-muun-far-ri-ei-a' B e d m s umun-kur-ru-ga6 ie-immi-in-dub-es' dii-me-dda-gan d u m u dda-gan meen den-lil lugal kur-kur-ra-ge . Crush the pride of the hostile ruler. 23. . May Enlil lord of the lands 23. .. .iu-gi-e ie-bC-in-pad-dC 18.1911. 20. 14. 22. . r u zir-rafa . 3 . . . . 3 T h e lgigi are probably referred to here. 7. WZKM. 24. No. 6964 where thc sign has also the regular gunufication at the left. . May Enki and Ninki.. . 5 . 17." For this sign see also ZIMMERN. These titles of Enlil and Ninlil refcr apparently to the stars. 1g13. T h e great gods who determine oracles. . T h e Anunnaki. note j. . V 1 2 5 . 4 0 n this inflection of the subjunctive. . sec 5zzi and ibid. 21. . enim-alag nu-kur-ru-da-ni Be-hiin-dzig 16. T o cover Kullab with my glory. lord(s) who decree fate. ki-unug-(ki-)ga am-gim . . . 'That in the land of Erech like a wild bull.choose. CHRISTIAN. 19. Perhaps this idea is based upon a tendency towards monotheism. 18. da-nun-na e n nam-far-ri-bi dingir utug n i p p u r . 4 connection with ten. 'The divine spirit of Nippur and the protecting geniuses of Ekur. .. 19. 41 and POEBEL. 16. . ' T h e sign is the iriiig of UR and is to be identified with Bn. . 14.STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN L I T U R G I C A L TEXTS 149 13. PBS. "a. . Kulliieder. . . . . CI'. . . 1 5 . dun "to cover" and ligir "prince. $ 0 5 . Ban. . den-ki dnin-ki den-u12 dnin-u12 I 7. 20. . . 22. Who i n . 6dc-am occurs alro in the titie of Enlil. 27. (43. . PSBA. 24. The sign either iriiig or iriiif plus the gunufication has the valuer dul. Be-dm-gi-na. 2I. abundance. See alro K a u ~ u Miriel. see SBP.

15. 2di+x-dCl-dZilis probably a plural (Sum.. h 284 and note also dim-gul glass o n M A . 57b 56 and dimgal knlnm-ma. huninndfu. T A R may have the value dhn and the word should . . Gr. . bdd-hi and bar-hi." and this is the only meaning hitherto assigned to TAR-kullu.. 160.. BM. ?utukku. chieftain of heaven..... .. c f . .. and Gudea. . C T . p.. ku-ni-nu in a list of synonyms for pirannu.. For hdd-ha contrasted with bar-bn.. . gi-nig-kai-rur-ro=(kan8) kuninndlu. K . " U ~ i n u r a i ais the dimgul an-na. 4.." T h e goddess Gunura is dint-gal kalam-ma= TAR-kul-li mdtim. . A. . 4.. W i t h i n q e r reed baskets are thrown in the ways and the people lament. dim-gal-gal hi-a mi-ni-rig-rig." See SUP.. W. . A n ~ o c r Lexicon 359 or tnrkullu. BL. 270. however. . .339.22 No.. 303 and MussH. 8.. 11. . .. T h e Assyriologistn usually render the loan-word by tnrkullu.. bdd-bd gzi-nin3 kaskala im-ma-angar-gar uku-e i e d m . CT. DELITZSCH..dd im-ma-an-gar-gar. "The master workmen placed it in the earth.. "chieftain of the Land. . ." or "mast? of a ship. G5. huninnu. 98 n. ' .. . SAK. . 1103. . 43. vessel for mixed wine.... .. ibid.... . "a reed vessel" usually employed for mined wines.. 6. 47. Her people without water jars without her sit in humiliation. 5 . "leader of the Land. Cyl. ud-ba ud uru-da ha-da-an-gar uru-bi(?)[s'e-dm-du] a-a dnannar uru dim-dal-di~1Z-da ba-da-an-[gar] 3. chieftain. ... 1045z. BR. .. The original word appears t o have been dimgul=TAR-kullu. 117. 82. ud-ba ud kalam-da ba-da-an-kdr uku-e ie-dm-du 2.in her streets the corpses.. . . T h e word. reed basket..." ibid 59.corpses were placed. Syn.. In h e r . . like marharu (see RA. 2759. "cable? of a ship. of ummdnu. 1873. 5. '(2 p. SAI. ... g.. SBH. Syn. . 14... "thc word... lshtar is the dim-gal.. .. uku-hi iika-kud-da nu-me-a barha ha-e-si 6. and later dim-gal. I 1 K. . . ... Note dim-gal=markaru. 14 in CT. 82) has also the meaning.. . I Ilev.gir-gdl-la-ba dd-a im-maan-BAD 8..-a-ba sag-bal-e ha-ab-gar 9. ' A synonym of encm=amatu. be tldimpallu. 3.. uku-e b-&-du 4.. ..I50 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION 4584 FRAGMENT A LAMENTATION T H E DESTRUCTION UR OF ON OF OBVERSE I . 11 R.M U K . 10. 8." RA. . 2 ." SBP. At that time the Word hastened upon the Land. master workman. . . zo.. 25. 7. 7. and the people lamented. . 18. a For kunin=kuninu. 1 2 p. In her.. Father Nannar upon the city of master-workmen sent it. basket. . At that time the spirit of wrath1 upon the city he sent and the city lamented. ... . "master workmen. . . 97. is explained by pat-[tu-u]. .. "directresr" of Babylon.. . .. I. a n usurper exercised. vessel. Syl. Syn. .d u 7. . . . mnm$... $124) of dim-dzil=diin-gal=TAR-kullu. 22.. 1 3 . 8... leader. and the people wailed.

since the same event is mentioned in the date formula of the sixth year of Samsuiluna. p. . i). 6. > T h e city U r in meant and the reference to an usurper in Obv... gi?-gi-gdi' ki-iub-gzi-da-kam 3.. The word is oftcn shortened to N. therefore.. no means of determining the length of this composition unless some scribal note can be made out on the reverse ot the duplicate....... 4. POEBEL. 8 leads us to suppose that t h e calamity referred t o is none other than the invasion of the Elamitei who seized lhi-Sin. the ordinary word ior "strophe" ( i i r u . bar-ta ba-dadu .. A lamentation a n this event was published in my Historical and Religious Taxti 6-8.. which I know only from a copy placed a t my disposition by DR. which is most fully preserved on the contracts..STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN L I T U R G I C A L TEXTS 151 .gul-e 2. ama dnin-gal uru-(hi)-niz nu-bkiub-ba 4... sce Z ~ M M E Ribid.... is followed hy da which occurs only here...... p. which is contrary to all known rules of liturgical practice... hi-iub-gL. see ZIMMERN...... has the whole of 4568 on its obverse. STRASSMAIER... urzi ud-di am.... In all the known examples of this liturgical note the interlude of two or three lines is separated from the ki-iub-gd hy lines... This hymn is particularly interesting. according to that text lbi-Sin was taken captive to Elam. Here the interlude or choral reflection apparently ends the liturgy...... xlv.. z... Without she wanders.. see BL. Another tablet in the same collection.. The mother Ningal her city inhabits not. For gii-pi-gal=mi)ir i a ranzari.... I . T h e interlude of the strophe (is as follows) 3. ki-rub. We have. Iitar und Snllu.... The city the spirit of wrath destroyed. the reverse continued the hymn but only a few signs are preserved. p...... and ki-ih... last of the rulers of the dynasty oi Ur. This hymn to the statues set u p by Samsuiluna is not complete on the tablet 4568... I.

152 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION 54 and 62. go 1 7 . 202. Rut here the scribe has again confused his signs." suk-me guf ufum4-galnam-kal-a til-du1L-l~sag-di7-lZg-ga-nu imma-ii-in-bar 3. REC. SAK. v. 4 8 which alone has the valuer ri. 294"s. in is obviously a mere euphonic element. is the original and correct reading since it is t h e well-known augment. 5 T h i r ir the first example of the sign S U Y with the gunufication a t the left. For rag-di see also Ni. T h e scribes appear t o have confused rag-di with rag-ki=plitu. lor. j ~ b and 12.. and see RA." S B H . 1 8 . C T . nam-jig-ga-ni-fzila-la na-~n-ii-~ i in-ag 4. du. dug-linu-fil-la. 3 v. see Sum. 26. da. "Year when Samsuiluna the king. Gr. T h e sign is R E C . lil-dul=bnlnl nabniti. alam-ri a-ni-izi dhg-li im-ma-ii~n-iil~~ I. 13. 40) = rig. Sce Sum. T h e sign employed here has properly only the value du ( R E C . Because of his radiantQtatue prosperity is made complete. di. Whose brilliant form shines upon all living things. 10. lofty. a statue in an attitude of prayer and animal statues of gold upon their foundations in Ebabbar before Sharnash and in Esagila before Marduk established. 4. p. "joy he completes not. 3 1 . 3. C T . i. 34 not IIEC. 145 above. form. mu Sa-am-su-i-lu-na lugal-e dbabbar dmarduk-e-nebi-da-'ge nig-dim-dim-ma-bi al-in-na-an-du-US-rim2 alam sub-sub-bt5 alad-gushkin-ciS-LC-bi-ta k-babbar igi dbabbarId 4-sag-iP (igi dmarduk-Szi) ki-gub-ba-ne-ne mi-ni-ingi-nu. See POEREL:STRASSDLAIER has apparently N E . Far gun=bonh. gil? "rhe sign uium is expected here but the tent has gir clearly. T h e scribes themselves appear t o have bccn uncertain concerning the sign di for which they frequently writc hi. Short variants will be found in POEBEL. 77. 2. p. b u t it is confused with dul. 2 1 1 . mg=banG. see Surn Gr. u i is the plural inflection and dm the sign of a dependent phrase. zcq f. Gr. R E C . 2'rhis compound verb is formed from the root 01. 70. 5153. Here infixed ii reproduces a causal ?ti. rdmu. 16. see Sum. a rare usage of this infix. . 21. A reading gbn-a is also possible. and the intensive sufindbg > du. for dul=nabnitu. etc. for this sign. ge marks the subject. 26. 233). p t I l l Bihliogropbir. to which add POEBEL. NO. 19. a word certainly connected with binu. however. I. see also e-ne-bi-ta in the dare formula of the 34th year of Hammurapi. 24. Also sag-du-ga=bdnii. p. IoCf. l a . 277bi? b i q z u namru. 4563 Rev. 2. p. a value given to bath signs. Terrible formQovernor of valor. 86=25. F o r this peculiar form of the conjunction hi-da orbi-to attached t o the plural ending r-*a. etc. Because of his beneficence plenty is created. VI. di. dug. m (RA. a1 is connected with il=elii. Gr. front. Note rog=limu and sag-di=limu. c . Note the unurualgunu of LAGAR=dul. whose deeds Shamash and Marduk have extolled. begetter. BE.

. . . . ICf. SUP. . I I . where it is rendered by "UGibil. Idr-m-dn-ni. obedience. igi-mzt gim-ba-ma bl-tum du-riz'h ti-is I i n d{-dzig-KA+NE-'na asilal da-ra-ab-si 13. ." i. . den' kal-la-bi Fag-im-ma-ab-thbbi 7. . 1 2 ." t o repent.. for this line.gi-a-na2 im-ma-abnigin-e3 8. rgrj. Cyl. see SBP. ai-gud(?)=libbalh 2 p. T h e verb is a variant of ddg-tnr=ddnu. SAI. . Handbuzh 85.. ma is not wholly SAI. "Variant of W-ur-0: MEISSNLR. 8. '"ic! Read d-gdl. A. Bilingual of Somiuiluna. ." t h e restoration of normal conditions of a canal. . v. who enriches the land. Hemerolagie. . . . 14. . nam-gdb-dar in PBS. 3752. . . 2iag-gd-bi-gi-a. they repented.are lifted(?) to bestow life forever(?)8 12. 632 pii purruizr. . 9. kalanza gh-ri-a"gzib-darn-ma mura. . tire. 13. . l. Literally "(Cod) is made compassionate. . a n ukkin-lugal-ra ka-mu-un-dardar-am4 9. Samsuiluna thy champion am I. 276. . . 29. I2Cf. Whose precious presence appeases the heart. iL-mu-un nu-dm-zu5 zi-ba-hm kigdl d m . T h e figurative sense a6pears to be "thc return of t h e affections t o their normal state. In I < 8503 Obv. literally "the returning of the waters t o the bank. wailing(?). . 1. . I will fill thee with rejoicing. . . This meaning occurs in jag dingir-ri-ne gzi-bi-gi-a-dm.STEPHEN LANGUON-SUMERIAN LITURGICAL TEXTS 153 5. The land to obedience I will reduce for thee. . 25.. 27-3 I Toor idim. Over his transgressors he has been established. being the suffixed conjugation t o indicate a relative phrase. T h e literal sense occurs in Gudea. ' For the reading den. IIThis sign occurs also in the Berlin Astrolab. My eyes. Lofty one who to the assembly of kings renders decision. . . 484. . the brilliant. . the pure. . . See below.dam 1 0 . Lord that knows fate. In line 20 the phrase recurs. certain. I. 71 1. . . 27. ' Cf. 8 4 anger. lo. Also d ~ ~ + N E = i ' u ~ i b iWEIDNER. line 24. Cf. bal-a-ri-ni-jzi im-ma-an-ii-gub 6. See Sum. Gr: $210. 7. Note E-du=~nmdru. 5 . . T h e sign appears to be M F I B S N E R . llr. gen. 6. See also MVAC. 4. 4610 Rev. A. 2 1 . 3 ( = C T X I 28) the Sumerian value is . . . . t h e seer.a synonym in line 24. 1.an-ag 14. See note on line 4. 14Var. igi-har-bani. "the hearts of the gods returned t o their bank." ' Cf. K. . Samsuiluna. . At whose repentance there is forgiveness. jag-gzi-bi . 17. V 25 V jg. Cyl. sa-am-su-i-ln-na z'nba si-a-higi3-i-de'-kar-kam7 I I . sa-am-su-i-lu-na da13-gdl-la-ak a m kalam-idr-ra-en-el4 5. e. T h e form idr-m-en-e i s the gerundive participle in the status rectus.

rgg 1 1 21. obiect of adorafion of Samsuiluna. . illa I have taken for igi-illa =nil ini. 18. renders IGI-LAMGA-BU(ildu) by illat knlbL. nom-lugol-la d&M. . . a This is the first example of lir as the possessive suffix of the ad per. ur-gal alad alad mu-ne-en. . For niiu without Zni. fag nam-lugal-la-ihl ul-ih2 gubbu-da-ni3 17. Probably for 6-241. watchful care I exercise. troup o f dogs. li-du dg-ddg-KA+NE-a mu-unui-ne-ne 25. sil-gar-afag-gi-e-ne ni-da-e-ne 24. ildu' il-la sa-am-su-i-lu-na meen-ne-en 28. Their loftiness to make fearful. Lions as protecting spirits he dedicated. They are the propitious spirits of the queen of heaven.' 1 am thy strong prince the pious. ba-an-da-gub sa-am-su-i-lu-na ba-gub 23. 26. 19. Who a t the head of kingship joyously has been placed. %The same signs in ZIM. GI. . cf. . K. Berlin.sig 19. The transgressors to reduce t o obedience. bal-a-ri gu-ri Rub-dar-ag-dl 21. aiial niii-kn. 27. . CT. . d i m h i ds-zi-da 22. kalama nam-lugal-la-izi nam-dug mu-un-kud 18. na. . Your transgressors ye destroy. . 24. 22. 20. Note the pqculiar participial conjugation in which the verb mc (esre) is separated from the participle lid-dkt= ~arnbu. are they. an-fa-ne-ne da4-gdl ag-dA 20. A group of lions. their fear. 27. Var. 28. 5126. 17. . Ass. of The phrase obviously refers to the g~oup lion-images mentioned i n line 18. 25. mu-uLmis-Fig-ga-~u ni-me-en nam-en-nu-un mu-ag-e-en 16. bal-a-ri-+in8 giddhg-ge Var. Their holy praise. me-en-ne fa-ia-an an-?za aladidg-ga-me" 27. . L. 16. . 'Syl. ha. 23. . See SUM. lnnini with a true arm established. VI 28b 23. . me-en-$-en Rub-bu-ne-ne-a 15. The transgressor in obedience they will cause to live (dwell). pi. . They. At their left Sarnsuiluna has been placed. For the kingship of the Land with a good fate he has been destined. to adorn the kingship. bal-a-ri gd-ri mu-un-ti-ti-ne 26. .I54 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION 15. 6The text has again da for d. unpublished. 21.

STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN

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'55

i-+em dg-ddg-KA+NE-a la-badh' 30. pi-el-pi-li gamu-ra-ab-Sid
29.

29. Song and praise I restrain not.

Edge. jag-lal-lh2 alam nu-un ki-tagtag-i nu-ma-a1

30. Humiliation I will recite unto you. Edge. The h y m n to the protecting3 statue(s) which has (have) been set up is not finished.

LITURGY ENLIL, TO SERIES babbar-ri babbar-ri-gim, NI. 497
This fragment (originally numbered Khabaza 15-8, 1 8 8 8 ) forms the top of VAT. 1334+1341 published by ZIMMERN, KL. No. 1 2 . The obverse of 497 completes the beginning of KL. I Z obverse I and 11. T h e reverse of this fragment completes KL. 12 rev. I 1 t o the end. I t also contains a portion of the liturgical note which ended the last column. KL. 16 joins the reverse on the right and contains also the beginning of a few lines of the end of KL. 12 rev. I. This series, built upon an old song, bdbbar-ri bdbbar-ri-gim te-ga-hi lal, resembles, both in title and literary construction, the late series dbabbargim 2-ta of which we have the second(?)4 tablet inAssyrian6
IFoi the root du=kala, to restrain, compare o n the one hand dh=ne'u, C T . 19, 1 t b 24, and on the other, DU=kal&, Br. 4886, SAI. 3332. The sign DU in this sense was read gin by me in Sum. Gr. 216 on the basis of gi=n/u, p, z i 5 In any case gub means kald, v. ZA, 10, 197, 16 iag ri-id guh-ba=kuiur libbi likll, "may contentment of heart abide," where likli is a syn. of liltit. Note also nnm-kn-gar gait' golu-ra in-na-gub-hi-et "Man against man restrains Warka complaint," STRASSM*IEK, 34, 16; ha-an-gub-ha-ha, it in restrained, ZIM.K-L., 26 Rev. 111 3. However, dh has probably this sense here and note dib, dub, to confine, seize, Sum. Gr.
209, a l l .

$Cf. Liturgrei, p. 2 n. 4. For nua, protector, v. CT. 16, 7 , 243 nu-un-md Re-a, "my prstector may h: b:." Also . t h e noun.formation with nin > i n > en, in en-nu-un=mararlu. ' IV R. I I is certainly not the first tablet of this series as I supposed in SUP. 246. If this were tablet one its first line should agreewith the title dbahbar-ginz 2-la. But its first line in the
~~

beginning of another Enlil sang, see

SBP. 238,

8.

SIVR.

11.

156

U N I V E R S I T Y MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN

SECTION

and Neo-Babylonian1 interlinear versions and a Neo-Babylonian version of the fifth(?) tablet.2 Col. I of our tablet contains two melodies. Col. I I consists of the melody ddmgara bddakur ddaka-ndggallu, which also forms Col. I of tablet two(?) in the allied series dbabbar-gim 2-ta. T h e fourth melody consists of a long litany filling Cols. 111 obverse and Col. I reverse. This melody is one of those movements based upon a liturgical phrase forming the opening line, which is repeated after the titles of all the important gods of the pantheon. Unfortunately this refrain is no longer preserved here. T h e most well-known "titular litany" is that used in the fifth tablet of the weeping mother series SBP. 150-167. Here the liturgical phrase is s'i-ab u-mu-un mu-un-lug-e-en-ne ul-li-eS, "The heart of the lord we will pacify with praise." After three more lines which vary this the litany begins a long list of titles each replacing the word umun "lord" by the name or title of a deity. A titular litany was used as the next to the last melody in KL. No. 8 and KL. No. I I , but here also the liturgical motgs have been broken away. At the top of Reverse I 1 continuing to the end of Col. I l l began the intercessional psalm called in the late liturgies the ers'emma. Our tablet, therefore, represents one of the few known examples of a series not entirely compiled from older songs, but having a creative element. T h e titular litanies and the intercessionals were creations of the liturgists of the lsin and early Babylonian schools who usually constructed these series by simply compiling old songs for musical and religious effect. T h e later liturgies generally
I S B H . No. jj. See SBP. 237-47. 2 S B H . No, jg. This tablet almost certainly belongs to the series dbnhbar-gim ;-in. See Bab. 11 1 249.

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end the section before the final song or intercession by the rubric: sub-be fe-ib 6 X ki-de-en-gi-gi ki-Zit-bi-im balag g&-del This rubric may have been used here and in K1-. 8 and I I. We should expect it a t the end of Rev. I . It is just possible that the last sign on KL. 16 right column is the beginning of the word sub, in which case we have this rubric already in the classical period. I f we may assume that this advanced type of liturgy already possessed the complete terminology of the late period, then the intercessional should be called an erfemma. See BL. X X X V l I l and SBP. 174, 53, e t ~ . Note ~ especially that the intercession and recessional of the late series to Enlil, which so closely resembles the last melody here, also ends in this way, BL. p. 5 I . At any rate our tablet does not give the name of the series a t the end as d o the colophons of all the late series, so we may infer that this scribal method had not been adopted in the early p e r i ~ d . ~

I . babbar-ri babbar-ri-gim te-ga-bi-

I.
2.

~ l *
2.

mi-ri-mi-ri-gim te-ga-bi-@l

Like the sun, like the sun his approach illuminates. Like lightning his approach illuminates.

'See BL. XLV. BL. p. 123, 9; SUP. 195, 72. 3 Z 1 ~ KL. X introduction t o No. 1 2 on thc basin of a copy hy Rnohu, has already ~ ~ ~ ~ , discovered t h e connection between 497 and VAT. ,334. 'According to IV KAW.I I , b 50, a similar series t o Enlil was known as dbabbnr-gim t-la, "Arise like the Sun-god." Such also war the title employed for this series by the catalogues of series in the Neo-Babylonian period, IV R. 53 1 5 dbabbar-gim-bma, and the old erirmmn from which the scrier arose has the same title (dbnbbar-girn-2-la) t h e great catalogue 1 1 1 16. in A small catalogue published by L V C K E N B C L L in AJSL. V o l 26, has in line 8 this title in the

" in a n unpublished tent. 4. 14. the 'This restoration in n o t justified by the parallel passages for the names of secular buildings do not occur in liturgies. % F o r emphatic verbal ending a-ri see BL. ra7 and SRP. The brick-walls of the palace he illuminates. [ie-ib] nibru-(ki)-na e-en-zal-a-ri 8. lo. I I . No. [This term bar-k occurs as yet outside the catalogue 1 34-39 only on K. 3. 16. UDI "u-ul-lil-li 3.1 5 ~ UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION 4. ie-ib tin-fir-(ki)-la e-en-ral-a-ri 1 5 . Note also the N. ie-ib ul-ma?-a-ta a-en-ral-a-ri 14. 237. to. form dbabbar-gim ud-da-im-ta. The brick-walls of Sagilla he illuminates. 53 I 35 with the addition of bar-k and this occurs also a t the end of K. 6. see SBP. where it forms part of the second tablet of a weeping mother series. On the brick-walls of UlmaS he shines. The bull the city illuminates. dSamai-b~nlil. "palace" a t Nippur recurs frequently in the documents excavated there. S o traces by ZIMMERN. see Exporifory Timer X X 457. 9. therefore. 8. T h e egalla ar eknlb. Babbar-Enlil illuminates. [The brick-walls] of Ekur he illuminates. probable that e-nun renders here the Semitic name Anunilum. ie-ib sag-il-la e-en-ral-a-ri 16. nin-u1. I 3. Pr. ud mzii fil-e ud gin til-e6 Babbar the exalted illuminates. dmu-ul-lil-li urh-na e-en-zal-a-ri 7.=SBP. rg ff. 95. UDL e-lum-e mu-un-ral-a-rz" mu-un-zal-a-ri 5. see Tammu? and Ishlar. [ie-ib f 1-kur-ra-ka e-en-zal-a-ri 9. On Babylon he shines. Spirit that brings the youth t o extremity.] T h e titles of series are invariably identical with their first liner. I t is. 98 f . The city of Anunit he illuminates. The brick-walls of Ebarra he illuminates. nix-mu1 connected him with the stars probably as the son of Anu." a title of Enlil dpes seem Enlil is obviously connected with light in these lines and his father-mother names en-ul. 10-12. lg ff. 12. 6 Eulma3 war the temple of Anunit in Sippnr-Anutlit or Agade. 3264. 5. ."Shamash is Enlil. 187. 6 Here begins a passage t o the Word or Spirit of Wrath which occurs also in SBH. T h e same series appears in the catalogue IV R. On the brick-walls of Sippar he shines. [Ie-ib rimbir-Iki-ta e-en-zal-a-ri re-ib t-bdr-ra e-en-?a/-a-rt u Z4 danunitum-ma5 e-en-ral-a-ri 1i I I. am-e urzi e-en-zal-a-ri 6. T h e idea in the title of our liturgy seems to be nearly identical with the title of the other Enlil liturgy dbnbbol.gim &-la. 12 I z. 7. KL. en-mul. spirit that brings the maid to extremity. 12. 3264 and seems to indicate that a well-known series has been rearranged. [ie-ib I -]gal-la3 e-en-ral-a-ri 10. 1 T h e restoration [dingirl-bobbnr which would make "God shamash. The brick-walls of Nippur he illuminates. 15. Enlil his city illuminates. 13.

. mi-a-na. 28. . . . [ . 23. . # V a r gk-gzlr-ru. . [d-mu-]un dug-ga-[lid-da . which contains the ends of lines ending a-ri. Lord of the faithful word. . The stall it destroys. . jj I. . .. 30. 32. . . Var. . . Var. Cr. . Small and great it slays. 8Here stood the first syllable of the verb form a t the end of lines 27-8. . 1 2 1 16. 22. Here the tablet certainly had a line to separate the first melody from the second. 112. [sib sag-gig-ga. . 102. gin-an-nu4 lal-gub gin-bi Ye-rimiri 23. . . mui-awna lal-gub3 mhi-bi ie-rims'ri 22. . *mu-ul-lil-li. 24. . . . . 95.] 3 I . . . . No. . . . . The father of the Land. . Upon the youth it arrives and that youth wails aloud. . Var. see Sum. Var. . [d-mu-]un-e [kur-kur-raR. ud fur gul-e ud a m a i sir- ri 18. mkj-a-[naj nnm-mi-gub. . spirit whose intentions are not discerned. States that KL. . . ] N E 29. gugur. [ud-du dd-dzi-]dam iu-ih [al-mama1 2 5 . . gurgur. .KL. [gif-mes gal-gal-]e5 gh-ri"[uY-dmme1 24. . . 2 3 . to sweep away. 25. . .I rig-?$-em maj-ba 17. spirit that desolates the folds. 120. if no interlude was used here. The great misu-trees it sweeps away. cf. 219 gur I. [e-ne-em denu-ul-liGli bul-bul-dm 'i-dl nu-bar-bar-]ri 26.I 30. [a-a ka-nag-ga . . . . . . . . has another emphatic particle nam. Theshepherd of thedark-headed people. . . For guy. or bi. . . . This syllable followed the seven names of Enlil as an abbreviation. . . . but this is not probable. tug-alag-di ud jib-ba nu-pad-dhda-ril 19. da portfined passive particle. 21. the verb ended in di or ne. . or. X. . 3 1 . . thr al-gul-gul-e a m a i sir-sir-ri 20. . . Possessor of wisdom. . . BL. 'These signs correspond to KL. mu-da-abgi-gi2 2 1 . NE 28. 18. Line 27 probably contained a n interlude. . 27. The lord of the lands. L\lar. 19. etc. j g ZIMMERN. . then it represents the first line of some melody. 20. . . Upon the maid it arrives and that maiden wails aloud.] 32. . for this form of melady SBP. . . .S T E P H E N LANGDON-SUMERLAN L I T U R G I C A L TEXTS I59 I 7. Spirit that destroys the stalls. . mu-dm-da-ab-gi-gi. 37 and also SBP. e. . The word of Enlil rushes forth and eye beholds it not. That the first melody ended here seems evident from the fact that line 2 5 is the end of a melody on the variant SBH. . qo. . 29. the sheepfold it desolates. I I I . . is a duplicate of the end of this column. . 26. Spirit that reduces all things to obedience. . . . . 27. .. .

s'e-ib tin-fir-(ki)-ka-[ta I-sag-il-la ba 7. Against the brick-walls of Tintir and Esagila. bll rirhi. 4. 6. urzi-ta zi-mu-un-bi [na-dm-ba-daan-tar] 8. [zi-lul-la dzir-dzir. 8.. all the Land is terrorized. mu-lu-sir-ra2 ti [nibru-(ki-)fa ba] 4. etc. 35. . T a r .] 3 5. 'Chapel of Enlil in Ekur. Here followed about five lines concluding the melody and the end of the column. ga-ia-an-bi gi-gi-a6 [ba-da-an-tui] 9.kzir] 6. of Kenur and Enamtila he is estranged. 5 Sic! an error of dittography.. 2. SBP. 238. The master of threnody against the abodes of Nippur is estranged. s'e-ib I-knr-ra-fa [ken-fir3 L-namti-la4 ba] 5 . Against the brick-walls of Ekur. 7. [i-dt-dzi ni-te-nu. Against the brick-walls of Sippar and the abode Ebarra he is estranged. same title is applied to Cula in KL. . . 'Var. [ a m erin-na sh-sh. 2. here a title of Enlil as the one who caused the lamentations of Nippur. I.] 33. 3. 'Chapel of Ninlil in Ekur. all the Land is terrorized. urzi &mu-uns-[bi li li-bt-in-tarra-bi The shepherd is estranged. . 9. gig-gig-bi. 2 5 1 1 7. . dam-gal-ra ba-da-[kzir dzi-a kanag-gd al-lzi] urzi-fa dam-gal-ra [ba-da-kzir dzia ka-nag-gd al-lzi] 3 . whose lord no longer guides its destiny. The city. .I 60 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION 33. I. .] 34. . 5.. He that quiets the strength of rebellion. . 34. Ninlil. Text e-en which is probably erroneous. . He of self-created vision. Its mistress7 sits in misery. The ' . . Against the city whose lord has cursed it. ie-ib L5 zimbir-(ki-)[ta I i I-bar-ra bada. Against the city the shepherd is estranged. . . The hero who directs his host . I kar.

idim-ma-ra [sic!]. Var.ra- 19. 229. v.STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN LITURGICAL TEXTS 161 3-mu-un-e d[mu-ul-lil-li lil-la-di fu-ra-bill . gaiiiu. en-bi mi-pdr-lofa ba. be nervous. mulu. 'Var. ". par. 66. I I . SBP. 12. mulu er-ra-ge er mu-nz-zb-ses-ses 12. 77. a. golZfu. 20. Var. Var. Sum. '. u-mu-un dim-13ma kur-rh baGI4 2I. sib-bt gi-e+ mu-ni-ib-ne5 lo. maiiiL. tread. The variant has the ordinary word for lord.~ ~ = m u d u l u . '47."".Oringar. cf. I 5. See RA. 64 n. IV (unpublished). Vac. Her high-priest from the dark chamber1' has gone forth.'2 19. GI. mu-diL1-2di giF-gi+-3mu-ni-ib[dzig?] 14. 5ne=nad. The lord cried aloud and rode to the mountains. The shepherd sits down t o play the reed of weeping. staff. labar. This word goes back to r n u . ' 8 Var." I I . 37. 238. 16. The anointer commands no more the atonement. The gudu gif-asilal-ld6 nu-mu-ni-ib-bl 16. hasten. 6 Var. = m d u l<mudur=hatlzl. gir-gir. 24. 18. "Here begins KL. all words for pole. SBH. 238. 15. ' Here begins KL. the root is gir ( I ) . lo. ib. Berlin. SBP. Which the lord Enlil surrendered to the winds. . Her queen cried aloud and rode to the mountains. 11. The wailer beats himself. 25. 10% 'Were the later version has a n insertion concern in^ the psalmist. lo Var. gudu-bi arilol-ld=pniiiru duppir. 2 I . F R A N K . 19. Religion. Col. hasten. her queen remains not. The psalmist commands no more the "How long thy heart?" 17. 240. mulu ad-da-ge ad-[du mu-ni-ibgar1 1 3 . see BL. this fixes also the original sense o f jbpu. staff. 16. The anointer departs from his riches. jj 11. 14. "giparu usually indicates a stage of the ?igurrot. er-ra. 1 3 . Her sovereign remains not. Here used also for shepherd. The mourner mourns. [ga-]3a-[an]-bi15 dim-ma13 kur-izi ba-da-~%'~ herdsman hastens in distress.~ u r = G ~ ~ . 2559. d-mu-un-bi nu-mu-un-ti1 ga-fa[a&-] nu-mu-un-ti1 bi 20. I =SBP. gala-e7 a jag-~u nu-mu-?zi-ib-bts I 7. fa. giilalti. v. baton. 12 I I . X I X f. Var. gudu-bi dug-li-dagba-ra- 2 L 18.

SBH. 62. I I Col. Her. . z j haveri. 29. Within her the master of threnody and weeping has caused men to go forth. . The fox's tail bristled.b i lil-la-dm bar-bi lil-la-im 22. an-gh-ab-bi ba-gal-gal 30. . Her. . Thin form yields the true reading of IM-DIRIG and also establishes the word ni. . 45 ri. on theother hand. irpitu. i-e iid-lal=tubb SBH qzb 24 and mad=tublz I 1 R. Cr. 24. . . . . de-dr-e. i lo 51 <ti-ii-gn=ni-rig=urpafu. 53. rro 47 and Nip. Within her is the whistling wind. 62. j j 11 3 and S B H . On this passage see Sum. gab 2 1 . 926 7. m u m a k b i i-ra in-dib 29. a 8 Cf. SBH. ni for wind. text 2 . . See also SBH. . . 254 (ur 12). At the end of IV Raw. Refiorts 2 S B P . . SBH. b a . 92b 9. Her treasure house f r o m its place has been seifed. 4561 1 14 have gu which is obviously the true reading. 28. . .5 2 5 . g. 6 S o also KL. . see THOMPSON.j u . . 103 Rev. ' Var. without her is the whistling wind. 6 2 . Her interior by the wind is made desolate. 27. Also a t the end of SBH. 25. . ' For this reading of NAR-A. This melody must have continued for a t least ten lines. a l<L. . .' 26. 240. ~'ZIMMERN'S has Dl.22. . 62 a break of similar length must be conjectured. 11I1 1 5 . . . fib-bi si-ga" ni-gul-gul-e 26. i 9 Probably for im-fa-xi-ba=u?tii-iunuti lamar-mad=tubluZ Cf.SBH.29 lV R. .mai-bi'0 ki-"ba i-ni-gidda 28. . h a s been taken. IV R. Z b . 33 I1 5. I a break of at least twelve Sumerian lines must be assumed if the melody ended a t the bottom.gzb8 have e-dt-bigul-a ni-gul-gut-c. gzb 6. T h e many colored bird shrieked aloud. ka-a' kun-bi mi-ni-ib-zir-Cr-e2 23. Fib-bi mu-lu sir-ra8 m u l u im-tane-an 27.has been demolished. See also SBH. SBP. m a r ( ? ) . a 49. fublu designates some part of the temple here. 'HereSBH. 23. . . v. a2b 2 1 Xf. ma-lu rir-ar-ra=bil ~ i r gu bikiti. d ~ r . . 242. 21 and gzb 20 dr-fir-ra. . but IV R. ~ r 53=SBH.~ #A-il-la im-fa-di-di-e4 e 24.

27 if-mag: rec also 106. d-[mu-un mu-du-ru sig-iudu] Here followed at least ten lines to the end of the column which can be supplied from SBP. Mother3 of the house of the famous one. . his bride. . 154. 154. 29 has sukkal which should be corrected to nun." but rim. ~ 12. 8. (29) 12. His spouse.. lord of Babylon. built by the canal. . which is obviously the original of the meaningless PAP-nun-an-hi." i. ' Cf. The first born daughter of Ura?X. . Panunnakige. No. ." Read dam with all variants. I =SBP. see SAK.' 7. 9. IV I . ama &-mapddam-gaCnunna-ge (25) 8. On the other hand I 12. 23. 'For this title cf Nurku. . i 4 ff. ( 0 1 . Probable reading for an unintelligible sign. mod should not render $4r2c. Asarludug. t 54. bit rlri probably means the building constructed near a river where the priests performed the rituals of the water-cult of Eridu. I 1 5 n. The lord of the wand. . dasar-ld-dug iL-mu-un tintir-(ki)-ge (26) 9. has For pd-nun-an-ki-ge. "Mother of the famous son. house of Marduk god of the water cult." T h e Sumerian has no reference t o "field" but designates this building as the "house of the famous one.. see BL. 26. 30 has the sign MAL. 6 8 V 5 1 (and 88 I). 13. 3 3 ' . 28 etc. The text of SBH. probably a technical name. No. 56 Rev. The divine wild bull of heaven and earth. I 54. . Cf. 6.. he named with a good name.. 10. goddess. PAP-nun-no-ki. . 85. 134. e ." i. 13. mu-ud-na-ni dpd-nun-naki-ge5 (27) lo. great spouse4 of the prince. 2 Rev. adorned with ~ p l e n d o r . For the i-ma% of E-ninna a t Laganh. 'Here followed some unknown title of Nebo not found in other liturgies." ' S B H 85. 154. wild bull of the holy city. SRP. I . . e . 41-mat and Imnd=bil &i. SBP. 'Var. T h e name seems t o mean "Canal of the prince (Ea) of heaven and earth. see BL. "field. dumu8-sag d[urai-a C-gi-ani ] (30) I 3. Marduk. The faithful messenger. ZIMMERN sin. The faithful messenger.. SBP. I I . sukkal6-lid mu-dug-ga-sd[a I (28) I I . . "lofty. but izlkkal alone is correct. 26 has amn dumu-mad. 7 and IV R. . rukkal-dd it-mu-un [. '"Mother" is probably used in a pregnant sense. or E.STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN LITURGICAL TEXTS (About twenty-two tines broken from the top. SBH. 31. highland. "she who bore the god of the house of the water cull. .) (24) 7. BL. Cf. z i * No.

. . . "The strange land altogether he terrified. .. 'Title of Ramman? Cf. ....... 5.... urzi-mu-a. gz.... which by my name was not called. .. .. 20. . . . No. "The strange land he smites. .. 1 5 0 ........ . below..... kur ur-ba um-mi-in-ful u& ia mu-mu ni-pad-dl The name of the builded temple by my name is named. . . ur-sag ligir?.. . 16.6 (16) ( I7) I. . titleof NinuraQ .. 4.. . ] 19. ... .. I. The name of the builded city by my name is called. . . 18. 2 . kur in-gar-e kur in-ga-sig mu-mu ni-pad-dl (19) 4. I 7. . . and EL.6 ... (18) 3. . pa-fe-si-ge(?).. 4... Zi-mu-un-si' d[mu-ul-lil-lri] ni ligir 7.." shall my name be called...) . .. SBH. .." shall my name be called. . ... z for fa-$!) X i .. . . note 5 1.. .. . ... 'Cf.. 3.. .. . . Read umun after gal? ' KL.. . mu 4-dzi-a mu-mu pad-dt mu-mu nu-pad-dt mu urzi-dzi-a mu-mu pad-dt mu-mu nu-pad-dl 2. .. . . . . nin4... nibru-(ki).. . . slab Ie-ib &k~*r-ro rti-dd-a-gl-gil 21.ga-[Fa-an... .. .. .. .. however. Restore.. ... 20. .. [hi-id-hi-inr lralng gh-de I?? 'Here ended this column. . . 56. . the strange land he humiliated. . 56 r. . 22. BL. .UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION (About twenty lines broken away. .. . zo. ama-gal. SBP. .. I . . ... .. . 16 1 1. . . 'amurrii [mu-lu far-sag-grige?l 9-1 5 no traces. . . 3. 1 8 Rev.. . . I 1 1 1 .. which by my name was not called.. !z=KL.. .. 2 ..

" ?a-e-fa. "hasten." for a. 9. 26. {bid. be reconciled.[ n a l h i . (27) 12.?i-ti-ta=ina upd. Here begins a variant in SBH. 1 3 . Cr. Oh heart of the great hero. has Cba-ra=dr-ha. 8. energetic imperative. For 2-bar-ro. 32. 18. 49. RL. Unto Nippur like the sun hasten gloriously. . For upzl. 12. r. Si-ab s'u-mu-un-tzig-[mall im-R radu'-[a Iq (30) I 5. "water. a-(ti-a)-mu(!)-a um-miin-sur mu-mu ni-pad. Var. tn-e=?6 or 72 is for fa1 > ?d > 78.waters he maker clean. be reconciled. KING. 111 2 and p. KL. I 5. cf. etc. 44 r. KL. . nippur-(ki) dbabbar-gim lae-[ta E-bar.z i gi-zi (25) (26) lo. ki-bal zar-ri-es'-e' mu-ungil-giP mu-mu ni. Cf. . 70. . a-rh > e-su > e-?u. 25. [uru-]zudbabbar-gim fa-e-ta [E-bar-r~]'~. 84. NO. kur-kur zar-ri-8s'-eL mu-ungab-gab2 m u m u ni-paddh ( 2 1 ) 6. . 1 has Fag dgu-la. ran dmu-ul-lil-ld ni-zi ni-zi [s'ag ur-sag-gal] gi-zi gi-zi II. On this root see Sum. gi-zi giiL] (29) 14. . 1 4 .[zi] (28) I 3. gi-zi] gi. . CT. etc. Oh heart o f . repose.ra] 5 ." KL. "waters of t h e city. ' I . be reconciled." shall my name be called. SBP. .be reconciled. . NinuraZ.. be reconciled. BL. in KL. 128. . [iag. Sic! gnb-gab = tab-tab = hummuru. SBH. "With." for which SCHEIL. 14. 90. IV R. I I . (31) 16. oh heart.STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN LITURGICAL TEXTS 165 5. Sic! not NE. 207. 110 note." shall my name he called. Oh heart. 6. 2 I *b 30 and Sum. 49. 4. 2 I lo. Cr. "The lands in anger he devastated. k u d . "The hostile land in anger he destroyed. I T h e remaining lines are c o m ~ l e t e dbv KL. . 2 14.a title of Anu. for the tendency of open d t o became 2. 12 and SBH. Tammu? has o-urzl. be reconciled. Oh heart of Anu." my name shall be called. . Cf. $ 3 . No. To cause the heart t o repose. MngL 2 0 . lo. be reconciled. be reconciled. Oh heart of Enlil. Cf. For in-e-tn this text has ti-ti-ta. cf. 16 left column. 4 and MEEK. "waters were not.d t (20) (23) 8. 5. [ f a g . etc. let us speak unto thee. 16. repose. zo. be reconciled.paddh (22) 7. cf.' be reconciled. 32. Oh heart of. $2 16. 37. E .. *Cf. . Cf. Unto thy city like the sun hasten gloriously. 7. 6=mh. iag a n . 84 ia-ab gi-3. . . BL. iag gi-zi gi-zi4 Si-ab tzig-e tzig-es (24) 9. 1 nu-me-a. . Var.

I. Sagilla be built. SRH. 10. BL.] ge-dzi-e r I . 5 1 . I I . 78. be built. 19. . Unto Esagilla like the sun hasten gloriously. gar-sag-kalam-ma Re-dzi-e I-fdrkalam-ma ge-d%-e 1 Unto Ebarra like the sun hasten gloriously. Probably both temples in quarters of Erech. 3. r z Rev. According t o KL. First linc on KL. [Kenur and Enamtila] be built. I l l . limbir-(ki) dbabbar-gim la[e-ta 2-bar-ra] 17. I-sd-kud-kalam-ma Re-du-e [.21. 6. z. t-?z-da3 je-dzi-e kzr-(hi) ge-dzi-e 13. Eturkalamma be built5 I. I-kur dbabbar-gim la-[e-ta i bar-ra] (33) 18. 6. I-kzSib-ba ge-dzi-e I-me-te-ur-sag Be-dzi-e 14. 31 f . So ZIMMERN'Stext. 2. Ebarra be built. Esakudkalam-ma be built. rimbir-hi je-dzi-e [I-bdr-ra]Be-dzi-e lo. IV 185 n. 5. tin-lir-(hi) Re-dzi-e sag-ila Re-d%-e rz. 7. ken-zir "abbar-gim [la-e-ta 2-bar-ra] (34) 19. [ken-zir I-nam-ti-la] ge-dzi-e 9. Kish be built. Not ki. cf. Sippar be built. . where evidence warrants t h e conclusion t h a t EkiZib was t h e chapel of Emetenuirag. .I 66 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION (32) 17. . Babylon be built. BL. Harsagkalamma be built. 93. Unto Babylon like the sun hasten gloriously. 7. 12. . 199 r. 4. 4Templer in Kish. 3. 7 f . . [Thy city Nippur] be built. Ezida be built. See VAB. Cf. Unto the city of Anunit like the sun hasten gloriously.. Unto Kenur like the sun hasten gloriously. [Thy temple Ekur] in Nippur be built. Unto Ulmas like the sun hasten gloriously 4. . 1 31 Uarsagkalamma is also the name of a temple i n Kish. 8. 3Although Barsippa is not mentioned yet Ezida probably refers t o t h e temple of Nebo there and not t o the Nebo chapel in Esagilla. 2 . 41 f. 18.-a-e-[ta [2-]bar-ra' [I-sag-il-la] dbabbar-gim ra-e-[ta ibar-ra] [nippur-ki urzi-]lu2urzi-ruge-dzi-e [t-kur I-zu nippur-(ki) Re-dzi-e 8. Emeteursag be built: 14. [I-b2r-ra dbabbar-gim la-e-!a ibar-ra] [urzi danunitum-ma dbabbar-gim la-e-fa 2-bar-ra] [I-ul-ma? dbabbar-Rim ?a-e-ta 2bar-ra] [tin-tir-(ki)dbabbar-]&m . 13. 5. 9. cf. Ekisibba be built. Unto Ekur like the sun hasten gloriously. . 70. Unto Sippar like the sun hasten gloriously.

45 ff. [Oh heart be reconciled. is a n Assyrian duplicate. oh heart repose. No. 1 venture to designate BL. Cutha be built. 73 Rev. RL. No. No. possibly tablet 2 . T h e colophon which gave the name of the series is destroyed. 7 3 . Meslam be built. 'Cf.~On these hypotheses we have the greater Cf. This tablet (z?) has been edited in SBP. a t the end should be restored er-?em-ma dbabbargim 2-ta ?a '"'E~nlil. 73. mes-lam $edzi-e [ke-dzi-elk-i-bi-avz- 5. 238-47. I 1 of the ancient allied Enlil series babbar-ri babbari-gim leg-ga-bi lal. E-ibe-Anu be built. [Fag-ili-tzim je-ra-ab-bi] 16. 44. [Sag-gi-zi Sag fzig-mal-h] 16.] SBH. for a new edition of SBP. duplicate of IV R. "LIKE T H E S U N HASTEN" This tablet belongs to the Neo-Babylonian redaction of the series "abbar-gim-2-ta and is probably the fifth or next to the last tablet. 32. RL. Col. Dilbat be built. 18.] 19.]= 18. I I an Assyrian copy. but if our conjectures be correct BL. gzi-dzi-a-ki je-dzi-e dil-bad-(ki) n u ke-dc-el I 7. [May one utter petition unto thee. A Neo-Babylonian tablet of the same series is SBH. M F F K N O . This text contains the erxemma or recessional which ended a long Enlil liturgy. [May one utter i?ztercession unto thee. 39.3 an Assyrian copy.STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN I LITURGICAL TEXTS I 167 5 . 17. 5 1 . ' T h e restorations at the end of this column are conjectured. SERIES. which see. [dib-bi-izi-fzim Be-ra-ab-bi] 19. 3 3 . 238-43. as the sixth or last tablet. . SBH. Cf. I of tablet 2 ( ? ) has been copied into Obv. 7 5 . gg.

21 8 KEENER rives traces of two sienr which do not resemble ni.I 68 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION portions of three large tablets of this well-known Enlil liturgy.. (About twenty-five lines broken away at the top. The son he rescued and settled in a place not his own.giI3 .. 6... l36... Literally.. SRP.) I .. in M SAT...... zo. 3... d u m u bl-ib-tag nim-nim-ma blin-rub 7. The hoarded freasures thou hast given to the stranger.. . The wife he rescued and settled in a strange place..... 28* a j7=SBH. How long until thine estranged heart weary not? 4. ma-ra fi-Se-zib-ma ina la $5ra-[ti]-N(?) id-di' 8. I... Cf...2 2.. XVl 2 5 . mu-un-ga ma-al-la kzir-ri ba-an+em5 9.. BL. S B P ... 12-19. "in the highlands. Rut SBH. li.. gi?-gu-?a-alag-ga-bi kkr-ri ba-anda-tui 5..... ... i-dl-?u 2. ni is here a variant of nu IV and may perhaps have the value li. 136.. 82. %Cf. " " 90 K..... 6800. j. 138..~ uki-ma-al-[la nu-gi.. When thy neck is set it turns not back... iag-?u bal-bal li-izi ni4-kui-u 4. 8..kui-dl f i g .. The only other Enlil series whose contents are more completely known is the om-e bhr-an-na-ra series. Here preceded a litany like SBP.48 nu-kui-S. 231.. d a m b6ib-tlig ki-kkr-ra bt-in-Sub aS-Sa-ta fi-Se-zib-ma a-Sar :anim-ma id-di 6. ma-ak-ku-ri Sak-na ana nak-ri ta-ad-din 10. [G-di-?u nu... gil-ia-u ma-al-lu kzir-ri6 (iu-kutf a ia-kin-ta ana nakri faddin] I I . 9 6 1 2 9 ." SCi... In its holy throne the stranger sits. lo. I I . 'So MESSERSCHMIDT-UNGNAD ~ i s s u ~ n . The accumulated property thou hast given to the stranger. Thy seeing eyes weary not. 4.. la frequently occurs as phonetic variants of nu. SBP.

"Barsippa. 14 ino irii-iu. 18. "temple" (always masc. [dkur-gal am-]nad3 Fag-?u [nippur-ki ] uru-7u Re-dzi-e [nippur-ki ] 212-ka li-in-nipu-u&ma 23. etc. Etemeanki and the abode Edaranna be rebuilt. 'Here the scribe has written. 238. i u is employed. although it has the meaning "treasure house. 18. crouching wild-bull]. The pronouns can hardly refer Iukuttu for no evidence supports a meaning "chapel. shrine" for iukuftu." EL. . SRP. " ~ i p p a rbe rebuilt." (3) iix-fir-ki . Nippur thy city he rebuilt. g where it is a synonym of makkuru. 2 I . T h y city unto the stranger thou hast given.ina ku-us-si-?a1 el-li nak-ri ittada-ab 13. Cf. to 24. 17." These six line$ are: ( I ) fimbir-(ki) ge-dri-e. u~Zi-zn babbar-gim zi-zi-ta 2-bara 2I . "Six lines are omitted. Sag-fu Re-en-tug-ma1 bar-?u Reen-fed. etc" 4 i-a-ill I-13"-kalama de. "Esagilia and Eturkalama. bit-ka ana nak-ri ki-i ta-addin I 7. 6 mu-mel gli-ud-me?. 1 5 . [God o f the great mountain. etc. Kenur and Enamtila the abode(s) of Nippur be rebuilt. may thy heart repose. 9. ina ir-Si-Su el-li-tu Sa-nu-umma i-ni-il 1 5 . 6-1 1. "Babylon. where the marc. Thy temple unto the stranger thou hast given. [k-hurl t-?u it-dzie 24. 47. "Ebarra and Esakudkalama. 'Sic! but 1. May thy heart repose." (5) bod-ii-ab-bn-(ki) de." See for these lines SBP. 26. 25.d t 19. lo and i u cannot both be employed of the same antecedent unless one or the other is an error. a Restoration uncertain.[ g ? fag-7% 20. d-fu mu-1%-kzir-ra a-fim mu-anna-ti-em 16. Strike hi." (6) i-fi-da Ii i-mag-ti-la i t . SBH. Ekur thy temple be rebuilt. 19. 22. Cf. Unto thy city like the sun hasten in splendor. etc. 20.) as the antecedent and in as an error. 84. thy soul be at peace. [ken-zir 6-nam-+la ti] nippur-ra4 R e 2 5 [I-te-me-an-ki ti] 4-ddr-an-na Redzi 26. etc." (2) i-bd7-111 i-rd-kud-kalama ge.id. I regard bitu. mu-nad-bi2 azag-ga-bi kzir-ri baan-da-nad 14. "Enida and the shrine Emahtila. 18. 2 3 . Oh Enlil may thy heart repose. uru-?u mu-lu-kzir-ra a-gim 12. On its holy couch the stranger lies. Sic! an error. 13. 176. dmu-[ul-] i .

U N I V E R S I T Y MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION ana ali-ka ki-ma "'SarnSi ina u-pike ar-ha 28. . . s T h e melody continued here for about ten Sumerian lines to the end of the tablet. . . 1 3 I..I r a umun "mu-ul.. T h y command who can alter? 13. Qr-da-e and dbnbbar-girn ti-ti-la (or in-8-10) 2-ba-ra. 28.. 50 bi-tul-la. 120... j.. Unto Nippur t h y city like the sun in splendor hasten. etc. .. thou who hast p u t t h y fingers in thine ears. lord of lands. F a i f h f u l shepherd... Mighty hero. . 53 has a rendering suited t o the Semitic idiom. .. 5. Oh exalted one. Oh exalted one. .e. etc. . 2 . . 5 .. . . . mu-lu sag-ru-a tug ba-lul-la5 7. ... . I. lord Enbilulu. .. ... $ V a r SBH. n i p p u r . . These two mot+. 9.. $24.. T h y help who can surpass? Here again sin lines with the sin titles in note z and the refrain dbabbar-gim li-+la 2-bn-ro after each have been omitted... 'SBP. 3 . .. 7.urzi-zudbabbar-Kim ril 29. . i a Here began a melody whore molif is lost. 4 5 9 1 t K L . . [elim-ma?] umun kur-kur-[ra-gel 3. ... . . 8.. . .. . bur o c c ~ l there in the order dbnbbar-gim. I I. [. . 12.. ur-sag-gal umun den-bi-lu-lu 6. fig-zu ur-ra ba-e-ni-mar-ra 9. .. . ... . "Exalted. . characterize the last melody of the classical series Ni.. .^ Thou who hast covered t h y head with a garment..zl-ld 4.. . . elim-ma ur-sag dasar-l&-dug I. .. . . . ki-bit-ka man-nu u-nak-kar I 3.. .. . SBH.. [dzig-ga-pi a-ba mu-]un-kzir-ri d l 12.. . . .. ?&-a ro. t h e temple. T h y neck thou hast placed in thy bosom.. . . .. iag-zu gi-pisan-gim dm-ma ba- 8.. and Be-dC-e. ) ~ .. 4. . . . tat-a--7u a-ba mu-un-dib-bi-di lo...... 131.. 3..lord Enlil.. .. . . t-ddr-[an-nadbabbar-gim zi] 30. ... .. T h y heart like a reed water bucket thou hast covered.. 7.." ' . . . . ... .. . sib [ri-da?] sib sag-gigga 6. . 2 9 . 'Var.. . ..'... . . shepherd of the dark-headed people^.170 27.k i . . . heroic Asariudug.. Unto Edaranna like the sun in splendor hasten.. . 0 (Eight or ten lines m i ~ s i n g . . Exalted one thou hast p u t thine ears in thy bosom. 2.. .. e-lum mu-uf-pitug-?u ur-ra mini-ib-us-sa" I I .

.

with the same refrain. edited in SBP. 130-175 began as follows: Si-ab it-mu-un tzig-e-en-ne ul-li-ei i'i-ab tzig-ma1 bar tzig-mal-da lib-'bi-en me-en-ne Si-ab it-mu-un mu-an-tzig-e-en-ne ul-li-ei Ti-ab an-na Sag dasar-lit-dugmu-un. lag.. This is due to the fact that the Nippur text is more than 1500 years older than the Neo-Babylonian redaction in the muten-nu series."% Note that the prefix mu-un in line 4 indicates that we restore mu-un-tzig-e-en-ne. In8 (=alaku) when followed by NEshould probably be read lab-be. which consists of the lower half of a single column tablet. to pacify the soul let us go. mu-un. the heart of Marduk we will pacify. 130-179. Kultlieder 8 1V are closely ' T h e sign DU+DU. 156. 27. Liturgies of this kind recur trequently. Lines 4-13 of ZIMMERN. For example. ' S e e for these restorations Bobylonia~aI I I zqg . being repeated after a name and title of some god precisely as ab is repeated after names and titles of gods. The fragment is a partial variant of the fifth tablet of the series mntennu-nunu? gim. Obverse I is parallel to SBI'. The heart of Anu. etc. This liturgy then continues for more than one hundred lines. contains only interesting titles of various gods. followed by a refrain which began with ab. We the heart of the lord will pacify with gladness. tablet' five of a series edited in SBP. T o pacify the heart. A considerable number of divine names in the fifth tablet of the above series do not appear here. "The heart of the lord let us pacify with gladness.172 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION This fragment. 162. 5 1 and the last line on the reverse is parallel to SBP.

BE. see K ~ o a u ibid. 2 5 . 'mu < gii as in mu-uri=urinu. I l l I . 2 5 . 52. (13. t o be regarded with RADAU. I I I I =Obv. "the queen (sic!) unopposable. see Tammu< and lihtar 60. 3Var. ga-fa-an i-ri-ga-all a-ma ku-ulla-ba ab 2 . 1 Note 1." mother of Kullab. 7. For gii-uri. 4349 D 8 in Z CT. "Mother-womb. a variant of CT. husband bf Guia. I 5 Rev. 8 IV lo does not appear here and the order of the divine names is slightly different. 156. ~ = M I H R M A NBP. ma-sdzi in-da-ag5 ra mu-zi-ri-nu6 ab Oh queen of the "great city. j j en-d-nun is urn-mi ri-mi ila'Cula. 2 1 en-6-nun is a title of lnnini and amn gd-an-xi-ii-ge is rendered. I . 82. CT. jj. 86. queen of lamentation. CT. 25. 25. Gr. Gula. 86. 25. I I this is Gula.S T E P H E N LANGDON-SUMERIAN LITURGICAL TEXTS I73 parallel t o Rev. T h e theological list of gods. see Sum. CT. urn-mi ii-la-[ra inrrat la-su-u]. I<L. 33 places this title in the Gula section with her husband Pahilsag who below Rev. . 4. the urinu. I I Rev. r r Rev. KL. ia ~nildaliribilli labbu. "The mother lshiar. despite the Semitic translation above. An-gal. This text will proiie to be of surpassing interest for its spellings of hitherto obscure ideograms and will settle also the meanings and connections of several divine names. l T h e rendering of this phrase offers difficulty due to the preceding lacuna which obscures the connection." For den-d-nun amn gd-an-ni-ri as title of lnnini see also.. e . In SBH. 2 1 . ab j Chieftain Indag. see RA. a title common t o lnnini and Gula of Isin. 5 becomes her son. Enanun that harnesses the seven dogs. iilara iarrat iaizi (=lnnini as weeping mother) and umnzi rimi ia ila'Cula. 5 2 = q i . 2. 14 as a variant of g6-d-nu-id=gh-d-nu(n)-gi-o (by palatalization. SBP. i. According to CT. 574. j z ( = K. spear. z. 6 and Var. 2. 4349 D27). but KL. ab I. "[Iftar] who harnesses the seven lions. 158. Uncertain. who adduces dgd-n-nu-ii=il"'Allo(um. ab2 2 . z and forms a close parallel for several lines. 30. K. Ms. Also en-dnun nma gd-an-ni-ri-ge refers to Gula in SBH. z . . 58. Allatu and Nergal lord of the lower world. gd-an-ni-ri is perhaps. o f en-d-nun. !qa(b))=karradnt la la immabbar. of ilUEndaggo. "Mother-womb. IV 274 1 1 1 14. en-a-nu-un-dzir-ur-kuq imin ub 3. see S B P . 8. 25. Rev. 4 M y rendering depends upon the passage VAB. It is no longer possible t o restore this refrain. Hence En-6-""(")=En-d-nu-gi-a." In this aspect she is identified with the queen of Hades. 24. a spear with handle. KL. G13. V 130. thus Enanun (Gula) and Pabilsag are types of lnnini and Tammuz. 5 1 . ZIMMERN. 1 1 1 7. oh a t the end of these lines represents some verbal phrase which began with ob in a preceding line." restored from K." Var. 2 8 and kh-a-nu-ii. 4349 DZrecognizes both aspects of Enanun. . 82-5-22. ." a title emphasiring the mother goddess as patroness of childbirth.

J . Lab1 7. BP. potentate.. 61 umun nnm-ma-gr= KL.. C'I'.~ ~ = ~ S ER A SI.. 590 28=umun-nam-me-ge. 19og. 10. M E E K NO. . but the text omits zinzun.~ ~ . 51 =iw-kul-kul. Ill la. [ab] 9. means roasted cakes. 11. S B P . see 81-4-28. . .. SUP. Cr. 257. . Our text also omits. 158. libations. roast. see Tammu? and Irhtor. 5gn zg=rmun iin-krii-kril. 64. 829. 28. 231 and RA. . I I Rev.. flow. 79 and k i > kur is probably for gul. CT. KL. I i Rev. Berlin joz4 I j and diir=labdku.la-ri-ba. 158. . 5gb 28 is rendered bllu nabnil buntlane hkl mim-[ma iumiu]. . 35=23. a title of Nidaba the grain goddess." It also omits dnin-iig-gedguikinbanda.T I R . "e. I I I I I g. 86. pour. For giigal?? sbulug. u-mu-un i-ri-ga-a1 gu-si-sa6. iuropinnu.I T I K de-Ii-nu-ti are distinguished. [abl 5 . crab. E . or a t any rate a n under-world deity. 4 9 Rev. a 6 . . title of Nergal. the impetuous ox. 4. and obtained the meaning. 1 5 and I M Y H R M A N . 2. has followed the analogy of uiumgal. Potentate who the head. "Pure maid that walks the wide street of inferno. 48e jo. dur has probably the meanings. ." Syl. 8. etc." hence "the sculptured form." . S B P . 23. of gd-iCrd. CT. lo. " H e or she that sprinkles roasted grain. 26 MIR-SI (li-gir)=iuiapinnu. hence Erinu and Ainan are different types oi the and grain goddcsr. 72. 60= KL. thy foot is placed. creature o f a bright form." T h e Var. ruler. Sum. ir-ra-ga-a1 gu-si-sa4. . ~ 'ni-mi-ir=nimgir > ni-gir > li-gir=nagiru. $-mu-un nig-nam-ma-ge= bkl mimmn iumiu. ox who is unopposed. 1 1 1 7 kh-a-nu-ii=alPu la imnzahhor. I l l I 1 has the more common ozag-iug. . . 64= KL.4. ordinarily pronounced ainan. K .. ... 1 1 Rev. 24. IV R. 82. . hence "She that sprinkles the libation (of meal or grain). . . hence dnru. literally.. . [ab] 7.KL. and originally an astral title of Innini. . 58 has gd-dnu-rd= KL..T 1905.[ah] 5 . 158. a title of Nugal. dur~=A=rothu. . "sculptured. 24. cf. 63. Another title of this same god is inn-irril-kL1 (so read for iun-mu-mu) I I R. that sprinkles libations. g.. 17 and the same title also applies to the fire-god Gibil. his consort dl<A. 160. 14. 49. SBP. 2 5 . the iangammahuof Enlil. . [ab] 6. . 1 2 L ~ . See note on Enanun I 3 . 24. 24. dnin~ig=~*in-rig. . here (ellitu) as in PSBA. This passage yields the earliest known occurrence o f the word bulug which is earlier than the sign UULUC. 'durru s i p is a variant of A-SUC. . ." I I R. I I Rev. e-zi-nu6 dur-ru-si-ga7 dhr-ru Tari-ba[ab] . ni-in-xi-im-ma=nigna~nma. . and libation. after irragal. . .I 74 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION 4. This line is parallel to SRP. 41. I l l I i . 159. . I "Lord. Var. . . python. bridegroom. I I I lo. 158. . 23. . . SBI'." the statue-like figure. . that.mi-ri-pga-al-la-[biab] 6. 43. the impetuous ox.sovereign. [Lord] of whatsoever has a name. "pour out. [ab] 9. potentate. . . . "watered. In CT. [ab] gu ma-nu-un . ni-in-ni-5im-ma . see Sum. . 1 14. . I I Rev. . duruiug in SBP.Cl'. % ~ . Ezina. qog-rug. . 24. 9. .. iin=bunnonii.b a n mu-ga2 bu-lu-uk-ku3 zim a . Oh queen. 24=(mz~)irn-kur-kttr. ni-mi-ir' sa-ga Ra-an-du-ur sam a l .. r58. g a . I I R.I R. .L-idg-ga ril dognl-in din-nn=ardatu damkafu ia iu-12-r [rot-ii ?a ikril. 'Var. 'l'hc feminine nagiralu has not been found.linn is one a f the pronunciations of the name of the grain goddess S E . 57 f. 1-hese lines carrespond to S B P . ." Obviously hll mimma iumiu translates the other title nin-*a+*-mu.. e . 158. . alpu rnuileiiiru. . CT. lab1 8. . burn. and is connected with the root tot. arag probably . Gr. Oh lord of the vast abode. i. 28* b 1 2 . lord o f whatsoever has a name. Great (G)irra. SRP..

to shine. . see BL. 160. lo. . . ab Queen that gives life to the dying. ox. viril:. . "itirerally. 2. See now ru-ku=mairibu. Mircel. rub-be. j. Queen of the earth.~ i . ardalu. 8umzn mu:ido indicates primarily Ningijzida I 1 R. Coian-rubur=bbl irjitim. ab I. RA. lord [of the seizing hand] 12. ga-?a-an su-bu-ras ba-an-su-ur6a-nu ab zqz. abl gu-uz.STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN LITURGICAL T E X T S I75 lo. native citizen." Ninmarki. e-ri-da4 gu i-nu [. is probably an augmented form of eri to beget. where gi-ne=gin. 10. see RL. As title of Gejtinanna. "heavmly. 26. 7. lard. 232. .. Gr. pure. "table of the people. d-lu. is probably the same root as rud (j). iudu. 9 f. 16 and me-e gir-m2x=u-ba-ra-k~. 19. Far goian-rubur=Tammur. See Tammu: and Iihlar 7 n. for Nergal as healer see B ~ L L E N R ~ C H E R . . is probably the original of both iud. and gaian-iubura in our passage clearly refers t o Gula of [sin. . 4. Sum. SBH. Oh virile lord. 242. is called gii-baniur gir-gi-ne=pniiur=ubnrli. 2 and 1 8 and SBP. 5. On iubur sce Sunz. 8 and a title of Ninrubur. d-mu-un r n ~ . u b w is the ordinary value of a sign confused with SAH in the name of the god Nix-rubur. . . Note that K A D I is a title of both mother goddess and Tammuz. [ab] 12. 28. . but in all other passages this god is without consort and generally regarded as a herald of Anu sukknl Aninz. iud was derived (g > d ) . 47. . mistress. E . ." see Tammu: and lihlnr. . 367.S U ~ Z L I i. . 16. Thc figurative meaning of these passages B in apparently "One who supplies food. heavenly table. 5 i ~ b u r i i . qq. healer. 2. I . ~ 2 . p. from which rud. 59. . Var. etc. by gir-gi-na. "table of heaven. (2%. ab I I . SBP. 16. . ' r-ri-da. Gr. . d-mu-un a-piz d-mu-un e-[. 11. foreign resident. Nergal.Hence u-ha-ru. iug. ab. a MEEK. We have here another one of those feminine titles of the ancient mother goddess applied without reference to gender to the youthful god of vegetation. 1. . but more frequently Tammuz.[ab] 2. "Lord of the true tree. . [ab] j.87. 72. contrasted with mar dii. zqj. In SBP. a type of unmarried god related to Tammuz. "table for the fugitive handmaid. gir in AJSL. But gaian dSubur-ra refers la lnnini in SBP. anna. hence. meaning light. 94. 3." [ubarn*. and for the reading of the second sign see H n o z ~ vin ZA. 79 I l l lo. 1 A Kasrire king calls himself the poiinr niii." Our passage probably describes Gula an she that supplier food to mankind. . . 'iudz*. g=SBP. . Shurpu V l l l 41. fugitive am I.d a ~ 10. 160. e-ne. The root iug." R ~ o a u . . . 61. No. 17 p. a related type of mother goddess in KAOAU. 1 5 . 36. ibid. fugitive. and nma-rrixmgal-anna has the same indiscriminate application. . A root rug. SBP. ." whose neck . rcndered into Sum. the fern. I. d-mu-un ma-da Zu-dul a-naiab] I I. 8 and I I Gahn-subur seems t o be identified with the god of lsin and consort of Gula of lrin. a title entirely consonant with all the typcr of mother-goddesses. . 6. was suggested. Lord of the earth. variant rub-bi.. 5. 2Var. 2. be bright. a variant of irrei. Note ubarfu. 29 n. and iub. l i = B L . Lord. ab] ga-?a-an ti-il-dib-ba me ti. 160. Sum. 33=BL. Tammu: and Irblar. 160. a-na I take to be the ordinary theological addition aila. light of heaven. . .

106. du-mu-?u pa-bi-il-sa-kg2 lu-ku-UP nam-mu-?u4 ab 6. Queen of isin.5. In POLBEL. Var. whom Enlil and Ninlil begat in wedlock. ancient Semitic poem. Qunura is title of both Nina and Gula as patroness of healing Both in CT. ' V a r idg-ga-damku." MEEK. KL. 34 and SBP. Gula in this list reverts to her ancient unmarried character and is identical with lnnini. ~ a m u rdmu. scroll. and probably identical with mdi-iug=mnrik. 8 IV 4 and 1 1 Rev. 1gi2. but who is seized away from Innini. Syl. cf. sister o f Tammuz) Guia and Gunura ( = N i n i sister of Ningirsu). ab 7. SKU=tukultu has probably the value lukul. In astrology the constellation Pabilsag designates the Archer. who the floods causes to flow. H. 442) describes the brother of lnnini. Thy son Pabilsag. A. Pious Tammuz. who became a local ba'nl of Larak with his consort and sister or mother lnnini." and the rendering ro'imtu "she that loves" is secondary For gii-fu=mkdktu. hence by origin a mountain gad. SBP." Cud. C. 111 78. 66c 14 occurs between Belit-i8ri (=GeStinanna. KL. 1178. XV 6-7 (see D H ~ R M E in RA. 136. Tammuz as healer. ab 6. "sovereign of the lands. and HOLMA. OLZ. 265. a . See BL. 2 1 . lgjb and Harp. sce Del. 11." or "the merciful"(?). Pobil!. more especially with lnnini as a healer. leading-goat. VI 8). 8 IV 6 . mu-lu-mu-ju=ra'imtu. tarkulGof the Land. 33 Rev. . hence. type of Tammuz. gu-nu-ra5 di-im-gu-ul ka-nu-Zmmd ab 7. If this interpretation be or corrett nam-mu-~ucontains the root ?u with abstract prefix gii > ntui > mu and the abstract prefix nnm. Lett. ga-Fa-an i-si-na ma-Xu-gi' ki-ga ab 5. fukullum. mercy. 160. the comforter of wisdom (love?). 8 IV 5. "Mighty in wisdom. 20 Another gii-p~=tahler. A. 10-20. and the same title of Shamash in Bab. in SBH. wisdom. here called Pabilsag (col. mulu mu-ju really means b2l (or bdlif) mzidkti. refers obviously to lnnini and Tammuz or mother goddess and dying son under various typcs who were worshipped in the temple of Gula a t A55ur. 12. VII 18 ff. This list of eleven gods. the idea original with all the mother goddesses. Cyl. 2 T h i s phrase yields the true reading of the name PA-NE-SAG who in I l l R. rfio. See further. i j she occurs with Damu. Compare the sign name of K U . R ~ o a u R E . . O u r l i n e i s u i. Gunura. Shamash is mdi-sag kur-kur-ra=aiarid mnldta. is probably his most ancient name. 185. Our passage refers to Gula as the earth-mother. Larak was a part of the great city lsin whose gods Nix-urai and Gula are married types of Tammuz and lnnini. I I and 14. KL. W. SAI. 111 22. 53. ' nam-mufu=nnrdmu(7) probably not rLmu. 12-Zlnt. 4338 V qr places Pelilia8 between Nintircdigga (=Gula) and Damu (= Tammuz). Again K. tukul is then a Semitic loanword.176 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION 4. j o p . An. 160. 14. Creation 11 17.1 . 1 2 5 and Syl. CT. sovereign of the earth. ab 'maiugi=mdi-iag=aiaridu. chieftain. In any case the idea of love suits the character of Tammuz. "[litar] the loving. da-mu sa-fa7 me-ir-si ni-mi-ind i ab 4. in colophons. gal-mu-fu. 1 4 % . see a b o w note on obversz 2. i. lord.uriuntof S8P. hence the Sumerians regarded him as a hunter. 17. ab 5. leaves us in doubt concerning the root. who here becomes a married type under the name Gula-Enanun. gii-md-mug.ariag lord of Larak. " H e of wisdom.

KL. la at end of the lines. but see KL. 1 6and I 1 9ff. KL. and originally a type of the mother goddess lnnini. 24. ~ = z z . 18renders d . rig-gdl should be rendered by balu. 13 has no sign broken away before rig-gdl=oid (brilunz). 38177 and rokkan ( < la-go*) a dialectic variant. ni-te-na." and is connected with ia-gan (=mu'allidu) also a title of Gira. I I . 2 T h e tent has ta. 12. 'Since Gira is the god of cattle. jG=SBP. But d i u r u p ~ a k is given as a title of Ninlil in the great list. [For ?dr=duiid. I l l 3 1 . Lord. ab radiant eiendili. " r m ' e ~ . See alro THUREAU-DANGIN. I I Rev. C. ab 9.~ ~ ~ $ ~ ~ . called marat rub# apsi. 8 IV 8 ff. 7 = B L 72. Note the variant ni-a-an-na. 1. a title of Aja.n a m . 162. "be long. Ii=zi=napiitu. 25 Rev. is probably the root sir. 3. e-fi-ra nu-rim-in-& re-i-ti na-rimdib-dib-bij 12. su-mu-un-ga-anG7ig-gd17 igi-inba-ar zi s'z-im-dib-a ab 9. where she is also called 5 . later assodated with Shamash of Agade. As to the goddess Sud. 8 IV 8. god of the storms. ejendili probably denotes a s i m i k q d e a . 26.& iazag-ga-to. he who makes fat the catfle. rjq 1 1 4 f . daughter of Ea. 8 IV g. d-mu-un 8. 160. l o and iida-dm. CT. 12. 24. 161 n.~ .109. a passage which tends to show that 11 R. cattle. Lord of the life of Sumer. 1 5 . 1 1 . Hence the goddess of Shuruppak was a type of mother goddess especially connected with sunlight. Here we have a tendency to identify the mother goddess of Shuruppak with the married deity Ninlil of Nippur."daughter of the prince of the sea.1 This line corresponds t o KL. RA. depending on some other mot. . in SBP. 1. see Towmu7 oad /<Ator 96 f . zo." and dumu nun-a by [ma-rat ru-hi-]e. 8 IV 12. 1 1 1 20. su-ud du-mu nu-un-e-ie-en-di-li4 azag-[ga abl .g n." i. la5 Kev. lo. ru-ud-da-im=nar iam&. a form o f Gula. Gira. 8 IV 7 and nl-dG-an-na. of the life of the lands. ." see above. ~ u d .~ m -sic!)-la. SBP. SBP. who causes them to have grass. rig-gdl Idr-idr-hi.a& . "Gira son of Shamash. 1 2 ) and Suruppak like Larak was probably a part of the great city Isin.Go. e." rumu-gan contains the root gan=alddu.u d . "daughter of the prince. 134. V ~ T KL." hence serpent.. SBP.thr gaddesrof Shuruppak. domestic Catalogue No. Sud.( b a . see Syl. 160.32. d-mu-un dimmer am i-di-en' a6" iz3 ka-nu-rim-md ?i kur-kur-ral lo. diu-kur-nl durnu n ~ n . BM. CT. i-sir=&-ri-ir. 8 IV 13 d ~ ~ . which I have corrected. ' KL. SBP. the god who gives heed to the cattle.t e . For KA-Dl as a serpent god see Tampnut and Irhtor. 298.~ ~ .c . BA variant of rumugan <sumukan=i'"Cirra. 158. i Thusa . 11. rendered by jiru in Semitic. note on Obv. has a similar title of Gira. a title of lnnini as Venus. 14. 17. Also DELAPORTE. . Hence iu-ad and ril-ud-am are titles of diuruppak. "to beget.S T E P H E N LANGDON-SUMERIAN LITURGICAL TEXTS '77 8. 160.m ~ n a . note that SBH. animals. p. 24. bull of terror. I = S B H ." This goddess is clearly a form of Gula (see SBP.d m by "ditto. goddess of sunlight. 18. 10 dCira dumu d ~ a b b n r nig-nnm-nu-ge. daughter of the prince. 104. 81-8-30. dsu-hzwu durn%-nun-abp-la. 8. Sudnm. ab 'Var. ASKT. 5. T h e Sumerian and Semitic words are not philogically connected. 26. iir=zir. The noun rud probably means "light. god of the cattle and son of Shamanh. modern Fara. Note alro that Shamash and Aja come under the Ea pantheon. dru-ud-dm clearly refers to Aja marat d l . Cf. . SBP. dgir nzai-nniu igi-bar [ k ]na-dm-ma-thk-1Pk to. SBH. . I 12. dib-d b-b we have a t last the reading of the ophidian god KA-Dl of Dir. 75 and IV R./. 98. r r Rev. iab shepherd of whatsoever exists. T h e line corresponds t o SBP. drl-ud-iwz =ma l kidb-ba.

zoo the king is said to be the son of Enlil. Two other well-preserved liturgies of his cult have been found. Note Var. ra. zoo. "ir-tebc. 8 IV I I. KI. patron of cattle. 7 1 8 4 . 27. la. Gr. where pa. "ear of corn. . of lir=fnkonu. . KL. Var. is omitted.. but in Ni. Inlzi. T h e in latter text. I I.0164. ki-nb-sim-4 e ?i-ri. fourth king of the dynasty of Isin. For thc rise of a phonetic nasal. 162. [en-gi]-im-du ab-si-im-ma1e-pari3 gi-ir4 [Se-gu-]numa-as ab 1 3 . 25.." SOalso den-gi-du. ." SBH. r i are employed here for the conjunction and. den-ki-im-du. iaglirnfar=iaglifar=piikidu. . who causes the gunzigrain to thrive. like Ni. is a single column tablet. $d. mg-rir-sir (or iar-rar). . This single column liturgical text of sixty-five lines belongs t o the corpus of ritualistic hymns and prayers written for the cult of the deified lshme-Dagan. 162. This explains also why the mother goddess Bau. "wash. p a l on the edge is unintelligible. . This deity is thc well-known iiUEahidu.~ and water courses to lave the corn. E n g i d ~ who causes the canals . 24. In our text and in KL. 4563 published in this volume and one in the Berlin collection. . hence related to the Nebo group. r z r . 1-6 (2 A. but SBP. Ni. 4563 the god Dagan is his father. 77. and ci. is praised as the divinity 'abjiin > abjin > abicnu. KL." 'SBP. Berlin 2559 1 39 gives gigri( < gir-gir)=tabzi. 1 1 35-41 and in K. cf. 28. published by ZIMMERN his Kultlieder No. For ?ir="to wash. 380) where he is called lugol-e-pd ra-ah[?. 37.I.1 7 ~ UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION 13. The present hymn clearly originated in the temple schools of Lagash. since that city 'and its temples figure chiefly in the local references. but contains only the twelfth strophe or melody of a long liturgy. related to Gira. 58 where both titles iollow 'TaSmetum. Col." cf. lave. see Sum. who enjoyed an unusually long reign of twenty years. A description of him is given in the Nrst book of the Epic of Gilgamish. a7 umun-e-pd-n-ra. ti-ir. Var. Voc. RA. 8 IV I I . CI'. glassed kar-kar(!)=rummuku. Since the thcologianr regard him as specially connected with canals the name probably means b 8 b Fa irriiom udahbadu. 8 I V I I mli-a. . "lord that makes the earth fruitful. 217 (gir 7). divine patroness of Lagash.

. . She that keepeth the great decrees of Sumugan. . .. . I.. . . No. 7. nin-a-zu-gal sag-gig-ga lu-ti-li ld d-fud 7. . . . the illustrious lady. . . . . . . . . p. . . 8. . . . She that apportions wine. . as in t h e case of a similar hymn to ldin-Dagan.u a sal-lid nin-gal d["Zag-ta-de-aga bur. . . I . she that choseth the oflspring of the sheepfolds. . .s u . Princess Bau. She that possesseth a solicitous heart. Celestial daughter. the faithful woman. . . . . . see Sum. . . n i n ni-ila. . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . compassionate cow of the Land. . . iu-kal geitin kai-e ie KU4 kalama lu-a . . . This title of Bau is unknown to me ' For lid? . . . . . 2 . . beer and barley-meal(?) unto the Land . . . . t h e heroic. she that created man. . 3. Perhaps 7'UD or N I N . .STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN LITURGICAL TEXTS I79 who cares for the deified ruler. . . . . . 3. in-ni-si 5. she that gave life to man. . The vigorous. dumu-an-nu tdr KA-pad-dt 6. . dingir sumugan me-ma& Xu-dh . . . z . Great queenly healer of the dark-headed people. . . the peeress. lady who. . .Gr. il-lu-gal-lu 4. Although the statue or image of the worshipped king is not mentioned. she whose hand filleth the. . Lady that beareth awe. . 5 . . . . ~ ~ . . 196. ' Published by R a o ~ u Mircel. goddess NIN(1)-Yagtadeaga. Perhaps lriiig of T U N confused with XeIiig of UK. a fact which reveals once more the practice of borrowing well-known and popular choral compositions from the various cults. T h e tablet was found a t Nippur. . . . . . . . . 8.u n .bowl. ligir(?)2 dba-h gh-gal n i x . . 4. lady ur-sag. z . . .. . . . . . . . . Zag-lal-tuk iilum-sud kalam-ma nzn-gar . . . . . Our hymn was sung by the choir in the presence of a statue of Ishme-Dagan in a chapel a t Lagash and later a t Nippur. . the farfamed bearer of. . . . .l nevertheless lines 26-7 of the reverse make evident the situation.

.

30. . T h e queen that holds universal power. 23. see also BE. "holds the boundary. 29. Celestial daughter. thy beloved abode. 57n 36: RA. lshmeDagan son of Enlil. . alley. passenring heroic strength." then t o possess. p. 23. good things decreed in order t h a t life of days may go forth forever. 26. in any case connected with tar in tarkullu. In Lagash and Gir-su metropolis of the Land. 24 I 1 4. and R A . . See SAK. 102.~ magnificent hall. S i l ~ i r s i rtemple of lordship. LITURGICAL TEXTS 4-ninnzi uru-alag I? nun~un-i sag. 24.mu-ri-PA+KAB+DU 23. 28. e3 probably indicates t h e past tense here. . 4. See also Ni. band of heaven and earth. See also G ~ ~ o u l ~ iDrehrm. 1 . Hence a long narrow chapel of Bau in the temple Eninno. T h y magnificent dwelling place. . 1 I I 2 0 and I I end. 4566. Index. 20. t h y . 'Semitic mudnmmikat bindti. mother Bau. great queen that knoweth anything whatsoever. goddess of healing. . E 6. 22. T h e maiden. runnuku. i . 25. ki-el ama dba-zi igi-lid mu-ii-bar nam-dug mu-ni-tar ud-ti-la l-a- izi And Eninnfi in the holy city he presented . lagai-(ki) gir-su-(ki) dim-galkalam-ma-ka 24. in Lagash they have placed. has looked with faithful eyes upon thee. 27. nam-iul-la ?ng:dib-ha. nin lag-dib5 bar-ni iu-nu-teg-ga 28. encompass. 5 . R n o ~ uMircel. I I R. 29. unnuku. CT. 208 dur 27 . 4 in this volume. T h e house of wisdom. 8 0 . KL. Gudea. dumu an-nu nin-gal nig-nam-p 29. t-malga-sud' kidur-kenag-?a 25. n. whose side is unattainable. 268. with Bau. unto thee as the abode of (thy) seed. 199. 5 Literally. A 0 5501 Rev. A Berlin vocabulary renders iil-sir-sir by usiuru. for the first time. temple of Bau in Lagash. T h e mighty one. A double plural. narrow street. kidur-mai-~u dar3-an-ki lagay(kij-a im-ii-?G-JG-e-ne-ej4 27. he founded. T h e variant nr-dim-id. Gr. (See Sum. a title which harmonizes ac. adar here in the sense of band. she that maker the limbs healthy. rukdfu. 13. 16 l-ril-sir-sir. sil-sir-sir2 I nam-nin-a-ka baramag!-lu mi-ni-ri 26. I i and KL. I * In . But the title is also employed for Shala. healer of the limbs of the prince. . 2 5 . I end. t h e western goddess. St. iul me-gim-?dg6nun dii-me-ddagun dumu den-lil-16-ge 30.STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN 22. 1. zoo. is employed for Shala.

I 82

U N I V E R S I T Y MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN

SECTION

3 1 . sa- sud- da- dm' 32. ama dba-zi nun dis'-me- dda-gan d u m u "en-lil-ld-ra nam-ti1 ud-sud-du sum-mudam 33. giZ-gi-gdl2 sa-sud-[da-kam
]

3 1 . 1t is a long sa[bar]. 32. T h e mother Bau unto the prince Ishme-Dagan son of Enlil life unto distant days hath given.
33. This is the interlude for the long sa[bar].

KEVERSE
I . [ki] nam-til-la
2.

I den-lil-ld-Zzi

ka-gar-s'dg-ga gab-nu im-mi-tab j. ab(?) dis'-me-%a-gan la-e im-meni-tud 4, lugal-m2lz nam-til-!a-da im-da-egub 5. kur-gal de?z-lil-ra X3-ki-mu-negdl 6. a-u dmu-ra!-lil u-mu-un-gal kurkur-ra 7. diZ-me-%da-gan-na n u - i m be-ib-tar mu-. . . ib-. . . . e-ne-ir mune-ddg 8. den-lil lugal kur-kur-ra-ge igi-?idtil-la sag-ki liig-ga-ni mu-uns'i-in-bar 9. diLme-dda-gan-na nam-mu-ni-ibtar-ri 10. s'Sgu-za me-27-itr uga zi-udsud-du-a had-kal-kalag gi-ni us'-a?-a l i j - e
[
]

UI)-LU

I . In the place of life, temple of Enlil, 2 . . . . good thoughts in his breast multiplied. 3. 'Thee oh father(?) Ishme-Dagan he created. 4. A king thou art and with life thou hast been firmly fixed. 5 . Unto4 the great mountain Enlil
.............

6. Father Enlil great lord of the lands 7. For ishme-Dagan decreed the fate,. . . . . . . . . . . f o r him he ordered. 8. Enlil king of the lands cast the faithful eyes of life of his bright face upon him. 9. For lshme-Dagan he decreed fate. lo. A throne t h a t proclaimeth laws, a crown t h a t prolongeth the breath of life, a precious scepter t h a t conducteth ihe faithful in unison,

T h e full form is so-bar1 A liturgical rubric found as yet only in liturgies t o deified kings. rud-dn-dm, KL. 199 I 29; cf. bar-iud-da-dm, Rnoau, BE. 29. I I 5. T h e rubric occurs also in KL. 199 11 34 and RE. 29, 1 111 22. 2 See above, p. 141, n. I. MA-GUNU, SAI. 2767. 4 Perhaps ra is here t h e demonstrative pronoun, in which care Enlil is the subject.
J

S T E P H E N LANGDON-SUMERIAN
I I.

LITURGICAL T E X T S

183

12.

nun dii-me-dda-gannam-e-as' Retar id idigna id zimbir-e jen-gdl a-dpj(?)-ga Ru-mu-ra-ab-tum gzi-bi ga-ra-sug-e

13. gh-bi kaf-zi-bi-e ju-mu-ra-an-mi st1 ja-ra-ab-la1
14. garak 8""ir-ba 121-e gzi-e ki-gnmu-ra-ni-ib-uf I 5. a-kar rid-bil Se-gu-nuz ka-ra-abmli gar-bi ja-ra-dub-dub

16. thr ga-ra-da-dzi3 amas' ja-radagaGdaga1
I 7.

nam-lugal-la mu in-mu-ni-mag

18. nam-nun-nu sag-an-iu Re-ni-ila

19. sig igi-nim kur-lag-til-la-bi gzi-un ju-mu-ra-ab-ila

buranun4 ud-gim idigna Re-niin-2 2 I . nindaba-zu I-kur-zagin-nu mu! nam-ba-an-ium-mu 22. den-lil-li nam-Izi mu-ni-in-tar6 z j . lugal-la I-kur-ta s'ibir7-mag munu-sum
20.

Be decreed unto the prince Ishme-Dagan for his destiny. 12. May the Tigris and the Euphrates bring thee abundance . . . . . . ., and their banks be full for thee. 13. May their banks produce for thee drink and food, and bring thee gladness. 14. In the cellars of the gardens may the honey reach the edges. 1 5 . M a y the field produce for thee gunzi-grain unfailingly and may the granaries be heaped for thee. 1 6 . May the stalls be filled with increase for thee and the sheepfolds be spacious for thee. 1 7 . May he make famous the imperial power. 18. May heexait higher than heaven the rights of princes. 19. May the lower land and the upper land even unto the borders of the earth bring tribute unto thee. 20. May the Euphrates like the sunshine go u p unto the Tigris. 2 1 . Not shall the serpent seize t h y sacrificial cakes in holy E k ~ r . ~ 22. Enlil decreed this for his fate. 23. Unto the king in Ekur a m i g h t y scepter he gave.
11.

See Sum. Gr. $72. See OLZ. 1912, 447; JASTROW, ilrligion 11 713. The gulzd grain has not been identified. See du (10) in Sum.Gr., p, 2 , I and dd-dzi=?~~rnn~~ubn, RA. lo, 75, 8. rich,
' N o t e t h e unusual method of writing bnronun. W e have here an additional reference t o the serpent adversary, which occurs also in another liturgy t o ighrne-Dagan, Ni. 4563 See above, p. 138, n. 4. Xf.above, I. I I . ' C f Z I M ~ ~ F R N , rgg 11 22. KL.

184
24.

U N I V E R S I T Y MUSEUM-RARVLONIAN

SECTION

nir mu-un-gal enim den-lil-ld-ta gab-?,-gar nu-mu-un-tuk gir-il-il-la im-gub-gub-bi

25.

26. ddg-gaGmai ki-dzir nam-lugalla-ka im-ma-da-an-tur-fur 27. bara afag zagin-na dzir-be-ingar' Cgal mu-un-[ 1 28. sal-lid dumu-an-na den-lil enimma-[ni-ta] bara-alag fagin-[nu dzir-h-bl-in-gar]

24. He became majestic and by the command of Enlil no rival he had. 25. He is given exalted stqfion, he is adored. 26. Into the vast dwelling, the farfamed habitation of royalty he was made to enter. 27. In the chapel of gold and lapis lazuli he takes his seat. The palace.. . . . .
28. Oh faithful woman, celestial daughter, by the command of Enlil in the chapel of gold and lapis lazuli [cause h i m to sit]. 29. Oh maiden mother Bau, celestial daughter, Enlil.. . . . . . . . in the chapel of gold and lapis lazuli. . . . . . . . . . . 30. Unto lshme-Dagan son of Enlil life unto far away days grant as a gift. 3 I . Of the city he is its lord and he is the. . . . . .of Bau.

29. ki-el ama dba-zi dumu-an-na den-lil . . . . . . . . . . . bara-alag [fagin-nu. . . . . .lab-bi
30. dii-me-dda-gan d u m u den-lil-[ld]-

ra nam-fil ud-sud-du sag-[e-ei PA]-KAB-DU-a-ni-ib 3 I . uru en-bi-im[. . . . . . . . . . ]d ba-zikanz
32.

en e?-bar galam dingir-ri-[e-n]e sig-nim-ma uru-s'ub-bi

32. Oh lord by the profound wisdom of the gods shepherd the cities in the south and north.

T h e fragment Ni. 475 contains only the first melody of a long liturgy to Innini. Its title egulla kibi menu gi-gi-mu does not occur in the Assyrian catalogues, nor has it been found in any previously published text. Lines 13-19 are identical
1

For the verb dhr-gar see MEEK 83 rev. 4. NO.

For t h e noun dlr-gar see KA.

12,

82, 4 1 .

I 1 3-15. as for. and e-*I 1%-a= z . She that shatters the mountains. . Apart from the contents the text is unusually interesting. I I See Sunz. As for the temple destroyed z. how long. etc.. bur-gul-e bur ba-an-gul-la mu how long until it be restored to its place? Heavenly virgin. The temple which had been built like a dream. 2 1 . of which it forms an almost complete duplicate. 177. SBH 60. 5.? Which the engraver carved as a vase. ibid. etc. i Wr-amai-gim 6.. since it has a rubric in Surnerian a t the top of the tablet and a Semitic rubric a t the end of the first melody where an interlude of one line occurs between the first and second melodies.? Which like the flocks and sheepfolds was made wealthy. jj. urh ma-mzi-da 4. pl. 1895. divine queen of heaven. Obv.? The city which had been built like a d r e a q 3how long. etc. also IV R. etc. also an Innini 1iturgy. nu-gig-an-nu 2.? 'Published in PSBA. how long. 1%-lu< lum-lunz=duj?u. e-li-gim amai-gim 8. 7. kur-sun-sun 3.. d. I. 7.S T E P H E N LANGDON-SUMERIAN LITURGICAL TEXTS 185 with K. r R. etc. . ga 61.l But the melody has the greatest similarity t o No. etc. Cgul-la ki-bi me-nuz gi-gi-mu dingir ga-ban an-na[mu] ga-ia-an Can-nu [mu] ma-dG-a[mu] ma-da-a[mu] lu-lu-a mu4 lu-a mu I . queen of E-anna. 7. etc. Tf. how long. 8. Cf. o. how long. 31 of REISNER'S Sumerisch-Babylonische Hymnes. 1. kui-ia an-ga-rim an-ga-dm kuL& Oh sigh indeed. Gr. 3. . 4.? The temple which was made wealthy like a stall and a sheepfold. indeed sigh. as for. 6. i ma-mh-da 5. 41 Obv.

' Var. Of the faithful temple. 'Tent AD clearly. According to our text Br. its store is diverted. etc. 16. 2 1 . Its great festivals are not executed. ma-ma. unto the foreign land.. Var. 16omitted on K. The house of convocation of the lands. Var. I 1 q has the same error. a L . Its rites are annulled.186 9. etc. ' . sic! Var. 'The Semitic translation is probably iap-ku. ni-dE-dm kur in-ga-dzi-dm kur ba-da-gul-gul kur-ri ba-da-abga7 kur-ri ba-da-ab- 14. Note the gzlnu of BAL. . Its great rituals in the temple are withheld. 20. me-gal-bi i. q i Obi. 60 Obv. zagin1-dim-e lo. J T h e Semitic version in SBH. how long.]. ezen(?)=irin-[nu] in better. 16 completely mirunderrtood the Sumerian: mu indicates that the second part of I. j is hardly correct. Its decrees which guide are placed in disuse. how long. d m -gi 19. me-bi al-iir-iir ub ba-ra-an-gub 20. ~ 15. also in 1. yea unto the foreign land p e r i ~ h e d . zd. rg. billudu-bi ag-ba-da-an-kkr'" balbi" ba-kzir-kkr t-zi-da bal-bi bal-kkr-raL2iu-balaga-a-biI3 9. IoThe Semitic rendering in SBH.? 12. 1 7 is illegible. 60 Rev. In whose gate is the place of admiration. 17. The good wife unto the foreign land was taken. 4 1 . RCISNER'S is probably incorrect. Var. how long. I is to be repeated. 60 Rev. It hastened. 4Var. ha-do-klr-ri= rap-[. dumubidg-gu 18. K. l-lid hi-iu-SU(I).? 1 I . etc. The assembling place of the people. also K. g z i I has also the reading ma-am. lo. 2 1 . ba-gul-gul I 5 . 4 1 1 1 7 khr-ri bn-da-ah-gam=nahri iifnlal. yea hastenedP 14. 'The Semitic version in SBH. . iu-bnl ba-ab-Zi-in-aga.? 13. dam-idg-ga 16. . . 18. Var. It perished. its store the plunderer has decimated. I nigin-mar-ro=bitu ia hit-rz'. 2I. The good child unto the foreign land was taken. Which the jeweler worked like a stone. kd-bi-ta k i U N I V E R S I T Y MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION zagin' ba-andim-ma2 mu 2-di mu3 Ij . copy LVar.

son of Enlil. wailing voice of the s t o r m . celebrating the mythical marriage of that deified king with the goddess. to utter sweet music in the temple of Enlil a t Nippur by day and by night. a large double column tablet. Cyl. In the faithful temple darkness is and lo! it is turned over to the wind. al-gar in Gudea. . . Ni. the singer proclaims that. yea with the instrument al-gar whose sound is sweet." But this instrument is nowhere else mentioned in cuneiform literature as one that was actually employed by humans in their 'See the Rev. In a hymn to Idin-Dagan and the mother goddess Innini. I I . ka-lu-Su-nu i-za-ma-ru 23. 13877. B 10. the mythical bridal chamber of Ningirsu and Bau. in the place of battle . One is led to infer that this legendary instrument of Enlil was one of the sacred symbols that belonged to the bridal chamber of Ekur. . Their psalmists shall sing. . to sound the call of battle. This musical instrument is mentioned under a longer name. where it is placed in the "harem" of the temple Eninnfi a t Lagash. 1 will speak unto thee. Col. The reverse line l o of our text mentions the reed MAL-GAR of Ninlil.. contains about 120 lines concerning a subject of fascinating interest. .' to terrify the foe and pronounce their destruction. a t Lagash. LITURGICAL TEXTS 187 4-$-a mu-ti-ga nam-me-a lil-ldrim bu-ni-in-gzir 22. t o decree fate.STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN 22. a legend of a musical instrument employed by Enlil. 23. father of humanity. and that the legend was inherited by the cult of Ningirsu. I end ki-mb. "With the instrument. .

[ r . ZDMG. . . . . . . . 3 1 f .. . Ni. pp. changed. a n [ ]du-ne sag nu-an-ga ma(?)-an.. . . .ab. . Ni. . . . 5. 9. . [ Inam-far-ra-nu Su-nu-bale-ne ]mu-un-ba. Cf.ta. LANDSBERGER. 4. . T h e edge of the tablet carries a shorl colophon scratched upon the clay after the text had been completed and probably served as a library index. . v. . . I 19I 1 1 4 of our text.. . . . . . . gii-al-e mu-un-gar babbar ib-1 1.volume. No. To. The instrument AL he caused to be instituted. . In heaven. 6. .he caused to go forth. A small fragment from a duplicate will be found on the last plate of this. 1021 5 . Li-kdr mu-un-dii nam-a2-tar-ri 7. . . . 77. . 616 in Historical and Religious Texts." The Nippur collection contains this long text on a series of smaller tablets of which the author published one in the Constantinople Collection. It reads ku-Iu-h al-kam. a s a gift truly he gave. . . . . a s a gift truly he gave. . . . .priestess suspended (?). . . .1 2. . lo. . 37. SAL+ME3 u-nammi-in-la1 8. . 8. The fixed tax he made. . 9. . . D U a sag. . RA. a Semitic nadlfu.decrees(?) with glory truly he exalted. .2-dt 3. . [ 4.' T h a t tablet carries lines Obv. . rag-rar-rar=rummuku. . . I misunderstood this text in my edition.sarsar2-dt 7 . . . Inig-du-e pa nu-an-ga miin. In earth. . .I 88 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION music and we may retain the statement concerning its purely mythical character. . . 69. . . fate he decreed. Cstple. .sig 5. . . t h e . z. . . ki[ 1-ne sag nu-an-ga maan-sig 6. the sun arose. . . . . . . . . hence it must be the second tablet of the redaction t o which it belongs. "It is a psalm of meditation concerning the trumpet(?). lo.whose injunction is not 3. 506 1 . .

22.. . brilliant. . .alag. . I I . He gave directions for carrying the instrument AL. . The lord on the AL recited in numbers(?). [ 18. His A L .. was. See Sum." is employed as a synonym of nnnz-tar i n SAK. . 1 4 f. Note the distinction between the use of b i and ni in 11.: +zi refers to Enlil. 24. . GI. nb-bi.m i [ 1 17. the instrument. . . 23. . . . 14.. al-a-ni[ ]gi-ga sag-bi nd zagin I I. 616. Unto the land of the darkheaded people destiny they uttered. . 22. . .ni. . . . g&-biz gud-si-Lii bad-gal ed-dldam 16. . Unto Enlil his land [gave heed]. . 17. . e. Their hands. 220f. His instrument the AL whose .. 16. Enlil sang the praise of his instrument the AL." Cf. . Var. . . . . lo. 2I .-Sem. 12.was like t h e . 15. . I I Ij. LITURGICAL TEXTS 189 gii-al-e il-e-da si-ba-ab-sd-e den-lzl-li al-a-ni zag-sal ba-andug 12. .whose head is of lazuli. . & H e r ebegins line one bf Cst. . .Pljq.p. and b i to a thing. 14.. "to speak on the instrument AL. For ~ a g i n = r J J z . a person. . .m i in-bar da-nun-na mu-un-nu-ldg-ldg-ties' i~t-ba4 ka-ba mu. 17. . . . Upon his dark-headed people he cast a kindly gaze. en-eal mu-un-?id n a m . z I . . . their mouths.of a healthy farmer. ii-in-[kin-kin?] sag-gig-ga-ni3-ih igi-rid n a m . gii-al-la-ni[ 15.un. . ' .S T E P H E N LANGDON-SUMERIAN 10. see SBP. i. hi.clean. ... .gdl den-lil-a-ra ma-a mu-ni-in-lide-ne k a l a m sag-gig-ga a1 mu-un-dabi"-ne zo. . Its voice like that of a horned bull over the great wall arose. . 18. j = e . The instrument AL in his temple. . . . ki-in-gin. 53: CT. . sag nam-lu-gdl &-rub[ 1 ] 19. den-lil-Jh kalam-ma-ni ki-mu-un20. he opened (?) Unto Enlil adoration they offered in fidelity. The Anunnaki hastened thither. . 1 3 . . . The lace of mankind with brightness [he caused to shine]. . 158. Vol. . Var. 23. "1-bi. . Texlcr El. Sumer. 4 1 1 8.fate he . 24. the pure. . I 3. . I I . gii-a1 i-a-ni slag-e[ ~ ~ ]fa-dm ]-ha engarragin-kam' 14.. applied to persons. 19. 1 2 5 .

whom like. dnin-men-na-ge2 tud-tud al-mdmd 28. gii-al. 11. e. $Var." 4. Also without ?id in the title of a priest. the heroic. . 30. . By day the A L shall utter speech." DP. 2. 18=25. 1 2.. Their chief. ki-el dnidaba ef-bar-ra ba-an-du 3." Nik. Ninmenna is one of the titles of Nintud t h e mother goddess. the A L . Damgalnunna. lugal h-tud-d6 en 27. The maiden Nidaba rendered advice. 6. e i poiiim. e. 3. 32 Ohv. 1 7 .. nippur-ki ki-gar-ra-ta tum-ma- al-(hi)-a li. dm I . 24. see PUS. 3. I . Aruru. ZA. 2 Ohv. in Tummal. "The offerer of sacrificial cakes. 11. Ni. . sag-bi gu-nu(?)2. Unto the gods shall offer meal cakes. by night the A L shall give forth song. I-kur ( I ) den-lil-16 gii-al-e gar-radm 8. 7. mu. IV R. Ninmenna fulfilled the creating. Rev. In Nippur the well builded.2.un. I . "he made the meal-cake offerings. 9. I . 29. The leading goat in heaven and earth. "By the sister1 of the lord ye were created. den-ki-ge al-a-ni ~ag-sal-ba-andzig 5 . By the king ye were created. n. 5Var. In Ekur.83. 28. IVzq5. dingir-ri-e-ne-ra 7. X.IgO U N I V E R S I T Y MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION 26. 1 2 . da-hi. We have here evidence to trace the origin of the wife of Enki to the same unmarried mother goddess from whore character all the great married goddesses were developed. pt. lord Nunarnnir. 8. 27. . the holy A L she took in her hand. ld-pdd-dzibda. a Var. 5. [mdsl-sag(?)an-ki-a e n h u . Var. gave unto them a name.(ne). mu-ne-ibsd-sd 25. Enki sang the praise of his instrument. Horvard Mui. p. temple of Enlil the instrument A L was placed. He who is impetuous.ddb a PAD-lid muun-diLb-bi5 4. r j g : Hussev. He shall have raised up for them. The star-like A L . 26. inserts d i q i r . or Nintud.n a m nir-ri4 29. C'T. . 10215 alnb-bi 1%-a-an-[gdl]. ud-dl [gi?]al-dc-e gig al-mu-mu 9. sag-li sag-kalagdm 30. The phrase occurs frequently in pre-Saigonic tents: PAD-lid eiizb. Vars. 1 7 n 1 5 . wife of Enki.

tum-ma-al-(ki) gi-MAL-GAR1 ama dNin-lil-la-kam I I . see RA. Mircel.Enlil. . . .. I I. This liturgy. . 1 2 . . !z. q Rev. .M i ~ ~ e36. . . ma? gig murub en-nu-ta lo. 14. I 43. . 304 1 1 1 r MYHRMAN. Lines 21-28 contain only a few legible signs. [all mu-un-da-an-tud-tuds 14. . C L A Y . 1. "The devastating storme. for it appears in the liturgical catalogue IV R. . 'Cf.STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN L I T U R G I C A L TEXTS 191 lo.. . i. 13877. . . must have survived into the late Assyrian and Babylonian period. variant omits gii-al. 49. which is the reed . Tummal. The heroic god Nin-urasha for Enlil the instrument A L created. Lines 16-20 are obliterated. t h e god Shulpae .sal The instrument A L is the instrument of the decision of fate of father . a title of Ninlil. I-gig I-an-na. From the mutilated reverse no connected translation can be made. PBS. The holy goddess Nin-lsin unto Enlil. 16. . . . . . . In the dark chamber2 of her t h a t . The instrument A L is the instrument of praise.ga dNidaba zag. POEBEL. . of mother Ninlil. Ni. ur-sag d[Nin-ura?i] den-lil-ra 8s . Note lines 21 f. ' Cf. V 106 IV 17: d. The Constpl. Col.. liaoav. Ni. I I . tlummal. 53. I 3. . . 'So Ni. l. 1 1 1 76. The tablet ends with the instructive lines: gii-a1 gib-nam-far-ra a-a den-lil gii-a1 gib zag-sal-dzig. . mu-?-?. 4 the bread of their fixed offerings.Tablet Erech. A vision during the middle of the night 15. 6890.0215 also omits gii-a1 and has ' For ud 01-lnr=8mu dnpinu. Oh sing praise unto Nidaba. &gig tum-ma-a1 ninda sd-dzigga-bi-ta3 12. BE.. . RTC. ' kirszl.

... 81.lg2 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION COL. Ni. V a r s have dumn-rag E-a-ge.. No. ] I will go forth. see BL. The entire composition was a liturgy in eight sections to Nintud creatress of mankind..ge 8... 3. .. . queen of Eanna am I. . 5.of the morning light. [ ] ud-7al-la-ge 11.. .nto.. Lillanna queen of the folds and stalls am I . . 1992 of that collection. its obverse containing the end of section two of the liturgy and its reverse the end of section six.. ] I will go forth. 14031 N This small fragment probably belongs t o a large double column tablet in the Mus6e Imptrial Ottoman. 105. . . . p. Dada beneficent woman. 43. [Unto. . . . . [dlil-ld-]en-naga-ia-an tdr-amaiaZ m2n 6... 10.... . .. 9.. Sacred'harlot of heaven. .. ] I will go forth. .] 1 will go forth. [ ] ga-ba-ra-2 10... p. I . [an al-] dhb-ba ga-la-an gZ pdrra m2n 2. [Unto. Like a cow I will raise the sound of lament. . . I . [ama 4-a da-da NU-NUNUZ Frig-ga 7.. . 6.. 46.. ... . . She that makes the heavens tremble. .. Mother of the temple... .. .. rib-gim gu-de-de ga-ba-ra-k edinizi ga-ba-ra-2 mu-gig1 an-na ga-Fa-an an-na m2n 3...... . So read also BL.. ... . . the child bearing. n... .. .. ... and unto the field (of Arallu) I will go.. I r . I I . 12. She that shatters themountains. ... [ ] ga-ba-ra-L 9. . 7. 4. 23. 8. [L!. kur-sun-sun ga-Fa-an t-an-na m2n 4. n. [Unto. LITURGY N I N T U D THE CREATION MAN A N D TO ON OF WOMAN. 6. queen of the dark chamber am I . I. [ ] ga-ba-ra-2 .. . . 8.. . .. queen of heaven am I. [dna-na-a &]mu sag3 t-e. published in my Historical and Religious Texts. . 63... 1 ] ga-ba-ra-2 12. T h e fragment 14031 apparently forms part of the upper right corner of 'the original tablet. and is inscribed on a prismatic prayer ' See Tammu? and irhdor. 2. Nana first born daughter of Ea. 5..

' Not only did the Nippur temple possess these two editions of the liturgy on the creation of man and woman. a series in which symbolic magic by burning images and other objects in fire constitutes the characteristic rites. VII. . The tablet has already formed the subject of a popular article in the M u s e u m Journal. 4. Vol. published in the writer's Babylonian Liturgies. many parts of which are restored from our text. but a third edition written on two or three small tablets is known t o have existed in the same period. 14031 which has i-Xkam. This important Semitic text contains a long incantation against wizards and witches accompanied by a ritual which continued for two days. The unusually long incantation written for SamaS-Sum-ukin is based upon those contained in the great Maklu series. No. Unfortunately the text of this most important treatise cannot be adequately restored from the fragments now published. ' See BL. 88. 1 9 p f P h i l a . 19. The last tablet of this serial edition has been published by HUGORADAU his Miscellaneous in Sumerian Texts. n. 4. note 4. in which it disagrees with the duplicate Cstple. p. The chief feature of the ritual which accompanied this prayer is the burning of fifteen images of the various demons and evil spirits which had tormented the king. 197. 8. and translated in the writer's Sumerian Epic of Paradise.STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN LITURGICAL TEXTS '93 wheel in the Ashmolean Museum. In fact nearly every line of this prayer composed for SamaS-Sum-ukin can be paralleled by passages in the Maklu series. No. Ni. T h a t text has the formula gk-X-kam at the end of each section. No.

[ 2. Magic.. ' Cf. . hand of god and hand of goddess. . .. contention? stufterI I. 15. . . . 64 1 1 1 16. . . .... . .. 2. Cf. 3. ki-lir na-pi?-ti. 9. hand of man.... my neck they have wrung. lo. . . KING. 6. ga-fi(m) i . ] bZ1 dabribi-$a1 [& b2lit dabdbi-... see perhaps V Raw.. my transgressoress. . KING..... .a] ] 621 limut-tim-mu2 [& 3.. m y accuser. 54. Mnklu 1 97 u-lab-bi-tu.. . also IV I<. rdmu4 ~ d r uDI-BAL gibit p f 5 I I. (the variant.. 7. Mnklu l l 46.they stand. . [ ] ep-fa bartri I 1 5.. Magic. [ b2lit limut-fim-mu] 4. . .. For TIM=ti.. nu .a I -bi-$u 1 3 . .. ... . . ... 1... [ -ja] ~2-lab-~bi-tu kiSadi utar-ri-ru pf-. . Hand o f . . rebellion . .. . .. .supporter of evil. [ I g. . . .they have seized.NE-MI pani ni-if te-me [ I 12. their statues . but t h e writing suggests t h a t perhaps mu was read as Sumerian. S o our text. ? . 12. . . See also Maklu I 3 2 .. .. .. Rev.. . . Magic 1 3 .. .... . .. . my fe- r L 1 1 6. ... . . demon) h a s seized my 6~i-fnr-ru-da-n=niki5 napiilim. ... .. . 14.. . ...5gn 4.. . .. .... .... Shortness of breath(?). 5. .. kaf ili [u kat] iitarti 13. [ kdlu in] is-hu-ra3 1. .. .. . . .they have commanded... .hand of the curse. Love. . ... . [xi- . . [kat I... hatred... venom. .. nikis napiitim6 KC/S-KU-MAL IGI-NIGIN-NA ID-CUR [ I ing? .. . a Cf. [ ] HUL-ZA mu-kil r2ilimuttim ii-[ ]ma 15. krit mamif kit amelziti iLu[ I? 14. .. . . . . .. . . . . I ]-ti-fu-nuAN- 7. Sic! So also Maklu 1 1 48. . . male accuser.. 108. my mouth thev have. witchcraft. . . . .machination. $ T h i s conjecture of MEISSNEX supported by uiobbil is lips... . ... [ [ ]-maik-bu-u. . . 22.. [ 1 ]ila?lu("")galmrini-iu8.distortion? of plans.my transgressor. . . ? ? 12. . . . . . . . .. . . .. My..I94 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION . . inpli-io.. a l l that surround me. TALLQU~ST read tim-mu as ti-io. .. Who against me sorcery. [ia anal jri-fi kii-pi ru-hi-e ru[ri-e I 10. [ 1 8. a [KI-AG-]MAL. . . . KING. . ... 4..

. For mafidatu. and KING. See also ZIMMERN. . M y . cf. BA. LAL" 23.they have drawn. 1 98. 1 ]-ja ik-su-zi birki-ia ik-su-u [ili(?)]-. 2563. Vol. . my knees they have bound. T h e traces are against this restoration. t h e y ." T h e verb corresponds t o Arabic maia'n. No. 158. Arabic molura.they have bound. or bitumen. 70. SO restore M a k l u 1 99. # M a k l % I 132 imluru. . El. . MYHRMAN. 1 1 3 . . a birdof theskiesI0they caused me to eat. 1 13. . 15. 20. Obv. or . 5 5 . lo they have made. 19. KTA. . . . 60.MYHRMAN. 2 2 . Personal Names of the type/u'ul. . outline. man-da-ti-ia likdt. . ' So restore M a k l u . 7 2 . 21. . . [lu i a GAB iamaisammi] lu s'a iddt lu ?a titti lu ia 12 . Rt.ja LU > > SE-LUH-A lu-u epuiu-ma [kalba]lu-u zi-ia-ki-lug idha uirlkilu is:ur Tam2 uidkilu ndn apsE uidkilu M y . IV 184. My god(?) that walks a t my side(?) they have sei?ed my back-hone they have bent. t o shear. my breast they have shattered. epir i e p b a ii-[bu-iu]man-da-at la-mi-. 2 I. . . 18. PBS. p. 14. 74 ia limzitlt Bdbili inziirzi. Q C f .. The measure of my form they measured. From da'dpu. V pt. . 2 1 . . ~n. Images of me. "who seizes away the wicked of Babylon. 'Cf. etc. crows. They encompassed the earth a t my feet. . my heart weakened. . 18. ddpu. 2 4 . see HOLMA. Also Tx. 23. IWere i r ~ u r jaml is employed for unclean birds such as hawks. . 30. or dough. M a k i n 1 98. . PSBA. . [ 20. LITURGICAL TEXTS I95 17. or clay. . " nzin apri is also employed far some kind of unclean fish. 17. M y . . So also id-i-pu. etc. . t o shatter. with disease and pollution they filled me.a u-man-di-du' ~almdni-[la ?a bi-] nu lu i a lu ""erini lu ia lip2 lu i a GAH- 22. Mapic 12. My girdle cord they severed. Or baked cakes of sesame. 17. 25. 18. be it of tamarisk or cedar. My saliva they took. p. a fish of the nether seal1 they caused me to eat. . . 16. 80. . 25. 24. honey. .a plant molaru. p. CT. .STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN 16. My hair they have sheared. . . or tallow. PBS. . apigthey caused meto eat. m y .a a-li-ka [idi-ia?14 u-Emsu-u?? e:en-riri-ja ik-pu-pu 1-ja zi-?a(?)lza-du[ 1-ia man-ga lu-'u-tam zi-mal-luin-ni iarti--a im-lu-iu6 ulznni-[ja]ibtu-ku ruti-ja il-ku-u 19. form. 5. No. The Babylonian root in nzoldiu. M e ~ s s ~ Supplenzent. 20. see also K. lo. A dog verily they caused me to eat. SCf. . For m a d . 2 1 . and EBELINC. M a k l u IV 40. . .

. . . . . . . ina kan-ni Yme"NSUR itme-rue . BE.. . . .. In a . [ina] pan ilzt-ti-ka rabl-fzi akal-lu-id-nu-ti 28. . [ " I i n a [ ] kii-kit-te-e pa-ga(?)-l . J.N A in the Code of Hammurapi. ina burr. . CT. See Rev. .]la ina. . . lmages of me in a potter's oven they burned. images of me in "beer of the seven gods" they [laid]. . . 35. . . . . . . . .. . This passage yields the first example of the verb ferniru. [~almiini-ia . . . ina la-ab-ti.of a wall they concealed them. 26. dark. . . their images 27. . Images of me they made and placed them on the lap of a corpse. . lo. .. . . .. . 1 5 . [ U N I V E R S I T Y MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECrlON -]mu-fu-id-nuan-nu-tu Salmiini-id-nu kima-id-nu la irza-7u ~almani-id-nu 27. 7. . . . . . 23. lmages of me in an oven of bronze they ignited... 33. . .. . lmages of me in a cavern a t sunset they concealed. inn utun ""e'KU-RUNNA5. [~almiini-]k epuiu-ma ina ijdi pagri ii-ku-nu 13 duri ip-hu-u ina bi-'i' 29. . 35. .. . . 2 C i .-to-'-pu. 28. . 32. . . .. .196 26. . POEBEL. . images of me in the house of the grain goddess. . . . ina utun pa-ha-ru ii-rupu . even as they themselves. . . . . 18 1 2 .they. .. . 34. VI 55. images of me at sunrise they. . . """'AZAG-SU(D)3 ui-ni-lu fikari iliini sibitti ui[ni-lu] 31. . . 29. . Images of me in a . ina ti-nur7 siparri iklu-u ina si-if "'"iamii (Xi). . . . . . root of fu+nruoven. . . . . . . . . be pale. 34. . . . 32 ina kibir ndri ki-lal-li-e 7. . 31. >. . . . . .. Read "ditto" marks. . Images of me in. . .-[ I 33. . . 36. $Ci. in a dark hole of a wall they hid them. . 'bi'u probably connected with #pa. .1. e-rib ""iamii(ii) ip-bu-u r i ina bit ""AZAGSU(D)ia. . . . 36. 30. before thy great divinity 1 will burn. ..these their images shall not endure. o f cereals they laid. . . lmages of me in a cauldron of an oil mixer they cooked. images of me in the oven of a restaurant keeper they. . . . Images of me on the two shores of the river they. .. .of the carpenter. . . . . J A title of Nidaba. The verb is obviously a synonym of iordpu. [ina ia dzlri i-te-pu-u2 30. . images of me in a flame they. . and the woman K U R U N .

. zr~ztzm. . 38. . .. . .. . . saliva. 37..] la iS-ru-pi un-7 bhbi zi-[... 7 .. is interesting and shows how the priests utilized popular legends in the incantations. . [Images of m e . witchcraft evii. and CT.. 8. . . which that hero crossed in search of eternal life. [Images of me unto] Gilgamish they gave and he [caused me to cross] the I-luhur river. . ki ili u is'tar zi-li-nu-in-ni. .. 3. . . Have maltreated me and in house. . Gilgamish. [..... . . [.. TU ina saki... 5. ... . 2. .. .. . . i n a well they placed. . . 'The association af Gilgamish with t h e river Hubur. ] a water vessel. .... .. .. . they.. . ...in street. . E e r u ~ c KTA. . .S U M E R I A N L I T U R G I C A L TEXTS I97 37. . 7... . Have placed against me.. .. ] pi-sa-an-nu mu-iardi-i ina bziri is'-ku-nu. . . . . also IV Raw... . . 8. . MYHRMAN. . . . the world surrounding salt stream.. . .. . . . . .. Oh Shamash who. Oh divine lord of the dead. End of obverse is mostly destroyed. .. . sga 4. . .. ina s'apla-na ""AZAG-S[UD . . I 13. . ilYlugal-dig umunlzunZ [s'a] amel . . .... . 38. . ina e-rib ""iamji ik-lu-u . .. . .. PBS. .. . images of mc a t midday t h e y .sorcery.. . . ... Images of me a t sunset they ignited. 2 The same deity is appealed t o in a prayer of Samas-~um-ukin.. who. 4-lam-me-nu-in-ni ina blfi.. . . venom. .. [ . Oh Gibil who. . . . . . .... Since god and goddess have become enraged against me .. ] star of the skies they . .... .. .. . . . .... 39... . . i l l iamai iri kii-pi ru-hi-e ru-si-e [ar-ia-]ji(?) limnu-[ti 1 5 .the.in the gate. ] 42. . Oh Shamash [conqueror o the f wicked and the foe] 1 Probably restore i ' u ~ ~ S . .. . No. .. ... .Namtar messenger of the lower world.. . . ... . [ ... . . . . .. .. . 41. . .. . .STEPHEN L A N G D O N . 2 .. . . ina e-rib kabal(7). [Images of me upon] which fistules.. . . 23. images of me beneath cereals they.. . 7.. .. .. .. .. 4.. . 6. . 6... .. ... 4. . . ..1 4 1 . .... 37 f... ... . Images of me a t crossways they concealed. . .T U .. I kakkab 5-ma-mi zi-[. . : TU-BAR' id-di-nu-ma n8ru Hu-bur u-[re-bir?] 43. . 8. .. . .. . . . ina suk irbiffizitam-me-ru >. .. protector. .. .. . I 39. .. ... .. . 40. . . . ... 40. . . . .. No.. .. . is'-ku-nu-nim-ma "l"s'amai ka[s'idllimniu aibi?] . 1 5 . and also I . . .. 42. 26. ... . . ilUgibillu i d "'nam-tar sukkal .. ..... Cf. : . 3... .. . . . . [ .B A R . . .

[e-] pii-la-z'u-nu kima m3 nu-adu ina [fi-kilik-tu] ~ 8 Xu-nzt li-mu-tu-ma ana-kz~ lu: lub-lull 19.. 13.. like the water of a leather pouch by pouring. lo.. kima di-ka-ri . KTA. 13qb as meaning "destroy" really has this general sense. .*..I 12. 31. often in this sense in livcr omens.. 1. kima is-par-ri lib-bal-kit[su-na] I j. glow and run away. . my wizard and my witch. 17. May they be seized and I.. .I 98 U N I V E R S I T Y MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN .. .. . RA. W.. . 26 Rev. 18. ... . 67 Rev. 4 Sic! T h e parallel in Mok I I 19 has jirtu. May they die and I . g. 3 For t h e passive meaning of t h e l2 form note lipfnrir "may it he annihilated. [Shatter them] like an earthen jar.. . 8-10. . Even as a net. May their deed(s).[come to my aid?] lo. 20. . May they catch them a t their 14. Syn.. 1 Sign JAB. It is employed i n t h e sense quench with kutrv in Ma& I l l 170.. Cl'. T h e original idea is cover.. 1 2 . . 20. . .lo1 SECTION Aja um-ma la i-[ ]bat .. i j . . . 22. cease... Zu-nu li-ni-iu-ma ana-ku lu[ud-nin] 20. which is a thing divine. kofnmu. 93. . epiiiin-iu-nu li-ba-ru-iu-nu-ti ""Zamaz' ha-!id [ 1 y.. And Aja mother who does not . hi-ma ti-nur' ku-tur-z'u-nu li. 15.. 27. . li-hu-lu li-~u-bu-u lit-jta-at-tukz~ ] 17. May they melt. Choix. 1 0 . . and changes not. 16. . ana ki-bi-ti-ku ilu-u-tzia ?a la innakaru(ru) u an-ni-ka kinim lia la innu-u] By thy command. . 74. . ra-hi-ia ra-hi-ti--a kiz'-pii-z'd-nu ina I... . rim2 16. entered in D ~ u r z s c i i . nninzu. . and may Shamash conqueror o f . 2 1 . I 22. 14." EBELING. . May Shamash break the sorcery of my sorcerer and sorceress. May they quake and I stand fast. My befouler and befouleress with. 1 5 ... May they be bound and I be freed. 24. 12. and by thy true grace which alters not. iu-nu li-is-jab-tu-ma ana-ku lu- evil doings. . BOISSIEK. . Like a furnace may he quench their smoke. . I I . live. 3 I. . 19. . .. Xu-nu li-ik-ti-su-mahan-ku lu[up-pa-tar] 21. iiur samai ?a Kay-Zd-pi-ja ka3-iapti-ia e-pii-ja mui-te-[pii-tila] I I .H.. here first with this value.

. 3GAR-NU. I T h e transcription is uncertain. . l u te-lab2 'SU. . Best wine pour out. to burn. Turn away the enmity of the sorceress who has employed venom. 26. 28. . 29. kikittzi Suriti l u ina I lz* zna sZri m2 ellziti tanaddi kakkara taxabbit 30. SO I interpret from la'dbu. 1 Shamas-shum-ukin. A censer of cypress thou shalt place. T h y greatness I will extol. . ar-kii up-pn-US 29. 24. is the first example of this derivative. niknakki buraii taiakkan kuruna ianakki Eu-lu Eu-ka ana pan "'"FamSi taiakkan 32. This is the ceremony. of clay from the two river's banks. . . 31. o r in the field thou shalt cast clean waters and sweep the ground. son of his god. thy praise unto far dwelling peoples I will sing. A pig and a hziku bird before Sharnash thou shalt place. ana-ku "". Incantation against the sorceress who has done much sorcery. Whether in t h e . 27. Quickly the one bewitched. . iipti kaSSapti 36. ilu r samas' Fur-bi a-Si-pu-tam Sd abkal ilrini i-pu-Sz6 "%NU[DIM-MUD] 26. if correct. nar-bi-ka lu-ii-pi dri-li-12-ka ana niS8 rapiiti [lu-ud-lull 25.STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN LITURGICAL T E X T S ' 99 23. An image of clay. . . counsellor of the gods has made. three loaves of spelt twelve times thou shalt place. 32. 25. . . kis'-pi ma-'-duf~7 i-pu-Su 27. jo. tirra-ma ?a-lu-ti' i a kaiiapti Sa ru-hi-a i-pu-Su iu-pi-i. A table before Shamash thou shalt place. supaiSura pan ""iamFi taSakkan 3 kurumiti 12-ta-dm id kunaia taSakkan 31.$amabSum-ukln mar ilj-Su arad-ka lu-ub-lut lu-us'[lim] 24. . is prohably due to the influence of t h e liquid 1. Make clean 28. wood. t a m te-si-en s a l a d litti salam titti kibir niri 23. Oh Shamash exalt the magic curse which Nudimmud. Thou shalt set fire (to the censer) and fill it w i t h . . thy servant would live and prosper. jolzitu. fal'ab > ieldb.

iiptam an-[ni-tam] 3-?& tamannu kima ib-tai-lu ina libbi m2 tu-na-ah-iu-nu-fi 39. [go. an image of flesh. . . i . . Loan-word from bn-do-ro. BL. I No. [s'iptu ] GA-UD-DU i-. . Cf. ' Here t o be read some derivative from epzi.. . I I 1. cf. 1 3 end. . A2. Sic! Error for bo? 'Title of some well-known incantation. e. z I .. . 79. an image of dough of barley and . . an image of baked bread and honey. . .. .200 U N I V E R S I T Y MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION 33.. PI.3 tamannu-[ma]taiarrap-iu-nufi inn bar-md-ti ta-na-di(?) 40. . . An image of dough. . . . . "Curse of the bird" on the second day thrice thou shalt recite. .. . Probably a Sumerian titie of some unknown incantation which war recited here. . MYHRMAN. into the midst thereof a bronze double axe thou shalt throw.H U ~ s'andm ~ S ~ 3-in famannu 41. 39. . May t h e . . an image of cedar. 35. PSBA. . 1 5 . . AZ. Suppl. . 34. an image of dough of barley and beans. An image of tamarisk. . . 1 N E dim-in-?' 1 33. . Var. . . ~alam ""bi-nu ~alam '$"eri-ni salam idd5 salam GAB-LAL 36. an image of bitumen.and the death dealing Mamit not come nigh. . .. . This incantation three times thou shalt recite. K. . 40. jalam 15 jalam 1 ie'i kt salum F 15 s'e'i ? ? 35. I . . j o i n MEISSNER. -1 as'-ru mamitu mu& mifafu ai ithu-u iiibfu. . .]-s'u-nu m2 3 . . double axe of red bronze. . 4 1 . an image of tallow(sic!).andburn them: inawaste place thou shalt throw them. ana libbi-id pa-lzir-ra2tanaddtma 38. . . . ki-la-li-e salam lipi jalam lipi salam ba-id-ri ~alam GAB1 u Famaiiammi 34. .. In fire(?) on the bank(?) of the river thou shalt... ] . . BPS. of patarru. 8676 R. .them. [The incantation. May. . a kind of weapon. ". ina N E . .them ~ater. . . s'ipfu A S . STitleof some incantation.. (ti)-ba-du-ra= kuiaru. iiptu [. . an image of baked bread and sesame. when they are boiled thou shalt cool them in water. salmiini an-nu-fi ta-kas-si-s'u-nnfi-ma tipara 37."~ thrice thou shalt recite. These images thou shalt bind and with a torch 37. . . An image of tallow. 36. pl. the incantation. . urdu-run-tab labar-iu?-n=poffnru. . 38. A " ' " N ~ r i . The incantation.

DESCRIPTION OF TABLETS ~- Right upper corner of a three column baked tablet. 2. T. 27 8 28 Left upper corner of a large three . Fragment of an epical and legendary composition. W. H . 2%. Liturgy to a deified king. baked. See pages I 26-1 36. 3% W. Light 7 25brown.. 174560 Light brown. Light brown. unbaked. I%-%. 5. 2%. . ~g-%. See pages 120-124. 4 % Liturgy to Aruru. T. Complete single column tablet. H. 4. 1%.column 4566 tablet. I-%. Complete single column tablet. See pages I I 5-1 I 7. Hymn to Engur. Light brown. 2 . Lamentation on the invasion of Sumer by Gutium. 4. T. unbaked. Lower right corner of a large three column 9 294563 tablet. 3. Baked. W. Light 4564 brown. See pages 143-149. W. T. Psalm t o the god Amurrfi. 3%. See pages 136140. I . Dublin tablet Nearly complete single column tablet. Lower half of a long single column tablet. See pages I 1 1-1 1 5. 6 Right half of a large three column tablet. T. I%-% T. See pages 124-125. 4. Upper part of a single column dark baked tablet. W. 7%. 1 I A legend of Gilgamish. unbaked. H. Cracked o n left edge. 3 . 24 T. W. unbaked. 3. H. W. W. unbaked. x-%. H. 4. H . See pages 118-120.. Dark brown. 3% inches H .Liturgical hymn to Ishme-Dagan. See pages 140-142. . 32 T. H.

3. 2%. Complete dark brown baked tablet. Light brown. T. Liturgy to lnnini. partly baked. unbaked.. 2%. See pages 178-184. Damaged a t top and bottom. See pages 155-171. Upper left corner of a large three column tablet. H. See pages 184-1 87. Right edge damaged. unbaked. of Samsuiluna. Liturgy. 1%-j4. unbaked. 594. H. Liturgical hymn to lshme-Dagan. W. Fragment of a litany. See pages I 72-1 78. W. IX-%. At the end of the obverse about ten lines entirely destroyed. Complete light brown tablet. H. See pages 187-191. Dark brown. . I-%. Fragment of a large three column tablet. 3%. Hymn and legend of Sin. W. %-%.2%.?A. z@. unbaked. H. 2%: T I . W. See pages I 50-1 5 I . T. W. Incantation and prayers for Shamash-shumukin. Brickred and baked. T. W. 5%. 4%. T. Two columns. 3. I . 7. Complete light brown tablet. 2%. W. 5%. 1-94. 11. Light brown. H. Liturgy of the l'ammuz wailings. z. 2. 594. See pages 1 5 1-1 55. Light brown. W. Left upper corner of a large three column tablet. Nearly complete single column tablet.202 UNIVERSITY MUSEUM-BABYLONIAN SECTION DESCRIPTION Upper half of a small single column tablet. W. . unbaked. Liturgical lamentation on the pillage of Ur. H. unbaked. T. Light brown. W. Upper left corner. H. Single column. T. See pages 193-200. 3 . Lower half of a long single column tablet. See pages 191-rgz. H. T. Single Hymn column. T. 3. H. From the top five lines entirely broken away. 3%. I Legend of a musical instrument. . I%-%. Light brown: unbaked. Long thin single column tablet.

2. unbaked. Light brown. 1%. 16. H. W. unbaked. Hymn t o Enki concerning the building of his temple in Eridu. baked. I%-%. 2. unbaked. H. For contents see page 192-193. I T. Upper part of a large two(?) column tablet. Duplicate of No. . W. 3%. 3%. W. I I . Dark brown.STEPHEN LANGDON-SUMERIAN LITURClCAL TEXTS 203 20 5657 5 a 60 4916 21 4915 22 61 62 14031 10215 23 Upper half of a long single column tablet. H. T. I%-%. Light brown. 1 Small fragment from a large two column text. Reverse damaged. T. 4%. 2%. mole-brown. Left edge broken / away. An epical legend.

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Electronic publication prepared by Kelvin Smith Library Case Western Reserve University Cleveland.etana. Ohio for ETANA Core Texts http://www.org/coretexts.shtml .

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