Notes on Mark 13 and related passages • Verses 1-2: The disciples admire the Temple building; Jesus indicates that

the Temple building will be utterly destroyed. o Historically, this comes to pass 70 A.D., 10 or more years after the Gospel of Mark was probably written. Verses 3-13: The disciples ask for a sign to determine when the destruction of the Temple building will take place; Jesus responds by warning them that there are no signs to look for; history will continue as it always has, and things that they might expect to be signs should not be viewed as signs; they would have connected the destruction of the Temple building with the end of the world, on account of Zech. 14:1-5. o Verses 3-4, Mark indicates that Jesus had sat down on the Mount of Olives, which is where Zech 14:4 indicated that Yahweh would stand on the day when he “will gather all the nations against Jerusalem to battle” (Zech. 14:2), and the disciples ask Jesus for a sign to determine when the destruction of the Temple building will take place, and when the end of the world will take place. o Verses 5-6, Jesus indicates that many will claim to be the Messiah and will lead many astray; the disciples must not be distracted by these claims; indeed, in 66 A.D., one named Simeon bar Giora from Galilee claimed to be the Messiah and led a force of Jews in the Jewish war against the Romans that climaxed in 70 A.D. with the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple building; Simeon was executed by the Romans. o Verses 7-8, wars and rumors of wars will continue, just as they have always been present throughout history. Earthquakes and famines, likewise, have always been happening throughout history; they will continue; do not mistake these events for “signs of the end.” Rather, these awful events (wars and natural disasters) are to be understood as “birth pains,” viewing the whole creation as in labor, straining and suffering to give birth to the New Creation (see Rom. 8:19-22). o Verses 9-13, Jesus explains what the disciples must soon experience for Jesus’ sake; they will be arrested and tried, persecuted, abused, and executed, and hated and betrayed even by those closest to them; when these things take place, the disciples must not worry or fear, but instead they must trust that the Holy Spirit will provide words for them to say to testify faithfully of their connection with Jesus; even this suffering, however, should not be viewed by the disciples as a sign of the end of the world, for the gospel message “must first be proclaimed to all nations,” and they must endure; Jesus promises the final salvation of those who endure in order to motivate them to stand firm during these trials. Verses 14-20: Jesus, cryptically, describes the depth of suffering he will experience in the events leading up to his crucifixion and instructs them to flee when it begins. o Verse 14, the “abomination of desolation” is a phrase taken from Dan. 9:27; 11:31; 12:11, and refers to something utterly horrible that causes utter devastation or destruction, resulting in the abandonment of that which has been devastated or destroyed; Daniel’s vision was probably depicting something idolatrous that would be set up in the Temple that would cause God’s people to abandon the Temple; Jesus is saying that, ultimately, Daniel was pointing to something that would destroy Jesus himself (as the true Temple?) resulting in his being

and this language reflects Dan. Joel 2:29. where “the day of Yahweh” is described as he pours out his wrath on the whole world (see Isa. Verses 24-25: Jesus’ suffering. no one could benefit from this suffering. Jesus is providing a sequence of events here. in his infinite grace. which would be the end of the world. 34:4 in particular. the reference to the darkening of the sun and moon probably reflects Isa. Jesus is pointing ahead to his own suffering. o Verses 15-19. they must not delay in fleeing to grab possessions. this “tribulation” will be greater than any other experience of suffering in all of history. Jesus is taking these descriptions and applying them to his death. the disciples’ flight will be even more difficult. which sets this time just prior to the deliverance of God’s people and the resurrection of the dead on the last day. . as this event. but the judgment is universalized for the whole world in verse 11). if this experience of suffering had happened on Judgment Day. and. which begins the end of the world in an unexpected way and is associated with Isaiah’s descriptions of cosmic upheaval when Yahweh pours out his wrath on Judgment Day. just as God’s people were instructed in Zech. verse 19). the reference to the stars falling from heaven probably reflects Isa. culminates in his death. thus. 12:1-2. 34:1-7). God. no one could be saved. pregnant and nursing women will experience an even deeper feeling of grief.