Museum of the science of future Philosophy of evolution, history and life Biology of the brain and psychology of cognitive functions


  1. Science and evolution Philosophy of evolution A different theory of evolution 2. Concept of evolution, life and vital impulse Definition of biological evolution of life Biological evolution Historical and human evolution Theories on the origin of life The logical approach and concept of life Metaphysical definition Freedom of living beings Vitalism and vital impulse systems 3. Criticism of previous evolutionary theories Creationism vs evolution Intelligent Design and  Lamark's theory  Charles Darwin Mendelian genetics Neo Darwinism and  Synthetic Theory 4. Genetics and evolution Evolutionary genetics Objectives of life and evolution of man Guaranty and security Sexual differentiation Efficacy and optimisation - Genotype and phenotype Dominant and recessive genes Internal coherence or compatibility - Evolution of species Genetic variability 5. GTCEL - Definition of the theory of life Evolution of life 6. Scientific theory Research on evolution 7. Computer learning games Esnuka with simulation of evolution 8. Development and evolution 9. Theories of human origin




I. SCIENCE AND EVOLUTION I.1. Philosophy of evolution
The advance of science is marked throughout history by major revolutions produced primarily by the discovery or explanation of natural events, the formulation of theories, and the development of new technologies. Normally these great leaps of science evolution are associated with names such as Aristotle, Pythagoras, Galileo, Newton, etc., but it is important to recognize that, with no disrespect to these geniuses of mankind, their discoveries or theories were also the product of the culture and scientific environment of their times. Likewise, we cannot forget the influence that philosophic tendencies and religions of different civilizations have had and still have on science evolution; on the other hand, many people think that each step taken by science brings human beings closer to such philosophic-religious ideas. Perception, intuition, and logic are the three means used by humans in order to increase their dominion over nature. As we will see, the commonly named scientific method has three main variants based on these three instruments. In this sense, perception and logic are concepts on two extreme ends of the scale while intuition would be in the middle; the latter allowing the formulation of theories that, in some cases, would surpass those which were developed through logic and perception, or a combination of both. To a certain extent, every theory is a combination of the three. The objective of this online book is to present the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life, the product of concerns that we all have to a greater or lesser extent about the fundamental concepts of life and its evolution. Throughout the last few years a set of ideas have started forming that were rather vague and disconnected, yet had a deep meaning and, in some cases, were more poetic than scientific. I have attempted to avoid at all times the use of strictly scientific terms in order to facilitate comprehension without diminishing the precision of the vocabulary used. Undoubtedly, the area of focus has been so large and varied; ranging from elementary particles and energy, to the genetic evolution, sexual differentiation, the human brain, and complex systems that conceptually behave as if they were living


Página 3

use many systems. the cause of changes in genetic information (DNA) and.  In any case. on the other hand. and many others already known. all of the ideas represent at least an element of consideration in the long road of scientific knowledge. it needs to take certain risks in order to assert itself. Overall. as small as creativity may be. a direct development of the Global Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life (GTCEL) has been the Global Cognitive Theory. 31/05/2010 Página 4 . revolutionary scientific aspects. This modern theory of evolution outcomes an assembly of implications that represent. origin. given the complexity of the aspects involved. the form in which these genetics changes are transmitted to descendants. that some of the ideas will unavoidably be erroneous or incorrect. and evolution from various perspectives. The new fundamental development in evolutionary genetics is the idea of the evolution as an internal mechanism of improvement of living beings.Genetics and theories of evolution beings. in my point of view. In particular.   Theory of Evolution     The evolutionary theory GTCEL (General Theory of Conditional Evolution of Life) discusses on the one hand. Its proposals are closer to the theories of Lamarck and Mendel than to the evolutionary theory of Darwin. that transmits information to descendants and that. methods or procedures depending on each case based on its particular conditions. both theories address the central theme of intelligence. its mechanisms.

are fairly concentrated in only one chromosome. 31/05/2010 Página 5 .Genetics and theories of evolution Likewise. It includes the design of new scientific methods and the classification of the stages and steps of the scientific method. The section of related links includes the four online books of the Global Cognitive Theory: The brain and modern computers Intelligence. The last item of the related links is The EDI Study about Evolution and Design of Intelligence. from the realm of sociology as in the case of Darwin ’s theory. development. this theory of evolution presents numerous lines of investigation. and further exploration of a wide subject matter in light of the innovative approaches it contributes. but it works much better in its developmental phase than in its phase of general acceptance. 1939-1967 This statistical study is an empirical research about some considerations of the Global Cognitive Theory related with the brain and evolution. The scientific method works fine in general. intuition and creativity Memory. to the technician nature as in the case of the Theory of Relativity. it seems that the main functions of intelligence. a complete statistical survey on the heritability of intelligence performed on the fieldwork database of the Young Adulthood Study. as the GTCEL states regarding the concept of conditional intelligence. in particular the definition of intelligence. The genetic information with less intellectual potential is the significant one. language and other brain abilities The will. understanding the scientific method in the broad sense as the application of logic to the generation of common knowledge with a high level of reliability. The results of the statistical survey The EDI Study regarding an elegant intelligence show some important considerations: The hereditary nature of relational intelligence is confirmed. There is also a link to the on-line book of the Global Scientific Method and the philosophy of science. decision making process and artificial intelligence Another related link refers to the online book of the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life. or those evolving faster. Likewise. All types of social interests affect the last phase.

In fact. In this section a hypothesis regarding a concrete requisite of the acceptable limit of the difference in intelligence when forming a couple. This section contains the explanation of how the artificial intelligence quotient vectors are generated by using the previsions of the new theory of evolution. they practically behave like the variables that were actually observed. the existence of a finalistic or teleological evolution is scientifically proven to agree with that indicated by the General Theory of Conditional Evolution of Life.   31/05/2010 Página 6 . in despite of the intrinsic complexity involved.Genetics and theories of evolution The most innovative element of this work on cognitive psychology is undoubtedly the section relating to simulation. Given that the current results in this book suggest a fairly radical change from the common opinions held by the majority of the scientific community and society. As if that were not enough. the requirement refers to the unconscious choice of an unknown intelligence for current cognitive psychology. An example of further exploration of this study is found in the section that has been added subsequently. is confirmed and simultaneously reinforces the model's overall coherence. the logical deduction is that more extensive studies on cognitive psychology using the same methodology need to be performed. which is related to partner choice and intelligence. with the due caution this subject deserves.

at least as far as the characteristics of their evolutionary processes are concerned. The title II contains the following sections: The first. A different theory of evolution of life Every theory has a philosophical substratum. the scientific content of this theory does not imply to accept this affirmation. including the experimental theories – even the concept of perception is a usually studied by philosophers. 31/05/2010 Página 7 . I add a few criticisms throughout the book. mainly on the evolutionary theory of Darwin. and the micro and macroevolution. However. While trying to formalize the Global Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life. it is advisable to have both points of view present so as not to mix them and let a different philosophic-religious position affect the acceptance or rejection of the evolutionary theory’s scientific content. Therefore. I had to define life in some way. however. I came across the problem of defining this theory briefly and concisely. which would be those. that behave like living beings. it is clear its philosophical content.Genetics and theories of evolution   I. this duality is more openly apparent. In title III. I insist that they are independent subjects. The broad concept of life based on strictly philosophical content. an initial critique of the sections is included. In the formulation of this theory. In a theory directly related to the concept of life. The definition of the different evolutionary theory has helped me a lot with its development and perfection as if it were the key to solving a puzzle. The problems derived from the said duality and the double meaning of the concept of evolution has led to the dedication of title II to this concept’s terminological delimitation and a brief exposition of the concept of life from the philosophical point of view. it did not know microevolution on Cellular Biology and it practically omits the existence of short-term evolution in superior animals.2. Therefore. relating to the concept of evolution makes special reference to its temporal and spatial perspectives: long term and short-term evolution. It is worth indicating at this point that the Darwinian theory of evolution alters this concept in that. and then the general idea of life emerged: “The fundamental characteristic of life is freedom”. Lastly. the vital impulse systems. however.

Genetics and theories of evolution

since it is generally accepted nowadays although it depends on which context is being referred to. It appears that Darwin theory of evolution is losing momentum in the science world in view of the advances in Evolutionary Biology and Genetics. New ideas about the evolution of life are in title IV, divided into four major sections. The first introduces a general description of the title, the second deals with evolution through the use of a logical argumentation whose scientific contrasting are considered plausible, the third on the sources or origins of genetic modifications, and the last relating to the means, methods, processes, and mechanisms through which they materialize.

Iguana - Cancun


Specifically, the ideas of the new theory of evolution or Evolutionary Biologyorbit around the objectives of evolution such as the direct cause of changes in genetic information and the way in which these changes are passed on to descendants. The new proposals are conceptually closer to Lamarck and Mendel’s theories of evolution than to Darwin ’s theory of evolution. The proposals of the different theory of evolution GTCEL explain the functionality of the sexual differentiation and they allow a greater precision in the definition of the concepts of dominant and recessive genes in the fields of Evolutionary Biology and Genetics. Another practical implication is the very possible non-existence of the missing link in the human evolution, since the evolutionary jumps are one of the methods present in nature and, normally, they are the result of two or more evolutionary branches. There is also an explanatory example of the verification method of the genetic information within car's evolution, which nature uses. This title mainly refers to the theory of evolution of life in the common field of Genetics, searching for the origins or immediate causes of the modifications of


Página 8

Genetics and theories of evolution

genetic information that pass on to descendants according to the logical objectives that every evolutionary system should have. Although analogies with the vital impulse systems will be included, it will be mainly for exposition purposes. Next, title V focuses on the concept and definition of the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life, incorporating its formulation as concisely as possible while conserving its essence. A few brief conclusions derived from the definition of the evolutionary theory are included in the third point of this title and, in fact, are part of the conceptual body of the theory. The next step would be the empirical verification, or theoretical proof. Title VI discusses the difficulty of proving the theory while proving the relative easiness of verifying its partial aspects. Hence, a completely developed mathematical-statistical model of evolution of intelligence was put forth in order to test the method of Verification of the Genetic Information (VGI) in terms presented in title IV, based on the hypothesis of the heritability of intelligence. The results of the EDI statistical study confirm the alternative theory of evolution and are in another book online. Likewise, I mention other specific models that could also withstand an empirical contrasting. Title VII briefly describes the Esnuka program designed to allow the assimilation of this theory’s proposals by introducing them through a computer-simulation on thebilliards game. The validation of the purely scientific aspects of the theory would have enormous consequences for the development of Biology and Genetics by providing these sciences with a coherently theoretical base, especially for the advances already made. This would also give off major consequences for other branches of knowledge such as psychology and history. Some of these consequences are in title VIII. There is a double purpose of this title; on one hand, the mentioned exposition of the consequences of the Global Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life, and on the other, to help its acceptance as much as it allows a better understanding of the social reality in which we live and of its historic evolution. It is curious that one can talk of a scientific globalization process in the twenty-first century. A brief exposition of these theories on evolution is in the Annex.


Página 9

Genetics and theories of evolution


All of the biology news appeared in the newspaper El País on the indicated date and they are, to a certain extent, about current topics. In case the biology news relate to an article in an international magazine, it appears following the date. The science and biology news are not part of the text in the sense that are independent. Nonetheless, I have tried to fit them contextually in anyway possible. I attempt to offer a vision of what, how and when some advances of scientific knowledge produced reaches the public in general. It is worth pointing out that I am not necessarily or wholly in agreement with them, and that, on another hand, at times the most important is not the content of the news but rather the form, the time, the origin, the effect, etc. At the same time, to point out that this biology news set does not try to be a summary of the most important biology news in the subject matter during the last ten years. What's more, I chose them for attracting my attention but, in general, numerous articles are contradictory to the presented ones, especially in those of opinion or of interpretation. In short, what I try with this group of biology news is to express how the general culture is changing in respects to the central topic that we are dealing with: the biological evolution. Of course, also to point out the coincidences with the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life and that I had completely developed the basic lines of this modern theory and published them in October of 1992. Deserving special mention, due to the important psychological support that they have given me, is the published article in a special supplementary edition in the newspaper El Pais 26.11.1992 by Eric. H. Davidson (a) (author of the term intelligent genes!) about the classic concept of parasoite from a copycat gene. Another article from 02-10-2002 in relation to the National Conference of Ethology (h) that, in general terms, presents an evolutionist model or a vision of life similar to that of the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life, or at least, of a similar inspiration.


Página 10

but not because of his/her race (c) Human or a chimpanzee Oldest fossils Microbes that live without carbon The simplest way of life Democratic behavior Justice. the primates Living systems (a) Choose the gender of calves The Spanish mountain cats (b) Human Y chromosome (g) Horizontal transference (i) Eucaryotes Evolutionary discoveries (a) Human genome and genetic functions Genome of rice (e) Men suffer more genetic mutations The evolutionary progress Backup copy The genes of animals (e) Preferencias olfativas (d) Hitch-hikers Regulatory instructions (a) Enigma of the bees Time waste (h) To modify the theory of evolution (b) Environment (b) Chromosome Y (g) Genetic variability (c) Rough sketch of the human genome Wilm’s tumor Estrategia evolutiva (h) No entendemos el genoma humano La cara oculta del genoma Enormes cantidades de información de. (a) La dislexia 31/05/2010 Página 11 ...Genetics and theories of evolution     All of the articles were written subsequent to the GTCEL Each person is different.

Genetics and theories of evolution Un gen del lenguaje Women have an excellent sense of smell (d) American Indians Comportamiento moderno humano     31/05/2010 Página 12 .

their own development. 2. various observations can be made. The action of things developing or transforming by gradually passing from one state to another: the ~ of species. one being points 1) "The action of things developing or transforming by passing gradually from one state to another". The effect of things developing or transforming by gradually passing from one state to another. 5. ext. 3. from others already in existence. While making a critical commentary of these definitions of evolution. – Derivation of the species from living organisms. change or transformation.Genetics and theories of evolution   II. 7. p.. and of point 2) "effect of. we would enter the concept of revolution. BIOL. The Diccionario General de la Lengua Española (The General Dictionary of the Spanish Language) gives us the following definitions for the term “evolution”: 1. The definition of evolution If we ask ourselves. The second seems to be related to its external appearance that is nothing else but the effect or result of internal evolution and its own external 31/05/2010 Página 13 . Movement. 6. of a policy. Fig. LIFE AND VITAL IMPULSE SYSTEMS II. Hypothesis that attempts to explain all phenomena by successive transformations of a solitary original entity. The second observation is that the concept of evolution has two basic meanings. change of troop or ship formation for defense or offense purposes. . purpose or attitude. the ~ of a theory. “what is evolution?” a good idea would be to consult a dictionary.. CONCEPT OF EVOLUTION. Movement. through a process more or less gradual and continuous. The first refers to the internal dynamics of things that makes them develop or transform. The principal characterization of things developing and transforming themselves from one state to another is the gradual pace. in short.1.Change of conduct. 4. if it were fast or accelerated. in general: the evolution of a dance. ". PHILOS.

because of the normal dynamics of the evolution of species. In the assumption of understanding the aforementioned point 2) as an internal effect. the concept of evolution in biology is different from the two generic concepts of evolution as being a variant of the concept of evolution as an external perception of the changes or transformations by limiting itself to a longterm concept. a specific type of concept of evolution that point 2) refers to.   Esfinge of Egypt (2620 b. It is explicitly giving us the concept derived from the Darwinian Theory and its subsequent adaptations. In conclusion. In point 6). On its behalf. internal and external evolution. This definition of evolution does not add anything special except that. the concept of evolution corresponds to the meaning of its short-term as well as long-term internal dynamics in which.Genetics and theories of evolution perception.c. point 7) defines the philosophical base on which rests the mentioned theory and origin of life.) Museum of the Louvre   For the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life (GTCEL). evolution being long-term. the definition of evolution in point 6) that we are analyzing would continue using it as an external effect. Next. it is verifying the long-term concept for the aforementioned field. we are going to explain the consequences of one focus or another of 31/05/2010 Página 14 . the addition of changes are no longer in the short-term evolution but rather in each generation. Together with the two basic or general meanings. we find other specific meanings. a special mention is made on biological evolution. that is.

Genetics and theories of evolution evolution.     31/05/2010 Página 15 .

For the majority of us. where we humans find ourselves is the macro or macroscopic scale. If we were talking about astronomy. When they say that the genome of a monkey differs by only 1% from the human genome it seems like they are very similar.1. In the case of biological evolution. What would happen if they told us the same. especially in complex systems theories. and. Speaking in social terms. what really means a letter of the DNA? Nonetheless. virus. which implies that we are interacting in an almost unknown and not very intuitive world. is microevolution. if they talk to us about molecules or the number of letters of DNA.Genetics and theories of evolution   II. when in biological evolution terms they speak of 325 billion cells. At times. the analysis on a different spatial scale from ours – either microscopic or macroscopic in relation to our size – and. the human being is managing to interact on a micro scale in genetics. it makes no difference to us if they say 830 billion cells. not to mention. In particular. on the other hand. the concepts would vary accordingly. the name assigned to the evolution in the cellular or lower range: DNA. on one hand. protein. Our normal scale. life would behave very similarly to a micro scale than a macro scale because it is the same concept of life at micro scale as that which is appreciable at macro scale. It tells us that certain models maintain their structures when changing the scale. This does not mean at all that we cannot adjust some variables or concepts. and the corresponding scale is the micro scale or microscopic scale. with the exception of a few specialists. in the field of biological evolution and genetics. the human brain does not have the capacity to assimilate the change of scale at acceptable logical levels. the change of scale creates a noticeably 31/05/2010 Página 16 . are those due to. but with the absolute quantity of the known letters of DNA in which they differ? In addition. Two typical cases. there is a trick not to get completely lost which is to think about the theory of fractals. or that we always need to do so. when a long-term analysis is carried out. In addition. bacteria.a) The biological evolution Various aspects hinder the understanding of theories on biological evolution because the immediate or intuitive perception of certain relationships or concepts is very low when moving in fields that do not belong to our everyday world. etc.

that is. continuing with the previous analogy. eventually. it is necessary to accept internal changes. one could end up playing with a card from an English deck. Actually. in order to see the origin of life. understood as external perception. it is worth clarifying that the pure combination of a set of elements will always give us its own subset. a card from an English deck will never appear when dealing the cards. and much less with all of the cards from an English deck simultaneously.   La Gioconda Louvre Museum Leonardo da Vinci   As a result. the same occurs if we think about it going backwards. Firstly. a new element will never appear in the combination. a common solution is to declare them implicitly or explicitly random. if those internal changes are completely unknown or we cannot explain them in any way with a certain philosophy of life. Likewise. even for the biological evolution.Genetics and theories of evolution different model because new forces or relationships come into play. Using a simple analogy of a game with a Spanish pack of cards. that is. a considerable imagination is needed to believe that with random changes in the points of each card’s pattern that. so biological evolution could not exist. 31/05/2010 Página 17 . A key element of theory of biological evolution is its characterization as internal dynamics or as external perception. Now then. The classic example could be the individuals behavior in contrast to the behavior of the crowds.

