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HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG

KHOA VIN THNG 1


---------------------------------



Bi ging

MNG V CC CNG
NGH TRUY NHP






Bin son: Ths. Dng Th Thanh T












H ni, thng 06 nm 2010
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Li ni u
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
i
LI NI U
Bi ging Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp c bin son theo cng ca
Hc vin cng ngh bu chnh vin thng ph duyt nm 2010 dnh cho sinh vin nm
th 4 h o to chnh qui, ngnh in t vin thng. Ni dung ca cun bi ging c
bin son da trn s tham kho ti liu ging dy Mng truy nhp dng cho sinh vin
h chnh qui nghim thu thng 12/2008 v cc bi ging, ti liu hc tp ca Hc vin
c bin son t nm 2003 n nay cng nh kinh nghim ging dy ca tc gi.
Ging nh cng ngh vin thng, cng ngh truy nhp trong nhng nm gn y
c nhng s pht trin mnh m v a dng. Cun bi ging khng i su vo gii thiu
ht cc cng ngh truy nhp v ang pht trin hin nay m c gng trnh by r rng,
mch lc, sc tch nhng vn nn tng trong cng ngh truy nhp cng nh gii thiu
mt s cng ngh ct li, c sc pht trin v kh nng cnh tranh trong th trng vin
thng.
Ni dung ca cun bi ging bao gm 4 chng, tng ng vi 5 vht (75 tit).
Chng I: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp s a ra khi nim v mng
truy nhp v tng quan v cc cng ngh truy nhp. Chng ny nhm mc ch khoanh
vng ni dung tm hiu ca hc phn vi xut pht im l nh ngha ca mng NGN v
nh ngha v mng truy nhp ca ITU-T.
Chng II: Nhng k thut c s trong cng ngh truy nhp a ra nhng k
thut c s c dng trong cc cng ngh truy nhp nh k thut gim thiu tc ng
ca nhiu, k thut a truy nhp v vn bo mt.
Chng III: Cc cng ngh truy nhp s trnh by cc c im k thut ca
cc cng ngh truy nhp thng dng theo cc nhm tng ng vi mi trng vt l m
chng s dng (c dy, khng dy, mi trng quang, mi trng cp ng, phc v
trong phm vi mng PAN, LAN, MAN hay WAN)
Chng IV: Thit k mng truy nhp. Gii thiu cc bi ton thit k mng truy
nhp tng ng vi mt s cng ngh truy nhp c trnh by trong chng 3 nh
truy nhp cp ng truyn thng, ADSL, CM v truy nhp quang.
Trong thc t mt phng thc truy nhp c th thng l mt t hp cc gii
php cng ngh truy nhp khc nhau. Bng vic lit k nu c im v nh gi tng
cng ngh cng nh tng nhm cng ngh, tc gi hi vng rng cun ti liu s cung cp
c mt gc nhn y v kin trc ca mng truy nhp cng nh nhng cng ngh
c p dng trong mng truy nhp.
Mc d c gng rt nhiu song do thi gian v trnh c hn, ni dung ca
cun bi ging khng th trnh khi nhng thiu st, tc gi rt mong nhn c nhng
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Li ni u
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
ii
kin ng gp ca bn b v ng nghip tip tc chnh sa v hon thin cun ti
liu.
H ni, thng 06 nm 2010
Dng Th Thanh T
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Mc lc
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
iii
MC LC

Trang
LI NI U i
MC LC iii
CHNG 1: GII THIU CHUNG V MNG TRUY NHP 1
1.1 Mng truy nhp 1
1.1.1 Khi nim v nh ngha 1
1.1.2 Nhng giai on pht trin ca mng truy nhp 3
1.1.2.1 Tng i phn tn RLC 3
1.1.2.2 B cung cp vng thu bao s DLC
1.1.2.3 Thit b truy nhp IP
4
9
1.2 Truy nhp trong mng th h sau NGN 10
1.2.1 Mng th h sau NGN
1.2.2 Truy nhp trong NGN
10
12
1.3 Cng ngh truy nhp 13
1.3.1 Phn loi
1.3.2 So snh v nh gi cc cng ngh truy nhp
13
15
CHNG 2: NHNG K THUT C S 18
2.1 K thut gim thiu tc ng ca nhiu 18
2.1.1 K thut pht hin v sa li 18
2.1.1.1 M khi tuyn tnh
2.1.1.2 M xon
2.1.1.3 M Reed Solomon (RS)
2.1.1.4 M Turbo
2.1.1.5 M LCPC
18
22
28
29
31
2.1.2 K thut an xen 34
2.2 K thut a truy nhp 36
2.2.1 a truy nhp d on sng mang CSMA
2.2.2 a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s FDMA
2.2.3 a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian TDMA
2.2.4 a truy nhp phn chia theo m CDMA
2.2.5 a truy nhp phn chia theo khng gian SDMA
2.2.6 a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s trc giao OFDMA
2.2.7 a truy nhp phn chia theo an xen IDMA
36
38
39
39
40
41
42
2.3 Bo mt 42
2.3.1 Giao thc mt m kho b mt 43
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Mc lc
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
iv
2.3.2 Giao thc mt m kho cng cng
2.3.3 Xc thc
2.3.4 Ch k s
44
45
47
CHNG 3: CC CNG NGH TRUY NHP 48
3.1 Cng ngh truy nhp truyn thng 48
3.1.1 Modem bng tn thoi
3.1.2 ISDN
3.1.3 Giao din V5.x
48
51
52
3.1.3.1 Khi nim
3.1.3.2 Phn loi
3.1.3.3 Chc nng
52
53
55
3.2 Cng ngh xDSL 57
3.2.1 Gii thiu chung v xDSL
3.2.2 Cng ngh ADSL
57
59
3.2.2.1 Kin trc h thng
3.2.2.2 K thut iu ch a tn ri rc DMT
3.2.2.3 K thut truyn dn song cng
3.2.2.4 Cu trc b thu pht ADSL-DMT
3.2.2.5 Cu trc khung v siu khung
3.2.2.6 Ch truyn ti
60
62
63
64
67
68
3.2.3 ADSL2 69
3.2.3.1 Cc tnh nng lin quan n ng dng
3.2.3.2 Cc tnh nng lin quan n PMS-TC
3.2.3.3 Cc tnh nng lin quan n PMD
69
70
70
3.2.4 ADSL2+ 71
3.3 Cng ngh PLC 74
3.3.1 Khi nim
3.3.2 Phn loi
3.3.3 Cu trc mng PLC
3.3.4 Mt s c tnh ca mng PLC
74
74
77
79
3.4 Cng ngh CM 80
3.4.1 Cu trc mng CATV 80
3.4.1.1 H thng trung tm Headend
3.4.1.2 Mng truyn dn v phn phi
3.4.1.3 Mng truy nhp
81
81
82
3.4.2 Cc thnh phn ca h thng CM
3.4.3 Cc chun c s dng trong cng ngh CM
85
89
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Mc lc
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
v
3.5 Cng ngh truy nhp quang 90
3.5.1 Cu hnh v cc thnh phn mng
3.5.2 Cc kin trc c bn
90
94
3.5.2.1 FTTH
3.5.2.2 FTTB
3.5.2.3 FTTC
3.5.2.4 FTTCab/N
94
95
96
96
3.5.3 Cng ngh AON 97
3.5.3.1 Khi nim
3.5.3.2 Cc phng thc trin khai AON
97
98
3.5.4 Cng ngh PON 100
3.5.4.1 Khi nim
3.5.4.2 Cu hnh PON
3.5.4.3 Cc chun PON
3.5.4.4 Cc cng ngh PON
100
101
102
104
3.6 Truy nhp qua v tinh 108
3.6.1 Gii thiu chung
3.6.2 H thng VSAT
3.6.3 H thng IP-IPSTAR
108
111
113
3.7 WLAN 115
3.7.1 Gii thiu chung
3.7.2 Cu hnh mng WLAN
3.7.3 Chun cng ngh
3.7.4 H thng thit b
115
118
119
120
3.8 Wimax 122
3.8.1 Gii thiu chung
3.8.2 Chun cng ngh
3.8.3 Cu hnh mng
3.8.4 H thng thit b
122
124
125
126
CHNG 4: THIT K MNG TRUY NHP 128
4.1 Gii thiu chung
4.2 D bo
128
129
4.2.1 Khi nim v nh ngha
4.2.2 Trnh t d bo
4.2.3 Cc m hnh d bo
129
132
133
4.2.3.1 M hnh ng cong pht trin
4.2.3.2 M hnh kinh t lng
133
138
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Mc lc
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
vi
4.2.3.3 M hnh kinh t x hi 139
4.3 La chn cng ngh
4.4 Thit k mng thc t
141
143
4.4.1 Thit k mng truy nhp cp ng truyn thng 143
4.4.1.1 Gii thiu chung
4.4.1.2 Phng n ti u thit k mng truy nhp cp ng
4.4.1.3 Cc phng php d phng phn b cp
143
146
150
4.4.2 Thit k mng truy nhp ADSL 151
4.4.2.1 Gii thiu chung
4.4.2.2 Thit k lu lng mng ADSL
151
151
4.4.3 Thit k mng CATV 154
4.4.3.1 Gii thiu chung
4.4.3.2 Thit k mng ng trc xui chiu
4.4.3.3 Thit k mng ng trc ngc chiu
4.4.3.4 Thit k mng quang
154
156
164
167
4.4.4 Thit k MANE 178
4.4.4.1 Gii thiu chung
4.4.4.2 Nguyn tc xy dng mng
4.4.4.3 Tnh ton dung lng u vo
4.4.4.4 Tnh ton kch c MAN
178
178
181
184
4.4.5 Thit k mng truy nhp quang 186
4.4.5.1 Kch bn v m hnh trin khai
4.4.5.2 La chn cng ngh
4.4.5.3 Nguyn tc thit k mng FTTx
4.4.5.4 Tnh ton lng cp
186
187
188
188
THUT NG VIT TT 191
TI LIU THAM KHO 198





Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
1
CHNG1: GII THIU CHUNG V MNG TRUY NHP
Ni dung ca chng gii thiu quan im truyn thng cng nh hin i v
mng truy nhp, cc cng ngh truy nhp v s pht trin ca cc h thng truy nhp.
1.1 Mng truy nhp
1.1.1 Khi nim v nh ngha
Mng truy nhp theo quan im truyn thng.
Theo quan im truyn thng, mng truy nhp hay cng trnh ngoi vi l ton b
h thng thit b v ng truyn dn nm gia tng i v thit b u cui ca khch
hng, thc hin chc nng truyn dn thit b v c kt ni trc tip n thu bao (hnh
1.1). Nh vy, mng truy nhp theo quan im truyn thng l mt trong cc loi hnh
mng phc tp nht trn th gii, cha ng mt khi lng khng l cc i dy cp
ng kt ni t tng i ni ht n cc thu bao.




Hnh 0.1: Mng truy nhp theo quan im truyn thng
Dch v c bn do mng truy nhp nhp truyn thng cung cp l dch v thoi
truyn thng POTS (plain old telephone services). Vi s pht trin khng ngng ca
cng ngh, mng cp ng ni ht ngy nay cn c th cung cp nhiu loi hnh dch v
nh cc dch v thoi IP - VOIP (Voice over IP), dch v xDSL bng rng cng nh dch
v IPTV (Internet Protocol Television). Tuy nhin, mng truy nhp truyn thng bc l
kh nhiu nhc im nh:
Hn ch kh nng cung cp cc dch v mi, c bit l dch v bng rng.
Chi ph u t ln, lng ph thit b.
Bn knh phc v nh.
khc phc nhng nhc im trn ca mng truy nhp truyn thng, nhiu gii
php ra i. Ngoi cc gii php nng cao nng lc ca mng truy nhp truyn thng nh
dng tng i phn tn RLC, dng b cung cp mch vng thu bao s DLC, thay i
ng knh c cp cn xut hin cc cng ngh truy nhp khc nh truy nhp quang,
truy nhp quang lai ghp ng trc, truy nhp v tuyn. Nh vy khi nim mng truy
nhp theo quan im truyn thng khng cn ng vi tt c cc mng truy nhp hin
nay.
Tng i
ni ht
MDF
T/ Hp
cp
Thu bao
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
2
Mng truy nhp hin i di quan im ca ITU-T.
Theo cc khuyn ngh ca ITU-T, mng truy nhp hin i c nh ngha nh
trn hnh 1.2. Theo mng truy nhp l mt chui cc thc th truyn dn gia giao
din nt dch v (SNI) v giao din ngi s dng - mng (UNI). Mng truy nhp chu
trch nhim truyn ti cc dch v vin thng. Giao din iu khin v qun l mng l
Q3.
Thit b u cui ca khch hng c kt ni vi mng truy nhp qua UNI, cn
mng truy nhp kt ni vi nt dch v (SN) thng qua SNI. V nguyn tc khng c gii
hn no v loi v dung lng ca UNI hay SNI. Mng truy nhp v nt dch v u c
kt ni vi h thng mng qun tr vin thng (TMN) qua giao din Q3.

Hnh 1.2: Mng truy nhp hin i di quan im ca ITU-T
Giao din nt dch v
L giao din mt ct dch v ca mng truy nhp. Kt ni vi tng i SNI cung
cp cho thu bao cc dch v c th. V d tng i c th kt ni vi mng truy nhp qua
giao din V5.
Giao din V5 cung cp chun chung kt ni thu bao s ti tng i s ni ht.
Gii php ny c th mang li hiu qu cao do cho php kt hp h thng truyn dn thu
bao v tit kim card thu bao tng i. Hn na phng thc kt ni ny cng thc
y vic pht trin cc dch v bng rng.
Giao din ngi s dng - mng
y l giao din pha khch hng ca mng truy nhp. UNI phi h tr nhiu dch
v khc nhau, nh thoi tng t, ISDN bng hp v bng rng v dch v leased line s
hay tng t...
PSTN
ISDN
DDN
NGN
...
POTS
V.90,92
ISDN
xDSL
...

Mng
truy
nhp
Q
SNI Giao
din nt
dch v
UNI Giao
din ngi
s dng -
mng
Thu
bao
Thc
th
mng
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
3
Giao din qun l
Thit b mng truy nhp phi cung cp giao din qun l c th iu khin mt
cch hiu qu ton b mng truy nhp. Giao din ny cn phi ph hp vi giao thc Q3
c th truy nhp mng TMN v hon ton tng thch vi cc h thng qun l mng
m thit b do nhiu nh sn xut cung cp. Hin nay phn nhiu cc nh cung cp thit b
s dng giao din qun l ca ring mnh thay v dng chun Q3.
1.1.2 Nhng giai on pht trin ca mng truy nhp
Vi nh ngha mng truy nhp nh trn t c cu trc nh mong mun trn
hnh 1.6 th mng truy nhp ni ring v mng vin thng ni chung phi tri qua nhng
giai on qu vi nhiu trng thi khc nhau tng ng vi nhng xut pht im
(mng truyn s liu, thoi truyn thng PSTN, mng di ng, mng di ng ni ht) v
gii php s dng khc nhau. Hnh 1.3 cho chng ta thy mc pht trin ca cc dng
thit b truy nhp trong mng vin thng vi xut pht im l mng PSTN.

Hnh 1.3: S pht trin ca cc dng thit b truy nhp.
1.1.2.1. Tng i phn tn RLC.
Gii php tng i phn tn thc cht l s dng cc b tp trung u dy u xa
RLC (Remote Line Concentrator). Thit b RLC c cc giao tip ring pha tng i
nh cc tng i v tinh nhng li khng c chc nng chuyn mch.
Nm 1890
Cp ng
1-2G DLC
Nm 1970
V5 DLC
Gia thp k 90
NGDLC Cui thp k 90
Truy nhp IP

Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
4
Giao tip gia RLC v tng i c th l in hoc quang v do tng nh sn xut
quy nh v vy lm cho vic trin khai thit b RLC ca cc nh khai thc dch v thiu
linh hot, ph thuc hon ton vo nh cung cp thit b. Cu trc v v tr ca mt thit
b RLC trong mng truy nhp c ch ra nh trong hnh 1.4 trong :
LC (Line Concentrator) B tp trung ng dy
SLC (Subscriber Line Circuit) Mch ng dy thu bao
MDF (Main Ditribution Frame) Gi phi dy chnh
CSS (Concentrator Stage Switch) Chuyn mch tp trung
OLT (Optical Line Terminal) Thit b u cui ng quang
LDF (Line Distribution Frame) Gi phi dy quang













Hnh 1.4: Cu trc, v tr thit b RLC trong mng truy nhp
1.1.2.2. B cung cp vng thu bao s DLC.
gii quyt hn ch trong thit b RLC dng thit b DLC ra i. Bng vic a
giao din thu bao t tng i n khu vc thu bao, gii php DLC hn ch ti a
mch vng thu bao truyn ti tn hiu tng t.
H thng DLC bao gm ba th h: 1GDLC, 2GDLC, 3GDLC (hay cn c tn gi
khc l NGDLC). Cu trc ca DLC gm c hai thnh phn chnh: Khi giao tip pha
tng i CT (Central Office Terminal), thng c t ngay ti phng tng i v khi
OLT
Cp ?ng
LE

MDF
CSS
RLC
SLC
SLC

LDF
Cp quang
OLT LDF

MDF
CSS
RLC
SLC
SLC

OLT
Cp ?ng
LE

MDF
CSS
RLC
SLC
SLC

LDF
Cp quang
OLT LDF

MDF
CSS
RLC
SLC
SLC

MDF
CSS
RLC
SLC
SLC

cp ng
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
5
giao tip pha xa RT (Remote Terminal), thng c t ti khu vc tp trung nhiu
thu bao.
DLC c th hot ng hai ch : ch tp trung v ch phi tp trung. Ch
phi tp trung ca DLC hot ng ging nh thit b RLC, c ngha l cu hnh DLC c
s lng ti nguyn truyn dn ca h thng bng s lng thu bao ca n. Trong ch
tp trung, cu hnh DLC c s lng ti nguyn truyn dn t hn s lng thu bao ca
n nn c th dn n tc nghn khi s lng cuc gi yu cu ln hn s lng knh
trn ng truyn chung khi mt s lng s dng s b t chi phc v hoc chp
nhn mt thi gian tr no . B li, ch ny cho php gim ng k chi ph u t.
Trn thc t, khi s dng ch tp trung, dung lng ca h thng s c tnh ton sao
cho xc sut tc nghn trn ng truyn CT-RT t 0.1% n 0.5%.
1GDLC









Hnh 1.5: Thit b DLC th h th nht
DS0 (theo chun ghp knh SONET): Tc c bn - 64kbps
E1 (theo chun ghp knh SDH) = DS3 (theo chun ghp knh SONET): Tc
2.048 Mbps.
DLC th h th nht hot ng c vi mi loi tng i theo ch phi tp
trung cho nn khng tit kim card thu bao ti thit b chuyn mch. Thit b ch h tr
giao din cp ng truyn thng gia CT v tng i. Kt ni gia CT-RT l giao din E1
hoc DS3.
2GDLC
DLC th h th hai s dng giao din quang STM1 gia CT-RT, bao gm hai th
h: UDLC (Universal DLC) v IDLC (Integrated DLC)

DS0
1GDLC
Phone
Fax
Dial-Up
Modem
Knh m ho
E1 or DS3
LE
Codec
Codec
Codec
RT
Codec
Codec
Codec
1GDLC
CT
Codec
Codec
Codec
DS0
DS0
DS0
DS0
DS0
DS0
1GDLC
Phone
Fax
Dial-Up
Modem
Knh m ho
E1 or DS3
LE
Codec
Codec
Codec
RT
Codec
Codec
Codec
1GDLC
CT
Codec
Codec
Codec
DS0
DS0
DS0
DS0
DS0
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
6









Hnh 1.6: Thit b DLC th h th hai

2GDLC-UDLC:











Hnh 1.6: Thit b DLC th h th hai -UDLC
LIU: Line Interface Unit - B giao tip ng dy pha tng i

Khng khc bit g nhiu so vi h thng DLC th h th nht, 2GDLC-UDLC c
giao din tng t vi tng i nn c th kt ni vi mi loi hnh tng i m khng
cn mt iu kin c bit g hay nng cp tng i. im khc bit duy nht l giao tip
quang STM1 gia CT-RT gip cho 2GDL-UDLC c th m rng hn bn knh phc v
ca tng i, nng cao cht lng dch v v dung lng thu bao.
2GDLC-IDLC
Cu trc v hot ng ca 2GDLC-IDLC c th hin trong hnh 1.7.
DS0
DS0
DS0
2G DLC
CT
2G DLC
RT
Phone
Fax
Dial-Up
Modem
Ghp knh
LE
STM-1
DS0
DS0
DS0
2G DLC
CT
2G DLC
RT
Phone
Fax
Dial-Up
Modem
Ghp knh
LE
STM-1
UDLC- RT
UDLC -CT
DS0
LIU
Phone
Fax
Dial-Up
Modem
LE
Codec
Codec
Codec
LIU
Codec
Codec
Codec
DS0
DS0
DS0
DS0
DS0
Ghp knh
STM-1
Codec
Codec
Codec
UDLC- RT
UDLC -CT
DS0
LIU
Phone
Fax
Dial-Up
Modem
LE
Codec
Codec
Codec
LIU
Codec
Codec
Codec
DS0
DS0
DS0
DS0
DS0
Ghp knh
STM-1
Codec
Codec
Codec
DS0
LIU
Phone
Fax
Dial-Up
Modem
LE
Codec
Codec
Codec
LIU
Codec
Codec
Codec
DS0
DS0
DS0
DS0
DS0
Ghp knh
STM-1
Codec
Codec
Codec
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
7









Hnh 1.7: Thit b DLC th h th hai -IDLC
Thit b 2GDL-IDLC cho php s dng giao din E1 vi tng i nn gim c
bc bin i A/D, D/A khng cn thit. Ngoi ra, IDLC c th giao tip vi mi loi
tng i c cng giao tip IDLC (hoc s dng V5.x).
IDLC khng cn thit b ghp knh PCM pha tng i nn cc knh s liu c th
truy nhp trc tip t tng i n thit b PCM u xa to kh nng iu hnh v bo
dng tp trung. Hn th na nh giao din s, h thng DLC c th to nn mch vng
ngay phn mng truy nhp, tng tin cy ca h thng.
Nh vy, dng thit b V5.x DLC cng c xp vo loi DLC th h th hai.
3GDLC hay NGDLC - DLC th h k tip











Hnh 1.8: Thit b DLC th h th ba
Dng thit b h tr dch v bng rng u tin v c tch hp pha thu bao l
DLC th h 3 hay NGDLC ra i vo nhng nm cui th k 20. Thit b ny c nhiu
IDLC
CT
DS0
LIU
Phone
Fax
Dial-Up
Modem
LE
Codec
Codec
Codec
DS0
DS0
Ghp
knh E1
Ghp knh
STM-1
Ghp
knh E1
Ghp
knh E1
IDLC
CT
DS0
LIU
Phone
Fax
Dial-Up
Modem
LE
Codec
Codec
Codec
DS0
DS0
Ghp
knh E1
Ghp knh
STM-1
Ghp
knh E1
Ghp
knh E1
Ghp knh
E1
3G DLC
CT
3G DLC
RT
Phone
Fax
Dial
Modem
ATM Based
STM-1/4/16
LE
CPE - b?
truy nh?p tch h?p
PC
Ghp knh
E1
Ghp knh
E1
Ghp knh
E1
3G DLC
CT
3G DLC
RT
Phone
Fax
Dial
Modem
ATM Based
STM-1/4/16
LE
CPE - b?
truy nh?p tch h?p
PC
Ghp knh
E1
Ghp knh
E1

Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
8
im tng ng vi ATM DSLAM do cng s dng mt cng ngh v kin trc tng
t nhau. Cc NGDLC th u ni v phi hp hot ng vi nhau to thnh mt mng
ATM din rng thng nht, chuyn mch gi vi bng thng tng i ln cho php cung
cp cc dch v d liu mt cch tng i mm do (hnh 1.9). c tnh ca dng thit
b ny nh sau:
Cung cp gii php truy nhp bng rng tm thi qua mng li ATM.
S dng cng ngh xDSL truy nhp d liu tc cao.
Chun V5.x giao din vi mng PSTN.
Kt ni ATM vi mng ng trc hay qua mng IP.
H tr cc dch v thoi/fax, ISDN v d liu bng rng.
















Hnh 1.9: u ni 3GDLC trong mng
Tuy nhin dng thit b ny c mt s nhc im sau:
Bng thng v dung lng hn ch.
Nt c chai trong vng ring truy nhp nu phn ln cc thu bao u s
dng dch v xDSL v nt c chai trong mng li ATM.
Kh m rng dung lng.
Kin trc phc tp, qua nhiu lp (IP qua ATM qua SDH/DSL).
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
9
Gi thnh v chi ph tng i cao.
1.1.2.3. Thit b truy nhp IP.
Tip sau DLC th h 3 l dng thit b truy nhp IP. y l dng thit b truy nhp
tin tin nht hi t nhiu cng ngh nn tng trong mng th h sau NGN. Dng thit b
ny chy trn nn tng mng IP/MPLS v s dng truy nhp IP-AN vi mt s c im
sau:
Bng thng/ Dung lng hu nh khng hn ch (hu nh khng tc nghn
vi bng thng trong khong 1-10Gb/s).
Truy nhp bng rng IP.
D dng m rng v tch hp vi mng NGN (trn nn mng chuyn mch
mm).
Cung cp tt c cc dch v qua mt mng IP duy nht mc d h thng ny
vn h tr cc u cui tng t truyn thng. Thit b ny phi hp hot
ng vi mng IP qua cng phng tin MG.
Gi thnh tnh cho tng thu bao v chi ph vn hnh mng thp.
Kin trc n gin (IP over SDH)













Hnh 1.10:Thit b truy nhp IP

Trong giai on qu hin nay, vic u t vo mng truy nhp mang li hiu
qu v mt kinh t v k thut th ngoi gii php s dng cp ng n khu vc thu bao
IP hay MPLS
IP hay MPLS switch-router
softswitch
PSTN
gateway
access gateway
xDSL
my T IP
IP hay MPLS
IP hay MPLS switch-router
softswitch
PSTN
gateway
access gateway
xDSL
my T IP
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
10
cn c th s dng cc thit b truy nhp tch hp, quang ha mng truy nhp v tn dng
ti a nhng cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn, hn na ph hp vi xu th tt yu l tin
ti hi t mng NGN khi m c s h tng mng hin ti cha sn sng h tr cc thit
b truy nhp IP tin tin nht th cn phi c dng thit b truy nhp p ng tt c cc
yu cu sau:
H tr cc giao din PSTN truyn thng, cc u cui tng t.
C kh nng cung cp cc dch v bng rng v cc dch v mi khc.
H tr giao din V5.x v c th kt ni ti cc tng i ni ht ang s
dng (c th ng vai tr nh l thit b DLC).
D dng nng cp, tch hp khi chuyn sang mng NGN.
m bo thi gian trin khai v chi ph pht thin thu bao khng qu cao.
1.2 Truy nhp trong mng th h sau NGN
1.2.1 NGN
Khi nim
Mng vin thng th h sau l mng c h tng thng tin duy nht da trn cng
ngh chuyn mch gi, trin khai cc dch v mt cch a dng v nhanh chng, l s hi
t gia thoi v d liu, gia c nh v di ng.
Mng NGN c th c m t l mng thc hin d dng ba vn sau :
Truy nhp c lp ti ni dung (content) v ng dng.
kh dng cao. Mng li v truy nhp c bng thng ln, h tr a dch v.
L nn tng cho php pht trin v trin khai nhanh chng cc ng dng tch
hp vi ngi s dng u cui.
c im:
NGN c 4 c im chnh:
Nn tng l h thng m.
NGN l do mng dch v thc y nhng cc dch v trn NGN phi c lp
vi mng li.
NGN l mng chuyn mch gi da trn nhng giao thc thng nht.
L mng c dung lng ngy cng tng, c tnh thch ng ngy cng tng v c
dung lng p ng nhu cu.
Trong NGN giao thc IP thc t tr thnh giao thc ng dng vn nng c p
dng lm c s cho mng a dch v. Hin ti mc d vn cn gp nhiu kh khn so vi
mng chuyn mch knh v kh nng h tr lu lng thoi v cung cp cht lng dch
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
11
v m bo cho s liu, nhng vi tc thay i nhanh chng nhiu cng ngh mi
ang c p dng s sm khc phc iu ny trong tng lai gn.
Cu trc:
V cu trc, NGN bao gm 5 lp chc nng nh sau:
Lp truy nhp
Lp truyn ti
Lp iu khin
Lp ng dng/dch v
Lp qun l

Hnh 1.11: Cu trc chc nng ca NGN
Lp truy nhp: Bao gm cc thit b truy nhp cung cp cc kt ni vi cc thit b
u cui thu bao qua h thng mng ngoi vi cp ng, hoc cp quang, hoc thng qua
mi trng v tuyn (thng tin di ng, v tinh, truy nhp v tuyn c nh )
Lp truyn ti: Bao gm cc nt chuyn mch (IP hoc MPLS) v cc h thng
truyn dn (SDH, WDM hoc DWDM), thc hin chc nng chuyn mch, nh tuyn
cuc gi gia cc thu bao ca lp truy nhp di s iu khin ca thit b iu khin
cuc gi thuc lp iu khin.
Lp iu khin: Lp iu khin bao gm cc h thng iu khin ni cuc gi gia
cc thu bao thng qua vic iu khin cc thit b chuyn mch (IP hoc MPLS) ca lp
truyn ti v cc thit b truy nhp ca lp truy nhp. Lp iu khin c chc nng kt ni
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
12
cuc gi thu bao vi lp ng dng/dch v. Cc chc nng nh qun l, chm sc khch
hng, tnh cc cng c tch hp trong lp iu khin.
Lp ng dng/dch v: Lp ng dng v dch v cung cp cc ng dng v dch v
nh dch v mng thng minh (IN), tr tin trc, dch v gi tr gia tng Internet cho
khch hng thng qua lp iu khin H thng ng dng v dch v mng ny lin kt
vi lp iu khin thng qua cc giao din m API. Nh giao din m ny m nh cung
cp dch v c th pht trin cc ng dng v trin khai nhanh chng cc dch v trn
mng. Trong mi trng pht trin cnh tranh s c rt nhiu thnh phn tham gia kinh
doanh trong lp ny.
Lp qun l: y l lp c bit xuyn sut cc lp trn. Cc chc nng qun l
c ch trng l: qun l mng, qun l dch v, qun l kinh doanh.
1.2.2. Truy nhp trong NGN.
Phn truy nhp trong NGN bao gm:
- Lp vt l:
+ Vi truy nhp hu tuyn: C cp ng v xDSL ang c s dng. Tuy
vy trong tng lai truyn dn quang DWDM, PON s dn chim u th,
th trng ca xDSL v modem s dn thu hp li.
+ Vi truy nhp v tuyn: C h thng thng tin di ng GSM hoc CDMA,
truy nhp v tuyn c nh, v tinh. Trong tng li cc h thng truy nhp
khng dy s pht trin rt nhanh nh truy nhp hng ngoi, Bluetooth, hay
WLAN.
+ Lp truy nhp cung cp cc kt ni gia thu bao u cui v mng ng
trc qua cng giao tip thch hp. NGN cng cung cp hu ht cc truy
nhp chun cng nh khng chun ca cc thit b u cui nh: truy nhp
a dch v, in thoi IP, my tnh PC, tng i ni b PBX
- Lp 2 v lp 3:
+ Cng ngh IP s lm nn cho mng truy nhp.
Thnh phn thit b truy nhp trong NGN bao gm:
+ Phn truy nhp gm cc thit b truy nhp ng vai tr giao din kt ni
cc thit b u cui vo mng qua h thng mng ngoi vi cp ng, cp
quang hoc v tuyn.
+ Cc thit b truy nhp tch hp IAD.
+ Thu bao c th s dng mi k thut truy nhp (tng t, s, TDM, ATM,
IP,) truy nhp vo mng dch v NGN.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
13
Hnh 1.12: Mng th h sau v cc cng ngh truy nhp
Nh trong hnh 1.12 kt ni ngi dng vo mng NGN ngi ta c th s
dng mt cng ngh hoc c th kt hp mt vi cng ngh khc nhau to ra hng lot
nhng phng thc kt ni khc nhau. Nhng cng ngh kt ni hin nay ang c s
dng ph bin bao gm :
V tuyn (GSM, 3G, 4G, WLAN, WMAN)
Hu tuyn xDSL, PON, CM, PLC
1.3 Cng ngh truy nhp
1.3.1 Phn loi
C rt nhiu tiu ch khc nhau phn loi cng ngh truy nhp. y, chng ta
thc hin phn loi theo hai tiu ch: phn loi da trn bng thng v phn loi da trn
mi trng truyn dn.
Phn loi da trn bng thng:
Truy nhp bng hp: L truy nhp c tc truy nhp < 2Mbps. V
d: truy nhp bng quay s (dial-up), cng ngh ISDN bng hp (N-
ISDN), xDSL bng hp (IDSL, SDSL, ADSL lite)
Truy nhp bng rng: L truy nhp c tc truy nhp > 2Mbps. V
d: cng ngh xDSL, cng ngh Modem cp (MC), cng ngh truy
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
14
nhp qua ng dy in lc (PLC), cng ngh truy nhp quang,
LMDS, Wimax, truy nhp v tinh
Phn loi da trn mi trng truyn dn:
Cng ngh truy nhp hu tuyn:
Cng ngh modem bng tn thoi, ISDN,xDSL, Ethernet da
trn cp ng xon
Cng ngh modem cp CM trn mng cp truyn hnh cp
CATV
Cng ngh PLC trn mng cp in.
Cng ngh truy nhp quang trn mng CATV, PLC, PSTN
Cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn: Chng ta c th nhn nhn truy nhp v
tuyn theo quan im ca IEEE (bng 1.1).Theo cn c vo vng bao
ph h thng thit b chng ta c cc mng din hp PAN vi nhng v
d cng ngh nh Bluetooth, Wireless USB. Cc mng din ni ht vi
in hnh l cng ngh WLAN vi nhng chun cho lp vt l 802.11a,
802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n.Tip theo l cc mng din rng hn vi
nhng ci tin ca chun 801.11, nhng mng truy nhp v tuyn a
knh a im, a knh a im ni ht (MMDS v LMDS) vi xut pht
im l dng qung b tn hiu truyn hnh.Cui cng l mng din
rng vi cc th h ca in thoi t bo v cng thm vo h thng
truy nhp s dng v tinh.
Bng 1.1: Cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn
PAN
Mng c nhn
LAN
Mng ni ht
MAN
Mng th
WAN
Mng din rng
Bluetooth
802.15
802.11a
802.11b
802.11g
802.11n
HiperLAN2
802.11
802.16
MMDS
LMDS
2.5G/3G
GSM/GPRS
CDMA/1x/3x
4G
Notebook/PC n
thit b/ My in/Bn
phm/in thoi
My tnh - my
tnh v ti
internet
Truy nhp n km
cui cng v c
nh
Cc my cm tay v
thit b PDA n
Internet
< 1 Mbps 2 n 54+ Mpbs 22+ Mbps 10 n 384 kbps
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
15
n 1Gbps
1.3.2 So snh v nh gi cc cng ngh truy nhp
Chng ta c th so snh cc cng ngh truy nhp trn nhiu gc nhn khc nhau:
Bng 1.2 cho chng ta so snh chung nht gia nhng cng ngh
Bng 1.3 : nh gi v cc cng ngh truy nhp trn kha cnh kinh t khi
trin khai
Bng 1.2: nh gi chung v cc cng ngh truy nhp
Bng thng
Cng
Ngh
Tc ln
Tc
xung
u im Nhc im
Dial-up
(V90)
33.6 Kb/s 56.6 Kb/s
Phm vi cung cp rng
Gi thnh r
Tc rt chm
xDSL
(ADSL)
1.5Mb/s 8Mb/s
Tc cao
tin cy cao
Nhiu chun khc
nhau
Modem
Cp
Ti a 10
Mb/s
Ti a 30
Mb/s
Tc cao.
Gi thnh r.
Chun thng dng.
Cu trc v bng tn
phi chia s
ISDN 128Kb/s 128Kb/s
S dng rng ri.
Tng thch vi DSL
Tc chm
Chi ph cao
Kh qun l gim st
V tinh 33.6 Kb/s 400 Kb/s
Kh nng ng dng
rng ri
Tc lung ln
thp.
Chi ph thit b cao.
tin cy cha cao.
nh hng do tc
dng ca thi tit
V tuyn
di ng
Tu thuc
cng ngh
Tu thuc
cng ngh
C kh nng di ng,
trin khai dch v nhanh
Nhiu chun cng
ngh, kh khn khi
trin khai trn din
rng
Vtuyn
c nh
Tu thuc
cng ngh
Tu thuc
cng ngh
Tc cao.
Nhiu cp ng dng.
Chi ph thit b cao.
Phm vi ng dng
hn ch.
Ph thuc vo c ly
v anten
Cp quang
Ln (c
Gbps)
Ln (c
Gbps)
Tc cao, cht lng
kt ni cao
Gi thnh t
PLC 18 Mb/s 45 Mb/s
C mt khp ni trn
ng dy in lc
Cha c chun chung
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
16
Bng 1 .3: So snh v gi thnh cc cng ngh
Cng
ngh
Chi ph
h thng
Lp t cp Thun li Khng thun li
Cp
quang
Cao Cn thit
Cht lng cao
Mng n nh
Bng thng rng
Chi ph qu cao
i hi phi ri cp
Kh to mng con
xDSL Cao Khng
Bng thng rng
Kh n nh
Khng cn ri cp
Cht lng ph thuc
vo cht lng ng
truyn
Kh to mng con

Modem
Cp
Trung bnh Cn thit
Kh n nh
Bng thng rng
Cht lng ph thuc
vo s thu bao
Kh to mng con
LMDS Cao Khng
D dng truy nhp
mng con
Khng yu cu cp
Vn ang pht trin
Chi ph cao

Wimax
Chp nhn
c
Khng Trin khai nhanh chng
Thit b mi n
nh v kh nng
tng thch gia cc
nh cung cp thit b
cha cao
PLC Thp Khng
D dng truy cp mng
n gin ch cm vo
in
Khng cn lp cp
Cha xc nh c
s ph thuc s thu
bao kt ni vo mng.
Hin trng v hng pht trin
Rt nhiu ti liu cng nhn rng xu hng pht trin ca mng truy nhp bao gm
hai hng c bn:
Th nht l cung cp cho khch hng bng thng gn nh khng hn ch
chnh l xu hng pht trin cc cng ngh quang th ng.
Xu hng th 2 l cung cp cho ngi dng kt ni mi lc mi ni vi
tc c th tha mn nhng ng dng c bn chnh l cc truy nhp v
tuyn vi cc th h t 2 n 4.
Pht trin ca truy nhp v tuyn hi t n 4G
tin ti th h th 4 mng truy nhp v tuyn s hi t li t hai hng:
Hng 1: t pha cc h thng c nhn, ni ht, thnh ph (vi nhng i
din in hnh WLAN v Wimax)
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng1: Gii thiu chung v mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
17
Hng 2: t pha cc h thng din rng (vi cc i din l GSM,
IMT2000, WCDMA).

Kt lun chng
Ni dung ca chng gii thiu cc quan im khc nhau v mng truy nhp,
nhng giai on pht trin ca mng truy nhp cng nh phn loi mng truy nhp theo
bng thng v mi trng truyn dn.
Xu hng pht trin ca mng truy nhp trong tng lai tuy c nhiu quan im
khc nhau nhng u thng nht hng ti cng ngh truy nhp theo mng th h sau
NGN vi tiu ch truy nhp mi lc mi ni v khng hn ch tc .

Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
18
CHNG 2: NHNG K THUT C S TRONG CNG NGH
TRUY NHP
Chng ny gii thiu nhng k thut nn tng thng c s dng trong cc
cng ngh truy nhp nh k thut gim thiu tc ng ca nhiu, k thut a truy nhp
v bo mt.
2.1 K thut gim thiu tc ng ca nhiu
Trong cc k thut gim thiu tc ng ca nhiu thng c s dng trong cc
cng ngh truy nhp, ngi ta thng nhc n nhng k thut m ha pht hin li v
sa li, k thut an xen.
2.1.1 K thut pht hin li v sa li
M ha l mt k thut c a vo qu trnh truyn thng tin nhm hn ch li
v sa li, m bo tin cy ca thng tin. M ho c nhiu loi, c loi ch d li m
khng sa li nh m CRC, c loi va d va sa li gi l m sa li. M sa li
hng i (FEC) da trn m RS, thng dc s dng cng vi vic xen bit hoc xen
chui, c th d v sau sa chc chn s li trong gii hn khi d liu. y l cng
c c bn c s dng gii quyt li t pht di. Tuy nhin phn ln cc loi m
sa li ch c thit k chng li xung t gia cc li t pht c di khc nhau
ch khng cung cp tc d liu cao hn. Tuy nhin, vi mong mun lm sao tng
tc d liu hn na m vn m bo pht hin v sa li xut hin trn ng truyn,
mt s k thut m tin tin ra i nh LDPC (Low Density Parity Check), LDGM
(Low-density generator codes and rate-less codes). Trong gii hn ni dung ny ca
chng s gii thiu tng quan v mt s loi m ho c hiu qu cao trong vic pht
hin li v sa li nh m khi tuyn tnh, m xon, m R-S v LDPC.
2.1.1.1 M khi tuyn tnh
M khi tuyn tnh c c trng bi (n,k). B m ha s bin i k s hng
thng tin thnh 1 khi gm n s hng (n>k) (1 vector m ha) bao gm 1 tp hp cc du
m. Khi cc du m ch c 2 gi tr 0 v 1 th m ha c gi l m ha nh phn cn cc
s hng th gi l s hng nh phn.
K bit thng tin to ra 2
k
dy bit thng tin ring bit (mt vct thng tin) gi l
khng gian k chiu. Khi n bit cng c th hnh thnh 2
n
chui ring bit v cng gi l
khng gian n chiu. Cc phng php m ha s bin i mt chui thng tin trong 2
k

chui thnh mt chui d liu duy nht trong 2
n
chui tc l mt khi m biu din nh
x 1-1 t tp tin n tp t m tc l ng vi mt tin s c m ha thnh mt t m
tng ng. Trong m tuyn tnh nh x bin i l tuyn tnh.
V d : M khi tuyn tnh (6,3)
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
19
Vi m khi tuyn tnh (6,3) th ta c 2
k
=2
3
=8 vector thng tin hay c 8 t m v
c 2
6
=64 vector trong khng gian V
6
.D dng thy c 8 t m trong bng 1 l 1 khng
gian con ca V
6
nn 6 t m ny chnh l 1 b m khi tuyn tnh.
Bng 2.1: Php gn t m thnh thng tin
Thng tin T m
000 000000
100 110100
010 011010
110 101110
001 101001
101 011101
011 110011
111 000111

M khi tuyn tnh bao gm mt s loi m ni ting nh: m vng (m Cyclic),
m Hamming, m Golay m rng, m BCH.
M Cyclic
M cyclic nh phn l mt loi m quan trng ca m khi tuyn tnh. M ny c
th d dng thc hin c vi cc b ghi dch hi tip. Phng php tnh ton c th d
dng thc hin vi cc b ghi dch tng t, hn na vi cu trc i s n gin dn n
vic gii m cng d dng thc hin vi hiu qu cao.
M Hamming.
M Hamming l 1 lp m n gin ca m khi tuyn tnh c cu trc nh sau :
(n,k)=(2
m
-1,2
m
-1-m) vi m=2,3. ( 2.1)
M ny c khong cch ti thiu l 3 nn c kh nng pht hin c nhiu nht l
2 li. Qu trnh gii m Syndrom d dng v ph hp vi m Hamming. Mc d m
Hamming khng mnh lm nhng n thuc mt loi m hon ho. Gi s gii m theo
quyt nh cng xc sut li bit c th c tnh theo cng thc sau :
P
B
=
n
1

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
n
j
j
n
j
2
p
j
(1-p)
n-j
( 2.2)
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
20
y p l kh nng li ca knh (kh nng chuyn giao qua knh nh phn i
xng). Phng trnh 2.1 c th c vit di dng sau :
P
B
=p-p(1-p)
n-1
( 2.3)


Hnh 2.1: Kh nng li bit ca cc knh c du cho 1 vi loi m khi
Hnh 2.1 trn y nu ra xc xut li bit P
B
tng ng vi kh nng li ca knh
truyn. Vi m Hamming th trong th vi m=3,4,5 tng ng (n,k) = (7,4), (15,11),
(31,26).
Khi truyn qua knh Gauss v s dng gii iu ch BPSK, ta c th biu din kh
nng li ca knh c du vi cc iu kin E
C
/N
0
nh sau :
P=Q(
No
Ec 2
) ( 2.4)
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
21

Hnh 2.2: P
B
vi E
B
/N
0
cho qu trnh gii iu ch ng nht BPSK qua knh Gauss cho 1
s loi m khi
y E
C
/N
0
l nng lng du m trn mt quang ph nhiu v Q(x). thay
th E
C
/N
0
thnh nng lng bit thng tin trn mt quang ph ta s dng
No
Ec
=(
n
k
)
No
Eb
( 2.5)
Vi m Hamming th phng trnh trn tr thnh
No
Ec
=(2
m
-1-m)/(2
m
-1)
No
Eb
( 2.6)
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
22
So snh bn cng thc trn ta thy P
B
c th biu din di dng hm ca
No
Eb
cho
gii iu ch BPSK qua knh Gauss. Kt qu c v trong hnh 2.2 cho cc loi m khi
khc nhau.
M Golay m rng
M Golay m rng l mt trong cc m khi nh phn hu dng. M Golay m
rng (24,12) c to ra t m Golay (23,2) bng cch thm 1 bit kim tra tng vo m
ny. Nh th m Golay m rng s c t l 1/2 thay cho t l 12/23 ca m Golay v
khong cch d
min
s tng t 7 n 8.
M Golay m rng c hiu qu hn nhiu so vi m Hamming. l hiu nng
ca h thng c ci thin nhng ngc li th t l m thp hn v bng thng phi m
rng hn. Do d
min
=8 nn m Golay m rng c th sa c 3 li nhng khng sa c
ht cc mu li 4 bit (khong 16,7% mu li 4 bit c th sa c). Gi s tin hnh gii
m theo quyt nh cng th xc sut li bit ca kh nng li bit ca knh c du p c
xc nh nh sau
P
B
=

|
|
.
|

\
|
24
4
24
24
1
j
p
j
(1-p)
24-j
( 2.7)
So snh ba cng thc trn chng ta c th thay th P
B
vi E
B
/N
0
cho qu trnh gii
iu ch ng nht BPSK vi m Golay m rng. Kt qu nh trong hnh 2.3.
M BCH
M BCH l trng hp tng qut ca m Hamming nhng cho php sa c
nhiu li hn. y l mt lp m cyclic rt tt cung cp s la chn ln v di ca m
khi, t l m ha v kch thc v kh nng sa li. Trong hnh 2.2 v 2.3 ta c 2 ng
cong th hin hiu nng li ca 2 m BCH (127,64) v (127,36) so snh hiu nng ca
2 m ny.
2.1.1.2 M xon
Mt c im quan trng ca m xon khc vi m khi l b m ho c b nh
nn qu trnh to ra n phn t u ra ca b m ho khng nhng ph thuc vo k bit u
vo m cn ph thuc vo K-1 tp hp k bit u vo trc .
Chng ta c th m t mt b m xon vi mt tp hp ca n a thc sinh, mi
mt a thc thay th cho mt b cng modulo-2 trong n b. Mi a thc c bc l K 1
hoc nh hn v miu t kt ni ca thanh ghi m ho lun phin nhau ti b cng
modulo-2, hu nh mt ng kt ni c m t nh mt vector. H s ca mi s hng
trong phng trnh bc K 1 l mt trong hai s 1 hoc 0, tu thuc vo vic c mt kt
ni tn ti hay khng tn ti gia b thanh ghi gia b thanh ghi lun phin v b cng
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
23
modulo-2 hay khng. i vi v d b m ho trong hnh 2.3, chng ta c th vit a thc
sinh g
1
(X) cho nhng kt ni tng trn v g
2
(X) cho nhng kt ni tng di nh sau
g
1
(X) = 1 + X + X
2
( 2.8)
g
2
(X) = 1 + X
2
( 2.9)


Hnh 2.3: B m xon tc , K=3
y s hng c bc thp nht trong a thc tng ng ti trng thi u vo ca
b m thanh ghi, chui u ra c tm thy nh sau :
U(X) = m(X)g
1
(X) kt hp vi m(X)g
2
(X) ( 2.10)
Trc tin, biu din mt bn tin vevtor m = 101 nh l mt a thc l, m(X)
= 1 + X
2
chng ta s li gi s vic s dng cc bit 0 theo sau cc bit tin tc, lm trn
y b thanh ghi. Sau a thc U(X) u ra, hoc chui U u ra, ca hnh 2.3 b m
ho c th tm thy cho bn tin m u vo nh sau :
m(X)g
1
(X) = (1 + X
2
)(1 + X + X
2
) = 1 + X + X
3
+ X
4

m(X)g
2
(X) = (1 + X
2
)(1 + X
2
) = 1 + X
4

m(X)g
1
(X) = 1 + X + 0X
2
+ X
3
+ X
4

m(X)g
2
(X) = 1 + 0X + 0X
2
+ 0X
3
+ X
4

U(X) = (1,1) + (1,0)X + (0,0)X
2
+ (1,0)X
3
+ (1,1)X
4

U = 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1


Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
24
Biu trng thi
minh ho tt c cc kh nng thay i trng thi c th xy ra i vi b m
ho a ra trong hinh 2.3 ta s dng biu trng thi (Hnh 2.4).
Ch c 2 s thay i trng thi xut pht t mi trng thi, tng ng vi 2 bit u
vo c ngha. Tip theo mi ng gia cc trng thi c ghi t m nhnh u ra kt
hp vi s thay i trng thi. Khi v cc ng, ta s dng nt lin biu th bit u
vo 0, v nt t cho bit 1. Ch rng khng th thc hin c s chuyn trng thi n
t 1 trng thi a ra ti 1 trng thi tu . Vi 1 chui dch chuyn 1 bit vo mi thi
im bit, c th c 2 s thay i trng thi m thanh ghi c th to ra ti mi thi im
bit. V d nu trng thi b m ho biu din l 00, trng thi k tip ch c kh nng
chuyn ti 00 hoc 10.

Hnh 2.4: Biu trang thai b ma xon (tc 1/2; K=3)
S cy
Mc d biu trng thi m t y c im ca b m ho, nhng n
khng cho php ta theo di c cc chuyn i trng thi ca b m ha theo thi gian.
Biu cy b sung thm trc thi gian vo biu trng thi. Biu cy ng vi b
to m xon trong hnh 2.3 c th hin hnh 2.5.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
25

Hnh 2.5: Biu cy ca b m ho ( t l 1/2, K = 3)
Ti mi bit u vo lin tip theo thi gian th phng thc m ho c m t
bng biu t tri sang phi, mi nhnh cy m t cho mt nhnh t m u ra. Quy
lut nhnh tm chui t m nh sau : nu bit u vo l mt bit 0, nhnh t m kt hp
ca n c tm thy bng cch di chuyn ti nhnh k tip bn phi gn nht hng t
di ln. Nu u vo l mt bit 1, nhnh t m ca n c tm thy bng cch di
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
26
chuyn ti nhnh k tip bn phi gn nht hng t trn xung. Gi s rng trng thi
ban u ca b m ho u l 0, biu cy ch ra rng nu nh bit u tin u vo l 0,
nhnh t m ra s l 00 v nu bit u tin u vo l 1, nhnh t m u ra s l 11.
Tng t nh vy, nu bit u tin u vo l 1 v bit th hai l 0, nhnh t m th hai s
l 10, hoc nu bit u tin u vo l 1 v bit th hai cng l 1, nhnh t m th hai s l
01. Tip theo quy lut ny chng ta c th nhn thy dy u vo 11011 ch ra theo
ng nt m v trn biu cy trong hnh 2.5. Hng i ny tng ng vi dy t m
u ra 1101010001.
Biu li
Quan st biu cy hnh 2.5 ca v d ny, cu trc ca chnh n c lp li
thi im t
4
sau nhnh th 3 (tng qut, cu trc cy s lp li sau K nhnh, y K l
di gii hn). Chng ta gn nhn cho mi node trong cy nh hnh 2.5 tng ng vi 4
trng thi trong b ghi dch nh sau : a = 00, b = 10, c = 01, d = 11. Nhnh u tin trong
cu trc cy, thi im t
1
, a ra mt cp node c dn nhn a v b. Ti mi nhnh k
tip th s node s c gp i ln. Nh nhnh th 2, ti thi im t
2
, c 4 node c
dn nhn a, b, c, d. Sau 3 nhnh, c tt c tng cng 8 node : 2 node mang nhn a, 2 node
mang nhn b, 2 node mang nhn c, 2 node mang nhn d. Chng ta c th thy rng tt c
cc nhnh bt ngun t 2 node c trng thi nh nhau th s sinh ra dy t m ging nhau,
do na trn v na di ca cy l ging nhau. Ta xt hnh 2.4, khi bit th 4 i vo b
m ho theo bn tri, bit vo u tin s i ra theo bn phi v khng nh hng ti nhnh
t m li ra na. Do , dy vo 100xy... v 000xy... , y bit bn tri s l bit u tin,
cho ra 2 nhnh t m ging nhau sau nhnh th (K = 3). iu ny c ngha l bt k 2
node no c trng thi ging nhau cng mt thi im th c th kt hp li vi nhau, v
t tt c nhng hng i tip theo s cho ra kt qu ng nht. Nu chng ta lm nh ny
i vi cu trc cy ca hnh 2.5, chng ta s nhn c biu khc, gi l biu li.
Biu li cung cp cho chng ta y v m t mt b m ho hn biu cy. Biu
li cho b m xon ca hnh 2.4 c ch ra trong hnh 2.7. Khi v biu li,
chng ta quy c rng trong biu trng thi mt ng lin nt biu din u ra sinh ra
bi mt bit u vo l 0, v mt ng t biu din u ra sinh bi mt bit u vo l 1.
Cc node li c trng cho cc trng thi ca b m. Dng cc node u tin tng ng
vi trng thi a = 00, dng node th 2 v cc dng tip theo tng ng vi trng thi b =
10, c = 01, v d = 11. mi mt thi im, li cn n 2K 1 node tng ng vi 2K -
1 trng thi c th ca b m ha. Li trong v d trn c cu trc tun hon c nh sau
khi t chiu su l 3 ( ti thi im t
4
).
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
27

Hnh 2.6: Biu li b m ho ( tc 1/2, K = 3 )

Ch thch :


Trong trng hp tng qut, cu trc li tun hon c nh sau khi t su l
K. Ti im ny v cc im sau , mi mt trng thi c th c a vo t 1 trong 2
trng thi trc . Trong hai nhnh u ra, mt nhnh s tng vi u vo l bit 0 v
nhnh cn li s tng vi u vo l bit 1. Trn hnh 2.7 nhnh t m u ra s tng
ng vi trng thi chuyn tip xut hin trn nhn cc nhnh li. Mt khong thi gian
ca mt cu trc li m ha dng y l xc nh m. C th coi mt dy du m
l mt hm ca thi gian. Trng thi ca b m ha xon c miu t bi ni dung cha
trong phm vi K 1 thanh ghi b m ho tnh t bn phi. Trong mt s sch m t trng
thi l ni dung cha trong K 1 thanh ghi b m ho tnh t bn tri. Vy m t theo
cch no l ng? Trong c hai hng u ng. Mi s chuyn tip l s bt u mt
trng thi v kt thc mt trng thi. K 1 trng thi bn phi din t trng thi bt u
ca li vo hin thi, n cng din t trong K 1 trng thi bn tri ( gi s mt b m
tc 1/n ). K 1 trng thi pha bn tri biu din cho trng thi kt thc s chuyn tip
. Mt dy du m c c trng bi N nhnh ( biu din N bit d liu ) chim gi N
khong thi gian v kt hp vi mt trng thi ring ti mi thi im trong N + 1 thi
im ( t lc bt u n lc kt thc ). Theo cch th chng ta a ra nhng bit thi
im t
1
, t
2
, ..., t
N
, qui c c s dng y l bit hin thi c t ngoi cng bn
tri ( khng phi trn mt ng ni ti trng thi ) v K 1 trng thi pha bn phi
bit u vo 1
bit u vo 0
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
28
bt u u trong trng thi 0. Chng ta coi thi gian kt thc ca s chuyn tip sau cng
l thi im kt thc v gi n l t
N+1
.
Kh nng sa li ca m xon
Chng ta nhn thy rng kh nng sa li t, th hin s li k t m, vi s gii m
theo kh nng ging nht, c th c sa trong di m khi (d
f
). T phng trnh

(


=
2
1
f
d
t ( 2.11)
chng ta thy rng m ny c th sa c t li trong khong 1 vi chiu di hn ch, vi
s gii m theo kh nng ging nht, t 1 vi y l t 3 n 5. di chnh xc ph
thuc vo cc li c phn b nh th no. Vi 1 m ring v mu li, di c th
c gii hn bng cch s dng cc phng php hm truyn t.
2.1.1.3 M Reed Solomon (RS)
M RS cung cp kh nng sa li mnh vi mt vi bt ph tng ng. c gii
thiu vo nm 1960 bi Reed v Solomon, m RS c s dng rng ri trong DSL
sa li. M RS l lp con ca m c pht trin bi Hocquenghem, Bose, v Chaudhuri,
by gi c gi l m BCH, cho m m a thc chung khng c h s nh phn. Nh i
vi m BCH, a thc chung ca m RS l:
g(X) = LCM(m
0
(X), m
1
(X), m
2
(X), , m
2t-1
(X)), ( 2.12)
Vi m
i
(x) l a thc n v nh nht, nh nghim v LCM c ngha l bi s
chung nh nht. l phn t nguyn thy trng GF(q), q =
m
2 . Qua GF(q) c th
nh ngha m
i
(X) = (X +
i
) vi n v 1. bi vy,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 1 0
...... ) (

+ + + + =
r
X X X X X g
, ( 2.13)
Vi h s ca g(X) l trong trng GF(q).
i vi m RS:
Khong cch nh nht, d
min
= r +1
S k hiu d q-ary, n k = r
di khi, n = q 1
Kh nng sa li t =

2 / r .
Bi vy, m ny c th sa c li t, q- ary. ng dng ph bin nht ca m RS
l q =
8
2 c ngha l m c th sa ln ti t octets trong khi c di 255. M RS l loi
sa li hng i, c ngha m c th sa li m khng cn truyn li d liu.
V d, m RS sa li n c a ra:
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
29
( )( )
( )
( ) x X x X
X X
X X X g
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + =
1
1
) (
2
1 1 2
1 0


( 2.14)
Khi = x, v trong trng hp ny X l trong GF(q). V d php nhn h s
( 1
1
+ ) c nh ngha bi a thc s dng cu trc trng GF(q). Trong nhiu h
thng DSL s dng m RS, ( ) 1
2 3 4 8
+ + + + = x x x x x p th c s dng cho cu trc
trng GF(256) v = 00000010
2
= 2
16
. B m vng c s dng m ha CRC cng
c s dng m ha m RS. Trong trng hp ny, php nhn v php cng qua
GF(q) c thay th b GF(2) nh vi gii m nh phn.

Hnh 2.7: M ha vng cho m h thng vi k k hiu thng tin v r k hiu d. Php cng
v php nhn thc hin trong trng Galois.
Kch thc khi n ca m RS c th c lm ngn t q 1 trong khi duy tr cng
kh nng sa li. Xem xt tt c t m m k hiu bc cao l zero. iu ny thit lp t
m dng m con tuyn tnh ca m ban u. Do gii hn thit lp ph hp ch cho cc t
m ny v do d bc cao l zeros, m c lm ngn vi kch thc t m n l k hiu
v k l k hiu thng tin c thc hin.
Thng thng, m RS c sa vi vic chn sa li t pht cm. Trn ng
truyn, nu xy ra li cm, li s c phn b qua nhiu t m. Nu d liu c sp
xp li hiu qu th mi t m ch c s li nh, m s sa c li. i vi h thng
DSL hin nay, m RS ch c s dng trong ADSL v VDSL.
2.1.1.4 M Turbo
M turbo, ban u c m t vo nm 1993, trong u ra b m ha thu c
do m ha thng tin ng thi chui thanh ghi trong cu trc song song nh hnh 2.8 di
y.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
30
M xon 1 hot ng theo hng thng tin dy, d vy, m xon 2 c cung cp
vi phin bn an xen ca thng tin dy. an xen c vai tr l cha kha cho hiu nng
ca k hoch m turbo cng nh kch thc v tc ng n hiu nng. Mt phn quan
trng khc l trong thc t m ha an xen cn cho dng qui. Trong trng hp ny,
hiu nng tng vi b an xen kch thc K, c th c gi l li an xen .


Hnh 2.8: Chui song song ca hai m xon
Hnh 2.10 ch ra s khi ca h thng truyn pht m kt hp c m ha v gii
m cho m ha turbo. y, m ha an xen vi tc m c gi thit d
hiu. D vy, cc tc m khc cng c s dng, hai loi m ha khng c ging
ht nhau. C hai phng php m ha qui u dng h thng. i vi mi bit h
thng
5
n
x , c trnh by dng lng cc
5
n
x = 2d
n
1, vi d
n
ch r bit thng tin c
m ha ti thi gian n, hai bit chn l
p
n
x
, 1
v
p
n
x
, 2
dc to ra do m ha. Nu bit h thng
c pht theo c bit chn l, m tc 1/3 s c thu. Gi thit rng cc l c ng
dng dy bit chn l v vy, tc m tng (dy bit chn l
p
n
x c trnh by dng
lng cc). V d, nu cc bit khc c d mi dy bit chn l, m c tc s
c thu.
Ti my thu, tn hiu u ra knh c ch r bi
s
n
s
n
s
n
v x y + = v
p
n
p
n
p
n
v x y + = , vi
s
n
v v
p
n
v biu din mu qu trnh o nhiu Gaussian bng 0 vi bin
2
. Qu trnh gii
m turbo tn hiu u ra knh v thit lp pht
n
d
)
ca bit c pht. Do k thut d c
bit ti my thu, gii m c th t c ngoi hiu bit v d bit chn l.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
31

Hnh 2.9: H thng truyn dn bao gm chui song song ca hai m RSC v knh
AWGN, v b gii m turbo.
2.1.1.5 M LDPC
M nh phn LDPC c bit t sm (1960) nhng hiu nng ca php tnh gn
ng dung lng ch c khm ph ra thp k trc. Vic nghin cu m rng hot
ng ca lung gip ngi qun tr mng xc nh cu trc ca m cng nh hiu c
gii hn l thuyt ca m. on ny trnh by gii thiu v m LDPC v m t thut ton
chung nht c s dng gii m.
M tuyn tnh h nhi phn (N, K) thit lp vec t nh phn di N, c gi l
cc t m tha mn phng trnh kim tra chn l M (N - K). di vect thng tin
c ch r bi K A phng trnh kim tra chn l c th dc trnh by nh vect nh
phn di N m 1 trong n v tr, 1 n N, ch rng k hiu t m th n phi tha
mn kim tra chn l. Sau , vic thit lp M bt kim tra chn l c trnh by vi
M N ma trn kim tra chn l H A 1 trong v tr th (m, n) ch ra bit kim tra chn l
th m bao gm k t th n ca t m, hay tng ng, m k t t m , tham gia bit kim
tra chn l th m. th ban u gi trnh by ma trn kim tra chn l H nh trc ta
hai chiu vi hai loi nt: k t N hay nt sn dng m tng ng vi k t t m v
node kim tra M m tng ng vi kim tra chn l c trnh by bi hng ca ma
trn H. Kt ni ca trc ta hai chiu c gi l th Tanner, H l ma trn nh x; v
d, mi 1 v tr th (m, n), th c nh km tra kt ni node m vi k t node n.
M LDPC nh phn (N, K) l m khi tuyn tnh c m t bi tch M N ma
trn kim tra chn l H; ..., H c mt thp/1s. Mi k t c kim tra bi mt s t cc
bit kim tra chn l, mi kim tra chn l chim mt s lng nh symbol. M LDPC
c gi l (d
s
, d
c
)- theo qui tc, tng ng vi th song phng, mi node symbol
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
32
c kt ni ti node kim tra d
s
v mi node kim tra c kt ni ti nodes symbol d
c
;
cch khc, n c gi l m LDPC bt qui tc. Hnh 3.10 ch ra v d v th Tanner
ca m LDPC c qui tc (d
s
= 3, d
c
= 4) ca khi di N = 12 c phng trnh kim tra
chn l M = 9.
V vy ma trn kim tra chn l ca m LDPC c qui tc cha d
s
trong mi ct v
d
c
trong mi hng. Ngc li, s trong mi ct th tch bit vi s trong mi hng, c th
m rng cho m LDPC bt qui tc. Mc d t hiu nng tt vi m LDPC c qui tc, ci
tin hiu nng m bt qui tc cng nh to lp ca m ny gn t dung lng thc t.

Hnh 2.10: V d v th tanner chun (ds = 3, dc = 4). Hnh trn biu din node k hiu,
v hnh vung biu din node kim tra chn l.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
33
th trnh by m LDPC rt tt nhng n khng ch gip chng ta hiu cu trc
kim tra chn l, m quan trng hn, n l mt cng c mnh gip chng ta tip cn
phng php gii m.
Cc bc ca k thut gii m l ng dng ni mng theo nguyn tc Bayes ti mi
node v trao i kt qu hay bn tin, vi node hng xm. Hai loi bn tin c s trao i:
c th t cc node k hiu n cc node kim tra v c th t cc node kim tra n cc
node k hiu. Bn tin t node k hiu n n node kim tra m belief node k hiu th n
trn gi tr k hiu n da trn tt c kim tra chn l bao gm n, tr m. Tng t, bn tin
t node kim tra m n node k hiu n l belief vo node kim tra th m trn gi tr ca
k hiu n da trn tt c k hiu n kim tra, tr n.
Tip cn gii m message-passing bn ngoi theo l thuyt di dng thut ton,
dn n thut ton truyn belief (BP). M(n) ch r tp hp node kim tra c kt ni ti
node k hiu n, , v tr ca 1s trong ct th n ca ma trn kim tra chn l H. N(m) ch
r tp hp cc node symbol m phng trnh kim tra chn l th m, . V tr ca 1s
trong hng th m ca H. hn na, N(m)/n trnh by s thit lp N(m), bao gm node k
hiu th n, v tng t, M(n)/m trnh by s thit lp M(n) bao gm node kim tra th m.
Thng thng, a q
nm
(0) v q
nm
(1) ch r bn tin m node k hiu n gi
kim tra node m, ch r kh nng ca k hiu n bng 0 hay 1, thng thng da trn vic
kim tra bao gm n tr m. Tng t, r
mn
(0) v r
mn
(1) ch r bn tin m node kim tra
th m gi cho node k hiu th n, phi ch r kh nng ca k hiu n l 0 hay 1, da trn k
hiu c kim tra bi m tr n. Cui cng, y =[y
1
, y
2
, , y
N
] ch r t nhn c ng
vi t c pht x = [x
1,
x
2,
, x
N
].
Trong min xc sut, u vo thut gii truyn l xc sut sau(APPs) p(x
n
= 0/y
n
)
v p(x
n
= 1/y
n
), c tnh ton da vo vic thng k knh. Sau gii thut BP c
tng kt nh sau:
Ban u: mi node k hiu n c thit k APPs q
nm
(0) = P(x
n =
0/y
n
) v q
nm
(1)
= P(x
n
= 1/y
n
), m c gi t node kim tra nh bn tin ban u cho tt c m.
Bc (i) (cp nhp node kim tra): i vi mi m, nN(n), tnh ton cho i = 0,1:

( ) ( )
( ) ( ) { }

=
=

i x n m N n n x n m N n
n m n n m
n
x q i r
, : /
( 2.15)
Vi

n
x ch php cng loi tr- OR ca tng x
n .
Bc (ii) (cp nhp node symbol):i vi mi n, mM(n), tnh ton cho i = 0, 1:
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
34

( ) ( ) ( )
( )


= =
n M m
n m n n m n m n
i r y i x P i q /
( 2.16)
Vi hng s
m n
c chn t phng trnh q
n
(0) +q
n
(1) = 1. i vi mi n, tnh ton
xc sut pseudo-posterior cho i = 0, 1.
Vi hng s
n

c chn t phng trnh


( ) ( ) . 1 1 0 = +
m n m n
q q

Bc (iii) (quyt nh):
| |
N
x x x X
) ) )
)
..., ,
, 2 1
=
v vy 0 =
n
x
)
nu q
n
(0) 0.5 v
1 =
n
x
)
nu q
n
(0) 0.5. nu 0 =
T
H x
)
, sau tm dng thut ton vi X
)
nh u ra
gii m; ni cch khc i n bc (i). Nu thut ton khng dng li trong gii hn gi
tr ln nht ca cc s lp li, sau bo khng th gii m.
Bi v cp nhp node kim tra bc (i) tnh tng kt qu ca xc sut, thut BP
cng c gi l thut ton sum-product.

2.1.2 K thut an xen
Mc ch ca vic thm b an xen vo trong my pht v b gii an xen pha
my thu l tch cc li cm xy ra trong hai hoc nhiu t m nhm lm gim s li trong
bt k mt t m no c th xc nh chnh xc t m trong qu trnh gii m (thng
thng ngi ta s dng mt na s byte d tha a vo trong m ho).

Hnh 2.11: B an xen xon tam gic.
Hai tham s quan trng cho mt b an xen l s lng byte ca mi t m (gi l
N) v su an xen (gi l D). su an xen s xc nh khong cch nh nht gia

Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
35
hai byte lin k nhau trong mt t m nh vy D cng ln th t l li trong mt t m
cng nh.
B an xen xon thng c s dng trong h thng xDSL. B an xen loi ny
thun li hn nhiu so vi cc b an xen khi truyn thng do nu c cng N v D
chng yu cu b nh t hn mt na ( so vi 4ND) v tr t u ny n u kia cng
gim i mt na ( N(D-1) so vi 2ND)). Tuy nhin c mt bt li nh l D v N phi
khc nhau.
Hnh 2.11 m t mt b an xen xon tam gic. su an xen D=NM+1 ( N v
D khng ging nhau), b nh (N-1)NM=(N-1)(D-1). Thng thng trong cc b an xen
xon tam gic N v D c lp vi nhau v quy lut an xen cng nh nhau: vi mi N
byte ca mt t m, byte Bi vi i i t 0 n N-1 b tr i i x (D-1).





















Hnh 2.12: Ma trn an xen vi N=7 v D=4.
Nh vy cc byte u tin v th hai ca t m (tng ng vi ch s 0 v 1 s tr
i tng ng l 0 v (D-1) v khong cch tch bit nh nht l D. B an xen khi thc
hin ma trn NxD s vit vo theo ct v c ra theo hng. B an xen xon tit kim b
nh hn do n ch s dng mt ma trn ti mi u cui: vit vo mt v tr v c ra
cng t v tr vi s hon i lun phin. Hnh 2.12 ch ra mt v d vi N=7 v D=4
(N l v D l lu tha ca 2 theo yu cu ca T1.413).
c vo an xen
Vit ra gii an xen


Vit ra an xen
c vo gii an xen
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
36
Vic gii an xen l s u cho ca an xen vi hng thay th cho ct v ct thay
th cho hng. Tr gia cc byte thay i t byte ny n byte kia nhng tng tr l khng
i.
V d, tn hiu ADSL lung xung thng thng c cc tham s nh sau:
Tc d liu 6.4 Mbit/s
Tc k hiu 4.0 kBaud
Bit/k hiu 1600
Byte/k hiu 200
Byte d tha FEC 16 (mo u 8%)
Kh nng sa cha li 8 byte/k hiu
Vi mt h thng c cc tham s nh trn khi gp mt xung nhiu ln lm sai lc
ton b 200 byte ca mt k hiu, c th sa cha c li 200 byte ny cn c mt
nhn t tch bit t nht l 200/8=25. Nh vy la chn D=32 l hp l nht. Khi tr
u cui n u cui cho mt cp an xen v gii an xen s l 32x200=6400 byte, ti
tc 800 kbyte/s s l 8 ms.
2.2 K thut a truy nhp
Phn ny di thiu tng quan v cc k thut a truy nhp c bn nh CSMA,
FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, SDMA v cc k thut a truy nhp lai ghp nh OFDMA,
IDMA. y l nhng k thut a truy nhp c s dng trong cc cng ngh truy nhp
hin nay.
2.2.1. a truy nhp d on sng mang CSMA
CSMA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access) l giao thc iu khin truy nhp phng
tin c mt node xc nhn s vng mt ca lu lng khc trc khi truyn dn trn
mt mi trng vt l chia s nh l mt lung in hay mt di ph in t.
CS thc t c th hiu l mt thit b pht theo di mt sng mang trc khi gi.
iu c ngha l, c gng pht hin ra s c mt ca mt tn hiu m ha t cc
trm khc trc khi th truyn. Nu mt sng mang c nhn ra, node s i cho qu
trnh ang truyn kt thc trc khi bt u truyn chnh n.
MA c ngha l nhiu node gi v nhn trn cng mt mi trng. Pht bi mt
node v thu bi tt c cc node khc qua mt mi trng
Xung t (Collision) : Kt qu ca vic Truyn bi nhiu node ti cng mt thi
im l xy ra xung t. Nhiu a truyn dn cng vi mi node truyn s lm xuyn
nhiu tt c cc node v pha thu khng nhn c s chng ln tn hiu thu c t cc
node truyn khc. Vn l khng th ngn chn ton b xung t trong mng CSMA.
Trong CSMA thun ty, d on sng mang ch s dng trnh xung t. Nu hai node
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
37
c gng gi mt khung ti cng mt thi im, khng node no nhn ra sng mang bi
vy c hai bt u pht. Cc thit b pht khng nhn ra cc xung t, bi vy m truyn
ton b khung (v vy ph hoi bng tn s dng ). Cc thit b thu khng th phn bit
xung t gia chng v cc ngun li khc ca khung, bi vy khi phc li s xung t
nh vo kh nng ca cc node truyn nhn bit cc li khung v a ra th tc khi
phc li.
CSMA c nhiu loi: CSMA/CA, CSMA/CD v CSMA/BA. Mi mt phng
php u c u nhc im ring.
CSMA/CA (carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Avoidance): Mi node phi
thng bo cho cc node bit mc ch truyn dn ca mnh. Khi cc node khc nhn c
thng bo th thng tin c truyn i. S xp xp ny nhm ngn chn xung t bi
v tt c cc node nhn bit c v s truyn dn trc khi n xut hin.
Tuy nhin, xung t vn c th xy ra v khng nhn ra c bi vy m kt qu
cng ging nh CSMA thun ty.
CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/ Collision Detection): Cc node ang
gi c th nhn bit khi mt xung t xut hin v dng truyn i ngay lp tc v ch
mt khong thi gian trc khi truyn li. iu ny em li hiu qu s dng nhiu hn
trng hp m bng tn truyn khung khng c nhn bit trc. Tuy nhin, n khng
th kt hp cng vi tt c cc phng tin v i hi nhiu in.
CSMA/BA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Bitwise Arbitration): tt c cc node
trn bus c phn chia mt th t xc nh hoc mt m u tin. Khi xy ra xung t,
mt trong cc node th gi ti cng mt thi im da vo u tin truyn theo m
u tin hoc s th t xc nh ca n.
Ngoi ra cn c cng ngh mi hn c gi l Carrier Sense Multiple Access/
Collision Prevention
S dng giao thc ny cc trm hon ton c quyn truyn d liu trn mng vi
s lng nhiu hay t v mt cch ngu nhin hoc bt k khi no c nhu cu truyn d
liu mi trm. Mi trm s kim tra tuyn v ch khi no tuyn trng thi ri th mi
truyn i.
Vi phng php CSMA, thnh thong s c hn mt trm ng thi truyn d
liu v to ra s xung t (conllision) lm cho d liu thu c cc trm b sai lch.
trnh s tranh chp ny mi trm u phi pht hin c s xung t d liu. Trm pht
phi kim tra Bus trong khi gi d liu xc nhn rng tn hiu trn Bus tht s ng,
nh vy mi c th pht hin c bt k xung t no c th xy ra.
Khi pht hin c mt s xung t, lp tc trm pht s gi i mt mu lm nhiu
(Jamming) nh trc bo cho tt c cc trm l c s xung t xy ra v chng s
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
38
b qua gi d liu ny. Sau trm pht s tr hon mt khong thi gian ngu nhin
trc khi pht li d liu.
u im ca CSMA/CP l n gin, mm do, hiu qu truyn thng tin cao khi
lu lng thng tin ca mng thp v c tnh t bin. Vic thm vo hay dch chuyn
cc trm trn tuyn khng nh hng n cc th tc ca giao thc. im bt li ca
CSMA/CP l hiu sut ca tuyn gim xung nhanh chng khi phi ti qu nhiu thng
tin.
2.2.2. a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s FDMA.
FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access ) l k thut a truy nhp m trong
mi knh c cp pht mt tn s c nh. rng bng tn cp pht cho h thng B
MHz c chia thnh n bng con, mi bng tn con c n nh cho mt knh ring c
rng bng tn l B/n MHz. Trong dng a truy nhp ny cc my u cui pht lin
tc mt s sng mang ng thi trn cc tn s khc nhau. Cn m bo cc khong bo
v gia tng knh b sng mang chim phng nga s khng hon thin ca cc b lc
v cc b giao ng.
m bo thng tin song cng tn hiu pht thu ca mt my thu bao cn phi
hoc c pht hai tn s khc nhau hay cng mt tn s nhng khong thi gian pht
khc nhau.
Phng php th nht c gi l ghp song cng phn chia theo tn s
(FDMA/FDD), phng php ny bng tn dnh cho h thng c chia thnh hai na
bng tn: na bng tn thp v na bng tn cao. Cc cp tn s na bng tn thp v
na bng tn cao c cng ch s c gi l cp tn s thu pht hay song cng, mt tn s
s dng cho my pht v mt tn s s dng cho my thu ca cng mt knh. Khong
cch gn nht gia 2 tn s trong cng mt na bng tn c gi l khong cch gia hai
knh ln cn (
x
). Khong cch gia hai tn s ng xung v ng ln l
y
.
Phng php th hai gi l ghp song cng theo thi gian (FDMA/TDD). Trong
phng php ny c my pht v my thu cng s dng mt tn s (nhng phn chia theo
thi gian) khi ny bng tn ch l mt v mi knh c th chn mt tn s bt k trong
bng tn.
Phng php FDMA c u im l t nhy cm vi s phn tn thi gian, khng
cn ng b v khng xy ra tr do khng cn x l tn hiu v vy gim tr hi m. Tuy
nhin n c nhc im l mi sng mang tn s v tuyn ch truyn c mt Erlang v
th cc trm gc cn cung cp N Erlang th cn N b thu pht cho mi trm ngoi ra cng
cn phi kt hp tn s v tuyn cho phng php ny.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
39
2.2.3 a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian TDMA.
TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) l phng php truyn tn hiu i cng
mt tn s nhng trong cc khong thi gian khc nhau. Qu trnh truyn thng tin ny
c thc hin di dng cm. Ngha l my pht ca trm gc nhn thng tin lung c
s hai lin tc c tc bit R
b
t giao tip ngi s dng. Thng tin ny phi c lu
tr cc b nh m v c ghp thm thng tin iu khin b xung to thnh mt
cm bao gm thng tin ca ngi s dng v thng tin iu khin b xung. Sau cm
c t vo khe thi gian T
b
tng ng b ghp khung TDMA. Gia cc cm c th
c cc khong trng trnh vic chng ln cc cm ln nhau khi ng b khng c
tt. pha thu, my thu xc nh khi u ca mi cm bng cch pht hin t duy nht,
sau ly ra lu lng dnh cho mnh t khung TDMA.
C hai phng thc truy nhp trong TDMA l : TDMA/FDD v TDMA/TDD.
TDMA/TDD: Trong phng php ny c hai ng ln v ng xung u s
dng chung mt tn s nhng khe thi gian pht v thu c pht i cc khong thi
gian khc nhau.
TDMA/FDD: Trong phng php ny mt cp tn s song cng s dng cho pha
thu v phi pht.
So vi FDMA, TDMA cho php tit kim tn s v thit b thu pht hn. Tuy
nhin nhiu h thng nu ch s dng mt cp tn s th khng m bo dung lng
ca mng v i hi phi ng b tt v thit b phc tp hn FDMA khi cn dung lng
truyn dn cao.
2.2.4 a truy nhp phn chia theo m CDMA
CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) l phng thc a truy nhp m mi
knh c cung cp mt cp tn s v mt m duy nht. C hai phng thc trong
CDMA, l CDMA/ FDD (ghp song cng theo tn s) v CDMA/TDD (ghp song
cng phn chia theo tn s )
CDMA/FDD: H thng ny lm vic hai bng tn vi hai sng mang: mt cho
ng ln v mt cho ng xung. Trn mi cp sng mang ny s th ng thi M
ngi s dng truy nhp vo mng trn c s c tri ph bng M chui trc giao khc
nhau. Mi cp sng mang ny c gi l mt knh CDMA.
CDMA/TDD: TDD ch s dng mt sng mang cho truyn dn song cng nhng
thu pht thi im khc nhau.
T hnh 2.13 ta thy mt knh CDMA bao gm mt tn s v tm m trc giao.
Mi knh do mt m trc giao to nn bao gm mi khung TDMA c di T
F
v c
chia thnh 15 khe thi gian (TS).
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
40

Hnh 2.13: TDD- CDMA.
CDMA c nhiu u hn cc phng php a truy nhp FDMA v TDMA: Cho
dung lng cao hn, kh nng chng nhiu, bo mt thng tin tt hn, d dng p dng
cho cc h thng i hi cung cp linh hot knh cho tng ngi s dng v quy hoch
mng cng n gin hn .
Tuy nhin n khng trnh khi cc nhc im: ng b phc tp hn, cn nhiu
mch in t x l s, mng ch cho hiu sut s dng cao khi nhiu ngi s dng mt
tn s.
2.2.5 a truy nhp phn chia theo khng gian SDMA
a truy nhp phn chia theo khng gian SDMA (Space Division Multiple Access)
c s dng tt c cc h thng thng tin v tuyn t ong: c h thng tng t v
h thng s. Cc h thng thng tin v tuyn t ong cho php a truy nhp n mt knh
v tuyn chung (hay tp cc knh ) trn c s . Cc h thng thng tin v tuyn t ong
l minh ho c th nht ca SDMA. Yu t hn ch i vi kiu SDMA ny l h thng
ti s dng tn s. Ti s dng tn s l khi nim ch yu v tuyn t ong, trong
nhiu ngi s dng chia s ng thi cng mt tn s. Cc ngi s dng ny phi
cch xa gim thiu nh hng ca nhiu ng knh. Tp cc tn s trong cng mt
c th c lp li cc khc trong h thng nu m bo khong cch gia cc s
dng cng tn s ngn chn nhiu giao thoa ng knh.
C rt nhiu s SDMA trong cc h thng t ong hin nay: mini, micro,
phn on, d che v cc anten thng minh. y l cc phng php phn chia khng
gian trong cc my di ng lm vic vi phn gii khng gian cao hn v v vy rt
Nng lng
M
1-8
Khung c 15 khe
gii hn
Thi gian
Tn s
TDD-CDMA
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
41
ngn khong cch gia cc ngi s dng m khng vi phm cc quy nh v nhiu ng
knh.
2.2.6 a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s trc giao OFDMA


Hnh 2.14: K thut a truy nhp OFDMA
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex) l phng php ghp knh
phn chia theo tn s trc giao m nguyn l ca n l tng bng thng c chia thnh
nhiu bng con vi cc sng mang con trc giao v truyn ng thi cc sng mang ny,
v th c th gim nh hng ca tr a ng v chuyn i knh fading chn lc thnh
knh fading phng. Vic chia bng thng thnh nhiu bng con vi cc sng mang con
dn n gim rng bng con trong min tn s v v th tng di k hiu. S sng
mang con cng ln th di k hiu cng ln, iu ny cn c ngha l rng bng tn
hiu nh hn rng bng nht qun ca knh.
a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s trc giao OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequence
Division Multiple Access ) c xy dng da trn nguyn l OFDM. Trong OFDMA
mi ngi s dng c cp pht mt s sng mang con ( knh tn s ) trong tng s
sng mang con kh dng ca h thng. V mt ny ta thy OFDMA ging nh FDMA,
tuy nhin nh s dng cc sng mang con trc giao vi nhau nn mt ph cng sut
ca cc knh sng mang con ny c th chng ln ln nhau m khng gy nhiu cho
Tit kim rng bng tn
Tn s
Tn s
K thut FDMA thng thng
K thut OFDMA
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
42
nhau. V vy ta khng cn on bng bo v gia cc knh v nh tng c dung
lng h thng OFDMA so vi FDMA.
2.2.7 a truy nhp phn chia theo an xen IDMA
a truy nhp phn chia theo an xen IDMA (Interleave Division Multiple Access)
l 1 k thut da vo cc an xen khc nhau tch bo hiu t nhng ngi s dng
khc nhau trong 1 h thng truyn thng tri ph a ngi s dng. H thng IDMA s
dng cc an xen pht sinh ngu nhin v c lp, vi cc an xen ny h thng IDMA
thc hin tng t nhng tt hn so vi h thng CDMA.
iu kin thc hin thnh cng cho k thut IDMA l thit b pht v thu phi
an xen ging nhau.
i vi chn ngu nhin th ton b ma trn an xen phi c pht ti pha thu.
Mc tiu a ra l xy dng nn cc an xen khng ngu nhin cho IDMA sao cho tt
nh cc an xen ngu nhin, v vy c hai tiu chun thit k tho mn iu ny:
Cch th nht: Pha pht v thu c th gi cho nhau mt s lng nh bt
gia cc bt khc chn v sau th pht i.
Cch th hai : chn nhng khng xy ra va chm.
Cc loi an xen:
Cc an xen trc giao: Da trn mt chui cc bt nh phn trc giao (to ra
chui trc giao bng cch ly cc s thuc khong t 1 n 64)
an xen gi ngu nhin: l mt loi khc ca an xen khng trc giao da
trn c tnh tng quan thp ca chui PN
an xen xp chng: L mt loi khc ca an xen khng trc giao bng
cch s dng cc chuyn i mc ca mt an xen n.
Bng cch s dng cc an xen trn, h thng IDMA h tr cho nhiu ngi s
dng hn so vi h thng CDMA thng thng.
2.3 Bo mt
Bo mt cho mng thng tin l yu cu cao nht trong cc mng truyn thng v
mng my tnh, do vy c mt ngnh khoa hc chuyn nghin cu v cc phng php
m bo tnh b mt ca vic truyn d liu qua mng - cn c gi l mt m. Chng ta
cn phn bit s khc nhau gia mt m (Cryptography) vi m ha (coding). Mt m l
phng php chuyn i theo dng k t-k t (character) hoc bit-bit m khng cn
quan tm n cu trc t nhin gc ca bn tin, trong khi vic m ha l vic thay mt
t (word) bng mt t khc hoc mt k hiu khc.
Mt bn tin gc ban u (plaintext) cn c mt m ha s c chuyn i bng
mt hm c tham s ha bng mt kha. Ti u ra ca qu trnh mt m ha, ta s c
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
43
bn tin c mt m ha (ciphertext), tip bn tin ny s c truyn i. Chng ta c
th gi thit rng cc k xm nhp (intruder) c th nghe hoc sao chp chnh xc ton b
bn tin c mt m ha. Tuy nhin chng khng th d dng gii c mt m ca bn
tin ny do s gii m c c bng cch kt hp Ciphertext vi kha ti to li
plaintext gc nh hnh 2.15.

Hnh 2.15: Qu trnh m ha v gii m
Nh vy, hai mc tiu quan trng ca cc phng php bo mt l ngn chn s
nh cp thng tin v m bo tnh ton vn ca bn tin. C rt nhiu phng php bo
mt khc nhau, tuy nhin chng u da trn mt s phng php bo mt c bn sau: m
ha, xc thc, iu khin truy nhp v mt s phng php khc. Cc phng php ny
c lin quan v h tr ln nhau trong qu trnh bo mt to nn mt h thng bo mt
ti u v ng tin cy.
Ch c nhng ngi dng c xc thc mi c kh nng truy cp vo mng.
Cc phng thc m ho c p dng trong qu trnh truyn cc d liu cng nh
h tr cho qu trnh xc thc.
Bo mt cc thng tin v cnh bo nguy c bo mt bng h thng IDS v IPS.
Phn tip sau y s gii thiu mt s phng php bo mt c bn.
2.3.1 Giao thc mt m ha kha b mt
Giao thc ny cn c gi l mt m ha i xng hoc giao thc mt m ha
n kha, l mt ch bo mt kh ph bin. Nhn chung giao thc s bao gm mt
thut ton mt m ha, mt kha v mt thut ton gii mt m. Hai thut ton tiu biu
cho giao thc ny l cc thut ton DES (Data Encryption Standard: Tiu chun m ha
d liu) v AES (Advanced Encryption Standard: Tiu chun m ha tin tin).
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
44
Trong cc thut ton ny, mt kha bo mt s c s dng chung gia phn thu
v phn pht v kha ny s c cp ti cc im thu v pht. Thut ton m ha to ra
mt kha khc bt k thi im no dnh cho mt loi truyn dn no . Vic thay i
kha din ra pha u ra ca thut ton. pha thu, cc thng tin c mt m c th
c chuyn li nguyn dng d liu gc bng cch s dng thut ton gii mt m v s
dng li kha phn mt m ha. Tnh cht bo mt ca thut ton mt m ty thuc vo
mc bo mt ca kha ch khng ph thuc vo tnh bo mt ca thut ton mt m
ha. Do vy thut ton khng cn phi gi b mt, ch c kha mi cn c bo mt.
Thut ton ny c phn loi theo cc dng m ho khi v m ho dng.
Trong mt m hc, m ha khi hot ng trn nhng khi thng tin c di xc
nh vi nhng chuyn i xc nh. Chng hn mt thut ton m ha khi c th x l
khi 128 bit u vo v bin n thnh khi 128 bit u ra. Qu trnh chuyn i cn s
dng thm mt tham s na: kha b mt c bit ha qu trnh. Vic gii m cng din
ra tng t: x l khi m ha 128 bit cng vi kha tr v khi 128 bit bn r ban
u. Cc v d in hnh ca m ha khi nh l: DES, triple DES (3DES), AES v
Blowfish.
Phn bit vi m ha khi l m ha dng. M ha dng lm vic trn tng bit ca
dng d liu v qu trnh bin i thay i theo qu trnh m ha. M ha chui bin i
mt kha thnh mt keystream ngu nhin (in hnh l 8 bit), sau kt hp vi
plaintext m ha n. M ha chui c dng nhiu hn so vi m ha khi. Cc v d
v m ha chui nh l: RC4 (c s dng trong 802.11).
Nu cng mt kha c s dng cho c hai qu trnh m ha v gii m th cc
kha ny c gi l symmetric (i xng). Cn nu cc kha khc nhau c s dng
th qu trnh ny c hiu nh l asymmetrric(bt i xng). Cc kha Asymmetric
c s dng nhiu trong cc PKI, ni m mt kha l public (cng cng) v cc ci
cn li l private(c nhn). Kha private khng ch dng gii m data m n cn
c dng k (m ha) cc message digest dng bo m tnh ton vn ca d liu.
Gii thut m ha i xng c u im l nhanh hn m ha bt i xng rt nhiu
(1000 ln). Nhc im ca m ha i xng chnh l n khng cho bit c tnh xc
thc cng nh s ton vn ca d liu v n cng bt tin ch l kha b mt m ha
v gii m cn phi c trao i ring qua cc phng tin khc ch khng th gi i
cng data c.
2.3.2 Giao thc mt m ha kha cng cng
Vic gii thiu giao thc mt m ha kha cng cng mang n mt ci cch
ln trong ngnh khoa hc mt m. Giao thc ny cung cp mt phng php rt linh hot
trong vic trao i kha. Trong ch mt m kha cng cng th mi cp thu/pht s
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
45
dng cc kha khc nhau. Ch ny cn c gi l ch khng i xng
(asymmetric) hoc hai kha.
Thut ton kha cng cng da trn cc hm ton hc nhiu hn cc php thay th
v hon v, cho d s bo mt ca bt k s mt m no u ph thuc rt ln vo
chiu di ca t kha v vic tnh ton lin quan ti vic ph (break) mt bn tin c
mt m. C mt s giao thc kha cng cng kh ph bin, l: Giao thc Rivert,
Shamir, Aldeman (RSA) v Giao thc chuyn i kha Diffie-Hillman.
Trong phng php mt m kha cng cng, mt trong hai kha c th s dng
cho mt m ha v ci cn li s dng cho gii mt m. S khng th tnh ton xc
nh kha gii mt m ch dnh cho thut ton v kha mt m. Mi h thng s s dng
phng php mt m ny to ra mt cp kha c th s dng cho vic mt m ha v
gii mt m ca mt bn tin. Mi h thng s cng b kha mt m ha ca n.
Tuy nhin kha cn li s c gi b mt. Nu A mun gi mt bn tin cho B, A
s mt m ha bng cch s dng kha cng cng ca B. Ti pha thu, B s gii mt m
n vi kha bo mt ca B. Khng ngi no khc c th gii mt m c bn tin ny
do ch c B mi bit kha bo mt ca n. Theo cch ny mt m ha theo kha cng
cng c th m bo c tnh bo mt ca vic truyn thng tin ni b ca n cho ti
khi no m h thng vn iu khin c kha bo mt ca n. Tuy nhin giao thc ny
phi tnh ton nhiu hn cng nh phc tp hn giao thc mt m ha kha bo mt.
2.3.3 Xc thc
K thut xc thc c s dng kim tra nhn dng. Bn tin xc thc s kim
tra tnh xc thc ca ni dung bn tin v pha gi bn tin. Ni dung bn tin c xc thc
thng qua vic thc thi mt hm bm (hash function) v mt m ha kt qu ca phn
tm tt ca bn tin (message digest). Vic kim tra tnh xc thc ca pha gi c th c
thc hin bng cch s dng mt ch k s.
Mt k thut chung dnh cho vic xc thc mt bn tin l s dng mt hm bm,
n s c s dng to ra mt "du vn tay (fingerprint)" ca mt bn tin. Gi tr bm
c thm vo cui bn tin trc khi truyn i. Pha thu tnh ton li gi tr bm t bn tin
thu c v so snh n vi gi tr bm m n thu c. Nu hai gi tr bm ny ging
nhau th bn tin s khng b thay i trong qu trnh truyn. Khi m hm bm c s
dng cho mt bn tin gi l bn tin m th kt qu s c mt tm tt bn tin c gi l
h(m). Hm bm c cc tnh cht sau:
Khng ging nh thut ton mt m ha, thut ton xc thc khng yu cu
cn c tnh thun nghch (reversible).
Cho mt tm tt h(m), s khng th tnh ton c tm ra m.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
46
S khng th tnh ton tm c hai bn tin khc nhau m
1
v m
2
c h(m
1
)
= h(m
2
).
Xc thc cho bn tin c th c thc hin theo hai cch. Trong cch th nht, nh
minh ha trn hnh 2.16 (a), mt hm bm c s dng i vi mt bn tin, tip l
mt qu trnh mt m ha s c thc hin, do vy phn tm tt ca bn tin cng c
mt m ha theo cch ny. bc ny mt m ha c th l kha cng cng hoc kha
bo mt. Vic xc thc cho bn tin trong phng php ny ch c m bo nu pha thu
(User 2) v pht (User 1) cng dng chung kha mt m ha. Ti pha thu phi gii mt
m phn tm tt bn tin m n thu c, tip s so snh n vi gi tr m n tnh
nh gi tnh ton vn ca bn tin.

Hnh 2.16: Xc thc bn tin: (a) Kt hp vi mt m ha (b) da trn hm bm HMAC
Trong cch th hai, nh minh ha trong hnh 2.17 (b), khng cn mt m ha trong
qu trnh xc thc bn tin. Phng php ny gi thit rng c hai pha thu v pht cng
dng chung kha bo mt. Do vy, ti pha thu vic so snh c thc hin gia gi tr
thu c h(m) v gi tr m n tnh ton. K thut ny ph bin hn trong vic bo mt
ca IP (Internet Protocol).
V d trong WiMAX m c s dng xc thc bn tin xem bn tin c m bo
tnh ton vn hay khng l AES v HMAC (Hash-based Message Authentication Code -
m xc thc bn tin da trn hm bm) da trn MD5 (Message Digest 5) v thut ton
SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm).
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng2: Nhng k thut c s
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
47
2.3.4 Ch k s
Ch k s l mt trong nhng phn quan trng nht ca bo mt. Cng ging nh
ch k ca cc c nhn trn vn bn, mt ch k s trn mt bn tin cng yu cu cn xc
thc chnh xc ca ngi gi i. Ch k s phi lun coi l duy nht cho mi thc th v
c s dng nh l phng tin nhn dng ngi gi. Ch k in t khng n gin
nh i vi ch k trn giy.
Phng php k thut cho cung cp cho vic xc thc ngi gi c tin hnh
thng qua mt m (cryptography). Mt s phng php mt m c pht trin. Ph
bin nht l thut ton RSA-thut ton c s dng cho c vic mt m ha v ch k
s. Khi s dng RSA th bn tin s c mt m ha vi kha bo mt ca bn pht. Do
vy ton b bn tin s phc v nh l mt ch k s. iu ny c ngha l pha thu c th
gii mt m n bng cch s dng kha cng cng.

Kt lun chng:
Ni dung ca chng gii thiu nhng kin thc chung nht ca cc k thut
nn tng, thng c s dng trong cc cng ngh truy nhp. Nhng kin thc ny s l
tin cho nhng tm hiu su hn v cc cng ngh truy nhp, s c cp tip trong
chng sau.

Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
48
CHNG 3: CC CNG NGH TRUY NHP
Chng ny trnh by chi tit c im ca tng cng ngh truy nhp theo phn
loi da trn mi trng truyn dn: u tin l cc cng ngh truy nhp hu tuyn bao
gm cc cng ngh truy nhp da trn mi trng truyn dn cp ng xon i, cp in
lc, cp ng trc, cp quang sau l cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn vi cng ngh
in hnh c trnh by l WIFI v WIMAX.
3.1 Cng ngh truy nhp truyn thng
3.1.1 Modem bng tn thoi
Ra i vo nhng nm 50 ca th k trc, tri qua mt thi k di pht trin, cho
n nay, cng ngh modem bng tn thoi tuy khng cn c s dng nhiu nh trc
nhng n vn c coi l mt cng c lin lc tc thp.
Cc giai on pht trin ca modem bng tn thoi c th c lit k ngn gn
nh sau:
Thp k 1950 Northern Telecom, Western Electric dng modem cho mc ch
ni b.
1964: V.21 ca CCITT (200 bit/s v 300bit/s FSK).
1975: FCC cho php s dng modem v fax qua PSTN.
1984: v.22bis QAM 16 trng thi
v.32bis dng m trellis t 14 400 bit/s.
1996: V.34 33 600 bit/s.
Modem 56 Kbit/s:
Us robotics (3com) X2 ca Ti
Rockwell/Lucent K56flex
1998: ITU-T v.90

Cc chun ITU-T cho modem bng tn thoi
Tiu chun quc t ca modem bt u t thp k 60 th k trc. Nm 1964 tiu
chun modem u tin ca CCITT l V.21 xc nh c tnh ca modem FSK tc 200
bit/s sau l 300 bit/s. K thut iu ch thay i sang QAM 4 trng thi vo nm
1968 v 16 trng thi vo nm 1984 bi V.22bis... Da vo bng 3.1 di y chng ta c
th thy cng vi s ra i ca cc loi hnh modem vi tc truyn dn (nh lit k
trn) l cc chun tng ng ca ITU-T.

Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
49
Bng 3.1: Cc chun modem bng tn thoi
Chun (ITU-T) Tc (US/DS) - b/s
V.21 300 / 300
V.22 bis 2400 / 2400
V.32 9600 / 9600
V.32 bis 14400 / 14400
V.FC 28800 / 28800
V.34 33600 / 33600
V.90 (X2, K65Flex) 33600 / 56000
V.92 48000/ 56000

u ni qua mng in thoi
Cng ngh modem bng tn thoi ra i vo thi im mng in thoi lc by gi
l mng thoi tng t (hnh 3.1). Tc modem cao nht t c trn nn mng thoi
tng t l 33600 bit/s v thc hin 10 bit trn mi tn hiu.












Hnh 3.1: u ni modem qua mng in thoi tng t
Khi cc cuc m thoi c in thoi c s ho, cc tng i lp mt b m
ho chuyn tn hiu tng t thnh tn hiu s ly mu tn hiu thoi 8000 ln mi giy v
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
50
dng 8 bt m ho gi tr ca mu. u kia ca kt ni din ra qu trnh ngc li v
mt tn hiu xp x gn vi tn hiu ban u c ti to. Tuy nhin, qu trnh m ho li
sn sinh ra mt loi nhiu khc l nhiu lng t. Khi thc hin lng t ho, cc bin
tng t c th nm gia hai mc lng t k tip trong 256 mc lng t khc nhau
c c t lng t ho 8 bt v b m ho chn mc lng t gn hn. u thu, mc
tn hiu tng t c ti to s khng phi l mc tn hiu ban u m khc hn mt
cht nn to ra nhiu. Vi mc ch truyn thoi th s khc bit ny l khng ng k
nhng vi modem th l mt vn ln.













Hnh 3.2: u ni modem qua mng in thoi s
Nhiu lng t l do qu trnh m ho PCM. Nu b qua c giai on m ho
PCM th c th thot khi gii hn Shannon. Nu ta b tr d liu s ch c qua b gii
m trn mng in thoi th d liu s c chuyn thnh tn hiu 256 mc pht ra t b
bin i s sang tng t ca b gii m PCM. Modem s chuyn sang tm kim cc mc
lng t ho ny vn c tiu chun ho. Trn thc t mt vi ni Hoa K ch s
dng 128 mc lng t ho v h thng ghp knh in thoi s T1 Bc M s dng bt
c trng s thp nht trong 8 bt gim st knh v bo hiu. c th s dng modem
ti mi ni th thay v 64 Kb/s tc modem l 56 Kb/s d hu ht cc ni trn th gii
u dng c 8 bt cho m ho d liu PCM. Hn na do tn hiu ch truyn t b gii m
PCM mch giao tip thu bao ca tng i n thu bao nn c rt t nhiu v kt qu l
t s tn hiu trn nhiu rt cao trn cc ng truyn 56 Kb/s. gii quyt vn ny,
ngi ta loi b qu trnh m ho PCM v a thng d liu s n b gii m. iu ny
i hi kt ni t ngun d liu (cc ISP chng hn) n b gii m phi ton b l s.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
51
Modem 56 Kb/s c th vt qua gii hn Shannon bng cch phn bit 2 chiu thu pht
ca ngi s dng tc vn l 33,6 Kb/s. Cn chiu thu tc ch t ti 56 Kb/s khi
ISP( Internet service proivider: nh cung cp dch v internet) ca h v cc tng i ca
PSTN phi hp trnh b lc PCM mch giao tip thu bao ca tng i bng cc
ng truyn s T1 (1544 Kb/s) hay E1 ( 2048 Kb/s). Nh vy khi 2 ngi s dng dng
2 modem 56 Kb/s truyn s liu im ni im th tc khng th no t c 56 Kb/s
m ch t c tc d liu song cng i xng l 33,6 Kb/s.
3.1.2 ISDN
ISDN (Integrated Service Digital Network) l mng (s) a dch v. ISDN ln u
tin c CCITT cp n trong mt khuyn ngh ca mnh vo nm 1977. Nguyn l
ca ISDN l cung cp cc dch v thoi v s liu chung trn mt ng dy thu bao k
thut s. Dng ISDN tc giao tip c s (BRI: Basic Rate Interface) cho php truyn
d liu v thoi trn 2 knh B (Binary channel) 64 Kb/s v 1 knh D (Digital channel) 16
Kb/s. Mi ng dy ISDN BRI c th b tr ti a 8 thit b u cui v cng mt lc
c th thc hin c nhiu cuc gi khc nhau. Dng ISDN cho php khch hng s
dng cc dch v mi nh dch v khn cp ( bo trm, bo chy,...), dch v ghi s in -
nc gas, dch v quay s trc tip vo tng i ni b, dch v a ch ph....Cc thit
b c ca mng in thoi PSTN vn dng c vi ISDN qua mt b thch ng u cui
TA ( Terminal Adaptor). (hnh 3.3)









Hnh 3.3: M hnh tham chiu ISDN
Cc loi knh ISDN:
Knh B (64kb/s): knh d liu, ti chuyn mch knh hoc chuyn mch gi,
c th mang ti khng cn chuyn mch (cc kt ni bn c nh xuyn qua
tng i).
Knh D (16 hoc 64 kb/s): Knh bo hiu, ch h tr ch truyn gi, thng
lng cn d ca knh D c th truyn d liu dng gi tc thp.
TE1
TA TE2
NT2
NT1
LE
R R S S T T
U U
Pha ng?i s? d?ng
Pha m?ng
TE1
TA TE2
NT2
NT1
LE
R R S S T T
U U
Pha ng?i s? d?ng
Pha m?ng
Pha ngi s dng
Pha mng
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
52
Knh H (nx64kb/s): Dng cho cc ng dng yu cu bng thng ln.
H0 = 384 kb/s (=6B)
H10 = 1472 kb/s (=23B)
H11 = 1536 kb/s (=24B)
H12 = 1920 kb/s (=30B).
Knh n x 64 kb/s: tc bng n knh B vi n = 2 24, p ng tc theo
yu cu, dng cho cc kt ni gia cc thit b thch ng bng rng.
Knh BRI: 2B + D = 144 kb/s.
Knh PRI:
23 B + D (24 B) 1,5 Mb/s. (T1) - Bc M
31 B + D (32B) 2 Mb/s. (E1) Chu u
3.1.3 Giao din V5.x
3.1.3.1 Khi nim
Giao din V5.x l giao din gia mng truy nhp v tng i ch dng h tr
tng i (hay cc node cung cp dch v) cung cp cc dch v vin thng bng hp v
tng bn knh phc v ca tng i (hnh 3.4).











Hnh 3.4: Giao din V5.x
V5.x quy nh cc giao thc thuc lp vt l, lp lin kt d liu v lp mng
kt ni tng i v thu bao thng qua mng truy nhp. V5.x c cu trc ca mt giao
din m nhm p ng yu cu ca khch hng truy nhp vo mng PSTN, ISDN,
Internet, mng ring.
LE
Mch Mch thu thu bao bao
Ghp Ghp knh knh
Mch Mch thu thu bao bao
Tp Tp trung trung ng ng dy dy

.
.
V5.2 V5.2 (1-16 E1)
V5.1 V5.1(1E1)

Analoge
BRI
Analoge
BRI,PRI
Thoi,
ISDN/BRA
LE
Mch Mch thu thu bao bao
Ghp Ghp knh knh
Mch Mch thu thu bao bao
Tp Tp trung trung ng ng dy dy

.
.
V5.2 V5.2 (1-16 E1)
V5.1 V5.1(1E1)

Analoge
BRI
Analoge
BRI,PRI
Thoi,
ISDN/BRA
Thoi,
ISDN/BRA,PRA

Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
53
Giao din V5.x khng hn ch bt k mt cng ngh hoc phng tin truy nhp
no, n c kh nng c ng dng trong nhiu phng thc truy nhp thu bao nh
DLC, RLC, PON. y l mt chun quc t c xu hng c nhiu nh sn xut quc t
tun th do hiu qu kt ni gia cc im cung cp dch v v mng truy nhp.
phc tp ca giao din V5.x l do phi p ng nhiu yu cu c bn ring r.
gim phc tp trong chng mc c th th cn thit phi xo b cc chc nng
khng cn thit. iu ny tr thnh mi quan tm chnh i vi cc t chc bin son
tiu chun. Mt kt qu ca vic trn l cc m bo hiu c truyn qua giao din V5.x
mt cch trong sut, cn vic to ra v nhn bit chng l trch nhim ca tng i ch
ch khng phi ca mng truy nhp.
3.1.3.2 Phn loi
Giao din V5.x gm hai chun V5.1 v V5.2. Vic s dng cc giao din V5.1 v
V5.2 s c la chn tu theo yu cu thc t. Hin nay, V5.x c quy nh kh chi
tit do cc t chc tiu chun trn th gii bin son.
ITU-T: G.964 - tiu chun V5.1 (ban hnh 6/1994).
G.965 - tiu chun V5.2 (ban hnh 3/1995).
Chu u: ETSI 300-324-1 -> chun V5.1 (ban hnh 1/1994)
ETSI 300-347-1 -> chun V5.2 (ban hnh 11/1994)
Vit Nam: TCN 68-184:1999 v V5.1
TCN 68-185:1999 v V5.2
(Do tng cc Bu in Vit Nam ban hnh 17/11/1999)
Giao din V5.1
Giao din V5.1 ch c 1 lung E1 2048 Kb/s, c 30 khe thi gian cho 30 thu bao
in thoi tng t hoc 15 thu bao ISDN tc 2B + D hoc kt hp 2 loi nhng
khng vt qu 30 knh B. Kt ni m V5.1 cung cp bao gm: knh thoi analog, knh
thu ring s hoc analog, knh thu bao ISDN tc c bn. Cc khe thi gian dnh cho
mi thu bao l c nh, c n nh trc khi lp t.
Giao din V5.2
Kt ni m V5.2 cung cp bao gm: knh thoi analog, knh thu ring s hoc
analog, knh thu bao ISDN tc c bn v s cp. Bng di y a ra s so snh
gia giao din V5.1 v V5.2 theo mt s c tnh nh dch v cung cp, dung lng kt
nivv.
Giao din V5.2 c kh nng cung cp ti a ti 16 lung E1 2048 Kb/s. Mi lung
c 31 khe thi gian, trong c 2 lung tu theo khe thi gian 16 lm chc nng hot
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
54
ng hay d phng m to ra lung s cp hay th cp. Cc khe thi gian 16 ca cc
lung khc cng c th dng lm knh B nn cc lung cn li c th c n 31 knh B.
Giao din V5.2 cng h tr s kt hp ca cc thu bao PSTN, ISDN v thu knh vi s
lng theo h s tp trung c thit k trc trnh hin tng nghn mch.
Giao din V5.2 bao gm ton b cc chc nng ca giao din V5.1, ngoi ra V5.2
cn c kh nng n nh linh hot khe thi gian cho bt k mt cng khch hng no khi
gi i hay tip nhn cuc gi. Vic sp xp cc knh ti ti cc cng khch hng vo cc
khe thi gian ti trn giao din V5.2 c iu khin bi giao thc kt ni knh ti. Cc
khe thi gian ti c phn chia cho cc cng khch hng mt cch linh hot theo yu
cu.
Bng 3.2: Mt s c tnh chnh ca giao din V5.1 v giao din V5.2
c tnh V5.1 V5.2
Dch v
POTS, knh thu ring s hoc analog,
thu bao ISDN tc c bn (2B+D)
Ging V5.1 v thm dch v
ISDN tc s cp (30B + D)
Dung lng
1 x E1
(30 thu bao POTS)
(1 16) x E1
(~ 4000 thu bao POTS)
Cp pht khe
thi gian
C nh ng
Ghp knh/tp
trung thu bao
Ghp knh Tp trung thu bao
Giao thc iu
khin cuc gi
C
C
iu khin giao
din
C C
iu khin lung Khng C
iu khin kt
ni knh lu
lng
Khng C
iu khin bo
v
Khng C
Phm vi ng
dng
Tc dch v ti a l 2B + D.
Nhu cu dung lng nh.
Tc dch v ti a l 30B +
D. Nhu cu lu lng ln.
Vic phn chia ng cc khe thi gian ti trn giao din V5.2 m bo an ton
cao hn v dch v c duy tr ngay c khi mt lung hng (tt nhin iu ny yu cu
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
55
phi c t 2 lung tr ln trn giao din V5.2). Cc cuc gi ring r c th b mt nu
mt lung V5.2 b hng nhng cc cuc gi ny c th c thit lp li trn mt lung
khc nu cng khch hng gi li. Cht lng dch v sau khi xy ra li s thp hn v lu
lng c h tr bi s khe thi gian t hn. Vic phn chia ng cc khe thi gian ti
trn giao din V5.2 cng h tr chc nng tp trung lu lng ti v giao din c th h
tr nhiu knh ti cng khch hng, do lm gim s giao tip cn thit gia tng i v
thit b ca mng truy nhp. Chc nng tp trung lu lng tn dng u im ca mt
thc t l ch c mt phn cc cng khch hng s hot ng ti mi thi im xc nh.
Tp trung lu lng qua giao din V5.2 khc vi tp trung lu lng trong bn
thn mng truy nhp. H thng truyn dn ca mng truy nhp khng cn thit phi tp
trung lu lng nu giao din V5.2 c chc nng tp trung. S dng V5.2 vi chc nng
tp trung s c gi thnh cng khch hng thp hn mc d giao din s phc tp hn do
yu cu t lung hn h tr lu lng.
Chc nng phn chia ng cc khe thi gian ti trn giao din V5.2 khc vi chc
nng tp trung lu lng ti ch khng xc nh t s cc cng khch hng vi cc khe
thi gian ti c trn giao din V5.2. Mt giao din V5.2 khng nht thit phi c chc
nng tp trung lu lng nhng bt buc phi c chc nng phn chia ng cc khe thi
gian ti.
3.1.3.3 Chc nng
Nu xt v chc nng th giao din V5.x c knh mang (Bearer channel) dng ti
lu lng v knh truyn thng (Communication channel) dng ti cc thng tin dnh
cho bo hiu v iu khin. Knh ti c dng thc hin truyn dn hai chiu cc
knh B c n nh cho cng ISDN c bn/s cp, hoc cc knh 64kbit/s c m
ho theo lut A-PCM c n nh cho cc cng khch hng PSTN. Cc knh ti cng c
th l nhiu knh 64kbit/s ghp li h tr cc dch v ISDN no . Knh truyn thng
(hay gi l knh C) c dng truyn ti cc ng truyn thng (Communication
path hay cn gi l C-path).
Lin quan n knh C cn c khi nim knh C logic v knh C vt l. Knh C logic
khng trng vi khi nim knh C ch n khng cha C-path truyn ti giao thc phng
v. Knh vt l l mt khe thi gian trn giao din V5.2 c gn truyn ti knh C
logic. Mt knh C vt l c th khng c dng ti lu lng.
Nhng chc nng chnh ca giao din V5.x:
Cung cp nhng knh ti.
Truyn ti thng tin trn knh D ca ISDN t cng khch hng tc truy
nhp c bn.
Truyn ti thng tin bo hiu PSTN.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
56
iu khin cc cng khch hng: Thc hin truyn dn hai chiu ti thng tin
trng thi v iu khin tng cng khch hng ring r.
iu khin trong mt lung 2048kbit/s: phn chia khung, phn chia a khung,
cc thng tin ch th cnh bo v CRC (Cylic Redundancy Check) ca lung
2048kbit/s.
iu khin cc lin kt lp 2: cc kh nng thng tin hai chiu truyn cc
th tc khc nhau.
iu khin h tr cho cc chc nng chung: chn v s dng ng b cc
d liu t ngun ng b cc d liu t ngun d liu c sn v kh nng khi
ng li.
nh thi: cc thng tin nh thi cn thit cho truyn bit, nhn dng octet v
ng b khung.
Ring i vi giao din V5.2 cn c thm cc chc nng sau (hnh 3.5):














Hnh 3.5: Chc nng V5.2

iu khin cc lung 2048kbit/s trn giao din.
iu khin kt ni knh ti: tch v nhp cc kt ni knh ti theo yu cu cho
cc chc nng tp trung.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
57
Phng v cc knh thng tin : iu khin vic bo v chuyn mch cho cc
knh thng tin khng b nh hng bi nh hng bi s c ca tuyn ni
2048kbit/s.
3.2 Cng ngh xDSL
3.2.1 Gii thiu chung v xDSL
xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line) l h cng ngh ng dy thu bao s gm nhiu
cng ngh c tc , khong cch truyn dn khc nhau v c ng dng vo cc dch
v khc nhau, vi x thay cho cc k t : A, H, V, I, S,
C th phn loi xDSL theo c tnh truyn dn gia hai chiu ln v xung nh
sau :
Truyn dn hai chiu i xng: HDSL/HDSL2, SHDSL c chun ho
v nhng phin bn khc nh: SDSL, IDSL
Truyn dn hai chiu khng i xng: ADSL/ADSL. Lite (G.Lite), ADSL2,
ADSL2+ c chun ho v mt s tn gi khc cha c chun ho
nh: RADSL, UADSL, CDSL.
Truyn dn i xng v khng i xng: VDSL, VDSL2
Trong:
HDSL/HDSL 2: Cng ngh ng dy thu bao s truyn tc d liu cao
HDSL s dng 2 i dy ng trong mi i dy s dng hon ton sng cng
cung cp dch v T1 (1,544 Mb/s), 2 hoc 3 i dy cung cp dch v E1 (2,048 Mb/s)
SDSL: Cng ngh DSL mt i dy truyn i xng tc 784 Kb/s trn mt i
dy, ghp knh thoi v s liu trn cng mt ng dy, s dng m 2B1Q. Cng ngh
ny cha c cc tiu chun thng nht nn khng c ph bin cho cc dch v tc
cao. SDSL ch c ng dng trong vic truy cp trang Web, ti nhng tp d liu v
thoi ng thi vi tc 128 Kb/s vi khong cch nh hn 6,7 Km v tc ti a l
1024 Kb/s trong khong 3,5 Km.
SHDSL: L cng ngh kt hp ca HDSL 2 v SDSL vi tc thay i t
192Kb/s n 2,134 Mb/s, khong cch tng ng vi tc ti a l 2km. Trong thc t,
n c th cu hnh dng 2 i dy cung cp tc t 384Kb/s n 4,264Mb/s.
ADSL,ADSL2 v ADSL2+: Cng ngh DSL khng i xng, ADSL cung cp tc
truyn dn khng i xng ln ti 8 Mb/s lung xung v 16- 640 Kb/s lung ln vi
khong cch truyn dn 5km v gim i khi tc ln cao. Mt dng ADSL khc gi l
ADSL Lite hay ADSL khng s dng b lc xut hin t u nm 1998 ch yu cho
ng dng truy cp Internet tc cao. ADSL2 thm nhng ci tin v iu ch v m
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
58
ha lm tng hiu qu s dng bng thng. ADSL2+ m rng bng tn cho chiu xung
ti 2.2 Mhz
ReachDSL l cng ngh DSL i xng p ng nhu cu ca thu bao cc
khong cch xa. b sung cho cng ngh ADSL tiu chun (DMT hay G.lite), cc sn
phm ReachDSL cung cp tc d liu t 128 Kb/s n 1 Mb/s v c thit k lm
vic vi iu kin ng dy v i dy trong nh d di hn. Mt trong cc li ch ca
ReachDSL l khng cn phi lp t cc b tch dch v thoi, iu ny cho php khch
hng hon ton c th t lp t cc b lc. Khc vi cc h thng ADSL c di vng
thu bao gii hn trong khong 5 Km k t tng i, cc h thng ReachDSL m rng
dch v n hn 6,5Km v hin nay c cc ng dy vt qu 10 Km.
VDSL: Cng ngh DSL tc d liu rt cao l cng ngh ph hp cho kin trc
mng truy nhp s dng cp quang ti cm dn c. VDSL truyn tc d liu cao qua
cc ng dy ng xon i khong cch ngn. Tc lung xung ti a t ti 52
Mb/s trong chiu di 300 m. Vi tc lung xung thp 1,5 Mb/s th chiu di cp t
ti 3,6 km. Tc lung ln trong ch khng i xng l 1,6- 2,3 Mb/s.
VDSL2: Cng ngh c tc cao nht trong h, n c th t ti tc 250Mb/s
v s dng di tn ln n 30Mhz.
Bng 3.3: Cc cng ngh trong h xDSL.
Cng
ngh
Tc
Khong cch
truyn dn
S i
dy
ng dng
IDSL 144 Kb/s i xng 5km 1 i Truyn thoi v s liu

HDSL

1,544Mb/s i xng
2,048Mb/s i xng
3,6 km 4,5 km
2 i
3 i
Cp lumgT1/E1 truy
xut WAN. LAN, truy xut
server
HDSL2
1,544Mb/s i xng
2,048Mb/s i xng
3,6 km 4,5 km 1 i
Cp lumg T1/E1 truy
xut WAN. LAN, truy xut
server
SDSL
768Kb/s i xng
1,544Mb/s hoc
2,048Mb/s mt chiu
7 km
3 km

1 i
Nh HDSL nhng thm
phn truy xut i xng.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
59
SHDSL 5.6Mb/s ln/xung
7 km
3 km
1, 2 i Kt ni server
ADSL
8 Mb/s xung, 800
Kb/s ln
5km (tc cng
cao th khong
cch cng ngn )
1 i
Truy xut Internet, Video
theo yu cu, tng tc a
phng tin, truy xut LAN
t xa.
ADSL2
8 Mb/s xung, 1
Mb/s ln
5km (tc cng
cao th khong
cch cng ngn )
nhiu i
dy
Truy xut Internet, Video
theo yu cu, tng tc a
phng tin, truy xut LAN
t xa.
ADSL2+
24 Mb/s xung 1
Mb/s ln
5km (tc cng
cao th khong
cch cng ngn )
mt hoc
nhiu i
dy (ti
32 i)
Truy xut Internet, Video
theo yu cu, tng tc a
phng tin, truy xut LAN
t xa.
ADSL2-
RE
8 Mb/s xung
1 Mb/s ln
5km (tc cng
cao th khong
cch cng ngn )
1 i
Truy xut Internet, Video
theo yu cu, tng tc a
phng tin, truy xut LAN
t xa.
VDSL
26 Mb/s i xng
1352 Mb/s lung
xung
1,5-2,3 Mb/s lung
ln
300 m 1,5 km
(tu tc )
1 i
Nh ADSL nhng thm
HDTV
VDSL2
100Mb/s ln/xung
G.993.2
300 m 1,5 km
(tu tc )
1 i
Nh ADSL nhng thm
HDTV

Vi mt h cc cng ngh DSL gm nhiu cng ngh khc nhau, vic p dng
chng sao cho ph hp v c hiu qu cao l mt vn cn xem xt. Mi loi k thut
c nhng tnh nng, c th v im mnh, im yu ring. Trong h xDSL th cc cng
ngh bt i xng nh ADSL, ADSL2, ADSL2+ l nhng cng ngh c s dng
nhiu nht, ph bin nht trn th gii chnh v vy trong ti liu ny ch cp n cng
ngh ny m thi.
3.2.2 Cng ngh ADSL
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
60
ADSL l cng ngh ng dy thu bao s bt i xng, tc ng ln t ti
1Mbps v tc ng xung ln ti 8Mbps, c th cung cp ng thi vi dch v thoi
hay ISDN. ADSL c pht trin vo u nhng nm 90, cung cp cc dch v nh truy
nhp Internet tc cao, cc dch v trc tuyn, video theo yu cu.... Mt dng ADSL
khc gi l ADSL Lite hay ADSL khng s dng b lc xut hin t u nm 1998
ch yu cho ng dng truy cp Internet tc cao, k thut ny khng i hi b lc pha
thu bao nn gi thnh thit b v chi ph lp t gim i tuy nhin tc lung xung
ch cn 1,5 Mb/s.
3.2.2.1 Kin trc h thng
Ni gia mi nh thu bao v tng i l mt i dy ng xon i thng c
gi l mch vng ni ht. i vi ADSL full-rate, cc b chia c t hai pha u
cui mch vng tch tn hiu in thoi - POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) v tn
hiu s liu tc cao. B chia bao gm mt b lc thng cao - HPF (High Pass Filter)
cho php tn hiu s liu i qua v b lc thng thp - LPF (Low Pass Filter) cho php tn
hiu thoi i qua.



















Hnh 4.6: Kin trc h thng ADSL
Pha khch hng, mt b chia c th c lp t ti im phn cch gia mng
ca nh cung cp v mng ng dy trong nh. Ti im phn cch cn c thit b giao
din mng - NID (Network Interface Device) vi chc nng l im phn bit mng ca
nh cung cp dch v v khch hng, ng thi bo v ng dy vo nh thu bao. B
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
61
chia t sau NID (i khi c kt hp ngay trong NID) v t y c hai i dy ring.
i dy th nht thng l i dy c sn cung cp dch v thoi. i th hai c th c
lp mi cung cp dch v s liu. Sau , i dy ADSL kt ni ti modem ADSL
trong nh khch hng gi l kt cui ADSL u xa - ATU-R (ADSL Transceiver Unit,
remote terminal end). Thu bao nu ang s dng in thoi s - ISDN (Intergrated
Services Digiatal Network) 2B+D th LPF phi lc bng cao hn so vi POTS do m
2B1Q s dng trong ISDN 2B+D chim 80 kHz cn m 4B3T (c) th chim ti 120
kHz.
Pha tng i, cc b chia c lp t ni mch vng ni ht kt cui u tin trn
gi phi dy - MDF (Main Distribution Frame). y l mt im trung tm kt cui cc
mch vng vi nhau. i vi ADSL, mt i dy kt cui ni mi mch vng vo mt b
chia pha tng i (thc t c nhiu b chia to thnh mt gi b chia kt cui cho nhiu
mch vng). Ging nh trong trng hp b chia pha thu bao, c hai i dy i ra khi
b chia pha tng i. i th nht kt ni ti mt chuyn mch thoi cung cp dch v
thoi truyn thng. i dy th hai kt ni ti mt thit b to thnh cp vi ATU-R
c gi l kt cui ADSL pha tng i - ATU-C (ADSL Transceiver Unit, central office
end). hiu qu, cc modem ATU-C c kt hp vi chc nng ghp knh to thnh
mt b ghp knh truy nhp DSL - DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line Access Mutiplexer)
tng i v c kt ni ti mng ca nh cung cp dch v.

Hnh 3.7: S khi h thng ADSL
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
62
Hnh 3.7 l s khi n gin ca mt h thng ADSL. C hai trng thi y
cn lu n l tn hiu c tch POTS v xDSL (c hai u song hng). u tin, tn
hiu tng hp c tch bi cc b lc thng thp v thng cao. Sau , cc tn hiu pht
v thu xDSL (n hng) c th c phn tch tip bi cc b lc, b sai ng 4dy/
2dy v b trit ting vng.
Mt s s liu quan trng trong cng ngh ADSL c a ra trong bng 3.4.
Trong , nhng s liu v s sng mang s dng trong h thng song cng FDD khng
xut hin trong bt k mt tiu chun no, y ch l nhng khuyn ngh thc t gip cho
vic thc hin c d dng hn. Trong G.922.2, mt vi sng mang ph c th c ly
t lung ln cho lung xung. Nhng sng mang ph c s dng lc ny c th l 33-
127 v 7-25.
Bng 3.4: Mt s s liu c bn ca ADSL
Lung xung
G.992.1 v
T1.413
G.992.2 Lite
Lung ln
f
ly mu
(MHz) 2.208 1.104 0.276
Kch thc IFFT 512 256 64
Mo u chu k
Khng c khung ng b 40 5
C khung ng b 32 4
Tc mu d liu 4 kHz
Tc mu on-line 4.0588 kHz
rng sng mang ph 4.3125 kHz
Siu khung 68 khung v mt khung ng b
S sng mang s dng (FDD) 36-255 36-127 7-28
Truyn dn trong bng tn (PSD)
dB/Hz
-40 -38
3.2.2.2 K thut iu ch a tn ri rc DMT
C ba k thut iu ch c s dng trong cng ngh ADSL. l QAM, CAP
v DMT, trong k thut iu ch a tn ri rc DMT chng minh c nhng u
vit ca mnh v hin nay ang c s dng rng ri.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
63
Hnh 3.8: K thut iu ch DMT
DMT l k thut iu ch a sng mang, phn chia ph tn s ADSL (t 26KHz
n 1,1 MHz) thnh cc bng tn con, mi bng tn tn con c rng bng mt bng tn
thoi, khong 4KHz. Trn mi bng tn con c iu ch QAM mt cch c lp, hnh
3.8. Vic s dng QAM no trong mi knh con ph thuc vo t s S/N ca knh con
.
3.2.2.3 K thut truyn dn song cng














Hnh 3.9: K thut truyn dn song cng FDM

Tn s [kHz]
Tn
hiu
4
25 138 1 104
Lung xung Lung ln
256 Knh
Khong knh
4.3125 kHz
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
64
Cng ngh vin thng c nhiu k thut truyn dn song cng khc nhau nh
FDM, TDM, EC. Cng ngh ADSL s dng hai k thut truyn dn song cng l ghp
knh phn chia theo tn s (FDM) v song cng c trit ting vng (EC).Vi k thut
ghp knh phn chia theo tn s, di tn ln c tch bit vi di tn xung bi mt di
bo v (hnh 3.9) v vy trnh c xuyn m.
Vi k thut song cng c trit ting vng, di tn hng ln nm trong di tn
hng xung (hnh 3.10) nn cho hiu sut bng tn cao hn nhng k thut ny gy ra
xuyn m, do n i hi vic x l tn hiu s phc tp hn.











Hnh 3.10: K thut truyn dn song cng EC
3.2.2.4 Cu trc b thu pht ADSL-DMT
C hai lung s liu tn ti trong ADSL l lung nhanh v lung an xen. Trong
s cu trc b thu pht ADSL-DMT (hnh 3.11), phn lung an xen c thm b an
xen phn tn li cm, h tr cho FEC trong sa li v v vy s liu lung ny b tr
hn.
Khi ghp knh v iu khin ng b: Nhn cc knh d liu, EOC, AOC v cc bt ch
th ri to khung v siu khung theo tc tho thun sau qu trnh khi to. u ra ca
khi ny gm hai lung d liu l do kh nng ca m sa li trc Reed-Solomon (R-S)
khi kt hp vi an xen c th sa cha cc li cm (do xung nhiu bn ngoi tc
ng vo hoc do vic ct xn xy ra bn trong) li gy ra tr d liu nn ti u gia
tc li cm v s tr trong mi knh d liu, cng ngh ADSL a ra trong lp hi
t truyn dn (lp TC) s kt hp cc knh d liu a u vo v gn cho chng vo
lung nhanh hoc lung an xen.
CRC: To 8 bt kim tra li v t trong khung th nht ca mi siu khung. Trong mt
lung, CRC s kim tra tt c cc bt chuyn qua tr cc byte FEC, CRC ca siu khung
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
65
trc v khung ng b. CRC gip pht hin c bao nhiu siu khung sau khi thu xut
hin mt li khng th sa c bng FEC.
Khi trn (Ngu nhin ho): Thc hin trn lung nhanh v lung chm (lung an xen)
mt cch c lp nhm mc ch trnh cc cc bt ging nhau xut hin lin tip. Ti u
thu qu trnh din ra ngc li vi cng qui lut.
C th hiu b trn trong ADSL nh l mt kiu t ng b. B gii trn c tc
ng lm cn tr tc bit li tuy nhin nhng kin chung u cho rng tc dng ny
khng my hu ch nu h thng s dng m sa li trc Reed-Solomon. Mt h thng
xDSL DMT phi c ly theo ng h siu khung, vic mt ng h ny s nh hng
n rt nhiu chc nng ca my thu ch khng ch mnh b gii trn do kh nng t
ng b ca b trn khng c my hiu qu. Vic khi to li b trn theo mi siu
khung s tt hn nhng khng c thnh hnh.
Khi FEC: Thm bt d vo phn d liu nhm sa mt s bt b li sau b gii iu ch
pha thu ( y s dng m Reed Solomon).
Khi an xen: Ch tn ti trong lung an xen, phn tn li cm ti cc t m khc
nhau sao cho s byte b li lin tip nm trong kh nng sa li ca loi m . Tt nhin,
lc ny thng tin s b tr hn so vi khng an xen.
Sp xp bng tn con: Trng ti bit ca cc sng mang con ph thuc vo t s SNR o
c pha u thu v thng gim nhanh theo tn s. Tuy nhin, pha pht, nhiu ct
xn trong min thi gian v nhiu trng trong min tn s cng gy nh hng ln n
cc sng mang con c trng ti ln nu nh cc sng mang ny khng s dng an xen
tri rng nhiu ra. Khi sp xp bng tn con c vai tr sp xp tt c cc sng mang con
theo chiu tng dn ca cc bit trng ti, nhm mc ch s dng c ti u kh nng
ca bng tn. u tin, d liu trong cc lung nhanh c sp xp ln lt vo cc sng
mang con, sau d liu trong cc lung an xen (c trng ti ln hn) c sp xp tip
vo cc sng mang con cn li.
M sa li trc Reed-Solomon: M sa li trc Reed-Solomon dng trong h thng
xDSL c cp trong chng 2. Trong thc t, t m R-S c kho theo tc k
hiu DMT. n gin t m nht, m hnh l tng, mi mt t m s cha mt k
hiu d liu. Nh vy, vi tc d liu thp, t m s nh v vic m ho l khng hiu
qu, vi tc d liu rt cao, s to ra cc t m di v phin phc. Do vy, s lng k
hiu DMT cho mi t m (T1.413 gi l S) c th l 1, 2, 4, . Mt my pht ADSL
lung xung ti tc 1.6 Mbit/s c k hiu DMT l 50 byte v mt t m 200 byte th
S=4. Do yu cu l s nguyn nhng phn khc ca h thng nn t m R-S phi c cu
to theo cc byte do s lng bit cho mi k hiu phi l mt s nguyn ln ca 8. i
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
66
vi h thng ADSL iu ny c ngha l tc d liu phi l mt s nguyn ln ca 32
kbit/s.
Khi IFFT: Sau khi sp xp bng tn con v m ho s to ra mt s phc. Nh vy, s
c nhiu nht l 256 s phc. Khi IFFT s chuyn cc s phc trong min tn s ny
sang tn hiu trong min thi gian.
Khi thm tin t vng: to ra knh ga tun hon gip qu trnh cn bng trong min
tn s pha thu thun li hn.
Khi bin i s-tng t DAC v x l tng t: Chuyn i cc mc tn hiu sang
mc in p v pha khc nhau trn ng truyn. B lc gii hn tn hiu pht trong
bng thng ca ADSL .















Hnh 3.11: Cu trc b thu pht ADSL-DMT
EOC, AOC v cc bit ch th.
Knh nghip v nhng - EOC: trao i thng tin bo dng gia ATU-C v ATU-R
trong trng thi ang phc v hay khng phc v cng cc thng tin v trng thi ca
ATU-R v nhng thng s gim st cht lng h thng ADSL nh h tr vic c v
ghi cc ng k cha thng tin hot ng trn ATU-R t ATU-C nhn dng ca ATU-
R bao gm thng tin nh cung cp, s sn xut, cu hnh hin ti ca ATU-R, kt qu t
kim tra, suy gim dng ng dy, s d t l nhiu trn tn hiu Mt vi ng k
c dnh cho nh cung cp nh ngha, nhng c th c v ghi c thng qua EOC.
Data Data
EOC EOC
AOC AOC
Bit Bit ch ch
th th
Data Data
EOC EOC
AOC AOC
Bit Bit ch ch
th th
B B t t o o
khung khung
CRC CRC
CRC CRC
CRC CRC
CRC CRC
Tr Tr n n
Tr Tr n n
Tr Tr n n
Tr Tr n n
M M ha ha
RS RS
M M ha ha
RS RS
M M ha ha
RS RS
M M ha ha
RS RS
an an xen xen an an xen xen
S S p p xp xp
v v
m m ha ha
ch ch m m
i i m m
I I
D D
F F
T T
I I
D D
F F
T T
Th Th m m
Tin Tin
t t
v v ng ng
Th Th m m
Tin Tin
t t
v v ng ng
D/A D/A D/A D/A
B B gi gi i i
khung khung
CRC CRC
CRC CRC
Gi Gi i i tr tr n n
Gi Gi i i tr tr n n
Gi Gi i i m m
Gi Gi i i m m
Gi Gi i i
an an xen xen
Gi Gi i i
m m
gi gi i i
s s p p
xp xp
F F
D D
Q Q
D D
F F
T T
T T ch ch
tin tin
t t
v v ng ng
TDQ TDQ
ADC+ ADC+
fillter fillter
B B gi gi i i
khung khung
CRC CRC
CRC CRC
Gi Gi i i tr tr n n
Gi Gi i i tr tr n n
Gi Gi i i m m
Gi Gi i i m m
Gi Gi i i
an an xen xen
Gi Gi i i
m m
gi gi i i
s s p p
xp xp
F F
D D
Q Q
D D
F F
T T
T T ch ch
tin tin
t t
v v ng ng
TDQ TDQ
ADC+ ADC+
fillter fillter
(a) Thit b pht
(b) Thit b thu
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
67
EOC c thc hin nh s dng cc bit trong ' fast byte ' ca nhng khung t 2 n 32
v t 36 n 67 trong mt siu khung.
Knh mo u AOC : AOC c s dng mang cc thng tin thi gian thc cn thit
cho vic ti lp li cu hnh cn cho thay i trng thi ng dy. N mang cc bit trong
byte ng b ca phn ghp xen khung ADSL. Mt khung AOC c di 13 bit gm 5
bit lnh v 8 bit d liu. Tt c cc knh mang ADSL u dng chung mt knh AOC
mang cc bt thm cho nhng dung lng trong cc knh mang khng phi l bi s ca 32
kbps. Tuy nhin, mc ch chnh ca knh mo u ADSL l trao i thng tin truy
nhp nghip v gia cc khi ATU u cui mch vng. AOC cn thc hin qu trnh
hon chuyn bt cho php mt h thng ADSL thay i s bt c gn cho mt knh con
DMT hay thay i nng lng pht cho mt knh con m khng lm gin on lung s
liu. N c gng cn bng t l li cho cc knh con v duy tr t l ny nh lin tc
chuyn cc bt ny khi mt knh con c t l cao ti cc knh c t l li thp hn. Khi
ATU no cng c th khi to mt qu trnh hon chuyn bt bng cch chuyn i mt
bn tin yu cu ri ch thu c bn tin chp nhn t u xa. Cc th tc hon chuyn
hng ln v xung c th c lp nhau hoc din ra ng thi nhng ti mt thi im
ch c ti a mt yu cu hon chuyn bt mi hng.
Bit ch dn c mang trong cc fast byte ca phn nhanh ca khung ADSL. Mi
bit c xem nh ch dn cho modem thu v trng thi ca phn tng t n ti u bn
kia. Cc bit ch dn c thit lp khi cc trng thi chng hn nh li ng truyn hay
mt tn hi c pht hin ti u bn kia ca kt ni ADSL.
Qa trnh din ra b thu ngc li vi qu trnh pha pht. Trong , FDQ v
TDQ ln lt l cc b cn bng trong min thi gian v tn s trit nhiu ISI.
3.2.2.5. Cu trc khung v siu khung
Trong ADSL, mt siu khung bao gm mt dy 68 khung ADSL lin tip. Mt
khung ADSL c chu k 250s v chia thnh 2 phn chnh: phn s liu nhanh v phn s
liu an xen (hnh 3.12).
Trong siu khung ADSL, mt vi khung c chc nng c bit. V d, khung 0 v
1 mang thng tin iu khin li (CRC) v cc bit ch th s dng cho qun l ng
truyn. Ngoi ra, cc bit ch th khc c cha trong khung 34 v 35. Mt khung ng b
c bit khng mang tin theo sau siu khung m nhn chc nng ng b cho siu khung
c chu k 17 ms .




Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
68















Hnh 3.12: Cu trc siu khung ADSL
3.2.2.6 Ch truyn ti
Chui bit trong cc khung ADSL c th chia ti a thnh 7 knh ti tin ti cng mt
thi im. Cc knh ny c chia thnh 2 lp chnh: n hng v song hng (hnh
3.13).










Hnh 3.13: Ch truyn ti trong ADSL
Ch rng, cc knh ti tin ny l cc knh logic v chui bit t tt c cc knh
c truyn ng thi trn ng truyn ADSL m khng phi s dng bng tn ring.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
69
Bt k knh ti no cng c th c lp trnh mang tc l bi s ca tc
32Kbps (bng 3.5). i vi nhng tc khng phi l bi s ca 32Kbps th phi s dng
n cc bit ph trong phn mo u ca khung ADSL.
Bng 3.5: Tc knh mang
Knh mang H s nhn ti a Tc cao nht h tr (Kbps)
AS0 192 6144
AS1 144 4608
AS2 96 3072
AS3 48 1536
LS0 20 640
LS1 20 640
LS2 20 640
3.2.3 Cng ngh ADSL2
ADSL2 l th th hai ca ADSL c chun ho trong ITU G.992.3 v G992.4
da trn chun ca th h th nht ITU G.992.1 v G.992.2. Tuy nhin ADSL2 c nhiu
ci tin so vi ADSL th h th nht.
ADSL2 c th t c tc ng xung trn 8Mb/s v ng ln ti 800Kb/s
trn mt i dy in thoi. So vi ADSL, ADSL2 tng tc ng xung khong t 50
n 196Kb/s v tng tc ng ln khong t 32 n 64Kb/s. Mt khc, vi cng tc
s liu nh ADSL, ADSL2 tng khong cch so vi ADSL t 150 n 300m. Trn
ng y in thoi c cng di so vi ADSL th ADSL2 c tc s liu tng
khong 50Kb/s.
C c kt qu ny l do ADSL2 ci thin hiu qu iu ch, gim tiu khung,
t c li m ho cao hn, ci thin trng thi khi to v tng cng thut ton x
l tn hiu... So vi ADSL, ADSL2 b xung mt s tnh nng mi, l nhng tnh nng
lin quan n cc tnh nng lin quan n ng dng, cc tnh nng lin quan n PMS-TC
v cc tnh nng lin quan n PMD.
3.2.3.1 Cc tnh nng lin quan n ng dng
H tr ng dng ch hon ton s
ADSL a ra mt ch tu chn cho php truyn s liu ADSL trn bng tn
thoi do tng thm 256Kb/s cho tc d liu ng ln.
H tr ng dng thoi trn bng tn ADSL
C ba phng thc c bn truyn lu lng thoi trn ng dy cp ng s
dng bng tn DSL l: Thoi qua ch truyn dn cn ng b (VoATM), thoi qua
giao thc internet (VoIP) v thoi phn knh trn DSL (CVoDSL).
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
70
CVoDSL l mt ci tin ca cng ngh ng dy thu bao s. Phng thc ny
truyn lu lng thoi TDM mt cch trong sut qua bng tn DSL. CVoDSL l duy nht
gia cc gii php thoi qua DSL trong n truyn thoi trong lp vt l, cho php
truyn cc knh thoi trn bng tn DSL trong khi vn duy tr c POTS v truy nhp
Internet tc cao. y l mt phng thc n gin, linh hot, hiu qu v mt chi ph
cho php thit b th h sau c chc nng thoi.
H tr chc nng ghp ngc ATM (IMA) trong ATM TPS-TC:
Tc s liu ti khch hng c th tng ng k bng cch ghp nhiu ng
in thoi cng nhau. thc hin vic ghp, chun ADSL2 h tr chc nng ghp
ngc ATM (IMA) c trin khai cho cu trc ATM truyn thng. Thng qua IMA,
ADSL2 c th ghp hai hoc nhiu i dy ng trong mt tuyn ADSL. Kt qu l t
c tc ng xung linh hot hn c th l : 20 Mb/s trn 2 i ghp, 30 Mb/s trn
3 i ghp, 40 Mb/s trn 4 i ghp.
3.2.3.2 Cc tnh nng lin quan n PMS-TC
Vic phn khung linh hot hn, h tr ti 4 khung mang, 4 ng
S liu c truyn khc nhau c th c tp hp vo cc cu trc khc nhau khi
chng truyn qua chc nng PMS-TC pht. Nhm cu trc ny c gi l cu trc
khung.
Gim tiu khung
H thng ADSL2 gim tiu khung bng cch s dng khung vi cc tiu ca
khung c th lp trnh c. Do , khng nh trong chun ADSL th h th nht s bit
tiu trn khung l c nh v chim 32Kb/s ca ti s liu thc t. Trong chun ADSL2
s bit tiu chun trong khung c th lp trnh c chim t 4 n 32Kbp. Trong cc h
thng ADSL th h th nht, trn cc ng dy in thoi c tc s liu thp (v d
128Kb/s) th 32Kb/s (hoc 25% tc s liu tng) c cung cp pht c nh cho
thng tin tiu . Trong cc h thng ADSL2, tc s liu tiu c th gim xung
cn 4Kb/s, do cung cp thm 28Kb/s cho ti s liu.
3.2.3.3 Cc tnh nng lin quan n PMD
Chun on
B thu pht ADSL2 c tng cng kh nng chun on. Kh nng chun on
cung cp cc cng c gii quyt nhng vng mc trong v sau khi to, gim st
trong khi cung cp dch v v nng cao nng lc. Do cc b thu pht ADSL2 cung cp
kh nng thc hin o tp m ng dy, suy gim mch vng v t s tn hiu trn tp
m ti hai u ng dy. Kt qu ca nhng php o ny c tp hp li bng cch s
dng ch kim tra chun on c bit ngay c khi cht lng ng dy l qu ti
c th hon thnh kt ni ADSL2.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
71
Ngoi ra, ADSL2 cn cung cp c kh nng gim st hiu nng thi gian thc,
kh nng ny cung cp thng tin v cht lng ng dy v iu kin tp m ti hai u
ng dy.
Thch ng tc
Cc ng dy in thoi c bn vi nhau trong b cp nhiu i cha 25 hoc
nhiu hn cc i dy xon. Kt qu l tn hiu in t mt i gy ra t trng trn cc
i gn k trong b cp. Hin tng ny c gi l xuyn m v c th cn tr c
tnh tc s liu ADSL. Kt qu l nhng thay i ca cc mc xuyn m c th lm
t kt ni trong ADSL. Xuyn m ch l mt nguyn nhn gy t kt ni trn h thng
ADSL. Cc nguyn nhn khc c th l do nhiu sng v tuyn AM, nhng thay i v
nhit v nc trong b cp.
ADSL2 gii quyt vn ny bng cch thch ng lin tc tc s liu theo thi
gian thc. Ci tin ny, c gi l thch ng tc lin tc (SRA), cho php h thng
ADSL2 thay i tc ca kt ni trong khi cung cp dch v m khng lm ngt dch v
hoc gy li bit. ADSL2 pht hin ra nhng thay i trong iu kin knh (v d, mt
trm v tuyn AM ni ht ngng pht vo bui ti) v thch ng tc s liu vi iu
kin mi trong sut vi ngi s dng.
Khi to nhanh
Khi to b thu pht ADSL c yu cu cho kt ni gia ATU-C v ATU-R
thit lp mt tuyn thng tin gia chng. ADSL th h th nht ch h tr ch khi
to thng thng. Tuy nhin ADSL2 h tr c hai ch : ch khi to thng thng
v ch khi to nhanh. Th tc khi to thng thng mt khong t 10 ti 15 giy
trong khi th tc khi to nhanh ch mt khong t 2 ti 3 giy. C c iu ny l
do th tc khi to nhanh da vo vic lu tr v s dng li cc tham s truyn dn t
khi to thng thng trc nh gim ng k thi gian iu khin.
Ci thin v mt cng sut
Cc b thu pht ADSL th h th nht hot ng ch cng sut ln nht sut
ngy m ngay c khi khng c s dng. p ng vn ny, chun ADSL2 a ra
ch qun l cng sut gip gim cng sut tiu th trong khi vn duy tr chc nng
lun lun kt ni ca ADSL cho ngi s dng.
3.2.4 ADSL2+
Cng ngh ADSL2+ l thnh vin mi nht trong h cc chun ADSL. ADSL2+
c chun ho trong ITU G.992.5 vo thng 5 nm 2003. C th coi ADSL2+ l ADSL
th h th ba hoc l phin bn delta ca ADSL th h th hai ADSL2.
Cng ging nh ADSL2, ADSL2+ s dng i dy ng xon truyn ng thi
thoi v s liu tc cao gia kt cui mng (ATU-C) v kt cui khch hng (ATU-R).
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
72
Tuy nhin, trong khi ADSL2 s dng bng tn t 0-1,1Mhz th ADSL2+ s dng bng
tn t 0-2,2Mhz. Cng ging nh ADSL2, ADSL2+ dnh bng tn c s truyn thoi,
bng tn thp truyn s liu ng ln v bng tn cao truyn s liu ng xung.
Vi bng tn ng xung ca ADSL2+ gp i so vi bng tn ng xung ca
ADSL2, nn ADSL2+ tng ng k tc s liu trn ng dy in thoi c khong
cch nh hn 3 km. C th l ADSL2+ c th t c tc s liu ng xung ti
25Mb/s, trn ng dy c khong cch 1 km tc s liu ng xung c th t c
24Mb/s v c th t c 20Mb/s vi khong cch l 1.5 km, hnh 3.14.
ADSL2+ l ADSL2 vi bng tn m rng n c chun ho da trn chun ca
ADSL2. Do , ADSL2+ mang y cc c tnh ca ADSL2. Tuy nhin, ADSL2+
cn c thm mt s tnh nng mi nhm p ng tc s liu cao hn trn mch vng
c khong cch ngn hn l m rng bng tn, ghp t tc cao hn v mt s
tnh nng khc ca ADSL2+.

Hnh 3.14: Tc s liu ng xung ca ADSL2+ so vi ADSL2
M rng bng tn
Trong khi hai thnh vin trong h cc chun ADSL2 l G.992.3(G.dmt.bis) v
G.992.4(G.lite.bis) s dng bng tn ng xung ti 1,1Mhz v 552Mhz tng ng th
ADSL2+ s dng bng tn ng xung ti 2.208Mhz tng ng vi 512 sng mang
con. Nh vy bng tn ca ADSL2+ tng gp i so vi bng tn ng xung ca
ADSL2 cn bng tn ng ln ca ADSL2+ khng thay i so vi ADSL2. Chi tit v
ci thin tc ca ADSL2+ so vi ADSL2 c th hin trn hnh 3.14.

Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
73
Ghp t tc cao hn
K thut ghp nhiu ng dy in thoi nhm mc ch t tc s liu cao
hn v ci thin khong cch l k thut mi c a ra trong cng ngh ADSL2.
Cng ging nh ADSL2, vic ghp ADSL2+ cng thc hin ghp nhiu ng
ADSL2+. Chi tit v so snh tc khi ghp c th hin trn hnh 3.15.
Vic ghp nhiu i dy in thoi trong ADSL2+ c mt s c im nh sau:
Vic ghp h tr kh nng t ng gii phng v khi phc cc i dy m
khng vn s can thip ca con ngi. Mt khc, vic ghp c th c
thc hin t ng bng phn mm.
Vic ghp h tr cc tc s liu khc nhau (vi t l 4/1) gia cc i
dy. iu ny rt c ngha trong trng hp cc ng dy ng c dung
lng thp hn cc ng dy khc th khng cn thit phi gim tc s
liu trn cc ng dy c dung lng cao hn.
C th ghp ti 32 i dy.
Cc cng trn card thu bao ADSL2+ c ghp mt cch ngu nhin.
Ngha l vic ghp c thc hin bng cch kt hp bt k cng no v
vic ghp rt mm do.
Chun ghp ATM c s dng trn bt k lp vt l no. Ngoi ADSL2+,
n c th c s dng cho cc dch v DSL khc.
Hnh 3.15: Ghp hai ng ADSL2+
Mt s tnh nng khc ca ADSL2+
Ngoi cc tnh nng mi c trnh by trn, ADSL2+ cn c thm mt s tnh
nng mi nh sau:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
ADSL2+ ghp
ADSL2+
ADSL
di mch vng (Kilofeet) (1feet = 1/3 m)
T


l
i

u

(
M
b
/
s
)

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5

Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
74
ADSL2+ c kh nng h tr ti 3 t m trn mt k hiu, trong khi
ADSL2 ch c th h tr ti a 2 t m/trn k hiu. Gi tr ny c quy
nh khc nhau trong chun ITU G.992.3 v G.992.5. C th l G.992.3 quy
nh s khung ghp s liu trn k t v s t m FEC trn k hiu cc i
l 2. Trong khi , G.992.5 quy nh s khung ghp s liu trn k hiu v
s t m trn k hiu cc i l 3.
Di s iu khin ca ngi vn hnh thng qua CO-MIB, vic iu khin
ph ng xung vi PSD pht cc i ti im tham chiu U-C trn sng
mang ph cho php vic cu hnh theo yu cu ca tng vng (v d, Bc
M, Chu u hoc Nht Bn) v cu hnh theo cc mi trng trin khai (v
d, trm trung tm (CO) hoc trm u xa (RT)).
Vic nh dng ph ng xung trong thi gian showtime (dng PSD pht
trong bng thng l khng phng) ci thin linh hot ca PSD pht ng
xung.
3.3 Cng ngh PLC
3.3.1 Khi nim
Cng ngh PLC l cng ngh truyn tn hiu thng tin trn ng dy in, s
dng k thut iu ch OFDM, cung cp tc truy nhp internet ln ti 45Mbps.
Mng truy nhp PLC c kt ni vi cc mng vin thng ng trc thng qua
mt trm bin p (h p hoc trung p). Cc mng vin thng ng trc c th l mng
ng trc PLC hoc cc mng ng trc vin thng khc.
Tn hiu truyn dn t ng trc c chuyn i thch hp vi vic truyn
dn trn mng li in h th ti trm gc (a main/base station). Thng thng trm gc
c t ti trm bin th v ti y tn hiu truyn thng c a vo ng dy ti
in, theo mng li in h th ti tng h gia nh. Ti mi h gia nh hoc khi c
quan s c mt b lc thc hin phn tch tn hiu thng tin bng rng v tn hiu
in.Trong m hnh PLC, cc h gia nh ch cn mt modem PLC l c th s dng h
thng in trong nh hnh thnh mt mng LAN cng chia s ti nguyn, truy cp
Internet, gi in thoi, xem truyn hnh cp... thng qua cc cm in.
3.3.2 Phn loi
Theo bng tn s dng:
PLC bng hp: Dng iu khin cc thit b in trong nh
Ti Nht: 10-450 Khz
Chu u:10 -148.5 Khz
PLC bng rng: Dng cho truy nhp ni ht hay ng dng LAN trong gia nh
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
75
Nht: ln ti 30 Mhz
Chu u (ETSI):
+ t 1,6 Mhz n 10 Mhz cho truy nhp ni ht
+ t 10 Mhz n 30 Mhz dnh cho ng dng mng gia nh


Hnh 3.16: Cu trc mng truy nhp PLC
Theo cu hnh s dng:
Cu hnh s dng mng h th Fiber-LV
Cu hnh s dng mng trung th v h th MV&LV
Cu hnh s dng trung th v v tuyn MV & Wireless
Cu hnh s dng cp quang FTTH
Cu hnh Fiber-LV (Low Voltage)
Trong cu hnh ny cp quang c ko di ti trm bin th h p. T y, tn
hiu thng tin c ghp vo ng cp in v truyn ti nh thu bao. V vy cu hnh
ny c gi l cu hnh FTTP (Fiber to the Poles), tng t nh cu hnh mng HFC
(Hybric Cable Coax) ca cc cng ty truyn hnh. y l kin trc in hnh cho mng
PLC ca cc cng ty in lc. Cc ng dy h th c kt ni vi cp quang thng
qua cc b chuyn i quang/ in (O/E converter).
Mng cung cp
cao/trung hoc h p
Mng vin thng ng trc
M

Truy nhp PLC

Trm gc/ trm


bin p
Mng truy nhp PLC
Ngoi tri
Trong nh
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
76
Cu hnh ny c mt s u im v mt k thut, do cp quang cung cp bng
thng ln. Hn na, cp quang l mi trng truyn tin cy hn so vi ng cp in
trung th v gim c nh hng tn x in t. Tuy nhin, hiu qu kinh t ca cu
hnh ny ph thuc s lng thu bao trong mt trm bin p do dung lng d tha ca
cp quang.








Hnh 3.17: Cu hnh Fiber-LV
Cu hnh MV-LV (Medium Voltage- Low Voltage)
Cu hnh ny s dng thun tu ng dy in lc bao gm c ng dy trung
th v ng dy h th. Tn hiu s c truyn t khch hng ti trm gc thng qua
mng in h th, qua b chuyn i vng (bypass-transformer) v mng in trung th.
B chuyn i vng thc hin chc nng truyn thng gia mng h p v mng trung p.
Tuy nhin, b chuyn i vng c gi thnh kh cao. Thm vo cu hnh ny gy nh
hng tn x trng in t ln nht trong tt c cc cu hnh do s dng ton b ng
truyn l ng cp in. Cu hnh ny ph hp trong trng hp khng d tha cp
quang.







Hnh 3.18: Cu hnh MV-LV
Cu hnh MV & Wireless
Trong cu hnh ny nh cung cp dch v s dng sng v tuyn kt ni ti
khch hng thay cho mng in h th. Cu hnh ny c mt s u im do mng in
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
77
trung th c t node hn so vi mng in h th nn gim c nh hng ca nhiu.
Tuy nhin, chi ph lp t anten tn km v bng thng cung cp cho khch hng b gii
hn.







Hnh 3.19: Cu hnh MV & Wireless
Cu hnh FTTH
y l mt trng hp ca cu hnh Fiber-LV. Khi cp quang c ko n tng
nh (hnh 3.20), mng s cung cp bng thng ln hn bt k cng ngh truy cp Internet
no. ng thi cp quang l mi trng truyn dn tin cy. Nhc im ca cu hnh
ny l chi ph lp t tn km.






Hnh 3.20: Cu hnh FTTH
3.3.3 Cu trc mng PLC
Mng PLC c chia thnh hai h thng:
+ H thng ngoi nh (Outdoor System)
+ H thng trong nh (Indoor System).
Outdoor System bao gm phn chung ca mng phn phi in h p tnh t trm
bin p n im truy cp vo tng ta nh. Outdoor System kt ni vi ng trc
backbone ti cc trm bin p.
Indoor System chuyn v nhn tn hiu thng tin t im truy cp vo tng to nh
n tng cm in trong khu vc ni b ca to nh . Indoor System bao trm ton
b phn mng in ring ca to nh.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
78
Outdoor System v tt c cc kt ni ca n ti cc h thng trong nh (Indoor
System) c gi l mt t bo in Power Cell.














Hnh 3.21: Cu trc mng PLC
Cc thit b c bn ca h thng PLC hin nay gm c:
+ B u - cui (HeadEnd- HE)
+ Home Gateway (HG)
+ Thit b trong nh ngi dng (CPE).
B u - cui (HeadEnd -HE)
HE iu khin h thng Outdoor System v kt ni ca mt t bo in Power cell
ti mng ng trc. HE l mt modem s tc cao nhn tn hiu t ng trc
backbone v thc hin chc nng truyn nhn thng tin qua mng in lc.
HomeGateway - HG
L cu ni gia h thng Outdoor v mt h thng Indoor. Mt HomeGateway
cung cp cc ng dng LAN ni b trong nh v ng thi ci thin iu kin ca knh
truyn trnh nhng nguyn nhn gy suy gim tn hiu.
Thit b trong nh ca ngi dng (CPE - Customer Premise Equipment):
L modem c mt card PLC gm nhiu giao din ph hp kt ni ti nhng
ng dng khc ca ngi dng my tnh, in thoi c nh, in thoi IP, fax v..v.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
79
Cc modem PLC ph hp vi truyn d liu gi c nh hng ging nh ca
mng IP. Lu lng thng tin p ng yu cu ca cc dch v thi gian thc nh video
hay VoIP. Tc truyn hin nay t c 45 Mbps (tri ph 10 Mhz ), s dng k thut
truyn dn ng thi trn hai chiu v truyn thng theo phng thc im - a im.
Cc thit b ny cng bao gm mt b cng c phn mm cho php qun l in nng,
gim st cht lng dch v QoS, t s tn hiu trn tp m SNR...v c kch thc nh
gn.
3.3.4 Mt s c tnh ca mng PLC
Cc chun PLC
Cc h thng chun m cho cc h thng PLC trong nh v truy nhp ang giai
an u ca qu trnh pht trin nhng c k vng s pht trin nhanh chng vi s
n lc ln. Vn chun ha PLC cc h thng m hin ang c ITU-R v ITU-T,
ANSI v IEEE quan tm v bao gm nhng chun sau:
+ ANSI C63.4
+ HomePlug 1.0
+ HomePlug AV (HPAV)
+ IEEE P1675
+ IEEE 1901
Cp pht dung lng ng cho ngi dng
Trong h thng PLC, ng cp in l mt mi trng chia s ti nguyn, lm
vic theo nguyn tc im- a im. S truy nhp vo mt knh c qun l bi thit b
PLC ch. Thit b ny cp pht dung lng ng ti ngi dng da vo yu cu tc thi
ca h, do m thng lng c th t mc ti a. iu ny c thc hin bng
phng php truyn gi c nh hng.
Phn mc u tin d liu
Cc thit b PLC phn mc u tin cho d liu thi gian thc, m bo cht
lng cc dch v nh thoi v video khi truyn trn knh PLC. H thng PLC t ng
pht hin d liu no l mang tnh thi gian thc v khng yu cu thi gian thc da vo
cc giao thc. Cc tn hiu mang tnh thi gian thc nh thoi v video yu cu truyn
dn vi tr nh nht. Cc tn hiu khng yu cu thi gian thc nh d liu v chuyn
file th khng quan tm nhiu n tr.
Cc giao din tiu chun
Thit b PLC c cc giao din tun theo cc chun giao tip vin thng cho php
thit b kt ni d dng ti ngi dng u cui v ti cc thit b khc trn ng trc
chnh. i vi ngi s dng cn truy cp Internet h ch cn ni my tnh vo cc thit
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
80
b CPE thng qua mt cng (cng USB hoc cng Ethernet) ca card mng trn PC.
Tng t nh vy vi cc thit b khc s kt ni thng qua cc cng tng thch khc.
H thng qun l mng PLC
Nhm c c mt mng truyn tin cht lng cao, h thng qun l c xem
nh quan trng hng u. H thng qun l mng PLC bao gm:
+ Qun l mng v cc phn t mng
+ Qun l dch v
+ Qun l cc
+ An ninh mng
Cc thit b PLC c qun l da trn hai giao thc DHCP (Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol), SNMP (Simple Network Managerment Protocol).
An ninh mng
PLC l mt dng mi trng chia s ti nguyn. Nhiu ngi dng c th cng
truy cp cng mt thi im do vy iu cn thit l phi m bo b mt thng tin cho
lung d liu ca tng c nhn. H thng PLC s dng cng ngh V-LAN tun theo
chun IEEE 802.1Q cho php d liu ca mt ngi s dng c th tch ring t lung
d liu. Kt qu l d liu ca ngi c bo v an ton. thc hin mc tiu ny,
h qun tr mng khai bo mi mt ngi dng l duy nht v l ring bit trn LAN.
H thng PLC c th truy nhp hp php t bt k cm in no do vic m
bo an ton cho d liu trnh nhng s nghe ln bt hp php l rt quan trng. c th
m bo an ton cao cho d liu truyn trn mng, h thng PLC s dng thut ton
m ho RC4 kt hp vi t kho Difie-Hellman to ra bo mt cao trnh c nghe
trm.
3.4 Cng ngh CM
Cng ngh CableModem (CM) l cng ngh truyn s liu trn mng truyn hnh
cp (CATV) vn l mng lai ghp gia cp quang v cp ng trc, dng cung cp tn
hiu mt chiu.
3.4.1. Cu trc mng CATV
Mt mng truyn hnh cp HFC c cu trc c bn nh sau:
+ H thng trung tm Headend
+ Mng truyn dn v phn phi tn hiu
+ Mng truy nhp
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
81
Thng thng cu trc mng cn tu thuc vo nhiu yu t: a l, mt dn c,
lin quan n vic nng cp v nhiu yu t khc na. Tuy nhin hu ht chng u c
cu trc theo kiu vng - sao - chui (hnh 3.21).









Hnh 3.21: Cu trc mng truyn hnh cp CATV
3.4.1.1. H thng trung tm Headend
L ni thu nhn tn hiu t nhiu ngun khc nhau: tn hiu qung b, v tinh, sn
xut chng trnh ti ch, chn tn hiu sn xut ni b Sau khi qua cc bc x l nh
iu ch, phn knh, m ha, trn), tn hiu c a ra ngoi mng truyn dn v
phn phi ti khch hng thu bao.
i vi Headend pht trin cc dch v tng tc nh: Internet, VOD, in thoi
Headend s nhn tn hiu ngc dng t cc h thu bao sau a ti cc h thng b
phn lin quan nh CMTS, Telephone Switch kt ni vi mng vin thng bn
ngoi. Trong qu trnh ny, b phn tnh cc (Billing) tnh cc dung lng trao i ca
khch hng xc nh ph s dng hng thng.
3.4.1.2 Mng truyn dn v phn phi tn hiu
L mi trng truyn dn tn hiu t Headend n nh thu bao. Trong truyn hnh
cp hu tuyn HFC, mi trng truyn dn l cp quang. in hnh l mt hay nhiu
mch vng cp quang kt ni gia HE s cp v cc HUB s cp, trong mt s trng
hp khc th cc vng th cp li lin kt gia cc HUB s cp vi cc HUB th cp. T
y cc node quang FN c lin kt vi cc HUB hoc HE theo dng cu trc hnh sao.
Cu trc mch vng c d phng 1+1 cho tin cy ca h thng cao hn. V khi
trn ng truyn c xy ra s c th s thc hin chuyn mch t ng / nhn cng sang
h thng d phng m bo tn hiu truyn c thng sut.

Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
82













Hnh 3.22: Mng truyn dn quang
S cu trc mng truyn dn tn hiu quang (Hnh 3.22) trn cho bit s b chi
tit mt s thit b trong mng quang. Tn hiu sau khi c x l ti Headend c a
ra ngoi mng thng qua cp si quang, n cc trm lp HUB. Ti y tn hiu c a
vo my thu, my pht quang, cc b chia quang theo t s cp n cc node quang
FN.
Cng c trng hp my pht quang RX c t ngay ti H thng trung tm
Headend cp n cc node quang FN. (Tu thuc vo a hnh, a bn, phn b dn
c m quyt nh thit k c cn t trm lp quang hay khng).
3.4.1.3 Mng truy nhp
Thng thng chia ra lm 2 kiu: HFPC v HFC.
Mng truy nhp kiu HFPC: l mng lai gia cp quang v cp ng trc m trong
ch dng cc thit b th ng chia tn hiu m khng c bt c mt thit b tch cc no
trn mng ng trc.
c im ca mng HFPC:
+ p ng c cc yu cu xy dng theo mng 1 chiu hay 2 chiu.
+ S dng node quang c cng sut ln.
+ Mng quang chim t trng ln trong ton b mng tng th.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
83
+ Mng ng trc ch c cc tuyn trc chnh v tuyn cp thu bao vi cc thit b
chia th ng
+ Kh nng phc v t 400-600 thu bao / node quang.
















Hnh 3.23: Cu trcmng HFPC
u im:
+ Cht lng tn hiu tt do khng s dng cc b khuch i.
+ Do khng s dng cc b khuch i cao tn nn vic thi cng lp t, vn hnh
d dng hn.
+ Cc thit b th ng c kh nng truyn 2 chiu nn n nh mng vn cao khi
trin khai mng 2 chiu.
+ S lng thu bao / node quang nh nn c kh nng cung cp tt dch v 2 chiu
vi tc cao.
+Gim chi ph cp ngun cng t in, bo dng, thay th cc thit b tch cc.
Nhc im:
+ Kh nng bao ph ca 1 node quang nh do khng s dng khuch i.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
84
+ Yu cu node quang s dng phi c cng sut ln, cht lng cao, n nh.
Mng truy nhp kiu HFC: l mng lai gia cp quang v cp ng trc trong c
dng cc thit b tch cc (cc b khuch i cao tn) trn mng ng trc.

















Hnh 3.24: Cu trc mng HFC
c im ca mng HFC thun tu:
+ p ng c cc yu cu xy dng theo mng 1 chiu hay 2 chiu
+ Mng ng trc chim t trng ln trong ton b mng tng th.
+ Mng ng trc c chia thnh 3 cp:
Cp trc chnh: bao gm cp ng trc trc chnh, khuch i trc, b chia
tn hiu ng trc.
Cp trc nhnh: bao gm cp ng trc trc nhnh, khuch i nhnh, b
chia tn hiu ng nhnh.
Cp mng thu bao: bao gm cp ng trc thu bao, TV.
+ Kh nng phc v t 1500-2000 thu bao / node quang.
u im:
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
85
+ Phm vi bao ph ca 1 node quang ln nh ko di mng ng trc bi s dng
cc khuch i cao tn.
+ Chi ph ban u thp nh s dng t node quang.
Nhc im:
+ Cht lng tn hiu thp hn kiu mng HFPC.
+ Khng thun li khi trin khai thnh mng 2 chiu.
+ Yu cu cht ch v ngun cp tn hiu. Nu im cp ngun no mt in th
ton b tuyn pha sau cng mt tn hiu.
+ C ch thi cng, vn hnh, bo dng phc tp.
3.4.2 Cc thnh phn ca h thng CM











Hnh 3.25: Cc thnh phn ca h thng MC
Mt h thng CM bao gm cc thnh phn sau:
B khuch i hai chiu
Cp quang v cp ng trc trong mng
Cu r ( Tap)
Node quang
Thit b kt cui truyn hnh-STB
Modem cp-CM
H thng kt cui modem cp- CMTS
Server trong mng modem cp
H thng IP phone
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
86
H thng qun l thu bao v tnh cc dch v
B khuch i hai chiu
Trong phn mng cp ng trc, cc b khuch i hai chiu c s dng bao
gm hai loi:
B khuch i phn phi ( khuch i tn hiu RF v t vo 2 hoc 4 u
cp ra khc).
B khuch i ng dy m rng-Line Extender Amplifier
Mt h thng HFC hin i thng c t 4 n 6 b khuch i cho tng khuch
i RF sau mi node. a s cc b khuch i c h s khuch i t iu chnh b
p nhng thay i khc nhau theo nhit ca suy hao v p ng tn s.
Cp quang v cp ng trc trong mng
Mi cp quang c cha t 12 n 14 si quang tu theo kch c mi loi cp. Loi
si quang c s dng y thng l si n mode-SM c suy hao khong 0,4 dB/km
bc sng hot ng l=1310 nm hoc l suy hao 0,25 dB/km l=1550 nm (mc suy
hao ny n nh trong di nhit thng v c lp vi di tn s v tuyn) .
Cp ng trc c chia loi tu theo v tr trong mng v d:
on xut pht t node quang to ra c ng knh ln nht (t 0,78 n
1,09 cm) cht lng tt nht, mc suy hao 45 dB/km 750 MHz hoc 9
dB/km 40 MHz
on cui gn st nh thu bao di khong 25 cm- 50 cm, ng knh nh,
suy hao khong 114 dB/km 750 MHz v 24 dB/km 40 MHz (mc suy
hao ny ph thuc vo nhit v chiu di ca cp).
Cu r ( Tap)
Mi cu r c hai phn t chc nng chnh l: Khi ghp nh hng v b chia
cng sut. Trong , b chia cng sut chia tn hiu tu theo s lng cng ca cu r (c
th l 2, 4, 8...) cn khi ghp nh hng c nhim v i hng mt s tn hiu u vo
xc nh,
Node quang
L phn t nm trn ng ranh gii gia vng cp ng trc v cp quang, c
nhim v c bn l chuyn i tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu in cho ng xung
(ngc li cho ng ln), sau khuch i v phn phi trn mng cp ng trc vi 3
hoc 4 u ra mi node
Thit b kt cui truyn hnh-STB ( Set-Top-Box)
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
87
L mt thit b thu tn hiu truyn hnh vi hai loi: STB tng t v STB s. STB
tng t (ra i trong thp nin 1970-1980) cho thu bao thu cc knh truyn hnh tng
t qua mng HFC thay v cc knh pht qung b v tuyn mt t trc y. Thng qua
n, cc nh iu hnh cp cung cp dch v xem phim v mt s dch v c bit khc
theo hnh thc thanh ton ngay IPPV v s dng in thoi lm ng ln cho cc hot
ng tng tc. n 1996, STB s c gii thiu vi mt s chc nng c bn:
D tm knh s v cc dch v video tng t trong cc di tn ng
xung.
Gii iu ch knh s thu c/ iu ch knh s pht ln.
Gii m / M ho cc knh chn.
Qun l bo hiu thu bao t Headend.
Cung cp giao din thu bao cho ngi s dng.
Gn y, cc STB ci tin c trin khai bi Motorola/ General Instrument. Cc
STB ny c cha cc b d sng kp v modem cp tch hp bn trong, cho php thu
bao s dng dch v truyn hnh v dch v mng Internet bng rng nh: IP telephony,
IP video phone, Interactive games. Lc ny STB ci tin hot ng nh mt cng gia
nh-RGW:
Phn pht cc gi giao thc IP n cc thit b bn ngoi nh l IP voice, IP
video phone.
Truyn ti, x l, gii m cc tn hiu truyn hnh c phn gai cao HDTV..
Modem cp-CM (Cable Modem)
L thit b nm trong nh thu bao, cho php truy nhp n mng my tnh (thng
l mng Internet) trn phng tin vt l dng cho truyn hnh. C ba loi modem cp:
Loi khi cm ngoi: kt ni vi my tnh thng qua kt ni Ethernet (c th c
nhiu my tnh cng kt ni vo mng Ethernet, lc ny modem cp cn c
chc nng ca mt b nh tuyn) hoc giao din kt ni USB
Loi card cm trong: thng l dng cm thm PCI cho my tnh. Loi ny c
gi thnh r nht song ch dng c cho my tnh bn cn s phi c s
thit k khc cho dng my tnh MAC v my tnh xch tay.
Loi th ba ca modem cp l dng c tch hp bn trong cc STB ci tin
tng tc nh trnh by trn.
H thng kt cui modem cp- CMTS
H thng ny nm trong Headend, thuc v pha bn kia ca mng so vi modem
cp. L thit b kt cui cho ng ln t pha thu bao n ch l cc Headend ca cc
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
88
cng ty cp, do CMTS cng c coi l giao din gia cc modem cp v mng
Internet IP .
CMTS c nhiu chc nng ging nh mt DSLAM trong h thng DSL,
CMTS n lu lng ng ln t mt nhm thu bao trn mt knh n v
nh tuyn n n ISP kt ni vo mng Internet.
Mi CMTS cha mt hoc nhiu card ng dy modem cp (CMLC). Cc
CMLC chuyn cc dng s liu IP thnh cc tn hiu RF ng xung (n
nh thu bao) sau a qua b nng tn a cc knh tn hiu vo mt
knh xc nh v ghp chung vi cc tn hiu truyn hnh v trnh t ngc li
vi ng ln.
Mt s server trong mng modem cp
My ch DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) c xc nh bi RFC
2181. Server ny cung cp cc a ch IP theo nhu cu cho modem cp v cc thit b PC
theo sau n.
My ch ToD (Time of Day) c xc nh bi RFC 868, c nhim v l gn cc
tem thi gian cho cc s kin iu hnh h thng.
My ch TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) c xc nh bi RFC 1350
ng k v ti v cc file cu hnh modem cp cho cc dch v thu bao ring l.
H thng IP phone
y l h thng s dng giao thc IP truyn tn hiu thoi qua mng vin thng,
trong giao thc IP l giao thc chun cho lp chuyn mch gi trong mng LAN,
WAN,... Mng IP mang s liu c lp vi lp vt l.
Vic tch hp c h thng truyn ti thoi vo mng bng rng HFC c ngha
ln trong vic to thun li HFC thc hin mt xa l thng tin thc s-truyn mi loi
tn hiu : voice, data, video.
H thng VoIP ny s dng thit b kt cui l my in thoi IP phone hoc my
in thoi truyn thng-POTS phone kt ni vi mt modem cp/ mt STB s. My IP
phone l mt thit b kh mi. N khng kt ni n mt tng i s hu no m kt ni
n cng Ethernet chun trong mt modem cp/ mt STB s/ mt PC trong nh. My IP
phone hot ng nh mt thit b IP tiu chun v c a ch IP ring ca n. kt ni
mt POTS phone n mt modem cp/ STB s th phi c cc mdun giao din mi c
pht trin v gn vo trong cc modem cp/ STB s cung cp chc nng ny.
H thng thit b qun l thu bao v tnh cc dch v
iu ct yu nht vi cc nh cung cp dch v truyn hnh tr tin l c th qun
l truy nhp dch v thu bao v tnh cc cho thu bao theo dch v. Mt phng php
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
89
ph thng v hiu qu nht l s dng cc thut ton m kho tn hiu (ch cc thu bao
c php ca nh cung cp dch v mi c kh nng gii m tn hiu xem). H thng
thit b qun l truy nhp ca thu bao v tnh cc c gi l h thng truy nhp c iu
kin.
3.4.3 Cc chun c s dng trong cng ngh CM

Hnh 3.26: Ba h thng chun CM in hnh
Cc modem cp th h u tin s dng nhiu cc giao thc c quyn khc nhau
nn cc nh vn hnh mng CATV khng th s dng cc modem cp ca nhiu hng
khc nhau trn cng mt h thng. n nm 1997, c 3 tiu chun ni tri l IEEE
802.14, DAVIC i din cho Chu u v MCSN i din cho Bc M vi b giao thc
DOCSIS. Cho n nay, nhng chun ni trn u c nhng ci tin ln song cha c
chun no thng lnh c th trng Modem Cp.
DOCSIS (Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification) gm c 3 chun
DOCSIS 1.0, DOCSIS 1.1 v DOCSIS 2.0. DOCSIS c pht trin bi Cablelabs v
c chun ha bi ITU.
DAVIC l chun Modem Cp ca Chu u c xy dng trn chun m
DAVIC/DVB c a ra bi y ban cc tiu chun Chu u. DAVIC c cc chun 1.0
(12/1995), 1.1 (9/1996), 1.2 (12/1996). Mc ch ch yu ca cc phin bn ny l h tr

CableLabs DVB/DAVIC
IEEE 802.14
Eurocablelabs
Cc tiu chun
DOCSIS1.0
DOCSIS1.1
DOCSIS1.2
EuroDOCSIS
Cc tiu chun
DVB-C
(EST 300 429)
DVB-RCC
(FTS 300 800)
(ES 200 800)
Cablemodem
Opencable
Packetcable
CableNET
c chp
nhn bi ITU
ITU-T J.83 B
ITU-T J.112 B
DVB
DAVIC
DVB+DAVIC
EuroModem
EuroBox
Euroloader
c chp
nhn vi ITU
ITU-T J.83 A
ITU-T J.112 A

Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
90
cho cc ng dng m thanh, hnh nh v cc dch v s liu. Trong khi , cc phin bn
sau (DAVIC 1.3; 1.4; 1.5) ch yu dng h tr cc dch v qung b s tng cng, tng
tc v cc dch v truyn thng khc.
IEEE 802.14 a ra chun cho lp vt l v phn lp MAC cho mng HFC song
hng. Phm vi s dng ca IEEE 802.14 l truyn dn tn hiu qua ng cp TV, nng
cao tc truy cp Internet ti gia nh.
Bng 3.6: c tnh ca cc chun s dng trong cng ngh CM
c im
DOCSIS 1.x Euro-DOCSIS DVB-RC
Tc
ng xung
64-QAM: 27 Mbps
256-QAM: 42 Mbps
Knh 6 MHz
64-QAM: 38 Mbps
256-QAM: 52 Mbps
Knh 8Mhz
64-QAM:38Mbps
256-QAM:52Mbps
Knh 8Mhz
Tc
ng ln
.320, .640, 1.280, 2.560
5.120 Mbps
QPSK
v .640, 1.280, 2.560,
5.120, 10.24 Mbps
16-QAM
5-42Mhz
.320, .640, 1.280,
2.560 v 5.120 Mbps
QPSK
v .640, 1.280, 2.560,
5.120, 10.24 Mbps
16-QAM
5-65Mhz
1.544 Mbps; 3.088
Mbps
Differential QPSK
5-65Mhz
Cc dch v

Truy nhp Internet, STB
tng tc, VoIP
Truy nhp Internet,
STB tng tc, VoIP.
Truy nhp Internet,
STB tng tc.

3.5 Cng ngh truy nhp quang
Cng ngh truy nhp quang l cng ngh truy nhp s dng mi trng truyn dn
l cp quang. Ta c th phn loi cng ngh truy nhp quang thnh hai loi l cng ngh
truy nhp quang ch ng (AON) v cng ngh quang th ng (PON) hoc phn loi
theo v tr ca cp quang tham gia trong mng truy nhp thnh cc mng truy nhp quang
FTTx khc nhau nh:
Cp quang ti tn Office FTTO.
Cp quang ti tn khu dn c FTTC.
Cp quang ti tn khu cng s FTTB.
Cp quang ti tn h gia nh FTTH
3.5.1 Cu hnh v thnh phn mng
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
91
Cu hnh tham chiu ca mng truy nhp quang c trnh by trn hnh 3.27
trong bao gm 4 module c bn:
u cui ng quang (OLT)
Mng phi dy quang (ODN)
Khi mng quang (ONU)
Module chc nng phi hp (AF).
im tham chiu gm c: im tham chiu pht quang S, im tham chiu thu
quang R, im tham chiu gia cc nt dch v V, im tham chiu u cui thu
bao T v im tham chiu a gia cc ONU
UNI
ONU
ONU
ODN OLT
V: im tham chiu
AF
R/S
Pha mng
Cc chc nng qun l h thng mng truy nhp
Q3
(a) im tham chiu
S /R
Cc chc
nng nt dch
v
SNI

Hnh 3.27.Cu hnh tham chiu ca mng truy nhp quang
Giao din bao gm: Giao din qun l mng Q3 v giao din gia thu bao vi
mng UNI. V vy c th hiu mng truy nhp quang l mng s dng chung cc giao
din vi cc mng khc nhau nhng h thng truyn dn truy nhp cp quang m nhim
mt lot ng lin kt truy nhp v gm cc ONT, ODN, ONU v AF.
u ni truyn dn gia OLT v ONU c th theo phng thc im- a im,
cng c th theo phng thc im- im. V hnh thc truyn dn, c th p dng ghp
knh theo thi gian (TDM), ghp knh theo bc sngCn phng thc truy nhp,
nhn chung da trn a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian.
Khi chc nng OLT
Khi u cui ng quang (OLT- Optical Line Terminal) cung cp giao din
quang gia mng vi ODN, ng thi cng cung cp t nht mt giao din in vi pha
mng dch v. OLT c th chia thnh dch v chuyn mch v dch v khng chuyn
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
92
mch. OLT cng qun l bo hiu v thng tin gim st iu khin n t ONU, t
cung cp chc nng bo dng cho ONU. OLT c th lp t tng i ni ht hoc mt
v tr xa.
Cc chc nng ca b phn dch v
B phn dch v l u vo ca cc dch v, yu cu i vi n l cc dch v t
nht phi c tc s cp ca ISDN v c th cung cp t nht mt dch v hoc ng
thi c th m nhn t hai loi dch v khc nhau tr ln.
Cc chc nng b phn trung tm: bao gm 3 chc nng chnh :
Chc nng ni cho s: Cung cp ni cho gia mng vi ODN trong rng
bng tn c th s dng.
Chc nng ghp knh truyn dn: Cung cp ng truyn cho dch v thu v
pht trong ODN
Chc nng giao din ODN: Chc nng ny cn c vo cc loi si quang ca
ODN cung cp cc giao din quang vt l, ng thi thc hin bin i in
/quang, v quang/ in.
Cc chc nng ca b phn chung:
Chc nng cp in: Chuyn i ngun in cung cp t bn ngoi thnh tr s
in yu cu ca ni b.
Chc nng OAM: Thng qua giao din tng ng, thc hin s vn hnh, qun
l v bo dng (OAM) i vi tt c cc khi chc nng v ni vi qun l
mng lp trn.
Khi chc nng ONU
Khi mng quang (ONU- Optical Network Unit) gia ODN vi thu bao. Pha
mng ca ONU c giao din quang, cn pha thu bao l giao din in: do cn c
chc nng chuyn i quang/ in. ng thi c th thc hin chc nng x l v qun l
bo dng cc tn hiu in. ONU c th t pha khch hng (FTTH/FTTB) hoc
ngoi tri (FTTB). ONU bao gm cc b phn trung tm, b phn dch v v b phn
chung.
Cc chc nng ca b phn trung tm
Chc nng giao din in ODN: cung cp 1 lot giao din quang vt l, ni vi
ODN, ng thi hon thnh vic bin i quang/ in v in /quang.
Chc nng ghp knh thu bao v dch v: t hp v phn gii cc thng tin
n t cc thu bao khc nhau hoc a ti cc thu bao khc nhau.
Chc nng b phn dch v
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
93
B phn ny cung cp giao din dch v khch hng, c th cung cp cho mt hoc
mt nhm khch hng. N cng cung cp chc nng chuyn i bo hiu theo giao din
vt l.
Cc chc nng ca b phn chung
Cp in v OAM. Tnh cht, chc nng b phn chung ging nh trong OLT.
Khi chc nng ODN
Khi mng phn phi quang (ODN- Optical Distribution Network) t gia ONU
v OLT. Chc nng ca n l phn phi cng sut tn hiu quang. ODN ch yu l linh
kin quang khng ngun v si quang to thnh mng phn phi ng quang th ng.
Cu trc c bn mng cp quang thu bao FTTH c th hin trn hnh 3.28.


Hnh 3.28: Cu trc c bn khi phn phi quang FTTH
Mng cp quang thu bao c xc nh trong phm vi ranh gii t giao tip si
quang gia thit b ca nh cung cp dch v (v d nh thit b OLT/Switch) n thit b
ti khch hng (ONU/ONT). Mng cp quang thu bao c cu thnh bi cc thnh
phn chnh nh sau:
Cp quang gc (Feeder Cable): xut pht t pha nh cung cp dch v (hay cn
gi chung l Central Office) ti im phn phi c gi l DP (Distribution Point).
im phn phi si quang (DP): l im kt thc ca on cp gc. Trn thc t
trin khai, im phn phi si quang thng l mng xng quang, hoc cc t cp quang
phi, u tin dng mng xng quang.
Cp quang phi (Distribution Optical Cable): xut pht t im phi quang (DP) ti
cc im truy nhp mng (AP Access Point) hay t cc t quang phi ti cc tp im
quang.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
94
im truy nhp mng (NAP): l im kt cui ca cc on cp quang phi. Trn
thc t trin khai, im truy nhp mng thng l cc tp im quang.
Cp quang thu bao (Drop Cable): xut pht t cc im truy nhp mng (AP) hay
l t cc tp im quang n thu bao.
H thng qun l mng quang (FMS Fiber Management System) c s dng
bo dng v x l s c.
im qun l quang (FMP - Fiber Management Point): d dng cho x l s c v
pht hin t ng.
Khi chc nng t thch nghi
Khi chc nng t thch nghi (AF- Adaptation Function) ch yu cung cp cc
chc nng phi hp ONU vi thit b thu bao. Khi thc hin c th n c th nm trong
ONU, cng c th hon ton c lp.
3.5.2 Kin trc c bn ca mng truy nhp quang
Phn quang ca truy nhp c th c th c cu trc im ni im, tch cc hoc a
im th ng. Cc phn t c bn ca mng truy nhp quang, nh gii thiu trong
phn trn, gm c: Khi mng quang ONU, khi kt cui mng quang ONT, u cui
ng quang (OLT) v u cui mng (NT). Cu hnh ny h tr t cu trc truy nhp
si quang ti tn nh (FTTH) qua FTTB/C ti FTTcab (hnh 3.29)
SNI
Mng khch hng Mng truy nhp
O
L
T
O
N
T
N
T
N
T
UNI
Cp quang
O
N
U
Cp ng Cp ng
O
N
U
Cp ng
Cp quang
FTTH
FTTB/C
FTTcab

Hnh 3.29: Cu hnh ca mng truy nhp quang
3.5.2.1 FTTH
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
95
Trong kin trc FTTH/O, si quang c ko di n tn h gia nh hoc vn
phng, trong mt ONT c t ti thu bao. ONT l im phn pht dch v cho
php cc nh khai thc cung cp cc dch v s liu, thoi v hnh nh trn cng mt si.
ONT cung cp cc giao din dch v bao gm: POTS, GE, FE, E1/T1.
FTTH/O cung cp lng bng tn di do, tuy nhin chi ph cho vic xy dng mng li
rt cao. Mc tiu ca phng thc ny l cung cp tc bt ln n cc vn phng hoc
nh thu bao nh cc bit th, cc ta nh thng mi v cc bar c internet, nhm m
bo c mc quay vng ln. Phng thc ny c bit ph hp khi cn phi lp t cc
mng cp mi hoc phi thay th cp c. Phng thc ny nhm n cc thu bao c nhu
cu i vi cc ng dng bng tn ln nh HDTV, VoD v L2/L3 VPN.











Hnh 3.30. Kin trc FTTH
3.5.2.2 FTTB
Trong phng thc ny, si c ko di n mt ONU t trong ta nh. Cc
khch hng c th truy nhp internet theo cc kt ni n ONU thng qua LAN nh cc
cp UTP-5. Chiu di thng thng ca phn cp ng thng vi chc mt.
tn dng hiu qu cc ngun ti nguyn c th phng thc FTTB+LAN c
xem l c th tit kim ti a chi ph xy dng mng. Hn na, khong cch ngn gia
ONU v thit b u cui thu bao cng cho php s pht trin tng bc t FTTB+LAN
sang FTTH/FTTO. ONT cung cp cc giao din dch v bao gm: ADSL2+/VDSL2+,
FE/GE, E1/T1.
M hnh FTTB ph hp vi cc ta nh c mt ln cc khch hng l doanh
nghip v h c nhu cu c bit ln v bng tn, c bit cc ta nh ny u c LAN
xy dng trn mng cp UTP-5.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
96

Hnh 3.31: Kin trc FTTB
3.5.2.3 FTTC
Vi phng thc FTTC, si c ko di n tn ONU t l ng. Mt hoc
nhiu ta nh c kt ni n ONU c th c phc v bi ONU . ONU c cc giao
din POTS v VDSL2 cho truy nhp Internet bng rng. Chiu di phn cp ng khong
trm mt v c xc nh ty theo yu cu bng tn thc t.
So vi FTTB, FTTC c th phc v s khch hng ln, cng nh cho php cc nh
khai thc tit kim chi ph hn do phng thc ny khng i hi cp UTP-5 c bit.
Phng thc FTTC c khuyn ngh s dng cho cc vng dn c c mt dn tng
i cao, c bit l nhng ni c th s dng li mng cp ng, hoc nhng ni kh
lp t cp quang. y cng l mt phng thc truy nhp ph hp cho cc khch hng
c nhu cu i vi cc dch v VoIP, truy nhp internet tc cao v VoD.
3.5.2.4 FTTCab/N
Trong mng FTTcab, si c ko di n ONU t ti node truy nhp ln cn v
phc v c cc thu bao nm trong vng phc v ca node truy nhp . ONU cung
cp cc giao din POTS, ADSL2+, VDSL2 v SHDSL cho truy nhp cc dch v tch
hp. Chiu di ca on cp ng thng ti vi nghn Km v c th c iu chnh cho
ph hp theo yu cu v bng tn.
Trong phng thc ny, khong cch cui cng t ONU n cc thu bao ln hn
trong phng thc FTTC. Tuy vy cng d dng pht trin t FTTN thnh FTTC.
FTTN c khuyn ngh s dng trong cc vng c mt dn c thp, v khi cc thu
bao c nhu cu i vi VoIP v cc dch v truy nhp tc cao.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
97
Kin trc FTTx c th s dng mng quang th ng (PON Passive Optical Network)
hoc mng quang ch ng (AON Active Optical Network). Vic trin khai theo AON
hay PON ty thuc vo v tr, c th ca mng truy nhp khu vc .

Hnh 3.32: Kin trc FTTN
Hin nay trn mng truy nhp quang ti nh thu bao ang trin khai theo mng
quang ch ng, v tn dng si cp quang hin c, s thu bao s dng truy nhp bng
rng cha nhiu, hn na u t c s h tng cho trin khai PON trc mt rt tn km.
Tuy nhin do nhng u im ni bt ca PON th xu hng trong tng lai s trin khai
mng FTTx theo PON l mt iu tt yu
3.5.3 Cng ngh AON
3.5.3.1. Khi nim
Mng quang ch ng (AON Actice Optical Network) l mng quang c s phn
phi tn hiu quang AON cn s dng cc thit b cn ngun nui d liu nh mt chuyn
mch, router hoc multiplexer. D liu t pha nh cung cp ca khch hng no s ch
c chuyn n khch hng . V vy d liu ca khch hng s trnh c xung t
khi truyn trn ng vt l chung bng vic s dng cc b m ca cc thit b tch
cc.
T nm 2007, hu ht cc h thng mng quang tch cc c gi l ethernet tch
cc (AOEN- All Optical Ethernet Network). Ethernet tch cc s dng cc chuyn mch
ethernet quang phn phi tn hiu, do s kt ni cc cn h khch hng vi nh
cung cp thnh mt h thng mng Ethernet khng l ging nh mt mng my tnh
ethernet thng thng ngoi tr mc ch ca chng l kt ni cc cn h v cc ta nh
vi nh cung cp dch v. Mi t chuyn mch c th qun l ti hng nghn khch hng.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
98
Cc thit b chuyn mch ny thc hin chuyn mch v nh tuyn da vo lp 2 v lp
3.
Mng truy nhp ton quang FTTH s dng mng quang ch ng AON cc thit b
chuyn mch hot ng mt cch ch ng, cn cp ngun in hot ng. H thng
truy nhp ny cn nhiu cp quang, mi mt cp c kt ni n mt user trong h
thng. i vi AON th khong cch t OLT n ONU s rt ln, nhng vic trin khai
s tn km v tn rt nhiu cp v th gi thnh lp t rt cao. AON ph hp trin khai
nhng ni c mt dn c thp, ph hp vi nhng dch v yu cu thi gian thc.
Mng quang ch ng AON c miu t nh hnh 3.33:









Hnh 3.33. Mng quang ch ng AON
3.5.3.2. Cc phng thc trin khai AON
Mng AON c hiu l kiu kt ni im ti im (P2P- Point to Point) v
AOEN (Active Optical Ethernet Network)
C hai cu hnh chnh c trin khai l : Kin trc Home Run, v kin trc
Active Star Ethernet.
Kin trc Home- Run- fiber
Kin trc ny c cp dnh ring ni t CO n tng nh thu bao. Kin trc ny
yu cu nhiu si quang, nhiu OLT v mi nh thu bao cn 1 cng OLT) . Hnh 3.34
miu t kin trc cp chy ti tn nh thu bao.






Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
99








Hnh 3.34. Kin trc home run
Active Star Ethernet
Kin trc Ethernet sao tch cc (ASE- Active Star Ethernet) c bit n nh
kin trc sao kp, ASE s gim c s lng cp quang v gim gi thnh bng cch
chia x cp u ra.













Hnh 3.35. Kin trc Active Star Ethernet
Kin trc sao tch cc, node t xa s c trin khai gia CO v nh thu bao. Mi
cng OLT v cp u ra gia CO v node t xa c chia x bi bn n hng nghn nh
thu bao, ty thuc vo t l chia ca b lc qua nhng ng link phn phi dnh ring
t node t xa. Node t xa trong mng sao tch cc c th l b ghp knh hoc l b
chuyn mch. Node t xa chuyn mch tn hiu trong min in v th chuyn i
quang sang in, in sang quang l rt cn thit node t xa. Do bng tn ca cp u ra
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
100
CO b chia x gia nhiu im u cui, nn dung lng d tha ti a sn c cho mi
ngi nh ng ln v ng xung u t hn so vi cp n tn nh, y chnh l
nhc im ca cu trc sao so vi cu trc home run trn. Kin trc Ethernet sao
tch cc c th hin trn hnh 3.35.
Mng truy nhp quang hin nay ca VNPT ch yu c trin khai s dng mng
truy nhp quang tch cc vi cng ngh SDH, vi cu hnh Ring v im- im vi c
im sau:
Mc thm nhp cp quang hin nay cn hn ch, ch yu mc m rng
phm vi tng i nh cc h thng mng truy nhp quang DLC kt ni gia
tng i CO n khi chuyn mch t xa (RSU - Remote Switching Unit). Cc
h thng ny ch yu s dng cng ngh quang SDH tch cc vi cu hnh
RING hoc im im. Mt s h thng truy nhp quang m rng hn v
pha thu bao v c giao din V5.2 nh FSX2000 ca Fujitsu, AN 2000, Honet,
Faslink ca Siemens, Slic 240 ca lucentTuy nhin, phn truyn dn ca cc
h thng ny vn trn c s cng ngh PDH, SDH tch cc, v chng c kh
nng cung cp cc knh E1 hoc n64.
Cu hnh Ring (Phn tp cp trn cng 1 cp- Ring dt) v im im
Ch bo v 1+1: Ring thuc loai USHR (ring n hng) bo v mc lung;
1+1 bo v on ghp knh i vi cu hnh im im. Hiu qu dung lng
50%. C kh nng chng li 1 s c nt/ tuyn. C th thit lp lung khng
bo v nh dung lng h thng c th ti s tng ln.
Cc chng loi thit b ch yu c trin khai l AN2000, Honet,
FLX150/600, FSX2000 ca Fujitsu, SMA ca Siement, TN-1X ca Nortel
Cht lng m bo BER = 10
-10

ng b ca mng ch yu c phn b t nt tng i chnh.
Giao din nhnh mc E1,E3, DS3, E4, STM-1 (VC4)
Kt ni vi cc h thng khc ch yu mc E1
Mt s h thng c cu trc ghp knh theo c ETSI v ANSI nh Jujitsu cho
php lung CV-3 nhn giao din E3 (34Mb/s) hoc DS3( 45Mb/s)
H thng c qun l v iu khin thng qua phn mm mc u cui.
Vic thit lp lung cha c t ng, cn c tham gia ca nh khai thc.
3.5.4 Cng ngh PON
3.5.4.1 Khi nim
Mng quang th ng (PON - Passive Optical Network) l mt kin trc mng
im-a im, s dng cc b chia quang th ng (khng c ngun cp) chia cng
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
101
sut quang t mt si quang ti cc si quang cung cp cho nhiu khch hng, thng t
l chia l 4,8,16,32,64,128ty thuc vo cu hnh mng. Mt mng PON bao gm mt
u cui ng truyn quang OLT t ti tng i ca nh cung cp dch v v cc n v
mng quang ONU t ti pha khch hng.
Trong cc khuyn ngh v mng v cc h thng truyn dn, ITU-T a ra mt
tp hp cc nh ngha v kin trc lm c s cho vic xy dng quang th ng. Da
trn cc nh ngha , khi nim v mng quang th ng mt cch ngn gn nh sau
mng quang th ng (PON) l mt mng quang khng c cc phn t in hay cc thit
b quang in t. Nh vy vi khi nim ny, mng PON s khng cha bt k mt phn
t tch cc no m cn phi c s chuyn i quang- in. Thay vo PON s ch bao
gm: Si quang, b chia, b kt hp, b ghp nh hng, thu knh, b lc v cc ph
kin iu ny gip cho PON c mt s u im nh: khng cn ngun in cung cp
nn khng b nh hng bi nhiu ngun, c tin cy cao v khng cn phi bo dng
do tn hiu khng b suy hao nh i vi cc phn t tch cc.
Mt s gii php cho PON c a ra vo cui nhng nm 80, da trn cc
tiu chun v cc cng ngh mi. Mt s th nghim nh cng c tin hnh trong
phm vi ca t chc ACTS ch yu l kt hp gia PON vi cng ngh mi, nh l cng
ngh laser. ATM PON c ban hnh thnh tiu chun trong G983.1 ca ITU. S pht
trin cao hn ca chun APON gc cng vi s dn mt a chung ca ATM dn n
phin bn y v cui cng ca ITU-T G983 c xem nh PON bng rng hay
BPON. Mt mng APON/BPON in hnh cung cp 622Mbt/s bng thng lung xung
v 155 Mbit/s ng ln.
Chun ITU-T G984 (GPON) m t s gia tng trong c bng thng v hiu sut s
dng bng thng nh s dng gi ln, c di thay i. Hn na chun G984 cho php
vi s la chn tc bt, c bn s dng tc 2,488 Mbit/s cho lung xung v tc
1,244 Mbit/s cho lung ln. Phng thc gi tng hp GPON (GPON Encapsulation
Methed- GEM) cho php ng gi lu lng d liu ngi dng rt hiu qu, vi s phn
on khung cho php m bo cht lng dch v QoS cao hn phc v cc lu lng
nhy cm (dch v thi gian thc yu cu tr thp) nh truyn thoi v lung video.
Chun IEEE 802.3 Ethernet PON (EPON hay GEPON) c hon thnh nm
2004, nh mt phn ca d n Ethernet First Mile. EPON chun IEEE 802.3 s dng
khung Ethernet i xng 1,24 Gbit/s tc lung ln v lung xung. EPON c th ng
dng cho cc mng trung tm d liu, cng nh cc mng dch v b ba thoi, d liu v
video. Gn y, bt u t nm 2006, tip tc thc hin chun EPON tc cc cao
10Gigabit/s (chun XEPON hay 10- GEPON)
3.5.4.2 Cu hnh PON
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
102
Mng quang th ng c ba cu hnh c bn l:
Cu hnh Ring
Cu hnh cy
Cu hnh bus
Cu hnh Ring c th hin trn hnh 3.36





Hnh 3.36. Cu hnh Ring
Cu hnh cy c th hin trn hnh 3.37






Hnh 3.37. Cu hnh cy
Cu hnh bus c th hin trn hnh 3.38





Hnh 3.38. Cu hnh Bus ca PON
3.5.4.3 Cc chun PON
ITU-TG983
APON (ATM Passive Optical Network) Mng quang th ng ATM. y l chun
mng quang th ng u tin. Tng c s dng ch yu cho cc ng dng thng mi
v trn nn ATM.
BPON (Broadband PON) l chun trn nn APON. c b xung h tr cho
WDM ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng, cp pht bng thng ng ln ng v ln


Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
103
hn, v tnh chn lc. ng thi to ra giao din qun l chun gi l OMCI, gia OLT
v ONU/ONT, cho php cc mng cung cp hn hp, c th :
G983.1 : Nm 1998, trnh by v lp vt l ca h thng APON/BPON.
G983.2: Nm 1999, c tnh ca giao din iu khin v qun l ONT
G983.3: Ph chun nm 2001, c tnh m rng cung cp nhng dch v
thng qua phn b bc sng.
G983.4 : Thng qua nm 2001, m t nhng c ch cn thit h tr phn
b bng tn ng trong cc ONT ca cng mt mng PON.
G983.5: Thng qua nm 2002, xc nh nhng c ch chuyn mch bo v
cho BPON
G983.6: Thng qua nm 2002, nh ngha nhng m rng cho giao din
iu khin cn thit cho qun l nhng chc nng chuyn mch ti ONT
G983.7: Thng qua nm 2001, nh ngha nhng m rng cho giao din
iu khin cn thit cho qun l nhng chc nm DBA ti ONT.
G983.8: Thng qua nm 2003, xc nh nhng m rng cho giao din iu
khin cn thit cho qun l nhng dch v m rng ti ONT.
ITU-T G984
GPON (Gigabit PON) l mt s pht trin ca chun BPON. N h tr tc cao
hn, tng cng bo mt v chn lp 2 giao thc (ATM, GEM, Ethernet)
G984.1: m t nhng c tnh chung ca h thng GPON nh l kin trc,
tc bit, bo v v bo mt
G984.2: Xc nh nhng thng s ca GPON ti tc ln l (155Mb/s,
622Mb/s, 1,5Gb/s, 2, 5GB/s ), xung l (1,5Gb/s v 2,5Gb/s)
G984.3 : M t nhng c tnh v khung hi t truyn dn ca GPON; bn
tin, phng php xc nh khong, hot ng, gim st, nhng chc nng
bo dng, v bo mt.
IEEE 802.3ah
EPON hay GEPON (Ethernet PON) l mt chun IEEE s dng Ethernet cho
d liu gi.
Trong cc gii php mng PON, gii php EPON c h tr v pht trin nhanh
nht. Nhiu nh cung cp dch v chn gii php ny lm mng truy nhp v truyn
ti lu lng mng Metro (MEN) cung cp a dch v. Tuy nhin c ch duy tr v
phc hi mng ca gii php EPON cn chm nn ch c th p dng cho mng c quy
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
104
m va v nh. Bng ngay di y m t nhng so snh c bn ca cc cng ngh PON
hin nay.
Bng 3.7: So snh cc gii php mng PON
APON BPON EPON GPON WDM PON
Tiu chun
FSAN ITU-T
G.983
FSAN ITU-T
G.983
EFM IEEE
802.3ah
FSAN ITU-T
G.984
Cha
Khung ATM
ATM,
Ethernet,
Phn b
Vodeo
Ethernet
GPON
Kiu ng gi
Khng ph
thuc
Tc
xung
622-1244 M 1,244 G 1-10 G 2,488 G
1-10 G
n knh
Tc ln 155-622 M 622 M 1-10 G 2,488 G
1/10 G
n knh
S thu
bao/nhnh
16 32 16 64 100s
Bng tn/
Thu bao
20 M 20 M 60 M 40 M 1-10 G
Dch v
Video
RF RF RF/IP RF/IP RF/IP
Gi thnh Thp Thp Thp nht Trung bnh Cao
3.5.4.4 Cc cng ngh PON
APON
APON l s kt hp gia phng thc truyn ti khng ng b ATM vi mng
truy nhp quang th ng PON. Tc hot ng l 155,52Mbps hoc 622,08Mbps.
Bng tn cho mi thu bao l 4,8Mbps trong h thng 155,52Mbps v 19,4Mbps trong h
thng 622.08Mbps
Cu trc khung truyn dn cho APON
ng xung: ng xung, APON s dng cng ngh ghp knh theo thi
gian. Trong , cc t bo gi cho cc ONU khc nhau c ghp knh lung
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
105
xung theo thi gian. ng thi, trong cc khung ng xung cn c cc t
bo PLOAM (physical layer OAM - lp vt l OAM) cha thng tin cp php
(Grant) cho php cc ONU truyn dn ng ln.
Hnh 3.39: Nguyn l ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian ng xung
ng ln: ng ln, APON s dng cng ngh a truy nhp phn chia
theo thi gian. Mi ONU sau khi nhn c giy php t OLT trong t bo
PLOAM ng xung s truyn thng tin ca mnh vo ng khe thi gian
c phn. Cc t bo ca cc ONU khc nhau s an xen vi nhau v mt thi
gian.







Hnh 3.40: Nguyn l a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian ng ln
EPON
EPON l mng truy nhp quang th ng PON da trn cc cng ngh ca mng
LAN Ethernet. EPON c to ra t s m rng khuyn ngh 802.3a, h ca IEEE cho
php thc hin cc kt ni im - a im thng qua cc kt ni vt l im - im. Khi
cc thit b u cui ng quang OLT v cc khi mng quang c th s dng cc
giao din da theo chun ca Ethernet kt ni vi mng phn b quang ODN. Nhng
cc kt ni gia OLT v ONU khng cn tun theo chun 802.3.
H thng EPON c cu hnh theo phng thc song cng (khng theo c ch a
truy nhp cm nhn sng mang v d tm ng CSMA/CD) trong cu hnh im a
im(P2MP) s dng 1 si quang.Cc thu bao hoc cc ONU ch c th ly lu lng t
cc OLT.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
106
Cc h thng EPON s dng cu trc phn tch quang,ghp knh cc tn hiu s
dng cc bc sng khc nhau cho ng ln v ng xung nh sau:
-Bc sng 1490nm cho ng xung
-Bc sng 1310nm cho ng ln
Hnh 3.41: Cu hnh h thng EPON

Lu lng lung xung v ng ln trong mng EPON
Lung xung







Hnh 3.42: Lu lng lung xung cho h thng EPON
Ti ng xung, OLT s pht qung b cc gi tin n cc ONU. Trong khung
qung b 802.3 s c cc ONU ly ra da vo a ch nhn dng kt ni logic. Bn tin
GATE 64 byte c gi ng xung n nh bng tn cho ng ln.
Lung ln
MPCP s dng cc khe thi gian cha a khung 802.3 .Mi ONU s gi 1 bn
tin REPORT c ln 64byte cha trng thi ca ONU ti OLT.Trong cu trc ny
khng c hin tng tranh chp v phn mnh gi.



Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
107







Hnh 3.43: Lu lng ng ln trong h thng EPON
GPON (Gigabit PON)
Mng GPON u tin c FSAN chun ho vo nm 2001 vi bng tn l 1Gb/s.
Kin trc ca mng GPON cho php cc dch v thoi v d liu c truyn ti vi tc
ln n 2.5Gb/s. Bng tn dnh cho mi thu bao l 31.25 Mb/s cho lung xung khi
mng hot ng vi tc 2.5Gb/s,v 15.625 Mb/s khi mng hot ng vi tc 1Gb/s.
c im ca h thng GPON
GPON (Gigabit Passive Optical Network) nh ngha theo chun IUT-T G984.
GPON c m rng t chun BPON G983 bng cch tng bng thng, nng hiu sut
bng thng nh s dng gi ln, c di thay i v tiu chun ha qun l. Thm na,
chun cho php vi s la chn ca tc bt: cho php bng thng lung xung l
2,488Mbit/s v bng thng lung ln l 1,244Mbit/s. Phng thc ng gi GPON-GEM
cho php ng gi lu lng ngi dng rt hiu qu, vi s phn on khung cho php
cht lng dch v QoS cao hn phc v lu lng nhy cm nh truyn thoi v video.
GPON h tr tc cao hn, tng cng bo mt v chn lp 2 giao thc (ATM,
GEM, Ethernet tuy nhin trn thc t ATM cha tng c s dng). iu cho
php GPON phn phi thm cc dch v ti nhiu thu bao.
GPON h tr y cc dch v bao gm thoi (TDM), cc dch v Ethernet nh
Video, Data
Phm vi v mt vt l ca mng l 20km, trong khi phm vi v mt logic ca
mng ln ti 60km
H tr cho vic la chn cc tc bit khc nhau bao gm:622Mb/s,1.25Gb/s,
2.5Gb/s cho lung xung v 1.25 Gb/s dnh cho lung ln.
Kh nng vn hnh khai thc bo dng cao
Vi cc u im trn GPON l h thng mng truy nhp quang th ng tin tin nht
hin nay, c kh nng h tr truyn nhiu dch v, vi kh nng thit lp cc ch vn
hnh qun l v bo dng tt nht.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
108
WDM-PON
Mc d EPON cung cp li th v gi thp, s thc hin th ng ca cc RN,
tin cy cao, nhng n vn cn mt s gii hn v kh nng m rng, dung lng knh
kh dng, v tnh bo mt cho ngi s dng. V th, c th p ng c s pht
trin rt nhanh ca lu lng internet cng vi nhu cu cho cc dch v ngy cng a
dng, nh HDTV(TV cht lng cao), game tng tc, hi ngh truyn hnh., cng nh
bo mt mng c tng cng, th cn phi c kin trc mi c th p ng c. Mt
cng ngh c th khc phc c nhng hn ch ca EPON l WDM PON, khi cu
hnh sao th ng trong RN c thay th bi thit b quang th ng c bit, gi l
AWG. Trong WDM PON, mi ONU thng c gn mt bc sng hoc knh ring
bit (t nht l cho ng xung) v nhng knh ny c nh tuyn bi mt AWG, i
khi l hn (t ti RN), c im nh tuyn ph thuc vo bc sng. c tnh quan
trng nht, mt AWG ti mt RN thay th chc nng phn chia cng sut cho cc ng
xung bng chc nng nh tuyn sn c bn trong n cng vi ti s dng bc sng.
c tnh ny ca AWG tng cng qu cng sut ( v do tng thm tnh linh hot ca
mng) cho php iu tit cc yu cu bng thng thm nh s h tr ca nhiu bc sng
thng qua WDM. Th hai, nu cn thit cc ONU khc nhau nhn cc bc sng khc
nhau c th c thit lp s dng cc tc bit khc nhau.
3.6 Truy nhp qua v tinh
3.6.1 Gii thiu chung
Truy nhp qua v tinh s dng h thng v tinh thng tin truyn pht d liu.
Khi quan st t mt t s di chuyn ca v tinh theo qu o bay, ngi ta thng phn
v tinh lm hai loi (hnh 3.44):
+ V tinh di ng (v tinh qu o thp): l v tinh chuyn ng lin tc so vi
mt t, thi gian cn thit cho v tinh chuyn ng xung quanh qu o ca
n khc vi chu k quay ca tri t.
+ V tinh a tnh: L v tinh c phng ln qu o trn cao khong
36000 km so vi ng knh xch o. V tinh ny bay xung quanh tri t mt
vng ht 24 gi. Do thi gian bay ca v tinh bng vi thi gian quay ca tri
t v cng hng nn dng nh v tinh ng yn khi quan st t mt t nn
gi l v tinh a tnh.
Cng c th phn loi h thng thng tin v tinh theo qu o ca v tinh. Khi ,
thng tin v tinh c th phn thnh cc h thng sau y (bng 3.8):
+ LEO: Low Earth Orbit
+ MEO: Medium Earth Orbit
+ GEO: Geostationary Earth Orbit
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
109
















Hnh 3.44: Qu o v tinh a tnh v v tinh di ng
LEO
Cc v tinh LEO c th c phn chia thnh Big LEO v Little LEO. Little
LEO cung cp nhn tin, in thoi t bo v cc dch v nh v. H thng LEO c qu
o cch tri t khong 400 n 1600 km. Tn hiu i t trm mt t n LEO v quay
v trm mt t mt khong 20 n 40 ms.
C mt vi h thng LEO nh:
Iridium c 66 v tnh c mc ch ca h thng v tinh nhn to Iridium l
dng cho h thng in thoi di ng cu hnh s dng c th hin trn hnh
3.45
Teledesic cng gi l Internet trn tri (Internet in the sky) li ch ch nhm
vo dch v truy xut Internet bao gm 288 v tinh nhn to ca Teledesic c
gi thnh xp x 9 t dollar.
Globalstar, mt cng ty con ca hng Loral and Qualcomm c h thng 48 v
tinh vi gi thnh 2,6 t dollar vi mc ch chnh l dng cho cc ng dng d
liu truyn thng, in thoi v fax.
Skybridge d kin s phng 64 v tinh vi gi thnh tng cng l 3,5 t dollar.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
110
Bng 3.8: Qu o v tinh
LEO MEO GEO
Qu o





Chiu cao (dm)
(1 dm 1.6 km)
300 n1000 dm 6250 n 13000 dm 22282 dm
Chu k quay
90 pht
5 n 12 gi 24 gi
Tr 20 n 40 mili giy 50 n 150 mili giy 0.24 giy

MEO
MEO di chuyn xung quang tri t cao khong 10000 n 20000 km. Thi
gian m tn hiu thc hin mt chu trnh khong 50 ms n 150 ms. Cc v tinh MEO c
mc bao ph mt t nhiu, rng hn cc v tinh ca LEO nhng li c chu trnh tn
hiu (ring trip) ln hn.
MEO thng c s dng kt hp vi cc h thng v tinh GEO.
GEO
GEO cch xch o 35786 km. Qu o ca v tinh GEO so vi tri t l c nh
v vy ch cn 3 v tinh GEO l c th bao ph ton b tri t (tr hai vng Nam cc v
Bc cc).
C mt vi h thng GEO nh :
H thng Direct PC ca Hughes Communications vn l mng truy nhp
Internet qua v tinh ln nht hin nay. Tc truy xut Internet theo chiu
downstream t 200 Kb/s n 400 Kb/s s c m rng bng h thng GEO d
kin Hughes Spaceway gm 8 v tinh nhn to hot ng tc 6 Mb/s vi
gi thnh tng cng l 3 t dollar.
H thng Expressway gm 14 v tinh nhn to c gi thnh 4 t dollar cho
php truy xut theo chiu downstream ln n 1,5 Mb/s.
Thng tin v tinh c cc u im sau:
C kh nng a truy nhp.
Vng ph sng rng.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
111
n nh cao, c kh nng cung cp cc dch v bng rng.
ng dng tt cho thng tin di ng.
Hiu qu cao cho thng tin ng di, xuyn lc a, cc vng ni cao, hi o.

Iridium Gateway

Ka-band
Ka-band
L-band
Ka-band
Iridium Satelites
Acronautical
Iridium Gateway
Iridium
Telephone
Iridium
Pager
Terrestrial Swittch Wireless Customers

Hnh 3.45: in thoi di ng Iridium
Nhc im:
Tr truyn dn cao (1/4 giy i vi h thng GEO).
Sng v tuyn in b suy hao v hp th tng in ly v kh quyn, c bit
trong ma.
3.6.2 H thng VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal)
VSAT l t vit tt ting Anh c ngha l trm thng tin v tinh mt t c nh
(anten thng c kch thc t 0,75m n 4,5m), c lp t ti cc a im thu bao
lin lc trc tip vi mt trm VSAT khc hoc vi mt trm ch t kt ni qua
mng vin thng mt t n a im theo yu cu ca khch hng.
Thng thng VSAT cung cp kt ni vi tc l 56Kb/s, c th t c tc
ca lung T1 hoc E1. VSAT cng c th cung cp thng tin mang tnh thi gian thc
trong mt khong thi gian ngn. H thng VSAT p dng m ho thoi ADPCM, s
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
112
dng m ho sa sai hng i FEC v gii m Vitecbi. H thng VSAT thng s dng
phng thc iu ch BPSK hoc QPSK.
C 3 l do ngi ta s dng VSAT l:
Kinh t
Thit lp mng ring
Cung cp kt ni cht lng trong khi iu kin xung quanh khng m
bo.
Cu trc c bn ca VSAT














Hnh 3.46: Mng VSAT c bn
H thng VSAT bao gm mt b thu pht v tinh, hub trung tm hoc mt my
ch mt t v cc VSAT xa. u cui VSAT c kh nng tip nhn v pht cc tn
hiu thng qua v tinh n cc VSAT khc trong mng. Tu thuc vo cng ngh truy
nhp c s dung m cc tn hiu c th c gi i thng qua v tinh n hub trung
tm hoc gi trc tip n cc VSAT.
Tu thuc vo lu lng yu cu cho cc ng dng u cuim mng VSAT c
cc kin trc khc nhau (hnh 3.47): kin trc hnh sao (star) hoc kin trc li (mesh).
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
113










(a) Kin trc sao (b) Kin trc li
Hnh 3.47: Kin trc VSAT
Trong kin trc sao, c mt trm mt t trung tm gi l hub, iu khin, gim st
v thng tin vi mt nhm VSAT. Tt c cc trm VSAT ch lin lc thng tin qua trm
hub. Cn i vi kin trc li, cc trm VSAT thng tin lin lc trc tip vi nhau m
khng thng qua trm hub. Trn thc t c nhng ng dng i hi phi c s kt hp
cc kin trc vi nhau, gi l kin trc lai ghp. Trong kin trc ny, mt phn mng hot
ng theo kin trc hnh sao, mt phn mng khc li hot ng theo kin trc li.
3.6.3 H thng VSAT IP-IPSTAR
VSAT-IP l VSAT s dng h thng thng tin v tinh bng rng IPStar cung
cp cc dch v vin thng trn nn giao thc IP.
IPSTAR l h thng thng tin v tinh bng rng c cu trc mng hnh sao s dng
k ngh chuyn mch gi bng rng. H thng bao gm 3 thnh phn c bn l trm cng
Gateway, v tinh IPSTAR v cc trm v tinh thu bao UT. (hnh 3.48)
V tinh IPSTAR
V tinh IPSTAR c 4 bp ph hp bao ph ton b lnh th Vit Nam v 1 bp
ph qung b, hot ng bng tn Ka v Ku vi dung lng thit k khong 2 Gb/s (cho
c 2 chiu ln, xung).
V tinh ny c ch to bi Space Systems/Loral c 114 b pht p vi tng
dung lng ln ti 45Gb/s, tui th hot ng l 12 nm, v tinh mi c phng vo
ngy 11/8/2005 v tr qu o 120 ng.



Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
114


Hnh 3.48: H thng v tinh IPSTAR
Trm cng
Trm Gateway lm vic bng tn Ka, c thit k hot ng theo cu hnh d
phng (1+1) cho phn cao tn, anten chnh v d phng c phn tp theo khng gian,
cch nhau t 40 n 60 km, trnh nh hng ca thi tit ln ng thi ti hai a
im. Trm Gateway chnh t ti Qu Dng - H Ty v trm d phng ti Hoa Sen -
H Nam. H thng cao tn ti hai a im c kt ni trc tip vi nhau bng cp
quang. Trm gateway thc hin chc chuyn mch v nh tuyn lu lng gia cc phn
t mng, hi t cc tiu chun ca mt mng IP nh HTTP, FTP cho cc ng dng
dch v bng rng WEB, FTP v cc ng dng truyn thng a phng tin.
Hng truyn dn t Gateway n UT c gi l TOLL Link, thng qua thit b
TOLL trm gateway c kh nng cung cp knh truyn dn cho cc trm UT vi tc
rt ln. Mt TOLL Link dung lng tng ng dung lng mt b pht p v tinh ty
theo nhu cu dung lng, cu hnh trm gateway c 1 hoc nhiu chiu TOLL. Mi mt
TOLL c phn chia linh hot thnh nhiu knh, cc knh c cc khe thi gian ti a l
16 knh/ TOLL, 256 timeslot/knh.
Hng truyn t UT n gateway c gi l STAR Link, trm gateway tip nhn
d liu t cc UT thng qua thit b D STAR (Tip nhn 2 STAR ng thi). C nhiu
D-STAR trong mt mt trm gateway ng thi. Dung lng bng tn D- STAR Link
chim 4Mhz cng nh TOLL Link, STAR Link c phn chia thnh nhiu knh mt
cch linh hot.
Thit b pha thu bao (UT)

Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
115
Cc trm UT bao gm khi ODU v IDU
Khi ODU: Bao gm anten v cc thit b cao tn nh BUC, LNB, feedhorn.
BUC l khi o tn ln, thng dng loi cng sut 1 W hoc 2 W, tn s pht
t 13,75 n 14,5 GHz
LNB l khi khuch i tp m thp, tn s thu t 10,7 n 12,75GHz
Khi IDU
Tc download ti a: 4Mb/s
Tc upload ti a: 2Mb/s
S dng cng sut pht v bng thng linh hot cho php phn b bng thng
hp l da trn c im lu lng tng khch hng.
Giao din mng RJ45, USB
Ngun in cung cp 100-240 VAC v 24DC
Cng sut tiu th:70W
Thit b ODU v IDU c kt ni bng cp RG6 hoc RG11, khong cch dng
cp RG6 cho php nh hn 35m, s dng cp RG11 khong cch cho php t ti 100m.
Tn s IF thu t LNB n Modem t 1550 n 2050MHz hoc t 1650 n 2150 MHz,
tn s IF pht t Modem n ODU t 950 n 1450 MHz. Cc trm thu bao cung cp
cc dch v tch hp theo yu cu c th ca khch hng.
3.7 WLAN
3.7.1 Gii thiu chung
Mt mng LAN v tuyn (WLAN) l mt h thng truyn thng d liu linh hot
c thc hin nh mt s m rng hay s thay i ca mng LAN hu tuyn. Mng
LAN v tuyn l mng d liu, c th thay th hoc m rng mng cp ng, s dng
cng ngh tn s v tuyn RF hay hng ngoi truyn v nhn s liu thng qua khng
gian, ti thiu ho nhu cu kt ni hu tuyn. WLAN cung cp tt c cc chc nng v u
im ca mt mng LAN truyn thng nh Ethernet hay Ring m khng b gii hn bi
cp. V vy, WLAN kt hp c vic kt ni truyn s liu vi tnh di ng ca ngi
s dng.
Cc mng WLAN cung cp truy nhp khng dy vi tc ln hn 1Mbps cho tt
c cc mi trng trong nh v ngoi tri. Cc WLAN cng cho php thc hin d dng
dch v truyn qung b (broadcast) v truyn nhm a ch (multicast) cho d cc dch
v ny phi c bo v trnh cc truy nhp khng c php. Mt cu hnh WLAN
in hnh c trnh by trong hnh 3.49.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
116

PWR
OK
WIC0 ACT/CH0
ACT/CH1
WIC0 ACT/CH0
ACT/CH1
ETH ACT
COL
iMac
Mng hu
tuyn
im truy
nhp
Server
Nt c
nh
Nt di
ng

Hnh 3.49 Cu hnh mt mng WLAN in hnh
Thit b thu/pht c gi l cc im truy nhp (AP) ni ti mng hu tuyn t mt
im c nh. im truy nhp nhn, lu tm thi v pht ni cc gi gia cc nt mng
WLAN v LAN hu tuyn. Mt AP duy nht c th h tr mt nhm nh cc nt di ng
trong vng vi trm mt. nten ni vi AP thng c cm cao nhng cng c th t
bt k ch no sao cho vng ph sng cng ln cng tt. Cc thit b ngi dng cui trao
i thng tin vi AP qua cc b bin i thch ng m cc b ny c ch to nh PC
card trong cc my tnh xch tay, ISA hoc PCI card Chng cung cp giao din gia
mng cc khch hng v knh v tuyn. N cung cp kt ni trong sut ti h thng.
Trong khi chi ph cho vic trin khai mng LAN truyn thng ch yu l cc thit
b kt ni m i khi chi ph ny vt qu chi ph phn cng v phn mm ca my tnh
th vic trin khai WLAN loi b c cc chi ph nhn cng v thit b dy cp. ng
thi, WLAN cng linh hot hn trong xy dng li cu hnh hoc m rng cc nt mng,
do chi ph cho tng lai s khng nhiu v d dng trin khai hn. S pht trin ngy
cng tng nhanh ca cc my tnh xch tay nh gn hn, hin i hn v r hn thc
y s tng trng rt ln trong cng nghip WLAN trong nhng nm gn y.
3.7.2 Cu hnh mng WLAN
Ty vo ng dng c th Wlan c th c nhng cu hnh nh :
Cu hnh mng WLAN c lp
Cu hnh mng WLAN c s, c th dng thm trm lp
Kin trc y ca WLAN
Cu hnh mng WLAN c lp
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
117
y l cu hnh mng ngang cp (peer to peer) hay cn gi l mng ad hoc. V cc
cu hnh mng c lp c th trin khai d dng v nhanh chng, mng ny thng c
to ra m khng cn nhng thit b hay k nng c bit. Cc mng cu hnh c lp cng
khng cn phi qun tr mng. Nhng cu hnh kiu ny c s dng trong cc hi ngh
kinh doanh hay nhm lm vic tm thi. Tuy nhin cc mng c cu hnh c lp c
phm vi hot ng hn ch. Mt im truy nhp c th m rng vng hot ng ca hai
mng WLAN c lp bng vic thc hin chc nng nh mt b lp, c tc dng gp i
khong cch gia cc nt di ng. Cc mng hnh thnh theo nhu cu nh vy khng cn
thit phi qun l hay thit lp cu hnh t trc. Nt di ng c th truy cp vo cc ti
nguyn ca cc my khc m khng phi qua mt my ch trung tm. Cu hnh mng c
lp c m t nh hnh 3.50.










Hnh 3.50: Cu hnh mng WLAN c lp.
Cu hnh mng WLAN c s
Cu hnh mng WLAN c s cho php cc nt di ng c th truy nhp vo mng
hu tuyn (Hnh 3.51). Chuyn tip t phng tin v tuyn sang hu tuyn thc hin
thng qua mt im truy nhp. Vic thit k mt mng WLAN c th c n gin i
ng k nu nh thng tin v mng v thc hin qun l cc mng ny c lu ti mt
v tr.
Cc cell c th chng ln ln nhau khong 10-15 % cho php cc trm di ng c
th di chuyn m khng b mt kt ni v tuyn v cung cp vng ph sng vi chi ph
thp nht. Cc trm di ng s chn AP tt nht kt ni.
Mt im truy nhp nm trung tm c th iu khin v phn phi truy nhp cho
cc nt tranh chp, cung cp truy nhp ph hp vi mng ng trc, n nh cc a ch
cc mc u tin, gim st lu lng mng, qun l chuyn i cc gi v duy tr theo di
cu hnh mng. Cc b lp c th c s dng tng khong cch vng ph sng trong

Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
118
trng hp kt ni n mng backbone kh thc hin. Vic ny yu cu chng ln 50%
ca AP trn mng backbone v b lp.


Hnh 3.51: Cu hnh mng WLAN c s.
Kin trc y ca WLAN
Mng WLAN c kin trc y c th hin nh trong hnh 3.52. Vng ph
sng ca im truy nhp AP to ra mt im nng (hotspot). Ti cc hotspot ngi s
dng vi cc thit b nh my tnh xch tay Laptop, my tnh c nhn PC c trang b
card giao din mng v tuyn, thit b h tr k thut s PDAc th truy nhp vo
mng thng qua giao tip AP. Cc AP ti mt hotspot c tp trung v hub v kt ni
vi mng thng qua router nh tuyn. Cc router c ni vo mng hu tuyn bng mt
phng thc truyn dn no tu thuc nh cung cp dch v. pha trung tm qun l
mng c 3 my ch: my ch AAA (nhn thc, phn quyn v tnh cc), my ch IP
hot ng theo giao thc DHCP thc hin cp pht a ch IP v my ch h thng qun
l mng NMS.
Kch thc ph sng mi HOTSPOT: < 300m.
Tn s: Tn s s dng ph bin: 802.11b, 2,4GHz
Cng sut pht : 100mW, rng bng thng 22MHz.
Tc : 11Mbps vi chun 802.11b
Bo mt: WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy)
H qun l: Radius (Remote Authentication Dial _ In User Service)

im truy nhp AP
Cc trm di ng
LAN ng trc
v tuyn
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
119
PWR
OK
WIC0 ACT/CH0
ACT/CH1
WIC0 ACT/CH0
ACT/CH1
ETH ACT
COL
1 2 3 4 5 6
7 8 9101112
A B
12x
6x
8x
2x
9x
3x
10x
4x
11x
5x
7x
1x Ethernet
A
12x
6x
8x
2x
9x
3x
10x
4x
11x
5x
7x
1x
C
PWR
OK
WIC0 ACT/CH0
ACT/CH1
WIC0 ACT/CH0
ACT/CH1
ETH ACT
COL
1 2 3 4 5 6
7 8 9 101112
A B
12x
6x
8x
2x
9x
3x
10x
4x
11x
5x
7x
1x Ethernet
A
12x
6x
8x
2x
9x
3x
10x
4x
11x
5x
7x
1x
C
PWR
OK
WIC0 ACT/CH0
ACT/CH1
WIC0 ACT/CH0
ACT/CH1
ETH ACT
COL PWR
OK
WIC0 ACT/CH0
ACT/CH1
WIC0 ACT/CH0
ACT/CH1
ETH ACT
COL
1 2 3 4 5 6
7 8 9 101112
A B
12x
6x
8x
2x
9x
3x
10x
4x
11x
5x
7x
1x Ethernet
A
12x
6x
8x
2x
9x
3x
10x
4x
11x
5x
7x
1x
C
IDC
Hot Spot
Network
AP
AP
AP
AP
HUB
Router
NMS
Server
IP(DHCP)
Server
AAA
Server
Hnh 3.52: Kin trc WLAN y .
3.7.3. Chun cng ngh
Nhm vt l
802.11b
L chun p ng cho phn ln cc ng dng ca mng. Vi mt gii php rt
hon thin, 802.11b c nhiu c im thun li so vi cc chun khng dy khc. Chun
802.11b s dng kiu tri ph trc tip DSSS, hot ng di tn 2,4 GHz, tc truyn
d liu ti a l 11 Mbps trn mt knh, tc thc t l khong t 4-5 Mbps. Khong
cch c th ln n 500 mt trong mi trng m rng. Khi dng chun ny ti a c 32
ngi dng / im truy cp.
Nhc im ca 802.11b l hat ng di tn 2,4 GHz l di tn ISM (Industrial,
Scientific v Medical) trng vi di tn ca nhiu thit b trong gia nh nh l vi sng,
in thoi cordless nn c th b nhiu.
802.11a
Chun 802.11a l phin bn nng cp ca 802.11b, hot ng di tn 5 GHz , dng
cng ngh tri ph OFDM. Tc ti a t 25 Mbps n 54 Mbps trn mt knh, tc
thc t xp x 27 Mbps, dng chun ny ti a c 64 ngi dng / im truy cp. Mt
im yu ca 802.11a l di ph sng hp, do chun ny s dng di tn 5GHz (tn s
cng cao th di truyn tn hiu cng ngn).
802.11g
Cc thit b thuc chun ny hot ng cng tn s vi chun 802.11b l 2,4
Ghz. Tuy nhin chng h tr tc truyn d liu nhanh gp 5 ln so vi chun 802.11b
vi cng mt phm vi ph sng, tc l tc truyn d liu ti a ln n 54 Mbps, cn
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
120
tc thc t l khong 7-16 Mbps. Chun 802.11g s dng phng php iu ch
OFDM, CCK Complementary Code Keying v PBCC Packet Binary Convolutional
Coding. Cc thit b thuc chun 802.11b v 802.11g hon ton tng thch vi nhau.
Nhm lp lin kt d liu MAC
802.11d
Chun 802.11d b xung mt s tnh nng i vi lp MAC nhm ph bin WLAN
trn ton th gii. Mt s nc trn th gii c quy nh rt cht ch v tn s v mc
nng lng pht sng v vy 802.11d ra i nhm p ng nhu cu . Tuy nhin, chun
802.11d vn ang trong qu trnh pht trin v cha c chp nhn rng ri nh l chun
ca th gii.
802.11e
y l chun c p dng cho c 802.11 a,b,g. Mc tiu ca chun ny nhm
cung cp cc chc nng v cht lng dch v - QoS cho WLAN. V mt k thut,
802.11e cng b xung mt s tnh nng cho lp con MAC. Nh tnh nng ny, WLAN
802.11 trong mt tng li khng xa c th cung cp y cc dch v nh voice, video,
cc dch v i hi QoS rt cao. Chun 802.11e hin nay vn ang trong qua trnh pht
trin v cha chnh thc p dng trn ton th gii.
802.11f
y l mt b ti liu khuyn ngh ca cc nh sn xut cc Access Point ca
cc nh sn xut khc nhau c th lm vic vi nhau. iu ny l rt quan trng khi quy
m mng li t n mc ng k. Khi mi p ng c vic kt ni mng khng
dy lin c quan, lin x nghip c nhiu kh nng khng dng cng mt chng loi thit
b.
802.11h
Tiu chun ny b xung mt s tnh nng cho lp con MAC nhm p ng cc quy
nh chu u di tn 5GHz. Chu u quy nh rng cc sn phm dng di tn 5 GHz
phi c tnh nng kim sot mc nng lng truyn dn TPC - Transmission Power
Control v kh nng t ng la chn tn s DFS - Dynamic Frequency Selection. La
chn tn s Access Point gip lm gim n mc ti thiu can nhiu n cc h thng
radar c bit khc.
802.11i
y l chun b xung cho 802.11 a, b, g nhm ci thin v mt an ninh cho mng
khng dy. An ninh cho mng khng dy l mt giao thc c tn l WEP, 802.11i cung
cp nhng phng thc m ha v nhng th tc xc nhn, chng thc mi c tn l
802.1x. Chun ny vn ang trong giai on pht trin.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
121
3.7.4 Thnh phn h thng
Trm thu pht- STA
STA Station, cc trm thu/pht sng. Thc cht ra l cc thit b khng dy kt
ni vo mng nh my vi tnh, my Palm, my PDA, in thoi di ng, vv... Vi vai tr
nh phn t trong m hnh mng ngang hng Pear to Pear hoc Client trong m hnh
Client/Server. Trong phm vi bi ging ny ch cp n thit b khng dy l my vi
tnh (thng l my xch tay cng c th l my bn c card mng kt ni khng dy).
im truy nhp -AP
im truy cp Acces Point l thit b khng dy, l im tp trung giao tip vi
cc STA, ng vai tr c trong vic truyn v nhn d liu mng. AP cn c chc nng
kt ni mng khng dy thng qua chun cp Ethernet, l cu ni gia mng khng dy
vi mng c dy. AP c phm vi t 30m n 300m ph thuc vo cng ngh v cu hnh.










Hnh 3.53: im truy nhp AP
Trm phc v c bn - BSS
Kin trc c bn nht trong WLAN 802.11 l BSS Base Service Set. y l n
v ca mt mng con khng dy c bn. Trong BSS c cha cc STA, nu khng c AP
th s l mng cc phn t STA ngang hng (cn c gi l mng Adhoc), cn nu c
AP th s l mng phn cp (cn gi l mng Infrastructure). Cc STA trong cng mt
BSS th c th trao i thng tin vi nhau. Ngi ta thng dng hnh Oval biu th
phm vi ca mt BSS. Nu mt STA no nm ngoi mt hnh Oval th coi nh STA
khng giao tip c vi cc STA, AP nm trong hnh Oval . Vic kt hp gia STA
v BSS c tnh cht ng v STA c th di chuyn t BSS ny sang BSS khc. Mt BSS
c xc nh bi m nh danh h thng ( SSID System Set Identifier ) hoc n cng
c th hiu l tn ca mng khng dy .
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
122










Hnh 3.54: M hnh mt BSS
Cu ni v tuyn t xa
Cc cu v tuyn t xa tng t nh cc im truy nhp tr trng hp chng
c s dng cho cc knh bn ngoi. Ph thuc vo khong cch v vng m c th cn
ti cc anten ngoi. Cc cu ny c thit k kt ni cc mng vi nhau, c bit
trong cc to nh v xa khong 32km. Chng cung cp mt la chn nhanh chng v r
tin so vi lp t cp hoc ng in thoi thu ring, v thng c s dng khi cc
kt ni truyn thng khng kh thi (v d qua cc sng, vng a hnh, cc khu vc
ring, ng cao tc. Khc vi cc lin kt cp v cc mch in thoi chuyn dng cc
cu v tuyn c th lc lu lng v m bo rng cc mng c kt ni khng mt cc
lu lng cn thit.





Hnh 3.55: Cu ni v tuyn.
3.8 Wimax (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)
3.8.1 Gii thiu chung
WiMAX l k thut vin thng cung cp vic truyn dn khng dy khong cch
ln bng nhiu cch khc nhau, t kiu kt ni im - im cho ti kiu truy nhp t bo.
Da trn cc tiu chun IEEE 802.16, cn c gi l WirelessMAN. WiMAX cho php
ngi dng c th duyt Internet trn my laptop m khng cn kt ni vt l bng cng
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
123
Ethernet ti router hoc switch. Tn WiMAX do WiMAX Forum to ra, bt u t thng
6 nm 2001 xng vic xy dng mt tiu chun cho php kt ni gia cc h thng
khc nhau. Din n ny cng miu t WiMAX l "tiu chun da trn k thut cho php
truyn d liu khng dy bng thng rng ging nh vi cp v DSL."
H thng Wimax (hnh 3.56) bao gm hai phn: trm Wimax v thit b thu. Thit
b thu Wimax c th dng tch hp ging nh thit b thu Wifi hoc tch ri anten.
Trm Wimax c kt ni vi internet thng qua mng cp hu tuyn (cp quang) hoc
bng sng v tuyn. Wimax h tr c tm nhn thng LOS v tm nhn khng thng
NLOS. Kt ni tm nhn thng gia cc trm Wimax im - im c gi l backhaul.
















Hnh 3.56: Hot ng ca Wimax
Da theo tn s , ngi ta phn Wimax ra thnh hai loi: Wimax di ng v
Wimax c nh.
Wimax di ng: hot ng tn s thp, trong di tn t 2 GHz n 11 GHz.
Trong ch ny, d liu c truyn t trm Wimax n thit b thu di ng. Do
hot ng tn s thp nn phm vi ph sng ca mt trm Wimax nh, khong 6
- 7 km. c phm vi ph sng rng hn ngi ta cn phi lp mt s lng ln
cc trm Wimax.

Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
124
Wimax c nh: hot ng tn s cao, ph tn s 66 GHz, bn knh ph sng ln
n 50 km. Trong ch ny, anten ca thit b thu cn c lp t tm nhn
thng vi trm Wimax.
3.8.2. Chun cng ngh
Chun 802.16 c a ra ln u tin vo thng 12 nm 2001, c t truyn dn
im - a im trong bng tn 10-66 GHz, tm nhn thng.
802.16a (thng 1 nm 2003) m rng 802.16 vi truyn dn im - a im trong
di tn 2-11 GHz, tm nhn khng thng.
802.16c pht trin c tnh h thng 802.16 di tn 10-66 GHz.
802.16d (thng 12 nm 2003) hng n HIPERMAN.
802.16e-2005 - 802.16 di ng.
802.16f-2005 - c s thng tin qun l.
802.16g-2007 - cc giao thc v dch v qun l.
802.16k-2007 - Bridging 802.16
Cc chun ang c pht trin:
802.16h- C ch cng tn ti gia cc di tn cp php (license) v t do (exempt).
802.16i- C s thng tin qun l di ng.
802.16j- Cc c tnh chuyn tip Multihop
Bng 3.9 a ra mt s cc tham s trong cc chun ca Wimax, wlan v bluetooth
Bng 3.9: So snh mt s tham s c bn trong Wimax, Wlan v Bluetooth
Cc tham s
IEEE802.16d
(802.16-2004
Fixed WiMAX)
IEEE802.16e
(802.16-2005
Mobile
WiMAX)
802.11
(WLAN)
802.15.1
(Bluetooth)
Bng tn 2-66GHz 2 - 11GHz 2.4 5.8GHz 2.4GHz
Bn knh ~50 km ~50 km ~100 m ~10 m
Tc ln nht ~134 Mbps ~15 Mbps ~55 Mbps ~3Mbps
S ngi dng Hng nghn Hng nghn hng chc hng chc
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
125
3.8.3 Cu hnh mng
C hai cu hnh mng c bn trong Wimax: cu hnh im - a im (PMP) v cu
hnh li (mesh).
Cu hnh PMP
Trong cu hnh PMP, cc trm thu bao SS (Subscriber Station) ch c th kt ni
v truyn thng tin vi mt trm gc BS (Base Station) (trong 802.16e SS c th kt ni
vi nhiu hn mt BS thng qua ch chuyn giao - handover).










Hnh 3.57: Cu hnh PMP
Cu hnh Mesh
IEEE 802.16 to ra mt mng khng dy din rng tc cao vi mt kin trc
multihop mesh. Trong , mt BS mesh cung cp kt ni backhaul ca mng mesh v
iu khin mt hoc nhiu trm thu bao SS. Cc SS ngoi vic kt ni v truyn thng
vi BS cn c th truyn thng trc tip vi nhau. Trong cu hnh mesh, cc node c th
lin lc trc tip vi nhau hoc nh tuyn nhiu bc thng qua cc SS.








Hnh 3.58: Cu hnh Mesh
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
126
3.8.4 H thng thit b
Mt h thng Wimax in hnh bao gm hai phn chnh:
Trm gc Wimax (BS): Mt BS bao gm hai phn: phn in t bn trong
(indoor) v thp Wimax (Wimax tower). Bn knh ph sng ca mt thp
Wimax theo l thuyt khong 50 km nhng thc nghim ch gii hn trong
khong 10 km. Bt k mt node truy cp khng dy no nm trong bn knh
ph sng ca mt thp Wimax u c th truy nhp internet.















Hnh 3.59: Kt ni mt Trm gc
Thit b thu Wimax: Thit b thu v anten c th ng c lp (hnh 3.60)
hoc tch hp trong PC card. Vic truy cp t thit b ngi dng n trm
gc Wimax tng t nh truy cp n AP trong mng Wifi nhng vng
phc v rng hn.
Mt vi trm gc c th kt ni vi trm gc khc bi cc ng lin kt backhaul
tc cao. iu ny cho php ngi dng Wimax c th chuyn vng t vng phc v
ca trm gc ny n vng phc v ca trm gc khc,tng t nh chuyn vng trong
mng in thoi t bo.
Ngoi kiu backhaul nh trn, trong Wimax cn c mt vi kiu kin trc backhaul
cho BS khc: kin trc backhaul khng dy, kt ni im -im viba hoc backhaul
Wimax. Backhaul Wimax l kiu backhaul m t bn thn BS lm backhaul. BS s dng
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 3: Cc cng ngh truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
127
mt phn bng tn vn dng truyn ti lu lng ca ngi dng cho truyn ti
backhaul.
















Hnh 3.60: Kt ni ti thit b thu
Kt lun:
Cng ngh vin thng ngy cng pht trin mnh m v cng ngh truy nhp cng
khng nm ngoi xu th . Trong ni dung chng Cc cng ngh truy nhp ny, tc
gi khng tham vng di thiu ht tt c cc cng ngh truy nhp m ch chn lc nhng
cng ngh truy nhp nn tng v in hnh, c sc cnh tranh trong th trng vin thng
hin ti cng nh tng lai.


Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
128
CHNG 4: THIT K MNG TRUY NHP
4.1 Gii thiu chung
Khi pht trin mt mng vin thng, chi ph cho mng truy nhp (hay cn gi l
mng tip cn thu bao) chim mt t l quan trng, thng thng c tnh xp x bng
50% chi ph ton mng. Hn th na, mng truy nhp cn bao gm c cc cng trnh
ngoi vi nn vic xy dng mng cn nh hng n v ph thuc vo nhng c im
a l cng nh x hi ca da bn xy dng.
i hi ca a bn c tnh cht chung nht l cn phi xy dng mng sao cho
m bo m quan v t phi m rng, t phi thay i mng nht (trnh phi o ng,
treo dy...). Gii php tt nht p ng c yu cu ny l xy dng mng mt ln,
p ng c nhu cu trong thi gian cng di cng tt. thc hin c iu ny,
trc ht cn phi phn b c mng truy nhp p ng c nhu cu tng khu vc, c
d tha theo c nhu cu mng khi c nhng t bin hoc nhng tnh hung
ngoi d kin xy ra. Th hai, phi u t mt khi lng ln thit b mng v nhn cng
xy dng p ng nhu cu trong mt thi gian di (v d 10-15 nm). Yu cu th nht
c th thc hin c vi vic d bo nhu cu chnh xc, phng n phn b mng hp
l, mm do, d tnh trc mi bin ng c th xy ra. Yu cu th hai lin quan n
vn kinh t, c th gii quyt bng cch xy dng nhng thnh phn c nh hng trc
tip n a bn trc (CTNV), cn nhng thit b mng c kh nng xy dng nhanh c
th m rng, tng dn theo nhu cu ca mng.
Ngoi hai yu cu quan trng k trn, vic thit k mng cn mt lot cc yu cu
khc nh:
Mng phi t c nhng tiu chun k thut mng (v d cc tiu chun v
suy hao, xuyn m ...).
Mng phi c thit k sao cho tng chi ph vn hnh v thit k l thp nht.
Pht trin c nhiu loi hnh dch v khc nhau (thoi, s liu, truyn hnh...)
p ng c yu cu trong tng lai v s thay i cng ngh v dch v.
S dng c ti a h thng thit b mng sn c.
v.v...
Nhng yu cu k trn cho thy, bi ton thit k mng truy nhp l mt bi ton
v cng phc tp, c rt nhiu bin khc nhau, vic xc nh mt thut ton ti u tng
th m t ht cc yu cu k trn l khng kh thi. V vy, bi ton thit k mng truy
nhp phi c chia thnh nhiu bi ton nh, trong mi mt bi ton nh ca chu trnh
thit k y li c p dng nhng thut ton ti u khc nhau tm ra gii php tt
nht.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
129
V vy, trong chng ny, phn u s gii thiu v cch thc v phng php lm
d bo nhu cu, phn tip theo l nhng cn nhc cn thit cho vic la chn cng ngh
truy nhp v cui cng l phng php nh c mng truy nhp cho mt s cng ngh.
4.2 D bo
4.2.1 Khi nim v nh ngha
D bo l mt bc khng th thiu trong qu trnh quy hoch. l qu trnh d
bo xu hng trong tng lai v l yu t c bn cho vic quy hoch mng hp l v kinh
t.
Nu c th a ra cc kt qu d bo nhu cu ca khch hng v d bo lu lng
cho cc nt truy nhp cng chnh xc th vn thit k mt mng di hn cng ng tin
cy. Trn c s ta c th xy dng mt k hoch u t thit b ti u. Do cng tc
qun l bo dng mng li s c thc hin mt cch tit kim v khoa hc.
Cc yu t nh hng n nhu cu
C rt nhiu yu t tc ng n nhu cu dch v. Cc yu t ny c th c chia
lm 2 loi: cc yu t khch quan v cc yu t ch quan.
Hnh 4.1: Cc yu t tc ng n nhu cu

Yu t khch quan gm cc yu t v kinh t nh tc tng trng kinh t, tc
tiu dng c nhn v cc yu t v x hi nh dn s, s h gia nh v lc lng lao
ng.
Yu t ch quan gm cc yu t v chi ph nh gi thit b, cc thu bao hng
thng v cc ph ph khc v cc yu t v th trng nh chin lc sn phm, qung
co v chin lc th trng.
Yu t x hi:
- Dn s
- S h gia nh
- Lc lng lao ng
Yu t kinh t:
- Tc tng trng kinh t
- Tiu th c nhn
Yu t khch quan
Nhu cu
Chin lc tip th:
- Chin lc sn xut
- Chin lc qung co
Chi ph:
- Gi thit b
- Gi lp t, thu bao
- Ph ph
Yu t ch quan
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
130
D bo nhu cu s nghin cu v phn tch cc yu t trn xc nh v mt s
lng nhu cu trong tng lai.
S tng trng ca nhu cu
Nhu cu dch v vin thng thng pht trin qua 3 giai on:
Giai on khi u: Tng trng thp (hm m)
Giai on tng tc: Tng trng mnh (hm tuyn tnh)
Giai on bo ho: Tng chm, xu th tin ti bo ho (hm logistic ).
i vi mi mt loi hnh dch v vin thng li c mt biu giai on pht trin
ring. Nu xt ring mt loi hnhdch v vin thng no , dch v thoi chng hn, th
cc giai on nh trn thng khng ging nhau i vi cc nc khc nhau, thm ch
i vi cc khu vc khc nhau trong cng mt nc. Gii hn ca cc giai on pht trin
cng rt kh phn nh. V vy, khi chn phng php d bo, vic phn tch bit s
pht trin ca mng ang giai on no l rt quan trng.

Hnh 4.2: Ba giai on pht trin mng
a) Giai on khi u
Giai on ny tng ng vi thi k mng pht trin chm, tc pht trin in
thoi cn thp.
giai on ny, nhu cu in thoi ca cc cng s chim t l ln. Nhu cu ph
thuc ch yu vo cc ngnh cng nghip v dch v cng cng. Do , cn phi thit lp
mt mng c s tng xng vi s pht trin cng nghip. Nu khng c mng c s ny
th s pht trin cng nghip s gp tr ngi.
Trong giai on ny nhu cu v in thoi ca ngi dn cn thp. in thoi ang
cn l th xa x phm i vi i a s cng chng v n cha c xem nh l nhu cu
Giai on
khi u
Giai on
tng tc
Giai on
bo ho
Thi gian
S thu bao
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
131
thit yu ca cuc sng. Cc nhu cu khc cn c ch trng hn in thoi. Do , d
bo nhu cu cho cng s l thch hp hn c v c thc hin thng qua vic phn tch
s pht trin kinh t a phng v quc gia.
b) Giai on tng tc
giai on ny, nn kinh t tng trng mnh. Trong lnh vc cng nghip, mng
vin thng l mt nn tng cn c pht trin nhm em li cht lng dch v v hiu
qu kinh t cao hn. iu ny tng ng vi mc sng v nhu cu tiu dng cng nh
nhu cu in thoi ni chung ca ngi dn tng ln. i vi mt gia nh bnh thng,
in thoi khng cn l mt th xa x m tr thnh mt thit yu cho cuc sng.
giai on ny, nhu cu dng in thoi ca nhn dn l vt tri so vi cng s.
N ln hn nhiu so vi s lng c cung cp. Thm ch nu nhu cu hin thi
c tho mn th li c nhng nhu cu khc xut hin. S vic tip din cho n khi
mng pht trin ln.
Giai on ny tng ng vi thi k thit lp mng. Cng vic d bo trong giai
on ny rt quan trng bi v bt k mt sai st trm trng no trong vic d bo cng
u c th dn n s tr gi t cho vic lp k hoch.
c) Giai on bo ho
giai on ny, mt in thoi trong dn c t n 80% hoc nhiu hn v
in thoi cho dn c v cng s hon ton ph cp. Nhu cu in thoi tng ln nhm
mc ch s dng in thoi thun tin hn hoc c mt s nhu cu mi cc cng s v
dn c. Sau giai on ny, s c nhng nhu cu mi do vic thay i c ch v dch v, v
d nh mng c nhng dch v mi, gi c thay i...
Cc cng vic d bo nhu cu
Xt trn phm vi rng, d bo nhu cu khng ch l d bo n thun m cn l
thu thp, sp xp d liu v qun l d bo, xem hnh 4.3. Ba cng vic ny c mi lin
quan cht ch vi nhau. Thu thp v sp xp d liu cung cp cc d liu lm c s cho
vic d bo v qun l d bo. Qun l nhu cu cung cp d liu phn hi li cho vic d
bo nhu cu. Ba cng vic ny c nh ngha nh sau :
a) Thu thp v sp xp d liu
D liu v nhu cu in thoi theo thi gian (d liu ch quan) v cc d liu
thng k v dn s, s h gia nh, cc ch s kinh t... (d liu khch quan) c thu thp
v sp xp theo th t.
b) Qun l d bo nhu cu
Phn tch s khc nhau gia cc gi tr d bo v thc t. T kt qu ca vic phn
tch ny, cc gi tr d bo c xem xt li.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
132
c) D bo nhu cu
Nhu cu tng lai c d bo hoc c tnh ton. y l phn chnh trong cng
vic d bo v trong mt phm vi hp c gi l d bo.

Hnh 4.3: Cc cng vic d bo nhu cu
4.2.2 Trnh t d bo nhu cu
Bc 1: Xc nh i tng d bo
Bc u tin ca cng vic d bo l phn loi cc i tng d bo. Cc i
tng d bo l nhu cu ca ngi dn v nhu cu ca cng s. Phm vi d bo c th l
trong c nc hoc mt khu vc hnh chnh no . Thi gian d bo c th l 5 nm, 10
nm hoc 15 nm.
Bc 2: Sp xp cc iu kin bit
D bo da vo s pht trin theo thi gian kh chnh xc cc khu vc m
mi quan h gia nhu cu v cc yu t tc ng n n qu kh v c bn khng bin
i cho n thi im d bo trong tng lai. Theo phi tnh n cc iu kin ch
quan, chng hn nh cc h s tng trng v cc iu kin khch quan nh k hoch
pht trin khu vc.
Bc 3: Nghin cu d liu
Cn phn tch bit rng yu t no nh hng n i tng d bo v d liu
no cn thu thp. Tip , d liu c thu thp phi c sp xp c th s dng
chng mt cch thun tin.
d bo nhu cu dch v in thoi cn c cc d liu sau:
Nhu cu in thoi, s in thoi trn 100 dn
D bo nhu cu
Qun l gi tr d bo
nhu cu



Thu thp v
sp xp d liu
D liu c s
Gi tr nhu cu
c d bo
Phn hi
D liu
D bo phm vi hp
D bo phm vi rng
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
133
Dn s, s h gia nh; S cc cng ty
T l tng thu nhp; T l tng trng kinh t
K hoch pht trin th
Cc d liu trn c sp xp theo trnh t thi gian, theo nhm v theo khu vc
nt truy nhp.
Bc 4: Phn tch xu hng ca nhu cu
Xu hng ca nhu cu c phn tch t cc gc sau:
Cc gi tr trong qu kh
Cu trc th trng in thoi
Ngun nhu cu; T l in thoi trn 100 dn
Cc c im ca khu vc; So snh vi cc khu vc khc v cc nc khc
Bc 5: La chn cc m hnh d bo v tnh cc gi tr d bo.
Cc m hnh d bo c th c phn s b chia thnh nh sau:
M hnh ng cong pht trin (Time-Series)
M hnh kinh t lng (Econometric Model)
M hnh kinh t x hi (Socio-Economic Model)
Vic la chn phng php (m hnh) d bo tu thuc vo d liu thu thp c.
c c cc gi tr d bo vi tin cy cao hn th cn phi tnh ton theo phng
php mm do nht v chn cc gi tr ti u.
Bc 6: Xc nh gi tr d bo
T cc kt qu phn tch bc 2 v 4, xc nh gi tr ti u.
4.2.3 Cc m hnh d bo
4.2.3.1 M hnh ng cong pht trin (Time-Series)
L m hnh d bo nhu cu trong tng lai t xu hng pht trin nhu cu trong
qu kh. Trong phng php ny, thi gian l tham s xc nh nhu cu trong tng lai,
nhng yu t khc nh s thay i chnh sch gi cc, nhng bin i trong th trng
kinh doanh vin thng khng c tnh n. Do vy phng php ny ch c p dng
d bo trong giai on ngn v vi iu kin, nhng yu t nh hng n nhu cu
khc (ngoi yu t thi gian) v c bn khng thay i trong giai on d bo. thc
hin d bo nhu cu theo phng php ny, trc ht cn xc nh ng cong xu hng
ca nhu cu. ng cong nhu cu c th l ng cong tuyn tnh, ng hm m,
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
134
ng hm logic, v.v... T nhng s liu nhu cu qu kh c th xc nh c hm lin
h theo phng php hi quy.
M hnh tuyn tnh
Dng ca m hnh tuyn tnh c biu din theo cng thc nh sau:
(4.1)
Trong :
- t: bin thi gian
- y
t
: mt thu bao (s thu bao trn u ngi hoc trn tng h gia nh,... v
c th phn theo tng loi thu bao khc nhau) ti nm t
- a, b l cc tham s c tnh theo cng thc sau:
(4.2)

trong :
T
1
: mt thu bao (penetration rate) qu kh ti nm t
1

T
2
: mt thu bao qu kh ti nm t
2

Trn y l cng thc tnh cc tham s s dng s liu ca hai nm qu kh.
Tuy nhin, tng chnh xc ca kt qu d bo c th s dng phng php bnh
phng ti thiu tnh ton cc tham s a, b da trn s liu qu kh ca nhiu nm Ti.

Hnh 4.4: M hnh tuyn tnh
M hnh hm m
M hnh hm m c biu din bng cng thc nh sau:
y
t
= M + ae
bt
(4.3)
Trong :
- y
t
: Mt thu bao ti nm t
- M, a v b l cc tham s ca m hnh c tnh ton s dng phng php hi
qui da trn cc s liu qu kh.
0
y
t

a
y
t
= a+bt (b>0)
t
bt a y
t
+ =
1 2
1 2
t t
T T
a

=
1
1 2
1 2
1
t
t t
T T
T b

=
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
135

Hnh 4.5: M hnh hm m
M hnh Logistic:
M hnh Logistic c dng nh sau:

(4.4)

Trong :
- y
t
: mt thu bao ti nm t
- S : gi tr bo ho, c xc nh da vo chnh sch ca chnh ph hoc so snh
tng quan vi cc nc khc.
- Cc tham s k (t l tng s in thoi) v t
0
c xc nh nh sau:

(4.5)

(4.6)
- T
1
: mt thu bao ti nm c s (nm d bo)
- T
2
: mt thu bao ti nm ch T

Hnh 4.6: M hnh logistic
0
y
t

y
t
= M + a.e
t
(a>0)
t
) (
0
1
t t k t
e
S
y

+
=
) 1 ln(
1
1
1 0
+ =
T
S
k
t t
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
1
2 1 1 2
1 1 ln
1
T
S
T
S
t t
k
0
y
t

S
1+e
-k(t-t
0
)

(k>0, S>0)
y =

Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
136
Phng php bnh qun ti thiu
Khi ng cong xu hng c la chn trn xu hng nhu cu hoc lu lng
qu kh, phi tm ra cc hng s ca mi biu thc xu hng. Phng php thng dng
nht l phng php bnh phng ti thiu.
Phng php ny lp ra ng cong xu hng nn tng cc bnh phng khc
nhau gia gi tr thc t v gi tr d bo c th ti thiu ha mi php o.

Hnh 4.7: Phng php bnh phng ti thiu
Trong hnh 4.4, ta c th tm c a v b bng cch gii cc phng trnh trn.
Phng php hi quy
Trong phng php hi quy, mi quan h ca nguyn nhn v nh hng gia i
tng cn d bo v cc yu t quyt nh ca n c m hnh ho d bo. Trc
ht, cn tm cc yu t c quan h ph thuc tng h hoc quan h nhn - qu trong qu
kh. Nhn chung, cc nhn t kinh t chnh tr c s tng tc vi nhu cu.
Trc khi xc nh cng thc hi quy, cn phi tm mt yu t c lin quan cht
ch nht n lu lng hoc nhu cu.
Khi cc d liu thay i tng h ln nhau th gia chng c mt quan h nht
nh. Nu quan h ny l tuyn tnh, th cng ca n c biu din bi h s tng
h r, c tnh nh sau:

( 4.7)


Vi x v y l gi tr trung bnh ca x
i
v y
i
. H s ny c gi tr trong khong [-
1, 1]; (-1 r 1).
Sai s
Sai s
Gi tr
P
3
(t
3
, y
3
)
P
2
(t
2
, y
2
)
P
1
(t
1
, y
1
)
Thi gian

i
= y
i
(a + bt
i
)... sai s
Tng sai s bnh phng l:
D =
i
2
= [y
i
(a + bt
i
)]
2
D D
a b
= 0 = 0
r =
(x
i
- x)(y
i
- y)

(x
i
- x)
2
. (y
i
- y)
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
137
Gi tr , r , cng gn 1 th mi lin h gia tp cc gi tr x v y cng cht ch. , r , =
1 c gi l tng h hon ton v r = 0 th gi l khng tng h. Khi c s tng h,
khng phi lun lun tn ti mi quan h nhn- qu. Thm ch khi khng c mi quan h
nhn qu, dng nh cng c tng h. Do , cn phi tnh n iu khi s dng h
s tng h.
Thng th khi , r , > 0,7, mc tng h c xem nh l 50%.
Cn nu , r , 0,7, nhn chung mi tng h rt nh.
Thng thng, cc yu t tng h vi nhu cu l cc yu t x hi nh: dn s, s
h gia nh, lc lng lao ng, t l tht nghip, cc yu t kinh t nh GNP, thu nhp
bnh qun quc gia, mc tiu th c nhn, u t t nhn, u t thit b v t l li sut.
Cc loi cng thc hi quy
Hi quy tuyn tnh v hi quy co dn c coi nh phn tch hi quy c bn. Khi
c mt h s, ngi ta gi l hi quy n. Khi c nhiu hn mt h s ngi ta gi l hi
quy bi.
Hi quy tuyn tnh: cng thc ny c miu t bng ng tuyn tnh vi cc
bin cn xc nh (chng hn nh nhu cu) v cc bin gii thch khc c m t nh
sau:
Y = a
0
+ a
1
x
1
+ ... + a
n
x
n
(a
0
, a
1
, a
2
,..., a
n
: hng s) ( 4.8)
Hi quy co dn: cng thc ny da trn s tng quan khng tuyn tnh gia y v
x
i
, v c miu t nh sau:
Y = aX
1

. X
2

... X
n

(, , ... : gi tr co dn) ( 4.9)


La chn bin s chnh
Trong cc nhn t c lin quan n nguyn nhn v nh hng hoc quan h chung
vi nhu cu hoc lu lng, c mt s bin s gii thch c la chn theo tiu chun
sau:
C nh hng ln n nhu cu hoc lu lng
Gi tr ca n c th d bo c
Khi s dng t hai bin s gii thch tr ln th gia chng khng c s
tng quan cht ch
La chn cng thc hi quy
Cng thc hi quy thch hp c la chn theo mi quan h ca nguyn nhn v
nh hng gia nhu cu hoc lu lng v bin s gii thch. Quan trng l mi quan h
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
138
chung gia nhu cu hoc lu lng v cc h s gii thch s c lu gi trong tng
lai.

Hnh 4.8: D bo s dng tng quan gia lu lng v s thu bao
4.2.3.2 M hnh kinh t lng
M hnh kinh t lng (Econometric model), a ra tng quan gia yu t cn d
bo (s thu bao hoc mt thu bao) vi cc ch tiu kinh t-x hi, c biu din
di dng cng thc nh sau:
Y
t
= a
t
+ b
1
x
1t
+ b
2
x
2t
+ ... + b
n
x
nt
+
t
(4.10)
Trong :
- Y
t
: bin ph thuc (dependent variable) (trong trng hp d bo thoi, Y
t
c
ngha l nhu cu thu bao hoc mt thu bao)
- a
t
: cc hng s trong phng trnh cn c xc nh.
- b
1
, ...b
n
: cc h s th hin mi quan h v lng gia Y
t
v x
t

- x
1t
, x
2t
,... x
nt
: cc bin c lp (explanatory or independent variables), chng hn
tng thu nhp tnh -GPP (Gross Provincial Product), chi tiu u t tiu dng (consumer
capital investment expenditures), dn s, s h gia nh, ...
-
t
: th hin sai lch ca d bo.
S dng d liu qu kh (s thu bao hoc mt thu bao, d liu kinh t x hi) tnh
ton cc tham s at, b1, ..., bn ca m hnh.
Mt s dng m hnh kinh t lng thng c s dng bao gm log kp, bn
log, o.
Log kp (Double-log)
lnY
t
= + lnXt +
t
(4.11)
Trong :
- Y
t
: Mt thu bao nm t
Gi tr d bo
Lu lng
S thu bao
0
.
.
.
.
.
.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
139
- X
t
: bin c lp
-
t
: th hin sai lch
Bn log (Semi-log)
Bao gm mt s dng sau:
Yt = a + blnXt +
t
(4.12)
(4.13)
Trong :
- Y
t
: Mt thu bao nm t
- X
t
: bin c lp
-
t
: th hin sai lch
o (Reciprocal)
Di y l dng m hnh kinh t lng vi mt bin c lp (explanatory variable).
(4.14)
Trong :
- Y
t
: bin ph thuc
- x
t
: bin c lp
- a, b: l cc tham s c xc nh theo phng php bnh phng ti thiu da
trn d liu qu kh ( th hin cc gi tr d bo ca ,; 1..r: l cc nm
trong qu kh) nh sau:
(4.15)

(4.16)

trong :
(4.17)

Cht lng ca phng php R2 c nh gi theo cng thc sau:
(4.18)

Cc tham s cho m hnh kinh t lng vi nhiu bin c lp cng c tnh ton tng
t nh m hnh mt bin.
4.2.3.3 M hnh kinh t x hi
t
t
t
X
Y + + =
1
t t t
x Y + + =

=
=

=
T
t
t
T
t
t t
x x
x x Y
1
2
1
) (
) (

x Y

=

= =
= =
T
t
t
T
t
t
Y
T
Y x
T
x
1 1
,
1
,
1

=
2
2
2
) (
)

(
Y Y
Y Y
R
t
t
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
140
M hnh kinh t-x hi (Socio-Economic Model) thng c s dng d bo
nhu cu dch v thoi trong tng lai, phc v cho qu trnh phn tch tng th. M hnh
ny xut pht t nhng nghin cu v x hi, kinh t lin quan ti vic phn b thu nhp
h gia nh v hm mt dch v thoi.
M hnh ny da trn vic nh ngha cc hm phn b thu nhp h gia nh, hm
phn b tch lu v hm mt dch v theo mc thu nhp (Hnh 4.9).
Hm phn b thu nhp h gia nh
Hm mt dch v









Hnh 4.9. Hm phn b thu nhp v hm mt dch v

Cc hm ny c nh ngha nh sau:
Hm phn b thu nhp
Cng thc di y biu din ca hm phn b tch ly (accumulated distribution)
(4.19)

Trong :
- F(x): tn sut tch lu tnh theo % ca cc h gia nh ti mc thu nhp x
- x: mc thu nhp hng thng ca h gia nh
- a, b: cc hng s c suy ra t phn tch hi quy ca hm F(x)
Cng thc F(x) c th c vit li di dng tuyn tnh sau p dng phng php hi
quy tuyn tnh tnh cc hng s a v b:
(4.20)
Y = a + bX (4.21)


0
20

40

60

80

100%
1 11

21 31 41 51

Mc thu nhp
| | 0 ;
) 1 (
100
) (
) (
<
+
= d
x e
x D
d c
SERV
) ( ) 1
) (
100
( x bLn a
x F
Ln + =
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
141
Hm thu nhp thc s t c bng cch ly o hm bc nht ca hm F(x):
(4.21)

Hm mt dch v
Hm mt dch v c nh ngha nh sau:
(4.22)

Trong :
D(x) l mt tnh theo % ca s h gia nh vi mc thu nhp (x) s dng
dch v (SERV)
x l thu nhp hng thng ca h gia nh
Trong nhng iu tra v th trng, mt s tham s sau y nn c nghin cu:
Hm mt phn loi theo ngh nghip ca ch h, chia thnh tng vng
thnh th, nng thn hoc cc tng lp khc
Hm mt theo cc mc hc vn, tui khc nhau ca ch h chia thnh
tng vng thnh th, nng thn hoc cc tng lp khc
Nhu cu % ca dch v
Bit c hm mt dch v lin quan ti thu nhp ca h gia nh chng ta c
th tnh c nhu cu dch v. Cng thc tnh ton nhu cu dch v (Ut) nh sau:

(4.23)

Trong :
U
t
l nhu cu % trung bnh ti thi im t
F
t
(x) l hm phn b thu nhp ti thi im t
D
t
(x) l hm mt i vi dch v cn quan tm ti thi im t
4.3 La chn cng ngh
So vi mt thp k trc y, cng ngh truy nhp ngy nay c mt cuc cch
mng v mi mt. Vo nhng nm 90 ca th k trc, dch v thoi n thun khng
tha mn c nhu cu ca khch hng ti cc nc pht trin. ng thi trong thi gian
ny mng backbone ti cc nc ny c s ho v hin i ho hon ton, nhm
cung cp cho khch hng cc dch v mi nh truyn d liu... Nh th ti thi im
mng truy nhp chnh l "c chai" km hm s bng n ca cc dch v mi. Chnh v th
| |
2
1
1
100
) (
) (
b a
b a
x e
x be
x F
dx
x dF
+

= =

| | 0 ;
) 1 (
100
) (
) (
<
+
= d
x e
x D
d c
SERV

=
0
) ( ) (
100
1
dx x D x F U
t t t
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
142
trong nhng nm 90 hng lot cng ngh truy nhp mi c a ra. Mt s trong s
chim lnh c th trng nh tnh nng u vit, tin cy cao v gi thnh h so
vi cng ngh truy nhp c in. Nh trnh by trong chng 1, cng ngh truy nhp,
v c bn c nhng loi chnh sau:
Truy nhp cp kim loi (cng ngh xDSL)
Truy nhp bng cc h thng cp quang vi cc hnh thc khc nhau nh
FTTC, FTTB, FTTH
Truy nhp v tuyn
Truy nhp bng mng VSAT
Vic la chn h thng truy nhp p dng trong tng trng hp c th cn cn
nhc n c im ca cc h thng truy nhp, chi ph, dch v v s pht trin ca cng
ngh v yu t phm vi ng dng.
c im ca tng h thng truy nhp c trnh by chi tit trong chng 4, so
snh v nh gi chung cc cng ngh c trnh by trong mc 1.3.2, phn tip sau y
s gii thiu v phng php xc nh chi ph thit lp mng truy nhp, gip cho nh thit
k c thm yu t chn la chnh xc cng ngh truy nhp.
Chi ph thit lp mng truy nhp
Yu t quan trong nht trong vic la chn h thng truy nhp cho mt ng dng
cho trc l chi ph xy dng h thng. th Hnh 4.10 biu din v d v chi ph cho
cc h thng truy nhp khc nhau. T th ta thy, nu di mch vng truy nhp nh
hn gi tr A th s dng truy nhp cp ng l kinh t nht, nu ln hn A, nh hn B
th dng truy nhp cp quang l hiu qu, cn ln hn gi tr B th nn dng truy nhp v
tuyn. Cc gi tr A v B c xc nh theo gi thit b cc loi trong tng trng hp c
th.
V d:
Khi dng cp ng, chi ph c tnh nh sau:
Cab L D C C
m m M
+ + = ) ( (4.24)
Trong :
C
m
l chi ph trn 1km cp ng
D
m
l chi ph trn 1 km cng b
Cab l chi ph t cp
L l khong cch
Vi phng n truy nhp cp quang dng FTTC, chi ph s l:
DLC L D C C
f f F
+ + = ) ( (4.25)
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
143
Trong :
C
f
l chi ph trn 1km cp quang
D
f
l chi ph trn 1 km cng b
DLC l chi ph t DLC
L l khong cch
t C
F
= C
M
ta c biu thc xc nh di L ti cn dng truy nhp quang:

) ( ) (
f f m m
D C D C
Cab DLC
L
+ +

= (4.26)
Ti H ni, cc gi tr c th thu thp c nh trong bng sau:
Bng 4.1: Chi ph xy dng cp.
Chi ph cp ng (USD) Chi ph cp quang (USD)
C
m
D
m
Cab C
f
D
f
DLC
165 215 10 70 120 550

T nhng gi tr ny ta c th tnh c L=2.8km. Nh vy nu di mch vng
truy nhp m ln hn 2,8 km th dng truy nhp cp quang s kinh t hn










Hnh 4.10: Phm vi ng dng cc cng ngh truy nhp.
4.4 Thit k mng thc t
4.4.1. Thit k mng truy nhp cp ng truyn thng
4.4.1.1. Gii thiu chung
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
144
Tuy cc cng ngh mng mi vi cc dch v vin thng mi khng ngng pht
trin lin tc nhng n thi im hin nay, mng truy nhp cp kim loi vn cn ht sc
ph bin v cn c xy dng nhiu trong thi gian sp ti, p ng dch v thoi
truyn thng, xDSL v IPTV.
Trong thit k mng truy nhp cp cp ng truyn thng, nhng yu cu quan
trng cn phi p ng l:
Mng phi m bo cht lng.
Chi ph xy dng mng l nh nht trong cc iu kin cn phi p ng.
Mng phi p ng c nhu cu cc thu bao trn cc khu vc v c d
phng cho nhng tnh hung t xut
Cc thnh phn khc nhau trong mng truy nhp phi d tha p ng
c yu cu dung lng trong nhng khong thi gian khc nhau.
p ng c yu cu ca cc dch v mi.
Cht lng mng truy nhp cp ng
m bo cht lng thoi v mt s dch v khc nh fax, ISDN, xDSL, IPTV,
mng cp kim loi cn phi c thit k vi nhng ch tiu chnh c khuyn ngh i
vi mng truy nhp ti cc bu in tnh thnh Vit nam nh sau:
in tr mch vng thu bao khng qu 1000 Ohm.
in p xoay chiu dy a,b vi t : 02V
in p mt chiu dy a,b vi t : 03V
in dung ton mch (L8): 0,3-2mF
in tr cch in dy a,b vi t: (L5,L6) 10 MW
in tr cch in gia 2 dy dy a,b (L7) 10 MW
Suy hao ng dy <7dB tn s 1kHz.
mng p ng c cc dch v mi c bit l dch vu ISDN v dch v
bng rng, mch vng truy nhp thu bao cp ng cn phi c thit k vi
khong cch nh, di 5 km v khng s dng nhng cun dy gia cm b
dung khng cng nh cc on nhnh r (brridge tap).
Thi gian p ng nhu cu i vi cc thnh phn mng
Thi gian p ng nhu cu i vi tng thnh phn mng l tiu ch khng th
thiu c khi thit k mng truy nhp. Hin nay ti Vit nam cha c tiu chun cho ch
tiu ny, v vy ngi lm quy hoch t quyt nh ly gi tr ny, dn n mng c
thit k xy dng khng ng b v tu tin, thiu cn c. H qu l mng ch tha, ch
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
145
thiu, trong nhiu trng hp mt h thng cng b va c xy dng nm trc li
phi o ln m rng nm sau. iu ny gy rt nhiu kh khn v lng ph trong vic
xy dng v pht trin mng. m bo vic xy dng mng khng nh hng nhiu
n a bn xy dng m vn mang tnh kinh t, thi gian p ng nhu cu mng c
khuyn ngh ti Vit nam, c so snh vi khuyn ngh ca ITU v tiu chun p dng ca
cc nc trong khu vc nh sau:
Bng 4.2: Thi gian p ng mng truy nhp cp ng truyn thng
Indonesia Philipin Nht
bn
Khuyn ngh ca
CCITT (GAS2)
Khuyn ngh
cho Vit nam
Cp chnh trong cng b 5 nm 5 nm 5 nm 5 n 10 nm 5 nm
Cp chnh chn trc tip 10 nm 10 n 20 nm
Cp ph 10 nm 5 nm 10 nm 10 n 20 nm 10 nm
H thng cng b 15 nm 15 nm 15 nm 20-40 nm 15 nm

4.4.1.2. Phng n thit k ti u mng truy nhp cp ng.
Phn vng
thit k mng truy nhp p ng c nhu cu thu bao theo mt phn b
nhu cu c d bo, bc u tin l phi phn vng. Vng cn thit k c phn
chia thnh cc vng phn b c nh (fix distribution area).
Mt vng phn b c nh l mt vng c phn bit theo nhng c im a l
ca khu vc c nhu cu ln n 600 i sau khong thi gian 15 nm. Vng phn b c
nh cn phi nh ra d dng hn cho vic theo di s pht trin nhu cu trong giai
on di. Vng phn b c nh c xc nh da trn trng mng truy nhp hin c
(Hnh 4.11) v mt phn b nhu cu c xc nh t bc d bo nhu cu. Mi mt
vng phn b c nh s t 1 im phn b cp (t cp). ti thiu chi ph xy dng
mng, t cp cn t ti v tr gn vi tng i khu vc nht trong phm vi ca vng phn
b c nh ca mnh.
Sau khi thit lp c cc vng phn b c nh vi nhng d bo nhu cu ca
vng trong cc giai on khc nhau (5,10,15 nm) v cc im t t cp, c th tip tc
xc nh cc im t nhng t cp cp 2 hoc cc im r nhnh cp (mng xng) v c
th c cc hp cp da trn mc chi tit ca d bo nhu cu t c. a nhng v tr
ny trn bn , ta c c mt bn phn b cc im phn phi cp. Mc tiu cui
cng l phi xc nh c mt h thng mng cp kt ni cc im ny v dung lng
ca tng ng kt ni ny sao cho c th kt ni c tt c cc im ny n tng i
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
146
vi gi thnh nh nht. y l bi ton c v cng nhiu phng n kt qa hay ni cch
khc c min nghim v cng ln. Nu ch bng phng php nhn cng la chn theo
cm tnh mt mng truy nhp kt ni cc im ny th gii php c c c th c gi
thnh cao gp nhiu ln gii php ti u. gii bi ton ny tm c gii php ti u,
nn thc hin theo lu c ch ra trong hnh 4.12.

















Hnh 4.11: S phn vng phc v ca mng cp ng ni ht
Xc nh cu trc logic ca mng
Sau khi xc nh c nhng im phn b ca mng truy nhp, vic tip theo
trong chu trnh thit k mng truy nhp l xc nh cu trc logic ca mng. Do c im
mng truy nhp l tp hp ca nhng ng dy kt ni t nh khch hng n gi MDF
ca tng i, cu trc mng truy nhp l cu trc phn nhnh hnh cy. T MDF i ra cc
ng cp c dung lng ln, cp ny c phn nhnh ti cc im phn b thnh cc
ng c dung lng nh hn v tip tc nh vy. V d v cu trc logic ca mng truy
nhp nh trn hnh 4.13.


Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
147



















Hnh 4.12: Quy trnh ti u thit k mng cp truy nhp
Vi mt tp hp nhng im phn b cho trc c v s gii php cu trc logic
ca mng. Bi ton y cn t ra l phi xc nh c mt cu trc logic ti u, cu
trc c gi thnh nh nht. Thut ton c la chn gii bi ton ny l thut ton di
truyn. Thut ton ny ph hp vi vic ti u ho i vi cc cu trc hnh cy v n
gii quyt c nhng hn ch ca hai thut ton ti u cu trc hnh cy kinh in l
thut ton Kruskal v Prim ch n c th ti u c c nhng cu trc c mng cp
c sn. Thut ton di truyn da trn l thut tin ho di truyn ca Darwin. Trong thut
ton ny, mt tp hp ca nhng cu trc logic khc nhau s c tin ho qua nhiu th
h. Vi mi th h s tnh ton gi thnh ca tt c cc cu trc trong th h chn
cu trc c gi thnh r nht v so snh vi th h trc. Khi no gi thnh khng tip tc
gim sau n ln tin ho na, s la chn c gii php ti u. Nh vy thut ton di
truyn s s dng kt qu ca phn tnh ton gi thnh mng trn. Mi th h s phi
lp li chu trnh trn cho tt c cc thnh vin ca th h
Phn vng
Xc nh cu trc logic
nh c mng
Tm ng i ti u ca cp
Tnh ton gi thnh mng
Nu sau n ln thc hin m gi tr khng gim
th l gi tr ti u tm c
So snh vi gi
thnh ln trc
Lu tr li lm
gi tr so snh
ln sau
Nh hn
Ln hn
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
148
















Hnh 4.13: V d mt cu trc logic mng truy nhp cp ng
.
La chn phng n d tr, nh c cc thnh phn mng truy nhp theo cu trc
va tm c.
Cc t cp, hp cp s c nh c cn c theo nhu cu khu vc v nhu cu u
ni trung chuyn cp. Cc tuyn cp c nh c theo nguyn tc dung lng tuyn gc
bng tng dung lng cc tuyn nhnh v dung lng cp ti ch. Ngoi ra nhng nguyn
tc d phng cn c p dng d phng trng hp nhu cu khng tin trin theo d
bo. Nhng phng php d phng bao gm d tr nhnh theo nguyn tc tng dung
lng nhnh cp ln hn dung lng gc, v d phng phn b: bng cc ng d
phng kt ni gia cc im phn b nhu cu, d phng cho trng hp nhu cu ti im
ny tng ln, im kia gim i. Kt thc bc ny ta xc nh c cu trc logic
mng v nh c c cc tuyn kt ni ca mng truy nhp.
La chn ng i cp.
Ti bc ny cn phi la chn ng i ngn nht cho cc tuyn logic xc
nh c. ng i cp cn phi bm theo cc ng giao thng v nhng tuyn cng
b nhng v tr cc tuyn ny c sn. gii bi ton ny c th p dng mt s gii
thut tm ng ngn nht. C mt s thut ton tm ng thng dng nh thut ton
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
149
Floy, thut ton Belman, thut ton Dijkstra. Thut ton Dijkstra c la chn v c thi
gian chy ngn, n gin hn. Kt qu bc ny l thit k c mng cp v d t
cu trc logic. Mng cp lc ny s nh trong v d trong hnh 4.14.
Sau tip tc tin hnh cc bc tip theo trong lu :
Tnh ton gi thnh mng va tm c trn c s n gi thit b v s
lng thit b cng di cc loi cp tm c sau khi thit k mng.
So snh gi thnh vi gi thnh ln tnh ton trc. Nu gi thnh nh hn
th lu gi gi li.
Quay li bc 1 thc hin tip 1 vng lp na tnh ton vi mt cu trc
logic khc, cho n khi ht cc thnh vin trong th h.
Tin ho th h thnh 1 th h tip theo, thc hin cc bc nh trn. Tip
tc cho n khi sau n cho trc th h (v d n=1000) m gi lu gi khng
thay i th gii php ti u c tin ti.
















Hnh 4.14: Cu trc mng cp thc t sau thit k.
4.4.1.3 Cc phng php d phng phn b cp
Trong thit k mng truy nhp cp ng truyn thng, cn phi c phng n d
phng phn b mng cp, tp hp cc nhu cu v mt im t tng i, sao cho c hiu
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
150
qu kinh t v linh hot, p ng c nhng s thay i nhu cu ti cc im khc nhau.
phng php phn b cng, cc ng cp c kt ni n cc im nhu cu vi
nhng dung lng ng cp tng ng vi nhu cu ca cc im . Phng php ny
tit kim nhng trong nhiu trng hp, nhu cu ti 1 im pht trin t bin vt qu
dung lng ca ng cp n n, trong khi ti cc im khc, nhu cu li nh hn.
gii quyt vn ny, nhiu phng php phn b c pht trin da trn c s dng
nhng ng kt ni chung dn truyn nhu cu t 1 im phn b n im phn b
khc. Bi ton t ra y l phi xc nh cu trc dn truyn ca nhng ng kt ni
chung ny v dung lng ca n. Cu trc phn b thng theo nhng cu trc sau:
i vi cp chnh:
Phng php phn b s dng h thng dng chung i dy
Phng php phn b s dng cp dn ph
i vi cp ph:
Phng php phn b c nh
Phng php phn b dn truyn
Phng php phn b sn sng
Vic xc nh dung lng ca nhng ng cp chung ny l mt bi ton kh v
n ph thuc vo nhiu yu t khng m hnh ho bng cng thc ton c, (v d xc
sut nhu cu ti im phn b i vt qu dung lng ng cp chnh, xc sut nhu
cu ti im phn b i vt qu dung lng ng cp chnh n knh, v ch s v ch
i lp t cho php), v vy thng c xc nh bng kinh nghim trong nhng iu
kin c th.
4.4.2 Thit k mng truy nhp ADSL
4.4.2.1 Gii thiu chung
Cng ngh ADSL, nh gii thiu trong chng 3, l cng ngh ng dy thu
bao s bt i xng, da trn ng dy cp ng xon i, vn dng cung cp dch
v thoi truyn thng. Nh vy, tng t nh thu bao thoi, mi mt thu bao ADSL
phi s hu ring mt i dy cp ng xon i t thu bao n nh cung cp dch v (kt
cui trn gi MDF) v mt port ADSL (phn t ATU-R trn DSLAM). Nh vy, vic
thit k mng truy nhp ADSL s bao gm hai phn (Hnh 4.15): phn thit k mng truy
nhp cp ng (ging nh truy nhp truyn thng) v phn truyn ti backhaul (t
DSLAM n BRAS). Chnh v th, ni dung ca phn thit k mng truy nhp ADSL
ch trnh by thit k lu lng mng truy nhp ADSL.
4.4.2.2 Thit k lu lng mng truy nhp ADSL
Lu lng truy nhp dch v ADSL.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
151
Lu lng truy nhp dch v ADSL bao gm: Lu lng kt ni vo Local Server,
lu lng kt ni vo ISP quc gia, lu lng quc t. Trong :
Lu lng kt ni vo Local Server (Ts): l lu lng truy nhp ca cc thu
bao ADSL trong h thng cung cp dch v ADSL bao gm h thng qun l,
cung cp dch v ADSL tp trung ti Th H Ni, h thng qun l, cung
cp dch v ti ch.
128 Ts 512 kByte/s





















Hnh 4.15: Cu trc mng truy nhp ADSL
Lu lng kt ni vo ISPs quc gia (Tn): l lu lng truy nhp ca cc thu
bao ADSL vo mng cung cp dch v ca cc ISPs (nh cung cp dch v
Internet trong nc nh VDC, FPT, NetNam,).
32 Tn 128 kByte/s
H thng qun l, cung cp dch v
( CATV, VPN, POP, VOD..)
B-RAS
Mng
ATM
H thng truyn dn
DSLAM DSLAM
DSLAM DSLAM
DSLAM - Hub
CPE CPE CPE CPE

IP
Mng
IP

(1)
(2)
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
152
Lu lng quc t (Ti): l lu lng kt ni ca cc thu bao ADSL vo mng
Internet (IAP).
8 Ti 32 kByte/s
Ngoi khi nim v lu lng truy nhp dch v ADSL k trn, tnh ton, thit
k c lu lng truy nhp ADSL ta cn mt s tham s khc nh:
Hiu sut s dng knh truy nhp dch v ADSL: y l t l truy nhp ng
thi qua cc thu bao vo h thng cung cp dch v ADSL (Local Server,
ISPs, IAP).
Hiu sut lu lng thng qua BRAS: y l t l lu lng truy nhp ca cc
thu bao ADSL i vi dch v khng c cung cp ti ch (ti bu in tnh)
Vi cc ch tiu nh sau:
Ch tiu phn b lu lng kt ni dch v ADSL ca cc thu bao:
T l kt ni dch v ADSL trong Local Server: 10%
s
15%.
T l kt ni dch v ADSL trong ISPs : 35%
n
45%
T l kt ni dch v ADSL trong IAP : 40%
i
55%
Ch tiu hiu sut s dng knh truy nhp dch v ADSL (
ch
) :T l kt ni
ng thi ca thu bao ADSL l 25%
ch
60%.
Ch tiu hiu sut lu lng thng qua BRAS : 60%
BRAS
80%.
Tnh ton lu lng truyn ti dch v ADSL
Theo hng dn ca Tp on Bu chnh vin thng (VNPT), lu lng truyn ti
dch v ADSL c xc nh nh sau:
Lu lng truyn ti ca thit b truy nhp DSLAM c N ports:
B
DSLAM
= N*
ch
*(
s
*Ts +
n
*Tn +
i
*Ti) kByte/s (4.27)
Lu lng truyn ti ca DSLAM-Hub:
Thng thng DSLAM-Hub mt mt trc tip cung cp cng truy nhp dch v
ADSL cho cc thu bao trong khu vc, mt khc cn tp trung lu lng t cc DSLAM
c c dung lng STM-1 kt ni ti BRAS. Nh vy, lu lng yu cu (B
DSLAM-
Hub
) ca DSLAM-Hub gm 2 phn: Lu lng B
DSLAM
ca cc thu bao c cung cp
trc tip v lu lng ca cc DSLAM ni ti DSLAM-Hub

=

+ =
n
i
i DSLAM DSLAM Hub DSLAM
B B B
0
(kbyte/s) (4.28)
Trong :
B
DSLAM-Hub
L lu lng yu cu ca DSLAM-Hub
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
153
B
DSLAM
L lu lng yu cu ca cc thu bao ADSL c cung cp trc
tip bi DSLAM-Hub.
B
DSLAM-i
L lu lng ca cc DSLAM kt ni ti DSLAM-Hub.
n L s DSLAM kt ni ti DSLAM-Hub.
Lu lng ca BRAS:
Lu lng kt ni ti BRAS t cc DSLAM/ DSLAM-Hub:
( )

= =

+ =
n
i
m
i
i Hub DSLAM i DSLAM in BRAS
B B B
1 1
(kbyte/s) (4.29)
Trong :
B
BRAS (in)
Lu lng kt ni BRAS t cc DSLAM/ DSLAM-Hub.
BDSLAM-Hub-j
Lu lng ca DSLAM-Hub kt ni ti BRAS.
m L s DSLAM-Hub kt ni ti BRAS.
B
DSLAM-i
L lu lng DSLAM kt ni ti BRAS.
n L s DSLAM kt ni ti BRAS
Lu lng kt ni t BRAS ti mng Core Network:
B
DSLAM (out)
=
BRAS (in)
. B
BRAS (in)
(kbyte/s) (4.30)
Trong :
B
BRAS (out)
L lu lng kt ni t BRAS ti mng core
B
BRAS (in)
L lu lng kt ni ti BRAS t cc DSLAM/ DSLAM-Hub

BRAS
Hiu sut lu lng thng qua BRAS
4.4.3 Thit k mng CATV
4.4.3.1 Gii thiu chung
Ging nh phn 4.1 trnh by, khi thit k bt k mt loi hnh mng truy nhp
no, t hiu qu cao, vic u tin ngi thit k phi lm l kho st hin trng, phn
tch k h thng k thut. Tuy nhin i vi mi mt loi hnh mng truy nhp khc nhau
th cch thc kho st, thit k mng li khc nhau. i vi mng truyn hnh cp CATV,
vi cu trc mng nh gii thiu trong chng 3, vic thit k mng bao gm:
Thit k mng ng trc xui chiu.
Thit k mng ng trc ngc chiu.
Thit k mng quang.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
154
Trong , cc ni dung cn phn tch khi nng cp hoc xy dng li mng CATV
bao gm:
S h dn ?
Tng s h dn lp t truyn hnh cp/node quang?
Tnh trung bnh s ct (ct in v ct bu in)/100m?
Tng s cp treo/cp ngm ? mt
Loi chn ct b tng?
Loi np cng yu cu khi ngm ho? ------ C / Khng ------ Bao nhiu?
Tn s h thng hin ti s dng ------ MHz
C k hoch nng cp t trc khng? Bng tn s dng trc l ----
MHz
D nh thay i tn s hin ti ----- MHz
Loi cp ng trc s dng?
Loi ngun cung cp ang dng?
Loi thit b th ng? tch cc?
Loi connector ang dng?
Cu trc h thng c cha?
S tng khuch i di nht trn ng trc chnh? ng nhnh? Nhnh cui?
S tng khuch i di nht th 2 trn ng trc chnh? ng nhnh? Nhnh
cui?
S tng khuch i di nht th 3 trn ng trc chnh? ng nhnh? Nhnh
cui?
S si quang dng / node quang?
C h s bn v mng hin ti hay khng?
Tim nng ca h thng mng? Thp / Trung bnh / Cao?
% cp ng trc cn thay th?
% cp chn trc tip?
Cc khu vc c bit c s c no khng?
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
155
Thay th cc thit b mi vo v tr thit b c c ph hp khng? (ch v
connector)
% cc thit b c c tiu chun, cht lng ph hp vi mng thit k mi?
S khuch i hin s dng c kh nng thay th modul mi?
Loi connector thu bao? Loi 1: -----% Loi 2: -----%
% cp thu bao RG6, RG11?
Bng tn cho cc b chia thu bao s dng ? -----MHz
Lit k cc loi hp cha thit b s dng?
Lit k cc loi hp c th nng cp/ci to?
Trc khi tnh ton thit k cng cn thc hin kim tra li ton b k hoch ca d
n: nng cp, xy dng mi hay xy dng li. Cng vic thm tra ny rt quan trng i
vi tin trnh xy dng mng CATV. Nu khng nh gi ng v chi tit th vic thit k
cng nh thi cng sau ny s b sai, mng s c cht lng km. Ngc li, nu lm tt s
thun li cho thit k ng tin , m bo cht lng, chnh xc.
Ngoi ra cng cn phi c 1 bn khu vc thit k. Khi kim tra, kho st cng
phi rt ch tm ra nhng im bt thng. V d khi c mng dn nc chy ngm
qua khu nh no th phi ch thch ln bn trnh trng hp cp ngm c thit
k chy ct ngang qua .
Mt iu na cng cn ch khi th hin trn bn v l h thng cc k hiu phi
thng nht m bo cho mi ngi u c v hiu c.
4.4.3.2 Thit k mng ng trc xui chiu:
Thit k node quang:
xc nh phm vi bao ph ca node quang th cn phi da vo cc yu t sau:
- Mt nh dn trong khu vc
- Cc tuyn cp c sn
- Cc tuyn ng (ch ng ngm, b sng)
- Kh nng pht trin, m rng trong tng lai.
Khi thit k cn lu :
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
156
- Vng bao ph cu 1 node quang khng nn ct ngang 1 khu nh (m c chung
ngh nghip, tn gio, s hu) hoc cc khu c ranh gii c lp v c th
hin ti hoc tng lai cc khu vc ny s c chng trnh ring ca h.
- Mc RF u ra ca node quang: in hnh l +48dBmV ti 870MHz.
- V tr t node quang: t node quang ti ni cho vng bao ph l ln nht v
cp c cho khong 500 h dn vi s lng cp ko l nh nht. Nu t
node quang ti v tr khng thun li th thng thng phi dng thm 1 node
quang na ph vng cn li, lm tng gi thnh ca mng.
Thit k mng ng trc:
Cc tham s cho thit k mng cp ng trc xui dng bao gm:
- Bng tn xui dng: 85 862MHz
- Bng tn ngc dng: 5-65 MHz
- Cc khuch i c Gain: in hnh l 30-35dB, in p hot ng 24-60Vac
ti 60Hz. Cc khuch i c thit k theo ng nguyn tc gain n v.
- S tng khuch i ti a: 5 (T node quang n u cui ng)
- Thit lp mc tn hiu cn c theo nguyn tc gain n v ca cc tng
khuch i vi mc tn hiu tun theo nguyn tc cn bng nhiu-mo hi.
- Cht lng ng truyn: (o cht lng ng truyn xui dng vi 60 knh
PAL v 200MHz cho tn hiu s) m bo theo cc thng s cho trong bng
di y:
Bng 4.3: Thng s cht lng ng truyn
Thng s Cui ng truyn
C/N 44 dB
C/CSO 57 dBc
C/CTB 57 dBc
C/XMOD 54 dBc

Khi cn nng cp, ci to mt khu vc no th cn ch mt s im sau:
Cung cp bn , bn v khu vc cp nht, chnh xc cho ngi thit k.
Chn v tr ti u cho node quang
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
157
Tn dng ti a cp ng trc ang s dng. c bit i vi khu vc ngm
ho v cc khu vc c chi ph nhn cng cao.
Ti thiu vic thay cp mi (t hn 15% cp c sn)
Tng thm cp m rng t im cp trc c sn n cc v tr phn
nhnh khc. M rng ti a vng bao ph v gim chiu di cc tng thit
b th ng.
Gi nguyn v tr cc khuch i trc c sn bng cch s dng loi khuch
i c 3 cng ra (1 cng chnh v 2 cng phn nhnh) c Gain 30-35dB.
(Hnh 4.16)




Hnh 4.16: Gi nguyn v tr cc khuch i trc
i vi cc khu vc xy dng li th cn ch mt s im sau:
Thit k c cu trc ng trc (khng t cc b chia vo thu bao gia
cc thit b tch cc ngoi tr l tng thit b tch cc cui cng).
Cung cp bn , bn v khu vc cp nht, chnh xc cho ngi thit k.
Chn v tr ti u cho node quang
Gim thiu cc v tr ko cp chy song song (t hn 36% cp trong bn
thit k)
Gim thiu s cc thit b tch cc.




Hnh 4.17: Gim cc thit b tch cc
i vi vic thit k cc tng khuch i cao tn cn lu s tng khuch i tu
thuc vo loi thit k (xy dng li hoc nng cp), mt dn c trong khu vc, tuyn
cp c sn, tim nng m rng trong tng lai. Ni chung, gii hn s tng khuch i

Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
158
c xc nh theo nhng tiu ch di y: (khng vt qu 5 tng khuch i v phi
tun th theo nguyn tc cn bng nhiu-hi).
Thit k xy dng li khu vc c mt cao v trung bnh (>35h/100m):
Tt nht l dng 3 khuch i tnh t sau v tr node quang.
Thit k xy dng li khu vc c mt thp, t hoc khng c tim nng pht
trin (<35h/100m v t c tim nng trong vi nm ti):
Tt nht l dng 5 khuch i tnh t sau v tr node quang.
Thit k xy dng li khu vc c mt thp, nhng c tim nng pht trin
cao (<35h/100m v c tim nng pht trin nh ca trong vi nm ti):
Tt nht l dng 3 khuch i tnh t sau v tr node quang.
Thit k nng cp khu vc c mt cao v trung bnh (>35h/100m):
Tt nht l dng 4 khuch i tnh t sau v tr node quang.
Thit k nng cp khu vc c mt thp, t hoc khng c tim nng pht
trin (<35h/100m v t c tim nng trong vi nm ti):
Tt nht l dng 5 khuch i tnh t sau v tr node quang.
Thit k nng cp khu vc c tim nng pht trin cao (in hnh l khu vc c
tim nng pht trin cc khu nh mi trong vi nm ti):
Tt nht l dng 3 khuch i tnh t sau v tr node quang.
Ngun cung cp:
Ngun cung cp (PS) bao gm cc loi: khng c d phng, c d phng, d phng
ngt UPS.
Thng thng dng loi d phng ngt (UPS) c dng in 15Amp, in p 60-
90Vac tn s 60Hz, c kh nng chu ti c n 90%. Khi s tiu th ngun tnh
trng xu nht th ngun ny s c kch hot cp cho h thng. Nu phm vi node
quang dng nhiu hn 1 ngun cung cp th tnh ton dng in tng cn bng qua tt c
cc ngun cung cp.
Trong mng cp ng trc c th dng ngun cp ti ch hoc ngun cp t xa lan
truyn theo ng cp. Ngun cp trung gian c a vo mng thng qua thit b chn
ngun (PI).
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
159
Hnh 4.18 m t 1 on cp v mt s khuch i c m rng trn 1 nhnh ca
ngun cung cp PS. Bi ton t ra cho ngi thit k mng cp ng trc l cn phi tnh
ton dng ti thiu s ngun cung cp hay l xc nh s khuch i ln nht m 1
ngun cung cp c th cp ngun cho chng t t v tr chn ngun cho thch
hp.



















Hnh 4.18: S cp ngun cho khuch i
Qu trnh tnh ton nh sau:
1. Xc nh tr khng mi on cp nhit hot ng cao nht.
2. Xc nh ng cong in p dng in ca mi loi khuch i s dng.
3. Xc nh dng in chy qua mi thnh phn trong h thng.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
160
4. nh gi s b ngun cung cp cho mi khuch i v s khuch i c th
phc v c.
5. T nhng d liu trn, xc nh dng in chy qua mi khuch i v tng
dng in chy qua mi on cp.
6. T d liu ca bc 1 v bc 5, xc nh in p ri trn mi on.
7. Bt u tnh ngun t ngun cung cp PS, tr i din p ri trn on u tin
xc nh in p cung cp cho khuch i 1.
8. Tnh ton lp i lp li cho n khi tm c kt qu ph hp. Xc nhn li
in p c cp c cho khuch i xa nht khng, nu khng th phi iu
chnh, tnh ton li.
Qu trnh tnh ton ngun in p cung cp cho khuch i s n gin hn nhiu
khi tnh trn my tnh.
VD: Tnh ngun cung cp cho cc khuch i AC 500 trn 1 cng ca node quang
vi cc thng s nh sau:
Tr khng ca cp ng trc QR540: 5.28 /km, RG11: 69.7/km
Dng in tiu th qua mi khuch i AC500 l 0.87- 0.42A tng ng vi
ngun cung cp 24-65Vac vi s dng tiu th nh trong Hnh 4.19










Hnh 4.29: S dng tiu th
p dng cc bc tnh trn ta s tnh c ngun cung cp cho cc khuch i
nh sau:
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
161
Bng 4.4: Ngun cung cp cho cc khuch i
K1
(A)
K2
(A)
K3
(A)
K4
(A)
K5
(A)
K6
(A)
Dng
Tng
Dng
(K2:6)
Dng
K3+4
Dng
K2+5+6
Dng
K5+6
0.45 0.50 0.50 0.52 0.53 0.54 3.04 2.59 1.02 1.57 1.07

PS
K1
(Vac)
K2:
(Vac)
K3
(Vac)
K4
(Vac)
K2
(Vac)
K5
(Vac)
K6
(Vac)
65 63.72 61.53 61.26 61.05 61.42 60.36 60.02 ---> Mc in p cp cho mi khuch i

Nh vy, c th xc nh c mc in p cho mi khuch i nh trong hnh 4.30
Tnh ton suy hao: Tnh suy hao ca cp ng trc, b chia ng trc, b chia ng
nhnh, b cn bng ng dy ti 2 tn s 110 MHz v 862 MHz. (cn c theo thng s
tiu chun nu trong cm nng k thut c bn truyn hnh cp) nh sau:







Hnh 4.30: Kt qu tnh mc in p cung cp cho mi khuch i
- i vi cp ng trc:
Chn loi cp ng trc vic thit k v trin khai thi cng c hiu qu
nht. Khng dng loi cp ng trc trc chnh c ng knh li ln hn
0.875 (2.2225mm) hoc cp nhnh c ng knh li ln hn 0.625
(1.5875mm).
Tnh ton suy hao cp gi tr ln nht do nh sn xut a ra.
- i vi cc thit b th ng (B chia nh hng, b chia, b chn ngun, b
cn bng ng truyn): Cc thit b th ng c s dng trong bng tn ti
thiu t 5-1000MHz.
- i vi cc b chia nhnh:
S dng cc b chia nhnh (c 2, 4, 8 cng nhnh) c bng tn t 5-
1000MHz.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
162
Khi thit k, tnh ton suy hao ca b chia ng nhnh theo 2 cch:
C1: suy hao danh nh do nh sn xut a ra +10%
C2: ly theo suy hao ln nht (Nu n nh hn suy hao danh nh th
+10%).
- i vi b chia nhiu cng ra (B chia thu bao): tnh t ct in ngoi va h
s dng:
B chia 2 cng ra cho b m nh dn t 1-2 h dn.
B chia 4 cng ra cho b m nh dn t 3-4 h dn.
B chia 6 cng ra cho b m nh dn t 5-6 h dn.
B chia 8 cng ra cho b m nh dn t 7-8 h dn.
Thit k u cui thu bao v cc khu chung c:
S dng node quang dnh ring phc v cho cc khu nh, khng vt qu 1000 h
dn. Mi cng cp tn hiu RF khng vt qu 300 h.
Bng 4.5: Tiu chun thit k u cui thu bao
S lng n
nguyn / khi
Khong cch
t ct n
Phng php cp
tn hiu
Ghi ch
1-4
Khng
cp
Dng 1 cng chia
nhnh
Cc mc cng chia nhnh tiu
chun
5-8 < 20m
Dng 1 cng Out
ca thit b chia
nhnh

9-32 15-60m
Dng 1 cng chia
t DC

5-32 > 60m
Dng 1 cng chia
t DC

> 32
Khng
cp
Dng khuch i
Nm trong phm vi s tng
khuch i cho php nu khng
s lm gim hiu sut ca h
thng.

Khi kho st cn cung cp cc thng tin v khu chung c cho ngi thit k nh sau:
Ct cp tn hiu
Chiu di ca to nh
S n nguyn (cu thang)
S tng, s h ca to nh
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
163
Khi tnh ton thit k, dng cp RG11 c suy hao thch hp dn n to nh. t cc
thit b tch cc trn ct in ngoi to nh. Ngun in c cp t xa. Nu cn thit
phi t thit b tch cc trong to nh th phi thit k cp ngun in cho chng.
Khng s dng ngun AC cho u ra ca ngun cung cp PS tr khi ngun PS c chc
nng gim p.
Dng b chia cp tn hiu n mi n nguyn. i vi khch sn th cng thit k
coi nh 1 to nh. Chia tng n nguyn theo s cc tng xc nh s cng chia cn
thit cp cho mi tng. Nu khng bit s tng th phi cung cp s h dn mi tng
ngi thit k bit tnh ton.

4.4.3.3 Thit k mng ng trc ngc chiu:
Khi thit k mng ng trc ngc chiu cn lu mt s im sau:
Cn c vo tnh hnh thc t xc nh s lng thu bao Cable modem
trn mi node quang.
Tun theo nguyn tc theo dng sao chun, tng mc suy hao ca b phn
phi nhnh v suy hao ca ng dy cp phi bng gain ngc chiu ca
thit b khuch i. Hn ch dng node quang c cng sut ra xui chiu qu
ln v nu mc tn hiu cao tn ra ca node quang t 110dB tr ln, khi mc
tn hiu thng qua mng phn phi n u ni t t 75 80dB, suy hao
ca ng dn xui chiu 30 35dB, trong trng hp ny suy hao ca
ng dn ngc chiu s ln hn 20 dB vt qu gain ca b khuch i
ngc chiu, lm cho khuch i thu bao khng tho mn yu cu gain
n v ngc chiu. (y l vn m mng ca BTS hin nay ang gp
phi).

Thit k s thu bao trn node quang v CMTS:
Mt CMTS c th cng lc cung cp dch v cho 1000 1500 thu bao. Thng
thng vi mt CMTS 1000 1500 thu bao c 4 8 cng ngc dng. Mi cng ngc
dng s c thit lp c cng rng bng thng v tn s knh c sp xp theo yu
cu ca ngi qun l, khai thc dch v mng.V d: CMTS c 8 cng ngc dng v
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
164
thit lp rng bng thng bng 1.6Mhz, nh vy, CMTS s chim bng tn ngc
chiu bng thng c tng rng bng: 8 x 1.6MHz = 12.8 MHz.
C nhiu kin cho rng gim tp m ngc chiu phi gim s lng thu bao
trn mi node quang. Vic gim s lng thu bao trn mi node quang th lng tp m
s gim nu mi node quang tng ng vi 1 CMTS hoc mt cng ngc dng ca
CMTS, iu ny l chnh xc. Tuy nhin, cch ny ng thi cng lm gim 1 s lng
thu bao ca mi CMTS. Ni cch khc l vic gim s lng thu bao ca mi CMTS
c th lm tng t l sng mang trn tp m (C/N) tn hiu ngc dng.
Nu vn mun gi nguyn s lng thu bao ca mi CMTS, gim s lng thu
bao trn mt node quang v tng s lng node quang mt CMTS hay mt cng ngc
dng ca CMTS th khng nhng khng lm gim tp m ca h thng m tri li tp m
s tng thm. V trong h thng ngc chiu tp m ng truyn dn c vai tr chnh
trong s tng hp cu trc tp m.
V vy, vic tnh ton s lng thu bao trn node quang v s lng node quang
trn CMTS cn cn c theo thng s k thut cho php ca thit b v nn nhiu ca khu
vc cung cp dch v nhm trnh s qu ti.
Thit k mng ng trc:
Theo Euro Docsis, di tn hng ln hay bng tn ngc dng nm t 5 65
MHz. Tuy nhin, trong thc t, di tn t 5-20 MHz c rt nhiu can nhiu cn di tn t
60-65 MHz li c tr ln (do b lc sng phn hng). V vy, khi thit k, phm vi
di tn ngc chiu s dng tht s c xc nh t 20-60 Mhz.
Cc khuch i c gain thng c xc nh l 20 22 dB, in p t 24 60
VAC, 30 90 VAC, tn s 60 Hz. Cc khuch i, mc tn hiu c thit k theo ng
nguyn tc gain n v ( xem chi tit trong cm nang k thut c bn truyn hnh cp)
Tn hiu cao tn ngc chiu vo CMTS thit k mc 0 dBmV, tn hiu cao tn
ngc chiu pht ra t Cable Modem thit k mc 40dBmV.
Tnh ton suy hao.
Tnh suy hao ca cp ng trc, b chia ng trc, b chia ng nhnh, ti tn
s 30 MHz.( cn c theo thng s tiu chun nu trong cm nang k thut c bn truyn
hnh cp)
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
165
- Suy hao cp + suy hao thit b chia mc l tng = 21dB, mc ti a = 26dB
tng ng vi mc khuch i cho php.
Bng 4.6: Tiu chun thit k suy hao cho cp

Chng loi cp S lng n v Suy hao ln nht
Cp QR540 100 mt 1.12 dB
Cp RG11 100 mt 3 dB
Cp RG6 100 mt 5 dB

- Yu cu thit b c ch s Isolation 18 dB
- Nhit cng tc ca mng HFC hai chiu khong - 4040
0
C c nh hng
ln ti cp ng trc ca h thng. Nhit tng th suy hao s tng, nu
laser ngc chiu khng c chc nng b nhit th mc tn hiu truyn ca
n s b gim. Vi chiu di cp ng trc 300m tn s 60MHz th khi thay
i nhit s gy ra mc dao ng 3dB.
- S chnh lch khi kim tra tn hiu ca CMTS: khi CMTS kim tra tn hiu ca
CM cng s pht sinh chnh lch, chnh lch thng thng l dao ng
khong 1dB.
- chnh lch ca h thng ng truyn quang: Suy hao ng truyn ca h
thng quang thng qua s iu chnh ca b thu quang ngc chiu thng dao
ng +/- 2dB.
rng bng thng knh ngc chiu:
CMTS c kh nng thit lp rng bng tn, tn s knh hng ngc chiu cho
cc node quang cn c theo kho st s lng thu bao c kh nng s dng dch v
Internet v nn nhiu ti cc node quang nhm nng cao cht lng ng truyn. Do
c tnh knh ngc dng c c im nhiu im tp trung n mt im nn vic lm
th no gim tp m tp trung ny l vn ch yu trong vic qun l, vn hnh
mng ngc chiu.
H thng mng HFC hai chiu c th khai thc nhiu dch v. Tuy nhin, khi mng
ngc chiu hot ng tt vi cch thit k v thi cng cho thit b Cable modem v
CMTS th mng vn ph hp vi ng dng dch v ngc dng khc. V vy, khi thit k
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
166
rng bng thng cho knh Internet ngc chiu cn tnh ton ht sc hp l cn
dnh bng thng cho cc dch v pht trin trong tng li
Thit lp knh ngc dng l cn c vo tnh nng ca thit b chn v kt hp
ng dng c th tnh ton xc nh im lm vic ca tt c cc thit b ca h thng
knh ngc dng. B tr hp l rng bng tn ngc dng, s lng knh ngc dng
cho mi knh c th hot ng trong trng thi tt nht. S tnh ton phi ph hp vi
tnh hnh thc t v kh nng m rng trong tng lai va hn ch my pht quang gy
ra hin tng mo tn hiu va c th m bo cho mng hot ng bnh thng. Vic
thit k hp l knh ngc chiu c tc dng v cng quan trng i vi tnh n nh ca
mng HFC hai chiu.
Bng tn ngc dng t: 5 65 MHz( Euro Docsis). Tuy nhin di tn t 5-20 MHz
c rt nhiu can nhiu v t 60-65 MHz c tr ln (bi b lc sng phn hng) do
khng nn thit k knh ngc chiu phm vi trn. V vy, phm vi di tn ngc chiu
s dng tht s t 20-60 Mhz, tng cng di ca bng tn l 40MHz.
Khi ng dng trong thc t ta c th cn c vo mc tp m thit k. V d:
nhng khu vc mi nng cp, tp m khng ln v nhu cu ca h thu bao kh cao ta c
th s dng rng bng tn ngc dng l 1.6MHz tng cng sut truyn ca knh
ngc dng. i vi nhng khu vc cha t tiu chun, c mc tp m kh ln, nng
cao kh nng chng nhiu ta c th s dng rng knh ngc dng l 800KHz hoc
400KHz. Mc d tc truy cp gim nhng nhiu xuyn knh gim do t s C/N
c ci thin c th m bo cho mng hot ng bnh thng.
4.4.3.4 Thit k mng quang:
Cng vic u tin khi thit k h thng mng cp quang l phi la chn, tnh ton
k lng cc thng s hot ng ca mi thnh phn trong h thng. l nhng vn
lin quan n tc d liu, t s li bit trong h thng s, tuyn tnh, t s S/N trong
h thng tng t, khong cch truyn tn hiu, loi si quang s dng, cng sut my
pht quang, loi ngun quangc cp trong bng 4.7 sau y:



Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
167
Bng 4.7: Cc thng s hot ng trong h thng quang

Ni dung La chn
Khong cch truyn dn tn hiu
phc tp ca h thng tng theo khong
cch truyn
Loi si quang s dng n mode hay a mode
tn sc
Kt hp vi my pht tn hiu hay l b tn
sc
phi tuyn
c tnh si, bc sng, cng sut ngun
pht
Cc bc sng hot ng 780, 850, 1310, 1550 hay 1625nm
Cng sut pht Tnh bng dBm
Loi ngun quang LED hay Laser
nhy thu Tnh bng dBm
B tch sng PIN, APD hay IDP
Loi iu ch AM, FM, PCM hay s
T s li bit (cho h thng s) 10
-9
hay 10
-12

T s tn hiu/tp m S/N Tnh bng dB
S connector hay mi hn ni s dng
trong h thng
Tn hiu s suy hao tng theo s connector
hay mi hn ni
Cc yu cu v mi trng hay hn ch
khc
m, nhit , nh sng
Cc yu cu c hc
D bc chy, dng trong nh hay ngoi tri,
cp treo hay cp chn

Trong , khong cch truyn dn tn hiu l vn cn ch nht. N lin quan
n vic chn la cng sut cng nh loi ngun pht quang, loi si quang (si n
mode cho khong cch truyn i xa hn), t chn loi v nhy my thu quang ph
hp. Ngoi ra cng chn loi iu ch cho thch hp vi khong truyn xa.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
168
Khi thit k 1 h thng mng quang phc tp cn tnh ton suy hao tng, c
lng cng sut quang cn dng, bc sng hot ng, suy hao si quang v nhy thu
quang.
Phn tch nhy thu quang xc nh mc quang ti thiu cn c thu c.
nhy thu chu nh hng do tp m mt ngun pht quang, suy hao quang, tp m ca
b tch sng, nhiu k t, t s li bit v rung pha (jitter).
Cng cn xem xt v vn mi trng bi nhit nh hng ti hiu sut ca
LED, laser v si quang. Khi thit k a ra cc yu cu chung v an ton chy n, pht
x EMI v cc thng s khc. Chc chn mi trng hin ti s c nhiu nh hng n
mng cp quang nn phi la chn loi cp cn thn.
Cn cn nhc v chi ph cho 1 h thng mng cp quang. Cc thnh phn nh loi
my pht quang, bc sng pht, loi connector, loi si cp quang, loi my tch sng
quang s nh hng n ton b chi ph cng nh hiu sut ca mng. Ni chung cn
thit k 1 h thng mng cp quang c chi ph hiu qu nht ph hp vi nhu cu s
dng.
Mt s ni dung, khi nim cn quan tm khi thit k h thng mng cp quang:
Suy hao trong h thng: Lin quan n kt qu bng tn v khong cch, c
th hin bng suy hao quang trn mt si quang no . Nu l h thng
c xy lp t trc v ch cn nng cp th thng tin ny c xc nh d
dng. Nu l xy dng 1 mng mi th phi bit c khong cch truyn (v
d khong cch t my pht n my thu) tnh ton suy hao vt liu si. T
xc nh cng sut my pht quang v/ hoc my pht trung gian.
Loi tn hiu pht i: bao gm tn hiu hnh, m thanh, s liu v ch ra l tn
hiu s hay tng t.
La chn loi si quang (nh Bng 4.7): loi n mode hay a mode. Khong
cch truyn, loi tn hiu pht v ng dng s xc nh loi si no dng l ph
hp nht. truyn i xa, tc cao, nhiu knh th chn si n mode, ngc
li nu truyn vi khong cch ngn, tc thp, 1 knh ring l th chn si
a mode c gi thnh thp hn.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
169
La chn loi connector quang: cng nh si quang, tu vo h thng khc
nhau s c cc yu cu khc nhau. Phi chn loi connector gim phn x,
d lp t, khi lng ph hp v c giao din thch hp vi cc h thng c
sn.
Cu trc Topo ca mng cp quang:











Hnh 4.31: Cu trc mch vng cp quang 2 cp
Thng thng cu trc mng cn tu thuc vo nhiu yu t: a l, mt dn c,
lin quan n vic nng cp v nhiu yu t khc na. Tuy nhin hu ht chng u c
cu trc theo kiu vng - sao - chui (Hnh 4.31).
in hnh l mt hay nhiu mch vng cp quang kt ni gia HE s cp v cc
HUB s cp, trong mt s trng hp khc th cc vng th cp li lin kt gia cc HE
vi cc HUB th cp hoc cc node quang u cui OTN. T y cc node quang FN
c lin kt vi cc HUB, OTN hoc HE theo dng cu trc hnh sao.
T node quang FN thng qua cp ng trc phn phi tn hiu n cc h thu bao
HP theo dng cy v dng chui (Hnh 4.32).
Cu trc mch vng c d phng 1+1 cho tin cy ca h thng cao hn. V khi
trn ng truyn c xy ra s c th s thc hin chuyn mch t ng / nhn cng sang
h thng d phng m bo tn hiu truyn c thng sut.
Ngun cng sut quang:
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
170
Nh ta bit, tn hiu quang c pht ra t Diode Laser trong my pht quang.
Cng sut quang pht ra c o bng dBm.
Cng thc i mW sang dBm: 10log( mW) = dBm
Nh vy, 1mW tng ng vi 0dBm. Nu cng sut cng ra ca my pht quang l
3dBm cho gi tr bng 2 ln mc ti 0dB, tc l 3dBm = 2mW. Tng t nh vy, 6dBm
= 4mW; 9dBm = 8mW; 12dBm = 16mW.










Hnh 4.32: S cy v nhnh
Ngy nay, hu ht cc my pht quang 1310nm u cho cng sut quang t 4-
12mW. Khi cng ngh mi pht trin ngi ta c xu hng s dng thit b c bc sng
quang 1550nm mang li nhiu u im, tuy nhin cng cn phi cn nhc n chi ph.
Suy hao cp:
Si quang n mode, tiu chun G.652 c suy hao 0.35dB/km ti 1310nm,
0.2dB/km ti 1550nm. Tuy nhin khi tnh ton thc t th cn tnh thm vo suy hao cp
theo l thuyt mt s cc h s s cp di y.
Suy hao vng cp:
Khi cp quang c ko treo trn ct, ngay c khi c dy gia cng th chiu di cp
thc t gia 2 im ct vn di hn chiu di o l thuyt. Khong chnh lch ny c
gi l vng ca cp. Khi tnh ton thit k thng cng thm 2-5% b li vng
ny.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
171
Thm ch khi thi cng ko cp ngm th n cng khng chy theo 1 ng thng tp
m n chy theo ng zic-zc. Khi thit k cp i ngm thng cng thm 2% chiu di
cp.
D phng cp:
Nu cp quang t hng th cn phi thc hin hn ni li. Qu trnh hn ni yu cu
cn phi dn 1 on cp d. phng mi bt trc xy ra nn d on cp quang.
V d c 2 km cp quang th cun d nh nht t 10m n ln nht l 100m.
Suy hao ca cc mi hn nhit v hn c hc:
Ni chung cc mi hn (mi ni) u thch hp cho vic trin khai v vn hnh
mng cp quang. C th thc hin hn bng c hc hoc hn t ng nh cc my hn
nhit. Hn c hc yu cu cc k s phi c tay ngh cao. Mt mi hn c hc b hng c
th cho mc suy hao ti 1dB, nu tt th l 0.1dB. Khi so snh vi suy hao ca 1km cp
quang l 0.35dB th mi thy rng y l mc suy hao rt ln. Nu hn bng my hn
nhit s cho cht lng tt hn vi mc suy hao l 0.05dB/ mi hn.
S cc mi hn ni:
Cp quang thng c chiu di ch to l 2km/cun. V th mi on cp 2km s
yu cu ti thiu 2 mi hn ti 2 u cui. Trung bnh 1 mi hn c mc suy hao 0.05dB,
nu l hn gia nhit. Nh vy, ngoi mc suy hao l thuyt l 0.35dB/km th cn phi
cng thm phn suy hao mi hn ny, tc l 0.4dB/km.
Suy hao quang:
T u ra ca my pht quang, cng sut quang s b suy hao do h thng mng
phn phi trc khi a n my thu. Do ngi thit k phi tnh ton sao cho tng
cng sut quang pht ra s b li c mc suy hao quang trong mng phn phi, l
suy hao qua h thng cp, b chia quang, connector, mi hn ni m bo mc vo
u thu vn t c yu cu.
Thng s suy hao ca mt s thit b tnh ti ca s 1310nm nh sau:
Bng 4.8: Suy hao ca phn t quang ca s 1310nm
STT Loi thit b quang Mc suy hao Ghi ch
1
Cp quang n mode,
9/125m
0.35dB/km

Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
172
2 Mi hn
0.05 0.1dB
/mi hn
0.05 dB/mi: hn gia nhit
0.1 dB/mi: hn c hc
3
Connector SC hoc
FC
0.2-0.3dB
Thng thng tnh =0.3dB
4
Adapter SC/APC
hoc FC/APC
0.15-0.3dB
Thng thng tnh =0.2dB
5 ui cp (Pigtail) 0.3dB 1 u c connector
6 Dy nhy (Jumper) 0.6dB 2 u c connector
7 B chia quang
0.3-2dB
(l mc suy
hao cng sut
c tnh
thm vo khi
qua cc cng
quang)
(1x2) : 0.3dB
(1x3) : 0.6dB
(1x4) : 0.6dB
(1x5) : 0.9dB
(1x6) : 0.9dB
(1x7) : 0.9dB
(1x8) : 0.9dB
(1x9) : 1.2dB
(1x10) : 1.2dB
(1x11) : 1.2dB
(1x12) : 1.2dB
(1x13) : 1.2dB
(1x14) : 1.2dB
(1x15) : 1.2dB
(1x16) : 1.2dB
(1x17) : 1.5dB
(1x18) : 1.5dB
(1x19) : 1.5dB
(1x20) : 1.5dB
Ghi ch: Mc suy hao tnh thm trn bao gm suy hao ca 1 connector =
0.3dB.
V d:
Suy hao in hnh ca cng 20% ca b chia quang (1x2)
= Suy hao 20% quang (7.14dB) + Suy hao tnh thm (0.3dB)
= 7.44dB
Trong khi ,
Suy hao in hnh ca cng 20% ca b chia quang (1x4)
= Suy hao 20% quang (7.14dB) + Suy hao tnh thm (0.6dB)
= 7.74B
m bo cht lng tn hiu, khuyn co mc tn hiu quang vo my pht
quang/ node quang nm trong di (-2 n 0dBm). (thu quang -15 n -20 dBm)
Suy hao d phng:
Thng thng khi thit k, mc suy hao d phng l 0.4dB. Mc d phng ny
c a ra nhm b li lch tnh ton nh chiu di cp, cc mi hn ni m bo
h thng vn hot ng tt. Mc d phng ny cng cn b li s suy gim cht lng
ca cc thit b theo thi gian nh c tnh si cp quang, cng sut pht quang ca my
pht laser thp hn, cc mi hn ni
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
173
Nh vy ta thit lp c cng thc tnh nh sau:
Cng sut my pht quang yu cu = Suy hao b chia quang + suy hao cp + suy
hao cc mi hn + phn d phng 0.4dB + suy hao connector.
Loi cp quang:
Trong h thng mng quang rt t khi ngi ta s dng cp c 1-2 si quang. Ti
thiu phi l 6-8 si. Thng thng dng loi 12 v 24 si. Cng c th dng loi cp c
s si ln hn tu thuc vo tng h thng mng thit k.
Khi thit k cng phi tnh s si d phng cho ng ngc chiu.
V d thit k h thng mng quang:
Thit k mng phn phi t Headend phn phi tn hiu n 4 khu vc, ln lt cch
Headend 3Km, 6Km, 9Km, 12Km (Hnh 4.33) v t cc b chia quang ti Headend. Nh
vy s c 4 u chia quang cp n 4 khu vc trn, v vy s c 3 b chia quang 1x2 c
cc t l chia khc nhau (Hnh 4.35).











Hnh 4.33: S 4 ng quang
Thit b chia quang:
Tapoff v Sliptter l cc thit b s dng trong mng ng trc dng phn phi tn
hiu in. Ni chung cc b chia Splitter chia tn hiu u vo thnh cc u ra tng
ng nhau, cn cc b Tapoff th phn ln tn hiu u vo c chuyn ti u ra, cc
nhnh tapoff u ra c nh suy hao thng theo mc -10dB n - 20dB.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
174
Trong mng quang tn hiu cng c phn nhnh bi cc b chia quang, ch yu
dng cc b chia 1x2, tuy nhin 2 u ra thng khng ging nhau, m bin i theo t l
khc nhau. Do thut ng chia quang u(optical splitter) hay khng u(optical tapoff,
optical coupler) u ch b chia quang. Cc b chia quang ny c th c hoc khng c
cc connector (trung bnh suy hao 0.35dB/connector).
Cn ch khi c t s b chia quang do nh cung cp a ra. Mt s nh sn xut
quy nh theo mc pht quang, v d b chia 40:60 c ngha l cng 40% c cng
sut(mW) truyn qua bng 40% cng sut quang u. Mt s nh sn xut khc li quy
nh theo mc suy hao, v d b chia 40:60, ngha l cng th nht suy hao 40%, cng
th 2 suy hao 60% so vi mc cng sut quang u vo. C hai cch trn u ng, quan
trng l ngi thit k phi nm c s liu khi s dng




Hnh 4.34: B chia quang (1x3)
C hai phng php tnh suy hao qua 1 b chia quang, gi s c b chia quang
(1x3) c t s (a%/ b%/ c%) (Hnh 4.34) v cn tnh cng sut quang ti cc u ra:
Phng php 1: tnh ton khi xt mc quang vo c n v l L
in
(mW).
Mc tn hiu ti cc cng ra ca b chia quang s l:
) W m ( L
100
a
L
in 1 out
= (4.31)
) W m ( L
100
b
L
in 2 out
= (4.32)
) W m ( L
100
c
L
in 3 out
= (4.33)
Vi phng php ny, ta c mc tn hiu ti cc u ra b chia quang c n v l
(mW), sau phi i n v (mW) thnh dBm tin tnh ton trong h thng.
Phng php 2: tnh ton khi xt mc quang vo c n v l L
in
(dBm).
Mc cng sut tn hiu ti cc cng ra ca b chia quang s l:

Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
175
100
log ) ( ) (
1
a
dBm L dBm L
in out
+ = (4.34)
100
log ) ( ) (
2
b
dBm L dBm L
in out
+ = (4.35)
100
log ) ( ) (
3
c
dBm L dBm L
in out
+ = (4.36)
Ta thy rng gi tr log(%) y chnh l phn suy hao khi tn hiu i qua u vo
ti cng chia tng ng. Vi phng php ny, ta c mc tn hiu ti cc u ra b
chia quang c n v l (dBm) v tin tnh ton trong h thng.
Hai phng php trn ch a ra phng php tnh mc chia l tng khi tn hiu
quang i qua b chia. Trong thc t, ta cn tnh thm suy hao do mi hn trong b chia,
nh vy, sau khi tnh mc cng sut ti cc cng ra ta cn tr i gi tr suy hao 0.1dB. Sau
tnh tip suy hao khi tn hiu i qua connector ca cc cng b chia.
Suy hao connector:
Khi tnh ton thit k, mt connector thng c suy hao 0.35dB (tng ng
vi suy hao ca 7 mi hn), do vy nn hn ch dng connector. iu ny c ngha l nu
thc s cn thit mi thc hin u ni ODF ngoi ra ta s dng hn ni mng sng nhm
tng tnh n nh v gim mc suy hao xung mc ti thiu.
Tnh ton suy hao tng th mng:
Theo Hnh 4.35 c th tnh c tng suy hao:
Gi s my pht quang c cng sut 12dBm, cng sut ny c chia bi b chia
quang T-1 thnh 2 ng: ng 30% (suy hao 5.66dB), 70% (suy hao 1.92dB).
Cng suy hao 5.66dB ca b chia T-1 c a vo b chia T-2 c t l chia 45:55
(suy hao 3.93dB/3dB), khi u ra c suy hao cao hn (45%) c cng sut quang l:
12 5.66 3.93 = 2.41dBm.
Tn hiu quang ny i qua 3Km cp quang n im u cui A (3 Km cp quang c
suy hao l: 3x0.4=1.2dB).
Do tn hiu quang cn li l 2.41-1.2=1.21dBm, vi tng suy hao ca connector
l 0.7dB, nn tn hiu ti A l 1.21-0.7=0.51dBm. Tn hiu d phng tnh l 0.4dB khi
tn hiu vo my thu quang l 0.11dBm.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
176
Tng t s tnh c tn hiu quang ti B l: -0.16dBm, ti C: 1.45dBm, ti D:
1.18dBm.



















Hnh 4.35: Thit k h thng mng quang
(tt c cc b chia quang t ti headend)
Trn y m t phng php thit k mng quang cho hng xui chiu, phng
php thit k quang hng ngc chiu cng c nhng tnh ton tng t nh trn, tuy
nhin, c mt s im cn lu sau:
- Mng quang hng xui chiu mang tnh cht phn chia tn hiu, mng quang
hng ngc chiu l chy thng hoc tp trung (nu s dng phng php
ghp quang hin i).
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
177
- Cng sut pht quang ngc chiu thng c cc mc: -4dBm, 0dBm, +3
dBm. Tuy nhin, my thu quang ngc dng cng thng c nhy rt cao,
mc thp nht:-16dBm.
V vy, khi thit k mng quang hng xui chiu cn tnh ton khong cch, cc
im t trm lp, ODF hp l mng c th hot ng c c hng ngc chiu trn
cng mt tuyn cp, trnh xy ra tnh trng phi ko thm mt tuyn cp mi cho hng
ngc chiu.
4.4.4. Thit k MAN E (MEN)
4.4.4.1 Gii thiu chung
MAN E (Metro Area Networks Ethernet) hay MEN (Metro Ethernet Network) l
mt loi hnh mng vin thng cho php cung cp dch v vi cc kt ni giao din
Ethernet ti khch hng trong phm vi mt th (metropolitan).
Xy dng MANE nhm mc ch thu gom lu lng v p ng nhu cu truyn
ti lu lng cho cc thit b mng truy nhp (IP DSLAM, MSAN) ng thi c kh nng
cung cp kt ni truy nhp Ethernet (FE/GE) ti khch hng.
Cng ngh Ethernet (nh gii thiu trong chng4) ban u c thit k cung
cp cc kt ni trong mt t chc (mng LAN). cung cp dch v Ethernet trn phm
vi th, bn cnh giao thc tiu chun IEEE 802.3 Ethernet, cc nh cung cp dch v
cn phi s dng thm mt s cng ngh. Cc cng ngh c s dng cung cp dch
v Ethernet trong mng MAN bao gm:
802.1 Q Virtual LANs ( VLANs).
Q in Q ( Stacked VLANs)
MPLS
MAC in MAC (M in M) hoc PBB/PBT
MAN E theo khuyn ngh c cu trc lm 03 lp:
Lp mng li (CORE): Thc hin cc chc nng chuyn mch vi dung
lng ln, tc nhanh.
Lp tp trung lu lng (Aggrigate): Lp mng tp trung lu lng Metro
l mt im thu gom cc mng truy nhp trong mt khu vc no .
Lp truy nhp (Access): Lp mng truy nhp Metro s u ni giao din
Ethernet ngi dng-mng (UNI) ti mng ca nh cung cp dch v.


Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
178
4.4.4.2. Nguyn tc xy dng mng.
Theo khuyn ngh ca Tp on, khi xy dng MAN E, s dng cc thit b CES
to thnh mng chuyn ti Ethernet/IP. Kt ni gia cc thit b CES dng hnh sao, ring
hoc u ni tip, s dng cc loi cng kt ni: n x 1Gbps hoc n x 10Gbps
MAN c t chc thnh 2 lp: lp trc v lp truy nhp (Hnh 4.36).
Lp trc (ring core):
Bao gm cc CES c ln lp t ti cc trung tm ln nht ca tnh, vi s lng
hn ch (ti a t 3 n 5 im), v tr lp t cc CES core ti im thu gom truyn dn
v dung lng chung chuyn qua cao. Cc thit b ny c kt ni ring vi nhau bng
mt i si cp quang trc tip, s dng giao din kt ni Ethernet cng 1Gbps hoc
10Gbps.














Hnh 4.36: Cu hnh MAN E
m bo mng hot ng c n nh cao, kt ni t mng MAN E ti mng
trc IP/MPLS NGN s thng qua 2 thit b core CES ca mng MAN E ( d phng v
phn ti lu lng), kt ni nh sau:
Ti tnh, thnh ph c chc nng BRAS v PE tch hp trn cng mt thit
b th mi thit b core CES s kt ni ti BRAS/PE
Ti tnh, thnh ph c chc nng BRAS v PE c tch ring th thit b
core CES s c 2 kt ni s dng giao din Ethernet, trong mt kt
ni ti BRAS ( cung cp dch v truy nhp Internet tc cao), mt kt
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
179
ni ti PE ( cung cp cc dch v khc, nh: thoi, multi media (VoD,
IP/TV, IP conferencing))
Lp truy nhp MAN E (access):
Bao gm cc CES lp t ti cc trm Vin thng, kt ni vi nhau v kt ni ti
ring core bng mt i cp quang trc tip. Ty theo iu kin, lp truy nhp c th s
dng kt ni dng hnh sao, ring (trong mt ring ti a t 4 - 6 thit b CES), hoc u ni
tip nhau (ti a u ni tip t 4 - 6 thit b CES), v tr lp t cc CES truy nhp
thng t ti cc im thun tin cho vic thu gom truyn dn kt ni n cc thit b
truy nhp (nh MSAN/IP-DSLAM,)
Cc thit b truy nhp (MSAN, IP DSLAM) dng giao din Ethernet (FE/GE) s
c kt ni n cc thit b mng truy nhp MAN E (CES) chuyn ti lu lng
trong tnh, thnh ph v chuyn lu lng ln lp trn.
Thit b MAN c th cung cp cc kt ni FE/GE trc tip ti khch hng.
S dng thit b MSAN + cp quang nhm rt ngn khong cch cp ng dng
cho cc khu vc c nhu cu cung cp dch v thoi, kt hp cc dch v bng rng. Trong
trng hp cung cp dch v thoi s kt ni vi cc tng i Host hin c bng giao din
V5.2
V truyn dn :
Thit b lp trc kt ni vi nhau s dng mt i si quang trc tip.
i vi thit b lp truy nhp:
Nu ti c trang b h thng truyn dn NG-SDH th cc thit b
MSAN/IP-DSLAM s kt ni trc tip n h thng NG-SDH ny v s
dng nng lc mng truyn dn NG-SDH c trang b chuyn ti
lu lng gia mng IP/MPLS backbone vi cc thit b truy nhp
MSAN/IP-DSLAM.
Trong trng hp dng ht nng lc mng truyn dn NG-SDH c
trang b hoc ti cha trang b h thng NG-SDH th s trang b mng
truy nhp MAN E v cc thit b mng MAN E (gi l CES) c kt ni
vi nhau bng i si quang trc tip.
Trong mng MAN E:
Vi dung lng yu cu t 2 kt ni 10Gbps tr ln th cc thit b CES ny s kt
ni vi nhau qua thit b truyn dn C/DWDM ghp bc sng.
Vi dung lng yu cu t 2 kt ni 1Gbps tr ln s dng kt ni 10Gbps gia
cc thit b .

Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
180
4.4.4.3 Tnh ton dung lng u vo
Da trn nhu cu d bo dung lng cng POTS, ADSL2+, SHDSL, VDSL2,
Ethernet (thu bao s dng kt ni Ethernet ch yu phc v cho cc vng trung tm tnh,
huyn, th x v c nhu cu dch v bng rngdung lng u vo cho thit k MAN
c thc hin nh sau:
Dung lng Thoi
S lng kt ni ng thi: CC = 10%
S % thu bao s dng dch v thoi codec G.711: a1 = 80%
S % thu bao s dng dch v thoi codec G.729: a2 = 20%
Dung lng bng thng dng cho dch v thoi vi codec l G.711 (64kbps)
A1 = a1 x POTS port x CC x 126 (kbps) (4.37)
Dung lng bng thng dng cho dch v thoi vi codec l G.729 (8kbps)
A2 = a2 x POTS port x % CC x 39 (kbps) (4.38)
Tng dung lng thoi:
A = A1 + A2 = [CC x (a1 x 126 + a2 x 39) / 1024 ] x POTS (4.39)
= a x POTS (Mbps)
Trong :
a = CC x (a1 x 126 + a2 x 39) / 1024 (4.40)
Dung lng Internet
S dng kt ni ADSL 2+ v SHDSL:
i vi khch hng Residential:
S lng kt ni ng thi chim bng thng truy nhp Internet: CC1 = 20%
T l thu bao l Residential: URr = 90%
Bng thng trung bnh cho truy nhp: bw1 = 100 (Kbps)
Dung lng internet s dng kt ni ADSL2+ v SHDSL cho khch hng Residential:
B1 = CC1 x URr x bw1/1024 x (ADSL 2+ port + SHDSL port) (4.41)
= b1 x DSL port (Mbps)
Trong :
b1 = CC1 x URr x bw1/1024
DSL port= ADSL 2+ port + SHDSL port
i vi khch hng Bussiness:
S lng kt ni ng thi chim bng thng truy nhp Internet: CC2 = 70%
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
181
T l thu bao l Business: URb = 10%
Bng thng trung bnh cho truy nhp: bw2 = 2048 (Kbps)
Dung lng internet s dng kt ni ADSL2+ v SHDSL cho khch hng Bussiness:
B2 = CC2 x URb x bw2/1024 x (ADSL 2+ port + SHDSL port) (4.42)
= b2 x DSL port (Mbps)
Trong :
b2 = CC2 x URb x bw2/1024
DSL port= ADSL 2+ port + SHDSL port
Dung lng internet s dng kt ni ADSL2+ v SHDSL:
B1= B1+B2 (4.43)
= (b1+b2) x DSL port (Mbps)
S dng kt ni Ethernet
S lng kt ni ng thi chim bng thng truy nhp Internet: CC3 = 80%
Bng thng trung bnh cho truy nhp: bw3 = 2048 (Kbps)
Dung lng internet s dng kt ni Ethernet:
B3 = CC3 x bw3/1024 x Ethernet port (4.44)
= b3 x Ethernet port (Mbps)
Trong :
b3= CC3 x bw3/1024
S dng kt ni VDSL2
S lng kt ni ng thi chim bng thng truy nhp Internet: CC4 = 80%
Bng thng trung bnh cho truy nhp: bw4 = 2048 (Kbps)
Dung lng internet s dng kt ni VDSL2:
B4 = CC4 x bw4/1024 x VDSL2 port (4.45)
= b4 x VDSL2 port (Mbps)
Trong :
b4= CC4 x bw4/1024
Nh vy, tng bng thng dch v Internet:
B = B1+ B3+ B4 (Mbps) (4.46)
Dung lng dch v VPN
S dng kt ni ADSL 2+
Bng thng trung bnh cho dch v ADSL2+ VPN: cw1= 640 (Kbps)
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
182
T l thu bao ADSL2+ s dng dch v VPN: URa= 1%
T l chim bng thng ng thi: 70%
Dung lng dch v VPN s dng kt ni ADSL2+ l:
C1= cw1/1024 x URa x ADSL 2+ port x 70% (4.47)
= c1 x ADSL 2+ port x 70%
Trong :
c1 = cw1/1024 x URa
S dng kt ni SHDSL
Bng thng trung bnh cho dch v SHDSL VPN : cw2= 1024 (Kbps)
T l chim bng thng ng thi l 70%
Dung lng dch v VPN s dng kt ni SHDSL l:
C2= c2 x SHDSL port x 70% (4.48)
Trong :
c2= cw2/1024
S dng kt ni Ethernet
Bng thng trung bnh cho dch v Ethernet VPN: cw3= 5 (Mbps)
T l chim bng thng ng thi l 70%
Dung lng dch v VPN s dng kt ni Ethernet l:
C3= c3 x Ethernet port x 70% (4.49)
Trong :
c3= cw3
S dng kt ni VDSL2
Bng thng trung bnh cho dch v VDSL2 VPN: cw4= 2 (Mbps)
Dung lng dch v VPN s dng kt ni VDSL2 l:
C4= c4 x VDSL2 port (4.50)
Trong :
c4= cw4
Nh vy tng bng thng dch v VPN :
C = C1 + C2 + C3 + C4 (Mbps) (4.51)
Dung lng dch v VoD
S dng kt ni ADSL 2+
S % thu bao s dng dch v VoD: Su1 = 5%
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
183
Bng thng trung bnh cho dch v VoD: dw1= 2048 (kbps)
% thu bao chim bng thng : URv1= 10%
Dung lng dch v VoD s dng kt ni ADSL2+ l:
D1= Su1 x dw1/1024 x URv1 x ADSL 2+ port (4.52)
= d1 x ADSL 2+ port
Trong :
d1 = Su1 x dw1/1024 x URv1
S dng kt ni VDSL2
S % thu bao s dng dch v VoD: Su2 = 50%
Bng thng trung bnh cho dch v VoD: dw2= 2048 (Kbps)
% thu bao chim bng thng : URv2= 10%
Dung lng dch v VoD s dng kt ni VDSL2 l:
D2= Su2 x dw2/1024 x URv2 x VDSL2 port (4.53)
= d2 x VDSL 2 port
Trong :
d2 = Su2 x dw2/1024 x URv2
Nh vy, tng bng thng s dng dch v VoD :
D = D1 + D2 (Mbps) (4.54)
Dung lng dch v IP/TV
Tng knh ca dch v IP/TV : Ch= 100
Bng thng trung bnh cho 1 knh: ew1= 2048 (Kbps)
Bng thng s dng dch v IP/TV:
E= ew1/1024 x Ch (4.55)
4.4.4.4 Tnh ton kch c mng MAN
Vi nhng tham s du vo c xc nh nh trong phn trn, chi tit v tnh ton
nng lc mng thc hin nh sau:
Tng dung lng thu bao trn thit b CES
CS = (A + B + C + D + E) (Mbps) (4.56)
Tng bng thng ca mt Ring Access
R = CSi (4.57)
Trong :
CSi l dung lng cc node thuc cng mt Ring Access (Khng k node Core)
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
184
+ Yu cu bng thng thc t ca mt Ring Access:
RT= R x 100/70 (Mbps) (4.58)
+ Yu cu bng thng thc t ca mt Node Core:
RT
NodeCore
= CS
(NodeCore)
x 100/70 (4.59)
Bng thng yu cu ti Ring core
RC = RTj (4.60)
Trong , ton b phn lu lng ca NodeCore u ni ln NGN trc v ton b
phn lu lng Internet ca Ring Access cha node core .















Hnh 4.37 : Tham s u vo tnh ton kch c mng MAN
RTj bao gm c cc ring Access v cc Node Core
Yu cu v kh nng chuyn mch ca thit b Carrier Ethernet Switch
+ i vi Node Core:
- Node Core m c kt ni trc tip ln mng NGN trc:
S = RTj x 6 (4.61)
F = S/(8*64) (4.62)
- Node Core khng c kt ni trc tip ln mng NGN trc:
S = RC x 6 (4.63)
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
185
F = S/(8*64) (4.64)
+ Cc Node khng thuc Core:
S = RT * 6 (4.65)
F = S/(8*64) (4.66)
+ Dung lng kt ni lin tnh:
20% lu lng thoi
VPN ton b lu lng cn li.

4.4.5 Thit k mng quang FTTx
Yu cu t ra cho vic thit lp mng FTTx l m bo c cc yu t nh d
dng qun l, vn hnh, khai thc, vic tnh ton s lng si quang phi m bo nhu
cu ti mt mc thi gian nh, d dng m rng v m bo hiu qu u t. Nu nh
p ng c y cc yu t trn th coi nh vic thit k mng thnh cng. Phn xy
dng mng FTTx ht sc quan trng v n s nh hng rt ln n u t v 70% s tin
u t xy dng mng FTTx nm phn mng truy nhp.

4.4.5.1 Kch bn v m hnh trin khai
Da trn cc yu t v cc thng tin thc t nh m hnh dn c, ta nh, phn b
thu bao, hin trng mng ... c 04 kch bn v 11 m hnh mu nh sau, v c th la
chn trin khai cho mi mt khu vc:

Bng 4.10: Cc m hnh v kch bn
M hnh 1: yu cu bng thng <10M, trin khai theo m hnh FTTC, s
dng cc IPDSLAM hin ti hoc MDU-Fix t ti ta nh khch hng.
Nng lc thit b truy nhp c th p ng 30% - 50% s h.
M hnh 2: yu cu bng thng t 11M n 20M s dng dch v Triple
Play, trin khai cc cng FE quang trn IPDSLAM hoc MDU-Module
t ti nh trm theo m hnh FTTC.
Kch bn 1:
Vi khu
dn c mi
M hnh 3: Khch hng l cc vn phng hoc h dn c cao cp yu
cu y cc dch v vi bng thng yu cu > 20M th trin khai m
hnh FTTH.
Kch bn 2:
M hnh 4: Vi cc khu Building dng FTTB + LAN, truy nhp bi cc
enterprise gateway.
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
186
Cc tuyn
ph chnh
mi
M hnh 5: Cc khch hng vi yu cu bng thng ln (>40M), truy
nhp trc tip FTTH
M hnh 6: Ta nh trin khai sn cp CAT-5, trin khai m hnh
FTTB+LAN, s dng thit b truy nhp MDU-Module.
M hnh 7: Ta nh ch c i cp ng, trin khai m hnh
FTTB+IPDSLAM/MSAN, cung cp dch v VDSL2, ADSL2+, POTS.
M hnh 8: Khch hng ri rc c th tham kho m hnh 7, hoc trin
khai cc MxU bn trong cc t cp hin c theo m hnh FTTC cung
cp dch v VDSL2, ADSL2+.
Kch bn 3:
Thay th
cp ng
cc khu
th
M hnh 9: i vi khch hng khong cch xa, c th s dng m
hnh FTTC vi MDU-Compact.
Kch bn 4
Thay th
cp ng
cc vng
nng thn
M hnh 10: s dng m hnh FTTC


4.4.5.2 La chn cng ngh
Vic la chn cng ngh da vo cc yu t sau:
La chn s dng cng ngh theo tng CES:
Nu mt thu bao thp (<200 u cui quang) th chi ph u t cho 1 thu
bao s dng cng ngh GPON s cao hn so vi AON, do vy nn s dng
cng ngh AON.
Nu mt thu bao cao (>=200 u cui quang) th u tin s dng cng
ngh GPON.
Trong trng hp xc nh la chn GPON th vn c th trin khai AON
vi cc trng hp sau:
+ Giai on u khi cha u t GPON.
+ i vi cc tuyn c khong cch > 14km
+ i vi cc khch hng c nhu cu bng thng >50M
Kh nng lp t: Vic la chn cng ngh cn ph thuc vo kh nng lp t
thit b ti im , thng thng mt s im khng th t c switch bi
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
187
khng p ng c ngun, khng gian v cc iu kin ti thiu khc th bt buc
phi dng GPON.
Kh nng phn chia: Thit b GPON c th chia ti a 1:64 u cui quang cn
i vi thit b AON th Sw thng thng cung cp 24 cng.
Khong cch phc v: i vi h thng GPON th khong cch phc v ti a trn
l thuyt l 20km (thc t dng thng l t c 70% x 20km) ngc li i vi
cng ngh AON th c th ln ti hn 70km (thc t dng thng l t c 70%
x 70km).
4.4.5.3 Nguyn tc thit k mng FTTx
Vic thit k mng FTTx phi p ng c cc nguyn tc sau:
Cp cn dng 3 nm na th cha trin khai trong giai on ny, u tin
trin khai lp t nhng tuyn cha c hoc khng cn cp d.
m bo mng cp quang khi u t phi c kh nng p ng c nhu
cu cho 10 nm i vi on cp gc v cp nhnh, ring vi cp thu bao s
trin khai theo nhu cu thc t.
S dng si cp cn d pht trin thu bao FTTx trong giai on qu
hin nay.
Khi cha c thit b v ti nhng ni c sn cp quang th trin khai kt ni
trc tip P2P t trung tm ti khch hng
nh hng cng ngh s dng
4.4.5.4 Tnh ton lng cp
Nh trnh by trn, vic u t cp quang gc v nhnh phi m bo kh nng
cung cp dch v trong thi gian 10 nm. Phng php tnh ton c th dung lng cp
cho tng on s tun theo cc cng thc sau:
OLT/SW L2
C

p
g

c
c

p
1
C

p
g

c
c

p
2
Cp
nhnh
T phi quang
Outdoor
ODF/mang xng
Trm v
tinh RSU
Cp thu bao
Cp nhnh
AP
Cp thu bao
Cp gc cp 2 Cp nhnh
Cp thu bao
Cp thu bao
AP
CES
ODF
FDC
Cp gc cp 2
C
p
nh
nh
FDC
SW L2/Splitter
SW L2/Splitter SW L2/Splitter
SW L2/Splitter
SW L2/Splitter

Hnh 4.38: M hnh mng FTTx cn thit k
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
188
Cp nhnh (N):
Xc nh v khoanh vng phc v ca tng im AP theo s phn b khch hng
ca tng khu vc.
Thng k s lng thu bao thoi (POTS) hin ti c trong tng AP.
Tng s si cn dng cho tng tuyn cp nhnh c tnh:
- Vi nhng tuyn dng cng ngh GPON:
X
POTS POTS
N + +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

3 7 . 0 3 . 1 % 90
128
% 10
64
(4.67)
- Vi nhng tuyn dng cng ngh AON:
X
POTS POTS
N + +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

3 7 . 0 3 . 1 % 90
48
% 10
24
2 (4.68)
Trong :
POTS l tng s thu bao thoi hin ti trong vng phc v ca AP.
POTS/64 x 10% th hin 10% thu bao thoi trong 10 nm ti s chuyn
thnh thu bao FTTH (s dng cng ngh GPON).
POTS/24 x 10% th hin 10% thu bao thoi trong 10 nm ti s chuyn
thnh thu bao FTTH (s dng cng ngh AON).
POTS/128 x 90% th hin 90% thu bao thoi trong 10 nm ti s chuyn
thnh thu bao FTTB/C (s dng cng ngh GPON).
POTS/48 x 90% th hin 90% thu bao thoi trong 10 nm ti s chuyn
thnh thu bao FTTB/C (s dng cng ngh AON).
1.3 th hin thu bao thoi trong 10 nm ti s tng 30%
0.7 v 30% thu bao s ch s dng bng thng <2M trn c s h thng
mng hin ti.
+ 3 si 1 dnh cho o kim, 2 dnh cho d phng.
X l s si cn dng cho nhu cu ca VNPT (kt ni mng 3G..)
Chun ha dung lng cp nhnh s u t: Sau khi tnh ton s lng si cn
dng cho tng tuyn cp nhnh (N), thc hin vic ti u tng tuyn cp nhnh
theo bng sau:
Bng 4.11: Dung lng cp nhnh cn u t
Kt qu tnh ton N = <=12 1324 >24
Dung lng cp nhnh u t 12FO 24FO 48FO
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
189
Tnh ton cp gc cp 2: (G2)
S si cn dng cho tuyn cp gc cp 2 theo cng thc sau:
3 2
1
=

m N G
m
i
+1 (4.69)
Trong :
G2 l s lng si cn dng tng tuyn cp gc cp 2
Ni l s lng si tnh trc khi ti u ca tuyn cp nhnh th i
+ 1 si dnh cho o kim.
m l s lng tuyn cp nhnh ca tuyn cp gc cp 2
Chun ha dung lng cp gc cp 2 s u t: thc hin vic ti u tng tuyn
cp gc cp 2 theo bng sau:
Bng 4.12: Dung lng cp gc cp 2 cn u t
Kt qu tnh ton <=12 <=24 2548 >48
Dung lng cp u t 12FO 24FO 48FO 96FO
Tnh ton cp gc cp 1: (G1)
S si cn dng cho tuyn cp gc cp 1 theo cng thc sau:
1 2 / ) 1 2 ( 1
1
+ =

n j G G
n
(4.70)
Trong :
G1 l s lng si cn dng tng tuyn cp gc cp 1
G2j l s lng si trc khi ti u ca tuyn cp gc cp 2 th j
+ 1 si dnh cho o kim.
n l s lng tuyn cp gc cp 2 ca tuyn cp gc cp 1
Chun ha dung lng cp gc cp 1 s u t: thc hin vic ti u tng tuyn
cp gc cp 1 theo bng sau:
Bng 4.13: Dung lng cp gc cp 1 cn u t
Kt qu tnh ton G1= <=48 4996 >96
Dung lng cp gc cp 2 u t 48FO 96FO cn nhc cc
trng hp sau
Tuyn cp gc cp 1 thng l tuyn nhp i, cng b rng, d dng trin khai
ko mi khi cn thit do vy nu s lng si quang sau khi tnh ton >96 th c
th cn nhc cc trng hp sau:
Bi ging: Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Chng 4: Thit k mng truy nhp
Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng
190
- Trin khai trc 1 si 96 FO trong giai on u, khi no c nhu cu th ko
thm 1 si.
- Ko 1 si 144 FO trong trng hp cc CES tp trung nhiu thu bao ti 1 s
im ti thnh ph ln.

Kt lun chng:
Trong chng ny, phn u gii thiu v phng php v nhng cn nhc cn
thit trong vic la chn cng ngh truy nhp. Cng ngh mng truy nhp c nhng
bc pht trin mnh m trong nhng nm gn y. Vic la chn 1 cng ngh truy nhp
p dng trong 1 trng hp c th cn cn nhc n cc yu t v c im ca cc h
thng truy nhp, chi ph, dch v, s pht trin ca cng ngh v cc yu t v phm vi
ng dng. Trong nhng yu t ny, yu t gi thnh l mt yu t quan trng. Trong phn
ny, phng php xc nh phm vi ti u ng dng cc cng ngh c xy dng v v
d. Phn tip theo phn tch nhng yu cu cn t ra trong vic thit k mng truy nhp
v xut phng php thit k cho mt vi loi hnh mng truy nhp vi tng bc thc
hin vi mc ch c th tm c gii php gn ti u cho mng truy nhp cn c thit
k vi iu kin phi s dng li c ton b h thng mng hin c v thit k ph hp
vi thc t v cng ngh truy nhp cng nh cc iu kin a l trn a bn.
Bi ging:Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Thut ng vit tt
191
THUT NG VIT TT

T VIT TT NGHA TING ANH NGHA TING VIT
A
AAA Authentication, authorization and Account Nhn thc, cp php v lp ti khon
ADPCM Adaptive Differential PCM PCM khc bit tng thch
ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subcriber Line ng dy thu bao s bt i xng
AM Amplitude Modulation iu bin
ANSI American National Standards Institute Vin tiu chun M
AOC Knh mo u
AON Active Optical Network Mng quang tch cc
AP Access Point im truy nhp
API Aplication Programming Interface Giao din lp trnh ng dng
APON ATM Passive Optical Network Mng quang th ng s dng ATM
ASN Access Service Network Mng dch v truy nhp
ATM Asynchronuos Transfer Mode Phng thc chuyn giao khng ng b
ATP Access Termination Point im tham chiu kt cui truy nhp
ATU-C ADSL Transceiver Unit, central office end Kt cui ADSL pha nh cung cp
ATU-R
ADSL Transceiver Unit, remote terminal
end
Kt cui ADSL u xa
AWG American Wire Gauge nh c dy theo tiu chun M
B
BER Bit Error Ratio T s tn hiu trn nhiu
BPSK Binary Phase shift Keying Kha dch pha nh phn
B-RAS BroadBand Remote Access Server My ch truy nhp bng rng t xa
BS Base Station Trm gc
BSS Base Service Set Trm c bn
BWA Broadband Wireless Access Truy nhp khng dy bng rng
C
CAP
Carrierless Amplitude and Phase
modulation
iu ch pha bin khng sng mang
CATV Community Antenna Television Truyn hnh qung b cng ng
CBR Constant Bit Rate Tc bit khng i
CCITT
Bi ging:Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Thut ng vit tt
192
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access a truy nhp phn chia theo m
CFR Code of Federal Regulations Quy lut m ha lin bang
CM Cable Modem Modem cp
CMTS Cable Modem Terminater System H thng kt cui modem cp
CO Central Office Trung tm nh cung cp dch v
CPE Customer Premises Equipment Thit b truyn thng khch hng
CPS Common Part Sublayer Lp con phn chung
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check Kim tra vng thng d
CS Convergence Sublayer Lp con hi t
CSS Concentrator Stage Switch Chuyn mch tp trung
CSMA Carrier Sense Multiple Access a truy nhp cm nhn sng mang
CSMA/BA Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Bitwise
Arbitration
a Truy nhp cm nhn sng mang/BA
CSMA/CA Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision
Avoidance
a truy nhp cm nhn sng mang trnh
xung t
CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access/ Collision
Detection
a truy nhp d on sng mang pht
hin xung t
CSN Connection Service Network Mng dch v kt ni
CT Central Office Terminal Khi giao tip pha tng i
CTNV Cng Trnh Ngoi Vi
D
DAMA Demand Assigned Multiple Access a truy nhp n nh theo nhu cu
DCF Distributed Control Function Chc nng iu khin phn tn
DES Data Encryption Standard Chun mt m ha d liu
DFS Dynamic Frequency Selecton La chn tn s ng
DFT Discrete Fourier Transform Bin i Fourier ri rc
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Giao thc cu hnh Host ng
DL Downlink ng xung
DLC Digital Line Carrier B cung cp mch vng thu bao s
DMT Discrete Multi-Tone Modulation iu ch a tn ri rc
DSC Dynamic Services Change Chuyn i cc dch v ng
DSL Digital Subscriber Line ng dy thu bao s
DSLAM DSL Access Module Khi truy nhp DSL
DWDM Density Wavelength Division Multiplexing Ghp knh theo bc sng mt cao
E
EAP Extensible Authentication Protocol Giao thc nhn thc m rng
EC Echo Cancellation Trit ting vng
EDCA Enhanced Distributed Control Access Truy nhp iu khin phn tn nng cao
Bi ging:Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Thut ng vit tt
193
EDGE Enhanced Data Rates Cc tc d liu c nng cp
EF Entrance Facility Phng tin u vo
EIA Electronic Industries Alliance Lin minh cng nghip in
ETSI
European Telecommunications Standards
Institute
Vin cc chun vin thng Chu u
EV-DO Enhanced Version- Data Only Dnh cho d liu-phin bn nng cao
F
FCC Federal Communications Commission Lin minh vin thng lin bang
FDD Frequency Division Duplexing Song cng phn chia theo tn s
FDDI Fiber distributed data interface Giao din phn phi d liu quang
FDM Frequence Division Mutiplexing Ghp knh phn chia theo tn s
FDMA Frequence Division Mulitple Access a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s
FEC Forward Error Correction Sa li trc
FEXT Far-End Crosstalk Xuyn m u xa
FFT Fast Fourier Transform Bin i Fourier nhanh
FN Fiber Node Nt quang
FM Frequency modulation iu tn
FSAN Full Service Access Network
T chc iu hnh mng truy nhp dch
vu y
FSK
FTP File Transfer Protocol Giao thc truyn tp tin
FTTC/B Fiber To The Curb/Building Cp quang ti khu vc/cao c
FTTCab Fiber To The Cabinet Cp quang n t phn phi
FTTEx Fiber To The Exchange Cp quang ti tng i
FTTH Fiber To The Home Cp quang ti nh
G
GFP Generic Framing Procedure Th tc nh khung chung
GPRS Generalized Packet Radio Service Dch v v tuyn gi chung
GSM

Global System For Mobile Communicatons
H thng ton cu cho truyn
thng di ng
H
HDSL/HDSL 2 High data rate DSL ng dy thu bao s tc cao
HE Headend H thng trung tm
Bi ging:Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Thut ng vit tt
194
HFC Hybrid Fiber Coaxial Mng lai cp quang cp ng trc
HMAC Hash Message Authentication Code M xc thc bn tin li c s
HPF High Pass Filter B lc thng cao
I

IAD Intergrated Access Device Thit b truy nhp tch hp
IBM International Business Machines Tp on my tnh a quc gia
IDC Insulation Displacement Connector B kt ni cch li
IDF Intermediate Distribution Frame Khung phn b trung gian
IDFT Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform
Bin i ngc Fourier ri rc
IDLC Intergrated DLC DLC tch hp
IDMA Interleave Division Multiple Access a truy nhp phn chia theo an xen
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronic
Engineers
Vin cc k s in v in t
IFFT Inverse Fast Fourier Transform
Bin i fourier ngc nhanh
IMT International Mobile Telecommunications Vin thng di ng quc t
IN Intelligence Network
Mng thng minh
IP Internet Protocol
Giao thc Internet
IPTV Internet Protocol Television
Truyn hnh IP
ISDN Intergrated Service Digital Network Mng s tch hp a dch v
ISI Inter-Symbol Interference Nhiu gia cc Symbol
ISP Internet Service Provider Nh cung cp dch v Internet
L
LAN Local Area Network Mng vng cc b
LC Line Concentrator B tp trung ng dy
LDF Line Distribution Frame Gi phi dy quang
LDPC Low Density Parity Coding M kim tra chn l mt thp
LE Local Exchange Tng i ni ht
LIU Line Interface Unit B giao tip ng dy pha tng i
LOS Line Of Sight Tm nhn thng
LPF Low Pass Filter
B lc thng thp
M
MAC Medium Access Control iu khin truy nhp mi trng
MAN Metropolitan Area Network Mng th
MD5 Message Digest 5 Thut ton phn loi bn tin 5
MDF Main Distribution Frame Gi phi dy chnh
MIMO Multiple Input Multiple Output Nhiu u vo nhiu u ra
Bi ging:Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Thut ng vit tt
195
MIP Mobile Internet Protocol Giao thc Internet di ng
MISO Multiple Input Single Output Nhiu u vo mt u ra
MPLS Multi Protocol Label Switching Chuyn mch nhn a giao thc
MS Mobile Station Trm di ng
N
NAP Network Access Provider Nh cung cp dch v truy nhp mng
NEC National Electrical Code M in t quc gia
NEXT Near-End Crosstalk Xuyn m u gn
NGN Next Generation Network Mng th h sau
NID Network Interface Device Thit b giao din mng
NLOS Non Line Of Sight Khng tm nhn thng
NTE Network Termination Equipment
Thit b u cui mng
O
O/E Optical/ electrical B chuyn i quang/ in
ODN Optical distribution network Mng phn phi quang
OFDM
Orthogonal Frequence Division
Multiplexing
Ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc
giao
OFDMA
Orthogonal Frequence Division Multiple
Access
a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s trc
giao
OLT Optical Line Terminal
u cui quang
ONU Optical Network Unit
n v mng quang
OSP Outside Cable Plan Cng trnh cp ngoi vi
P
PAN Personal Area Network Mng c nhn
PCM Pulse Code Modulation iu ch xung m
PDA Personal Digital Assistant Thit b s h tr c nhn
PDU Protocol Data Unit n v d liu giao thc
PKM Privacy Key Management Qun l kha bo mt
PLC Power Line Communication Truyn thng trn ng dy in
PLMN Public Land Mobile Network Mng di ng mt t cng cng
PMD Physical Medium Dependent
Mi trng vt l ph thuc
PMP Point to Multipoint im-a im
PMS Physical Medium Specific c tnh mi trng vt l
PN Pseudo Noise Gi tp m
PON Passive Optical Network Mng quang th ng
Bi ging:Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Thut ng vit tt
196
POTS Plain Old Teliphone Service Dch v truyn thng
PPP Point to Point Protocol Giao thc im-im
PSD Power Spectral Density Mt ph cng sut
PSTN Public Switch Telephone Network Mng in thoi chuyn mch cng cng
PTP Point to Point im-im
Q
QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation iu ch bin cu phng
QPSK Quadratura Phase Shift Keying Kha chuyn pha cu phng
R
RC4 Redundant Check 4 Kim tra tnh d tha 4
RFI Radio Frequency Interference Nhiu tn s v tuyn
RLC Remote Line Concentrator Tng i phn tn
RS Reed-Solomon M Reed-Solomon
RSA Rivert, Shamir, Aldeman Thut ton RSA
RT Remote Terminal Khi giao tip pha xa
S
SAP Service Access Point im truy nhp dch v
SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Phn cp s cn ng b
SDMA Spatial Division Multiple Access a truy nhp phn chia theo khng gian
SDSL Single pair DSL Cng ngh DSL s dng mt i dy
SHA Secure Hash Algorithm Thut ton ph bo mt
SLC Subscriber Line Circuit Mch ng dy thu bao
SN Service Node Nt dch v
SNI Service Network Interface Giao din nt dch v
SNMP Simple Network Management Protolcol Giao thc qun l mng n gin
SNR Signal to Noise Ratio T s tn hiu trn nhiu
SOHO Small Office Home Office Vn phng gia nh vn phng nh
SONET Synchronous Optical Network Chun truyn dn ng b
SS Subscriber Station Trm thu bao
STA Station Trm thu pht
STB Set top box Thit b kt cui truyn hnh
STC Space Time Code M khng gian thi gian
STM Synchronuos Transfer Mode Kiu chuyn giao ng b
T
TC Transmission Convergence Lp hi t truyn dn
TDD Time Division Duplex Song cng phn chia theo thi gian
Bi ging:Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Thut ng vit tt
197
TDM Time Division Multiplexing theo thi gian Ghp knh phn chia
TDMA Time Division MultipleAccess a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian
TE Termination Equipment Thit b u cui
TMN
Telecommunication Management
Network
Mng qun l vin thng
TS Time Slot Khe thi gian
U
UDLC Universal DLC DLC ph bin
UMTS
Universal Mobile Telecommunication
System
H thng vin thng di ng ton cu
UNI User Network Interface Giao din ngi s dng mng
V
VLAN Virture LAN Mng LAN o
VNPT VietNam Post and Telecommunication Tp on Bu chnh vin thng VN
VoIP Voice Over IP Thoi qua IP
VTU VDSL Transmission Unit Khi truyn dn VDSL
VTU-O VDSL Transmission Unit CO Khi truyn dn VDSL pha tng i
VTU-R VDSL Transmission Unit Remote Khi truyn dn VDSL pha thu bao xa
W
WAN Wide Area Network Mng din rng
WDM Wavelength Division Multiplexing Ghp knh a bc sng
WEP Wired Equivalent Privacy Bo mt ng lng hu tuyn
Wi-Fi Wireless Fidelity Trung thc v tuyn
Wimax
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave
Access
Chun truy nhp v tuyn Wimax
WLAN Wireless LAN Mng LAN khng dy
WMAN Wireless MAN Mng MAN khng dy
X
xDSL Every kind Digital Subscriber Line H ng dy thu bao s
Bi ging:Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Ti liu tham kho
198
TI LIU THAM KHO
[1]. Richard E.Matick, Transmission lines for Digtal and Communication Networks,
MacGraw-Hill, 1969.
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[3]. Albert A. Azzam,High Speed Cable Modems, McGraw- Hill,1997.
[4]. Gillespie Alex, Access Networks: Technologies and V5 Interfacing, Artech
House,1997.
[5]. Wire, Cable and Fiber Optics for Video and Audio Engineers, McGraw-Hill,1998.
[6]. Albert Azzam v Niel Ransom, Broad band Access Technologies, McGraw-
Hill,1999.
[7]. Dennis. J. Rauschmayer, VDSL/ VDSL Principles, Mac Millan, 1999.
[8]. Philip C. Magnusson, Gerald C. Alexander , and Vijai K. Tripathi, Transmission
Lines and Wave Propagation, 3rd ,2000.
[9]. John A. C. Bingham, ADSL, VDSL and Multicarrier Modulation, 2000.
[10]. Shlomo Ovadia, Broadband Cable TV Access Networks: from technologies to
applications, Prentice Hall, 2001.
[11]. Thomas Starr, Massimo Sorbara, John M. Cioffi, Peter J. Silverman, DSL
Advances, Prentice Hall , 2002.
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ADSL, Ti liu ging dy, Hc vin CNBCVT, thng 4 nm 2003.
[13]. Ashwin Gumaste, Tony Antony, First Mile Access Networks and Enabling
Technologies, Cisco Press, 2004.
[14]. Paul France, Local Access Network Technologies, Institution of Electrical
Engineers , 2004.
[15]. Broadband Powerline Communications Networks, Halid Hrasnica Abdelfatteh
Haidine Ralf Lehnert, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2004.
[16]. Glen Kramer,Ethernet Passive Optical Networks, Mc Graw Hill, 2005.
[17]. David Tse, Pramod Viswanath, Fundamentals of Wireless Communication,
Cambridge University Press, 2005.
[18]. Nguyn Phm Anh Dng, L thuyt tri ph v a truy nhp v tuyn, Nh xut
bn bu in, 9-2006.
[19]. Chinlon Lin, Broadband Optical Access Networks and Fiber-to-the-Home Systems
Technologies and Deployment Strategies, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2006.
Bi ging:Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp Ti liu tham kho
199
[20]. Philip Golden, Herv Dedieu, Krista Jacobsen, Fundamentals of DSL Technology,
Taylor & Francis Group, 2006.
[21]. YangXiao, WiMAX MobileFi Advanced Research and Technology , Dec 2007.
[22]. Cm nng k thut c bn truyn hnh cp, Truyn hnh cp H ni, 2007
[23]. L Duy Khnh, Mng truy nhp, bi ging cho h TTX, Hc vin CNBCVT,
2007
[24]. Hng dn xy dng mng MANE, Tp on Bu chnh Vin thng Vit nam
thng 7/2007.
[25]. Tom Carpenter, Certified Wireless Network Administrator Official Study Guide
4th Edition, McGraw-Hill, 2008.
[26]. Nguyn Vit Hng, Dng Th Thanh T, Mng truy nhp, ti liu ging dy,
Hc vin CNBCVT, thng 12 nm 2008.
[27]. Hng dn xy dng mng FTTx, Tp on Bu chnh Vin thng Vit nam thng
7/2009.