• • abandoned by both God and his people and would consist of a depth of suffering that far exceeds all other suffering in history (cf. before the final “Day of the Lord.” before the final end of history. implying that his death is the experience of God pouring out his wrath on Judgment Day. the phrase “in those days” is sometimes used by the prophets as a technical phrase referring to the last days. the end of the world (for examples. the end times. rather everyone would experience God’s wrath for themselves. when the disciples see this beginning to unfold. o Verse 20. God is bringing this terrible event of suffering “ahead of schedule”. 13:10 in particular. they must flee. brought the experience of suffering into history early. o The point of the “cosmic upheaval” language is to vividly depict the cosmically traumatic event of God pouring out his wrath on sinful people. 3:1). Jesus vividly illustrates the seriousness and the awfulness of the suffering that he will experience and that he will spare the disciples from experiencing. see Jer. and if he had not done this. which culminates in his crucifixion. 13:13. o Verse 24. Verses 21-23: Jesus reiterates that false Messiahs will attempt to lead people astray after his death. 33:15-16. the Jews expected a time of horrible suffering for the nation of Israel just before “the Day of the Lord. the oracle is directed particularly at Babylon. the reference to the heavenly powers being shaken may reflect Isa. if it should happen in winter. where Yahweh’s rage against the nations of the world is described (see Isa. o Verse 25. o Note the “and then” of verse 21. 14:5 to flee prior to Yahweh’s coming for judgment. 13:916. and the rise of deceptive messianic pretenders will (continue to) take place after his death.” Judgment Day. the intense tribulation.

rather. the usage of the term “coming” seems awkward and is often understood as referring to Jesus’ second coming to earth. when the messenger is clearly sent from heaven in the Bible. o Note the “and then”. 7:13. “angels. he will send out his authorized messengers through whom he will “gather his elect” from all over the world. “you know that it is near. gather God’s people for the final judgment at the end of history as well.” referring to “the end” or “the time” about which the disciples are asking. 28:18 that “all authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. and thus gather the elect from all over the world. he assures them that they will. they can be sure that the end has begun.” making it clear that the messenger is a non-human. . on the other hand. guaranteed—than even the existence of the universe as they know it! Verse 32: No one—not even Jesus himself—knows the exact day or time of the final judgment. thus. Jesus is again highlighting a sequence of events here. Here. so that his reference to “coming” is a reference to coming “to the Ancient of Days” to receive the everlasting. he will “come” to God “in clouds with great power and glory” to receive full authority over God’s kingdom.” indicating that he received this authority when he was raised from the dead. Jesus promises that “all these things” will take place before the eyes of his disciples. it seems that Jesus may be referring to the Christian mission. 7:13-14. Jesus highlights his resurrection from the dead as the fulfillment of the role of Daniel’s Son of Man. likewise. it is possible. however. will.” heavenly messengers. to whom God gives authority to rule God’s kingdom. that he merely confirms Jewish expectations that the “angels. perhaps both ideas are intended. very soon. the term is transliterated as “angel. Jesus’ death and resurrection serves to transition into the end of the world. Jesus is again highlighting a sequence of events. as is common. o Note the “and then”. in other words. universal kingdom. in fact. this probably lies behind Jesus’ statement in Matt. Jesus may be utilizing a play on the word.” harvesting God’s people from all over the world for the final judgment. climaxing in the final judgment. Jesus uses something from nature that his disciples would have been very familiar with in order to illustrate a theological truth. and after he has experienced the awful tribulation of crucifixion to death. in which all evildoers will be consigned to hell for eternity and all of God’s people will be ushered into his presence for eternity. in which Jesus sends disciples to make other disciples. when they see him crucified and raised from the dead. Jesus is making full use of the wording of Dan. see his crucifixion (“the abomination of desolation”) and his resurrection (“the Son of Man coming in clouds with great power and glory”). heavenly being.• • • • Verse 26: Jesus is the Son of Man spoken of in Dan. since the gathering of the elect will occur over time. o Verses 30-31. Verse 27: Following Jesus’ resurrection. o Thus. the translation “you know that he is near” is probably not quite right. he guarantees this by asserting that his words are even more permanent—that is. Verses 28-31: The disciples can tell when it’s time for summer when they see the fig tree begin to blossom and bear fruit. o Verses 28-29. o The Greek word angeloi basically refers to a messenger. Jewish expectation involved heavenly beings.

