• Ecumenical Councils • What is an Ecumenical Council?

 Ecumenical from Greek word ―oikoumene‖, meaning ―the whole inhabited world‖.  bring bishops and others entitle to vote from all over the world to discuss central issues of the church. • 1. Nicaea (325)  repudiated Arianism, declared that Christ is “homoousios with the father”( of the same substance as the Father).  adopted the original Nicene Creed and fixed the Easter date. • 2. Constantinople I (381)  repudiated Arianism and Macedonianism. - declared that Christ is ―born of the Father before all time‖  revised the Nicene Creed in regard to the Holy Spirit.  Divinity of the Holy Spirit • 3. Ephesus (431)  repudiated Nestorianism and Pelagianism .  proclaimed the Virgin Mary as the Theotokos(―Birthgiver to God‖, ―God-bearer‖, ―Mother of God‖)  reaffirmed the Nicene Creed. • 4. Chalcedon (451)  repudiated the Eutychian docrine of Monophysitism.  Adopted the Chalcedonian Creed which describe the hypostatic union. • 5. Constantinople II (553)  repudiated the Three Chapters Controversy: (Nestorianism, Monophysitism and Imperial-papal relations). • 6. Constantinople III (680-681)  repudiated the Monothelitism and Monoenergism.  Admonished Pope Honorius I • 7. Nicaea II (787)  restored the veneration of Icons.  repudiated Iconoclasm. • 8. Constantinople IV (869-870)  deposed Patriach Photios I of Constantinople. ( as an ursuper and reinstated his predecessor Saint Ignatius).  Photian Controversy - involved Eastern and Western ecclesiastical jurisdictional rights in the Bulgarian church, as well as a doctrinal dispute over the word "filioque" (meaning ―and from the Son‖) that had been added to the Nicene Creed by the Latin church, which was the theological breaking point in the eleventh century Great East-West Schism. • 9. Lateran I (1123)  Investiture Controversy; simony; clerical celibacy  addressed investment of Bishops and the Holy Emperor. • 10. Lateran II (1139)  reaffirmed Lateran I and addressed clerical discipline ( dress and marriages). • Lateran II  Arnold of Brescia‘s (twelfth century heretic who condemned all clerical material possession) teaching and criticism of the Church; put an end to papal schism • 11. Lateran III (1179)  restricted papal election to the cardinals.  Condemned simony, albigensianism and waldensianism.  introduced minimum ages for ordination (thirty for Bishops) • 12. Lateran IV (1215)  defined transubstantiation of the eucharist  Annual penance  Suppression of Albigenses; crusades  addressed Papal primacy and clerical discipline. • 13. Lyons I (1245)  Deposed communicated and Emperor Frederick II • Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250), was one of the most powerful Holy Roman Emperors of the Middle Ages and head of the House of Hohenstaufen. His political and cultural ambitions, based in Sicily and stretching through Italy to Germany, and even to Jerusalem, were enormous. However, his enemies, especially the popes, prevailed, and his dynasty collapsed soon after his death. Historians have searched for superlatives to describe him, as in the case of Professor Detwiler, who wrote:

• A man of extraordinary culture, energy, and ability -called by a contemporary chronicler stupor mundi (the wonder of the world), by Nietzsche the first European, and by many historians the first modern ruler -- Frederick established in Sicily and southern Italy something very much like a modern, centrally governed kingdom with an efficient bureaucracy.  instituted the levy to support the Holy land. • 14. Lyons II (1274)  Healing of the Great Schism with Constantinople  attempted reunion with the Eastern churches.  approved Franciscan and Dominican orders, a tithe to support crusades and conclave procedures. • 15. Vienne (1311-1312)  disbanbed the Knights Templar. - most famous of the Western Christian military orders. • 16. Constance (1414-1418)  Resolved the Great Western Schism and condemned John Hus.  Began conciliarism.  Council of Siena- addressed church reform. • 17. Basel-Ferrera-Florence (1431-1445)  addressed church reform and reunion with the Eastern Churches. • 18. Lateran V (1512-1517)  addressed Church reform especially the discipline. • 19. Trent (1545-1563)  addressed church reform and repudiated Protestantism.  defined the role of canon of scripture and the Seven Sacrament. • 20. Vatican I (1869-1870)  defined Pope‘s primacy in church governance and his infallibility.  repudiated rationalism, materialism and atheism.  addressed revelation, interpretation of scripture and relationship of faith and hope. • 21. Vatican II (1962-1965)  addressed pastoral and disciplinary issues dealing with the Church and its relation to the modern world including liturgy and ecumenism.  Renewal of the Church in the modern world Heresy is the obstinate post-baptismal denial of some truth which must be believed with divine and Catholic faith. apostasy is the total repudiation of the Christian faith; schism is the refusal of submission to the Roman Pontiff or of communion with the members of the Church subject to him" (CCC 2089). In schism, one separates from the Catholic Church without repudiating a defined doctrine. An example of a contemporary schism is the Society of St. Pius X—the "Lefebvrists" or followers of the late Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre—who separated from the Church in the late 1980s, but who have not denied Catholic doctrines. In apostasy, one totally repudiates the Christian faith and no longer even claims to be a Christian. To commit heresy, one must refuse to be corrected. A person who is ready to be corrected or who is unaware that what he has been saying is against Church teaching is not a heretic. A person must be baptized to commit heresy. This means that movements that have split off from or been influenced by Christianity, but that do not practice baptism (or do not practice valid baptism), are not heresies, but separate religions The Athanasian Creed • Often known by the name of the opening Latin words Quicumque vult (―whoever wishes[to be saved]‖) • Like the Nicene Creed and the Apostles‘ Creed-it is a profession of Faith that the Church strongly affirm. • It was written in the 4th or 5th century to combat heresies present at the time in both the East and the West. • The Athanasian Creed • Principally expressed in 3 divine persons of the Blessed Trinity and the Incarnation of God the Son, the 2 nd person of the Trinity

• Emphasizes the equality of the 3 different Persons of the Trinity and their exact relationship with each other • The other aspect which sets apart from the Nicene and Apostles‘ Creeds-are the anathemas at the beginning and the end. • An anathema is a condemnation solemnly pronounced by ecclesiastical authority and at times accompanied by exocommunication. 1. MATERIAL HERESY -it is possible to enter into heresy through ignorance of the truth, misunderstanding, or non-comprehension of particular aspects of the Faith, erroneous judgment, or the like. 2. FORMAL HERESY - it is also possible to freely choose, with full understanding of the teaching of the Church, hold to tenets or doctrines that are clearly contradictory to those of the church and even doctrines that have been condemned by the Church as false. The Circumcisers (1st Century) "But some men came down from Judea and were teaching the brethren, ‗Unless you are circumcised according to the custom of Moses, you cannot be saved.‘ (Acts 15:1) Circumcision had been required in the Old Testament for membership in God‘s covenant, many thought it would also be required for membership in the New Covenant that Christ had come to inaugurate. They believed one must be circumcised and keep the Mosaic law to come to Christ. In other words, one had to become a Jew to become a Christian In Acts 10, it is stated that the Gentiles are acceptable to God and may be baptized and become Christians without circumcision. The same teaching was vigorously defended by Paul in his epistles to the Romans and the Galatians—to areas where the Circumcision heresy had spread. • GNOSTICISM "Matter is evil!" was the cry of the Gnostics. It stood against Catholic teaching, not only because it contradicts Genesis 1:31 ("And God saw everything that he had made, and behold, it was very good") and other scriptures, but because it denies the Incarnation. If matter is evil, then Jesus Christ could not be true God and true man, for Christ is in no way evil. Many Gnostics denied the Incarnation, claiming that Christ only appeared to be a man, but that his humanity was an illusion. Some Gnostics, recognizing that the Old Testament taught that God created matter, claimed that the God of the Jews was an evil deity who was distinct from the New Testament God of Jesus Christ • Many of the later heresies are derivatives of Gnosticism. Generally, a Gnostic religion holds the following beliefs: 1. Matter is a corruption of spirit, and thus the world is corrupt; 2. Man must seek through knowledge to overcome this fallen state and return to God; and 3. God has made this possible by sending a savior (usually held to be Jesus) • MARCIONISM • Marcion founded his heretical movement very early in the life of the Church, and it lingered well into the 5 th century in the West and for centuries longer in the East. • He started his own community and was formally excommunicated in 144. • Adapted important ideas from Gnostic beliefs to form his own theology-from Gnosticism he took the idea of the Demiurge, whom he identified as the jealous, revengeful God of the Old Testament • The Jewish God, the Demiurge, the God of the Law • The God of Jesus Christ is the God of Love who has no connection with the Law. • MARCIONISM

• This dualism of Law and Love is the main thesis of Marcion‘s system. • Marcion recognized only St. Paul as a legitimate Christian authority because of his teaching regarding freedom from the Law. • The Apostles, in Marcion‘s view, did not fully understand the mission of Christ being blinded by Judaism and its Creator God. Therefore, only ten of St. Paul‘s Epistles and a modified version of the Gospel of St. Luke were given canonical status in Marcionism. • Marcion helped the development of the Catholic Church‘s canon of Sacred Scripture. • The Church gradually determined the canon: the official, inspired writing of the New Testament. • He admitted people from all backgrounds, just as the Church did, but by the 3rd century, most of Marcion‘s followers were incorporated into Manichaeism. • His followers had to practice a most rigorous asceticism, fasts were multiplied, and eating meat was forbidden. • Many orthodox writers of the period fought Marcionism, including St. Irenaeus, Tertullian, St. Hippolytus, Pope St. Clement I, and Origen. • Manichaeism • Manichaeism was probably the most elaborate and polished branch of Gnosticism. • Its founder, Manes (ca. 216-276), was born in Persia • conflict between darkness and light • Denied the Blessed Trinity • GOAL: • To share the secret knowledge which liberate this light so it could return to its original source. • Montanism • Apocalyptic movements founded by Montanus in Phrygia • Worked with two female prophets – Prisca – Maximilla • Central principle: New heavenly Kingdom was about to begin in Pepuza. • Believed that they were directly inspired by the Holy Spirit • Rejected the authority of the Church • Rejected the Catholic Christianity • Docetism • Another Gnostic heresy riding from the presupposition of the corrupt nature of matter • Maintain that Jesus was not truly HUMAN and did not actually suffer the pain of crucifixion and death • Derives from the Greek word ―dokesis‖ meaning appearance or semblance • Often taught that someone else (e.g. Judas Iscariot or Simon of Cyrene) miraculously switched places with Christ just before the crucifixion and suffer death in Christ‘s place. • Crucifixion and Human form of Jesus Christ was an Illusion Sabellianism (Early 3rd Century) • The Sabellianists taught that Jesus Christ and God the Father were not distinct persons, but two.aspects or offices of one person. According to them, the three persons of the Trinity exist only in God‘s relation to man, not in objective reality. ARIANISM WHAT IS ARIANISM? Was started by Arius, a Christian priest that resided in Alexandria, Egypt in the 4th century A.D. Arianism stated that God the Father always existed and that Jesus was a lesser being and was born only before creation The son was finite and he could not possess any knowledge on the Father It was therefore Arius' teaching that only God the Father was a supreme being Believed that God the Father and Son did not exist together eternally WHAT TRUTHS ARE IN ARIANISM? God the Father is all powerful and almighty and is asupreme being Christ is the "Son of God" who came down to Earth

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• There exists a "Father", "Son" and "Holy Spirit" • WHAT FALSEHOODS ARE IN ARIANISM? • The "Son" had a beginning and was at one point, though before time began, created • The "Son" was subservient to the "Father" • The Holy Spirit was created by the "Father" through the "Son" • The Holy Spirit was subservient to the "Son" • God the Father is the only true God • The "Father", who has always existed is superior to the lesser "Son", who is Jesus Christ • TEACHINGS THAT DISPROVE ARIANISM • CCC 253 (The Trinity is One). There are not three Gods, but one God in three persons. Each of them is God whole and entire: "The Father is that which the Son is, the Son that which the Father is, the Father and the Son that which the Holy Spirit is, i.e. by nature one God." • CCC 255. Indeed "everything (in them) is one where there is no opposition of relationship." "Because of that unity the Father is wholly in the Son and wholly in the Holy Spirit; the Son is wholly in the Father and wholly in the Holy Spirit; the Holy Spirit is wholly in the Father and wholly in the Son." PELAGANISM • HISTORY -Named after Pelagius, an English monk -St. Augustine of Hippo, greatest Father of the Church stood against the heresy -The Pelagians charged St. Augustine about original sin -Pelagius and St. Augustine had a debate about original sin and free will -Pelagianism was condemned at Carthage at 416 -At 431 the Council of Ephesus condemned the Pelagians -After it still continued and died out • PELAGIANISM -A heresy that does not accept original sin -Also the need for grace in mans salvation -Questioned the necessity of the sacrifice of Christ for us He denied that we inherit righteousness as a result of Christ‘s death on the cross -Pelagians believed that all men are sinners by choice so all men are criminals -Believed that holiness can be achieved with our own human effort to do things claimed that we become sinful only through the bad example of the sinful community into which we are born We become personally righteous by instruction and imitation in the Christian community, following the example of Christ. Pelagius stated that man is born morally neutral and can achieve heaven under his own powers. According to him, God‘s grace is not truly necessary, but merely makes easier an otherwise difficult task. • • • • • • • • FALSEHOODS? Denied that there is original sin Believed people can be redeemed without grace Believed orginal sin cannot be passed down from generation to generation Humans are born in a state of innocence with a pure nature Man has free will in moral issues PROOFS The doctrine of original sin is, so to speak, the "reverse side" of the Good News that Jesus is the Savior of all men, that all need salvation and that salvation is offered to all through Christ. The Church, which has the mind of Christ, knows very well that we cannot tamper with the revelation of original sin without undermining the mystery of Christ. - CCC: 389 The first work of the grace of the Holy Spirit is conversion, effecting justification in accordance with Jesus' proclamation at the beginning of the Gospel: "Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand." Moved by grace, man turns toward God and away from sin, thus accepting forgiveness and righteousness from on high. "Justification is not only the remission of sins, but

also the sanctification and renewal of the interior man. - CCC 1989 NESTORIANISM WHAT DOES IT STATE??? • Mary is the mother of the Human Nature of Jesus but not the mother of his Spiritual Nature • Jesus Christ is the result of the union of two separate persons, one man and one God • WHAT IS TRUE ABOUT WHAT IT STATES? • Jesus Christ's Existence • maintained that Jesus Christ has two natures, Human and Divine • emphasized his full divinity and humanity • Mary being the Mother of Christ • WHAT IS FALSE ABOUT IT? • Mary not being the Mother of the Divine Nature of Christ • Mary not worthy of being called the Mother of God • Jesus Christ is the result of the union of two separate persons, one man and one God. • CATHECHISM OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH - CCC 509 - Mary is truly the "Mother of God" since she is the mother of the eternal Son of God made man, who is God himself. - CCC 723 - the Virgin conceives and gives birth to the son of God. - CCC 464 & 466 summarized - Jesus Christ is not part man nor is He part God, He became truly man while remaining truly God. Mary truly became the Mother of God by the human conception of the Son of God in her womb. MONOPHYSITISM WHAT IS MONOPHYSITISM? It is the heresy that states that there is only one Nature in Christ, a Divine Nature. States that Jesus Christ did have a human nature, but it was "incorporated"into His Divine Nature. This was a heresy that came from the Eastern part of the Empire. It was defeated at the Fourth Council Of Chalcedon. WHAT IS TRUE ABOUT MONOPHYSITISM Christ has a Divine Nature Jesus was born through the Immaculate Conception of Mother Mary Both Christ's natures coexist with one another WHAT IS FALSE ABOUT MONOPHYSITISM Christ had only one nature, a Divine Nature Christ's human nature was absorbed by his Divine Nature WHAT ELSE IS FALSE ABOUT MONOPHYSITISM Christ's human nature was lost in his reincarnation Christ human nature was not identical to our human nature PROOFS Nicene Creed " by the power of the Holy Spirit he was born of the Virgin Mary, and became man." CCC464 "He became truly man while remaining truly God. Jesus Christ is true God and true man." CCC467 from the council of Chalcedon " Following the holy Fathers, we unanimously teach and confess one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ: the same perfect in divinity and perfect in humanity, the same truly God and truly man, composed of rational soul and body; consubstantial with the Father as to his divinity and consubstantial with us as to his humanity; "like us in all things but sin". He was begotten from the Father before all ages as to his divinity and in these last days, for us and for our salvation, was born as to his humanity of the virgin Mary, the Mother of God.91 We confess that one and the same Christ, Lord, and only-begotten Son, is to be acknowledged in two natures without confusion, change, division or separation. The distinction between the natures was never abolished by their union, but rather the character

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proper to each of the two natures was preserved as they came together in one person (prosopon) and one hypostasis.92" • OTHER PROOFS Apostle's Creed, -"I believe in Jesus Christ, His only Son, Our Lord" -"the resurrection of the body" -"He was conceived by the power of the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary." -"He suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died, and was buried." -"He descended into hell On the third day he rose again." • Iconoclasm (7th and 8th Centuries) This heresy arose when a group of people known as iconoclasts (literally, "icon smashers") appeared, who claimed that it was sinful to make pictures and statues of Christ and the saints, despite the fact that in the Bible, God had commanded the making of religious statues including symbolic representations of Christ Protestantism (16th Century) Protestant groups display a wide variety of different doctrines. However, virtually all claim to believe in the teachings of sola scriptura ("by Scripture alone"—the idea that we must use only the Bible when forming our theology) and sola fide ("by faith alone"— the idea that we are justified by faith only). Jansenism (17th Century) Jansenius, bishop of Ypres, France, initiated this heresy with a paper he wrote on Augustine, which redefined the doctrine of grace. Among other doctrines, his followers denied that Christ died for all men, but claimed that he died only for those who will be finally saved (the elect). This and other Jansenist errors were officially condemned by Pope Innocent X in 1653. • DONATISM • WHAT IS DONATISM? - Donatism is the heresy that rejected the validity of sacraments celebrated by priest and bishops who formally betrayed their faith - Founded by Donatus, who was a bishop elected in opposition to the legitimate one. - Donatists were highly opposed to the ordination of priests as they felt to consecrate any human being was blasphemous. - The heresy was suppressed or defeated in 411 because of the damage done by St. Augustine to their dogma who was their chief opponet that time • THEIR FOUNDATION • They believed that the early priest's, who were some a Traditor , actions should be rejected by the members of the Church. • They believed that the heads of the Church which were the bishops and priests should be pure in a way that they have to be free from sin. • They believed that a sacrament issued by a minister who is in a state of sin is not valid among all the people who had received it in that same time • THE TRUTH • The saints should be holy and avoid sin at all times and at all cost. • THE FALSE • Any head who is contaminated by sin should be rejected forever. • Church Leaders that renounce their faith or who put it aside just for a while who still practice as ministers of sacraments are not anymore valid upon exercising it to the receivers of the sacrament. • PROOFS CCCC: 1127 Celebrated worthily in faith, the sacraments confer the grace that they signify.48 They are efficacious because in them Christ himself is at work: it is he who baptizes, he who acts in his sacraments in order to communicate the grace that each sacrament signifies. St. Augustine vs. The Donatists • PROOFS

Holy Bible: If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just and will forgive us our sins and purify us from all unrighteousness. - John 1:9 The Holy Eucharist • APOLLINARIANISM APOLLINARIS OF LAODICEA • THEIR MAIN ARGUMENT: • Christ had a human body but the divine Word replaced Christ's rational and human soul. • The soul was therefore inferior to Christ's divinity. • Hence, Christ did not have a human mind and will. • VERITAS: CHRIST HAD A HUMAN BODY The human body of Christ is an accepted truth not only by Apollinaris but definitely also by the Church and Christians everywhere. • PROPOSITIONES PERFIDAE • CHRIST DID NOT LIVE A COMPLETE HUMAN LIFE. • • THE HUMAN MIND AND WILL DID NOT EXIST IN CHRIST • • • Since Christ did not have human mind and will, • he did not live a complete human life. • SOURCES AGAINST APOLLINARIANISM: CCC: "Christ's Human will does not resist or oppose but rather submits to his divine and almighty will." Constantinople III: DS536 Luke 2:52- ...when God became man, "increase in wisdom and in stature, and in favor with God and man." CCC: "the eternal Son also assumed a rational, human, soul."- Cf. Damascus I: DS149 CCC: The human nature of God's Son, not by itself but by its union with the Word, knew and showed faith in itself everything that pertains to God." St. Marius the Confessor • MONOTHELITISM • IMPORTANT FACTS • Believes Christ only has one will. • Believes Christ has two natures: human and divine. • Derived from "monos" meaning alone or single. • Originated with the emperor (Heraclius) in A. D. 624 in an effort to rid the Church of Monophysites. • Monothelitism was finally condemned in the Sixth Ecumenical Council of the Church (the third at Constantinople) between A. D. 680 to 681. • TRUTHS IN MONOTHELITISM • Jesus Christ existed in history • Christ had two natures: human and divine. • Christ fulfilled our salvation by dying on the cross. • FALSEHOODS OF MONOTHELITISM • Christ only had one will: his divine will • It was believed that Christ had no free will and only lived for the will of His Father. • This was why it was easier to believe that Christ had accomplished our salvation which drew believers to Monothelitism. • PROOFS AGAINST MONOTHELITISM • CCC 90: Did the incarnate Son of God have a soul with human knowledge? • The Son of God assumed a body animated by a rational human soul. With this human intellect Jesus learned many things by way of experience; but also as man and Son of God had an intimate and immediate knowledge of God his Father. He likewise understood people's secret thoughts and he knew fully the eternal plans which he had come to reveal. • CCC 91: How did the two wills of the incarnate Word cooperate? • Jesus had a divine will and a human will.In his earthly life the Son of God humanly willed all that he had divinely decided with the Father an d the Holy Spirit for our salvation. The human will of Christ followed without opposition or reluctance the divine will or, in other words, it was subjected to it. •

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