In this example. the driving force in the evolution of cars has been the improvement in the supply that has materialized each time a different model comes out. but non-biological. in the development of new engines. by making their choice. increasing security.) and the speediness in transmitting the technological advances to the market. we should recognize that the demand for cars has always existed. and even with greater clarity. demand as well as supply of cars is the result of the general objectives of the car industry. we find ourselves with the supply and demand and all of the aforementioned elements and reasoning in the previous example. let’s look at the significance of choosing one focus or another of the biological evolution for some real. such as the steering wheel on the left. etc.. the cost of research and development. it could be argued that the consumers. in fact.. maintaining certain structure (at least for each country. in which the creation of software or computer programs is necessarily parallel to the development of hardware or computer equipment. the brake in the middle. On the one hand. On the other hand. there is an additional fact. Among which we can cite improving performance or velocity.. in the improvements of productivity of labor. the development of certain 31/05/2010 Página 18 . the accelerator on the right. the cost of labor. engine. If we consider the evolution of personal computers. have created the market’s demand. this program would not have been able to exist if there were not any faster computers.. we know that the market reaches an equilibrium when supply and demand are equal. etc. It would be useless having the Windows 2000 program if we have a personal computer with a chip type 386 AT at 16 KHz and only 640 Kb of memory. in the biological evolution of man. due to the economic theory. and this demand makes it so that those cars that were better adapted to their choice are bought and thereby allowing companies to continue their production.Genetics and theories of evolution Moreover. examples of society nowadays: The evolution of cars allows us to see clearly two types of approaches to evolution. However. In short. that is. the former in our case will be created according to the cost of production among which we frequently find the cost of materials.. and the importance of the research in air resistance. surely the Romans would have also wanted to have  modern cars!. Surely. Remaining just with demand as a cause of the evolution of cars would be ignoring all of the efforts of men and women in improving materials: tires.

although they are starting to appear with greater clarity at the root of the current globalization of the economy and other aspects of human activity. the political system is extremely important for its development. and any type of short-term analysis is complicated due to countless factors. that is. and of course. we could say that their evolution depends on the evolution of the citizens.   This last point is important since. the study of the general intrinsic objectives of any language continues to surprise us because it seems quite a bit as biological evolution of man like those previously mentioned. Of course. the linguistic system will try to maintain the coherence of the meaning in order to hold desirable communication. but a language also accepts changes that are more or less rapid but are always within a structure of increasingly strict grammar rules that guarantee its continuation. to a greater extent. Deep down we are talking about two different systems but the same purpose: keeping and maintaining a great quantity of information.Genetics and theories of evolution elements needs others or that some evolutionary conditions are present. it is what is going to give us. A much simpler example is the development of a person because we are more closely familiar with it. in short. Each system will have special objectives but the general objectives are found again with relative ease. Another aspect that is different in relation to the previous example is the set of similarities that can be made between the personal computer and the human brain. it will increase the number of words and concepts associated with them insofar as it is possible. of the subjects’ linguistic capacity. its political system tends to be largely related to the cultural development of its citizens. in a broad sense. One could try an analogy with a modern nation or state since there are not any clear market laws here either. In a state or nation. the big states belong to a scale different from the human scale. It seems clear that the success of many of our companies or our personal goals up until a certain point depends on others or on the competition.  We have already mentioned the improvement and perfection. but the most important factor is our personal capacity and our job. the evolution of language. our personal evolution depends basically on us. Normally. that is. but the laws of supply and demand of the market are not part of the system. A different example would be languages that evolve and perfect themselves. On the other hand. our 31/05/2010 Página 19 . although it is worth noting that. In a long-term analysis. Nonetheless.

. If we analyze the evolution of a famous painter’s work throughout his/her life.Genetics and theories of evolution internal dynamics is affected by our surroundings. but it is still what is responsible for our personal evolution materializing. The example of the artist is also illuminating of some characteristics of biological evolution.     31/05/2010 Página 20 . we can conclude that the concept of biological evolution. If we really want to understand the evolution of the paintings. we will have to focus on the artist and his/her work. we would be denying the artist’s influence on the evolution of his/her work. In light of these examples. it will be easier to discover the theme. in its strict or basic sense. etc. This view of the philosophy of life and biological evolution allows us to understand better the true origin of life and the evolution of man. others will have plenty of certain colors or tones. otherwise. economic situation. the individuals position in face of social evolution. we can identify different stages in his/her painting. age. etc. is referring to the global change of things and not only the change of their appearance. In some paintings.

in appearance.1. but it is not the internal dynamics of the individual changes but rather of the film in of itself. when speaking about the limits of knowledge. that is. this concept is inevitably associated with individuals or a system and this can change according to the scale in which we move. Let’s remember that. In the biological evolution of man. giving us the effect that the film has internal dynamics. The theory of natural selection refers exclusively to the elimination of new beings and their descendents through their better adaptation. We must be especially careful when talking about internal dynamics in biological evolution or human evolution. not to complicate an already complex system. to give a random trait to the rest of the possible determining factors or elements of human evolution. However. it needs the long-term in human evolution. this is only referring to one of the determining factors of evolution that also operate in the result of real evolution.Genetics and theories of evolution   II. with all of its inconveniences. With the perception of a dynamic system in the long-term or historical evolution. the temporal and spatial horizon has been mentioned as a factor that impedes the logical reasoning when operating as limits of intelligent perception. the changes or evolution of the external perception of the model. The phenomenon of a long-term study of historical evolution is equivalent to that of 31/05/2010 Página 21 . because indeed it has. so that its internal dynamics are capable of producing similar effects. to those of real evolution.b) Historical evolution and human evolution Another aspect appeared in previous examples of historical evolution is that the changes of scale can affect particular objectives of a system and that the relevant variables are different from short-term and long-term variables. Recent information and very nice presentation of history of human evolution along the last 160.The Peopling of the World. as a result. something similar occurs with the theory based on the natural selection in which it seems like it has its own internal dynamics. The human mind tends to study. and it does. given that. It is necessary. Perhaps it is a typical effect of the long-term models or historical evolution. we can imagine something similar to a film with all of the detailed perceptions. that it tries to carry out a partial analysis while not being able to take on all of the overall problems of the model.000 years and the geographic routes taken by our ancestors are in the page Journey of mandking . At the same time.

there is a tendency for the long-term analysis. but by only triplicating the period of time. we need explicitly mention the aforementioned changes     Genetics is on a different scale from ours. by means of a graph.Genetics and theories of evolution the change of scale. how a long-term model eliminates the perception of short-term changes. of its individuals or system and of its particular objectives. For example. In the theories of human evolution. as a summary. a discrete short-term variable can be a continuous variable due to the changing of scale. and the spatial notion is a different scale from the human one. The same problem can appear about the dynamics or internal relationships of the system. Let us analyze a main characteristic of historical evolution. The changes due to the representative variables are not always correct. There not only can change the variables but those that remain can change their nature.25. Let’s cite. When changing the spatial or temporal reference of a specific analysis of historical evolution. some of the problems that arise to a greater or lesser extent: The tendency is to lose the long-term temporal notion. The figure shows an exponential growth whose ratio is 1. a sufficient visual effect is achieved 31/05/2010 Página 22 .

Obviously. is considered blurred. but we have seen that.It is estimated that the genetic difference between the human being and the chimpanzee lies in no more than 400 million nucleotides (the elements of DNA) from a total of 3 billion. in many analyses. in the history of human evolution. placing special care in the conclusions that are derived from them.Genetics and theories of evolution Let us imagine the effect that a long-term model produces that.. therefore. These thoughts lead us to study the implications of understanding only long-term human evolution and the elimination of short-term evolution when thinking about human origin and biological evolution of man. the scale also changes. in addition. in the second figure. 31/05/2010 Página 23 .. . no one wants to say that certain types of studies or analyses can be carried out. People in general accept this implication very firmly while creating the idea that they have about our species and theirselves. It is also logical that." El País 20-02-2002.   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION "Being a human or a chimpanzee is distinguished by a little more than 1% of the genome. It is worth noting that the exponential growth is common in the models of temporal sequence and in the historical evolution. especially when the other extreme of the biological evolution of man is the origin of life. only ten times more than the very difference between two individual humans. there is hardly any growth during the first 15 periods.   In short.. we cannot stop thinking that. but that the limits of the human mind must be recognized when it comes to intelligent perception of certain variables and relationships and. the optical effect appears because the scale has changed. In spite of being conscious of the change of scale and knowing the growth is exponential.  Another additional problem is the ability to measure such small differences in the data when the scale of the normal world is the one corresponding to the latest period. the scale has to change in the long-term model..

for what we did. in the beginning of our species.      In ancient Egypt. either. managing to get it so that the walls would not fall over for a long period. the scientific philosophy and development did not interest us. humans developed a great ability for construction with the pyramids.Genetics and theories of evolution   Let’s cite some of the most relevant consequences and facts of the historical evolution of man: The intellectual capacity of the Homo sapiens has not substantially changed during the last 30. The ability to make fire is considered a great evolutionary leap in the human evolution keeping in mind the cerebral capacity of the first humans to achieve it. it was not worth the time. we did not talk much nor create large grammatical structures because.c.   Scribe . There is a reason that they are the only ones of the seven wonders that are still standing! Before the Greeks. except for some honorable exceptions. Despite the human mental capacity.000 years.000 – 50. Another great milestone in human evolution for their small intellectual capacity is the discovery. y 1450 b. or because we had to wait for our vocal cords to develop through random mutations of the transmitted genetic information. surely by accident. 31/05/2010 Página 24 .Louvre Museum Egypt 2500 b. of the wheel.c.

surely.Genetics and theories of evolution Some Greeks believed that the practical application of knowledge meant reducing it and. Even though it may have gotten someone into trouble – Galileo (1564-1642) – by that of the generational leap. that something similar occurred to the sun and the moon. Miguel Servet (1511-1553). Finally. thanks to the accumulated knowledge transmitted from generation to generation. 500 years ago there was the conviction that indeed it was spherical and revolved around the sun. With the human evolution of the Romans. for some unknown weakness. Going so far. they are properly adjusted to the corresponding era  in order to facilitate its comprehension and to be loyal to the reality that the quotients used are only a relative measurement! If we had a similar measurement at our disposal for height. as to represent five downstrokes with a V. especially in view of the moon and the sun. to expand on his weakness. which simplified mathematic calculation considerably. Just in case. of course. We were fortunate when it occurred to Newton (1642-1727). thanks to his weakness for apples and the trend for thinking during his time. should only stand in the world of ideas. therefore. was beginning to count with downstrokes. The shape of the half moon had not been seen anywhere else. it was fairly easy to build aqueducts in a closed channel. thanks to their technology. he didn’t present them in the same poetic feeling as Newton. without knowing its exact origin. even. wasn’t so lucky with his ideas about the pulmonary circulation and the role it has in respiration in the transformation of venous blood into arterial. we need to adjust the different scales used to measure the IQ (intelligent quotient) every 20 to 25 years at most. The idea that the Earth was round or spherical was a little difficult to believe. And when the IQ of some geniuses of mankind are estimated (like some authors do and are recognized for their informative contribution about the human evolution). it would turn out that the Romans were as tall as humans nowadays 31/05/2010 Página 25 . that the level of water tends to be the same. not even by aiming a flashlight onto an orange. and so that no one doubts the non short-term historical evolution of the human intellect. and he proved. a Spaniard. Another great Roman contribution to historical evolution. Not even the inhabitants of the coasts or the seamen realized this fact in spite of the nooks and crannies where the land and water meet in many places. amazingly. since we had not noticed.

I could continue giving examples indefinitely. the oldest fossils of…   . It will be another of the quantum effects of the relativity of space and time! In short. I am sorry for having used a certain irony in these last points. on the other hand. each time with greater clarity..000 years ago. the changes in genetic information and their interrelations in the short-term evolution which will undoubtedly make it so that these and other classic approaches become surpassed in the near future. those responsible for the discovery and analysis are in favor of naming a new subspecies for these fossils. it was quite the contrary since the indicated advances make up part of the history of human evolution and clearly show.000 generations at most. think how the Homo sapiens have had 2. which means approximately 10 points every generation..Given the small differences with the skulls of the current species. pointing out that the advances in biology and genetics show us..   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION "Found in Ethiopia. Going back to the usual seriousness and relating the previous points to the figures of exponential growth. but I too have some weaknesses.   At no time I attempted to diminish the contribution from those mentioned above. Homo Sapiens Idàltu.Genetics and theories of evolution in Italy.. according to the latest paleontological estimations. the gradual improvement of the capacity of the human mind since the origin of man. and that it seems to be that the IQ shifts 10 points every 20 years.three skulls from 160. besides. ." El País 12-06-2002 Nature .     31/05/2010 Página 26 ... in my opinion. To finish this section.. but specifying that by shape and size they are very close to the Homo Sapiens (the current humans)..

The meaning and definition of life is the most difficult and direct concept that can be presented to any common philosopher. at first.Genetics and theories of evolution   II. because the global idea of the evolutionary theory could remain a little up in the air and because. However. it is a pleasure and difficult to resist when the script requires it. deep down. there are at least two possible complementary approaches or types of theories on the origin of life and its concept: logic and metaphysics or mysticism. In addition. 31/05/2010 Página 27 . in part at least. or Life in capital letters. I thought about not touching on philosophical topics because it was not the principal objective of the book.Cancun     On the topic of the philosophy of life. When I considered the explanation for the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life (GTCEL) with detail. The first approach to the origin of life is the use of logic.2. the philosophy of life and the theories on the origin of life are an exciting topic.   Club Med . Theories on the origin of life The theories about the origin of life are not within the limits of knowledge but rather in the limits of philosophy. the analysis from the dictionary’s definition and its relationship with the human being and living beings – trying to search for the origin of life or what could be the essence of life. I have changed my mind.

where words do not count. The second one is a direct approach to the concept of life from within oneself. it is interesting to recall that the theories on the origin of life and the very definition of life have been changing with its development and. therefore. where thoughts are so fast that we perceive them only as feelings – those pure feelings that do not need logic because they are coherent in of themselves… 31/05/2010 Página 28 . it is worth putting a little distance from the specific scientific era in order to arrive to a concept more permanent in time.Genetics and theories of evolution From the point of view of science.

which possess such force. From this point of view. An internal fundamental force through which acts the being that possesses it 2. The nature that distinguishes plants and animals from other beings and presents itself through metabolism.2. where we once again find the influence of the theory of natural selection. what individuals have to do is to adapt themselves to it.. we will end up being super adapted! This philosophy of adaptation "as scientific truth" of the evolution of life is truly very convenient for the System. for which we will stay with the most relevant:     1. In the second. since it cannot be known for certain which beings have that internal force and which beings don’t. The union of the soul and body 4. in short. because it does not make any sense trying to change it. If science doesn’t have proof. and adaptation to the environment”. directly as well as through instruments. philosophy needs proof to be able to limit them. This second meaning in the dictionary displays the classic definition of life as "Nature that distinguishes the plants and animals. on the contrary. reproduction and adaptation to the environment 3. growth. if we have not done it yet.  it is confined to point out ". Entity (that exists) The first definition of life. is of the philosophical nature and it seems practically perfect. it restricts the concepts.Genetics and theories of evolution   II.. from the scientific viewpoint. the concept is restricted to plants and animals.a) The logical approach and the broad concept of life The Diccionario General de la Lengua Española (The General Dictionary of the Spanish Language) provides us with numerous meanings for the word “life” in exact correspondence to its multiple uses. which are the only beings that man is aware of through his perception. two of its meanings are noted: 1. In the end.. the being that possesses it". as the dictionary indicates. Essence or nature   2.. 31/05/2010 Página 29 . It would be excessive to comment on all of them. Moreover. Existence of the soul after death Given that the word being appears in two of the definitions.

  On the other hand.they live at a depth of 200 meters in thermal water. If we thoroughly examine this point. at a first glance it seems that "evolution by adaptation to the environment" and "conditional evolution" –through the environment – are the same. I think the concept could be more precise by means of enumeration of the characteristics associated with Life as necessary and sufficient conditions of its existence. according to all of the theories on the origin of life. to extend the independence in respects to the restrictions of the environment" would be more implicit. according to the environment.   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION carbon. being. and this is the first example found on Earth of what life could be like under the surface of other planets.. xenophobia. Actually. the first stresses on the adaptation for survival and that is the cause of evolution.. These characteristics. Furthermore. In spite of appearances." and that ". should be present in the origin of life. The third and fourth definitions tell us about the concepts related to life in this world: "body and soul". of religious nature.. in completely inhospitable environment.. life is evident in plants and animals but we have not managed to locate it physically in them. Now then. In this development and attempt at improvement. the second also refers to another type of logical conditionings.. the ideas ". "the plants and animals are developed and try to improve". "A discovery of a colony of microbes that live without .Genetics and theories of evolution those other theories on the origin of life and human evolution are described as based in ideologies little less than detestable: racism...   31/05/2010 Página 30 . where solar rays do not reach and organic carbon does not exist" El País 2001 Nature. the second stresses on living and improvement in order to become independent or limit and surpass the restrictions that the environment imposes. Although they have elements in common.. on the contrary. etc. it is difficult to do it any better from the point of view of an established system! Perhaps it would be more appealing and correct simply to say. and life from beyond: "Existence of the soul after death". the difference is significant. therefore..

In addition.Genetics and theories of evolution It would be much more admissible for life to have a nature similar to the force. the energy. it shares the religious approach. 31/05/2010 Página 31 . energy is in different places other than plants and animals. and. it seems to be more probable. to a certain extent. it is an approach of the philosophical nature because it cannot provide proof or evidence. but its basic support is scientific because. As a result. as we know. from a strictly logical point of view. the destruction of the body does not mean the destruction of the energy that it contained! This last approach to life as energy corresponds to the broad concept of life.

Therefore. and one realizes that it would not make any sense. words appear naturally. A Life without intelligence proves that it would not make any sense.. When we ask ourselves “what are we?” we realize that we do not have the appropriate words because the words like “soul”. it would not be an inner mental question if others around you respond.Genetics and theories of evolution   II. words that are not just words but poetry. little by little. necessary and sufficient for Life.b) Metaphysical definition of life The second approach to the concept of life and the theories on the origin of life comes from the philosophy and personal thoughts. In fact. one loses what he/she is thinking and writing until. have external connotations of differing sorts in that they enter the context of metaphysics and philosophy of love. finally. “spirit”. then the feeling a lack of logic comes back.. A Life without Love or without hope of Love. one begins to digress. 31/05/2010 Página 32 . All of them seem like internal conditions. etc.2. any theory on the origin of life should take into account that those elements or characteristics will exist since the beginning. Then. to feel the proximity of those with whom one travels in space and time. and try to imagine a Life without those memories. Meaning only what one feels in that moment!   Windsurfina     Therefore.

to decide without Love.     31/05/2010 Página 33 . I am referring to the internal freedom.. which operates. with concepts stored away in the inner memory. because it is precisely the internal system. to the Freedom. each one of them involves the others. from the point of view of metaphysics and philosophy of love. or even better. why not? Creating a little scientific poetry or pure metaphysics in saying. In any case.. Finally. of time. from the poetic point of view.. For this reason. eventually. "we have been talking about the scientific existence of the Soul". In addition.. Love. To be able to exercise Freedom it is necessary to have options. the origin of all the characteristics is out the scientific scope and they remind us of the existence of metaphysics and philosophy of love. as "The essential nature of Life is Freedom". sounds too poetic for a characterization of life.Genetics and theories of evolution At the same time. Love because… . Freedom and Love are at a poetic superior level to that of memory and intelligence. I have included memory because the memory without an internal system that recuperates information is not memory but an archive. I have included intelligence. "The first concept included in genetic information is Love". Nonetheless.sufficient and necessary characteristics such as the existence of space. these options must be retained in the memory and one should have a system of decision. being elemental. among others... Freedom is a common topic in metaphysics but that does not mean that we cannot argue and get closer to the concepts. one could say about the origin of life. but another always appears. I prefer to summarize the concept.

about its objectives. with a greater degree of trust in applied logic.Buchnera is now halfway between bacterium and an integral component of the cells of plant louse" El País 19-03-2001.. The freedom of living beings The previous concept of Life and.3. as far as evolution and characteristics of living beings.   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION "A Spanish group describes the simplest form of life. How many genes are needed to sustain life? Perhaps 395 is enough. consequently. is that we humans cannot perceive suffering or negative feelings from the plants when they die. this concept of life has indeed been very useful for me.. The comforts of symbiotic life have made it lose 85% of its genes since then. By way of example. not even for its proof or validation. I could say the same comment in relation to small animals. the most common of the microbes of the human intestine.Genetics and theories of evolution   II. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. in citing the possibility that energy. the origin of living beings can be interesting in a personal context but it is not relevant in of itself for the exposition of the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life in its scientific aspect. or gravity itself.Buchnera was a bacterium of free life and very similar to Escherichia coli. . Nonetheless.. if we perceived them. etc. because of the generalization of the concept. .. We have no other alternative than to include in the corresponding model of scientific behavior random components derived from the god of science: Randomness... and I would assume that they do not like it at all.. being the origin of living beings and having certain degrees of freedom which could be so small that we wouldn’t have the means of perceiving them or that..   A more literal example.. In short.. to think What would I do in its 31/05/2010 Página 34 . our model does not manage to explain them. in allowing the mind to think about the characteristics of the evolutionary system as a whole.