Matthew 13:36-43 • • Verse 40-42: “At the close of the age. Verse 28: The disciples will see Jesus come in his kingdom. when Jesus’ coming will happen. It is implied. Mark 8:38 • This comes on the heels of Jesus’ challenge for disciples to deny their own lives in order to follow him. Matthew 16:27-28 • • Verse 27: Jesus will come with his angels in the glory of his Father and then mete out the final judgment. o Verse 35.” the angels “will separate the evil from the righteous” and will consign the evil to hell for eternity. and when the close of the age would be. Verses 3-14: The disciples ask when the Temple building will be destroyed. they must remain focused and attentive. 15:1. in the morning. the singing of the hymn after the Passover meal happened around midnight.” Jesus will send his angels to remove evildoers for the final judgment and consign them to hell for eternity. it is purposeful that Mark mentions three of these specific times (and he implies the fourth) again as he narrates the events of Good Friday (see 14:17. thus. thus. evening. 7:13-14. midnight. Jesus responds by warning . Matthew 13:47-50 • “At the close of the age. Matthew 24 • • Verses 1-2: The disciples admire the Temple building. traditionally. Jesus specifically mentions four times of the day: evening. when the rooster crows. Jesus warns that there will be a final judgment. from the parable in 13:24-30. but then assures his disciples that they will see the beginning of the kingdom. that the angels will also escort God’s people into God’s presence for eternity. the rooster crowing. 72. Jesus warns that those who remain ashamed of him and his words during this life will be spurned on Judgment Day. 14:68. morning). 14:26. Verses 33-37: In light of the certainty that they will be witnesses of Jesus’ death and resurrection. reflecting Dan. which refers to the resurrection.• o Jesus probably makes this statement to deter his disciples from asking him anymore about the timing of Judgment Day. and Jesus indicates that the Temple building will be utterly destroyed. o This comes on the heels of Jesus’ challenge for disciples to deny their own lives in order to follow him.

Matthew indicates that Jesus had sat down on the Mount of Olives. even this suffering. and things that they might expect to be signs should not be viewed as signs. which culminates in his crucifixion. they will continue. resulting in the abandonment of that which has been devastated or destroyed.” viewing the whole creation as in labor. the phrase “standing in the holy place” could be taken as a reference to this event happening in Jerusalem or this event being connected to the Temple building in some way. describes the depth of suffering he will experience in the events leading up to his crucifixion and instructs them to flee when it begins.• them that there are no signs to look for. 14:2). as this event.D. 9:27. cryptically. history will continue as it always has. persecuted. they must flee. Jesus explains what the disciples must soon experience for Jesus’ sake. abused. they would have connected the destruction of the Temple building with the end of the world. wars and rumors of wars will continue. when Jesus’ coming will happen. verse 21). Jesus is pointing ahead to his own suffering. 8:19-22). Jesus promises the final salvation of those who endure in order to motivate them to stand firm during these trials. and executed. 11:31. on account of Zech. and. thus. o Verse 3. these awful events (wars and natural disasters) are to be understood as “birth pains. and when the close of the age would be. indeed. likewise. Jesus indicates that many will claim to be the Messiah and will lead many astray. in 66 A. just as God’s . o Verses 9-14. Daniel’s vision was probably depicting something idolatrous that would be set up in the Temple that would cause God’s people to abandon the Temple. o Verses 4-5.D. and the disciples ask Jesus for a sign to determine when the destruction of the Temple building will take place. Daniel was pointing to something that would destroy himself (as the true Temple?) resulting in his being abandoned by both God and his people and would consist of a depth of suffering that far exceeds all other suffering in history (cf. and hated and betrayed even by those closest to them. ultimately. for the gospel message “must first be proclaimed to all nations. which is where Zech 14:4 indicated that Yahweh would stand on the day when he “will gather all the nations against Jerusalem to battle” (Zech. Simeon was executed by the Romans. the disciples must not worry or fear. since they were now able to relate all three of these events. Verses 15-22: Jesus. they will be arrested and tried..” Rather.” and they must endure. do not mistake these events for “signs of the end. have always been happening throughout history. but instead they must trust that the Holy Spirit will provide words for them to say to testify faithfully of their connection with Jesus. and refers to something utterly horrible that causes utter devastation or destruction. one named Simeon bar Giora from Galilee claimed to be the Messiah and led a force of Jews in the Jewish war against the Romans that climaxed in 70 A. just as they have always been present throughout history. straining and suffering to give birth to the New Creation (see Rom. Jesus is saying that. the “abomination of desolation” is a phrase taken from Dan. when these things take place. should not be viewed by the disciples as a sign of the end of the world. o Verse 15. when the disciples see this beginning to unfold. o Verses 6-8. however. 12:11. Earthquakes and famines. 14:1-5. with the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple building. the disciples must not be distracted by these claims.

Verse 28: Jesus provides a proverbial statement. Verses 23-26: Jesus reiterates that false Messiahs will attempt to lead people astray after Jesus’ death. . no one could benefit from this suffering. which would be the end of the world. the reference to the darkening of the sun and moon probably reflects Isa. Joel 2:29. the end times. in his infinite grace. where Yahweh’s rage against the nations of the world is described (see Isa. before the final “Day of the Lord. 14:5 to flee prior to Yahweh’s coming for judgment. the Jews expected a time of horrible suffering for the nation of Israel just before “the Day of the Lord. Jesus vividly illustrates the seriousness and the awfulness of the suffering that he will experience and that he will spare the disciples from experiencing. o Verse 22. o Verses 16-21. 34:4 in particular. pregnant and nursing women will experience an even deeper feeling of grief. but the judgment is universalized for the whole world in verse 11). the reference to the stars falling from heaven probably reflects Isa. 33:15-16. 34:1-7). if it should happen in winter or on a Sabbath day. Jesus is taking these descriptions and applying them to his death. perhaps illustrating an effect his death will have. and if he had not done this. this “great tribulation” will be greater than any other experience of suffering in all of history. which sets this time just prior to the deliverance of God’s people and the resurrection of the dead on the last day. o The point of the “cosmic upheaval” language is to vividly depict the cosmically traumatic event of God pouring out his wrath on sinful people. implying that his death is the experience of God pouring out his wrath. Verse 29: Jesus’ suffering.” before the final end of history. 3:1). God is bringing this terrible event of suffering “ahead of schedule”. which begins the end of the world in an unexpected way and is associated with Isaiah’s descriptions of cosmic upheaval when Yahweh pours out his wrath on Judgment Day. an unmistakable event of cosmic significance. he will “come” to God “on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory” to receive full authority over God’s kingdom. see Jer. the end of the world (for examples.” Judgment Day. the intense tribulation. culminates in his death. 13:10 in particular. rather everyone would experience God’s wrath for themselves. God. opposition will come. where “the day of Yahweh” is described as he pours out his wrath on the whole world (see Isa. 12:1-2. o The phrase “those days” is sometimes used by the prophets as a technical phrase referring to the last days.• • • • • people were instructed in Zech. if this experience of suffering had happened on Judgment Day. and this language reflects Dan. they must not delay in fleeing to grab possessions. Verse 30: Jesus is the Son of Man spoken of in Dan. 7:13-14. 13:13. the oracle is directed particularly at Babylon. 13:9-16. the disciples’ flight would be even more difficult. Verse 27: Jesus indicates that “the coming of the Son of Man” will be like lightning across the sky. brought the experience of suffering into history early. the reference to the heavenly powers being shaken may reflect Isa. no one could be saved. and after he has experienced the awful tribulation of crucifixion to death.

however. 7:13. as is common. o The Greek word angeloi basically refers to a messenger. perhaps both ideas are intended. as in Joel 2:1. the usage of the term “coming” seems awkward and is often understood as referring to Jesus’ second coming to earth. to whom God gives authority to rule God’s kingdom. the term is transliterated as “angel. rather. o The “loud trumpet call” could refer to the heralding of the gospel message which Jesus’ messengers will proclaim as they go out.” referring to “the end” or “the time” about which the disciples are asking. it could be the announcement that “the day of Yahweh” has come. he will send out his authorized messengers through whom he will “gather his elect” from all over the world. o Verses 34-35. climaxing in the final judgment. Here. when they see him crucified and raised from the dead. when the messenger is clearly sent from heaven in the Bible. in which all evildoers will be consigned to hell for eternity and all of God’s people will be ushered into his presence for eternity. likewise. Jesus promises that “all these things” will take place before the eyes of his disciples. Verses 31: Following Jesus’ resurrection. in which Jesus sends disciples to make other disciples. it is possible. Jewish expectation involved heavenly beings. 12:10-14. considered as the conclusion of the resurrection.” meaning the tribes of Israel) may be an allusion to Zech. Verses 32-35: The disciples can tell when it’s time for summer when they see the fig tree begin to blossom and bear fruit.” heavenly messengers. they can be sure that the end has begun. Jesus may be utilizing a play on the word. 28:18 that “all authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. gather God’s people for the final judgment at the end of history as well. “you know that it is near.• • o The “sign of the Son of Man” that will “appear in heaven” may refer to the ascension. so that his reference to “coming” is a reference to coming “to the Ancient of Days” to receive the everlasting.” indicating that he received this authority when he was raised from the dead. which would point toward people’s repentance after Jesus’ death. the translation “you know that he is near” is probably not quite right. see his crucifixion (“the abomination of desolation”) and his resurrection (“the Son of Man coming in clouds with great power and glory”). that he merely confirms Jewish expectations that the “angels. o Jesus highlights his resurrection from the dead as the fulfillment of the role of Daniel’s Son of Man. in fact. since the gathering of the elect will occur over time. Jesus is making full use of the wording of Dan. he guarantees this by . in other words. “angels. very soon. on the other hand. Jesus uses something from nature that his disciples would have been very familiar with in order to illustrate a theological truth. this would be his specific answer to the disciples request for the sign that would indicate when these things will come to pass (see 24:3). it seems that Jesus may be referring to the Christian mission. will. alternatively.” harvesting God’s people from all over the world for the final judgment. this probably lies behind Jesus’ statement in Matt. and thus gather the elect from all over the world. universal kingdom. heavenly being. o Verses 32-33.” making it clear that the messenger is a non-human. he assures them that they will. o The mourning of “all the tribes of the earth” (or “all the tribes of the land.

