Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld

The inner workings and possibilities of XMPP and its multimedia enabling extension Jingle

Thursday, April 21, 2011 Graduation Thesis

Roel van de Wiel

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Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld
Contents
Terms of reference.................................................................................................................................. 4 Reason for writing ............................................................................................................................... 4 Capgemini ........................................................................................................................................... 4 Research .............................................................................................................................................. 4 Target .................................................................................................................................................. 5 Build-up ............................................................................................................................................... 5 Acknowledgments............................................................................................................................... 5 Contact ................................................................................................................................................ 6 Abbreviations ...................................................................................................................................... 7 Summary ................................................................................................................................................. 8 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 10 Hypothesis......................................................................................................................................... 10 Explanation ................................................................................................................................... 10 1. The Why and What of UC.................................................................................................................. 11 1.1 A changing society ...................................................................................................................... 11 1.2 What is Unified Communications ............................................................................................... 14 1.2.1 History of digital communications systems ......................................................................... 14 1.2.2. UC functionality................................................................................................................... 15 2. UC market analysis ............................................................................................................................ 18 2.1 What analysts say about UC ....................................................................................................... 18 2.1.1The Market............................................................................................................................ 18 2.1.2 What Gartner say’s about XMPP ......................................................................................... 18 2.2 Potential of UC in commercial appliances .................................................................................. 19 2.2.1 Banks .................................................................................................................................... 19 2.3 UC vendors .................................................................................................................................. 20 2.3.1 leading UC vendors .............................................................................................................. 20 2.4 Internet services ......................................................................................................................... 21 2.4.1 Other noticeable use of XMPP ............................................................................................ 23 2.5 Institutes ..................................................................................................................................... 23 2.6 Reflection .................................................................................................................................... 25 3. Technology explained ....................................................................................................................... 26 3.1. The way SIP works...................................................................................................................... 26 Roel van de Wiel Page 2

Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld
3.1.1 Call setup .............................................................................................................................. 26 3.1.2 SIP software architecture ..................................................................................................... 26 3.1.3 SIP network architecture ..................................................................................................... 27 3.1.4 SIP message format.............................................................................................................. 27 3.1.5 SDP ....................................................................................................................................... 28 3.1.6 Call setup .............................................................................................................................. 29 3.1.7 Why does SIP not provide the solution ? ............................................................................. 31 3.1.8 Problems with SIP ............................................................................................................... 31 3.2 XMPP ........................................................................................................................................... 32 3.2.1 Brief History of XMPP........................................................................................................... 32 3.2.2 Network architecture ........................................................................................................... 33 3.2.3 Extensibility .......................................................................................................................... 33 3.2.4 Roster ................................................................................................................................... 33 3.2.5 Stream .................................................................................................................................. 34 3.2.6 Security ................................................................................................................................ 35 3.2.7 XMPP jingle ......................................................................................................................... 35 3.2.8 Advantages of XMPP ........................................................................................................... 38 3.3 Technology to guarantee the smooth delivery of real-time data............................................... 39 3.3.1 Overprovisioning .................................................................................................................. 39 3.3.2 QOS ...................................................................................................................................... 39 3.3.1 Codecs .................................................................................................................................. 40 3.3.2 Call admission control .......................................................................................................... 41 4. Examples of possible XMPP use in practice ...................................................................................... 42 5. Final recommendations .................................................................................................................... 47 List of Figures ........................................................................................................................................ 49 Bibliography .......................................................................................................................................... 50

Roel van de Wiel

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Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld
Terms of reference
Reason for writing
In November of 2010 I accepted a traineeship at Capgemini financial devision under the supervision of Arnoud Vons with Ron Mandjes as my personal mentor. The Traineeship is the last part of my Bachelor study Network Infrastructure Design at the University of Applied Science in Heerlen. One of the requirements of the degree was to write a thesis. The subject of the thesis set by Cap Gemini was Unified Communications (UC) and its potential application in the banking sector. Corporations are increasingly implementing UC system as part of the New Way of Working. UC is an important corner stone in the New Way of Working. The New Way of Working is a new popular philosophy regarding organizing the way work is done and it has gained many followers. It has become a huge accelerator of implementing UC. Numerous reports are available that list and prove the benefits of implementing The New Way of Working. The New Way of Working will be discussed in more detail later in the first chapter.

Capgemini
Capgemini was founded in 1967 by Serge Kampf in Grenoble and it started under the name of Sogeti - Société pour la Gestion de l'Entreprise et le Traitement de l'Information. Its present name Capgemini is a result of merger between CAP in 1974 and Gemini in 1975. Capgemini is one of the world's leaders in information technology with a workforce of over 100.000 people in 39 countries. Capgemini has four divisions: Consultancy, Outsourcing, Technology Services and Financial Services. Consultancy gives business advice to companies which are facing important decisions. Outsourcing provides substitutes for the internal services of companies that don’t belong to their core business. Technology services are focused on delivering and supporting the physical side of IT. Financial services provide all kind of services for the Finance industry. The department where I was stationed, TDI, was a subsection of B60 which is a section of FS. During my internship, the Capgemini structure was reorganized and TDI became a part of TS.

Research objectives
My research objective was to investigate the possibilities for Unified Communications within The New Way of Working philosophy for the Banking industry. The assignment was pretty open-ended and I added the future of Unified Communications regarding interoperability to the research plan, focusing primary on the interdomain interoperability. In that regard I ended up looking further into the potential of XMPP as a standard for UC, including Real-time media as voice and video. During an interview I had with Daniel Hilster, I got the impression that the facilitation of Real-time streams is often neglected when it comes to the corporate network architecture. So I added the facilitation of Real-time streams to my list of research objectives, to give an overview of techniques that could be used to safeguard Real-time streams.

Roel van de Wiel

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Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld
Target audience
The thesis is written for consultants working for Capgemini who are in some way involved in UC technology in general and opportunities for using UC in the banking sector specifically and other fellow students who are interested in UC. Specific technical knowledge of IT is assumed.

Build-up
After reading available material and looking at the fundamentals of most UC systems, I came to the conclusion that there is no universal standard in use today to connect different UC systems together, thereby making them interoperable. An “new” old protocol XMPP looked promising in becoming the new standard for IM due its simplicity and well-thought-through design . In chapter two, I researched its current and potential use and which companies use it for their internet services. Also the potential use of UC in the banking sector in directly communicating with its customers has been given a closer look in chapter two In chapter three , to ensure the reader would get a better understanding of the technical working of XMPP and sip and how they compare against each other. In an interview I had with Daniel Hillster I got the impression that handling RTP traffic is still a problematic. So included ways of handling RTP traffic and how to ensure the quality of the media stream is up to par. In chapter four, a theoretical case is built to show how a XMPP infrastructure could look like with examples of usable cases and references to extensions. So the reader of this thesis could get an impressions of how XMPP could be applied in an corporate environment to suit business needs The thesis ends with the conclusion in chapter five where my findings will be reported.

Acknowledgments
During the writing of this thesis I received help and support from people whom I would like to thank for their contribution. I interviewed two colleagues, which might not seem much but they gave me a great deal of material to work with. First I interviewed Daniel Hillster an employee of Didacticum who was involved in the introduction of “The New Way of Work” at SNS Reaal. He gave me an insight into what is involved when implementing UC systems, how it is used and the needs and opportunities when it comes to improving current UC systems. I had my second interview with Thiago Camergo. He is an experienced SIP / XMPP jingle engineer currently working at Nimbuzz. He is also in the process of developing a NAT-traversal extension for XMPP Jingle and is a strong advocate for XMPP Jingle which can be seen from his blog, XMPPjingle. He helped me to understand the concept of Jingle and gave me an insight into the developments currently in the UC field.

Roel van de Wiel

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not in function) Name: A.C.nl Phone: 00 31 (0) 45 400 6765 Roel van de Wiel Page 6 .com Graduation Committee Mentor Name: R. (Arnoud) Vons Function: Prinicpal consultant Email: arnoud. student at HsZuyd Address: Theems 70.com Private Email: wielrvd@gmail.mandjes@capgemini.C.com Phone: 00 31 (0)3 68 99 115 Supervisor (Due illness.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld Contact Author Name: R. (Ron) Mandjes Function: managing consultant Email: ron.Wiel@capgemini.brands@hszuyd.vande.com Phone: 00 31 (0) 6 150 303 43 Hszuyd supervisor Name: J. (Roel) van de wiel Function: Intern at Capgemini.vons@capgemini. (Jean-Paul) Brands Email: j. 5152 SN Drunen Tel: 06-28079738 Corporate email: Roel.

Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld Abbreviations FEC: Forward Error Correction IM: instant messaging H.264 SVC: Scale video Coding MCU: Multipoint control unit NAT: Network adres translation QOS: quailty of service RTP: Real-time Protocol SASL: Simple Authentication and Security Layer SIP : session initiation protocol SIMPLE: SIP for Instant Messaging and Presence Leveraging Extensions TLS: Transport Layer Security UC: Unified Communication URI: Unified Resource Identifier XMPP: Extendible Message and presence protocol Roel van de Wiel Page 7 .

IP etc. But like any maturing industry. One company worth mentioning is Google which uses XMPP for different services. It is likely that future communication applications will offer XMPP Jingle as SIP support or other protocols for that matter. IP was the popular choice for network traffic and all other network protocols became unsupported and obsolete. Vendors have a long history of making SIP backward compatible with PSTN. There are some XMPP extensions that could provide Jingle compatibility with PSTN. Gmail and SIP providers. have committed themselves to interoperability. network devices became available that could handle several network protocols. but there is hope. at the same time adapting XMPP for native communication and increasing the level of supported XMPP functionality .g. The reasons for this are explained in more detail in this thesis. Interoperability is very likely travelling down the same path as the network protocols did at the end of the 80s and beginning of the 90s. Cisco's current approach is to be adaptive and being able to support any dialect of SIP with their IME solution. Microsoft and Cisco. there is a certain point where mystery disappears. In the current situation however Jingle has not proven itself in the same way as SIP. The current state of UC is that there are still no common standards in place that facilitate the exchange of real-time media streams across company boundaries. Skype. Jingle will therefore be used mostly at first Roel van de Wiel Page 8 . but they are still experimental and have not been widely implemented. When used by a service provider. vendors better be on the bandwagon of interoperability or it will hurt the business by not being able to let their product interwork. Investing in interoperability as the industry leader costs money.g. The Jingle standard is mature enough and ready for implementation. it opens up the playing field for challengers and makes the customer less dependent of their UC supplier. Microsoft is head of Unified Communication Interoperability Forum in the presence of Bernard Aboa. protocols that are not actively used will be dropped from support. IPX. This is the same for UC. the most notable one being Gtalk. e. as a result little support can be expected from UC vendors. XMPP is already seen by Gartner as the IM protocol of the future and the most popular protocol on the web. Challengers like Nimbuzz and Fring make their solutions interconnectable with multiple service providers. And they use XMPP as the foundation for their own services. This approach is also used very often by consumer oriented UC Internet services on the Internet. It is hard to predict the future of UC regarding interoperability. SIP was meant to replace PSTN and has several RFCs defined that make it backward compatible with SIP. In the end. could be seen as the main reason. in combination with the business motives of the UC industry leaders. SIP is considered as the standard for setting up real-time communication but has fallen apart into different kinds of dialects. the novelty wears off and the products become commoditized. e. First. The looseness of the SIP standard. but there is not much experience with implementing it in enterprise environments. it is only a small step for the service provider to allow and actively support Jingle on their network. two important UC leaders.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld Summary It is a known economic law that new industries more often than not are subjected to forces that segment the industry and as a result make its components non-interoperable. After a while. Token Ring. there were separate network devices for each network protocol. After that. When that point is reached.

but due to its flexibility. the recent launch of Cisco Jabber client which can setup a voice or video conference with Gtalk. push model and inherent security. it can be used as a very good base for other appliances that need a secured connected network. In the same way.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld for transmission of multimedia directly over the internet. not only for Unified Communications. Roel van de Wiel Page 9 . e. a home automation system. financial systems or industrial environments for machine to machine communication. XMPP in itself has ample potential.g.

Enterprise IM is usually only deployed companywide. Google Talk is presently available for Android (only in the US) and with their large presence in the mobile market with Android. Jingle can already be used with Cisco’s CUCM (Cisco Unified Communication Manager) and the recently released Cisco Jabber client. At this moment. The introduction of 4g technologies is probably going to be a accelerator of true IP enabled voice services. a telecom provider needs to provide a link to the isolated virtual telephone network. such as presence. work is being done to meet those criteria. presence and video communication in the private domain. There could be question marks placed about the maturity level reached by UC vendors when it comes to XMPP integration into their products needed for Jingle support. The reasons for this are that Jingle is not yet common in implementations in enterprise environments. the same for videocall. Roel van de Wiel Page 10 . Only email is sent directly to the receiving party. XMPP jingle will coexist with SIP and in the future UC vendors will include XMPP Jingle in their products. most importantly. and the public domain (the internet). The advantage of XMPP over SIP is the integration of IM functionality. but it is still not possible to videocall or use IM in the same way. they are complete. Anyone can call and email anyone. Explanation Jingle is an extension to XMPP that enables the setup of real-time media streams between two hosts. SIP will most likely be kept to maintain backwards compatibility with the PSTN network. Hypothesis XMPP will be the protocol of choice for instant messaging. resource identification in URI and a lesser complicated and clearer process of extending its functionality. To make Telephony over internet possible. XMPP jingle is used for Google talk. But the XMPP fundamentals are solid and clear and. The IT environment is evolving into a multi-screen environment where the distinction between the personal and professional environment is blurred. It will function as the lingua franca of the UC field. There is still a great deal of difficulty involved in making video conferencing work between devices of different vendors.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld Introduction Problem statement At this moment there is no industry standard which can deliver true interoperable unified communications. The XMPP protocol with its versatility and wellthought-through design has the right architecture to fill in the requirements of this new environment. like Instant messaging and Presence Status. let alone between two different companies or separate networks. it is only a matter of time before Google Talk is available worldwide. Jingle will be added to make video or voice communication possible. The lack of interoperability does not only affect video conferencing but also other forms of communication. due to the setup of its managing organization as well as the technical architecture.

The Why and What of UC 1.1 A changing society To explain the increased popularity and need for UC systems. These organizations ought to adapt to the contemporary way of life. so it will feel more as a natural Roel van de Wiel Page 11 . Mobile devices and the Internet have made an impact on the day-to-day life of people by making instant contact and instant answers to questions possible. This helps to see UC as a part of the puzzle and to see the whole picture which that puzzle represents. they took a day off to take care of their personal matters.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld 1. In this section some of the changes that influence UC directly or indirectly are described. Now people have a more chaotic lifestyle and consider their spare time more valuable. they will still fulfill a role. differentiating the work environment and a new style of management. Another way of adaptation is the increase in services that are made accessible through the Internet. It will be no longer be required to be physically present in the office in order to be a productive member of a team. These could be services for consumers or business tools for employees. These meeting centers will have a smart building system with more natural light. They will become more a type of meeting centre with a relaxed and productive atmosphere catering to the needs of the employees. They try to make the best use of their spare time by planning tasks as efficiently as possible. merely looking at the advances made in the technical field is not enough. “New way of working” is a whole new approach to how highly skilled labor is done more efficiently and effectively. The changes in society as a whole also need to be taken into consideration. Society as a whole is subjected to those changes including organizations like the government or the retail industry that provide commercial or public services. Increasing the opening hours of shops is a prime example of adaptation to modern life. Twenty-four-seven economy Service expectance has changed when compared to the past. improved climate control and a more thought out design. The office New ways of multimedia communication will change the way the office is used. “New way of working” The new way of working has as its main goal to change the way we work by making it flexible by replacing or complimenting the physical with the virtual world. That does not mean that offices will be a thing of the past. It is a combined approach to new technology. When needed. Accelerators of these changes are new means of communicating. working five days in the week and relaxing in the weekend. People were used to a less hectic and more regular lifestyle.

In the same manner as electricity or water. scale a process or Roel van de Wiel Page 12 . Virtual presence is more than just a simple “on/off switch”. The Cloud is a broad concept. When writing a lengthy report or designing software.) If we use voice only communication. but in short it is about offering IT services through the Internet. so a 3-inch screen will do. instead virtual presence will be used as a metric. The hardware of devices is also an important factor in the equation when transitioning to the new way of working. If you need something small to take notes. then the Tablet is your best choice. There used to be a time when the criteria for choosing a computer was the raw processing power. Employees can choose between different statuses for example Available. Instead of prohibiting the use of these devices in a business environment. Busy or something else. a laptop with a big 17 inch screen is the best. They will be accessible from every device being serviced hardware independent through rich internet applications. These technologies will change the way we work and influence the business processes and organizations themselves. The cloud A popular word often heard in the IT-world is Cloud. any device. anyplace. For important videoconferences. use a 100-inch smart board and immediately publish the end product when you are finished. The presence of employee’s will no longer be measured with the physical presence of employees. Access to data and applications will not be limited by one device that just happens to have the right software installed and the data on the hard drive. New devices Because of the commoditization of consumer electronics. Edit and share data together on one screen and seeing each other face-to-face on the other screen. It is referred to as the Martini Principle: anytime. with or without the permission of management. services are provided without the need to invest in infrastructure on site. For any brainstorming sessions. Devices will be used in conjunction with each other. The problems In order for “a new way of working” to be successful. It will become easier to work across work boundaries. A small form factor get precedence over video output.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld habitat for people. sit down and relax in front of your display screen with an HD camera. companies should take advantage of the added value that these devices could bring to the office. now the criteria is shifting more toward the form factor. a small device with high quality recording and a microphone is considered to be the best. Also the device or location can be a part of this status. they find it hard to change the way they have been doing things. and the status can be taken into account when contacting the person and shielding him from any unnecessary distraction. there are number of problems which must be dealt with. the quality of its sensory input like microphones and video and the quality of its output (screen en speakers. new types of electronic devices will be brought into the business. People are creatures of habit. edit graphic data with the touch of your finger or read some books on e-ink enabled screen. streaming virtualization or combination of the both. Most of them are not of a technical nature.

By detaching the OS from the device using virtualization (could be a laptop. The way to mitigate this problem is to design our communication system as intuitive as possible. makes it more secure and easy to maintain the software. 38 % tone of voice and 7 % is the actual content of the message. We smell. Some of these are securing company data in a (semi)-controlled environment and maintaining the application landscape of these devices. is to regard the devices as merely a temporary container for the user’s applications and data. Another approach is to use the Cloud to provide all the necessary applications. The IT department should make their support independent of the underlying hardware and should only focus on delivering added value. Also for communication it is important to adopt an Open standard policy. For example.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld project up or down when needed by adding people or computing power to the pool. Importance of open standards Having said that most problems are not of a technical nature. we process it in our brain and draw conclusions about what is actually happening and how we should react. there will still be some technical questions that give food for thought. One way of looking at it. including rich internet applications which interact with the user and provide all the functionality local applications would normally provide. Hardware independent As stated above. we use 55 % body language. especially management. touch. We use our five senses when interacting with objects and people in our daily lives. But it does not stop with high fidelity codecs. Intuitive communications The new way of working is all about an intuitive way of communicating. we miss out on the input provided by our senses. To prevent a legacy problem in the future it will be important to choose Open standards when possible. That will require a different attitude by the people. Cloud based infrastructure demands that devices will always have access to internet. But there are some issues that need to be taken into consideration. During normal conversation. When we replace real life contact with virtual contact. The more realistic a virtual meeting will become the more it will replace live meetings. These internet applications will be based on the new HTML5 standard. The ability to communicate without any boundaries depends on the acceptance of open standards. This means that whenever possible. Data saved in the Cloud should be accessible across Cloud providers. tablet or mobile phone) and creating an isolated runtime environment to safeguard the data and the updates. People will experience this as an unnatural way of communicating and will prefer real life contact for most of our communications. should they have a local account or can they simply use their own account from their own company and join the project? The same question applies to video conferencing. Roel van de Wiel Page 13 . the best video and audio codecs should be used. devices will be brought into the corporate domain by employees who want access to the same functionality as they have at home. look and listen. in a project group with external partners.

countries could react quickly to important matters and businessman to trade fluctuations. In the year 1800 it could take up to a year to send a message through the postal system from Europe to a colonial country.1 History of digital communications systems The ways of communicating have drastically improved in the last 200 years. These days there is still a separation of the current Internet and the telephony network. IM. This network eventually evolved into the Internet as we know it today. and later videoconferencing.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld 1. This was so until a decade ago when the rapid increase of connection quality and the introduction of Quality of Service made voice. a router etc. email.g. Even though the telephone network has converged with the current data network in the background. A good example is Internet-enabled mobile phones. the time was reduced to a couple minutes by phone. This increases the flexibility of the network but makes it unsuited for real-time data like voice and video. VOIP and video.2. Nowadays we use the World Wide Web for a large part of our communicating. In the 60s the basis was being laid for the internet.2 What is Unified Communications 1. it will look up the destination address of the packet and decide in which direction it should be sent. In the beginning it was only used for verbal communications but with the passage of time text messages were transmitted through a telex system. A person is able to reach his email on any mobile device as long as it has Internet access. The next big electronic web was the telephone. going from one place to another at very high speed passing through networks that serve as intermediaries. family and colleagues. e. Messages were brief due to the high cost involved when communicating over a single cable. viable over the Internet. With the commercial use of the first intercontinental undersea cable in 1866. When designing the fundamentals for the Internet. e. they still function as separate networks. and each time it goes through the device. Data is sent as a packet full of bits with a destination address attached to it. Cost decreased later as the capacity and speed of transmission over the cable increased. Later a fax became another popular means of communication. That packet will pass through a series of network devices. Nowadays we use email widely to communicate with friends. The first truly electronic web of communications was the telegraph system. Firstly only through the declaration of theories in 1968 with the start of a digital network called Arpanet. with an intercontinental link completed in 1915.g. But the owner can only call and be called with his personal number at the same time on one mobile phone which has his personal SIM card inserted. a packet-switched network was chosen over a circuit-switched network. But within a century. In the 90s the Internet became generally available to the public. but in essence it is the same thing: a large volume of bytes moving over a wire. This communication can be different types. Roel van de Wiel Page 14 .

instant messaging (IM)/presence. Real-time Real-time communication is voice and video. With real time communication there are two separate channels: the signaling channel.” said Jeff Mann. video or IM. like SIP. applications. Open standards and APIs so that it is able to integrate them into other enterprise applications like Sharepoint and Outlook.2. The artificial separation they are used to will become a thing of the past. The UC core system manages the incoming and outgoing direct connections like phone calls. clients. and a data channel. UC functionality A UC system is made of up different components that could be used. Most of the time it is directly routed between the end points. regardless if it is voice.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld The next step in communications advancement is one platform supporting all communications protocols. whereas the signaling protocol itself is relayed through different stations This is due the low tolerance allowance of latency and jitter when transporting real time data. document management. conferencing. VOIP Phone infrastructure was managed originally by a PBX. h323. According to Gartner this transformation will be available in 2013.2. IP-PBX became popular from 2000. Phone calls are connections made with E.164 numbers (standard telephone number) that use the legacy PSTN infrastructure for interconnecting domains and it needs to conform to the specification from Roel van de Wiel Page 15 . social networks and collaboration tools – in silos. At the heart of this unified communication experience is the UC core system itself. research vice president at Gartner. and are used. a video conferences or IM conversations. as autonomic systems in their own right. The PBX was a large piece of machinery which used ISDN as standard for setting up phone connections. This new category of software solution is called Unified Communications and this has started to appear recently. Cost reduction was the primary reason for implementing ISDN. Eventually UC systems will evolve into a platform that also provides collaboration tools. The signaling channel is responsible for setting up a connection between two end points and negotiating the data stream and its parameters used to transport the actual voice or video data. RTP is used for the data stream. The core system should provide plugins.” (Gartner Says Distinctions in Unified Communications and Collaboration Will Disappear by 2013) 1. XMPP Jingle or something else. With the rise of the Internet and the increased reliability of IP networks. IP-PBX uses SIP in an IP network instead of ISDN thereby eliminating the cost associated with a separate ISDN infrastructure. “They can no longer work this way as UCC represents a fusion of different communications cultures and work styles. “Business end-users typically treat the UCC components – voice. social media and other applications. The connections made by the UC core system can be divided into realtime and near-real-time. Now IP-PBX is gradually evolving into a UC manager with more functionality present than simply managing phone calls. messaging. This integration will complete the UC experience. The concept of Unified Communications exploits these separate systems by combining them and offering them as one unified communication experience to users. There is an import distinction that needs to be made when it comes to how VOIP is used.

The integration with email makes it easier to decide how to contact the other party. It uses the Internet instead of the PSTN infrastructure to transfer the voice call and as such does not need to be backward compatible with the PSTN network or to comply with any specification which applies to the PSTN phone call. The cost and the demands it put on the infrastructure made it a rare product to be used only in the company boardroom. There are also voice calls initiated by a soft phone or communicator that uses an URI (unique resource identifier. AOL Messenger in the nineties. It is been used in conference rooms and offers better video and audio quality and the cameras used are advanced and known as PTZ: plane to the left or right. a video connection (all are still of poor quality) with a friend was easily set up. IM is as old as networking itself. Instant Messaging Instant messaging has been in use for three decades as a true internet-technology. Text-based and presence communications have a higher tolerance to bad network conditions involving Jitter or Latency. Today there are clients available which support multiple IM networks. can facilitate real live team meetings and presence checks by using UC APIs. The expectation is that Collaboration and Communications will eventually be integrated into one. Quadnet and such like products where teamwork is required.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld the ITU-T that applies to the PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network). for example Early media and DTMF. Webcams became more common and with software like MSN Messenger or Yahoo Messenger. and zoom in. Video The use of video for real-time communication has seen a slow rise through the years. First introduced at the Worlds Fair in 1964 in New York. It completes the UC experience and examples are Add-Ons to Outlook. This is due to the steep costs that were involved with real-time video technology. As such there is no need to set up a separate channel to accommodate Real-time media. till up or down. With the rise of IP networks. it was not until the eighties that video conferencing became commercially viable. Collaboration Sharepoint. for example an email address to directly connect to the other party. Near real-time Near-real-time is presence and text-based communication like IM and email. Currently the quality of the infrastructure has improved so much that the quality is acceptable for use on PCs in corporate settings. Email Email is a separate system that can be used in conjunction with UC. Roel van de Wiel Page 16 . There is still hardware available that is dedicated to video conferencing. Video conferencing systems became more accessible for the masses. Notable milestones are IRC (Instant Relay Chat) introduced in 1988 and still in use today and the rise of IM Messengers like MSN Messenger.

Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld Roel van de Wiel Page 17 .

an appraisal of the current market will be made. Also. This makes business prudent when it comes to implementing UC in their own corporate infrastructure. Studies have shown that negative perception of a connection tends to wear off in the judgment of a conversation partner. But they rely on the support and understanding of the UC market for success. institutes that play an important part in guiding the development of UC are mentioned. the views of analyst are discussed. It believes XMPP has the potential to become the standard for near-real time communication in 2015.2 billion in 2008 to $14. These forces arise in organizations which have different interest and different views regarding the future of UC and XMPP.1 What analysts say about UC 2. 2009) Gartner sees problems when it comes to intercompany multi channel UC use. And finally. but IETF has not ratified SIMPLE for presence information while XMPP has already been ratified.1The Market Forrester predicted that the market will grow from $1.2 What Gartner say’s about XMPP Recently Gartner published an interesting report concerning XMPP (see below). the connection could deteriorate to below the acceptable norm and could lead to a negative experience by both users. Previously it thought XMPP would simply be the first choice for the UC industry. 2010) 2. There is a clear distinction between those two: the former provides infrastructure for enterprises. XMPP has seen wider Roel van de Wiel Page 18 .1.1. Without QOS. After this. One of the inhibitors of the UC market is bad interoperability issues. When opening up one's corporation UC infrastructure. As a result it thinks that in 2015 only 1 % will become interoperable. 2. managers responsible for IT-infrastructure will lose their reservations and start investing in UC infrastructure.5 billion in 2015. Some of these organizations are discussed in this chapter. Forrester predicts that when UC software becomes more standard based. QOS is difficult to guarantee when using plain Internet. UC vendors and Internet services which provide some form of UC are listed. There are some initiatives by vendors and service providers to offer some kind of directory where URI multi-mode channel communication is possible. (Predicts 2011: Adoption of Unified Communications Creates New Sourcing and Deployment Challenges.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld 2. Gartner also expresses its concern about privacy. (Dewing. First. They do not want to run the risk of investing in technology that might become obsolete tomorrow. UC market analysis The UC market is subjected to certain forces which drive the development of UC products and determine the adaptation of standards. the latter UC services that are mostly consumer oriented. It also thinks it is likely that employees will be interrupted more frequently and this could be found undesirable. partners or other third parties. None of the current UC vendors can facilitate intercompany multi-mode channel communication. Gartner wonders how much personal information employees would want to share with customers. In the second and third sections.

Furthermore. for example. They then only choose proven technology because they are uncomfortable with taking any risks outside their primary business process. the context of these interactions adds to the trust people have in the human expert. due the increasing heterogeneity of IT infrastructure. He also said there is a need for ways to connect UC software with partners who are only involved with bank for a short period of time. The complexity of those financial products makes it hard to understand and sell. like ABN AMRO for their introduction of a videoconference teller who looks after multiple branches at a time. there needs to be a clear business case which can garantee a cost reduction or an income improvement.1 Banks What sets banks apart from other businesses is the type of products they offer. makes it easier to gain the trust of the customer.that can be a telephone call.2 Potential of UC in commercial appliances Before corporations can decide to implement new technology. in projects. One reason for adopting XMPP is that. (Hilster) In the book "Bank 2. 2010) Roel van de Wiel Page 19 .0" written by Brett King in 2010. Not only is virtual interaction important. bank build report. a face-to-face meeting or letters.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld acceptance by vendors. Facebook and Google use XMPP for their services and so does the government and defense industry in the US (jabber XCF). Financial products are all non-material and information based.2. The possibility of adding rich media communication. he said he could imagine a request being made to use UC technology to contact consumers. (Instant messaging helping Mass. Dutch banks are often mentioned. (King. new technology and the development of the past age is often referred to. One of the things Capgemini was interested in was how UC could be used in the banking environment and if there was any need for it initially. companies would prefer one standard that could be used as middleware to share advanced presence information of the users. numerous reports are mentioned and examples are given about how the rise of Internet use has changed the customer expectancy of service delivery and how banks could further benefit from this paradigm change. (Take Four Steps to Prepare for XMPP Becoming an Universal Standard. this places the bank in the same contact list as the customer's friends. To achieve that level of trust. like video conference and IM. This has already been proven by research. Twitter. 2006) In an interview I had with Daniel Hillster who was involved with the New Way of Working project at SNS Reaal. 2009) A small community bank in Missouri USA has made a connector to the AOL service where its employees are directly listed in the contact list of their customers. 2. As mentioned in the above article. It has been so successful that they expanded their teleconferencing services. Trust is therefore absolutely necessary to sell these complex products. 2010) 2. there needs to be enough authentic communication between both parties . Mirjam Schmidt in her report "Finance advise online" concludes that virtual interaction with an online human expert adds to the trust that the customer has in the advice given. (FINANCIAL ADVICE ONLINE.

2. This allows it to work with IM services like Gmail. A bank could benefit from this by offering customers more communication channels and by so doing. The H. It is even possible to do a hot code loading of the server which means that the server can continue to run even if code needs to be added to it. The latest news is that there is a new release on 1st march 2011 of the XMPP client called Cisco Jabber with support for Jingle . This is partially marketing hype but in the field of UC they are living up to that promise by fully supporting jabbers XMPP technology.2 Challengers/innovators Process-one Process-one is the developer of XMPP software including server and clients. They are interesting because of their support for XMPP in their leadership position. that UC can be used in commercial appliances. They bought jabber XMPP server in 2008 and the former CEO of jabber and president of the XMPP foundation. Roel van de Wiel Page 20 . IP-based architecture. 2. Their open source XMPP server. is leading the jabber technology division at Cisco. The list of active UC vendors is too long to discuss them all. Page 145.3 UC vendors This section has listed some interesting vendors and their UC experience. They currently have an extensive portfolio of UC related products. is based on Erlang which is a programming language developed by Ericson to build robust telecommunication applications. Ejabberd.264 video codec from Microsoft uses proprietary techniques to make it error resistant but this makes their video solution difficult to interoperate. There is a clear distinction between UC vendors who provide UC infrastructure for a business environment and Internet service providers who deliver mostly consumer oriented services. In a changing world. customers can choose between different forms of communication.3. 2010) From research done.0. increase the accessibility of the bank by its customers. 2. Peter Saint-andre. (Bank 2. automated voice response systems and first-call resolution KPIs.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld “The vision of the ultimate contact centre currently appears to be a convoluted mix of unified messaging platform. Cisco UC technology natively supports XMPP for IM and presence. One of their products (Interoperability Media Engine) can be used as a mediator between different SIP dialects and as such can facilitate interoperability. it can be concluded.3. Microsoft Lync technology does not use XMPP natively.1 leading UC vendors Cisco Cisco says its policy is to use open standards as much as possible. Recently Microsoft has added a XMPP gateway to their product portfolio.

email telephony. With IM alone. Roel van de Wiel Page 21 . e.g. It is well documented and easy to extend with extra modules. Some developments that can be noticed are the evolution of these consumer oriented communication services from providing only a single channel like only IM or only voice to a full-rounded communication platform for IM.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld Jive software The openfire server of Jive Software is an open source XMPP server written in Java. they are more flexible when it comes to adopting new technologies. They offer a migration route for Nortel which is also SIPfoundry based. Jingle can be used for setting up multimedia streams in business streams. Besides Gtalk. XMPP is used in Google wave and in Google Chrome. Nimbuzz. Google can be considered to be a leader in the area of XMPP development. Google is a big supporter of XMPP. as well as phone calls to the PSTN network. Many of these upcoming communication platforms are XMPP based. but without a clear business case and support from UC vendors. And it has a loyal community whose members assist in its development. The majority of these communication tools are segregated into separate channels. After investigating the UC vendor field. It can connect to different IM networks as well to SIP providers. voice. There are many similar products like Fring and Talkonaut which use XMPP Jingle. IM. it can be concluded that multimedia extensions are not actively supported and promoted by UC vendors. Ezuce Ezuce was established by the founders of the open source initiative of SIPfoundry. it is ill-advised. Another trait which sets them apart in companies is that they are not bound by the business processes and the investments needed when adopting new technology. Ezuce is based on SIPfoundry which has recently added XMPP support. Other XMPP networks can connect to Google and use Jingle for voice or video setup. These days the consumer has access to many different ways of communicating. Nimbuzz A Dutch startup company that uses XMPP Jingle to enable voice calls. Gtalk Gtalk is a product from Google. Cisco has XMPP support but uses SIP for setting up real-time media (update: 1st march Cisco launched Cisco Jabber which seems to support Jingle). The challengers consider the ability to use Jingle as a bonus rather than a primary business function. 2. consumers have more media-rich enabled devices at their disposal than an average employee. one user can have accounts at several IM services. VOIP and SMS to name a few.4 Internet services Due to the commoditization of electronic devices. They present their product as an open standard based alternative to Microsoft UC. As a consequence. It uses Jingle for voice and video and is the most open product available. video or other plausible ways of communication for that matter.

i. It is a little comparable to Blackberry’s ping service.e. there is heavy traffic between the client and its server. updates get pushed to the client rather than polling the server every time. Nokia ovi Nokia chat service is based on XMPP. The reasons for this Roel van de Wiel Page 22 . It adds contacts who are already listed in your phonebook and have whatsapp installed into your contact list. and does not allow interdomain communication.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld Figure 1 Nimbuzz on nokia Whatsapp Startup lets you chat on your smartphone with a phone number as a user identifier. It added XMPP support in February 2010. Facebook Facebook is the biggest social media website. microblogging. Yammer Due the nature of their service. Currently Facebook uses XMPP for letting users connect with their IM services. It blocks any XMPP service that is not IM-related like Jingle. With XMPP implemented.

It is a similar story with Google. It depends on providers to promote phones with the Android OS installed on it. This paradigm shift will most likely accelerate with the introduction of 4g networks. It is only in America where it is possible to use Gtalk on the mobile phone. In Europe. 2. The most likely cause for this is possible interference with the business model. XMPP makes for a shorter-time-to-market due to the well-thought-through design with the possibility of adding your own customized extensions. Gtalk seems to be an exception to this as it is open for small-time particular initiatives. So when standards find their way into the vendor's products. At first. What is more plausible is that they limit it because of business motivated reasons. Cooperation is only considered in cases where the other party represents a substantial user base. Conventional mobile phone functionality is lacking. For instance.1 Other noticeable use of XMPP The US government and US defense department implemented a highly adapted version of Jabberd (now part of Cisco) called Jabberd XCP. In developing countries like India. video and text-based communication. there are many Applications in the financial world and other sectors where XMPP is used. When evolving to a multi device environment. Roel van de Wiel Page 23 . it is still possible to combine these products with exchange data services. mobile service providers already promote the use of voice over internet services like Nimbuzz. Because of the cost involved with a mobile phone call. With the tight integration that Facebook has with some mobile phones. they depend on mobile service providers to push those mobile phones and promote Facebook. There is a need for a common agreement on the specifications of standards. people will expect to be available on multiple devices with just one account or number. people wanted alternative ways of setting up a telephone call with less costs. Furthermore. The primary motivation for communication services to adopt XMPP seems to be a shorter time-tomarket.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld could be technical but this is unlikely. Mobile service providers are of strategic importance to Facebook because they control the mobile phone market.4. but realizing it could not be stopped they adopted the motto: “if you can’t beat them then join them” and they use VOIP now to actively promote their network. Gtalk cannot be used for making phone calls. That is why there is paradigm shift taking place from calling and texting with mobile phones in the traditional way towards using Internet for voice. Making cooperation possible with other parties seems to be of lesser importance.5 Institutes Institutes are responsible for guiding technology development and defining open standards. If Jingle is enabled. Prorail uses a XMPP version for sending updates to the train drivers about rail traffic. mobile phone service provider tried to prevent the use of the internet for phone calls. 2. it is only possible for each unique mobile number to be connected to only one mobile phone in the operator’s network. it would pose a threat to mobile service providers. It meets the strict requirements of the US Government.

SIP has a prominent place in IMS. and providing a platform for vendors to align their products.264 and h. ITU-R and ITU-D. Its an open forum and anyone can participate. They formulate the core specifications Roel van de Wiel Page 24 . ITU-T is the best known subgroup. not by defining standards but by interoperability testing. One of its current standards is IMS (IP Multimedia System) which has become a core component of multimedia transmission in 3G and 4G networks. It has a long history that dates back to xxx and received its mandate from the United Nations to be the leading international institute for standardizing telecommunications protocols. IETF has also formed a workgroup to ratify the core standard of XMPP. HP Microsoft. These areas of focus can overlap. e. It has three subgroups: ITU-T. 3GPP The 3rd Generation Partnership Project is an organization consisting of multiple partners that came together in an effort to specify the requirement for a universal 3G standard acceptable for mobile phones.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld The mandate that these institutes have varies and depends on the level of recognition given by the industry or authority given by government institutes. It has the goal of making UC technology compatible. IMS was meant to make a differentiation between services like video calling and instant messaging possible so that each service can be separately billable and to provide QOS when required.323. Google and Avaya could undermine the credibility of the organization.711. The head of UCIF is Bernard Aboba who is a principal architect at Microsoft. These institutes address different needs and focus on different areas in which they are active. Source: (10-years-of-SIP-dominance) XSF The XMPP standard forum looks after the standardizing process for XMPP and its extensions. ITU The ITU regulates information and communication technology. Rather than designing a standard itself from the beginning. The current president of the organization is Peter Saint Andre who is also head of Jabber technology at Cisco.g. Codecs called g. but so far IMS has not been implemented unsuccessful. Since then it has continued defining more standards. Juniper and Polycom among others. It has standardized over 100 RFCs for SIP and has formed a Work group to standardize simple extensions.a 4G standard. It standardizes ICT technology. The UCIF has incorporated XMPP Jingle into its testing framework even though the testing was done in an ad-hoc manner. it listed the requirements that need to be met in order for any standard to be ratified as a 3G or -more specifically. while ITU-D promotes and supports ICT in developing countries. ITU-R manages the international radio spectrum. h. sponsoring other organizations. IETF The Internet Electronic Task Force is an organization that is responsible for standardizing protocols used in Internet communication. UCIF The Unified Communication Interoperability Forum was founded in 2010 by Logitech. That is why the absence of Cisco. International standards are given names which begin with a letter followed by a three numbers.

and the telecom industry responsible for the mobile phone network and phone infrastructure as used in businesses. This is a set of recommendations which should guarantee interoperability if vendors and service providers implement them in their products. SIPforum This organization facilitates the adaptation of SIP by vendors. Fring and Nimbuzz which are all XMPP based (but are also SIP capable).0 was ratified. One of their efforts is developing a common approach to SIP trunking in the form of SIPconnect. Microsoft and Avaya.6 Reflection There is still a clear distinction between service providers on the Internet which have evolved from standard text based communication (like IM and email) to a more advanced form of communication. Cisco is ahead in this effort as it recently (1 march 2010) announced Cisco Jabber with a UC client based on XMPP that supports Jingle and ultimately Gtalk. Industry leaders in the UC section. This distinction will most likely slowly disappear and can already be observed by looking at the increase in the number of applications on mobile phones that enable the customer to use the Internet for phone calls rather than using the mobile phone network. 2. like Cisco. SIPconnect 1. Mobile phone network operators are struggling to adapt to these events. Reason for this is that the telecom industry is very institutionalized and needs to comply with many standards. Roel van de Wiel Page 25 . it is most likely that the future of communication will be dictated by service providers like Gtalk. carries out interoperability testing and provides a platform for vendors to meet.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld of XMPP and hand them to WG which focuses on making the XMPP specification compliant with IETF requirements. Banning these applications from the network or limiting the network access for these applications means risking customer dissatisfaction. Due to their adaptability and rich feature set. One possible solution to this could be to implement IMS which allows mobile operators to include those services (their own or of that of a third party service provider) into their mobile phone network making them chargeable and providing QoS. Some of those are in place to remain backwards compatible with PSTN or legacy equipment. there has been no successful introduction of IMS. The former has less restrictions placed on it and is more flexible when implementing new functionality than the latter. are already moving towards XMPP support and UC interoperability. But as yet. In 2008.

3. The whole process will be explained in more detail later in this chapter. While the connection is active. A SIP client sends SIP requests and receives SIP responses. When a session is to be ended. an overview is given of the standards that are related to UC use and their inner workings. Real-time data (mostly voice) is transmitted through a separate Real-time channel using the RTP protocol. the modifying of session parameters.1. the server receives this request and determines whether to send an acknowledgement or deny the request with an error or unavailable message. The last part of this chapter looks further into safeguarding the quality of video and voice. These standards are SIP which is the most dominant standard in use by UC servers today. a SIP session is broken down into five facets: • • User location: determining which end system will be used for communication. RFC3261. e. User capabilities: determining the media and media parameters to be used for this communication. A SIP server receives the requests and gives responses.2 SIP software architecture The SIP software architecture consists of two elements: a SIP client (User Agent Client) and a SIP server (User Agent Server).1. After this initial contact. • • • 3. Roel van de Wiel Page 26 . In the main RFC for SIP. a termination command will be sent by one of the parties to request the end of the session. initiates contact through a invitation and the other party send an acknowledgement. the connection is considered established.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld 3.g. including multimedia capabilities. Voice and Signaling channels are separated into two different channels which can be independently routed. For example.1. Session management: including the transfer and termination of sessions. A SIP session is set up when one end-point. and XMPP which is a protocol used mainly for Instant messaging. Technology explained In this chapter. a mobile phone. The way SIP works 3. a SIP client sends a request in the form of an invitation. and the invoking of session services. Session setup: establishing the session parameters at both the called and calling parties.1 Call setup SIP is a session protocol for managing the connection for as long as it is required. User availability: determining whether or not the called party is willing to engage in communications.

INVITE: Indicates that the user or service is being invited to participate in a session. understood.3 SIP network architecture The SIP network architecture is by default a P2P model. It resends messages from UAC to UAS and vice versa. These are just server roles and most of the time they reside on one physical server. This enables functionality like Forking and Forward Call Busy. But the majority of SIP deployments is used in a quasi client-server model.1. • • Stateless. There are three types of servers: Registrar.4 SIP message format There are six types of request messages defined and they are referred to as Methods. The status code values are divided into six general categories: • • • • 1xx: Provisional: The request has been received and processing is continuing. Statefull. and is only used with INVITE requests.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld 3. • • • • The response messages contain Status Codes and Reason Phrases that indicate the current condition of this request.1. and accepted. The reason for using a proxy server is to centralize SIP network traffic and to make the network management easier. Page 27 Roel van de Wiel . redirect and proxy. The redirect server responds to SIP redirect requests with the IP address of the next server in line. 3xx: Redirection: Further action is required to process this request. CANCEL: Is used to cancel a pending request. BYE: Is sent by a User Agent Client to indicate to the server that it wishes to terminate the call. 3. 2xx: Success: An ACK. The proxy server is aware of the state of the session. The body of this message would include a description of the session to which the callee is being invited. These methods are used by the UAS. The URI stands for Unique Resource Indicator and identifies the user. OPTIONS: Is used to query a server about its capabilities. These are sent by UAC: • • REGISTER: Is used by a client to register an address with a SIP server. The proxy server serves as an intermediary between two clients. ACK: Confirms that the client has received a final response to an INVITE request. The proxy server has two modes of operation: Stateless and statefull. 4xx: Client Error: The request contains bad syntax and cannot be fulfilled at this server. to indicate that the action was successfully received. The proxy server only resends traffic and is unaware of the state of the session itself. A registrar server is used to register the IP address of the SIP client and linking it to its URI.

with its most famous 504 page not found error. 3. Mandatory parameters are marked with an asterisk.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld • • 5xx: Server Error: The server failed to fulfill an apparently valid request. SDP originated from its implementation in SAP.optional if included at session-level) b=* (bandwidth information) k=* (encryption key) a=* (zero or more media attribute lines) And this is an example how SDP is used to set up a RTP connection [Offer] Roel van de Wiel Page 28 . The inspiration for this code schema is the code schema used in the HTTP protocol. the signaling and the data channels are separated.5 SDP As mentioned earlier. but has been reused in SIP and is defined in RFC4566. Session description v= (protocol version) o= (owner/creator and session identifier) s= (session name) i=* (session information) u=* (URI of description) e=* (email address) p=* (phone number) c=* (connection information .not required if included in all media) b=* (bandwidth information) One or more time descriptions (see below) z=* (time zone adjustments) k=* (encryption key) a=* (zero or more session attribute lines) Zero or more media descriptions (see below) Time description t= (time the session is active) r=* (zero or more repeat times) Media description m= (media name and transport address) i=* (media title) c=* (connection information . The SIP protocol is responsible for setting up the data channel and it uses the SDP protocol to negotiate this. SDP is basically a standard which specifies the parameters for a real-time data channel that needs to be published to other parties.1. 6xx: Global Failure: The request cannot be fulfilled at any server.

When a voice call is being made.biloxi.com s= c=IN IP4 host. The phone (UAS part) will reply with a response message that will most likely be a 1XX provisional acceptance.com s= c=IN IP4 host. The proxy server of the other domain will receive a INVITE with a URI identifying the receiving party and will pass it on to the phone. a 5XX or a 6XX error code is returned as a response.com t=0 0 m=audio 49174 RTP/AVP 0 a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 m=video 49170 RTP/AVP 32 a=rtpmap:32 MPV/90000 3. It is also possible for the callee to respond with a 3XX redirection message.atlanta.atlanta. the redirect server will be queried and it response will be a 3XX redirection method message that points to the next server in line. it is easier to visualize now how a call is made. a redirection needs to be sent. Roel van de Wiel Page 29 . a 2XX ACK is sent back.example. the phone (UAC part) sends out an INVITE request with a SDP offer to the proxy server.example. A RTP stream that directly connects the caller to the callee is set up according to the approved SDP offer.biloxi. If the connecting attempt is unsuccessful a 4XX.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld v=0 o=alice 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 host. If it is an interdomain URI.1. or interdomain.6 Call setup After explaining the basics of the SIP operation.example.example. by picking up the phone for example. When the phone line is busy. The proxy server checks if the URI is known local and is registered with the Registar server. When phone call is accepted.com t=0 0 m=audio 49170 RTP/AVP 0 8 97 a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000 a=rtpmap:8 PCMA/8000 a=rtpmap:97 iLBC/8000 m=video 51372 RTP/AVP 31 32 a=rtpmap:31 H261/90000 a=rtpmap:32 MPV/90000 [Answer] v=0 o=bob 2808844564 2808844564 IN IP4 host.

Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld Figure 2 SIP architecture: (Understanding SIP) Figure 3 SIP call flow (Internet Communications using SIP. 2006) Roel van de Wiel Page 30 .

for example asking a quick question and receiving a short answer. Roel van de Wiel Page 31 . SMTP is a straightforward protocol with only two different versions implemented in email servers worldwide: ESMTP (Enhanced Simple Mail Transport Protocol) and SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol). All the functionality that has been defined in the IETF standard in relation to SIP can be found in RFC5411 . where people can have a text conversation with their colleagues.1. It uses the same schemas and grammar but SIP is designed for voice communications whereas HTTP and SMTP are for one way and two-way text-based communications.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld In this day and age. The main difference between SIP and the other protocols is the looseness of the specifications. the SMTP protocol is followed exactly without making any twists or changes.the hitchhikers guide to SIP. At that time there was a digital voice standard. Maintaining two independent infrastructures is more expensive than maintaining one. When sending an email. or “chatting” as it is known. There is a need for IM communication. When writing email server software. Simple is the acronym of Session Initiation Protocol for Instant Messaging and Presence Leveraging Extensions. It should also be possible to see the current availability status of a person to determine if they are open for communication. ESMTP is the standard for email in use nowadays. It serves as a reference guide to the 100 SIP related RFC.H323 developed by ITU-T and SIP developed by the IETF.7 Why does SIP not provide the solution ? Understanding the deficiencies of SIP is easier when comparing it to another standard like SMTP. To service these needs. hence the need for voice transportation over the Internet. there has been an extension defined to the SIP protocol called Simple. So there was still two segregated infrastructures being used alongside each other . which result in vendor implementing SIP according to their interpretation of the protocol.8 Problems with SIP SIP was developed in the late nineties to make voice over internet possible. 3. This has proven to be ideal in some situations.the packet-switched IP enabled network called the Internet and the circuit-switched telephone network. resulting in full compatibility with the standard. namely ISDN. ISDN is a great protocol by itself but it was not designed for IP networks like the internet. There were two protocols competing to becoming the standard for voice over Internet . But unfortunately it is considered by many to be too complex for implementation. The Simple protocol adds two distinguished features to the SIP protocol: Instant messaging and presence sharing. Therefore when sending a email from one server to another server there is no risk of the email being rejected by the receiving server. phone calling or video calling is simply not enough. SIP is based on HTTP and SMTP. SMTP is used between two servers.1. 3.

One of the Internet advantages over the original PSTN network is its mesh design and the ability to setup a connection on a peer-to-peer basis.323. The common architecture used in enterprises when using SIP as replacement for telephony is that of a central PBX system that is used to communicate with the internal clients in the vendor dependent dialect of SIP. but the developers of SIP software implemented SIP in different ways in their products. a simple word count is enough.2 XMPP 3. The first release of a working product was in January 4 1999. It is often considered to be very bureaucratic and slow. Soon there was a whole group of developers designing clients and libraries for languages. This made internetworking very difficult between the software implementations and compatibility was often impossible. To give an illustration of the open-endedness of the SIP RFC 3261. SIP eventually succeeded in becoming the de facto standard due to the simplicity of its design in comparison to H. IETF on the other hand is more loosely organized. The SIP infrastructure as a whole mimics the PSTN network over the internet. The reason for this difficulty can be seen in the way the standard came about. great effort has to be made to maintain compatibility with even the most basic functionality. and a SIP gateway that is used to make SIP interworking possible and provide SIP trunking capabilities.1 Brief History of XMPP XMPP technology was invented by Jeremie Miller in 1998. when using SIP in a heterogeneous environment. The IETF is a democratic organization where many different points of views have to be accommodated in the final proposal in order to receive approval by the majority of voters. Weak Terms Can = 475 Option = 144 Should = 344 May = 381 Strong Terms Shall = 4 Must = 631 The excessive use of weak terms is a good indicator of how open the SIP standard is for interpretation by developers. His motivation came from the desire to open up IM services. SIP became the dominant standard for voice communication. With the need for SIP-trunking for connecting SIP infrastructure to telephony service providers nothing has changed. As a result. 2007) 3. This results in a protocol which leaves it open for individual interpretation.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld The ITU-T is an official body of the UN dealing with the standardization of telecommunications protocols. Work on the XMPP protocol Roel van de Wiel Page 32 . Sources: (sip interoperability ) & (Real-world SIP Interoperability: Still an elusive quest .2.

Resource labels the different connections of the user so different open connections with different characteristics can be used in different ways. Examples are: John@jabber. Some have a procedure of informational nature and are used to describe a best practice or a way how events should be handled. Keeping track of the presence information of the clients is also done by the server. Different presence statuses can be selected so that the other parties can see if the user is available and decide what the best way is to contact him. Cisco now uses XMPP as a base for communication with clients. The presence status is stored on the server. The resource can be anything distinguishing like the location. when the user is fully available.org/home. but committed to open standards. How extensions are handled and defined is described in the first extension to XMPP. For example.2. To find out what extensions are supported. he could be called directly or be contacted using IM.com. user A requests for an opt-in for the presence information and user B can then choose whether he grants user A access to his presence status. The format of a URI is: name@domain. XMPP-0001.2 Network architecture XMPP uses the server-client model. All extensions are clearly described on the XSF web page. effort was made to make XMPP an official standard of IETF. Presence is used to keep track of a user’s availability. a discovery request can be sent directly to the client.2. To increase the adoption. Roel van de Wiel Page 33 . the Jabber foundation later renamed it to XMPP standard foundation was formed August 2001. 3. but not all specify additions to the XMPP protocol. In 2008 Cisco purchased Jabber Inc.2. The service could then be found for example on conference. XMPP uses the push model for sending and receiving information rather than the pull model. 3. type of internet connection or client software.3 Extensibility The architecture of XMPP is designed to allow the addition of extensions to it. When the presence status of someone who is the client’s roster changes the new presence status is pushed by the server to the client. 3.com. Jingle was at first a proprietary extension of Google. . To organize the development of XMPP and its extensions. Also. Within two years the IETF published the CORE XMPP specifications in its RFV series as RFC 3920 and RFC 3921. The MUC (Multi User Chatroom) could for example be added to the domain example.org/mobile or John@jabber. Access to other people is based on the presence subscription. XMPP uses a URI to identify users in the same manner that SMTP and SIP does. Google eventually decided to publish the specifications and supported further development of Jingle. When user A wants access to the presence information of user B.4 Roster One of the corner stone’s of the XMPP protocol is the inclusion of Presence status in the protocol. This decreases the load on the server by not having the client poll for updates. as a service to the domain.example. New to this URI is the addition of Resources.tld. In 2005 Google Talk was launched with VOIP support based on XMPP Jingle. Extensions add functionality to either the server. clients could have multiple extensions active. or/and to the client. A XMP client contacts the server by sending it a message and the server resends it to the receiving XMPP client.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld was still in progress in May 2000 when Jabberd was released.the company that was responsible for developing Jabbar and Exploitation.

Headline: used for alert and notification Error: for error notification.lit"/> Roel van de Wiel Page 34 . it will be updated through the principle of the push mechanism that is built into the XMPP protocol. C: <stream:stream> C: <presence/> C: <iq type="get"> <query xmlns="jabber:iq:roster"/> </iq> S: <iq type="result"> <query xmlns="jabber:iq:roster"> <item jid="alice@wonderland.2. Chat: near real-time message communication.g. When the negotiation of XML stream is complete. It also offers the possibility of including standard status signs like Away or Available or with personal information.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld When a user comes online. When a change of the presence status occurs. Groupchat: communication in a chat room.5 Stream XMPP is in essence a streaming XML protocol using Stanzas to communicate. A request maybe a roster <iq> a dialog between a client and server would look like this: C = client and S=server. There are three types of stanzas: <message> A message stanza is used to send an IM message. e. 3. “I’m in the train” Example: <presence from="alice@wonderland. he receives a roster (similar to a contact list) where all his contacts and their presence status is shown.lit/pda"> <show>xa</show> <status>down the rabbit hole!</status> </presence> <iq> The Info Query stanza is used to receive and send information. stanzas are used to exchange messages. a message is pushed to the other party. <presence> Presence stanzas are used to indicate the presence of the client. There are five different types of messages:Normal: similar to an email message where a reaction might be given.

Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld <item jid="madhatter@wonderland. making it hard to be controlled and audited. however this would make the messages unreadable at the server itself. 3. the server has the possibility to send a CAPTCHA as a data form to identify the user as a real person. Another issue is the fact that XMPP uses a client-server model and the data is sent indirectly via a path through the server. But it is not well suited to sending binary data like a file or voice communication. This is in contrast to SIP which needs to set up a TCP session for every information exchange.to-end because messages are unencrypted as they pass through the server. So there was a need for an extension to solve these problems.lit" to="madhatter@wonderland. Another security feature is the option to use CAPTCHA.lit"/> <item jid="whiterabbit@wonderland.</body> </message> C: <presence type="unavailable"/> C: </stream:stream> The difference between a XML streaming protocol like XMPP and a SMTP and HTTP inspired protocol like SIP is that XMPP sets up a long lived TCP connection that is better suited for near-real-time IM communication. So communication from server to client and from server to server can be secured by TLS.2.lit"> <body>You are all pardoned. was that it must have security built into its design. When Google launched Google Talk in 2005 with voice support over XMPP. It must first be converted to Base64 and that makes the process inefficient. When a XMPP account request the addition of another XMPP account to the domain. is more efficient using a different protocol. 3. This is also a reason why sending a large amount of data or data with QOS. the XMPP community became serious about Roel van de Wiel Page 35 .wonderland. This does not make XMPP secure from end.lit" to="party@conference.7 XMPP jingle XMPP uses ASCII in its communication so it is well suited to sending and receiving text messages. As a result.lit"> <body>Off with his head!</body> </message> S: <message from="king@wonderland. TLS and SASL have been incorporated into the specifications of the core XMPP RFC.lit"/> </query> </iq> C: <message from="queen@wonderland.2. and credentials can be checked by using SASL. Work is in progress to make XMPP end-to-end secure.6 Security One of the requirements stated by the IETF in order to ratify XMPP as a RFC. CAPTCHA can be used to mitigate SPIM (SPAM at IM networks). End-to-end security can have its drawbacks because it obscures the stream.

etc. Jingle is backwards compatible with SIP and this is shown in its strong resemblance to SIP. e. voice data over Real Time transmission protocol.g. it starts a process which generates a large amount of XMPP traffic being sent back and forth to negotiate offering details like Codecs. e. The offer consists of one or more application types (voice. Content-remove Opposite of content-add Content-modify Change the direction of the media exchange.g. suggested height and width. Application type: States the type of data that is going to be exchanged and the protocol used. Roel van de Wiel Page 36 .). IP addresses and port numbers. This can be accepted or rejected by the other party.) and one or more transport methods (UDP. An offer is two sided. When an offer is being made by the initiator. UDP on port 4043.g. Description-info Additional information. Transport method How data is to be sent and which IP address it is going to. 3. • • • • • Content-add Can be used to add another content type like video or voice to the stream. so sender-only or receiver-only. With the help of Google engineers Jingle was born. IP address or port. Jingle is a protocol extension that provides clients with a way to set up a data channel either as a direct peerto-peer connection or mediated through a proxy server. Transport-replace Suggest a change in transport method. e. Each Jingle stanza has an action type. file transfer. 2.g. The initiator sends an offer to the responder.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld developing a voice extension to XMPP. The extensions describing Jingle are XEP-0166 Jingle and XEP-0167 Jingle RTP sessions. ICE. which is quite similar to the different actions types of SIP: • • • • Session-initiate Session-accept Session terminate Session-info Used to give additional information through the session There are some additional action types that could be sent through Jingle. e. screen sharing etc. video. As copied from… 1. But Jingle uses the XMPP framework. The parties negotiate further parameters related to the application type(s) and work to set up the transport(s). TCP.

5. 6.1. the parties exchange data related to the application type(s) using the negotiated transport method(s).lit/rabbithole" type="set"> <jingle xmlns="urn:xmpp:jingle:1" Roel van de Wiel Page 37 .. Eventually. the session ends and the parties break contact. the responder answers with a session-accept stanza: <iq from="sister@realworld. If everything goes well.g. the parties can modify certain parameters during the life of the session (e. like gaming or app sharing.1.lit/home" type="set"> <jingle xmlns="urn:XMPP:jingle:1" action="session-initiate" initiator="alice@wonderland.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld 4.lit/rabbithole" id="v73hwcx9" to="sister@realworld. Jingle is mostly used for voice or audio but it could be used for setting up other streams. If needed. The responder either accepts or declines the offer.lit/home" id="b18dh29f" to="alice@wonderland. This makes XMPP Jingle compatible with SIP/SDP.104" port="13540"/> </transport> </content> </jingle> </iq> The offered payloads are copied from the profile offering of SDP. If the offer is accepted.lit/rabbithole" sid="a73sjjvkla37jfea"> <content creator="initiator" name="voice"> <description xmlns="urn:XMPP:jingle:apps:rtp:1" media="audio"> <payload-type id="96" name="speex" clockrate="16000"/> <payload-type id="97" name="speex" clockrate="8000"/> <payload-type id="0" name="PCMU"/> <payload-type id="8" name="PCMA"/> </description> <transport xmlns="urn:XMPP:jingle:transports:raw-udp:1"> <candidate candidate="1" generation="0" id="a9j3mnbtu1" ip="10. This is what a Jingle negotiations looks like: First there is a session-initiate: <iq from="alice@wonderland. by adding video to a voice chat or switching to a better transport candidate).

which support a Jingle relay node and have direct access to the Internet without NAT. or servers for that matter.g. This will be resent to the receiving party. standard and explicit way. The Jingle relay node responds (if all goes accordingly) with a Jingle relay node channel accept and parameters like maximal kbps. When a client notices it is located behind a NAT device. e. public IP address and port.lit/home" sid="a73sjjvkla37jfea"> <content creator="initiator" name="just-an-example"> <description xmlns="urn:xmpp:jingle:apps:stub:0"/> <transport xmlns="urn:xmpp:jingle:transports:stub:0"/> </content> </jingle> </iq> It could be that error conditions occur or further negotiations are required. it will do a service discovery to find any clients. Due the restrictions of the protocol. It works by relaying the real time stream. a request for a Jingle relay channel is made. supporting TURN and STUN. the risk of it degenerating into separate dialects is small.nl/video. A user can have several clients logged in at the same time. These conditions are handled as described in the XMPP Jingle specifications: XEP-0166.nl/laptop could be moved to a video conversation with the client user@domain.nl/laptop .nl/mobile and user@domain. Another distinct advantage is the way it uses URI to identify resources. The negotiation of NAT Bypassing is done by the ICE.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld action="session-accept" initiator="alice@wonderland. The URI would look something like this user@domain. e. At the core is a set of principles that are formalized in a very straightforward. This enables the user to select as default a client that he prefers to be addressed by.lit/rabbithole" responder="sister@realworld. Recently there has been an extension added to XMPP called XMPP Jingle relay node (XEP-0278). Roel van de Wiel Page 38 . XMPP Jingle supports all the traditional ways of bypassing NAT. 3. Bypassing NAT The problem with setting up a real time media stream is the inherent difficulty in bypassing Network Address Translation (NAT). It has only to transmit the stream to the IP address and port given to it. One of XMPP principles is that it should be easy to add extension to the protocol making it easy to add functionality to any existing XMPP infrastructure. The sending client does not have to support the XMPP Jingle relay node. Security is also incorporated into the design by using TLS and SALS.2. NAT hides the receiving IP address which makes it hard to route the stream to the sender’s IP address.8 Advantages of XMPP XMPP is an easy to understand protocol. It is still in the experimental phase but is already the most supported NAT bypass technique in XMPP software. When an appropriate relay node is found. The client includes the IP address and port number into the Jingle negotiation process.g. When needed the conversation can be moved to a different client and changed to video mode. chatting with a user@domain. Every client receives an 8-bit priority number between -128 and 128.

video or any other real-time stream is a two-sided process. When such tagged packets arrive at a network device. when the transmission line to the next station becomes congested. The network device places the packets in separate transmission queues. The most common strategy is to tag each packet with a code that corresponds to the appropriate priority value given to the data. There are more complex mechanisms which allow for a better handling of priority packets. first out) principle. a constant TCP connection could be problematic when it comes to resource exhaustion. When the buffers eventually become full. The negation stream can be considered trivial and can either be SIP with SDP or XMPP with Jingle. However.2 QOS Another way of guaranteeing acceptable delivery times for real-time media is applying Quality of Service to the data. packets are discarded and the quality of the data signal in effect deteriorates.1p. However over provisioning is an expensive way of preventing delays. This is due to the very nature of the Internet which is packet switched instead of circuit switched. However there are techniques available to mitigate these problems. On its way. Quality of Service is a generic term which covers a wide spectrum of different techniques used to guarantee the timely delivery of real-time media. the packets pass through many routers and switches which do nothing else but retransmit the packet to the next hop. This extra capacity prevents transmission delays and guarantees on-time delivery of data. At any point in the path. The fact remains that connection-oriented traffic is easier to control and manage. IETF tried to extend the SIP functionality by developing Simple. Roel van de Wiel Page 39 .Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld One big difference with SIP is that XMPP is connection orientated. This is done at the network layer through DSCP or at the data link layer with protocols 802. A user needs to log in to a XMPP domain first. 3. transmitted over the next connection and rebuilt at the receiving end.3 Technology to guarantee the smooth delivery of real-time data As previously mentioned in this document. the network device gives priority of transmission to the higher tagged packets than the ordinary traffic. 3.3. but up to now Simple has not been standardized and it is considered to be too complex. it uses the server only to set up the connection. but the SIP architecture does not provide the functionality natively.1 Overprovisioning The simplest way of guaranteeing a smooth video or voice data delivery is over provisioning. For example. SIP is connectionless. XMPP needs no firewall bypassing technique because it uses a constant TCP connection. Most current SIP servers have advanced features which allow for more control. the forwarding station buffers incoming packets in a queue and handles them according to the FIFO (first in. setting up a voice. The difficult part is setting up and handling the real-time stream itself. Real-time media like voice or VOIP is prone to be easily affected when unfavorable conditions occur on a connection like Jitter or Latency.3.1q and 802. Data is broken up into smaller parts. placed into packets. There is a negotiation stream step for setting up a real-time stream and for the real-time stream itself. Simple traffic scheduling mechanisms service the queues according to the round-robin principle. 3. This technique makes more network bandwidth available for transmission than what can be consumed at peak times.

but to understand 802. 3. A new variation of the H. 802. In the CP. The 802. is specially designed to produce an acceptable video quality over slow and error-prone links.264 appendix G or H.11 network where 802. In a conventional 802.11e standard or WMM can provide QOS over Wifi. Devices connected to an Access Point (AP) have to share the entire available bandwidth. The Back Off timer is a random integer multiplied by the contention window size (CW). This is achieved by splitting the signal into several layers. In PCF. there is a fixed IFS in place after which stations are allowed to transmit data to the AP. HCCA works by allocating more window space and more frequent time to real-time streams. The increase in network bandwidth and the computing power in the last few years have made it possible to employ advanced codecs which lead to a higher quality video and audio.11e there needs be an understanding of how WIFI works. there was no provisioning in place to make codecs more robust and resilient for unfavorable network conditions.11e alternative for PCF is Hybrid Controlled Channel Access. 802. a beacon is broadcast every 01. there is a Content Free Period (CFP) and a Content Period (CP). but it has proven to be very problematic when transmitting real-time media over Wifi. needless to say this decreases reliability. In DCF between each transmission.seconds by the AP.11 has two modes of operation: Point-coordinated-function and distributed-coordinatedfunction. Roel van de Wiel Page 40 . in contrast to PCF where CPF and CP are fixed. There are many codecs for audio and video streams varying in complexity and serving different purposes. H.264 SVC. DCF is used which is a free-for-all mode to send data to the AP.11e defines two mechanisms which replace the old PCF and DCF function. EHDC replaces DCF. a random Back Off timer is used. The CFP is the first period that starts. EDHC uses a shorter arbitrary interframe spacing for real time data and a lower CW value. Wifi can be compared to an assembly line. This results in video and voice data being favored and there is a longer time period (TXOP) to transmit the data. The 802. standardized by ITU-T. HCCA allows fine-grained QOS due its ability to apply QOS to sessions rather than to each station.1 Codecs codecs (COdingDECoding) are algorithms used to encode analogue audio and video signals into a digital form for transmission.3. To prevent stations transmitting at the same time.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld QOS in Wifi Wifi has become an important part of the network architecture within companies. Between each beacon being sent. Until recently. There is only a limited number of packets that the Wifi assembly line can process each second. With HCCA.264. This is due to the fact that Wifi is a shared medium. CPF can be initiated when there is a need for it.11e is not applied. and in this period the AP sends content-free poll packages from the AP to each station to allocate the station a window to send its data. there are no mechanisms in place to favor high priority real time data.

Currently there is no XMPP server software which supports Call Admission Control due the fact that these XMPP servers' primary function is to provide IM communication. With call admission control active. call admission control steps in and prohibits the setup of another (video) call. Roel van de Wiel Page 41 .3. but used in combination with SVC.264 SVC from nojitter. The base layer has modest bandwidth requirements compared to the upper layers so it is less likely that the reconstruction of the base layer will fail due to incomplete data. only the layers that the device supports have to be retransmitted. With this type of video conferencing. Another advantage of SVC is seen with multi party video conferencing. When there is a danger of running out of bandwidth. 3. overhead is kept to a minimal while still providing a video stream that is resilient enough to withstand unfavorable network conditions.com The base layer of the protocol delivers a low-resolution low frame-rate video. Instead of recoding the original video for that one special device type. multiple streams are sent to several devices that might differ in their ability to render video.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld Figure 4 h. When parts of the data in packets are damaged along the way. capacity in the network is closely monitored and guarded. and applying FEC only to the base layer.2 Call admission control Call Admission Control is a last resort for guaranteeing acceptable quality in the data stream. provided there is enough data to reconstruct the missing parts. the original information can be recreated by using the added FEC information. Call Admission Control is not incorporated in the XMPP protocol because it is regarded as a function to be dealt with outside the scope of XMPP. The layers on top of this base layer supplement the data by enhancing the quality of the video which the base layer is made up of. for example devices that only can handle 480p like mobile phones. and Jingle support is considered to be less important. Another way of making the stream extra resilient is by applying the Forward Error Correction algorithm. the resolution and frame rate of the video is dropped for a very short period and it falls back to the resolution and frame rate of the next lower layer. FEC has the disadvantage of adding overhead to the data stream. When the data of one of the enhancement layers is incomplete.

Intradomain Jingle call In a simple case. it only propagates the Jingle negotiations instead of actively taking part in them. will show a logical XMPP architecture rather than a physical one. That means multiple devices can be represented by one function shown by a symbol in the form of a colored dot. in this case. In the following text. But ideally the XMPP is Jingle-aware so more control and monitoring can be put into place. The server does not have to be Jingle aware. a video screen or a mobile phone. They are both within the corporate network. a general network UC infrastructure will be designed. 4. It keeps track of clients. the User 1 client sends a Jingle request to the server and the server forwards it to the User 2 client. three cases will be described to give a better impression of how the infrastructure can be used. In case XMPP lacks any needed functionality then this will also be described and a possible solution will be offered. which is meant for NAT traversal can be used as a base for a multimedia gateway. with SIP used only in limited cases. and together with illustrations. which. The third case is an example of how XMPP could be used in retail banking to provide customers with new ways to contact their bank.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld 4. he can choose which resource he prefers. From his location or through a VPN. Second. for example. First. The functionality necessary will be described with references to any XMPP extensions. To make a better case. The second case is the setup for two clients located in different domains. Clients can initiate real-time media streams on their own by using Jingle for setup. Examples of possible XMPP use in practice In the long term it is likely that XMPP/Jingle will become more dominant at the expense of SIP/simple. will be a XMPP server. examples will be given. a case will be built to provide a better image of how XMPP use in an enterprise UC environment would look like. User 1 wants to start a video conference with User 2. Roel van de Wiel Page 42 . If the User is logged in with multiple resources. The RTP stream will pass through the gateway and can be recoded if needed. The RTP stream is set up directly between the clients. At the heart of Unified communications is the UC manager. A new experimental extension Jingle relay node. maintains a roster with presence status and communicates with other domains bases on s2s (server to server) XMPP. The first case demonstrates the setup of a multi-media stream between XMPP Jingle showing the negotiations between two clients in the same domain.1 The UC infrastructure.

but notices it is behind a NAT.Example. The Jingle relay node specifications could be used to provide such functionality. NATs from both sides have to be traversed.com\videoscreen Figure 5: intradomain Jingle 1: XMPP jingle request with offer 2: XMPP jingle accept 3: XMPP termination Extensions used: XEP-0166 Jingle.com\mobile user2@Example.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld Example. At this moment. Different techniques can be applied to overcome this. An interesting one is Jingle relay node. When User 1 wants to set up a Jingle call with User 3 who is from a different domain. If there is enough capacity available. The possibility to redirect RTP to a different destination is included in Jingle. The RTP stream of the external client will be redirected through the Jingle relay node. At this moment the author of Roel van de Wiel Page 43 .com 1 2& 3 3 2& 1 Media stream user1@Example. a channel will be provided. it initiates a service discovery to search for a XMPP Jingle relay node. For a multiparty video or audio conference there is currently no standard agreed. When a XMPP Jingle relay node is found the client asks for an available channel to facilitate a RTP stream. it is not clear if it is based on XMPP with an open standard or if it has chosen its own proprietary solution for its MCU based on XMPP.com\laptop user2@Example. XEP-0167 Jingle RTP session Interdomain jingle call When setting up an interdomain video call.com Jinglerelay. There is a company named Peoplelink which has based its video MCU product on XMPP. A Jingle relay node is a Jingle client connected to the Internet with a public IP address and which has direct access to the Jingle client it is serving with no NAT taking place in the path. It should be very easy to add a multiparty video conferencing standard to XMPP.

com am Media stre 2+3 Example.com\laptop Figure 6: Interdomain Jingle The process is quiet similar like in the first example in intradomain communication. is working on a standard for MCU which will use the fundamentals of XMPP Jingle Relay. Thiago Camargo. 1: search for XMPP jingle relay node that is accessible 2: request XMPP jingle relay channel from available XMPP relay node 3: send XMPP jingle relay channel details Extensions used: XEP-0166 jingle. Only there are some extra steps involved.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld XMPP Jingle relay. XEP-0167 jingle RTP session XEP-0278 jingle relay node Specific banking application Roel van de Wiel Page 44 .com\videoscreen test. user3@test.com 1+ 2+ 3 m ea str ia ed M user1@Example.

This can even be a regular employee from a local branch if the communication infrastructure of the organization and the contact centre are linked.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld XMPP design makes it well-suited to base custom applications on. Tier one customer support answers the call and tries to fulfill the service request. The customer has to sign the agreement by using his security token. The web client is a based on XMPP and logs in with a user name unique to the customer and to a domain which is dedicated to customers. So when needed instant video conversations can be set up when desired by the customer. In this case a XMPP application is specified with a goal of enabling secure conversations with customers. When the service request is complete. If any requests made by the customer needs to be confirmed. Another possibility is to allow the customer to add customer service to their IM contact list. It starts with a customer logging in to his personal banking page. All the conversations are secured and can be logged if needed to remain compliant with banking regulations. An example will be shown of how XMPP can be used to develop an application for retail banking sector. the customer service employee or the customer ends the conversation. Authentication of the user can still be done based on current XMPP specifications. In this way the customer can directly contact the bank and the access level to the bank service is lowered. If the customer would like to receive customer support he simply has to start typing and this action will activate the web client. In the page there is an integrated web client. a data form can be sent by the customer service employee where all request done by the customer are listed. If necessary an extra customer service employee who is specialized in a particular subject. If the infrastructure allows it. Roel van de Wiel Page 45 . can be added to the conversation. video and voice could be added to the solution.

Extensions: XEP-0004 data form.com Jinglerelay. This way multiple sites can be managed by one company and vice versa.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld Customer webserver customerID@customercenter.com\laptop Figure 7: Example XMPP contactcenter One of the choices made in this design is to separate the XMPP domains.com/ applicationserver Customercenter. XEP-0166 jingle. XEP-0167 jingle RTP session XEP-0278 jingle relay node Roel van de Wiel Page 46 . The reason for this separation is that it increases the manageability of the solution. One for the web site which is used for the user account of the customer.com Example. and the other for the company.com user1@Example.Example.

Final recommendations Capgemini is often involved with projects regarding the implementation of UC systems in customer’s infrastructure. Another important part of UC systems is the transmission of real-time traffic. In the past years. and make support for XMPP a key consideration before choosing communication and collaboration products for strategic initiatives. A concrete example of a service that could be enhanced with XMPP is the immediate cloud service of Capgemini. Which technologies should work together. Real-time traffic is very prone to suffer from unfavorable network conditions. Usually adaptations to the network infrastructure are made to mitigate this problem. those to be implemented in the future. XMPP allows setting up a communication architecture that is ubiquitous so different channels can be used to communicate with the customer from all points in the organization. In its research report. the capabilities of XMPP multimedia extension Jingle should be taken into account when developing a communication architecture. That advice would be to consider XMPP Jingle. including those deployed by the business. implementing QoS. the ability to communicate between different companies using different UC systems in an ad-hoc fashion was often not considered as a viable function when it came to designing UC systems. In addition to this advice which is fully supported by the author of this thesis.g. But XMPP is not only well-suited as standard for the UC-industry. Consider what the communication and collaboration environment should look like in three to five years. it is highly likely that XMPP. This is due to the lack of a common language that could make this feasible. The flexibility provided and being an open standard. and those used by partners and customers. when and where possible. 2010) Gartner gives four recommendations with regard to XMPP becoming a universal standard. IT leaders should push vendors for real interoperability with other vendors' XMPP-based technologies. The advice is: • Take an inventory of communication and collaboration technologies. will serve as the lingua franca for UC systems in the future. Capgemini could benefit from this development by incorporating XMPP in its approach towards UC systems. Ask vendors what their road map is.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld 5. (Take Four Steps to Prepare for XMPP Becoming an Universal Standard. to be the protocol of choice when it comes to interdomain multimedia communication such as voice or video conferencing with partners or customers. Which’s offers company’s a social media platform to communicate with customers. But often key parts of the Roel van de Wiel Page 47 . in combination with Jingle. The banking sector could benefit from XMPP by using it to open up new ways of directly communicating with the customer. But looking at the current adaptation rate of XMPP by companies as a base for their Internet services. Most of them are fairly self-evident. Other systems previously mentioned in this thesis could be designed with XMPP as foundation for communication. and what level of integration they should have. • • • The advice given by Gartner is sound. e.

When developing an UC infrastructure. e.g. Roel van de Wiel Page 48 . the whole network should be evaluated and redesigned if needed. Some of those measurements that can be taken to improve quality are described in chapter three.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld network. To guarantee smooth delivery of real-time traffic. wireless. are neglected when it comes to implementing QoS. It can be described as a more holistic approach. measurements should be taken that do not only affect a certain part of the network but influence the transmission of real-time traffic positively across the whole network.

...................................................................Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld List of Figures Figure 1 Nimbuzz on nokia ....... 30 Figure 3 SIP call flow (Internet Communications using SIP...................................................................................... 41 Figure 5: intradomain Jingle................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2006) ................ 44 Figure 7: Example XMPP contactcenter ................................... 46 Roel van de Wiel Page 49 ....................... 43 Figure 6: Interdomain Jingle ................................................ 30 Figure 4 h.............................................................com ................................................... 22 Figure 2 SIP architecture: (Understanding SIP) .......264 SVC from nojitter....................................................................

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(n. Ubiquity. (2010). Gartner. Ubiquity . Institute of Information Management. Gallen 2009. University of St. R. Take Four Steps to Prepare for XMPP Becoming an Universal Standard.).org Roel van de Wiel Page 51 . M. XMPP.).com.org -servel extensions: XMPP. (2009). (n.Unified Communications: transitioning toward an 2011 interoperable multimediaworld Smith. D. (n.d. Retrieved from XMPP. Unified Communication Interoperability Forum. Retrieved from UCIF.).d. K. eCollaboration: On the nature and emergence of communication and collaboration technologies.org. Vogel.d. Understanding SIP.

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