Scientists state that the process is subconscious.. definitely to surpass philosophical positions in relation to the human specialty and the evolution of man with purely egocentric content. the primates end the conflict.   To be precise. from a personal point of view. When the deer stand up and the bees dance.   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION "Ethology.Genetics and theories of evolution place? and to imagine that. Nature.Aristotle) He is a political animal (Aristotle) He is unique for possessing the gift of language He is unique for creating (not using) instruments (Paleontology) He is unique for transmitting his culture (Behaviorism –learning in contrast to instinct) 31/05/2010 Página 35 . they rebel by throwing the object of the trial or the received trophy up into the air" El País 18-09-2003.. by placing the debate in a more general context. of course. Life will have done everything that I could imagine or feel and much more. As strange as it seems." El País 26-02-2003.     NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION " In the majority of the trials (carried out in pairs) in which a service exchange/pay is not produced by the rules of justice.. Nature.. they are voting whether to move to greener fields or to richer flowers. Some animals display democratic behavior in groups. At times. or simply biological reductionism. This elaboration of the concept of Life has allowed me. according to a new study. I am referring to positions a bit primitive such as: Man is the only rational being (Plato . they are not simply stretching their legs or indicating where the nectar is.

that is. but with the same general characteristics of living beings and intrinsic to Life. given that it is a useful term when speaking about genetics and is the normal use of the word. is a result of the contribution by Darwin (Innatism) From a scientific or philosophical point of view. with special or specific traits. the biological pre-determinism. In spite of this philosophical approach to life that. the human being is one being more. The ethnocentrism. to a certain extent.Genetics and theories of evolution Nature and the cosmos are governed by necessary laws and only man has freedom Man is an animal. 31/05/2010 Página 36 . since all of them refer to the human being with special characteristics but not delimited enough concerning the rest of the living beings. would lead to assuming that all beings are living beings. and in this sense. the cultural relativism as well as the universalism forget about this last aspect. I will continue using the definition of living beings like plants and animals. in the last analysis. everything is instinct.

beehive. behave as if they were living beings or.. living beings (nation. By order of intuitive proximity. Perhaps it is a too futuristic speculation. that the individual genes in each cell are peripheral elements that follow the developmental process of the whole of the system.a) Philosophy and theory of Vitalism II. ecosystems) Another type will be formed as a result of the activity of groups of individuals 31/05/2010 Página 37 .. like cells.3. and yet each one is responsible for decisions of integration.   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION "Scientific progress and society. . for one reason or another. at least have many of the basic characteristics. Eric H. Davidson. The vital impulse systems will be those that. The trends of modularity and connectionism in the brain suppose two philosophic approaches that could easily be complementary..   I consider the superior animals as symbiotic macro-societies of more basic units with a life of their own.1. Living systems. state..Genetics and theories of evolution   II. we would have to say that the most adequate would be the theory of Vitalism.3. in turn. but I think it worth considering how we could utilize the principles of the processing of the genetic information that we are learning from the study of complex biological systems" El País 26-11-1992.a. the following types can be cited: The first type of vital impulse systems will those systems whose components are.This is. The problems relate to those presented when studying the structure of the brain and the brain functions by the degree of complexity. Vital impulse systems If we had to look for a trend of philosophy that sustains or coincides with the base of the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life.

engines). volcanoes. it can be understood that when it comes to developing and achieving the objective. the relationships and conditions make up a vital impulse system (the evolution of computers.Genetics and theories of evolution with a specific purpose. ocean currents. not be individuals but the specific object of their actions (economic markets of products) Systems with their own dynamics and derived from partial qualities of the individuals (languages) Any company.Besides being expensive since it implies in-vitro fertilization. therefore. 31/05/2010 Página 38 . scientists Certain systems without intervention of the living beings are vital impulse systems in the extent that their internal dynamics are similar enough to that of living beings (hurricanes. a computer program. medium-term work or objective that numerous beings assign.. These models are the typical objective of the theory of chaos.. galaxies. will have the same evolutionary dynamics as living beings and. in this sense. are quick to add that the technique is not applicable to human beings" El País 10-01-1993.   . the individual protagonists will. the construction of a home)   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION "British scientists manage to choose the gender of calves.

In fact. the theory of Vitalism defines the characteristics of the living beings in a broad sense.a. for which the existence of an archive will be necessary and will make up part of the system. The system must be an teleological system. processes 31/05/2010 Página 39 .     The vital impulse systems should have the following basic characteristics: They should have a decision-making system allowing them to choose between different options in order to achieve their objective or purpose. The system will take the options according to the information available.2. Vitalism and characteristics of living beings The characteristics commented above would be more or less identifiable but in some way they will be present in all of them. on the other.Genetics and theories of evolution   II. it will always have "a posteriori". one should always try to identify the intermediate objectives of this type of evolutionary systems as well as the methods. Even if these cannot be clearly determined. more than characteristics of the vital impulse systems. We can also distinguish between basic characteristics of living beings and characteristics derived from the objectives that all vital impulse systems must have. with objectives. This implies. the existence of the degrees of freedom in the system and.3. operative intelligence. The goodness or good faith of the system can be assumed "a priori" and. certainly. on one hand. that is. These can also appear with greater or lesser strength.

Genetics and theories of evolution and specific instruments for obtaining them. the interpretation of this shape would give us some clues about the purpose or objectives of the system. we can say that the system will behave as if it had a true Life impulse. Another indirect way of identifying the vital impulse systems can be the obtaining of graphics relating to their behavior or evolution with the typical form of the fractals. could enter in this category of vital impulse systems. As practical methods of identification of these systems. we can cite the two following facts:     Many of the systems that can be conceptually described and delimited according to the proposals of the theory of chaos.     31/05/2010 Página 40 . It would not be surprising if the fractal form had the certain shape of an arrow tip. in principle. These objectives will be: Improvement of efficiency Guarantee and certainty Internal coherence and compatibility Optimization of the resources In the extent that a system complies with the basic characteristics and we are capable of identifying a sufficient set of these derived elements.

  Crocodile cancunning     According to the evolutionary theory of Darwin. individuals present random variations and evolution comes about by natural selection. yet. This evolutionary theory basically consists of what surely all of us have heard about or studied. the generally accepted theory of evolution is the Darwinian one presented in the work The Origin of the Species in 1859. The Darwinian theory punched the evolutionary theory proposed by Lamarck. These variations are also categorized as random mutations in order to point out their supposedly unguided nature.Genetics and theories of evolution   III. according to which the traits acquired during the life of the individuals passed on to the descendents. science has changed a lot in the past century (20th century) and. PREVIOUS EVOLUTIONARY THEORIES In general. the first giraffes. The classic example is that of the evolution of the giraffes’ neck. According to the evolutionary theory of Lamarck. by constant stretching of their necks by means of obtaining food. managed to 31/05/2010 Página 41 . Although there are small updates. regarding the theory of evolution or evolutionary theory it seems strange that it has not changed significantly.

Darwin and Mendel make up the classical body of the concepts as regards biological evolution or evolution of the species. the ideas presented by Lamarck. Therefore. 31/05/2010 Página 42 . in short. Likewise. whose fundamental elements are the combination of genes and their dominant or recessive trait. Let us go on now to carry out a critical analysis of the most important evolutionary theories without expecting a negative valuation in any case. As for Darwin. a brief description of these evolutionary theories is in the addendum of the theories of the human origin. Among the theories of evolution. it is also worth pointing out the existence of theories derived from the previous one and other theories of religious nature. and bred more descendents. Although. Nonetheless. strictly speaking. he maintained that random giraffes born with longer necks were those that had been better adapted than the average.Genetics and theories of evolution lengthen them and subsequently breeding descendents with necks a little longer. it is worth pointing out that at the end of the 19th century. survived better. regarding the indicated date. we find the laws of Mendel (1865) about genetic inheritance. this theory remained absolutely anonymous and not exactly because Mendel didn’t try to publish it as is claimed in some realms.

identity and functionalism) to be in the scope of theology and philosophy more than in science. although in smaller degree.Genetics and theories of evolution   III. with a metaphorical interpretation of certain literal explanations to the origin of the life of religious character. As Theory of Creationism does not follow the scientific method. they relate to the theories of the evolution and many people agree with them in one or another way.Wittgenstein. so I can only show my deep respect in religious beliefs. In any case. critic cannot be done within logical thinking.     Similar problematic arises when studying the positions or theories on the existence of the soul-body (monism and dualism) and...a) Theory of Creationism vs evolution I mention the Theory of Creationism and other religious theories because indeed. 31/05/2010 Página 43 . I think that religious positions such as Theory of Creationism can compatible with any evolutionary theory. the concepts mind-brain (logical conductism .

Genetics and theories of evolution   III. in my opinion. Thus. Nevertheless. that is. call it Intelligent Creationism. Scientific Creationism Theory. will find itself forced to the corresponding. it coincides in its essential argument. the scientific community. Yet. given its range and heterogeneous nature. that any particular aspect suggested by the movement or theory of Intelligent Creationism in a broad sense is correct. as far as any imaginable religious connections of the Intelligent Design movement are concerned. As if the exclusion of a theory’s scientific nature without any reason were purely an act of true science! Despite the fact that the General Theory of Conditional Evolution of Life is completely rooted in the scientific method and experimental investigation. or rather. not to deny something which it has no evidence to deny and. GTCEL supports a religious vision to the same extent in which all religions come together. it undergoes the same attitudes in that some humans try to confuse the General Theory of Conditional Evolution of Life (a fully evolutionary theory) with the Theory of Creationism and do not accept its scientific nature. decides to try to make its beliefs compatible with the physicalreality of our world. in general. or Intelligent Design movement. in its case. If this occurred. the scientific community also would be obligated to recognize that their preferred evolutionary theory of Darwin is neither proven nor 31/05/2010 Página 44 . the subject of Intelligent Design seems particularly important for the following reasons: It is a major step that part of religion. the GTCEL is not a part of this trend or movement. any scientific evidence of evolution being finalist would not implicate. That is to say. accepting that some ideas like those of Intelligent Design could be valid. which is represented basically by science and experimental investigation. strictly speaking. therefore.b) Intelligent Design   The General Theory of Conditional Evolution of Life (GTCEL) does not coincide with the Intelligent Design movement such as the pseudo-tautological idea of the design of the universe in order to admit biological life. the scientific existence of the aforementioned vital impulse that seems to give meaning to life. However. Obviously. which is the existence of a teleological or finalist evolution consequence of an intrinsically vital impulse. science. Furthermore. as we know it.

The entry of the Intelligent Design movement into science would prompt a greater exploration and seriousness as well as in the Darwinian theory of evolution. Therefore. Note that until now one focused on Life and the other on species! Along the same line. recognize that they have made serious errors in the past. or the currently widespread neo-Darwinism. For example. with Scientific Creationism. In other words. humans are no longer the only intelligent beings and with the spirit of improvement. which makes evolution take place. by accepting it as such. both Creationism and Darwinism should separate from the context of science those assertions (such as tautology or anything appearing out of nowhere without being able to say exactly when) that are neither verifiable nor refutable. both theories should explain the concept of Life. religious sentiment it transcending beyond young humanity. there exists an intelligence producing small changes throughout time. such as the evolution of life. Now all that we needed for modern science is to undertake a similar route and abandon some of its nineteenth century premises that prevent it from being neutral regarding important concepts. and that. 31/05/2010 Página 45 . it seems sensible to think that this intelligence would be small. Another essential element of the Intelligent Design’s dynamics is that it represents a small revolution within its own ideas because its own defenders find themselves imposed to place the designer in this world if they really want to accept evolution. and even belonging to a micro scale. if you want to call it that. positive and implies that it is more rational.Genetics and theories of evolution rigorously formalized. In short. That is to say. if the Intelligent Design movement is truly an evolutionary theory. which is. when and how they think it began in the universe and persisted to present time. not typically human. and I would like to believe that it is. in my opinion.

Among other concepts. I consider Lamarck's theory of evolution valid but not general.Genetics and theories of evolution       III. Lamarck only adds a portion of the ideas needed to explain the complexity of the evolutionary dynamic.     31/05/2010 Página 46 .c) Lamarck's theory of evolution   Lamarck theory is based on environmental factors. In addition. Lamarck's theory is too simple for the knowledge of our days. and summarized in the sentence the function creates the organ. the evolutionary theory of Lamarck should do not explain the controls imposed by nature to avoid the effective development of modified characters due to non-permanent environmental changes using external verification.

any theory that resolves the contradictions of the era with a minimum of rigor in its approaches would undoubtedly triumph. there was no reasonable doubt that man descended from the ape. we could talk about thesis. the powerful influence of the religious ideas. it has posed quite a few problems from the scientific point of view and there have always been a criticism of Darwinism. I will discuss the current difficulties for its rejection or substitution. after the cited enumeration. and had to completely and radically remove itself from the religious ideas that had hindered the scientific development so much. evolved consciously and guidingly. faced with environmental modifications. The old problems of Galileo and Miguel Servet had not been forgotten by the scientific community. but it suffered a problem: it was given a leading role in the life outside of the human dimension. the scientific community was not going to openly struggle with the religious powers that be in order to shift conscious and intelligent life on an internal scale to the live organisms different from themselves. could not allow losing monopoly of spirituality. There were already sufficient indications that the Earth was much older than what had been thought. On one side. At the end of this section. antithesis and synthesis. and. still existing today. Of course. that we know of. Despite the generally acceptation of Darwinism. since its start. no one 31/05/2010 Página 47 .4 Criticism of Darwinism The Darwinian theory considers as a driving force in evolution the adaptation to the environment derived from the combined effect of the natural selection and of the random mutations. from the scientific point of view. emerged the Darwinian Theory clearly showing the effects of the evolution of the species and. on the other. the humanist rationalism had extended into all of the scientific circles and found itself in full peak.Genetics and theories of evolution   III. In this case. In this context. Moreover. I would like to analyze why it beat onto the Theory of Lamarck or other evolutionary theories.  Let’s hope they never forget! The Theory of Lamarck seems very logical and reasonable. In the second half of the 19th century. a scientific theory was needed that would position the human being in the planet’s history. the new theory had to comply with a seemingly scientific condition. and. there wasn’t any scientific proof of their existence. There was something inside the plants and animals that. Before getting into enumeration of the main points of criticism of Darwinism.

for example.   Charles Darwin (1809-1882) (Public domain image)   31/05/2010 Página 48 . We are not trying to deny or diminish the great contribution of Darwin’s theory to modern thought in anthropology. It is worth pointing out that any theory of evolution has countless consequences on philosophical and social thinking that pervade any number of individual attitudes and acts. but rather to make a positive criticism of Darwinism delimiting the extension of the theory and to avoid erroneous or defective implications having negative effects in the development of society. different approaches to certain problems of social justice or to the efficiency of a certain educational system. this should not be anything easy because it is not well known whether the existence of life has scientific or rather a philosophical nature.Genetics and theories of evolution has questioned it outside of the strictly religious realm such as the Creationist Theory or Creationism. In fact. Another interesting aspect is that the title of Darwin’s work comes about referring to the "evolution of species" and not  to the "life evolution" for which it avoids having to define life. even the predominantly religious confessions do not directly attack the Darwinian Theory or pose a strong criticism of Darwinism.

The only possible criticism is to point out the total lack of scientific severity in it. or lack of. nonetheless. but it does not say anything about the origin of modifications or about the processes in which they are carried out. 31/05/2010 Página 49 . designed the way it is. The second issue of criticism of Darwinism is that the main argument of natural selection. 3. reaching completely into present day. Later. This is the first argument of criticism of Darwinism because it is implicitly denying or limiting the slightest expression of the very concept of evolution. like the Homo sapiens in their beginning moments who practically had the same intellectual capacity as nowadays.Genetics and theories of evolution         The weak points allowing the criticism of Darwinism are numerous and interrelated. it eliminates short-term evolution and that’s the way ideas emerge. adaptation of individuals to the environment. it is indirectly assumed that where there is no natural selection there is no evolution. Likewise. but they knew that something goes from some generations to others. given that the new beings have the same genetic information as their ancestors with supposed mutations that can have a positive as well as negative effect. (Let us think about the idea of all humans been born with the same potential of intelligence) The process of evolution is not in the changes in the genetic information but rather the disappearance of the less favorable changes. With that. The model. there was no genetic knowledge. all that is achieved is unnaturally intensifying the problems of evolutionary leaps. The Darwinian theory of natural selection tries to explain the disappearance of non-optimal genetic modifications by lesser. only works in long-term in our physical scale. In Darwin’s time. or putting it another way: "that which exists is because it has survived and hasn’t disappeared" is a tautology for which there is no humanly way to deny it. we are going to try to indicate them in order of importance from a methodological perspective even if it means repeatedly mentioning some topic by presenting problems of a different nature: 1. 2.

it could be the uniform or normal distribution... when logic appears to indicate the contrary." El País 15-01-1993. .. those bacteria would be the ones that would survive. in this case: neurons. Under certain assumptions.The adaptation of animals to their environment takes place by means of the death of certain cells. After numerous generations. 5. hence the generally used name of "random mutations". denying the existence of a real driving force of evolution without any scientific proof on this matter. the method of evolution by means of random mutations or modifications can be acceptable.     4.. The lack of evidence it clear a subject of the criticism of Darwinism. it is a great secret of science or a metaphysical mystery.. it is become an axiom.but its true importance lies in that it proposes a new mechanism of rapid adaptation of the species in very few years (between 15.000) in evolutionary terms.. Darwin did not scientifically show the randomness in all of the cases of the variation in genetic information. such as the acidity of the environment in which they live.. Without a doubt. the Darwinian Theory accepts the randomness of genetic modifications. direct descendents of the wild cats of 20.Genetics and theories of evolution   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION "The Spanish mountain cats. As far as I know. Journal of Neuroscience. Implicitly..000 years ago. At the same time. these bacteria would be the ones that make up the new population. . during the second half of fetal development. If there were a change in the environmental conditions. nor was it shown later. see better during the day than the domestic cats. modern neo-Darwinism still have not told us which statistical distribution the random mutations follow. Obviously. We know that some bacteria produce different bacteria in an extremely small proportion. would produce an extremely 31/05/2010 Página 50 .000 and 20. that of Poison or that of Fisher.

since the attempted random mutations or modifications are not random modifications of so many elemental letters or units of DNA. where appropriate.The surprise has been that a fourth are long palindromes: genetic sequences that are read equally from left to right as right to left and consist of two arms. natural selection does not manage to eliminate the supposedly less adapted variant. Moreover..Genetics and theories of evolution small population of bacteria like the initial one that. This example of neo-Darwinism is not completely free of criticism. The investigators think that the palindromes.. the most serious issue of the criticism of Darwinism here is the fact that after accepting as proven that the mutations are random. That is. which contain all of the genes from the testicles. the fact of definitely using the mechanism of natural selection doesn’t itself imply that other mechanisms aren’t used to create diversity in the descendents.. allow the interchange of information within the same chromosome and that thus the mutations are repaired or transmitted" El País 21-06-2003. 31/05/2010 Página 51 . That the mutations are random but by perfectly delimited groups and with specific points of entrance – which would be completely incompatible with the first randomness so "proven" according to the scientific method. it is also accepted that the contrary is proven. However. But rather that they could easily be understood as pre-established modifications and generated in one or various parts of DNA that make up an efficient set in regard to the different characteristics of the new being and preserving the structural code in its totality. but it is a very special case.. given that this evolutionary line is maintained as the same example shows.. they would again allow the survival of the species.   This is the common example that used to "prove" Darwin’s theory of evolution..   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION ".complete sequencing of the small human Y chromosome. in which generations change at an extremely fast rate with enormous quantities of descendents. .

there were criticisms of Darwinism about the lack of the scientific method of this theory. It would not be surprising if they could perform another type of changes.   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION "More than 200 of the identified human genes seem to be the result of the direct or horizontal transference of the genes of bacteria (without passing through another organism in the evolution)" El País 19-02-2001. moreover. it is a theory supported by the inductive reasoning from the observation of certain facts and making inferences about generality.Genetics and theories of evolution 6. They are so numerous that they cannot be mentioned.     Likewise. but we  have to keep in mind that we humans. we are aware that the viruses make changes in the DNA of the invaded cells. specifically. in order to reproduce themselves. It could be argued whether these changes made by humans are natural or not. Conference of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. the mechanism of the natural selection is not bringing about the appearance of the new beings like in the agriculture field. make up a part of nature just like the viruses do. In its day. with the intention of cheating the immune system in the future. for example. new knowledge of genetic evolution has been emerging that openly contradicts the Darwinian Theory of evolution. One of requirements is that whatever example not satisfying the theory implies its refutation. The inductive reasoning is perfectly valid but the generalization that it makes should comply with certain requirements. but some of them are distributed throughout this book in the form of literal quotes from biology news that have been appearing subsequent to the initial formulation of the 31/05/2010 Página 52 . we can cite the following cases: The genetic changes that are obtaining the new techniques do not have a random but guided nature. that not even one of these modifications would be transmitted or that one of the reactions would not be transmitted in the genetic sphere as a defense against these aggressions. In this respect. Recently. except for contrary evidence.

of stallion or seed. Of course. However. is not feasible or presents serious defects. it is difficult to logically argue a change in the basic structure of the genetic code through mutations. of the very redaction of the book. Other aspects related to the sexual differentiation and the evolutionary leaps discussed in the section about the objectives of evolution. and that make up part of the main argument of the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life.   7. the very concept of the evolutionary leap impedes us from using the long-term in evolutionary terms. farmers and cattle dealers denominate natural selection. 9. The first one explains the evolutionary tendency while the second one only explains the deletion of some branches of the real evolutionary process. we automatically lose the temporal notion. Darwinism has. and for that reason it exists. goes conceptual and directly against natural selection. Any farmer knows perfectly the preeminence of sexual selection versus natural selection. except that of having to be one of the best methods of evolution.  Darwin tried. it does not explain why in superior animals the descendents of very genetically close individuals. but his theory did not offer any explanation. The only option is to resort once again to the long-term evolution with the added advantage that. on one hand. but as I will cite much 31/05/2010 Página 53 . Without a doubt. it must be another conquest or adaptation of the Darwinist Theory. to give sexual differentiation a broader sense than that of pure specialization of certain tasks because he sensed that it was necessary to do so. no farmer could correct him because they were not in Galapagos Islands. obviously. unsuccessfully. The irony of the evolution of the life does that to the sexual selection. in the majority of the cases. are completely absent from the approaches of the Darwinian theory. 8. about which Darwin wrote a book. significant shortcomings when it comes to explaining reality.Genetics and theories of evolution General Theory of Conditional Evolution of Life (GTCEL) and. I have the impression sexual selection. when we talk about the long-term evolution. such as in the case of siblings. Another important shortcoming is the almost impossibility of producing the commonly called evolutionary leaps. the present engineers. It makes sense due to the temporal difference of both. It makes sense that Darwin needed to go to Galapagos Islands to convince about the non-relevance of sexual selection.

For a large part of society. nowadays this requirement is still maintained but with an additional problem. or of any other 31/05/2010 Página 54 . methods or processes. depending for each case according to its specific conditions. that not just rationalism of the 18th and 19th centuries but the whole scientific community of the 20th century have made a serious mistake in embracing a evolutionary theory so weak.. especially if it is not correctly applied. given the complexity of the involved aspects. which transmits to the descendents and that. Some of these strong reasons are similar to those that made its acceptance possible. . and later the mitochondria were added. For this reason. the philosophers are partly right and the scientific method. as we will see when talking about them. In fact.that fusion of two bacteria occurred first. and the transition is very sudden" El País 14-03-2001   In view of the previous premises of the criticism of Darwinism. the criticism is that neither the Neo-Darwinian Theory nor the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis says anything on this matter. Before I have discussed the formal requirements of a scientific theory’s independence from any philosophical or religious approach.Genetics and theories of evolution later. the theory is still Darwinism for the population in general.. The basic novelty of the General Theory of Conditional Evolution of Life is the consideration of evolution as an internal improvement mechanism of living beings. Quite the contrary. these modifications suppose a mere update of the Darwinian Theory of evolution according to the new scientific discoveries in the subject matter. The life in the scientific realm has no objective and doesn’t make any sense at all!   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION ". to which it would have to be added... is not foolproof.. they don’t exist. uses multiple systems. there should be strong reasons for Darwinian Theory of evolution to have lasted throughout the entire 20th century with small conceptual modifications contributed by the trend called Neo-Darwinian and by the Modern Synthetic Theory. to a certain extent. the transition of procaryotes to eucaryotes is the greater evolutionary discontinuity in the Earth’s history. The differences are enormous. To refute the Darwinian Theory now would assume. Once more.. the acceptance of the GTCEL.

the mentioned weakness in the previous points 1) and 5) are practically maintained. based on the theory of chaos and the fractal structures.      Everything unknown has come to be considered random a priori. with the introduction of genetics and the knowledge derived from other advances in science. despite that there well known are special points of DNA change. so in the same words. In any case. afterwards. an almost absurd generalization because of its tautological content. Scientifically recognizing that there seems to be an intelligent evolution guided from the very interior of living beings sounds like a religious idea about life. In addition. by the trend called Neo-Darwinism and. that the term "natural selection" has. it does not manage to do it. It distorts the distinction of the human being and attacks the delightful egocentrism of the human species. In this sense.Genetics and theories of evolution evolutionary theory assuming the existence of the mentioned internal improvement mechanism of the living beings. we can talk about short-term evolution but always on a microscopic scale. at times. The updates have been possible to a great extent due to that we still do not have conclusive proof of the non-random nature of the modification of the genetic information. of facts that previously seemed totally random (incidentally. in my opinion. even against logic. These updates have been carried out principally first. the lack of satisfactory explanations of previous points 7) and 8) allows the criticism of the essence of the Darwinian theory by methodological means in the fields of biology and genetics. it is completely unacceptable on principle. the comments in the previous paragraph are equally applicable. This tendency also diminishes or limits itself in the view of the explanations. in other words. although the latter tries to distance itself a little more. the Theory of Darwin is a very convenient theory. socially speaking. it is completely unacceptable on principle. it is the contrary to the famous example of the butterfly) Despite of the greater comprehension of the sexual differentiation concerning its difference with the germline evolution and about the sexual equality in society from the scientific point of view. one of the main issues of criticism of Darwinism. efforts have been made to keep the essence of the evolutionary theory. any rational explanation of the facts to which the mentioned points are referring to will 31/05/2010 Página 55 . Putting it another way. and as a result. by the Modern Synthetic Theory. would mean a step back. in spite of the fact that. Another large part of society maintains its religious ideas. having a strong idealist component given that denying short-term evolution does not compromise the implanting of certain traits in the genetic sphere related to the desirable equality of opportunities. However.

There have always been authors that do not share the predominant vision. he also said that evolution was a fact of history. His personal objections to the theory of Darwin were the immoral and materialistic nature of natural selection and the abandonment of the scientific method. but it is neither unique. The list of authors would be too long but we can make a special note of Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873). a distinguished English geologist for being one of the first which. nor the most important. therefore. regardless of his attack on Darwinian Theory for religious reasons (he was educated in the Creationist Theory which was dominant in his time). not having been chosen to intentionally attract attention. from a conceptual point of view. if not the principal. expressed the following: "You have deserted .Genetics and theories of evolution difficult to be compatible with the theory of natural selection. was not opposed to evolution or development in its broad sense. this method is produced 31/05/2010 Página 56 . However. the expression of this attitude conveys of some way. despite his creationist education. Adam Sedgwick. which has been... Furthermore. I say “apparent” because reality is not going to change by explaining it better one way or another. And on the other hand. I want to take advantage of the occasion to state in defense of this example.the true method of induction. a professional marginalization and the risk of being described as being close to certain ideologies that have nothing to do with a scientific attitude or the contrary. the GTCEL understands that natural selection is just one more method of evolution. it is difficult to obtain models of evolution that can be statistically confirmable. He believed that the Earth was extremely old. In conclusion. The General Theory of Conditional Evolution of Life will suffer this risk largely." It basically says that Darwin.. Sedgwick believed in the Divine creation of life during long periods of time… Given that. although they have not managed to formulate an alternative evolutionary theory capable of shifting it. the direct cause of the development of the new evolutionary theory and. as Darwin recognizes in his notes from classes that Sedgwick received at the university. without a doubt. In addition. this is due to the apparent philosophical and social repercussions that can implicate several theories. after a beginning in the path of pure physical reality. by citing the inheritance of intelligence as a recurrent example. abandons the true inductive reasoning. although increasingly less. nor general.after a start in that tram-road of all solid physical truth .. after reading his theory.

    31/05/2010 Página 57 .Genetics and theories of evolution in a moment subsequent to the changes in the genetic information that makes up the actual evolution.

Some controlled experiments give place to a theoretical interpretation that.   Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) (Public domain image)   The fact that the laws of Mendel introduce previously unknown elements or mechanisms does not help the theory of Darwin much either. a difficult case to understand if it was not for the explanation that the sociology of science offers us. Due to the dynamics that evolution implies. We have to recognize that it has never been attempted to present the theory of Mendel or the laws of Mendel as a theory of evolution (due to the distortion of the meaning of evolution) since the combination of genes. However. and given the multiple advantages of the sexual differentiation. in of itself. the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life (GTCEL) understands that the laws of Mendel or. does not produce traits different from the originals. It is no surprise that its contribution was ignored by the scientific community for 50 years.Genetics and theories of evolution   III. within its context. contrary to that of Darwin.5) Laws of Mendel The theory of Mendel. is refutable. has always been a clear and simple example of the application of inductive reasoning. the theory of Mendel 31/05/2010 Página 58 . we must keep in mind that the interpretation was made according to the existing knowledge of those times. in general.

what can indeed pose some serious problems is the way in which schools explain the theory of Mendel. the concepts turn out to be completely incorrect. of course. where there can be certain conceptual difficulties. that it maintains its applicability with the appropriate conceptual corrections. the so-called recessive gene ends up being the most powerful and evolved in the cases in which the verification is one of the conditions associated with the genetic information 31/05/2010 Página 59 .Genetics and theories of evolution has provided a great contribution to the theory of evolution in its correct meaning. The basic concepts of the dominant gene and the recessive gene in the laws of Mendel cease making sense and. Largely. but what happens is that they cannot explain them easily. In many cases. the concept maintains its original meaning because it is associated with the idea of genes with discrete characteristics (red. but not shades in full evolution) because it is more convenient for the prevailing and mistaken notion of evolution.  Currently. white. at least partially. would be the concept of co-recession. A little more difficult to clarify. A gene is not dominant or recessive but rather it behaves like it is dominant or recessive depending on which other gene we compare it to (this idea is also shared by classic thought). such as “What happens when two dominant genes come together?” They resort to concepts like co-dominance because the genetic mechanisms. based on the simple concept of dominance in the context of general randomness. the behavior depends on the restrictions or conditions of development of the genetic information that they contain. As we will see later. scientists know those genetic mechanisms. The initial interpretation of the laws of inheritance does not raise any problems since it is accepted and the general advancement of science updates it. However. make it so that a gene or piece of individual genetic code behaves as if it is dominant or recessive. with the classic idea of the laws of Mendel. due to the relevancy of Mendel’s laws. in the event of maintaining some sense. that actually are unknown. it has to argue why a gene acts dominant by explaining the causes of such behavior. the concepts of dominant and recessive genes derived from the laws of Mendel alter by their own essence on the evolutionary process. pink. it cannot be enough to say that a gene is dominant or recessive. We can cite as the most common example the verification or non-verification of the genetic information. The concept of the dominant and recessive gene in the laws of Mendel is explained with an approach that is a little archaic and. most importantly (due to being a new concept contributed by the alternative theory of evolution GTCEL). however. From the point of view of the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life.  Moreover.

Consequently. categorizing that the gene that behaves like a dominant gene as a significant gene (in a manner of speaking.     31/05/2010 Página 60 . the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life changes the terminology. because it is not exactly that which occurs as will be explained later) in a certain process.Genetics and theories of evolution transmitted.

a scientific article. Neo-Darwinism base on the development of science. it is not necessary to resort to such in-depth knowledge of molecular biology about DNA. and limits to confirming that the variations of living beings are produced in their germination state. as laws of Mendel and Genetics. called factors of transcription. when the real problem is when and why the variations are produced in the genetic information. the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis or Synthetic Theory of Evolution and of other theories that maintain the essence of the theory of Darwin: random mutations and natural selection. in the middle of the twentieth century something else. given that we know that some proteins. In any case.Genetics and theories of evolution   III. activate or inhibit the expression of certain genes. in particular. referred to the pieces of DNA called Histones. and their associated conditions to obtain their efficient development.    Charles Darwin (Public domain image)   Current molecular biology is discovering the way in which nature carries out genetic verification and other controls (without knowing a priori the reasons that justify them) by means of the study of DNA. due to the Modern Synthesis Theory of Evolution.  At the end of ninetieth century the neo-Darwinism theory was one thing. and at that century it changed again due to the new Theory of Punctuated 31/05/2010 Página 61 . even after several generations.6 Criticism of Neo-Darwinism or Neo-Darwinian Theory This point makes a criticism of neo-Darwinism.

Furthermore. strictly speaking. Actually. 31/05/2010 Página 62 . when it cannot adapt they include biological paradoxes.Genetics and theories of evolution Equilibrium. neo-Darwinism or neo-Darwinian theory is still the prevailing doctrine in despite of being considered outdated.  By the way. the argument is that of neo-Darwinism. but they call them isolated cases to avoid being similar to other some modern physics theories. Now it is directly accepted that Darwin was right although. the neo-Darwinism maintains thanks to the fact that it is adapted to anything according its own principle of tautological adaptation. and it is not so important if the argument is from the Modern Synthesis Theory of Evolution or the Theory of Punctuated Equilibrium.

In fact. etc. In fact. which could ensure its basic characteristics. more luck. With the progress of science. to intentionally. the Synthetic Theory or the Theory of Evolution of Darwin are everything but scientifically proven. Let us cite two examples of the many that we could find: the spermatozoon that manages to reach the ovum. for having more strength. because it is not interested in stopping the system of production for reasons beyond this discussion. although. it is necessary to change in order to be maintained. Simpson) as natural updates or conditional evolutions of the Theory of Darwin due to the scientific advances subsequent to it. well… natural selection. the latter is a continuation of the previous. it is by accident and not because Nature has detected some problem in the genetic code and decided that. of course. I consider the Neo-Darwinian theory as well as the Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution (Theodosius Dobzhandsdy. as neo-Darwinismor neo-Darwinian theory was a continuation of the Theory of Darwin as its own name indicates.  What is more. Contrary to what scientists insistently state. the individual being normal in the macro scale. the name of Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution indicates that it is a mix up of ideas from the development of genetics and biology.Genetics and theories of evolution   III. the reason is because it is better adapted for having a better system of guidance. all of the criticisms made about the Theory of Darwin are equally applicable to neo-Darwinism as well as to the Synthetic Theory of Evolution. Ernst Mayr and George G. bring about some small defect in the spermatozoon. though. at the same time indicates that there is not a compact scientific knowledge about evolution. some of the criticisms base on the new scientific knowledge. Nevertheless. Both accept the randomness of the modifications in the genetic information. certain knowledge cannot be ignored.7 Criticism of the Synthetic Theory of evolution It is certainly difficult for a non-biologist to distinguish between the trend of neoDarwinism and the Synthetic Theory of evolution.  31/05/2010 Página 63 . Not because Nature is served from the process of natural selection when it detects some problem in the production of the sperm. When an individual is sterile. its range of application has been extended to microevolution. the mechanism is still. To this effect. like in a small hit or a change in temperature. because it does not want to continue that particular evolutionary line for motives….

It would be a Good-bye axiom!     31/05/2010 Página 64 . and not for reasons of a chemical kind but rather logical or of functional structure of the genome. Regardless of this. not even the scientific orthodox doctrine accepts the possibility that the mutations are not random mutations.Genetics and theories of evolution What is interesting about the topic of random mutations is that nowadays it is common knowledge that the modifications are produced much more frequently in some parts of the DNA than in others.

Eric H. and there will be influence from sexual differentiation and natural and sexual selection will be present. secondly.  This title IV of the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life has been divided into four main points. successes and perfection. proteins. in which many of that which has worked well in each stage has been incorporated… " El País 26-11-1992. there is the point related to the objectives of life which contain the fundamental argument of the logical nature of why and how evolution of living beings is developed. and to cite some examples that may help us to familiarize ourselves and to easily identify the use that we give to the terms utilized. random processes and processes of trial and error will already verify some verified. there are genetic changes produced simultaneously by the influence of the environment.  . rejections. specific biological 31/05/2010 Página 65 . Firstly. It is worth pointing out that my purpose in talking about the theory of evolution is not to explain modern biology or genetic engineering in technical aspects or terms like: types of molecules.These biological systems are the result of more than a billion years of evolutionary discoveries. their three-dimensional forms.   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION "Scientific progress and society.. Davidson. surely. this brief description about genetics and evolution. we present the new ideas about the theory of evolution and the origin of life with special reference to the evolutionary genetics and its consequences on the evolution of the species..   The next two points refer to creating accurate terminology that is considered necessary in the theory of evolution and classic genetics.Genetics and theories of evolution   IV. trials.1. Evolutionary genetics In this title. GENETICS AND EVOLUTION IV.  In the majority of the superior evolutionary processes.

for me. there are biochemical mechanisms that give place to random processes in nature. molecular biology or genetic engineering. I would recommend a slow or double reading. molecular processes of chemical nature.   Protein HNF1a and DNA (Public domain image)   The main virtue of this approach to evolutionary genetics and the theory of evolution is allowing any person of average culture to follow the argument without any more problems than those derived from its reasoning. On the contrary. I will focus on what nature does or I think that it has to do. this is what is relevant in the theory of evolution. but due to the number of accuracies and nuances that it must carry out in order to delimit the "cases" object of analysis. This reasoning. it could become extremely complex.Genetics and theories of evolution functions. in the conceptual context of genetics or evolution and not chemical. is not very well known. in the general processes and methods that it surely uses. that is. genetic mechanisms that are discovered but their functional nature. 31/05/2010 Página 66 . is not complicated in itself. etc.. its functional nature and not the molecular game in which lies a specific mechanism. in turn. but I think that it would unnecessarily complicate an already complex subject matter. Let’s look at an example. the processes where they are carried out and the specific mechanisms. The contrary criterion could also be adopted. In these cases. which would be more typical of a course in chemistry.

thinking that some of them may not be correct. one should try to understand the reasoning allowing the new proposals.   Keep in mind that. the study has found numerous sequences devoid of known function (they do not run the production of protein) that are present in all of the species studied. in comparison to its actual magnitude in the theory of evolution. Consequently. one should not look for the total comprehension of the presented explanations. by making reference to well known concepts and processes. the logical reasoning cannot be perfect by the very definition of intuition.. which indicates that they have been preserved throughout the evolution and strongly suggests that they have some biological function.   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION " . the knowledge of the mechanisms of evolutionary genetics is very limited and reduced to isolated points.. but that could be very close to reality.Furthermore. now.     31/05/2010 Página 67 .Genetics and theories of evolution This is the reason for avoiding very technical aspects and terms of evolutionary genetics by introducing numerous examples and. Perhaps the main inconvenient of this presentation is that. by including ideas with certain intuitive content.. Nature. instead." El País 14-08-2003. in what is possible..

in order to facilitate its presentation and understanding I had considered convenient to separate them into  the following objectives. however. the final objective of Life is unknown. nonetheless. the theory of evolution of man in particular helps us to reach a better general understanding of the evolution of life. Without trying to be exhaustive or include all of the implications of each of the following objectives. those that express contradictions or limitations of other theories of evolution. 31/05/2010 Página 68 . we can indeed analyze some of the instrumental objectives in which logic points out to us that they exist or should exist in general.2. on the other hand. In addition. Objectives of life and theory of evolution of man Setting aside the purely philosophical position.Genetics and theories of evolution   IV. I am going to discuss those that I consider to be the most relevant and basic by being present not only in the evolution of man but rather in all of the vital impulse systems. on one hand. I am going to make the considerations that. support or help to explain the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life as a whole and. On the other hand. It is worth disclosing that there is a great conceptual interrelation between the discussed objectives as well as between the arguments and examples used.

  However. all guarantees seem small..   A major example would be the biological evolution of man. this way avoiding any circumstantial variation that may cause an error. if the genetic variation affects one of the complex and vital functions of the new being. justified by the necessity of guaranteeing and perpetuating the species. In genetics... . the total certainty of the viability of the incorporated modifications to the genome is not always necessary. certainly.Genetics and theories of evolution   IV.. it would be interesting to be able to attain total certainty. Sometimes it will be sufficient with a high degree of probability.The main reason is that close to 70% of the genes of rice are duplicated: many ancestral genes made copies of themselves. in very complex functions.a) Guarantee and certainty in the evolution of living beings   In the biological evolution of man and.surpasses any animal described until now in number of genes. This vital conditioning explains the strange behavior of many living beings. They can even come to killing themselves in order to serve as food for the offspring in its initial moments.000 genes.. the continuity of the species prevails over that of the individual.000 and 63. In other words. and the copy was inserted into another part of the genome. after all of the accumulated work that represents the existence of an advanced living being.. in all types of living beings and in vital impulse systems. it is not possible to simulate all possibilities. the simulation method has a limitation.2.. A solution would be to simulate the operation of the system under the new parameters and relations before incorporating them to the genetic information to transmit. we will find the classic concept of the supremacy of the species or of the system over the individual or particular element." El País 25-04-2002. .   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION " The genome of rice. but later they can gradually digress. those two copies of the same gene are a mere redundancy. 31/05/2010 Página 69 . however.. between 42. It is essential to have other methods that allow maximum guarantee of the viability of the new being. and one of them can acquire slightly different functions. Initially. given that these can be almost infinite..

the fact of having two sources of genetic information when it comes to developing the living being poses in the section of "improvement of efficiency" the problem of how to decide which source to use in each case. The viability of the new being with genetic modifications would be ensure if there is a backup copy of the genome that can be used in case of failure of the new modifications. one of the main functions of the sexual differentiation could be the fact that one of the sexes provides an intact copy of its genetic packet. giving an powerful reason to its own existence. In the biological evolution of man and any type of living being. this does not occur in males.   Evolution of man (Public domain image)   The need for guarantee offers a coherent explanation.Genetics and theories of evolution Here is where one of the fundamental novelties of the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life appears because it presents one of the functions of the sexual differentiation in reproduction. like the 31/05/2010 Página 70 . On the contrary. Therefore. the female ova completely and definitively forms in the relatively initial moments of development of the individuals. the most well known clear example is the evolution of man. It is still interesting that in many species. In similar processes. even much more simple than evolution of man. Once again. the function of guarantee or certainty.

31/05/2010 Página 71 .     NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION "The rate of masculine mutation is twice the rate of female mutation.Genetics and theories of evolution development of a complex computer program. or an almost entire. which indicates that the men are the cause of the majority of the hereditary diseases.. there are always backup copies in case the introduced changes do not manage to obtain the anticipated result. at the same time.   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION "As the scientists from the Centre for Demographic and Population Genetics in the University of Texas (USA) have explained: "Men suffer more genetic mutations because they produce more sperm than women produce ova" El País 12-05-1993. but The evolutionary progress is also produced in them" El País 19-02-2001. Conference of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Nevertheless. there will always be the two methods or more. nothing prevents that when a modification to the genetic code is carried out it cannot be incorporated maintaining. although.   It is possible that there is a full. the technical and scientific progress of biology and genetics will have the last words on this matter of guarantee and certainty in the evolution of living beings and the particular case of the evolution of man. Without a doubt. Nature. Sexual differentiation in the case of evolution of man could be similar to those computer programs developed by multiple programmers. keeping in mind the enormous casuistry present in nature. as always. it is not strictly necessary for GTCEL proposals because. the previous code. in highly related functions it probably does not exit so much flexibility in the development of the new living being. However. initially. backup copy of the genome mentioned in the previous paragraph.

some normal descendents. unexpected are some of the descriptions for this discovery.. Spectacular. .A scientist believes that the mechanism can also occur in people.. and the evolution (in its most subtle aspects) seems to have played more with the alteration of those corrections (splicing) than with the duplication of whole genes" El País 05-04-2002. on average.The experts think that there is a backup copy of RNA for all of the genomes. larger and more complicated than those of plants. they have. Each gene can correct itself in various ways….. as though an unknown mechanism." El País 30-03-2005. based on a mysterious backup copy.. Nature. however.The discovery presents a puzzle for the evolutionary theory.     NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION " .Genetics and theories of evolution     NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION "Plants that contradict the laws of Mendel.The genes of animals are.. . . had recuperated the correct sequence in its genes.. marvelous.. strange... Some genetically defective plants in both lines..       31/05/2010 Página 72 .

Indeed. Let us see some examples to show the advantages of sexual differentiation: Computer spaceships Errors in spaceships or other expensive machines can suppose a high material and personal cost. because it would be much more improbable that two computers failed simultaneously and with identical deviation. complementary and much more powerful than the previous one. If.. the truly central aspect is not the particular mechanism Nature uses to carry out the analysis and comparison of the genetic variation of the two genetic sources with sexual differentiation but the concept of the utility of this method. that we will denominate VGI method (Verification of the Genetic Information). In the improbable. therefore. If the two people tell the same number or date. Sexual differentiation and VGI method A second characteristic of sexual differentiation.2. by comparing or filtering the two sources.. The fundamental advantage is that VIG method verifies the genetic information when is essential to avoid errors. In the theory of evolution. we would seek the certainty. sexual differentiation offers the existence of two different sources of genetic information. allows Nature to decide in each case which of the two genetic sources it should use. Complex calculations An example with two sources of intelligence could be asking two people the result of a relatively complex calculation or an exact date of an event. even in human evolution. that one of them failed. we could be almost sure that both 31/05/2010 Página 73 .Genetics and theories of evolution   IV. we could assume well enough the result of the other two. as far as possible.a). we would be able to verify the results of the operations and be sure they are correct. we used three identical computers. although possible case. The verification takes place. nature only has two sexes available for the moment. We have just made a verification of the information between 3 different sources. that no error will take place. how to take maximum advantage of the existence of that double source of genetic information with the sexual differentiation. in other words. however. when doing the complicated computer calculations.

we have commented sexual differentiation. Neural networks Before. it is not to surprising the relevance of the conscious or unconscious mechanisms in sexual selection. in human evolution it is as if the operability of the genetic information of both ancestors would change. I say cells for expositive clarity solely. With this configuration.Genetics and theories of evolution have given the correct answer. in those cases of inconsistency some alternative must be available to choose a particular answer. Secondly. it allows us to take advantage of the two sets of genetic information. The mechanism to carry out the method of Verification of the Genetic Information of sexual differentiation can be as simple as to verify if both "genes" or functional genetic code produce the same protein or not. half of which has been designed with the genetic information of an ancestor and the rest of neurons with the genetic information of the other ancestor. even cognitive functions of different nature. Of course. a human cognitive process could decide on the bases of the first one hundred thousand answers. because. although can be relatively easy to be mistaken in a complex question. sexual differentiation appears as a necessity of Nature when arriving at a certain degree of complexity of the development of living beings. Now we are going to suppose that some Nature functions in human evolution uses two billion little computers or neurons. It would not be impossible that a cerebral operation in some occasions responds to the design of our example of human evolution. consequently. has only two sexes when we put the example of the three computers. Consequently. Firstly. This last example presents numerous advantages with respect to the pure selection of one or another inherited genetic code. remaining the whole potential at the same time. as in human evolution. the maximum potential of the two genetic sources. First. it is possible to apply the method of Verification of the Genetic Information and to work without its application. In fact. it will be easier to maintain the indicated operative flexibility in 31/05/2010 Página 74 . For example. serve for different cognitive functions. depending on the different filters or conditions applied. Insofar as what is possible the method of Verification of Genetic Information will work maintaining the compatibility of different filters or conditions on cognitive processes and. to commit exactly the same error is much more difficult. Admitted the importance of method VGI and sexual differentiation. the same group of cells.

  NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION "In any combination.     Relational intelligence Direct logic is composed of multiple sub functions or particular types of intelligence without a doubt. quality of the different materials employed. the type of terrain. As you can see. while if it were not operative it would be 145. the height of a building. Now. The other half. each parent passes on only half of his or her genes to their daughter whose olfactory preferences are defined exclusively by the combination of genes that the father has passed on. etc. And the mother’s genes also…" El País 23-01-2002. macroscopic and microscopic.Genetics and theories of evolution characteristics associated with continuous variables than with discreet variables. let show more examples to fully understand the VGI method and the advantages of sexual differentiation. depends on many factors such as the depth and surface of the cement.   For example. that the father has but the daughter does not. is irrelevant. the potential of the descendant would be 90. both having common cognitive functions equivalent to a potential of 90. If formal logic were a characteristic for which nature applies the VGI method. The gene or genetic code of progenitor A has a potential of 105 and 130 the gene of progenitor B. these calculations are equivalents to those of 31/05/2010 Página 75 . a continuous variable. in genetics will often be a group of somewhat complex characteristics due to the different scales in which we move. Nature Genetics. Bearing in mind that what we identify as one characteristic.

With sexual differentiation. e} Nevertheless. b. b. h} the descendant will have the intellectual potential corresponding solely to the function {a}. the descendant will have the potential corresponding to the cognitive functions {a. if VGI method were not operative would have the intellectual potential {a. g. c. h} This example is the simplest and the best to understand the differences with sexual differentiation and the pure mendelian genetics significance. d. f. d. c. Automobile brakes This example is fully explained in the Web page about dominant and recessive genes within sexual differentiation while talking about “evolution of cars” Math example with letters The genetic code of a progenitor has the basic human cognitive functions: {a. c. If VGI method were not applied would have the potential {a. f. e}. c}. b. if method of Verification of Genetic Information is applied and the genetic code of the other ancestor is {a. if VGI method is applied and the genetic code of the other ancestor is {a. On the opposite case. e. method VGI and Mendel's law interact.Genetics and theories of evolution the theory of groups as regards math intersection and addition. c}. 31/05/2010 Página 76 . g. d. b. The next point shows how the two concepts. b.

    The column to the left shows the potential of the two progenitors associated with the genetic codes represented in the next column. I have also eliminated evolution. and the lower without the application of this method.Genetics and theories of evolution     Mendelian genetics To simplify. of the genes or genetic codes that would always transmit genes with slightly greater potential to descendants. strictly speaking. in the following diagram of Mendelian genetics and sexual differentiation we will assume that the genetic code of greater potential always includes a 100% of the potential associated with the other genetic code. 31/05/2010 Página 77 . the upper part with the application of the Verification of the Genetic Information method.

In certain cases. the genetic codes transmitted to the descendants will have the same potential. given that the VGI method. Lastly. the potential of the progenitors is equal to the potential of the genetic code lesser potential when using the VGI method. the smaller gene will be significant when the VGI method is applied. what will be truly significant is the intersection that we have seen in the figure of the math’s theory of groups. and to the genetic code with the greater potential when not using this method. It is worth pointing out that I am analyzing a specific method of evolution within sexual differentiation and I am not trying to generalize it at any time. The third column graphically represents the four possible combinations of the progenitor's genes in accordance with Gregor Mendel's law. This behavior will be relevant to the extent that the greater gene includes the gene with less potential. although it could be very common. in the column to the right are the potentials associated with the descendant's genes. Likewise. The behavior will be somewhat different of the Mendelian significance and will depend on the potential of the pair gene.Genetics and theories of evolution In accordance with our definitions. The maximum potential will be that of the second most powerful gene whenever it is not from the same progenitor with the most powerful 31/05/2010 Página 78 . The following consequences about Mendelian genetic combination and sexual differentiation can be inferred from the analysis of the previous diagram: The inherited potential relate to the progenitors' two genes. refers to the way of showing the potential of the individuals and not that of the genetic code. the genetic potential fully maintains. In other words. without either of them acting as dominant or recessive genes as in Mendelian genetics. this situation can be observed when applying the VGI method for gene B of progenitor 1 given that is not the significant gene of descendent 3. indicating that whether the Verification of the Genetic Information method is applied or not. depending on the operability of the specific functions that it carries out. and that it is of descendant 4. The upper part is with the application of the Verification of the Genetic Information method and the lower is without its application. When the Verification of the Genetic Information method is applied: There is a 50% probability that the descendants' potential will be the same as the lesser of the progenitor's potentials.

Genetics and theories of evolution gene. in this case.     31/05/2010 Página 79 . it is convenient to mention here that the EDI Study on evolution and design of intelligence with sexual differentiation empirically confirms the existence of Verification of the Genetic Information method and an additional hypothesis relating sexual selection. The minimum potential will be that of the second less powerful gene whenever it is not from the same progenitor with the least powerful gene of all. Keeping in mind that. for intelligence. these could however be useful for empirical verification if we had appropriate indicators. I believe that it particularly uses VGI method for the characteristics measured by an intelligence test and for what I call math memory. more exactly of the difference between the intersection and the addition of the potential of both genetic sources. in this case. intuition is more powerful than intelligence and less reliable. as we have seen. Finally. the maximum potential referred to will be equal to the second less powerful gene. As we know. For linguistic memory and for musical abilities I think that the VGI method is not applied. These consequences about Mendelian genetic combination and sexual differentiation may allow us to check empirically the real existence of this evolutionary method and indirectly the theory that supports it. and it will depend on the quantitative difference between the two genetic codes. Nature constructs organs according to both genetic sources. When the Verification of the Genetic Information method is not applied: The descendants' potential has a 50% probability of being equal to that of the progenitor with the greater potential. through the corresponding statistical analysis of specific cases of sexual differentiation in which I think that Nature does or does not apply the VGI method. the minimum potential referred to will be equal to the second most powerful gene. and in the case of not requiring certainty of responses (the opposite of intelligence in strict sense of the word). a memory with almost absolute security. we would find ourselves with intuition.

These parasites.2. and that has made modifications in its internal mechanics in order to create some more efficient proteins for its membrane and that obviously has them in its phenotype. and.   Obviously. 'mobile elements’ that go leaping through the genome and inserting new copies of themselves during the trip.b) Genotype and phenotype IV. as any living being would do. Improvement in efficacy Teleological or finalist evolution If the existence of non-random genetic variability in the genotype is accepted and. surely these aspects are counted by the millions in superior animals. the most efficient improvements will be more successful in life and in the mechanism of natural selection.   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION "Our chromosomes are plagued by hitch-hikers. that the majority of them cannot be random in genomes or complex systems due to the interrelation that they will necessarily have. but the origin of evolution is the initial improvement through the non-random genetic variability. and much less in the case of an evolutionary leap that can generate what is known as the missing link. which make up almost half of the human genome. There are always aspects that can be improved in the phenotype and not only for environmental purposes.2. with a small modification. a cell that has had to maintain throughout its entire life a much harder membrane than what was initially anticipated.1.    For example. indeed. with independent functions and created by two different genes belonging to the genotype. If it can. one of 31/05/2010 Página 80 .b.Genetics and theories of evolution   IV. similar in their structure. in cellular biology we can imagine the existence of two proteins. destroy but also create" El País 28-02-2001. it is easy to accept the modifications in the genotype due to environmental conditions as Lamarck suggested. will transmit this information to its descendents through the genotype.

it should be for some reason or cause and there will be a moment in which its significance has been determined. it will incorporate information of interdependence between different parts of the genotype or genetic code. in some way. when they are performed. A similar classic example could be the existence of markers of when a gene has to behave like a dominant gene. This small modification will mean an improvement in efficiency given that it will allow the suppression of the necessary genetic code to create the now redundant protein.   Much to learn. such as from how many ancient generations have a part of the genotype or genetic code or if a certain part of the genotype is considered to be of a structural nature. In some way. The genetic information or genotype not only is made up of instructions in order to develop the new being but rather it will also incorporate conditions of development of such instructions. that is. it is what is known as epigenetic. of life. they determine how this information should be expressed. although it is very doubtful because we will have a problem when the two genes have that marker of expression in the phenotype. Davidson. Eric H.   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION The genes of each organism include all of the information for the properties of said organism and they also encode regulatory instructions that. which would be similar to marking it as dominant but conceptually different. What is indeed more feasible is that it incorporates related information. there should be a mechanism that allows us to choose the optimal genotype or source in each particular case. that the 31/05/2010 Página 81 . "Scientific advancement and society." El País 26-11-1992. in short. If a gene is operative or significant.Genetics and theories of evolution them can perform both tasks. Sexual differentiation On the other hand. the sexual differentiation allows us to choose between two lines of a different evolution to achieve the objective of improvement of the living beings and. In addition.

The backup copy Currently. nature will be ready to continue adding small modifications in the genotype that may improve and expand the capabilities of the living being. we could carry out many more modifications than the contrary. the rejection to what the evolutionary leap may have produced by random mutations is much greater since it would greatly impede the existence of a certain missing link or of large gaps in the fossil registry. It seems that nature does not eliminate the part of the genetic code that has been modified but rather keeps a copy just in case. but an experienced programmer would perfectly understand the different uses that can be given to a non-operative code in the configuration of any computer program. it is adding code that performs additional functions or improves the efficiency of the functions already present in the program. suffice to recall one of the presentations in print about the human genome where that which attracted the most attention was how small it was and the number of nonoperative genetic codes that the Y chromosome has. Just like any programmer. if we living beings had this related information and methods that allow us to reduce the risk of the introduction of new genetic information in our genotype due to the consequences that it can have for the new being while developing the phenotype. the part of the operative code of the genotype and that which isn’t have to be marked or identified in some way. but there comes a time when the programmer realizes that many additions have 31/05/2010 Página 82 . These steps are produced in any vital impulse system. Once the evolutionary leap is produced. it is accepted that a great part of the genetic code contained in the genotype is used in the development of the new being. Once this rationalization is carried out. In any case. even if they produce the same result. As it is being programmed. Evolutionary leaps and the missing link Another argument to improve efficiency of the genetic information  provides us with the commonly called evolutionary leap. in the first moments there will be infinity of redundant genetic code and of functions that are carried out in different ways. the next step of the evolutionary genetics in the restructuring occurrence will be a simplification and systemization of the genetic code. It is not very well known why it is wanted. and an example would be that of a computer program which is the easiest to understand.Genetics and theories of evolution development of a part in the phenotype implies the development of all of the marked or identified parts by any other method or mechanism. In these cases. regardless of whatever has been its reason and if it causes a missing link or not.

Then it makes restructuring necessary – a qualitative leap or evolutionary leap that. It is imaginable that this fact has been presented to nature on many occasions throughout history. let’s think.Genetics and theories of evolution common or very similar parts and that each time it modifies one of them. will be more than profitable. However. 31/05/2010 Página 83 . but with individual advantages. about the enactment of the Spanish Constitution and all of its effects on the laws derived from the Spanish judicial system. And certainly. Furthermore. it is pretty unimaginable that it can be produced by the simple mechanism of random mutations followed by natural selection. for example. into just one program. to maintain the coherence of the program and allow it to continue adding functions. the reader can think of real examples in his/her normal or professional life in which he/she has followed a similar process. even if it means considerable work. Another example even more clarifying is the work of a programmer when he/she is requested to join two similar existing programs. causing the appearance of a supposed missing link. it should modify each one of the existing functions. Surely. usually the new version will be pretty different from the previous. he/she will also find historic events with similar dynamics.

Genetics and theories of evolution

IV.2.b.2. Optimization of evolution since the origin of life  

Scarcity of resources and natural selection Undoubtedly, nature finds itself in a world where resources are scarce and most of the time must be utilized in surviving, and the survival of the descendents is not guaranteed. The vital impulse systems have the nature of needing to evolve as quickly as possible in the genotype, and it is not always enough to do it well but, at times, they have to be the best because the mechanism of natural selection can have a lot of power and acts as the termination of the system, eliminating the slowest in obtaining the greatest power over the real world, adapting themselves to their surroundings and adapting the surroundings to them. In other words, one of the most important functions of the natural selection is acting as an accelerator in evolution. One characteristic derived from the velocity of evolution and of the scarcity of resources from the origin of life is the optimization of the evolutionary resources given that it allows increasing the mentioned velocity. These two characteristics have a special force due to the very design of life that imposes a constant competition and struggle among the beings. Due to such an enormous importance, these characteristics go on to be considered true objectives of the evolution of the vital impulse systems. Regardless of the previous, there is a metaphysical question that directly implies the speed in evolving as an important objective. Why does the design of life in this world imply that many living beings feed on other living beings and many of them end in a cruel way? Sexual differentiation and germline evolution The sexual differentiation adopts (apart from the other multiple considerations) a means of speeding up the changes in the genotype to make it possible to incorporate in the genetic information certain functions that come from the genotype and phenotype of other living beings. When the genetic information is unnecessarily transmitted from another being, only the experience of an individual is incorporated and a new generation is necessary in order to incorporate the experience of another


Página 84

Genetics and theories of evolution

individual to the genotype, the evolution of just one line is very slow. If different experiences or developed genotypes in phenotypes manage to join together, evolution will be much quicker and richer; it would imply the genetic combination with genotypes of other individuals that will have included some variations of their phenotype and the possibility of using the verification method of the genetic information (VGI). The graphic shows us the difference of the incorporation of new genetic modifications with germline evolution or with sexual differentiation during new generations and the genetic importance that it can have… Assuming that all of the individuals or beings had the same genetic code or genotype in the 0 moment, after 6 generations, the accumulated modifications would be the third part with germline evolution than with sexual differentiation; after nine, the ninth part...


Obviously, evolution of external origin will be so much greater the more mature the individual is, especially in those improvements that may affect functions that are only experienced in the adult stage. This effect could be the biological and not the cultural justification of the observation in which, in many species, the females prefer the genotypes of adult males, in contrast to the males who prefer them young because they have a stronger body to carry out the difficult and complicated task of the initial development of the new being. An intermediate method between the germline evolution and the sexual differentiation is the primary or endogamic sexual differentiation. For example, bees have males but they always fertilize the queen of the beehive. In this case, it is more probable that a sex passes a whole backup copy and the other provides some type of improvement in the genotype. By having this endogamic nature, the verification method of genetic information VGI would not be able to be applied, at least as we have described it; it could be applied, in any case, with a generational delay in a way that the verification is carried out between modifications of different generations.


Página 85

Genetics and theories of evolution

On the other hand, the fact of the VGI not being applied assumes that one should look for the certainty of the goodness of the modifications by other means; it could be that of exhaustive testing, since this takes a lot of time and work, the sex responsible for producing modification should unload heavy jobs that occupy the organism. It can also be that their flight is freer than the bees that are always working, and by being freer, they practice and improve the techniques of flight. Finally, the topic of the famous “drones” will have some explanation because I am aware that this paragraph is pure speculation.

NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION " Solution for an enigma of the bees presented 150 years ago. ...The csd gene is an important invention that allowed the evolution of the ants, bees and wasps just like their complex societies in allowing the evolution of the haplodiploid."
El País 10-09-2003. Cell.

  Importance of the optimization of the genotype Going back to the topic of the genetic importance of the optimization of resources, any repetition of an evolutionary step or genotype is a step back in that it is a waste of time, energy and resources.

NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION "It simply deals with getting the best performance possible from the investments made, whether they be of time or efforts"
El País 02-10-2002. National Conference of Ethology.

This could be the cause for which some species sacrifice the male after the union so that that the repetition of the mentioned evolutionary step will be impossible. It is viewed that nature takes this objective very seriously.


Página 86

... The example is a type of brown rats.     NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION "We don’t question the theory of evolution. it is possible that a modification may be developed in a generation subsequent to the following and even impose this condition in order to guarantee that the changes carried out be considered operative after testing their usefulness in more than one generation. the key concept is that those acquired characters must have passed through the sperm or ovules. Journal of Neuroscience." El País 20-05-08 Big broken dogmas.. the enormous evolutionary advantage of adapting oneself to different environments by means of the mechanism of selectively killing brain cells before the birth is that the animal retains the capacity of recuperating the eliminated features if its environment changes suddenly. Journal of Neuroscience. but.Some experimental studies show the existence of some acquired characters. . I have already cited the possibility of associating conditions of effective development of nature modified according to the existence or lack of existence of other related traits. So. That is why the domestic cat could again develop color vision if it had to go back to hunting during the day" El País 15-01-1993.   Likewise..Genetics and theories of evolution       NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION "A study about the Spanish mountain cat proposes to modify the theory of evolution" El País 10-01-1993..     NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION "The inheritance of the acquired characters. 31/05/2010 Página 87 . .

a waste of time. about the genetic changes of environmental origin. if these changes were directly operative in the following generation we would run the risk of having to undo these genetic changes if the environmental changes are not stable on a long-term basis. in short. 31/05/2010 Página 88 . let’s think. for example.Genetics and theories of evolution This mechanism can be justified from the angle of the objective of speed and optimization of evolution. and also undo all of the changes and adjustments derived from them.

. when it comes to developing the phenotype. it deals with the case of the children that could have two parents that in turn are siblings. with numerous random mutations in each generation.   31/05/2010 Página 89 . the genotype would be a little chaotic.the small human chromosome Y completely arranged in sequence... as a filter will not be carried out efficiently enough. The VGI method is applied but. that is. The number of modifications in the genotype that are carried out in each generation is so high that if the VGI method cannot be effectively applied the new individual would not have great future perspectives.. with the verification method of genetic information VGI and others. ... .. and natural selection does not allow this type of errors.contains 78 of approximately 30. in functions that practically cannot accept random changes. Nature.   The effect of random mutations on the phenotype would be more serious when we talk about the vital functions while keeping in mind the complexity and sensitivity of the system. The aforementioned fact has a heightened genetic importance by assuming obvious proof of the quantity of modifications that are carried out in each generation and indirectly of its non-randomness since. which will cause visible and significant damage in the descendents. not for us but for nature.. It has been calculated that in just one generation the chromosome Y alters in 600 units" El País 21-06-2003. many more modifications can be made in the genotype without putting the viability of the new being or phenotype in danger.. for there being numerous recent and common modifications.000 genes that make up the human genome. given that a small error would be enough to bring about the death or non-survival of the new individual.   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION " . its function. given that in nature we count on cases in which occurs exactly what we are discussing.Genetics and theories of evolution     Genetic variability and phenotype As I have discussed in the section of Guarantee and Certainty.. This is a verified fact.

. Russia and France publish today in Science the most general analysis carried out until now on the human genetic diversity..     31/05/2010 Página 90 . In each person they have analyzed 377 markers in the DNA (called microsatelites) which evolve especially fast.   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION "95% of the current genetic variability already existed when the species was born. if the changes were always due to random mutations the verification method of genetic information VGI would not make sense.." El País 20-12-2002. Seven scientists of the United States.Genetics and theories of evolution We can find examples of random mutations or really random modifications and with devastating effects in historical events. and therefore detect any minimum hereditary variation that has occurred since the current humans emerged in   Africa. In the statistical study EDI on intelligence.. Science.000 years ago.. due to the magnitude of the genetic code. Moreover. some 50. rarely would they be produced in the same position. it clearly shows the existence of the verification method of the genetic information..   In complex systems. the only way to get close to total certainty of a specific aspect is its comparison with an independent source.. given that. such as the dropping of the atomic bombs at the end of the Second World War in Japan and in the movies in the 1950s of the past century..

    We should bear in mind that the concept of dominant gene implies a certain amount of discrimination against the character that is forming in the new being. With reference to the examples used to explain the mendelian genetics.b.Dominant and recessive genes   The example with the brakes in the evolution of is very interesting because it makes one reflect on the real nature.3.2. for example. faster. To make it easier to understand. Let us consider the next example about the mendelian significance of dominant and recessive character. and the instrumental behavior. I have used mechanics in evolution of cars as an analogy: Two types of genes exist for the particular characteristic of our car: gene type B and gene type B+A Gene type B contains the technical specifications for the car's basic brakes Gene type B+A (as well as the car's basic brakes) also incorporates the technical specifications for ABS brakes (hereinafter referred to as ABS t.Genetics and theories of evolution   IV. or safer evolution. which will finally lead to a better. of dominant or recessive genes included in genetic code. Regarding the molecular mechanism in which dominant genes function.s.) The possible mendelian combinations of the two types of genes would be the following concerning the significance and genetic expression of the genes: 31/05/2010 Página 91 . or whether we are talking about an old-fashioned and rather basic concept which should be further defined based on. its function within the framework of genetic evolution. We must therefore examine the possible causes of this discrimination. I have always wondered which of the genes would express if both genes of both parents were dominant genes or if both were recessive genes. we must first ask ourselves whether the character of dominant or recessive genes is clearly understood.

gene type B+A would be a dominant gene compared with type B and a recessive gene 31/05/2010 Página 92 . we can be sure that practically no fault exists.s. it will always manifest itself and it is still more evolved (modern) than type B. 2. as previously stated. Note that gene type B is the least evolved of the two in our example. is not essential in both genes. it is only an advantage and poses no risk. to coincide in both genes. The dominant genes are the modern ones Now let us consider the opposite case (case 2) .. It is obviously imperative to guarantee the commercial reliability of the new car (including the avoidance of accidents) that the brakes must always work (either the basic or the basic + ABS). the dominant genes are type B+A. Therefore. because it is present. as it is impossible. as any fault would not harm the basic brakes or the car.s.s. If they coincide. brakes. The dominant genes are the less evolved ones Let us assume that in the event of faulty ABS t.B+A+M. when installing ABS brakes. the ABS brakes cease to function but the basic brakes are not affected. As we can see. the dominant genes from the first case have become recessive genes and the recessive genes have become dominant genes.that in the event of faulty ABS t. This gene type has more modern (powerful) technical specifications than ABS. one must be absolutely convinced that the technical specifications are correct. we would find that gene type B+A would be a recessive gene compared with type B and a dominant gene compared with type B+A+M. This implies that a dominant or recessive character is a relative concept. for the ABS t. as if they are operational. This means that in order to guarantee the commercial reliability of the new vehicle the presence of ABS t.s. Now agree to add a new gene type . On the other hand. for case 2.s.this is case 1. but is not identical in both the result will be a lack of ABS brakes. or if ABS t. neither of the brake systems would work (not even the basic) . Thus. Only comparing the technical specifications in both genes can only ensure this. as it would be difficult for them to coincide in one particular fault. In this last case. In the example at case 1.Genetics and theories of evolution 1. Consequently. is included in both genes. in case 1 the dominant gene is type B because its presence forces normal brakes to develop.s. If one of the genes does not include ABS t. the car would be manufactured with ABS brakes. if only one B+A gene type exists.

All of the above is in fact a very simplistic explanation. if both genes are type B+A and no mistake is detected when verifying the technical specifications. the recessive character of gene type B+A could develop both basic and ABS brakes. In case 1. but although they have been evolving for millions of years. How many combinations of direct descendants would be necessary for the Windows 3. Do not forget that nowadays the generally accepted school of thought is that the evolutionary process depends on a combination of random mechanisms and natural selection. their evolution has not been particularly great. bearing in mind that millions and millions of baby insects are born in short periods. An example of a molecular mechanism that allows the incorporation of this genetic mark would be histones (pieces of ADN) studied by modern molecular biology.  which continue without giving any kind of argument about why genes are dominant or recessive under different conditions. In case 2. And much less simplistic than co-dominant and co-recessive. In my opinion.Genetics and theories of evolution compared with type B+A+M. although not as simplistic perhaps as the old-fashioned concept of the dominant gene or recessive gene. the evolution of man has just been the opposite.11 code to evolve into the Windows 95 code using a evolutionary process based on random mutations? How many combinations would be necessary for the technical specifications of basic car brakes to convert into ABS brakes in the evolution of cars? 31/05/2010 Página 93 . Here we faced the same dilemma . I assume that nature has come across all types of cases (similar to. due to the dominant character of the gene type B the result is basic brakes and. the evolution of the human brain has been enormous. In fact. this line of thinking could apply to the evolution of insects. Now let us discuss whether the dominant genes compensate for the recessive genes or solely the dominant genes express. There have been only 2000 generations of human descendants (if one accepts that modern humans have only existed for 40000 or 50000 years). the dominant character of gene type B+A develops both types of brakes and the recessive character of gene type B. a genetic sign (mark) is necessary to establish the kind of behavior or character . Either way. and different from cases 1 and 2).the answer is that it depends. although few children are born per generation. a particular DNA chain is compulsory. In the genetic makeup of a new being. only basic other words.

Examples of the oldest artistic activity known until now. Science / Journal of Human Evolution.   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION "The discovery of various pieces of ochre carved with geometric motifs in a South African cave over the Indian ocean leads us to believe that modern human behavior originated at least 77. This minor change would lead to recognition of the intrinsic dynamics of genetic evolution of vital impulse systems. were much more modern but also more convincing" El País 11-01-2002.       31/05/2010 Página 94 .Genetics and theories of evolution I believe that we should change our philosophical ideas surrounding genetics and evolution. the cave paintings in Spain and France.000 years ago during the African stone age.

The existence of random genetic variability or random mutations in the evolution of the species would mean that they would affect the structural code. especially in extremely complex cases of the evolution of the species. for which. but in a controlled way. 31/05/2010 Página 95 . helping us to understand the expressed ideas. a great number of repeated sequences and without a known function that make up 50% of the total (the genes would only represent 1..Genetics and theories of evolution   IV. Any modification or improvement in the evolution of the species has to be compatible with the rest of the transmitted genome..There is also in the human genome many proteins related to the defense system of the organism and.   "A year after the official presentation of the rough sketch of the human genome.. nature is extending the range of possibilities but without affecting those functions that require uniformity and coherence. such as that of the human genome. There should be a set of genes or pieces of genetic code of the genotype that is very constant due to being common to a large quantity of vital processes and. The random method in the evolution of the species is always admissible if when the random mutations happen..." El País 20-02-2002.2. For this reason. especially. we can call this set a structural code. whose modification would affect all of them. it is interesting to think that all of the comments apply almost without exception to the human genome. the genetic modifications generally cannot be random.d) Internal coherence and compatibility: evolution of the species Isomorphism in the evolution of the species The first indication of compatibility of the genetic system in the origin and evolution of the species gives us the fact of the uniformity in its language: the DNA.. A typical and more known case by all of us is that of the human genome. The effects would be disastrous for the development of the new being.5%). or are allowed or created. in good logic. that is.    NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION . within the specific processes and mechanisms.

Putting it another way. moreover. an instrument for achieving necessary uniformity and coherence between the two sources of genetic information.Genetics and theories of evolution The existence in the evolution of the species of minimally uncontrolled random mutations in the genome by its nature should lead us to the existence of spiders with 4. The observable isomorphism in the evolution of the species. in short. For being about a new function. it complicates and. It should be normal to find animals of the same species with different number of legs and humans with 3 arms. it cannot be associated with the condition of verification in the evolution of the species. especially of the most complex. the necessity of a certain protein. 6 or more than 8 legs in nature but with all of the other traits of spiders. such as incorporating this modification to a certain proportion of the descendents. Sexual differentiation means (apart from other numerous considerations) and the Verification of Genetic Information method (VGI method) in particular. at the same time. should be a common example. certain traits make up its structure. as the case of the human genome would be. for example. a new being does not acquire this new function. Modern genetics is indeed acquiring this type of mutations in inferior animals. as a result of the combination of genes. When a system evolves. Eventually this structure of the genotype becomes ancient and there comes a time when it is necessary to change some elements of the structure in order to allow the simplification of complicated processes and increase the evolutionary potential of the species. by its own definition. which will necessarily imply a change of what we have called the structural code of the genotype. Either it will have been tested by simulation or other condition of control will be joined for the case of error. the origin of new species. etc. by some means we have to justify the existence of the human genome. given that the dependent traits will remain blocked in the phenotype. The fast evolution of the species that will follow a structural change will produce traits related and dependent on the new functions. it will not survive. If. they should be born more or less continuously over time. the functioning of many others depending on it. Evolutionary leap such as the origin of new species An aspect related to coherence is the necessity for evolutionary leaps. The coherence of the modifications has to also be achieved concerning the genetic information that the other parent can transmit. 31/05/2010 Página 96 .

is usually marked in people.. Nature.000.. an evolutionary leap implying the origin of specie. These genes are reminiscent of the past because all of the individuals with the new structure and those genes of the two parents have not been viable. one case out of every 10.. their balance is recommended given that the resulting potential will be greater. could respond perfectly to this argument. This is a radical concept in genetics. it can sound like natural selection because any mechanism that impedes the viability of a being could be considered making up a part of the natural selection.. since usually they are due to the lack of a protein in the phenotype or organism by two very archaic genes together. conditions of effective development of the modified trait could be set up according to the existence or lack of other related traits. The very rare diseases. In theory. but it would be nothing more than abuse of the concept in its purest tautological form. Because until now. When two traits are perfectly complementary.Genetics and theories of evolution In this way. cancers caused by healthy genes had not been seen" El País 26-04-1993.000 or 100. The balance of complementary traits is also related to coherence and could cause. in certain assumptions... the distancing of the new species will begin which will be compatible with the initial species during a certain period but evolution will finish by making them incompatible for reproductive purposes and it will cause their complete separation and the origin of new species. similar to the insulin (IGF2). but when it loses that marking and is activated it produces a form of cancer in infants called Wilm’s tumor. as always.   Of course.   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION "The responsible gene of a protein called growth factor 2. The marked IGF2 from the mother normally is not active in the child. the resulting potential 31/05/2010 Página 97 . Complementary traits and the origin of the species To extend the field of possible improvements in the evolution of the species. The previous figure shows the effect of the factor of complementarity on the potential of a particular characteristic in the evolution of the species.

since in the figure it is clearly shown how the maximum difference of potential of every trait isolated is found in the relationship 9 / 3 = 3 and.Genetics and theories of evolution should be greater than the simple addition of the potential of the traits considered separately. and only with the introduction of another trait or function could it be passed from the individual relationship of 3 to the relationship for the global potential of 729 / 27 = 27. one should pay special attention on how they are placed so that they all fit. the volume in 2 units and the number of objects in 12 by the effect of complementarity. as is precisely the case with the intelligence and the memory.     A familiar analogy for almost all of us is the trunk of a car: when going on a long trip and with many pieces of junk. we would see that the ability has increased in a unit. an example is shown where it is assumed that the resulting potential is the product of the potential individuals. the more things that can be put inside. it has been tripled. This effect is of extreme importance. Obviously. it could be assumed that each additional unit – a typical example can be human genome of intelligence will increase the total potential not in a unit but rather in the quantity of the total memory. when we look at the global potential. In the graphic. In assessing the effect for greater clarity. if the ability passes from 3 to 4 objects by unit of volume. and the volume of 4 to 6 units. the greater ability we have and the bigger the trunk is. the relationship is transformed to 81/9 = 9. If we think about the complementarity of intelligence and memory. We can imagine the enormous differences that can be produced in the potential associated with multifunctional concepts. 31/05/2010 Página 98 .

Genetics and theories of evolution Now. one of them lives mainly in the trees. and the subsequent mechanisms that will be triggered will end up separating the new species from the previous.     31/05/2010 Página 99 . The only problem for the baby of the new specie will be to find its missing link because it has never existed. they genetically mix the three species and the mix is produced through their more extremely gifted individuals. it is easy to imagine that the descendents could acquire traits very superior to their ancestors. at a certain moment. If. another on the ground and another in a zone with great abundance of food during a long period of time which makes it so that this species dedicates more time than usual to the contemplative life. we can imagine that three different ape species live in a relatively close habitat.

.   In fact. the genetic variability is due to random mutations.the behavior of animals is always logical because it is the product of an evolutionary strategy.. it seems that the random character of genetic variability is due to not understanding their cause and full functionality or the way they really work. for the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life it is not possible this character of the genetic variations." El País 02-10-2002. Genetic variability The main reason of proposing a complete new theory of evolution is the different approach to the origin and sources of the genetic variability..   These ideas about complexity in evolutionary biology are explained in the objectives of the evolution section.   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION Sydney Brenner Nobel Prize in Medicine 2002 “ We know almost nothing about the human genome" El País 18-09-2003.   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION “. Congreso Nacional de Etología. 31/05/2010 Página 100 . so.. bearing in mind the complexity of the living beings and their quick evolution time line.Genetics and theories of evolution   IV. the unknown is random for pure conventionalism.3. While for the Darwinian theory of evolution.

the study of the genetic variability is a functional analysis and not in its chemical or biochemical composition. I am referring to the genetic information transmitted and. in this sense the genetic information can be assimilated to the following concepts or examples: Source code of a computer program Technical definitions buildings Technical definitions of a car User instructions of a computer program     31/05/2010 Página 101 . Finally.a) Concept.   Genetic variability (Public domain image)   Another one is that when I say "gene".Genetics and theories of evolution   IV. therefore. The first precision about genetic information is that I am referring to the genetic information that has been or will transmit to progenitors or descendants. that this one could be in different genes unless it is mentioned the opposite.3. origin and sources of genetic variability There is a problem in the terminology of evolutionary biology along with genetic variability because it normally has the meaning that uses the Darwin theory of evolution.

  RNA genes that do not encode proteins. …we have the genes that encode proteins from DNA and the …The RNA molecules are pieces of a jigsaw puzzle that make up an unknown image” El País 10-09-2003. 31/05/2010 Página 102 . …Nowadays it is very difficult to provide a precise definition of what a gene is.Genetics and theories of evolution   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION “The concealed face of the genome.

to know the consequences of any future change or variation Keep genetic code not operative for possible future utilisation Cohesion and compatibility Associate the condition of verification of the genetic information with the genetic information of the other progenitor in the cases of sexual differentiation Balance development of genes with the complementary characters Optimisation To make risky modifications of genetic information relying in the mechanism of natural selection To make risky modifications of genetic information relying in the use of the method of Verification of the Genetic Information Genetic variations to improve the use of the resources Depending on the methods of genetic evolution: See type of methods.Genetics and theories of evolution   IV. Origin of genetic variability Accidental or random mutations/ directed Internal / external (to the individual) Endogenous (to the genetic system) / exogenous (environmental) By the nature or expression of genetic variations 31/05/2010 Página 103 .3.b) Types of genetic variability Let us see some of the multiples classifications of genetic modifications that can be done in evolutionary biology: Genetic variations derived from the objectives of the evolutionary system: Improve the efficacy Improvement characteristics of materials: new proteins Rationalisation and simplification of the structure of the genetic code Improve the functionality of any element of the genetic information Guaranty and security To create different genetic variations to deal with changes in environment Associate the idea of structural genetic information to some of it.

) / additive / special Variations of genes with cComplementary character / independents / dependants Immediate / not immediate (confirmation needed in next generations) Initial moments (of the new being) / posterior Visible (macro scale) / not visible (micro scala) By the mechanisms of genetic variability Random / design Predetermined random (random between fixed options) / Totally random Simple / complex 31/05/2010 Página 104 .Genetics and theories of evolution Operative code / not operative Discrete / continuous Restrictive (Conditions of external verification...

For example. I am thinking about human genes and human gene expression but I believe the ideas are valid for.4. verification of the genetic information. at least. processes and mechanisms Procedures and methods of evolutionary genetics These two concepts are almost the same regarding genetic variability. Normally procedures and methods are related to ideas or immaterial concepts. Process I consider them as a set of activities with a common finality. sexual differentiation. An important note is that not always all the methods or mechanisms of genetic variability are possible. 31/05/2010 Página 105 . Normally. normally. natural selection characterizes as procedures. methods. These concepts represent instrumental and functional relations between macrobiology and microbiology and between genotype and their genetic expression or phenotype. the first one could include various methods. Mechanism of genetic variations A mechanism of genetic variations would be a singular process or activity that has an immediate finality or purpose. IV.4. any evolution of life with sexual differentiation.Genetics and theories of evolution   IV. methods and even as a mechanism in evolutionary genetics.a) Concept of procedures. Mechanisms of genetic variability Some terms are very similar and almost synonyms but. I used them with certain special characteristics while talking about evolutionary genetics.

4.b) Glossary on genetic variability   James D.Genetics and theories of evolution   IV. Watson (Public domain image)   Procedures and methods of evolutionary genetics Check and error on gene expression Natural selection Exhaustive check of gene expression Partial check of gene expression Primary sexual differentiation or endogamic sexual differentiation Sexual differentiation External verification of the genetic information or its functionality (VGI) Security copy or archive of genetic information Processes 31/05/2010 Página 106 .

Eric H. Mechanisms of genetic variations Operational conditions of the genetic information Creation of random operations A particular activity of the decision making process     31/05/2010 Página 107 . " Scientific progress and society. Davidson   A lot to learn.Genetics and theories of evolution Creation and design of genetic modifications (genetic research at cell level) Initial development of the new living being Growth of the living being Choice of the partner or sexual selection   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION The living systems depend on the management and processing of enormous quantities of genetic information…" El País 26-11-1992.

1. Point three the General Theory of Conditional Evolution of Life could seem too general. All life has an intrinsic tendency to widen the sphere of freedom using evolution. internal logic and dynamic of any evolutionary system. not that evolution comes because life needs to adapt to conditions to survive. There are many evolutionary systems. increasing the range of possibilities of living beings. The General Theory of Conditional Evolution of Life can  summarize as follows: The main characteristic of life is Freedom. Likewise. methods or procedures depending on each case based on its particular conditions. this term "conditional evolution" refers not only to the environmental conditions and restrictions but also to those conditions derived from the nature. but that since the beginning of life by mean of evolution it generates improvements to be more independent of the environmental restrictions. THEORY OF LIFE The following paragraphs present the main ideas of the General Theory of Conditional Evolution of Life: V. This is due to the fact that explanation of the whole variety of methods used by Nature would mean not only that presentation of the theory in a brief and concise 31/05/2010 Página 108 . this concept would exist since the beginning of life. The term "conditional evolution" refers to. Regardless quantitative aspects. use many systems. that transmits to descendants and that.Genetics and theories of evolution   V. methods or processes and their configuration depends on specific conditions in each individual case. it is not essential to the General Theory of Conditional Evolution of Life in its scientific side or validity. Although this concept is very important. Definition of life and the GTCEL The new fundamental development in the General Theory of Conditional Evolution of Life is the idea of the evolution as an internal mechanism of improvement of living beings. The concept of freedom is in its widest sense and means the possibility of overcoming determinism or freeing oneself from the bounds of nature's laws of physics. given the complexity of the aspects involved.

there are some characteristics regarding the nature of life.1990) Nature of life Love and freedom (Creationism . human evolution and intelligence evolution. At the same time. Nietzsche. On one hand.1969) Tendency to improve (Intelligent Design . but also that the list would be too long and incomplete. and on other hand. In addition. methods o mechanisms of conditional evolution of life separated between conditions imposed by exogenous or environmental factors and endogenous conditions derived from the dynamics of any evolutionary system. there are the causes. I can cite especially the evolutionary mechanism of sexual differentiation and the method of Verification of Genetic Information (VGI) as the new key on theory of evolution. the multiple conditions that can affect evolution of life together with the theories behind them.     The two important ideas of this alternative theory of life and evolution are the variety of methods and conditions. origin of life. You may find a brief resume of the global perspective of the alternative theory of evolution below.Genetics and theories of evolution way would be impossible. Henri Bergson. Gaia theory .Adam Sedgwick) Impulse vital systems (Lamarck.1991) 31/05/2010 Página 109 . Theory of Life (GTCEL .

Laws of Mendel .1859 ) The function creates the organ (Theory of Lamarck . sexual selection.Genetics and theories of evolution Different levels of consciousness (Global Cognitive Theory .1809) 31/05/2010 Página 110 .1865) Exogenous or environmental causes: Shortage of resources (Theory of Natural Selection of Darwin .2002) Evolution of life Endogenous causes or teleological theory of life: Guaranty and security (Sexual differentiation) Dominance of the species over the individual (Selfish gene) Internal cohesion or compatibility of the evolutionary system (Isomorphism of the species) Optimization of evolution time line (Evolutionary leaps. sexual differentiation.

evolution is a consequence of the development of genetic information throughout the life of living beings. The evolutionary leaps normally will produce new species because of combining two or three different genetic sources.   Sexual differentiation     To summaries. the greater precision in the definition of the dominant and recessive genes and other implications like the possible non-existence of the missing link of the human evolution. at least. Regardless of the philosophical suggestions. the following conclusions about origin and evolution of life can be inferred: In this theory of the origin of Life. an element of reflection on the long road of scientific knowledge.Genetics and theories of evolution   V. The most relevant and appropriate concepts are the existence or otherwise of external verification of genetic information and existence or otherwise of 31/05/2010 Página 111 . this new theory of evolution and of the origin of life presents revolutionary aspects within a scientific approach. Evolution of life This theory of evolution of life represents.2. We can mention the explanation of the sexual differentiation functionality.

Genetics and theories of evolution complements between two or more characters. designed especially for those complex systems having a vital impulse. in those cases where verification is one of the conditions associated with the transmitted information. The so-called recessive gene is in fact the more powerful and evolved of the two. Together sexual differentiation and external verification allow the transmission of a validated copy of the genetic information that guarantees the viability of the new being and of evolution of life itself.     31/05/2010 Página 112 . is used. anyway. become inappropriate. Sexual differentiation may imply specialization of evolution of life in the sense that one sex is specialized in genetic evolution and the other in the evolution or improvement material technology for the development of the new being. A consistent methodology for the study of evolution and the origin of life. The basic concepts of dominant and recessive genes of Mendel's law lose their sense and.

quite the contrary. from a scientific point of view is irrelevant the teleological argument. The new scientific theory implies a scientific revolution because it supposes a qualitative change in the concept of evolution of life and of any vital impulse system. Characteristics fo the GTCEL This theory of evolution of life can be classified from different points of view: Philosophical and scientific theory Every scientific theory has a philosophical substrate. General theory This scientific theory of evolution of life. genetic modifications are certain to appear due to environmental influences.Genetics and theories of evolution   VI. In most superior evolutionary processes. SCIENTIFIC THEORY OF EVOLUTION VI. as particular cases. random elements. Nevertheless. those theories form part of this global theory by way of point 3. 31/05/2010 Página 113 . especially the theories of Lamarck and Mendel's law. as well as a genetic interchange from progenitors. In this case. Simultaneously. which is to widen the sphere of freedom and as an orthogenetic theory for admitting internal factors. as a consequence of different evolutionary conditions. at no time does it disagree with the established theories. continuous theory and scientific revolution The GTCEL has a continuous character because its proposals include the ideas of the previous scientific theories of evolution. I am aware of this philosophical postulate while formulating the theory. trial and error processes. nice and they could be very certain. but those characteristics are important.1. Orthogenetic and teleological theory Teleological theory because assigns a finality to evolution. the philosophical part is the teleological argument and the scientific side is the proposal of certain models to validate the theory using the scientific method. if the aim of evolution is to amplify freedom or not. changes already verified and natural and sexual selection will be present.

This method is typically use by scientific theories that modify previous theories related to complex systems and the intuition is a big source of their suggestions. The idea is to prove the GTCEL (General Theory of Conditional Evolution of Life) through the detection of the existence of the Genetic Information Verification method (GIV). Methodological For the development of this theory has been used a methodology that may be it is not new. not only does it show the hereditary nature of the scores obtained in the human intelligence quotient measurements (IQ) but also that the genetic information with less intellectual potential is the significant one.   31/05/2010 Página 114 .Genetics and theories of evolution Intuitive and of complex systems theory The scientific method propose to validate these proposals is the hypotheticdeductive method or the method of validation of hypotheses. The results of the EDI statistical study have been totally satisfactory. Multidisciplinary theory As any theory of evolution. especially of those complex systems having a vital impulse. Furthermore. this one affects a wide range of other disciplines. but very consistent with the idea of evolution. Scientific theory of evolution The purpose of the statistical research on elegant intelligence is to validate the model about the hereditary nature of relational intelligence. as the GTCEL states regarding the concept of conditional intelligence. to validate the theory will be necessary to use the knowledge of various disciplines.

Genetics and theories of evolution   Provisional theory Despite the results of the EDI Study. the scientific theory of evolution is provisional until more empirical researches confirm it. 31/05/2010 Página 115 . An important thing is to remark that Darwin's theory of natural selection was never proven and it has been updated along the time to avoid inconsistencies.

For me. whereas in studies with identical twins a correlation of 80-85% is reached. as high correlation between identical twins demonstrates.Genetics and theories of evolution   VI. Evolutionary psychology of intelligence and memory VI. Therefore. I believe the cognitive ability represented by the IQ test fulfill both requisites of the model of evolution that we need to verify the new scientific theory of evolution. Numerous studies on evolution of intelligence based on individual IQ or intelligence quotient measurements exist. In addition. Nevertheless. for other types of kin relations. Existence of a function ξ that measures the different potentials of the capacity. the IQ refer to the relative position defined by means of a 31/05/2010 Página 116 . The low correlation in the rest of the studies on evolution of intelligence  is due to the incorrect definition of the form in which the inheritance is transmitted in agreement with the exposition of the General Theory of Conditional Evolution of Life and mendelian genetics. In fact. the conclusion is that genetic inheritance is the main cause of the evolution of intelligence. although many authors doubt these measurements and even the unique concept of intelligence. the possibility of verifying the GTCEL through checking the existence of the method of Verification of the Genetic Information (VGI) is what makes it a scientific theory. we are going to choose the controversial subject of heritability and evolution of intelligence.2. The empirical research and studies on the evolution of intelligence have some contradictory conclusions. it will proof on of the main consequences of the GTCEL regarding the cognitive paradigm. in order to facilitate the understanding of the model and its statistical analysis. decreases to a 30%.a) Scientific study on evolution of intelligence The proposed model for scientific research on the theory of evolution assumes the following hypotheses: Evolution with external verification of the genetic information transmitted for the studied capacity. Generally accepted IQ tests measure intelligence.2.

For example ξ (100) = 0.     The figure shows the shape of the Normal function ξ (IQ). For each IQ value. that means. The mathematical expected average of the capacity of the new individual in agreement with the scientific theory of evolution GTCEL will be the sum of the expected averages of each one of the cases weighed by their probabilities. The result of the combination of the four genes in agreement with mendelian genetics significance will produce four different possibilities or cases. the function indicates the accumulated probability that the IQ of the population is the same or less than the IQ reference value.5) = 100.Genetics and theories of evolution standardized function (I) of the statistical distribution of the IQ studied for the validation process of this function. ξ_inv (0. EC descendant = P(D1) C(D1) + P(D2) C(D2) + P(D3) C(D3) + P(D4) C (D4)     31/05/2010 Página 117 .5 and the opposite function ξ_inv (Prob) = IQ. which we are going to use.

the more powerful gene (or the part of the genetic information that is associated to the studied capacity) of each ancestor cannot be measured in an empirical research since it is not expressed in its integrity because only the contrasted part will be expressed. says that the dominant gene will be the one with less capacity. For example. Despite this consideration. Another factor. when calculating the correlation between dependant variables and independent ones. the errors would tend to compensate. since it is reasonable that for a specific capacity the greater gene contains practically all the information of the smaller gene plus an additional part.Genetics and theories of evolution Considering that the assumption of verification of the received genetic information. that the cognitive ability express in its totality. Once the IQ data of the sample studies of the empirical research is available. For that reason. although not clear. related to the lack of contrastation of the intellectual power in its totality as mentioned above. at the most it would only be possible to be expressed the potential of that gene in his integrity. it will be possible to analyze the correlation between the explanatory variables defined by the model with the explained ones. in the present model of the scientific theory there are some simplifications to ease its presentation. it would remain the problem of the randomness of the Mendelian inheritance. Another important aspect is that by hypothesis of the study on evolutionary psychology about intelligence. I will suppose in the empirical research. assumed by hypothesisin the study on evolution of intelligence. The affinity filter. [Fortunately. surely it could be necessary to include: The internal improvement of the genetic information in each generation could exceed 10%. it is necessary to estimate its size as precisely as we can. to make more coherent estimations of the evolution of the intelligence. in the book online of the EDI Study about Evolution and Design of Intelligence are the results confirming the proposals of the scientific theory GTCEL] Regardless the problem of the definition of intelligence in evolutionary psychology as a group of relational functions. Although we could measure the most powerful gene related to the evolution of intelligence. If we always worked with probabilities of the central value of its mathematical expected average. could be the effect of the sexual selection related to the correlation of the intellectual power between genes of both 31/05/2010 Página 118 . for simplification.

the parameters' values will begin to be useful. that is to say.] On the contrary. For example. its correlation coefficient (r) and its squared or determination coefficient (r²). it is possible to make preliminary studies for the estimation of the previous parameters within the scientific research of the theory of evolution. that the partial correlation of that 50% of the cases would have to be around 80-90% and the expected value should be centered and with a very small variance. (although now I would dare to say. more impressive). when the model of this scientific research has a bigger sample. I am looking for the goodness-of-fit of the estimation. [Let us remember that the preliminary analysis of the empirical research with the statistical IQ study that I have developed to validate the scientific theory of evolution GTCEL rejects this last possibility.Genetics and theories of evolution progenitors. I am not interested in obtaining the value of the parameters. it will be necessary to complicate the initial model of evolution of intelligence to obtain better estimations. that is to say. [The three aspects mentioned above have been confirmed in the EDI Study] The book online of the EDI Study says that more than 500 millions of coefficients of determination are calculated. Surely. On the contrary. In any case. With only those where the less powerful of the four genes is indeed the dominant gene. when estimating the model with the method of the ordinary square minimums. 31/05/2010 Página 119 . Another important aspect could be the possibility of calculating the correlation of the IQ heritability with half the cases. the confirmation of the increase of 10% in each generation will be confirmed in the EDI Study (Evolution and Design of Intelligence) In the EDI Study. they represent the relation between the explained variance and the total variance.

Genetics and theories of evolution

VI.2.b) Research on evolution of memory

It is necessary to indicate that the hypothesis of verification of the received genetic information (VGI) supposed in a negative form would result to a reformulation of the model to be able to do the research of the scientific theory of evolution with new genetic studies. Both assumptions comprise of the same scientific theory of the evolution and they would take place of simultaneous form for different capacities. In addition, the presence of human disease or human disorder or any other genetic trait could allow designing different genetic studies for the empirical research taking into account the mendelian genetics significance.


It would not be surprising that the capacity related to the language that has the characteristic to admit errors were consequence of the same genetic information but under the assumption of not external verification. In other words, for the capacity of the language our brain with the information of both ancestors develops a mechanism without requiring the confirmation between both. Something similar could happen with the intuition that sometimes is very powerful but one cannot be certain about it. Logically, the potentials of the descendants will be higher when the verification of the genetic information is not required than when it is.


Página 120

Genetics and theories of evolution


NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION " Oxford scientists discover a gene that specifically affects language. …a mutation of the gene they have named FOXP2. The correlation is perfect: the 15 affected members of the family carry the mutated gene, and the other 14 carry the normal gene… …The mutation does not function by means of a breakage spread by intelligence since many of those affected have normal intellectual (non verbal) levels and some have intellectual levels that are greater than their non-affected family members "
El País 04-10-2001. Nature.

NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION "It deals with people who do not relate the oral with the written word and thereby lose its concept… There is not one sole criterion for the origin and definition of this problem…What does indeed seem to be true is that it deals with a genetic difference that some individuals suffer, which is hereditary, and that basically the only thing that dyslexia causes are learning problems"
El País 27-05-2002



Página 121

Genetics and theories of evolution


Computer learning games Esnuka with simulation of evolution. Free Billiards Esnuka has a simulation of evolution of the billiards balls using the GTCEL genetic algorithms and Mendel's laws. There is a specific option designed to show a fast evolution without needing to play billiards, making easier to understand the rules behind the computer learning games of simulation of evolution.


To some extend, it is believed that simulation of evolution with genetic algorithms have proven the theory of Darwin but, obviously, it is not like that. In fact, it could be just the opposite because the genetics algorithms are math's functions to search new situations with different approaching methods. There is always the need for a goal or a math function to optimize within the genetic algorithms and that is closer to a teleological or finalist evolution than a Darwinian evolution. Furthermore, as the genetic algorithms of the simulation of evolution have been design by humans, they are always the result of a vital impulse design.


Página 122

By way of example. These aspects will undoubtedly affect psychology of education and human development. memory.Genetics and theories of evolution   VIII. especially those that are commonly categorized as social sciences. we can cite the book online of the Global Cognitive Theory about evolution ad development of intelligence. besides genetics and biology. many other branches of knowledge. EVOLUTION AND DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY It does not seem very adventurous to think that a greater understanding of the way in which evolution of life is produced could affect. Although it is not the aim of this initial presentation of the theory to analyze their possible consequences with detail. In the book online on the Global Scientific Method is included a new methodology of complex systems based on the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life calledConditional Vitalism. in general. the cognitive aspects of the brain. it is indeed considered convenient to briefly point out some of the most important details on evolution and developmental psychology: 31/05/2010 Página 123 . the complex systems and developmental psychology. will power and.

In turn. it could imply that it has a more developed sense of smell. their advantages. I would say that developmental psychology of boys and girls is different since very early due to innate conditioning towards certain tendencies while choosing some behaviors. 31/05/2010 Página 124 .   Another example...the difference of behavior of boys and girls in very early ages are due to environmental and educational factors. has shown that women have an excellent sense of smell which allows them to distinguish between very poor genetic variants of  men by doing nothing more than smelling his shirt" El País 23-01-2002. The most illustrative evolutionary psychology example would be. Personal development and social psychology Regardless of the Vitalism philosophy. There are still many people that think .Genetics and theories of evolution   VIII. it would help to comprehend oneself in the sense of understanding the cognitive abilities and the objectives of personal development that one can try to achieve.Perhaps they are right! . However. their problems. the possibility that much higher levels of cognitive abilities can be transmitted to the descendents than those that are present in the parents. the female gender seems to have a certain speciality in materials technology. since it is the one responsible for developing or providing resources and materials to the individual in its first stages of development. From a point of view of the family. the acceptance of the fact that certain types of intelligence and of memory being 8090% hereditary. keeping in mind the personal costs that they can involve. which upholds the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life.. their origins. on one hand. On the contrary. I think that the most important effect would be of social psychology. in the personal context. Nature Genetics. and on the other. etc. it would also be possible that the popular saying of women having more intuition may start to have a more scientific basis.1. it can help in the understanding of differences between family members.   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION "an experiment directed by two investigators from the University of Chicago.

It is clear that a significant alteration in the ideas would mean a change similar to what occurred in the 17th and 18th centuries when the sun stopped revolving around the Earth and. the fractals as reflection of complex systems with their own dynamics. as the only intelligent animal with feelings! In this sense. at the same time. the necessary acceptance of the inequalities without meaning any type of complex or searching guilty subjects as certain current of the developmental psychology does regarding economic growth. strangely enough. the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life would make up a part of a new social culture once the population as a whole has gotten passed the phase of the humanist and anthropocentric rationalism. The observable scientific development in the short-term basis and. We can cite the following as extended concepts compatible with this new philosophy: the theory of chaos. similarly. outlined in purely rationalist-humanist esthetics. the evolution of new technologies with the derived expressions in all of the fields of human activity.Genetics and theories of evolution Only realizing that the set of ideas related to evolution accepted until nowadays. man began to be considered with generality. is deeply rooted in current society. 31/05/2010 Página 125 . are the source of this new culture o social psychology.

Furthermore. Cognitive psychology and development of education   The purely personal strategy about the study and the permanence in the educational system including even its higher levels will vary by that greater knowledge of the individual cognitive abilities from the Global Cognitive Theory. it is easily imaginable that these new contributions to cognitive psychology can influence in the strategy of public powers in relation to the learning system and the evolution of the education in general terms. such as intelligence and mathematical memory. such as the intuitive reasoning. the normal memory and the linguistic memory. On the other hand. There is other perfectly valid ways.Genetics and theories of evolution   VIII. the latter with its specific nature. this permanence in the educational system must not be understood only in its quantitative aspect but rather also qualititative. for example. learning and specialization in the educational system is not he only way. and those that do not apply it. the types of subjects in which a person can be specialized. 31/05/2010 Página 126 . Likewise. Regarding the development of education. even more adequate depending on the particular characteristics of each individual. it is worth remembering the human brain’s different ways of functioning when confirming certain hypotheses for operations that apply the method of external verification.2.

because it would be too broad for a detailed analysis.Genetics and theories of evolution   VIII. is full of infinite events. or because the Greek and Roman empires both lasted approximately between 6 and 8 centuries.000 years. in despite of being substituted by societies with a noticeably inferior culture. this type of evolutionary psychology explains better why the Egyptian Empire lasted more than 4. On the contrary. Perhaps.. art and technology. facts. I leave this discussion about evolution and human. I have explained this effect with greater or lesser clarity throughout the exposition of the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life. Now I will cite some examples of art development and evolution of history that have attracted my attention the most. Evolution and economic development   History.   Hotel en Playa del Carmen     The long-term mix of races of any species is beneficial for the genetic development. economic and technological development for another moment and for the reader's reflection. suitable for the application of the Conditional Vitalism methodology proposed for the analysis of vital impulse systems. not as if it could be any other way. in fact. situations.3. it could be one of the more general bases of the genetic evolution and of the possible evolutionary leaps. for an event of evolutionary psychology in history as important as 31/05/2010 Página 127 . etc. In a way. the effect would be similar to that produced by the sexual differentiation in comparison with the germline evolution.

this primitive population.. However. called PaleoAmerican." El País 04-09-2003.. for being another topic of great scope. in my opinion. point out its most important cause. so they cannot be the direct cause of the French Revolution. a hand appears strongly gripping a pistol. perhaps more than one of the paintings or pictures that have by subject this period of art. there is a fact that could allow this revolution to take place.. but right in the central point of the painting. such as a battle.   NEWS ABOUT THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION Indians coexisted with other populations that arrived previously from Asia. It seems clear that social psychology aspects such as the struggle for freedom and justice are not exclusive to that historical moment. right in the center. I want to point out that I am not the first in giving this evolutionary focus to them.     31/05/2010 Página 128 . many people are seen close up. that is.Genetics and theories of evolution the French Revolution I can indeed. until their extinction. coexisted with the American Indians.. although briefly. of mongoloid features and descendents of a subsequent migratory wave from Asia. If one observes a famous painting. Nonetheless.   "A morphological study indicates that the American Just to mention here. . many of its characteristics are understandable. This could just well be the immediate cause of the revolution: a technological change or leap that radically altered the relationship of forces between the different social classes. as if they had their own life throughout history. Nature. a protest or a demonstration. With the new approaches of social and evolutionary psychology. the evolution of the languages.

Genetics and theories of evolution   IX. due to the nature of science. THEORIES OF HUMAN ORIGIN This is a brief presentation of the general ideas about evolution and theories of human origin such as Creationism.a) Creationism and other religious theories   I have mentioned the Creationism and other religious theories because indeed. See chapter III about criticism of these theories of human origin and evolution. the Laws of Mendel. they are theories of human origin and evolution. Creationism and other theories based on theological ideas do not have a scientific character. Although the non-existence of a Superior being like God. 31/05/2010 Página 129 . IX. Theory of Lamarck. Neo-Darwinism (Modern Synthetic Theory and Punctuated Equilibrium) plus the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life. Theory of Natural Selection of Darwin.

or modernization of the Theory of Creationism. At times. The Intelligent Design movement developed in the early nineties although the ideas are much older. this movement removes itself from the Theory of Creationism as soon as it attempts to explain evolution and human origin within the scope of scientific research. therefore..b) Intelligent Design The Intelligent Design movement has recently appeared as an updated version. which is why I separate it from the truly religious theories.Genetics and theories of evolution   IX.     31/05/2010 Página 130 . that theories of random mutations and Natural Selection would no longer constitute the main components of evolution and do not explain the human origin at all. which it might be not good enough but it is good anyway. This movement has its beginnings in 1991 although it has deep roots in creationism and the Lamarck theory. consequently. or even the most orthodox Creationism. Although the Intelligent Design is not a formal theory. The Intelligent Design is an attempt to get close to science from a religious point of view. have as many religious-philosophical connections as this institution. The Intelligent Design imply the existence of a teleological or finalist evolution and. or the Intelligent Design. I have to admit that the radical defenders of the Darwin theory and orthodox science remind me of the classic institution of the Holy Inquisition and.

  Jean-Baptiste de Monet Lamarck (1744-1829) (Public domain image)   The famous expression for Lamarck's Theory of evolution is functions create organs and heredity determines the change in offspring.c) Lamarck's theory of evolution Lamarck's theory of evolution appeared in his Zoological Philosophical Work written in 1809. due to the effort of eating leaves from the trees. this theory of evolution is also a theory of the human origin. human origin is the monkey thinking. A typical example of Lamarck’s theory is the evolution of the necks of giraffes. Therefore. 31/05/2010 Página 131 .Genetics and theories of evolution   IX. His evolutionary theory was as follows: Environmental changes generate new needs These needs determine the use or disuse of some organs Such organs develop or are diminished The acquired characters are hereditary Therefore.

Later.Genetics and theories of evolution   IX.d) Theory of evolution of Darwin   This point refers to the biological theory by Charles Darwin. the Theory of Natural Selection of Darwin base on the emergentism. As a contrast to Lamarck's evolutionary theory. en 1859. it maintains that individuals present/display variations and that evolution is determined by natural selection. in which male or female chooses partners with more attractive qualities. His theory was as follows: Individuals display differences Shortage of food leads them to fight for existence Individuals with superior differences have more chance to reach adulthood. sexual selection. The variations in DNA or in the genes are random mutations in self-adaptations of Darwin theory of evolution. the English Naturalist in his main work The Origin of the species. as presented in his work The Origin of the Species in 1859. This theory of human origin and evolution of Darwin has been updated many times while keeping its essence. Darwin's theory of evolution proposed natural selection as the basis of evolution and human origin. reproduce and transmit these variations to their offspring From a philosophical point of view. in his The Origin of Man and Sexual Selection (1871). The scientific community generally accepted the evolutionary theory of Darwin (in opposition to Lamark's).     31/05/2010 Página 132 . in order to remark its character supposedly not directed. he added a new factor of evolution and human origin.

whose fundamental elements are gene combinations and their dominant or recessive character. if white flowers mix with other white flowers. The Law of Dominant Character: the dominant character does not destroy the recessive character in the hybrid. 31/05/2010 Página 133 . During the third generation.     This first law of heredity can be better explained using the example of white and red varieties in the Marvel of Peru plant: The first generation produces all pink flowers. in his Investigations on hybrids in plants (1865). red flowers with other red flowers produce red flowers.Genetics and theories of evolution   IX. The theory of heredity of Mendel consists of the following two laws: The Law of Scission: factors inherited from parents join in the resulting hybrid and separate when the hybrid reaches the adult stage and produces its sexual cells. The second generation produces one white. two pinks and one red flower. Austrian Augustine monk. they produce white flowers. Alongside to the theories of human origin and evolution in their strict sense is the Theory of Mendel (1865) on genetic inheritance.e) Dominant character and Mendel's laws of heredity The laws of heredity as evolutionary processes discovered by Gregor Mendel. and pink flowers repeat the results in the second generation of hybrids. it merely conceals it.

The second produces one white and three grey rats. only one character (mono-hybridization).     For an easy understanding of the law of heredity of the dominant character. has been included.     31/05/2010 Página 134 .Genetics and theories of evolution An example of the theory of Mendel on this law of heredity is given of the cross between white and grey rats: The first generation produces grey rats. The appearance of white rats in a ratio of 1 to 4 in the second generation shows that the white (recessive gene) character has not been destroyed. although the possible combinations would grow in geometric proportion. but remains hidden. but two or more (dihybridization or poli-hybridization) can also be included and the evolutionary process would be similar.

Giving merit to variations in germination produced by natural selection and displayed through new morphological or functional characters. Mayr and Simpson). Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (Eldredge and Gould) and Neutralism Theory (Larmore and Rawls) 31/05/2010 Página 135 . biochemistry. Other theoris of evolution and human origin are Synthetic Theory (Dobzhandsdy. etc.f) NeoDarwinism Theory of evolution and human origin derived from Darwinism which. and the heredity of acquired characters.Genetics and theories of evolution   IX. denounces the influence of the environment on the evolution of the species. genetics. supported by scientific advances in cytology.

Simpson in the great categories of the organisms. produce evolution as a whole. The Synthetic Theory of evolution or Modern Synthetic emerged around the middle of the 20th century from the ideas of three authors specialized in different branches of the evolution: Theodosius Dobzhandsdy in genetics. together with the mechanism of the natural selection. in addition to the mechanism of the natural selection.Genetics and theories of evolution   IX. If the neo-Darwinism or neo-Darwinian Theory explicitly incorporated the random variations or mutations within the population. Ernst Mayr in the species of living beings and George G. and originates in the specialization. usually through gradual changes. We can summarize the important differences of the Modern Synthetic Theory of evolution with the Theory of Darwin in the following: It accepts the random genetic change as a mechanism of the important evolution.g) Modern Synthetic Theory of evolution and Punctualism  The Modern Evolutionary Synthesis has incorporated the latest advances of science in biology and genetics. the Synthetic Theory of evolution incorporates the random variations or mutations of the genetic information and accepts this mechanism as part of the evolution that.   Pequeño Senegal (Teresa Pérez Barrasa)   The diversification emerges slowly. it is part of the Gradualism trend as the initial Theory of Darwin. 31/05/2010 Página 136 . Therefore.

31/05/2010 Página 137 . about which there is not a clear position within the scientific community. It consists of the old attitudes defended by the geneticist Richard Goldschmidt and the paleontologist Otto Schindewolf of evolution in leaps. the latter incorporates the selection between species to the Darwinian selection between individuals.Genetics and theories of evolution It assumes that the traits are inherited through the genes. it assumes that the specialization is due. more recently. Concerning the evolutionary leaps and Modern Synthetic Theory. the Theory of Punctuated Equilibrium or Punctualism appeared due to the contributions from the paleontology of Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould in 1972. both Theory of Punctuated Equilibrium or Punctualism and Modern Synthetic Theory belong to the Neo-Darwinism. The opposite movement would be Saltationism. In other words. Synthetic Theory incorporates the aspects related to the microevolution and it assumes that the macroevolution is simply the accumulation of the microevolution. usually. to small random changes in the genetic information. Although the Theory of Darwin is close to Gradualism. it could be compatible with Saltationism. The variations of the population are due to the presence of multiple variations of a gene. the controversy is currently present because of the fossil registry. On the same line. Lastly.

h) GTCEL-General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life   It is necessary to bear in mind that the General Theory of Conditional Evolution of Life is a fully scientific and evolutionary theory based on the assumptions that all life has an intrinsic tendency to widen the sphere of freedom using evolution within environmental and logical conditions. characteristics and main conclusions of the evolutionary theory are in title V of this online book. Definition. the evolutionary leaps are a logical consequence of the evolution of vital impulse systems.   ***   31/05/2010 Página 138 . It means something little it working since the origin of life. the GTCEL accept small and gradual changes while explaining the evolutionary jumps as quick and big changes of the genetic structure to allow a much bigger development. like the origin of new species. Regarding Saltationism and Gradualism. which indirectly imply an intelligent design.Genetics and theories of evolution   IX. In other words.

molwick. Memory. Molina Stories for children Free online science books with new theories © Evolutionary psychology. Other books GTCEL-New evolutionary theory The Global Scientific Method The EDI Study 31/05/2010 Página 139 . All rights are reserved Global Cognitive Theory The brain and computers. language and other brain abilities. intuition and creativity.html Mª José T.Genetics and theories of evolution          Is this book updated? You may check the date in the download page! http://www. Will. decision-making process and artificial intelligence. Intelligence.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful