313

ro

O

O

FORM 2O28

HANDBOOK OF

12-INCH HOWITZER RAILWAY MOUNT.

MODEL OF 1918.

(THIRTY-SEVEN

PLATES)

ED. J U L Y

3-19--1OO

LIBRARY

GENERAL STAFFtOLLEGE
S. ARMY
3—7279

OF
U.S. ARMY MILITARY HISTORY INSTITUTE

$353

War Department effice of the Oiief of Ordnance Washington.* t 1919« Ohis Manual i s published for the information and guidance of the Army of the United states* By Qr4«r of The Secretary of War» 4 C»C. Williams, « Gen : t0rd.Dept•, U.S»A. Chief of Ordnance*

•L,:

PROPERTY OF TH^ US ARMY

2317JI

TABLE 0 ? CONTENTS,
FART 1 *
1 2 " H o w i t z e r R a i l w a y Mount, M o d e l , o f 1 9 1 8 *

Section A - General Description* • (a) D e s c r i p t i o n * (b) Operation* •

• , • • • • • • • • * « » * • • »

* « . . . . . . . . « . . , . « • • • * .
• * • • • • • • • • » • • • » • • • . « •

Section B - Recoil Mechanism*

« • * • . . . . . . . . • • • • * • •

« • « • • « • • , * • • , *

S e c t i o n C - R e c u p e r a t o r a n d L i q u i d Pump Section D- Elevating Mechanism • Section E - Traversing Mechanism. • Section F -Anti-Friction Device* • S e c t i o n G- Asimunition Crane* Section H- Carproper* S e c t i d n HI. - T r u c k s Section J - Brakes

• • • , , « • • • • • • • • • • • • • « • » • • • ' • • • • • * • « • • • • « • * » « • • • • « • •

• • * » • • • • • • • • • « • , < * •

* • • • , • • • • • * • • * * • • * • » • •

* « • • • • • • • • * . « • • * • • * • • • • « « • » » • * • • • . » « • . « « • , * • • # • • • » « * • • • • • • • • • * • • , , * •

Sedtion K- Draft Gear and French Coupler

(a) Draft gear* • • • * . • * • • • • • • • * * • (b) To couple t h e c a r

* « • • • • • • • • * « • • • • « « •

(c) To uncouple t h e c a r • • • • • # • • • • • * * • • . . • (d) French coupler* • » * . . . » . • • « . . . . (e) To couple t h e c a r » « • * . * * (f) To uncouple t h e car » « v « Section L - Jacks* • • / . » *. •

• * * • « « • • • * •

• • • • • • • • * • * * • * * »

• • • « » , • • » • • • * • • • « « • • • • * • • • • « • . « , • • . . , • • » • • • • • # « • • « » » • - » • • « • • • • 23176

(a) T o r a i s e c a r v;ith s c r e w j a c k s

( b ) T o l o w e r c a r ^ i t h s c r e w j a c k s • |*

Section M - Foundation* • • • * • • • • • • • • • • • •

-2­ Pag© (a) (b) T oplace foundation f o r traveling. • • • • • • » • • • *

T o d i s a s s e m b l e f o u n d a t i o n a n d l o a d f o r f i r i n g
« « . < • • • . . « . • * •
,

3~o':i.oa E ~ O u t r i g g e r s * » • < • . « (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

T o place end outrigger f o r firing. « . « . , . . . . . «
T o p l c o e s i d e o u t r i g g e r f o r firing-.o •
T o a d j u s t f c r s w on o u t r i g g e r » .
o

« , < > . •
. . . . . . . . . .
. . . / , . . . • » • • • •

T o ai'ja.^t f l o a t s , • « « . « » « » . . T op l r o e end. o u t r i g g e r side outrigger and foot strut strut

f o r carrying f o r carrying*

'(j ) T o g"*£:-e (g;

To place; f l o a t s

plates

f-or c a r r j ^ i n g • • • » • . • 4 . « . . . . « #

S e c t i o n 0 - AjTjUiro.tdon R a n d J . i n g - * c « . • c > . . , . . S e c t i o n P - M u s z i e Supper I* « . • • • « Support . » • «

(fvx) D e s c r i p t i o n

( b ) T o P l a c e M u z a l e Section Q -• C h e s t s

I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *
• • • * . « » . • • » » • » • • • *• * * • . . *
* . . . . . . . . . .
* . . .

Section R - Camouflage

(a) Description ( b ) P a i n t s

( c ) To Apply t h e P a i n t * ( d ) T o R e m o v e t h e P a i n t

P A R T I I
Inspection a n d M a i n t e n a n c e of Mount » • • • • » . . « • . * . . . . • . • •

S e c t i o n A - C a r e of r e c o i l m e c h a n i s m (a) In General

(b) To Dismount recoil mechanism
(c) To assemble recoil mechanism. • « (d) To Fill Recoil mechanism . . *
. . « . »

13176

3a. ( e ) To p a c k s t u f f i n g b o x . . . . » * . . . . . . « • • • . . . . . . . •• > • » • « • • • « • • •

( f ) To c l e a n r e c o i l c y l i n d e r . SECTION ..B - : 0 a t e of R e c u p e r a t o r (a) in General. ( b ) To d i s m o u n t r e c u p e r a t o r ( c ) To a s s e m b l e r e c u p e r a t o r (d) To fill recuperator. . »

« « • • • • • • • • • • • » • • . . . « •

(e) To pack stuffing box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . « *
(f) To clean recuperator cylinder and plunger* • • • • •

23176

3b* Page SECTION C - C a r e of e l e v a t i n g m e c h a n i s m . . . * . . . . . .

(a) To dismount e l e v a t i n g mechanism . . . . . . . (b) To a s s e m b l e e l e v a t i n g mechanism SECTION D - C a r e o f t r a v e r s i n g m e c h a n i s m (a) To dismount t r a v e r s i n g m e c h a n i s m . ( b ) To a s s e m b l e t r a v e r s i n g m e c h a n i s m . S e c t i o n E - C a r e of a n t i - f r i c t i o n Device. « . device device . . . . . . . • • . . . • •

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

« • . . « . . . . . •

( a ) To dismount a n t i - f r i c t i o n ( b ) To a s s e m b l e a n t i - f r i c t i o n S e c t i o n F ­ C a r e of A m m u n i t i o n C r a n e .

• . » . . . « * * .<

(a) To dismount ammunition c r a n e (b) To a s s e m b l e ammunition c r a n e S e c t i o n G - C a r e of t r u c k s

. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . , . . » ,
• • • • » . .

( a ) To remove t r u c k s . . . . . . . (b) To d i s a s s e m b l e a n d assemble t r u c k s ( c ) To p a c k j o u r n a l b o x e s (d) To r e p l a c e j o u r n a l b e a r i n g s . ( e ) To p l a c e t r u c k s u n d e r c a r S e c t i o n H - C a r e of B r a k e s .

• » . . . •

, . . ,

. » . . . • • • . . . . . . . * . * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . a . .

(a) T o d i s a s s e m b l e a i rb r a k e .

(b) To disassemble a n d assemble handbrake (c) TO a s s e m b l e a i rbrake. . . » • • . . .

(d) To clean and o i l brake c y l i n d e r . (e) To clean and oil triple valve (f ) To clean centrifugal dirt collector

23176

Page ( g ) To t a k o up s h o e w e a r * • ( h ) To r e p l a c e b r a k e s h o e s . S e c t i o n I - C a r e of jacks• • . • • • • • » • • • . * • • < •• • . • . ,

• » . . . • • • » . . . . • » . « * • • . .

( a ) To d i s a s s e m b l e s c r e w j a c k s * * « ( b ) To a s s e m b l e s c r e w j a c k s .

« • • • • • • • > * . • • • • • • . • •

( c ) Care and o i l i n g of s c r e w j a c k s ( d ) C a r e of a u x i l i a r y jacks« •

PART I I I , Section A - P r e c a u t i o n s t o be observed b e f o r e f i r i n g * Section B - P r e c a u t i o n s t o be observed b e f o r e t r a v e l l i n g Section C - L i s t of g r e a s e c u p s a n d h a n d y o i l e r s . PART IV. - L i s t PART V of • • . . . . • • • * • •

« • • • • * • • • Parts

- T a b l e of W e i g h t s a n d Dimensions* List of T o t a l Equipment

PART VI -

13175

~5 ­ List of Plates _ III • III. IV* V« VI* 12-inch Howitzer Railway Mount. Right Side Elevation 12-inch Howitzer Rarilwey Mouvjt, Left Side Elevation < » 12-inch Howitzer Railway Mount, Longitudinal Section 12-inch Howitzer Railway Mount. Plan View. 12-indc1. Howitzer Railway Mount, Ftfoi-.it Viev/* 12-inch Howitzer Railway Mount, Rear View*

VII, VIII, IX* X« XI» XII# XIII, XIV, XV, XVI, XVII*

Recoil Cylinder Assembly*
Recuperator Assembly•
Liquid Pump and Piping Arrangement.
Liquid Pump Assembly.
Elevating Assembly*
Foot lever Assembly*
Traversing Assembly*
Anti-frriction Device Assembly*
Loading Assembly»
platform^Assembly, Right Side.
Platform Assembly, Left Side*

XVIII. Frame Assembly.
XIX, XE. XXI, Air Brake Assembly, Front*
Air Brake Assembly, Rear.
Lever Assembly, Plan View.

XXII.• Lever Assembly, Side View,
XXIII* Outrigger Assembly*
YYIV. XXV, Foundation Assembly*
Jack Assembly*
23176--,

-6­

XXVI* XXVII*

Equipment Assembly« Ammunition Crane Assembler*

XXVIII, Weight distribution diagram.
XXIX, XXX, XXXI, XXXII, Air Brake Cylinder, Type D, 10X12.
j&u.ailiary reservoir, Type D.
Centrifugal dirt collector.
Truck Assembly*

XXXIII, Triple Valve K-2
XXXIVD XXXVC XXXVIe Camcu? Is.ge»
C a r frame French couplers
Buffer Assembly*

XXXVII, Draft Gear Assembly.

2317$

_^2-J&ich Bov/itzer_R^ _Model of 1918 Section A - General Description* * (a) Descript ion« Refer to plates I,. II, III, IV, V and VI for l i s t of p>a;-ts with their piece mrks and the material of which they are made, see page .

The mount is designed to permit the Howitzer to "be traversed through 360 degreoSy elevated from minus 5 to plus 60 degrees and fired from 20 to 60 degrees * The principal parts of the mount are the base plate, which is a part of the car proper, racer, distance ring and traversing r©llers, side frames, cradle, recoil system, recuperator system, traversing and elevating mechanisms, elevation quadrant, panoramic sight, loading tray, loading and working platforms, and car proper, including body, trucks, brakes and couplers together with outriggers, floats, jacks and foundation details*

The base plate is a one piece casting used as the center sec­ tion of the car proper and bolted to the car frame on each end* The lower roller path is machined on the upper side and a pintle surface is machined on the outer side of the vertical annular flange, on the inner side of this flange the traversing rack is bolted* The racer is cast in one piece and has i t s lov/er surface mach­ ined, forming the upper roller path, corresponding to the lower roller path on the base p l a t e . The inner vertical surface is machined to form The outer vertical surface is machined and

the female part of the pintle*

graduations are engraved forming an azimuth circle. 23175'

There are 640 divisions of 10 mils each, the 0 graduation being on the left side of the racer 45 degrees left of gearIhe

aximuth pointer is of gernian silver graduated from 0 to 10 mils and is fastened to a builb up bracket bolted to the base plate. Five clips, "

engaging the under side of the base plate flange and bolted,to the

racer prevent any relative vertical movement o? the racer with the base plate* Dust guards are bolted to the ou-ter surface of the racer pre­

venting dust and dirt from entering the traversing roller system and pintle bearing* The traversing roller system consists of forty conical rollers t held in a radial position by the distance ring1 and kept concentric with " the pintle by flanges on the inner edges of the rollers in .contact v/ith the inner edge of the roller path on the base ring* Handy oilers are located on the outsdde Vertical surface of tlje racer v/ith oil tubes leading to continuous oil gutters cut in the distance ring, for the dis­ tribution of oil to the rollers* The side frames are bolted to tk© upper surface of the racer and held together by the front and rear transom; this unit supports the tipping parts of the mount* The cradle supported in the side frames by its, trunnions serves as a slide way for the hbv/itzer when recoiling and carries the recoil and recuperator systems • The loading platform of structural

steel extends to the rear of the mount and is held in place by supports fastened to the rear transom and side frames. Tne platform is construct­

ed with an opening in the center for the howitzer to recoil through* This opening is covered by a folding platform iji two sections connected 23176

—9—
together and to the loading plajtfora by hinges. v,u,,;: loading and folded back v/hen f i r i n g . This platform is down

O the right side of the n

mount is the elevating platform which is folded, in v/hen traveling* A loading tray built up of structural steel is bolted to the goading plat­ form, and is constructed to carry three projectiles at a tims. Cranes

on the rear of the loading platform hoist the projectiles from the am­ munition table on the car floor to.the loading tray, i| shell trough plac­

ed in the breech of the Howitzer and resting on the loading tray is usdd to slide the projectile and powder into the Howitzer* The car has a cast steel center vhlch serves as a base plate and roller path for the traver­ sing parts of the mount and structural steel ends all mounted on standard six wheel trucks* The car serves'as a firing platform and transport

vehicle, vihen in transport the entireweight rests upon the trucks in the ordinary way, but in firing the car is raised by jacks; beams and crosst i e s then placed underneath and the car lowered thereon, relieving the weight from the trucks* The outriggers are then set out against the wood­

en floats backed by the earth to resist the recoil when the howitzer is fired. A ammunition trough and table are located on the car floor n and ammunition is brought from the ammunition car to the trough and slid down t o the table which holds seven projectiles* The recoil mechanism, recuperator, elevating and traversing •mechanism, anti-friction device, crane, jacks, outriggers, trucks, car proper air brakes, draft gear and ammunition table will each be des­

cribed in detail later *

2317

-10­ (b) Operation. The piece i s l a i d in azimuth by the combined usec of the panoramic sight or azimuth c i r c l e , and t h e traversing mechanism* Eleva­

t i o n i s obtained by s e t t i n g the quadrant at the elevation required and r o t a t i n g the piece in elevation by the elevating mechanism* Upon f i r i n g , the Howitzer r e c o i l s in the cradle a maximum distance of 37*5 inches, carrying with i t the r e c o i l band and piston, p u l l rods and plunger of t h e recuperator* The energy of r e c o i l of the

howitzer is absorbed"by t h e resistance which the f l u i d in the hydraulic cylinders offers in being forced through the openings past the pistons« A portion of the energy of r e c o i l sufficient t o return the howitzer into b a t t e r y i s absorbed by compressing the a i r in the recuperator cylinder* The return of the piece into b a t t e r y is eased by ••-he action of the counter r e c o i l buffers, which force the f l u i d from the cylinder heads through t h e small clearance past the cylinder head bushings* ...SECTION. B -^ RECOIL MECHANirM Refer to Plate VII. For l i s t of p a r t s with t h e i r piece marks and t h e material of which they are made, see page The r e c o i l system operates on th3.v£rincipal of the hydraulic brake and is designed t o limit the distance aid regulate t h e velocity with which the howitzer moves t o the rear when fired* A small portion of t h e r e c o i l energy i s taken up by compress­ ing t h e a i r in the recuperator cylinder, but ;he greater portion is taken up by tho resistance t h e l i q u i d in the r e c o i l cylinder offers to being forced through the orifices formed b / t h e t h r o t t l i n g grooves. The width

-11­ of these grooves is uniform; but the depth is proportioned so that ths areas of the orifices, varying with the position of the piston during recoil, will be such as to give, with the air in, the recuperator, a con­ stant resistance throughout the length of recoil• In front o the piston, the piston rod is extended to form a f buffer* This buffer is flatted so thqt the escape of liquid? during

counter-recoil, through the varying clearances between this and the re­ coil cylinder head bushing, will offer auch resistance as will control the motion of the howitzer during i t s return to battery* linen the fceccil

piston is in normal recoil position the end of the buffer is back in the cylinder a distance about 17»375 inches from the cylinder head bushing* As the recoil piston travels towards the cylinder head during counter recoil, i t pushes some of the liquid ahead of i t into th4 cylinder head; and Tahen the buffer reaches and begins to enter the cylinder head bush­ ing, the cylinder head is filled with the liquid* The recoil mechanism consists of two cylinders fitted in and locked to cylindrical bosses on the under side of cradle by special nuts*­ Each is closed at the front end by a cylinder head and at the rear end by a stuffing box* The throttling grooves, above referred to, are three in

number, symmetrically located with respect to the longitudinal axis of the cylinder* The piston rod projects through the rear of the cylinder The rear nut should be screwed in the recoil band*

and is held in the recoil band by two nuts»

up lightly to allow the piston rod to adjust itself

W e the piece is fired, the piston and piston rod move to the rear with hn the recoil band which is attached to the howitzer while the cylinders re­ main stationary in the cradle* A stuffing box with packing and follower

is used to make a tight joint between the piston rod and rear end of cyl..r"U

in front of the stuffing "box there is a leather washer which prevents the l i q u i d in the cylinder from leaking through the threads of the stuffing box and also during r e c o i l keeps the pressure of t h e l i q u i d from acting d i r e c t l y on the packing in the stuffing" box* The cylinder head i s screwed i n t o t h e front end of the r e c c i l c y l i n d e r . A bushing i s screwed i n t o the opening of the head t o insure proper c l e a r ­ ance f o r the b u f f e r . A tongue and groove with a l e a t h e r washer make's a

t i g h t ftoint between the eylinder and head* _SfiCTION C - RECUPERATOR Refer t o Plates VIII, IX and X* For l i s t of p a r t s with t h e i r piece marks and t h e material of which they are made,* see page* The recuperator consists of an a i r chanibrer, a piston and i t s packings; a plunger and i t s yoke and p u l l r o d s . s l i d e in t h e c y l i n d r i c a l part of t h e a i r chamber• bearing in t h e front end of t h e plunger* The pietcn and plunger The pis-son rod has a

At t h i s end of t h ? plunger a

yoke connects i t with the p u l l rods, which in turn are fastened in t h e front by a bracket and in t h e r e a r direct t o t h e r e c o i l band. The a i r chamber consists of a hollow c y l i n d r i c a l forging open in t h e front and closed in t h e rear* The c y l i n d r i c a l part in front, in

wn'ich the piston and plunger moveS| i s f i t t e d with a lining of special watertight bronze* The plunger i s of tfye same material as the l i n e r and The plunger,

i s machined t o take the piston rod, liquid f and stuffing box*

screwed t o t h e yoke and secured by set scraws, i s driven at recoil by the two p u l l rods, which are fastened t o t h e r s c o i l band and t r a v e l with i t . p u l l rodS'have bearings in bushings fixed in lugs on the c r a d l e .
2

1h3
.". '7 *

-13­ joint between the plunger and the liner is made tight by a leather packing held in place by a stuffing box. Flax packing held in the stuff­

ing box by a gland makes the joint between the plunger and the stuffing box tight* A felt washer held by a steel ring and screwedvto the gland,

prevents sand or grit from entering the plunger packings. The air chamber, or recuperator cylinder, ±3 locked in a cy­ lindrical bO3s on the top part of the cradle by a cylinder clamp lock. Flattened places on the pull rod bushings matching up with similar ones on the shoulder prevent the recuperator cylinder from rotating. The piston consists of a head of special watertight bronze screwed on a steel rod. Ihe front part of the rod is fitted with a bronze Its threaded end beyond

casing and slides in a bearing in the plunge:.*-

the casing is fitted with a nut and washer limiting in the rear, the dis­ placement of the piston with respect to the plunger. Tallowed flax pack­

ing held by a bronze ring, and piston washer held against this ring by a follower make a tight joint between the piston and cylinder liner, A spring held in place by a nut, pinned to the rod, presses the f ollower to the rear against the piston washer % The joint between the piston rod and plunger is similar to that between the plunger and the cylinder, liner* The space in front of the piston and in the plunger i s filled with a solution of glycerine and water, the same as in the recoil cylinders. This liquid acts as a seal for the joint between the piston and the liner, and a stop between piston and plunger at counter-recoil* hi a i r valve body, fitted with two needle valves, one for filling and one for emptying! is screv/ed in the rear end of the recuperator cylinlor and connected by tubing to the air pipe connection on the cradle* A cb;-. •.:.;* n :

-14­ "feube runs from this to the pressure gauge* hi opening in th-e pipe

connection is used to attach the coiled tube when charging the cylinder with a i r . The opening is closed with a plug when not in use* At the front end of the recuperator cylinder a liquid valve is bolted and connected by copper tubing to the liquid pipe connection on the cradle. Another tube runs from this to the pressure gauge and

a third to the liquid pump* Liquid is poured into the pump through the opening in the top and pumped through the tubing into the plunger. The liquid pump is fastened to a steel plate support, to v/hich is also fastened the two pressure gauges. upper part of the cradle on the left side• The pump consists of a pump case, or reservoir, for the solu­ tion of glycerine and water, in the bottom of which is fixed the body of the pump* This contains the inlet valve, the outlet valve, and the relief valve, and the pump body nut. / This support is bolted to the

A plunger operated by a lever, crank,

and link, with bearings in the cover and body nut, operate in the pump body# (see Plate X)* The relief valve screwed in the top of the pump body has a valve stem, relief spring, and cap» The relief spring is designed to allow the

liquid to blow off at from 2200 to 2500 lbs* qpad insures no dan&ge to the pump from excess back pressures* This spring should never be tampered

with $e t-% is adjusted by the manufacturer and tested to function at the proper pressure* If the liquid pump f a i l s to function and there is

practically no resistance offered when the pump lever is operated, i t nhov/s that there i s a back pressure of a i r in the mechanism* To overcome this

disconnect the liquid pipe where i t joins the three way connoction on the

-15­ of t h e cradle, and operate the lever for a $ew strokes u n t i l l i q u i d begins t o flow* Reconnect t h e l i q u i d pipe t o t h e three way connection

and pump l i q u i d i n t o t h e recuperator plunger u n t i l t h e piston rod washer j u s t clears t h e rear gland * SECTION D - ELEVATING MECHANISM Refer t o Pirate XI and XJI. For l i s t of pstrts with t h e i r piece marks and t h e material of which they a r e made, see page* The elevating mechanism c o n s i s t s of an elevating rack, attached t o r i g h t side of t h e cradle, meshing with a pinion, which i s operated by a handwheel through spur g e a r s . The spur gearing i s supported by t h e A band brake

gear p l a t e and s i d e frame provided -with bronze bushings*

with foot control i s provided t o prevent any movement of t h e t i p p i n g p a r t s when t h e gun i s f i r e d . gun 1*92 d e g r e e s . One t u r n of t h e handwheel clockwise elevates the

Refer to Plate "XXII For l i s t of parts with their piece marks and the material of which they are made, see page
i

The t r a v e r s i n g mechanism c o n s i s t s of a c i r c u l a r rack fastened t o t h e base ring and meshing with a pinion, •which :1s operated by a handwheel through a worm and worm wheel* The pinion* meshing with t h e rack, i s keyed Tnis shafct has i t s

t o t h e lower end of t h e v e r t i c a l t r a v e r s i n g shaft*

lower bearing in t h e t r a v e r s i n g shaft bracket, ^jhich i s bolted t o t h e r a c e r , and i t s upper bearing in t h e t r a v e r s i n g ^ear case } which i~ bo.l-f-oa t o t h e l e f t side frame* The worm whe 3i, keyed so bhe upper, end cf tho zy-ui

•46­
is in mesh with the worm which is keyed to the worm shaft* The worn

shaft has "both of i t s bearings in the gear case and a handwheel on one end* iThe worm wheel, worm, and worm shaft are inclosed in the" gear case*. 1W gear case cover has a lug to take th,e leveling screw bearing pin of the -sight.,
SECTION F r

Refer to Plate X V X . For l i s t of parts with their piece marks and the material of which they are made, see page The anti-friction device is designed to relieve the load of the tipping parts from the main trunnion and ease the elevating and depressing of the gun* It donsists of tv/o small trunnions, bearing supports, adjust­ ing screws, and Belleville springs»
;

'

The weight of the tipping partsr is supported on the small trunnions and transmitted to the Belleville springs by the bearing supports and seats* The adjusting screv/s are tightened up until the crdldle trun^ nions have a clearance in the s i i e frame bearings at a l l points* This
i

makes t h e e n t i r e elevating load come on t h e small trunnions and reduces the handwheel load* When the Howitzer i s f i r e d the B e l l e v i l l e springs a r e compressed and t h e f i r i n g load comes on the side frame bearings* SECTION, G - AMMUNITION CRANE. Refer t o Plate XXVII, For l i s t of p a r t s with t h e i r piece marks and t h e material of which they a r e made see page Tv/o ammunition cranes a r e bolted t o t h e rear corners of tho loading platform f o r use 3a h o i s t i n g ammunition from t h e ground or am­ munition t a b l e , t o t h e loading t r a y •
2 &.•;>'
f

For hpistang t h e 700-pound p r o j e c t i l e , the shot tongs should be pdjined d i r e c t l y ' t o the open socket at the end of the wire-rope* For

use with a heavier p r o j e c t i l e an extra sheave block v/ith a craaae hook attached-,, i s provided* The wire rope v/ith the open socket attached^ may

be passed through the blockj by removing one of the p l a t e s , and pinning t o the mast. The shot tangs ^Should then be placed on t h e crane hook*

These two arrangements are shown on p l a t e XXVII# A section through the drum, gearing and f r i c t i o n srafetyydevice^ i s shovai on p l a t e XXVII* The cranks may be released with t h e load dji

any position^ and by v i r t u e of the f r i c t i o n safety device, t h e mechanism w i l l not overhaul* ratchet* The pawl should at a l l times be left an mesh with the

To insure proper functioning, t h i s mechanism, should be kept She cranks and the mechanism housed in t h e drum bracket

well lubricated*

should-, under no circumstances^ be dismantled in the field* l Refer to Plate XVIII, For l i s t of p a r t s v/ith t h e i r piece marks and t h e material of which they are made, see page Ihe car proper serves as a transport f or the travel's ing p a r t s of the mount, outrigger f l o a t s , foot p l a t e s and for the c r o s s t i e s and b u i l t up H-beams of t h e foundation platform* t i o n platform,, i t serves as an emplacement* The car proper consists of a drop frame type of bqdy.j v/ith ends b u i l t up of s t r u c t u r a l s t e e l p l a t e s and shapes v/ith,a cast s t e e l center, mounted on tv/o six-wheel railway trucks* I t i s equipped with four screw Ihen lowered on the founda­ ,
M

CAR PROPERj

jacks, which are used f i r s t t o r a i s e the car s u f f i c i e n t l y t o allow t h s ground'platf orm t o be placed in position under i t , and then t o lower uho

-18­

car until i t s weight rests on the crossties and through them to the built up H-beams which are spiked to the r a i l t i e s . There are also ffi

outriggers which are set out against wooden floats sunk'in pits and back-' ed by earth. firing* The over-all dimensions of the car body ends, which as stated above, are built up of structural steel shapes and plates, are, length 12 feet 7.5 inches, width 8 feet, 5*5 inches. The underframe is com­ The outriggers serve to keep the mount stationary during

posed of two center s i l l s , four intermediate s i l l s , and four side siljs connected to a base plate in the center of the car, which forms the lower level o the car body* f Ihese s i l l s are tied together ^t each end by

channel and s i l l s , and cross braced by a body bolster 5 feet* 9*5 inches from each end* plates• The floor plate covering the s i l l s consists of four steel

A step and a hand hold or grab iron is provided at each corner. S C I N I - Trucks* E TO Refer to Plate XXXII* For l i s t of parts with their piece marks and the material of

which they are made,, see page The trucks, of which there are two, are of built up type, the frame being made up of plates and steel castings. The center portion o f

the frame is a steel casting forming a bolster and is riveted to the side pieces. bolstersSeparate M C B center plates are riveted to the top of the, »»« Side bearings, consisting of steel plates held in position by The vertical distance from Steel

cast recesses, are placed on ,45-inch centers*

the side bearing surface to the center plate ie 2*75 inches. ings are riveted to the side^plates which fern the pedestals.

-19­ Th e journals a r e standard M.C.B., &£ x 10", and 28-inch whe&ls of r o l l e d s t e e l are' pressed on t h e a x l e s . The loading on the t r u c k s r s t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e journals by ) s e m i - e l l i p t i c springs and equalizers # The equalizers bear on t h e journal boxes and t h e i r outer ends are supported by c o i l springs held dn place by the pedestal castings* Inside hung brakes are applied on four wheels o f each truck* The brake beams are M*C»B* No. 4, t r u s s e d type, with shoes keyed t o h e a d s . The beams a r e hung from brackets cast on t h e t r u c k frames. Separate cast

s t e e l lugs are riveted on both sides of t h e b o l s t e r for connecting the dead l e v e r guides on one s i d e and t h e l i v e lever guides on the1, o t h e r . J -VBRAKESJL Refer t o P l a t e s XIX, XX, XXI, XXII, XXIX, XXX, XXXI, XXXIII. For L i s t of p a r t s v/ith t h e i r piece narks and t h e materials/of which they a r e rcade, see page The car i s equipped v/ith both hand and airbrakes operated by^the same system of levers and so arranged t h a t e i t h e r can be applied independ­ ently* I t i s necessary t o apply the handbrakes at each end s e p a r a t e l y .

The a i r b r a k e s are connected by t h e t r a i n l i n e pipe and operated sim­ ultaneously. Detached brake cylinders and r e s e r v o i r s , Westinghouse type

D, 10 x 12", {See p l a t e s XXIX and XXX) a r e provided with K-2 t r i p l e valves (See p l a t e XXXIII)» There i s also a c e n t r i f u g a l d i r t c o l l e c t o r (See p l a t e car

XXXI) and t h e necessary p i p e s , valves and connections for f r e i g h t equipment.

P l a t e s XIX and X show the arrangement of brake p a r t s a t e i t h e r X end of t h e mount. From t h e s e p l a t e s i t w i l l be seen t h a t t h e handbrakes 2317&

-20­ can be applied without disturbing the piston in the brake-cylinder­ the piston rod being made up of tubing in which the cylinder push rod slides. It will be further noted that the handbrake staff is connected

to a horizontal lever by means of a pull rod and chain*

The horizontal

lever is connected to the brake cylinder o one end and;to the truck n live lever on the other end by means of rods and levers* The reservoirs are equipped with a valve operated by a rod which can be pulled to release the air brakes quickly when desired. Ihe triple valve governs the flow of air, allowing air to pass from the train line into the reservoir and from the reservoir to the cylinders. lV e pressure in the train line is reduced, the triple valve i hn

admits air from the reservoir into the cylinder, and when pressure in.: the train line is again raised, the triple valve closes the passage of air from the reservoir to the cylinder, and at the same time allows the air in the cylinder to escape into the atmosphere* leases the brakes* This automatically re­

The reservoir is again recharged from the train line These operations are effected by opening or

to the required pressure.

closing of ports in the triple valve by variations in the air pressure* A dirt collector, located between the triple valve and the train line collects dirt from the air before i t passes into the t r i p l e valve. The dirt thus collected may be blown out of the dirt collector by open­ ing a valve at its bottom* _SEC_TION K - DRAFT GEAR A D FRTiNCH COUPLERS, N (a) Draft Gear. Refer t o p l a t e XXXVII.

For l i s t of p a r t s v/ith t h e i r p i e c e marks and t h e m a t e r i a l of which they a r e made, see page • 2317$

-21­ The draft gear i s known as the Westinghou.se friction Type* The V-'estinghouse friction parts are enclosed in a drum which is so applied between cast steel draft lugs to receive the buffing and pulling shocks* The coupler is Gould Coupler Company's pattern Z-201, (b) To Couple the Car* One man-required*
Tools needed, none*
f Car pusher can be used i locomotive is not
available *
(1) Set the handbrakes on car enough to keep-it from moving easily

when bumped. (2) lever* Gpen the knuckle on car by lifting the handle of the uncoupling This movement will f i r s t unlock the knuckle so i t can be pulled

open, but continuing the movement of uncoupling lever will throw the knuckle open without the necessity of going in front of or between the cars . " h n the knuckle of either car i s open, i t i s only necessary to We "Erring the cars together until the open knuckle closes, aftd i t will l©ck aut orcat ic al 1 y. (c) (l) To uncouple car* Raise the uncoupling lever on one car enough to release the
*

knuckle and the cars may be pulled apart.
(d) French Coupler. - Refer to Plates X X a n d XXXVI. XV For l i s t of parts wiflitheir piece marks and the material of •

which they are made see page

The bumper blOGks are of white oak, each secured to the end s i l l channels by six 1-inch diameter and two 1,5-inch diameter bolts* To these blocks, the buffers, safety chains and parts of the draft hooks are

fastened as shovai on Plate XXXV. The "screw couplers, safety, chains and buffers conform to the standard now adopted for U.S. Government freight cars in France, With

t h i s arrangement and when the car i s connected t o the ammunition car or some other car, the couplers draw them together, producing compression in the buffer s p r i n g s . At each end of the car there are two different types of buffers, one with a f l a t buffing surface and the other with a curved surface. Similar buffers are located diagonally opposite on the car in order that when the cars are coupled together, the f l a t buffer of one car will butt against the curved buffer of the next c a r . This i s done to prevent

damage to buffers when t r a i n is rounding a curve* The buffrer housing, which contains the compression spring and a c t s as a guide for the buffer, i s bolted t o the bumper block by four bolts •., A buffer p l a t e however, i s placed between the buffer housing and the bumper block to give a b e t t e r bearing surface. The large end of the

spring referred t o above r e s t s against a c i r c u l a r p l a t e and the small end against the buffer. In order to prevent the spring from pushing these

tv/o apart, a 1*875-inch diameter pin is provided which has a head at one end am.dl a t the other end a key projecting through the pin and a collar« The above mentioned c i r c u l a r p l a t e s e t s up into the buffer housing fqr enough t o allow clearance between the bumper block and the buffer plate f o r the collar and key, but i t is prevented from being pushed back by a cast s t e e l ring bolted t o the buffer p l a t e . The draft hook projects through the bumper block, end s i l l , and cast s t e e l draft spring stop, to a cast s t e e l block which i s held t o i t by a nut and s p l i t pin* This l a t t e r block i s guided by lugs on the center 23175

s&ll and takes the thrust: of the compression spring which is seated at i t s large end on tho draft spring stop riveted.to the center s i l l of car* The draft hook is also guided "by another cast steel "block rest­ The

ing against the 1 draft hook plate and bolted to a bumper block.

shoulders of the draft hook butt up- against this block when released, thus stopping i t s inward motion. The screw coupling is fastened by a pin, v/ith cotter, to a hole in the draw hook* It consists of the yoke attached to the draw

hook, a clevis for hooking to the next car, and a right and left hand screw to draw the yokes and clevis together• Attached to the middle

of the screw is an arm with a ball at the end which is used as a handle to operate the screw. The right hand threads on one side of this handle The left hand threads

screws through a pin holding the y6kes together.

on the other side of the handle screw through a similar pin connected to the clevis. These pins are held in place by cotter pins. A screv/ coupl­

ing is provided at each end of the car, but when the train is made -up, only one coupling is used at each connection* Mien not in use, the loose

end of the coupling is swung on a hook attached to the draft hook plate under the bumper blocks* Safety chains, one on either side o the draft hook, serve as a x coupling in case the screw coupling or draw hooks are out of order* These consist each of a chain and hook fastened to car by an eye bolt* The eye

bolt; passes through the bumper block and end s i l l , and are held in place by nuts with a split pin. To allow a l i t t l e give to the chain, four spring A cast

washers are inserted between the end s i l l channel and the nut»

steel guide bolted to the 'bumper block acts as a stop and guide for the 23176

eye bolts and chain* (e) To Couple Cars. Refer to Plate X X I X V«

One man required.
Tools needed^ none*
Car pusher can "be us 3d if- locomotive i s not available*
(1) Set hand brako on stationary car (not completely, but enough bumped), and bring the cars as

so that car will move only slightly?if clc-Sff together as buffers will allow* (2)

St&ndlig "LeUv/een cars, inside of buffers, l i f t

one of the screw

couplings from the hook under bumper block and hook staple on draft hook of other car* (if the staple does not reach the hook, the coupling will

have to be lengthened by turning the screw with handle*) (3) Tighten screw until there i s just enough compression in the The screw can

draft hook and buffer springs to make cars ride easily*

be turned easily by raising the ball attached to end of handle in the proper direction until i t will f a l l by i t s own weight, thus completing one turn* By repeating above operations, the required amount of turns

can be made* (4) car* (5) (6) (f) Connect a i r hose and open angle cock* Release handbrake. Hook the safety chains of one car to the chains of the other

To Uncouple Cars* Reverse the process of coupling described above, taking care

that the screw coupling i s screwed a l l the way out before the staple is hung on the hook*

2317$

^

.

JL..,-. .,JACKS

Refer t o Plat© XXV. '(a) For l i s t 0 ? p a r t s v/ith t h e i r piece marks and th'e material of 3

which they are made, see page Four b u i l t in jack screws are located in the corners of the base p l a t e , d i r e c t l y above the r a i l s of a standard gauge t r a c k . Each jack consists of a ram, screw, nut r screw gear, pinion, pinion stud, ratchet pawl, ratchet housing and l e v e r . The rain carries a nut into which the screw works* On the upper end of the screw i s a screw, gear meshing with a pinion on the pinion stud. A ratchet meshing v/ith the pinion is turned by a ratchet pawl attached to the ratchet housing, which in turn i s • operated by a long hand l e v e r . There are two jack blocks, 9 inches wide, 8 inches high and 5 feet 6 inches long, provided v/ith each c a r . the r a i l s act as bearings for the jacks» These blocks placed across

In order to raise the car, the

jack blocks are placed across the r a i l s so-that the two jackscrews at each end will rest upon them. Four 20-inch, 25-ton auxiliary jacks having a t o t a l r i s e of 9 inches, are carried on each railway car and weight-approximately 95 pounds ea[ch* They can be used for emergency purposes or in case the regular jacks are out of order­ (b) To r a i s e mount with screw jacks, refer t o plate XXV. Two men required on each set of jacks (four if both ends of car are to be raised:) Tools needed* 4 Jack levers •

2317 6

(1)

Place jack "blocks across rails under jacks f

The faces

of the block with the bearing surfaces should be next to the rail and jack screws. (2) blocking. Turn jack lever until ends of jack screw bear on the jack Be sure the jack blocking is correctly placed so as to give

good bearing- 0 1 rails and continue turning levers until car is high 1 enough to permit the foundation stringer to be placed under the base plate, then put isu the foundation cross beams* (c) To Lower Car. Refer to plate X V X .

Reverse procedure as outlined in (b) above.
(d) To Raise mount with auxiliary jacks. Two men required. Tools needed: 4 Auxiliary Jacks. 4 Wood blocks about 4 x 4 x 4 . (l) Arrange blocking directly under seats of t i e rod bracket Refer to plate X V X.

castings . The top of this blocking should be about 9 inches below the top of the r a i l in order to get the jacks under the mount. (2) Place auxiliary jacks on these blocks; arrange pawl so that

jack will raise when handle is lowered; insert handle in socket and raise by pumping until jack engages with lower surface of base plate. jacks until mount is raised sufficient to place foundation* (3) Remove jacks after foundation is placed*
jBCTION M (a) Description. F0I3N DATION
Operate

Refer t o Plate XXIV.

The foundation i s intended t o take t h e load off the car trucks and t r a n s f e r i t d i r e c t l y t o the ground through r a i l t i e s * 23176

-27­

I t i s nade up of four cross beams which support the side, intermediate and center s i l l s of t h e car, and which in turn transmit the ... to t'-70 linos of H-b earns placed p a r a l l e l to and outside of the r a i l s on each side of the track* Each l i n e of beams i s composed of two separate

channel irons bolted t o each other and Spiked with screw spikes t o the r a i l t i e s in order t o prevent movement* The material for the foundation platform i s stored on car in frent of ammunition t r a y . t o the t r a c k . On the car the H-beams are placed at right angles These beans .

In tack of the beams, the c r o s s t i e s are placed.

and c r o s s t i e s are blocked in front by the outrigger brackets, in back by t h e loading tray s and on the sides by the outriggers* t i e s the jack blocks are placed* On top of the cross-

These are held in place by fastening the

rope attached t o them, t o the loading tray legs* (b) To place for f i r i n g . - Refer t o P l a t e XXIV. men neededTools required: 3 - 2 x 4 " timbers about 3* long, for parrying Hb earns * 1 - Wrench, double, 0.625 and 0«75, U43F. The track at the location where the gun is t o be placed should be previously prepared. well under the t i e s . (1) Remove foundation jack block from car platform and place across The r a i l s should be leveled up and the b a l l a s t tamped

t h e r a i l s with center l i n e s d i r e c t l y under the screw jacks* (2) b. Raise the car by means of the screw j a c k s . (See Sect* L Division

2317 6

-28­ (3) Remove foundqtion stringers from car platform, two to be

placed on either side of the track* (4) Place the stringers under the flange of the base plate as

near the r a i l as possible and parallel to the track with the ends of the stringers on either side of the track approximately opposite each other. (5) bolts • (6) (7) Remove the cross beans from the car platform* Flace the cross beams under the side sills r of the car, rest­ Connect the stringers at the center by four *75 x 1*375

ing on the foundation stringere (8) Lower the car by means of the screw jacks until the center

portion of the base plaite rests on the foundation stringers and the ends of the side, intermediate and center s i l l s rest on the cross beams* (9) Screw up jacks until they clear blocking by at least one half

inch before firing* (c) To Disassemble foundation and load for carrying*. 8 men required* Tools neededs 1 wrench, double »625 and .75, U43F 2 Track wrenches, 4712C 1 Crowbar, 1243A* To disassemble, reverse procedure outlined in (b) above*
To load the material on car platforms for carrying, proceed as follows;
(1) Place crossties on car platform against ammunition tablet

The ends of the crossties should be perpendicular to the tracks, (2) (3) table* Place H~beams with webs vertical next to crossties. Place jack blocks on crossties and lash to legs of ammunition 23170

SECTION N* '(a) Description

OUTRIGGERS.

Refer to Plate XXIII•

For l i s t of p a r t s v/ith t h e i r piece marks and the mat ©rial of which they are made see page There are eight outriggers furnished with e^ch mount which form braces to prevent the mount from tipping over or from sliding on the foundation -platform when the gun. isrbeing f i r e d . The four end outriggers, which are fastened, both when and when not in use, to a socket on the side of the car, should be used ^ien the gun i s fired v/ith in the sector, 45 degrees to the right or to the l e f t of the longitudinal center l i n e of the car* They are each rnade up

of 6-inch hot drawn. Shelby s t e e l tubing v/ith an adjusting scifcew on one end and an eye and pin on the other* The adjusting screw has a b a l l on

the end and can be screv/ed in or out of the nut s t r u t end with a s t e e l rod, which f i t s into holes provided, next t o the b a l l . The fixed end of

the outrigger r e s t s in a,;socket casting on the car side and the ball of the adjusting screwscrests in the foot p l a t e used to d i s t r i b u t e the load over the wooden f l o a t . From the nut s t r u t end to a bracket on the car, As the center line of

d i r e c t l y below the outrigger bracket, is a t i e rod*

the outrigger s t r u t does not pass through the trunnions of the gun, there i s an overturning tendency when the gun i s f i r e d normal to track* purpose of the t i e rod i s t o counteract t h i s tendency* The four side outriggers, which are also fastened t o a socket on the side of the car, should be used when the gun is f i r e d within the s e c t o r 45 degrees to the right or l e f t of a cross center l i n e of the c a r . 23176 The

They ar4 the same in every respect as the end outriggers. The footplates are of cast steel and are used to transmit the thrust from the s t r u t s to the f l o a t s . Their lower surfaces are smooth

and the upper parts have sockets to receive the ball ends of the struts* Each float is built up of two layers of Mocking so as to dis­ tribute the ioad from the s t r u t over 20 square feet of ground surface. The lower layer is composed of fine white oak blocks and the upper layer of three blocks, a l l bolted togetlis3?» There are two angle guides bolted

to the upper surface of the floats for guiding the foot p l a t e s . Mien not in use, the floats and footplates are placed on the car platform* The floats are piled in an inclined position against the The footplates .are piled on

ammunition trough in the rear of the car.

the front platform of the car qgnd lean against the ammunition t a b l e . The float lashingi for holding the floats in position (See Plate XXVl) while in t r a n s i t , is composed of five wire ropes fastened t o ­ gether by steel rings and turnbuckles. When the floats are loaded in

traveling position, two of the wire ropes, held together by a turnbuckle, are passed around the lower part of the floats and secured to the am­ munition table by steel rings* At the upper part of the float two more

wire ropes are passed around, also held together by turnbuckles, and se­ cured to the ananunition table by steel rings. The upper lashing is held

in place by the angles on the sides and by another wire rope in the rear fastened to the platform. holds the floats in place* The footplate lashing for holding the foot plates in position v/hile in t r a n s i t i s composed O one wire rope with a hook on one end and f 23176 Turning the turnbuckles tightens the ropes and

-31­ a tumbuckle on the o t h e r . Ill/hen the p l a t e s are loaded in traveling posi­

t i o n , the rope i s fastened to the lower angle of the ammunition t a b l e and run diagonally along the foot p l a t e s , from the bottom rear t o tfre top front* Ihey are prevented from sliding forward by an-angle at the f r o n t . the turnbuckle tightens the rope and holds the p l a t e s in p l a c e . The s t r u t s and end t i e rods are fixed permanently to the sockets on the mount and vdien not in use are swung around and hung on the side of the mount • The center t i e rods are taken off and placed on top of the loading platform in back of the front ammunition t a b l e . (b) To Place an End Outrigger for F i r i n g . Six men required* Tools needed; 2 - 2» x 6. inch boards', 8 f t . long. 1 - sling of rope about 30 f t . long* 2 - Shovels, 8819A 2 - P i c k s , U51A 1 - Long handled shovel 1 - Axe, U51D 1 . - 0.875 diameter x 24" rod to turn s t r u t adjusting screw­ 1 - Crowbar, 1243A 1 - Hammer, U48F 1 - 2 x 4 timber, about 5* long, f^rtft'atepiftg earth 1 - Rule 1 , - Tape measure 4 - Stakes 1 - 1 x 2 . board, exactly 90 inches long. (1) Move t i e if necess'ary and lay off oblong on ground 60" x 35", Turning

so t h a t one corner of the long side i s 56" from center of mount, and 28" from center l i n e of trucks and the other corner will be 108" from center l i n e of mount and 68" from center l i n e of trucks* (2) Dig a. V shaped p±b u n t i l sides meet at a depth of 90" from top

of car platform. 23176

(3)

Loosen up turn bustle of footplate lashing^ and remove a l l foot

plates from platform and place them on ground in a convenient place. (/-) Uohooi: float lashing and throw to one side away from f l o a t s . Slide i t dov/n skids to ground and place

Fasten sling around upper f l o a t .

i t in p i t with i t s under surface resting on rear or sloping part of p i t , and with angles s t i l l horizontal. (5) Place a foot plate vdth i t s under surface bearing in the center on the f l o a t .

and between! angles (D)

Lift outrigger s t r u t out of carrying bracket and swing i t arround

on the socket casting and turn adjusting screw up in the s t r u t so as to isike i t as short .as possible* If i t is difficult to turn the adjusting

screw, the *875 inch diameter rod should be used which f i t s in the holes next to the ball-end* Swing end of outrigger around until the ball is

right over socket of foot plate and turn adjusting screw out until the ball bears against socket and causes compression in the strut* (7) Remove t i e roduf rom car and fasten to .strut• Turn the t u m ­

buckle u n t i l rod is t i g h t . (8) Pile earth against the part of under surface of float which

projects above the ground level, tamping well to give a good bearing for the whole under surface of float* (c) To Place a side Outrigger for Firing* Six men required* Tools needed: Same as for (b) above. (l) Lay off oblong on ground 60" x 55^ so that one oorner of the Refer to Plate XXIII*

long side i s IQO.fl from center line of mount and 128" back from center line 23176

-33­

of trucks, and the other end :Ls 155" from center line of mount and 128" back from center line of trucks* (2) Dig a V shaped p i t until sides meet in the center of the pit at

a distance of 90" from the top of car platform* (3) riggers . (4) Swing outrigger from mount, and turn adjusting screw out until Place floats and foot plates in the same manner as for end out­

the "ball end bears against s/Ocket and causes compression in the strut* (5) Remove center t i e rods from car platform and connect to t i e rod

studs, ^.lowing rod to drop down to lugs on lower part of outrigger beam and adjust turnbuckle until pin can be inserted in the holes in lugs, (6) Pile earth ag££nst part of under surface of float which projects

above the ground level«. tamping well to give a good bearing for the v/hole surface of float• (7) Remove remaining floats, if there are any, from end car plat­

form and place them in a convenient place out of the my* (d) Tos Adjust Screw on Outriggers* Refer to Plate XXIII* Qne man required. Tools needed: •875 diameter by 24-inch rods, 106B After the gun has been fired i t may be |ound that the outriggers have packed the earth under the float and that the struts do not bear firmly against the foot plates* After every firing, the adjusting screws

should be turned out if necessary, in ordefr to make firm bearing* As stated above, the adjusting screw should be turned out by means of the •875-inch rods which f i t in holes next to the ball end of the strut* 23176

• - 3 4 ­

(&)

To Adjust Floats.

Refer to Plate XXIII,

Four men required. Tools needed: •875 diameter by 24-inch rod, 106B 1 Crowbar, 1243A If the movement of earth under the floats continues, as the firing goes, on until the adjusting screws have reached their outward limit, earth or blocking will have to be placed under the float to give a new bearing surface« (1) (2) To do t h i s , proceed as follows: ,

Turn adjusting screw up in the s t r u t s as irar as i t will go. With crowLars, move the foot plates and floats up tovyard the

car keeping t h e i r inclination the same as before* (3) Hold the floats in this position by means of wedges and f i l l in

the back of floats with earth or blocks until the whole under surface of the floats have a firm bearing* (4) Turn adjusting screw out again to give compression in the strut*

I t may be necessary also to adjust the length of t i e rod on side outriggers which can be done by turning turn buckle. (f ) To Pla.ce Had Outrigger s t r u t for Carrying. Four men required* Tools needed: 0*875 diameter by 24-inch rods 106B Hammer, U48F. (1) Remove pin with s p l i t pin holding end t i e rod to outrigger Refer to Plate XXIII

s t r u t , swing t i e rod around and hang i t on bracket on side of the mount. (2) Turn adjusting screv; up on the strut as far as i t vail go.

Swing free end of strut around and han& i t on bracket on side of mount. 23176

-35­

(g)

To Place Sid© Outrigger for Carrying. Four men required. Tools needed: 1 Hammer, U48F -875-inch by 24-inoh rod, 106B

Refer to Plate XXIII-

(1) ' Remove pin connecting side t i e rod to outrigger s t r u t ; remove t i e rod from bracket and place on car platform, (see Plate XXIII)• (2) Turn adjusting screw of s t r u t up as far as i t w i l l go-, thus

allowing s t r u t to swing free of foot p l a t e ­ (3) Lift free end. of s t r u t and swing around on to top of base

p l a t e inside of outrigger support* (h) Plate XXVI. Six men required. Tools needed: 1 sling of 1-inch rope about 30 f t . long 1 wrench, double, 0*625 and 0»75, U43F 1 pinch bar i crowbar, 1243A (1) Lay foot p l a t e s to one side, ra.ise f i r s t f l o a t with crowbar Place float To Place Floats and Foot p l a t e s for carrying* - Refer t o

and then s l i d e f l o a t up skids on to rear platform of car*

v/ith long side against ammunition trough, and angle side out, angles benjig v e r t i c a l . (See Plate XXVI) (2) Place second i l o a t as above v with the under surface of same float•

r e s t i n g against the angles of the f i r s t (3)

Continue loading f l o a t s as in (2) u n t i l the l a s t one has been

placed on t h e mount* (4) Last f l o a t s together as described in (a)» 23176

-36­ (5) Place foot p l a t e on l e f t front of car in inclined position

r e s t i n g against ammunition table*
(6) Continue loading remaining foot p l a t e s &a in (5) u n t i l the

l a s t one has been placed on the mount*
(7) Laah foot p l a t e s together as described in ( a ) . SECTION 0AMMUNITION HANDLING

Refer to Plates X and XXVII V A t r i p l e x block lowers the ammunition from the ammunition car, in . t h e rear of the mount, to the ammunition trough bolted to the platform of the Howitzer c a r . The upper surface of the tray i s b u i l t on an incline This t a b l e will hold

do that the ammunition can be s l i d on to a t a b l e . seven p r o j e c t i l e s .

The crane (See Sect* G ) h o i s t s the ammunition from &a in­ Two

the t a b l e t o t h e loading t r a y on the traversing part of the mount. cline trough extends from t h i s t r a y to tike breech of the Howitzer-

men then push the p r o j e c t i l e down the inclined surface into the breech of the howitzer, ...ggCTION P.V,.r. MUZZLE SUPPORT (a) Description. Refer to Plates I and II*

For l i s t of p a r t s with t h e i r piece marks, and the material of which they are made, see page The gun when traveling, i s held firmly to the mount by a muzzle support and band* The muzzle of the gun r e s t s on the muzzle support which A wire rope i s passed over

in t u m i s supported by the ammunition trough*

t h e muzzle and to the ammunition trough by a band latch and hinge. On one end of the v/ire rope a stud i s fastened in an open s o c k e t . f i t s in a hole in the band latch and has a nut on i t * This stud

By tightening t h i s 23176

«-37­

nut t h e rope holds t h e muzzle- of the gun on the muzzle block, (b) To Place Muzzle Support* One man required* Tools needed: 1 - 7-inch p l i e r s 1 - wrench, double, 0.375 and 1,, U4-3G (l) Depress gun t o 0 degrees elevation and t r a v e r s e t o 0 degrees

azimuth, having muzzle support block in place* (3) Place gun band over muzzle of gun and fasten t o band hinge on

One side and band .labrh stud on other side* (3) of gun* SECTION Q» - CHESTS,... __ One t o o l chest and two armament chests are carried with each mountThey are made of .062-inch s t e e l , reinforced by angles on the outside• The p l a t e s are flanged a t the corners t o connect t o adjacent p l a t e s . Two f l a t Screw up nut on band latch stud u n t i l band is t i g h t on muzzle

s t r a p s riveted to the bottom by countersunk r i v e t s serve t o protect the bottom of the c h e s t . The covers a r e hinged t o the back of the chests and have catches O e i t h e r side t o hold them open# n The coders are locked by a lock bolt The chests are equipped with

a t each side and by Yale lock in the middle* handles on each end.

The tool chest i s 4C-inches long, 20-inches wide and 24-inches high. I t is equipped v/ith one t r a y which r e s t s on shelf angles* This chest

i s carried on the r i g h t end platform of the mount alongside of the loading trough when t r a v e l i n g . from shifting* 23175 Lug angles bolted to. the floor p l a t e s prevent i t

The armament chests are 4G~inches long, 20-inches wide and 12­ inches high*. They are equipped with two trays placed on top of each

„•* -\r<A. supported on tne chest bottom* •When the mcunt is traveling, these chests are placed on t h e front of t h e car platform just in "back of the ammunition t a b l e . They are held

in t h i s position with angles which are bolted to the floor p l a t e s . The chests should be removed from mount when in f i r i n g position, and placed in some convenient p l a c e .

(a)

Description.

Refer t o Plate XXXIV. five color system

The mount may be camouflaged, using the

following t h e foliage design, v/ith color key in black and white shown on P l a t e XXXIV. The object of t h i s method of painting is t o break up the l&rge surfaces i n t o a number of small sections so as to produce the appearance of a c l u s t e r of shrubbery v/ith patches of l i g h t and shadow. To completely camouflage the mount, i t should be covered with a semi-transparent camou"1 lag© canopy of t e n t form similar t o t h a t used for tljre 12-in oh Gun Railway Carriage shown on drawings Class 85, Division 22, Drawings 1, 2? and 3» (b) Pa:).nts« The p a i n t s t o be used are the Q ^Government Camouflage Paints prepared for the five color sjrstem and in the proportion as follows: applied over a coat of Ordnance Grey and never on bare metal. 1 2 3 4 5 5 Brown Yellow Cream Green Mauve Black No* 4041 4C42 4043 4044 4046 4045 -10 p a r t s " 3 " 5 " 10 •• 2 ° 1

23176

- 39­ Th e paiat numbers referred to above are the U.S. Government Paijit numbers. The parts referred to indicate the relative amounts of

paints of the different colors which will be required to camouflage one 12-inch Howitzer Railway Mount. Each color, for convenience, should be furnished for use in one gallon "friction top" cans with handle* Paints should be furnished in the

cans, mixed ready for use* Mien paint becomes too thick and i t is necessary to thin, use ^linseed oil and turpentine for that purpose, being careful not to use too much turpentine* (c) To Apply the Paint* To apply the paint the surface should be free of a l l sand, cinders, dirt and oil* Paint formerly applied and adhering firmly to the The section to which the different colors

surface need not be removed.

are to be applied are then laid off in accordance with the design shown on Plate. After the mount has been properly marked off into the different sections, the colors should be carefully applied, care being taken to in­ sure an even smooth coatf After the different colors have been applied

the lines where the colors meet should be covered with a black band about one and one quarter inches wide. Rrecautions should be taken to see that

the paint is dry and hard before permitting anything to come in contact with the painted surface* (d) To Remove Paint. The paint may be removed by turpentine or by the use of a paint torch if care is taken in the use of the flame.

£3 L7

-40­

MAINTM.ANCE OFJEHE,

S C I N A - ' Care of Recoil Mechanism. E TO (a) The recoil cylinder should be emptied and refilled once every

three months and thoroughly cleaned once every six months or ofterier if conditions require i t . The liquid ini'the recoil cylinder is a solution of e§ual parts" glycerine and waterThe density of the liquid should be 1.15 and should

have a neutral or alkaline reaction, oaused by adding caustic soda or caustic potash, chemically pure, A hydrometer, which is kept in the ar­

mament chest when'not in use, 'is furnished to t e s t the solution for density» This liquid should be filtered through a clean piece of muslin or linen before using* Ihe glycerine should be kept in closed cans, provided for Liquid

the purpose, and be carefully protected from dirt, sand and g r i t .

drawn from cylinders and containing sediment must not be used again until i t has been allowed to s e t t l e for not less than 24 hours* (b) To dismount recoil mechanism. Refer t o Plate VII,

The dismounting of the recoil mechanism should never be undertaken in the f i e l d . Four men required, one cylinder at a time. < Tools needed? Wrench, double 0.625 and 0.75, U43F Buckets Can Screw driver,­ U 5 4W > Wrench, single* 4.25 nuts, U596D Spanner wrench, recoil cylinder follower, U596A Wrench, stuffing box and cylinder head, U596C Wrench, recoil cylinders, U596B

(1)

Elevate the Howitzer 5 degrees, remove drain plug and drain

liquid from cylinder into buckets, 16.25 gallons in both cylinders* (2) Remove looking screws from piston rod nuts and take off piston

"i'od nuts, rear* (3) Remove air from recuperator by unscrewing emptying valve on

rear end of recuperator cylinder. (4) Slide Howitzer back until the lug on the recoil band clears front.

the end of piston rod by about 6 inches and take off piston rod nut, (5)

Unscrew stuffing box; draw i t off piston rod; remove follower,

gland, and packing, and screw follower and stuffing box back into the cylinder * (6) (7) cylinder* Remove cylinder head, weight 174 pounds . Draw piston rod v/ith piston' out through cylinder head end of The weight of piston rod v/ith piston is approximately 392 pounds;

care should therefore be used in handling it» (8) Unscrew recoil cylinder and slide cylinder out* The cylinder

weighs 628 pounds. (9) Stuffing box, follower and leather v/asher rr.ay be removed. Lock­

ing screw need not be removed* (c) To Assemble Recoil Mechanism* Refer to Plate VII •

The assembling of the recoil mechanism should never be under taken in the field* Four men required. Tools needed: Wrench, recoil cirlinders, U596B Screw driver, U45S Wrench, recoil cylinders; U595B Wrench, stuffing box, and cylinder head* U596C

-42­

Wrench, single, 4»25 nuts, U595D Screw driver, U 5 4W Wrench, double, 0*625 and'0#75. U43F Hand mallet. U 7 N 4. A • Brass rod 0*312 (5/16) diameter by 12 inches*. Glycerine and water solution (either new or used) Hydrometer (if solution is new) Filling funnel. Can 6 rings of 0*375 inch Garlock packing* (1) '

Insert recoil cylinder in cradle and push i t through until Turn cylinder •

threads on cylinder come in contact with threads on cra.dle-*

with wrench on flats at stuffing "box end until cylinder flange bears fine­ ly on cradle and,notch in flange at stuffing box end lines up with hole in cylinder for locking screw* (2) (3) Screw locking screw in cradle* ,

Insert piston rod in cylinder and place leather washer; stuffing

box, washer; stuffing box, with gland and follower in place, and piston rod nut (front) on rod when i t is pushed through stuffing box end of tcy­ linder# Screw stuffing box in place and p£sh piston rod to rear through

recoil band, advancing piston rod nut, until the distance from the end of the threaded end of rod to the rear end of cylinder equals 24*375-^- 0*01 inches * (4) (5) (6) Look the front and rear piston rod nuts* Pack the stuffing box as per instructions erection A* division e* With leather washer and recoil cyiinderhead bushing in place,
v

1

screw on cylinder head* (7)

Fill cylinder v/ith the glycerine and water solution, using f i l l ­

ing funnel prescribed as per instructions section A, division d* (d) To F i l l ret oil cylinders* Refer to Plate VII,

-43­

Two men required. Tools needed: Wrenchj double 0»625 and 0*75 U43F Pilling Funnel* Glycerine and water solution (either new or used) Hydrometer (if solution is new) (1) Set Howitzer at 0 degree with recoil band against stops on

cradle and remove filling plugs* (2) In3ert f i l l i n g funnel &nd f i l l to overflowing with solution Allow escape of air, r e f i l l , remove funnel, and

of glycerine and water.

screw filling plugs tight* (e) To Pack Stuffing BoxOne man required.
Tools needed:
Spanner wrench, stuffing box follower- U596A Hand mallet, U47AN
60 rings of 0.375-inch Garlock packing. Screw driver, U45W
Wrench, single, 4.25 nuts, U50D Wrench, box. U423D Brass rod, 0*312 (5/l6) diameter by 12 inches* Can Wrench, double 0*625 and 0*75 U43F (1) Elevate Howitzer 5 degrees, remove drain plugs, and drain Elevate Refer to Plate VII.

liquid from cylinders to buckets, 16*25 gallons in both cylinders. Howitzer to 0 degree elevation* (2)

Allow a i r to escape from recuperator cylinder by unscrewing

exhaust stem in valve rear end of cylinder­ (3) Remove locking screws from piston rod nuts and take off piston

rod nuts, rear* (4) Slide Howitzer back until the lug 0 3 the recoil band clears 3

the end of the piston rod by about 6 inches and take off piston rod nuts. front.

-44­ \5) Unscrew stuffing box; draw i t off piston rodj remove follower

gu.and, and packing; screw stuffing box back into cylinder and discard any of the packing that is unfit for use. should be put in after new* (6) To repack, put on the piston rod, one ring of the packing and ­ If any is used to repack, i t

force i t well to the bottom of the stuffing box by brass rod and mallet« Treat each ring of packing in the same manner, being,careful to break joints, until three rings of new packing or an equal amount of new and old packing have been inserted. and sore¥/ up t i g h t . (7) Screw piston rod nuts (front) on rods, slide Howitzer forward, Enter the gland and follower in the box

put piston rod nuts (rear) on, and add locking screws* (8) (9) Fill recoil cylinder as prescribed in section A. division (d) Fill recuperator cylinder with a i r as prescribed in-section B,

division (d)* The addition of the leather v/asher around the piston rod in front of the stuffing box allows less force to tighten the follower than if were the plain packing* The follower should be tightened up from time to time. If i t is it

screwed into the stuffing box too tightly, an unnecessary amount of fric­ tion will be produced O the rod. Hi en the follower is screwed 4n until n the flange strikes the box, i t should be repacked* (f) To Clean Recoil Cylinders. This operation should not b3 undertaken in the f i e l d . Three men required. Tools needed:

Wrench} double, 0*525 and 0*75 ,U43F Buckets.
Can ' •

Spanner wrench, recoil cylinder follower* U596A Screv/ driver, U 5 4W Wrench, single, 4.»25 nuts, U596D Wrench, stuffing box and cylinder head. U596C Plumbers hand force pump with hose* (1) Elevate Howitzer 5 degrees, remove drain plugs, drain liquid

into buckets^ and elevate Howitzer to 0 degree* (2) Remove locking screws frrom piston rod nuts' and take off piston

rod nuts, rear, (3) Release followers a few turns, remove cylinder heads, weight

174 pounds each, apd draw out piston rods as prescribed in section A, division (b) (4) Thoroughly clean cylinders v/ith kerosene oil forced into both

ends with pump and wipe the interiors dry with clean, waste* Clean the piston rod and cylinder heads. (5) Replace piston rod cylinder heads and tighten follower. Screw

nuts in place on piston rod and lock* SECTION B - Care of Recuperator. (a) In general. Refer to plate VIII •

The recuperator cylinder and plunger should be emptied and re­ filled onpe every three months and thoroughly cleaned once every six months, or of tenor if conditions require it« The liquid in the plunger is the same as that in the recoil cylinder* (See section A, division (a), second paragraph) The i n i t i a l pressure of the air$ with Howitzer in lottery, should be 1550 pounds per square inch and of the liquid 1700 pound? per equate inch* The pressures are indicated by the pressure gauges, on the su^poi-:
2 b _

•'••

-46­

v/ith the pump.

If the pressure of the air is not sufficient to re­

turn the howitzer to tattdry at maximum elevation 60 degrees and if the plunger is not full of liquid, pump glycerine solution. into plunger until either normal pressure or a full plunger is obtained, provided that the variation from 1550 pounds per square inch is small. If this variation is.large, connect the compressed a i r tank and raise the pressure in the a i r chamber* The amount of space between the

rear face-of tige washer, on the front end of the piston rod and the front face of the stuffing b&x gland, indicates the amount the piston,jhas moved toward the plunger, caused by leakage of the liquid* When this distance

equals approximately 5.875 inches, the piston is resting against the plunger, the plunger must be refilled with liquid before this condition exists or serious darcage will be done. There should always be a space between the

rear face of the washer and the front face of the gland, even v/hen plunger is full of liquid* Because if the washer i s against the gland, there is

nothing to indicate that the liquid pressure is balanced by the air pressure and any excess liquid pressure may damage the piston rod.. The pull rod bearings in cradle should always be well lubfcicsated* (b) To Dismount Recuperator. Refer to Plate VIII•

This operation should never be done in the field unless i t becomes absolutely necessary* The Howitzer must not be elevated while the re-

cup erfi^t or is dismounted* Five men required. Tools needed: Wrench, box U423D Spanner wrench* U423E Wrench, double, 1*25 and 1.5. U--33A Screw driver, U 5 N 4A

-47­

Cocket wrench, U422G Handle, U422H Socket wrench,U422D •Wrench, double 0*875 and 1* U L3 < -G Wrench, U423A Monkey wrench, 6-inch* U45DA Screw driver, U45AE Socket wrenehi U422C (1) With the Howitzer at 0 degrees, open upper stem on liquid

valve u n t i l liquid begins to escape, then c l o s e , (2) Depress t h e Howitzer t o - 5 degrees and secure by. means of the

muzzle support* (3) Empty a i r from recuperator cylinder by unscrewing both steins I t i s very important t h a t - a l l the a i r

in a i r valve at rear end of cylinder*

be allowed t o escape before removing any p a r t s . (4) Slack off the front nuts on the large stuffing box at front end

r l recuperator cylinder in order to take the pressure off of the plunger, caused by the pqcking* (5) Push plunger and piston t o the rear with i t s yoke u n t i l pull

rod bushings are uncovered, holding p u l l rods in t h e i r original p o s i t i o n . -(6) Block up under plunger at a point just behind the yoke to

support plunger. (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) Remove lock screw in each yoke bushing• Unscrew yoke bushings• Remove pull-rod bracket. Push p u l l rods to r e a r . Remove yoke bushings* Pull out the plunger, piston rod, and yoke, which weigh about

500 pounds, care being taken t o have these p a r t s centered at a l l times an;" t o protect the outer surface of plunger* 2 j l < •.

-48­

(13)

Remove piston-rod nut, washer, gland, and stuffing box,

r*iva.Ll, with packing and plunger l e a t h e r . (14) (15) (16) Draw out piston* Disconnect a i r and liquid piping and remove liquid valve. Remove plunger protection ring, f e l t rusher, gland, stuffing

box, large, with packing and plunger leather packing. ••(17) Remove set screw in cylinder clamp lock, unscrew cylinder

clarnp lock and slide cylinder out to rear, weight about 895 pounds •• (c) To Assemble Recuperator. Refer to Plate V I I I .

This operation should never be undertaken in the f i e l d unless i t becomes absolutely necessary* Five men requiredTools needed: 3 rings flax packing, 30D Piston washer, leather*. 30B Spanner wrench, U423G Socket wrench, U422C Socket wrench, U422D Screw driver, U45AN Monkey wrench. 6-inch, U45DA Wrench- U423A Wrench, double, 0.87 5 and 1 . U43G Socket wrench* U422G Handle, U422H Screw driver, U45AE Wrench, double, 1.25 and 1*5. U43BA Wrench. U423D 10.Ting flax packing. 27N and 28M 2 l e a t h e r packing* 27H and 28K I r a s 3 rod, 0*437 (7/16) diameter by 12 inches* F i l l i n g funnel Can 2 tanks of compressed air*

-49­ (I) I Slide cylinder into housing in cradle, screw cylinder clamp Cylinder weights

lock on front end of cylinder and lock v/ith set screw. 1040 pounds. (#)

Place stuffing box, gland, leather packing, and felt washer

on plunger and slide to front* (3) Assemble packing, gland, and washer to piston and place piston

rod in place in plunger. (4) (5) Push piston and plunger into cylinder« Pack stuffing box, large, and put nuts on stud&, . care being

taken to tighten up nuts alternately so packing bears properly. (See division (&)•) (6) . '

Push plunger to the rear, screw yoke bushings on pull i*ods,

and slide pull rods in place* (7) Put leather packing and stuffing box, small, in plunger and

put nuts on studs,* (8) Pack stuffing box, sir^H, place gland in place and screv/nuts

on studs, care being taken to tighten up nuts.alternately so packing bears uniformly* (see division (e)») (9) Place washer on end of pistorj- rod and screw nut against shoulder*

{lOJ Bolt liquid valve to cylinder and connect up air and liquid piping. ( I I ) Fill the plunger v/ith liquid, connect up the a i r tank, and f i l l the cylinder v/ith a i r . (d) To f i l l recuperator cylinder* Five men required. Tools needed: Refer to Plate VIII*

, -5O­

Box wrench, U423A* Wrench. U42,3D. Can Glycerine and water solution Two tanks of compressed a i r . (1) Fill plunger with glycerine and water solution, by means of

the pump, and at the same time letting compressed air into the air cham­ ber, being careful to keep the liquid and air pressures balanced as in­ dicated by projection of piston rod forward from stuffing box. When plunger is full, there should be only a small space be-v tween front face of stuffing box gland and rear face of washer at front end of piston rod. (2) Never allow these two:it© come together.

To f i l l the air chamber, -the following has to be done:- Connect

u> the air tank with the a i r pipe connection by the copper tubing, open £ the valve on the tank, then open the valve on the air cylinder. T o tanks w

are usually sufficient to run the a i r pressure in recuperator cylinder up to 1700 pounds per square inch; others or parts of others may be used, if necessary. (e) To pack stuffing boxes. Refer to plate VIII•

One ring of packing i s placed in stuffing box and forced well to bottom with braks rod and mallet. Treat each ring of packing in the

same manner, being careful to break joints until the five rings have been inserted. Nuts on studs should be screwed tight against glands» 1

TOien repacking these stuffing boxes, recuperators must be dis-^ mounted (see section B, division (b) ) sufficiently to get the packing out. - n of the old packing that is unfit for use should "be discardedAy

If any of the old i s used to repack, i t should be put in after the new* The addition of the leather washers around the piston r^d &..\i plunger in the rear of the stuffing boxes allows less fcrcc, to t:ghJ-en

-51­ the glands than if i t were the plain packing* The nuts around the glands should be tightened from time to time. If the glands are pressed too tightly into the stuffing boxes, an un­ necessary amount of friction will be produced on the plunger and rod* When the glands are pushed in until they strike the stuffing boxes, they should be repacked* (f) To clean recuperator cylinder and plunger. Refer to Plate See Section B, division (b)*
;

This should never be undertaken in the field except in case of absolute.necessity*
V i
x

Dismount t h e recuperator, thoroughly clean the cylinder and plunger with kerosene o i l forced into them with plunger's force pump* Wipe t h e ^ i n t e r i o r s dry with clean cotton waste* p i s t o n rod* SECTION C - CARE OF'ELEVATING MECHANISM*. (a?) XII* Three men required* Tools needed: Wrench, double, 0*875 and 1* U4-3G Wrench, double, 1*25 and 1*5 U13BA Wrench, double, 2* and 2,25 I - A C K3 T Wrench,, pinion shaft and nut 3*5 U82H SJcrew driver, U45AN Screv; driver, U45AE Machinist's hammer, U48F Pin punch, U47AF
Blocks of wood*
To Dismoipit t h e elevating mechanism* Refer t o p l a t e s XI and Clean t h e piston and

. (1) (2)

Take hand wheel off and remove brake band* Remove pinion shaft gear from elevating pinion shafts and
?•'<
•• •

-52­

r'*move elevating pinion s h a f t . (3) Take off intermediate pinion shaft nut and washer, and remove

intermediate pinion shaft,) care being taken to see that intermediate gear 13 blocked up. (4) (5) (6) (7) (b) '

Remove elevating gear p l a t e with bearings fastened to i t . Remove intermediate gear. Take off handwheel s h a f t . Remove rack.

To assemble elevating iaechanism. Reverse t h e operations, as outlined in above, for dismounting • , SECTION D - CARE Off TRAVERSING MECHANISM*

(a,)

To dismount t r a v e r s i n g mechanism. Three men required*
Tools needed:

Refer to Plate XIII•

Wrench, double, 0.625 and 0.75 U43F Wrenoh, double, 1»25 and 1*5, U43BA Wrench, double, 0.375 and 0.5, U43C Hammer, machinists. U48F­ Punch, pin, U47AF Wrencty, double, 2 . and 2.25,U43AW, (1) Screw out side leveling screw, remove sight with sight bracket

from cradle t r u n n i o n s . (2) (3) (4) Take off gear case cover. Remove pin and c o l l a r from end of worm shaft and draw i t out. Knock out pins in lower part of v e r t i c a l trqversing shaft

and take off t r a v e r s i n g p i n i o n . (5) Drav; shaft with worm v/heel up through case; push worm t o side
(

of case when s t a r t i n g

-53­

(6)

Worm may then be removed from case, aad case taken off side

of frame; worm wheel may also be driven off s h a f t . (b) To Assemble traversing mechanism* Tnree men required'. Tools needed: , Refer t o p l a t e XIII

Wrench, double, 6.375 and 0.5, U43.1 Wrench, double, 0*625 and 0,75, U43F Wrench, double, 1.25 and 1.5, U43BA Wrench, double, 2» and 2.25, U43AW Hammer, machinists* U48F Punch, pin, U47AF (1) (2)
.

Bolt gear case to side frame and place vnra in pocket in c a s e . Drive worm v/heel on shaft and place shaft in p o s i t i o n .
i

Worm must be held against wall of case >S3aen assembling v/heel and shaft, (3) (4) (5) Drive pinion on shaft and pin in p l a c e . Slide worm shaft in place and lock i t v/ith pin and collar* Bolt cover on case, and bolt sight assembled, or sight bracket

to trunnions. (6) Connect up leveling screw.
SECTION F (a) CARE OF /MMUNITEON CRANE'
liefer t o
D

To dismount ammunition c r a n e . Men required. Tools needed: / 1 1 1 1 1 1

late XXVII

Hammer, U48F pin punch screw driver, U45AN Wrench, double, 0#375 anc 0*5, U-V3C Wrench, double, 0*625 auc" O.?55 Ir4'JF Wrench, double, 0.875-and X» U43C

(l)

Remove bolt fastening hoisting ropci to erjd of crime mast, and

place bolt back in socket on rope* This rejiovss sheave block

-54­

sheave and crane hook* (2) (3) Remove intermediate rope guard and sheave from crane mast. Remove lower sheave bracket from crane mast and leave sheave and

rope, guard attached to sheave bracket. (4) (5) Unpin crank shaft c o l l a r andrunscrew crank shaft n u t s . Remove l e f t crank and l e f t crank bushing*
r

Ihe crank shaft may

now be withdrawn t o the l e f t and the pinion s ratchet and f r i c t i o n box, and f r i c t i o n disc" be l i f t e d out* (6) gear. (7) (8) Remove drum bracket from crane maftr Remove crane mast from crane mast pedestal and unbolt pedestal The r i g h t crank may also be withdrawn•

Remove s p l i t pinsj drive out drum shaft and l i f t out drum and

from platform* (b) To AssembLe Ammunition Crane* Men Required. Tools needed: 1 1 '.1 1 1 1 Hammer, U48F Pin punch Screw driver, U45AN Wrench, double, 0*375 and 0.5, U43C Wrench, double, 0*625 and 0*75. II43F Wrench, double, 0*875 and 1., U43G

Reverse procedure as outlined above for dismounting in (a)« Note:Care should be taken t o see that the bronze and s t e e l f r i c t i o n

discs are assembled in t h e i r proper order.
SECTION El (a)' ANTI-FRICTION DEVICE, Refer t o P l a t e X

To Dismount a n t i - f r i c t i o n d e v i c e .

Four men required. Tools needed; Wrench, single, 1*75a U43V
Wrench, spanner, U596E
So rev/ driver, U45AE
(l) (Z) Unscrew locknut on adjusting screw. Remove s p l i t pin and nut from bearing support*

(3) |Unscrew adjusting screw u n t i l beairinf; support i s clear of "bear­ ing s e a t . (4) (5) (6) Remove r o l l e r and bearing s e a t . Remove upper trunnion pin bearing an:l key. If tipping p a r t s are out of side fcraiie bearing, t h e bearing

support can be drawn up through the h o l e in s i d s frame. (7) (8) (b) B e l l e v i l l e springs and washers can nor' be removed* Unscrew adjusting screw nut v/ith lockwasher attached t o ifc»

To assemble a n t i - f r i c t i o n device* Reverse the operation a s outlined in afcove, for dismounting* SECTION fl CARE OF TRUCK3.

(a)

To remove trucks from Mount, refer t o P l a t e XXXII* •"-8 Men required.
Tools needed:
4 Auxiliary j a c k s .
1 Crowbar, 1243A
1 Pinch bar 1 - 7-rinch p l i e r s , U47AQ

(1)

Remove s p l i t .pin from l i v e lever pin a-d ^e::7--e l i v e lever pin Pl^ce l i n o laver ;iivi i i ho\e in 3 ive

from r e a r t r u c k lever connection..

lever and i n s e r t s p l i t pin* ­ (2) Lift- center pin from e e n t e r p l a i e hole, usin^ p.vr.tn bar +.y ^.^-,,

-.56­ samej, if necessary*
(3) Raise mount with jacks as described in Part I, Section ( L ) , Divi­ sion (d) until mount is clear of trucks.
(4) Shove trucks along until they are clear of mount*
(fr) To Disassemble and Assemble Trucks* Refer to Plate XXXII*
Three men required*
Tools needed:
1 Wrench, double, 1.25 and 1.5 nuts, U43BA
1 Wrench, double, #875 and I-inch, U43G
1 - 7*inch Pliers, U47AQ
2 Crowbars, 1243A
Blocking
1 - 16-inch Monkey wrench, U45LA l'Cfir Box Jacking screw, with levers, 1022C 4 Jacks, 25-ton 1 Combination Hook and Packing tool - 1 Hammer, U48F
1 Pinch b a r .
(1) Remove pedestal t i e from both sides of truck replacing bolts, in

t i e s with nut locks and n u t s . (2) Remove cotters from equalizer pins (put cotters in a convenient

place so they can be replaced in pin when same are l a t e r removed)* (3) Place jack screw on sectire, blocking under inside pedestal castings

of outer wheels and raise truck frame until springs and equalizers are re­ leased sufficiently for removing* (4) /

Remove semi-elliptic spring keys which will allow spring to be

removed*
i

(5)

Remove pins from equalizers and replace pins in same, also replace

cotters* (Refer to Art* 2)* (6) Remove' cotters and nuts from Helical spring bolts, then remove Also remove springs and spring s e a t s . 33176

bolts and replace nuts and c o t t e r s .

-57­

\7)

Place car jack on secure blocking under serai-elliptic spring

soat and raise truck frame sufficient to remove wheels and journal boxes* (Snail jack screws and blocking can now be removed). (8) (9) Push end wheels with journal boxes away from truck frame• Disconnect bottom connection rod from both front and rear truck

levers and replace connection pins in t h e i r respective places in rods* (l<Q) Remove rear truck lever from brake beam and replace connection pin in hole from which i t was taken in brajfce beam. ( l l ) Disconnect front truck lever from dead lever bracket and replace connection pin'iiin dead lever bracket* (12)) Disconnect dead lever bracket from dead lever fulcrum bracket and replace connection pin in dead lever bracket* (13) Remove front truck lever from brake beam and replace connection pin in hole in brake beam. (14) Pull out brake shoe keys and remove brake beams and brake shoes* (15) Remove brake shoe hangers from side frames and replace hunger bolts with keys in hangers* (16) Place blocking under pedestal casting of end wheels at either end of truck most convenient and remove the car jacks near the end so blocked by unscrewing jacks so as to allow frame to rest on blocking* This will

permit moving center wheel with boxes, intorposition formerly occupied by aid wheels* (17) Replace ca^r jacks under semi-elliptic spring seats as before and raise t h i s end so as to release load of frame from blocking at end* (18) Remove end-blocking and push wheels away from frame. (19) Open journal box doors and remove journal box packing with hook and packing tool* 2SI 1 ?6

-58­ (20) Tilt the outer ends of the boxes up until bearing wedge and bear­ Then remove

nings can be removed; remove wedges and take beardiigs out* boxes*. (21) (c) ' To Assemble Trucks, To Pack Journal Boxes* One man required. Tools needed: 1 Hook % d Packing Tool, n Bucket or Tin can of 3 to 5 gallons capacity Galena Oil • . I Wool or Cotton Waste (1) *

Reverse the process just described.

With hook and packing tool remove waste, also a l l particles of

sand and g r i t from journal boxes. (2) In the bucket or t i n can place enough waste to pack the number of

journal boxes to be packed; wool waste is preferable, but cotton waste will do and saturate with Galena Oil* (3) With hook and pacafcing tool pack the oil saturated waste firmly

into the lower section of the Journal Boxes* Note: - The l i f e of the journal bearings will be considerably lengthened and the trouble arising from burned out bearings will be reduced to a minimum if regular inspections be. made of the journal box packing* 'If the car is to be moved a considerable distance,, especially after having stood in one place for any length of time, i t i s vrell to see that a l l boxes are well packed with oil saturated wasted* Care should be taken to see that the covers are kept closed and

promptly replaced where broken or lost in order to keep out, as much as possible, a l l sand and g r i t * (d) To Replace Journal Bearings* Two men required*
7,3V, 6

Tools needed:
1 Pinch Bar

1 Car Box Jacking Screw
1 Hook and Packing Tool
(1) (2) With, car body jacks r a i s e car body about two inches* With car box jacking screw r a i s e the journal box, from which the

bearing i s t o be removed, about two inches« (3) Raise journal box cover and remove bearing wedge with hook, with­

draw bearing* (4) Put new bearing in position and replace bearing wedge; pack journal

box packing firmly around lower half of journal and be certain that ijournal bearing and wedge are properly seated* (e) To Place Trucks Under c a r . Reverse procedure outlined in Part I I , Section G, Division (a)« SECTION- H (ai CARE OF TRUCKS Refer to plates XIX apid X • X

To Disassemble Air Brake* Two men required. Tools needed: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Hammer, U48F - 7-inch P l i e r s , U47 A Q Pinch Bar Wrench, double, »75 and 1-inch n u t s , U153G Wrench, monkey, 6-inch, U45DA S t i l l s on Pipe wrench, -25 and 2,5*- inches, 637D Wrench, d o u b l e , 0.83 5 and 1-inch riuts,U43G Wrench^ double, O«625 and 0«75-inch nuts f U43F

1 Wrench, double, 0.375 and 0*5-inch nuts,U43^€" (1) Disconnect hand brake pullrod and brake cylinder ley,er connection

from brake cylinder lever and replace connection pin in end of pullrod* (2) Disconnect floating lever connection from f l o a t i n g lever and r e ­ 23176

place connection pin in f l o a t i n g lever connection*

- 6 0

Disconnect l i v e lever from floating lever and replaco pin in l i v e lever* (4) Unbolt and remove cylinder lever fulcrum'from center s i l l and r e ­

place bolts in t h e i r respective holes in center s i l l and remove cylinder lever from cylinder lever fulcrum. (5) Disconnect brake cylinder pushrod from cylinder lever and replace

connection pin in end of pushrod, disconnect floating lever from floating lever fulcrum and replace pin in floating lever­ (6) Unbolt and remove floating lever fulcrum from under side, of floor

p l a t e and replace bolts in fulcrum. (7) Disconnect union on cross pipe between cylinder and reservoir and

remove pipe* (8) Unbolt and remove brake cylinder from support and replace bolts

in support • ••(9) Disconnect pipes and e l l s from reservoir t h a t connect with cross

pipe t o cylinder* (10) Unbolt t r i p l e valve from reservoir* (11) Unbolt and remove reservoir from support s replacing bolts*
(X2) Remove t r i p l e valve*
(13) Unscrew pipe''3A-: (14) Remove centrifugal d i r t collector* (15) Remove elbow and pipe "GA" (16) Unscrew pige "AA" from cut out cock and remove self-locking cut­

out cock No. 2135 v/ith upper pipe "AA" from 1.25 t e o . (17) Remove upper pipe "AA" from cut out cock* 23176

(18)

Remove V bolt in end s i l l and unccrew self~lock'.ng nngle cc?k

No. 22413* (19) (20) Unscrew pipe "R" from coupling leaving coupling en pipe "SM« Remove pipe hanger and unscrew pipe "S" from 1.25 e l l and leave

e l l on pipe "T", (21) (22) (23) Remove pipe "T11 from 1.25 &ee and leave tee on pipe "U", Unscrew pipe "U" from e l l and leave e l l on pipe"Vi"4 Remove pipe hanger and unscrew pipe "W" from elb®w and leave

elbow on pipe "X". (24) Note:Unscrew pipe nX" with drain cock from pipe HZ" If i t i s desired t o disassemble the complete a i r brake equipment

on mount, repeat the above operation for disassembling the mechaniftzft under the other end of the mount. (b) To Disassemble-land Assemble Handbrakes. Two men required. Tools needed: 1 Hammer, U48F 1 - 7-inch p l i e r s , U47AQ 1 Wrench, double, 0*375 and 0*5-inch nuts, U43G 1 Wrench, double, 0.625 and 0»7£-inch nuts,U43F Disconnect handbrake p u l l rod from cylinder lever qt3. replace Refer t o Plate XIX and XX-

(1)

connection pin in end of rod* (2) Remove handbrake sheave from handbrake pull rod, take chain from

around sheave and fasten sheave back in rod jaws with p i n . (3) (4) (5) Unbolt and remove p u l l rod hanger and replace bolts in hanger* Remove p u l l rod. Disconnect handbrake chain from brake mast step and brake mast. 23176

-62­ (6) Unbolt and remove brake mast step and replace bolts on mast s t e p . p p (7 ) Remove b (7) R brake mast with handwheel and ratchet attached,
\c) /.>v To Assemble Air Brake* Three men required*
Tools needed:
1 Hammer. U48F
1 7-inch pliers, U47AQ
1 Pinch bar.
Refer t o Plates XIX and XX*

1 1 1 1 1 1

Wrench, double, .75 gad 1-inch, U153G Wrench, monkey, 6-inch, l)47DA . S t i l l s o n Pipe Wrench, .25 t o 2.5 inches, 637D Wrench, double, 0.625 and 0*75-inch nuts, U43F Wrench, double, 0.375 and 0.5-inch nuts, U43G Wrench, double, 0.875 and 1-inch n u t s , U43G

Reverse procedure as outlined in Section. H, division ( a ) , (d) To clean and Oil Brake Cylinder. Refer t o p l a t e XXIX Two men required. Tools needed: 1 1 1 1 1 (1) (2) - 7-inch p l i e r s , U47AQ Hammer, U48F Pinch bar Wrench, double, .625 and 0.875-inch n u t s , U153E Wrench, monkey, 6-inch, U47DA

Disconnect pushrod from cylinder l e v e r . Remove bolts connecting cylinder t o brake cylinder brake and r e ­

move pipes connecting cylinder t o r e s e r v o i r . (3) (4) Remove piston head. With kerosene o i l , thoroughly clean and remove a l l p a r t i c l e s of

sand and g r i t from piston, piston ring and inside of c y l i n d e r . (5) (6) (9) Oil piston l e a t h e r in piston with heavy o i l or l i g h t g r e a s e . Put piston back in cylinder and replace whole on c a r . To clean and o i l t r i p l e valvo K--2. Refer t o P l a t e XXXIII. Two men required Tools needed: 23176

O

l •.

1 Stillson Pipe Wrench, .25 to- 2 .5~inchesf 637D :i Hamroerj U48F 1-7-inch p l i e r s , U 7 Q 4A 1 Wrench, double, «75 and 1-inch nuts, U153G 1 Wrench, monkey, 6-inch.j' U 7 A 4D 1 Wrench, double, »375 and .5-inch nuts,. U153B (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Disconnect branch pipe union and remove branch pipe from t r i p l e valve D g $ pineal.,triple valve ;f roiaauxiliary" valva« ±> Unscrev/ union nut 17 and remove strainer 16 • Unscrev/ graduating stem nut 20 and remove graduating spring 22» Remove nut from bolts 24 and take off cylinder cap 19 and- cylinder

cap gasket 23* (6) (7) Withdraw piston and slide valve from casing* Remove cap screws 25 and take off check valve case 13 and emergency

valve 9 . (8) (9) Remove piston 8« Remove emergency valve 10 and check valve 15»

(10) Unscrev/ retarding device 29 and remove retarding spring 33 and stem 31• (11) Clean a l l parts thoroughly with kerosene oil» Using oil sparingly, Also

o i l t r i p l e piston and surface between slide valve and slide valve seat* surface between graduating valve and slide valve. (12) Assemble by reversing procedures as outlined above, and replace t r i p l e valve in position* (f) To Clean Centrifugal Dirt Collector. One man required.
Tools needed: (l) None
Refer to Plate X X X I

Open cock at bottom of collector until a l l particles of sand,

d i r t and water are blov/n out* 23176

-64­ (g) To Take Up Shoo Wear. On© man required* Tools needed: 1 P l i e r s , U47AQ 1 Hammer, U48F 1 Pinch b a r . (1) (2) Release brakes, both hand and air*. Disconnect front t r u c k lever from dead lever bracket, move front

truck lever out u n t i l the rear truck lever w i l l not go back to less than 1.5-inchear from the truck b o l s t e r and remake connection in proper hole in dead lever b r a c k e t . (3) If necessary the shoes can be set up t i g h t e r by moving the front

t r u c k lever t o t h e end holes Of the bottom connection rod* (m) To Replace Brake Shoes. One man required* Tools needed: 1 Hammer, U47AM 1 Pinch Bar. (1) (2) Release brakes, both hand and a i r Withdraw brake shoe keys, take out worn shoes and replace with Refer t o Plate XXXII.

new ones. SECTIOIj I . (a) To Disassemble screw j a c k s . Two men required. Tools needed: 1 1 1 1 Hammer, U48F Pin punch Wrench, double, 1.25 and 1.5, U43G Wrench, double^ 0.625 and 0.75, U43F 23176 ­ CARE OF JACKS Refer to Plate X V X

-65­ (1) Unscrew lower jack pinion stud nut and remove ratchet and pawl

with housing • (2) Remove upper jack pinion stud nut and take out jack pinion stud

with jack pinion attached* (3) (4) (5) (6) Remove jack screw nut and l e t jack and ram rest against guide. Take washers and screw gear off of screw, Remove, stop from ram and guide from base p l a t e . Remove screw and ram*.

Note:- In order to remove screw and ram i t is necessary to run the mount over a p i t or dig a hole in the ground* (b) To Assemble screw jacks reverse the operations outlined above for

disassembling (c) Care and Oilijig of Jaciss. The jacks should be lubricated frequently. To d.o ifcis a steel

compression grease cup is screwed into the stop on the ram* This cup should nevor be without grease in i t . The jack levers should be removed and plac­

ed in some convenient pla.ce on the platform* (d) Care of Auxiliary Jacks* When not in use the auxiliary jacks should be placed under the ammunition t a b l e . The bearings of the jack should be kept well oiled and the

main l i f t i n g screw and the teeth of the gears should be lubrioated v/ith heavy grease when necessary to make jacks work easily* P R III. AT

SECTION A, PRECAUTIONS TO BE OBSERVED BEFORE FIRING.
(a) This carriage is designed to be fired from 20 to 60 degrees eleva­ tion; do not fire it below 20 degrees*
23176

-66­ (b) (c) Fold up platform at breech of Howitzer. Take reading at liquid pressure gauge; this reading should be 1700

pounds per squre inch* a small amount of liquid will leak out each round and is replaced by means of the pump# (d) Take reading^at air pressure gauge; this reading should be 1550

pounds per square inch* (e) The distance the recuperator piston rod moves indicates liquid leak­

ing at the packing and the rod should never be allowed to stand out past the gland more than 5«875 inches* (f) Traverse gun through entire allowed movement to n&ke sure that a l l
;

parts work freely* (g)

Elevate Howitzer through entire range of elevation to see that a l l

parts work freely* (h) Make sure that a l l nuts, tap bolts, and screws on elevating mechanism,

traversing mechanism panoramic sight, and elevation quadrant are set up properly* (i) Make an inspection of recoil and counter recoil systems to see

thqfc they are properly assembled, especially after the Howitzer has been dismounted from the oradle* (k) (l) See that the outriggers are set securely. See that the underframing of the mount has a uniform bearing on

the ground platform* (m) Make sure that the recoil cylinder is properly f i l l e d . (n) All brakes should be released.

23176

-67­

TO.BE_OBSERVED BEFORE TRAVELLING.

(a) see that a l l equipment to be carried on the mount i s properly

Secured and that none of i t projects out past the clearance l i n e . (b) Depress gun to 0 degree elevation and traverse i t to 0 degrees

azimuth and fasten gun with travelling lock* (c) Remove panoramic telescope, place i t in carrying case and store

in secure place. (d) A inspection should be n^de of journal boxes to see that they n

are properly packed and that the bearings have not worn down too much* (e) anism* A inspection should be made also of the brake shoes and mech­ n If there i s too much play between the brake shoes and wheels,

the wear should be taken up in the brake mechanism or the brake shoes replaced with1 nev; ones% (f) (g) Be sure that the complete set of tools are.oOn hand* See that buffers and couplings are in proper working condition* P R V. AT TABLE OF WEIGHTS A D DIMENSIONS OF 12-INCH N HOWITZER RAILWAY MOUNT, M D L OF 1918.
OE Length of* r e c o i l normal 36" max* 37.5
Angle of Elevation ( f i r i n g 4 2 0 to46O
o ti « Depression - 5 loading
it « t r a v e r s e 360°

Weight of r e c o i l i n g p a r t s (empty) - 49 } 188
n tipping " " 64,533(Loaded 65,333)

Weight of Car including base p l a t e 102,880*
Length over draft Gear - 42 f t . 2 i n . approx.
Total weight of trucks (two) 30,000 l b s .

-68­ Type of trucks 6-wheel - 5.5 x 10 j o u r n a l s . Diameter of v/heels 28 in* Weight of traversing parts with gun (Empty) 92,353 Total weight on t r a c k - 19 5, 243 • Weight of gun including recoil band & breech mech • Muzzle Velocity 1950 f . s . Range 21,600 yds (Approx*) 47f239

Wt. P r o j e c t i l e 700 l b s . Wt. Pov/der 95 , "

Chamber pressure 37,000 l b s . Muzzle energy 18,474 f t * tons

Total rod p u l l a t 60° - 348,766 l b s . per qxle a t t r a c k (front) 35,931 l b s .
« n ti ti (rear) 29,150
M

23176

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