Jesus explains what the disciples must soon experience for Jesus’ sake. o Verse 8. but rather they must endure. persecuted. do not mistake these events for “signs of the end.” . and things that they might expect to be signs should not be viewed as signs. wars and rumors of wars will continue. however. Earthquakes and famines. Jesus responds by warning them that there are no signs to look for. guaranteed—than even the existence of the universe as they know it! Verse 36: No one—not even Jesus himself—knows the exact day or time of the final judgment. so that they will not be swept away in judgment. and executed. with the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple building. the disciples must not worry or fear. trusting his promise that “not a hair of your head will perish. o Verses 9-11. all of human life was going “normally” until the rains came. while God’s people will remain. those who presume that they are to be accepted on Judgment Day will show their true nature as their conduct reflects their attitude and will be held as evidence against them on Judgment Day. should not be viewed by the disciples as a sign of the end of the world. abused. and hated and betrayed even by those closest to them.” o Verses 12-19. in 66 A. have always been happening throughout history. when these things take place. Jesus’ followers must remain diligent to work in whatever ways God has called them to work. Jesus indicates that many will claim to be the Messiah and will lead many astray. Verses 37-39: Jesus compares “the coming of the Son of Man” (for Judgment Day?) to the season prior to the great Judgment Day that God brought in the global flood of Noah’s day. they will continue. people will be engaged in normal human life. Luke 21 • • Verses 5-6: Some folks admire the Temple building. some will be taken suddenly in judgment. likewise. they will be arrested and tried. history will continue as it always has. just as they have always been present throughout history. one named Simeon bar Giora from Galilee claimed to be the Messiah and led a force of Jews in the Jewish war against the Romans that climaxed in 70 A. the disciples must not be distracted by these claims. when they will be condemned. Verses 45-51: Indeed. even this suffering. o Jesus probably makes this statement to deter his disciples from asking him anymore about the timing of Judgment Day. Verses 42-44: Jesus’ followers must remain eager and prepared for his coming on Judgment Day. Jesus indicates that the Temple building will be utterly destroyed.. Verses 7-19: They ask Jesus when the Temple building will be destroyed and what sign can they expect before it happens. and cosmic disturbances have always occurred. but instead they must trust his promise to provide words for them to say to testify faithfully of their connection with him. indeed.D. Simeon was executed by the Romans.D. presumably to be transformed along with the rest of creation.• • • • • asserting that his words are even more permanent—that is. consistent obedience and constant vigilance is expected of Jesus’ followers. Verses 40-41: When Judgment Day comes.

the soldiers. Furthermore. 11:31. to fulfill all that is written.” which probably reflects the connection made in Isa. the resurrected Jesus explains to the disciples that the Scriptures had indicated that “repentance and forgiveness of sins should be proclaimed in [the Messiah’s] name to all nations. which culminates in his crucifixion.” as he depicts in Luke 23:35-39 opposition to Jesus on every side: the crowds. during the Transfiguration. o Verse 20. they must flee. o There are also a couple of occasions in the OT where an individual has metaphorically portrayed himself under God’s judgment as a besieged city (Job 19:12. thus. Jesus refers to himself as “Jerusalem surrounded by armies”. when the disciples see this beginning to unfold. and one of the crucified criminals. God pours out his wrath and vindicates his people. as this event. o Verse 22. resulting in the abandonment of that which has been devastated or destroyed. It is also significant that Luke’s Gospel mentions Jerusalem more than twice as many times as any other Gospel. beginning from Jerusalem.• Verses 20-24: Using a barrage of stock OT language describing the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 B. ultimately. and it surely reflects that phrase taken from Dan. Jesus is saying that. restoration from exile) to Jesus’ redemptive work. the inscription from Pilate. Daniel was pointing to an event that would destroy Jesus himself (as the true Temple?) resulting in his being abandoned by both God and his people and would consist of great suffering under God’s wrath (see verse 23). in 9:31. the word “desolation” is the same Greek word used in the phrase “abomination of desolation” found in Mark 13 and Matt. he includes details that picture Jesus “surrounded by armies. which he was about to accomplish at Jerusalem” (ESV translates the Greek word exodos as “departure”) to describe what Moses. destruction of Jerusalem/Temple. 3:1-9). 24. 49:6 that God’s salvation would go out to “the ends of the earth” after God’s people had been restored from exile. thus. the rulers. and. as Luke narrates the crucifixion. and Jesus were discussing. this identification is very difficult to see clearly on the surface and when isolated from the rest of Luke’s Gospel. 15:20). 34:8. o Seeing “Jerusalem surrounded by armies” indicates that “its desolation has come near”. 12:11. 14:5 to flee prior to Yahweh’s coming for judgment. just as God’s people were instructed in Zech. as a prophetic indictment against God’s people. however. thus. o In a sense. which indicates that Yahweh is coming in judgment and will pour out his wrath on the nations and vindicate his people. Luke uses the phrase “exodus. Lam. even . Jesus points forward to his own suffering and crucifixion as the ultimate fulfillment of the nation’s judgment by God. God “made” Jeremiah “a fortified city” to stand against God’s people in judgment (this is repeated in Jer. in Luke 24:47. it seems that Luke intends to apply all of the major historical events of Israel’s history (exodus. the phrase “days of vengeance. and refers to something that causes utter devastation or destruction. Elijah.” probably refers specifically to Isa. 9:27.. Daniel’s vision was probably depicting something idolatrous that would be set up in the Temple that would cause God’s people to abandon the Temple.C. in Jesus’ death. Jesus is pointing ahead to his own suffering.

” o Verses 32-33. he will “come” to God “in clouds with great power and glory” to receive full authority over God’s kingdom.. the reference to Jerusalem being trampled underfoot by the Gentiles/nations probably reflects Dan. Jesus uses something from nature that his disciples would have been very familiar with in order to illustrate a theological truth.C. Jesus may be referring to himself as “Jerusalem being trampled underfoot” and implying his own subsequent “restoration” (i.. this probably lies behind Jesus’ statement in Matt. 8:13-14. if this is the case. Jesus then applies this recognition that the Gentiles’ domination over God’s people has a limited duration to imply that Jesus’ resurrection would be the end of the exile of God’s people. the phrase “until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled” is not a phrase found in the OT. see his crucifixion (“Jerusalem surrounded by armies”) .• • • • though. and after he has experienced the awful tribulation of crucifixion to death. Verses 29-33: The disciples can tell when it’s time for summer when they see the fig tree begin to blossom and bear fruit. Verse 27: Jesus is the Son of Man spoken of in Dan. 28:18 that “all authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. it will be restored. o Verse 23. very soon. which indicates that. o Verse 24. the reference to the people falling by the sword and being led captive among the nations probably reflects Jer. but it does seem to be an apt description for Israel’s exile as a period of time in which the Gentiles/nations have domination over God’s people. o Thus. however. the usage of the term “coming” seems awkward and is often understood as referring to Jesus’ second coming to earth. o Verses 29-31. the promised restoration of God’s people is inaugurated with Jesus’ resurrection! Verses 25-26: Jesus returns to the question of “signs” which the people had raised. he assures them that they will. resurrection). he highlights signs of cosmic upheaval that will cause people to fear the coming judgment. in other words. to whom God gives authority to rule God’s kingdom.e. universal kingdom. verse 31 connects back with verse 28. perhaps paradoxically. after the “sanctuary” has been trampled underfoot. they can be sure that the end is near. Jesus highlights his resurrection from the dead as the fulfillment of the role of Daniel’s Son of Man.” indicating that he received this authority when he was raised from the dead. 20:4. 7:13-14. likewise. pregnant and nursing women will experience an even deeper feeling of grief. Jesus is making full use of the wording of Dan. Jesus vividly illustrates the seriousness and the awfulness of the suffering. Verse 28: Jesus draws all that he has just spoken of together to say that the redemption of God’s people is the culmination of these events. where Jeremiah envisions the Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem of 586 B. o Note the “and then”. so that his reference to “coming” is a reference to coming “to the Ancient of Days” to receive the everlasting. so that “the kingdom of God is near” is equivalent to “your redemption is drawing near. Jesus is again highlighting a sequence of events here. 7:13. when they see him crucified and raised from the dead. God is pouring out his wrath against the people of Israel as well as the nations. as is common. Jesus promises that “all” will take place before the eyes of the generation of people to whom he is addressing.

• and his resurrection (“the Son of Man coming in a cloud with power and great glory”). he guarantees this by asserting that his words are even more permanent— that is. to spring suddenly and catch them napping. . they must pray that God would strengthen them to escape getting caught in the crossfire that is aimed at Jesus so that they will be able to stand before him when he is exalted as the Son of Man to execute the final judgment. guaranteed—than even the existence of the universe as they know it! Verses 34-36: Jesus warns the people to pay attention and be prepared for that day. probably referring to the final judgment.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful