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# Design of Trench

## Design of Trench between Generator and Transformer:

foundation data:
Generator Weight, wg w
g
400kN := [actual Generator Weight is less than 300kN,
factored by 1.33 hence Design Load of Generator.]
footing dimensions for foundation,
l
f1
9.9m := l
f2
0.6m := l
f3
2.5m := L
T
l
f1
l
f2
+ l
f3
+ 13 m = :=
b
f
3m :=
h
f1
400mm := 0 to lf1 [dierent heights by parts of foundation along length.]
h
f2
600mm := along lf3
plain concrete dimensions,
l
p
13.2m :=
b
p
3.2m :=
h
p
75mm :=
weight of foundation, wf

conc
24
kN
m
3
:=
concp
22
kN
m
3
:=
w
f

conc
l
f1
b
f
h
f1

conc
l
f2
b
f

h
f1
h
f2
+
2
|

\
|
|

+
conc
l
f3
b
f
h
f2
+
concp
l
p
b
p
h
p
+ :=
w
f
484.416 kN =
total service load on soil ,Rs
R
s
w
f
w
g
+ := R
s
884.416 kN =
total service stress on soil, ss

ss
R
s
L
T
b
f

:=
ss
22.677
kN
m
2
=
Design Load on Foundation, Rd
R
d
1.4 w
f
1.5 w
g
d
1278.182 kN =
Design Stress on soil, ds

ds
R
d
L
T
b
f

## := ignoring plain concrete dimensions

ds
32.774
kN
m
2
=
El Madar for Engineering Projects. 1 of 12 DP
Soil Bearing Capacity as per the Soil Report,
SBC 1.2bar :=
ds
SBC < 1 = OK SBC 120
kN
m
2
=
factor_of_safety_foundation
SBC

ds
3.661 = :=
f
y
460
N
mm
2
:= f
cu
28MPa :=
s
18
kN
m
3
:=
Pressure applied on vertical face of Trench generated from Generator Foundation,
30deg := k
a
1 sin
( )

1 sin
( )
+
:= k
p
1
k
a
:= Passive Coecient of Soil , Kp and
Cohesion Intercept ,Cs.
C
s
5
kN
m
2
:=
lateral Pressure, P1lat at hx below foundation, h
x
105mm :=
P
1_lat
h
x
( )
k
a

ds

b
f
L
T

b
f
2 h
x
+
( )
L
T
2 h
x
+
( )

(
(

:= P
1_lat
h
x
( )
10.048
kN
m
2
=
El Madar for Engineering Projects. 2 of 12 DP
Total Lateral Force on Vertical Face of Trench, P
1_lat
h
x
170mm +
( )
8.857
kN
m
2
=
P
1_total_lat
h
x
h
x
170mm +
h
x
P
1_lat
h
x
( )

(
(

d
|

\
|
|
|

5 m :=
P
1_total_lat
8.017 kN =
The ressisting Passive Force from soil in the other side of the Trench,
H
x
625mm :=
P
2_lat
k
p
H
x

s

( )

H
x
2

(
(

5 m :=
P
2_lat
52.734 kN =
This length considered is 5m which
is greater than the actual 2.8m for
counting the eect of lateral load
on perpendicular direction of
other Trench.
factor_of_safety_for_lateral_pressure
P
2_lat
P
1_total_lat
:=
factor_of_safety_for_lateral_pressure 6.578 = OK
This Lateral Stability was checked ignoring the Frictional Ressistance from bottom of the Trench, hence
this calculated Factor of Safety is less than the actual, hence very safe.
Design of Trench between Generator and Transformer Foundations
for this Trench , the structural l oadings rel ated are vertical l oading of concrete covers, i mposed load,
lateral active force from backll, generator dispersed lateral load and selfweight of Trench.
concrete cover load, P1
P
1

conc
100 mm := P
1
2.4
kN
m
2
=
Imposed load ,P2 ,
P
2
7.5
kN
m
2
:= reference BS 6399: 1996-Part 1: Code of practice for dead and imposed loads
Table 1 - Mi nimum imposed oor l oads, provision for "Plant rooms, boiler rooms,
fan rooms, etc.,including weight of machinery".
lateral active force from backll,P3,
P
3
k
a
H
x

s

( )

H
x
2

(
(

5 m := P
3
5.859 kN =
generator dispersed lateral load.P4,
P
4
P
1_total_lat
:= P
4
8.017 kN =
self weight of the Trench, P5,
El Madar for Engineering Projects. 3 of 12 DP
tt
1
125mm := b
t
1143mm := length of Trench l
t
5m :=
tt
2
175mm := h
t
800mm :=
P
5
tt
1
h
t
tt
2
b
t
tt
1

( )
+

conc
l
t

:= P
5
33.378 kN =
Design Loads for Trench
P
d1
1.4P
1
:=
P
d1
3.36
kN
m
2
=
P
d2
1.6P
2
:=
P
d2
12
kN
m
2
=
P
d3
1.6P
3
:=
P
d4
1.6P
4
:= P
d3
9.375 kN =
P
d5
1.4P
5
:= P
d4
12.827 kN =
P
d5
46.729 kN =
center of Gravity for Trench,[XT,YT]
X
T
tt
2
b
t

( )
b
t
2
tt
1
h
t
tt
2

( )

tt
1
2
+
tt
2
b
t
tt
1
h
t
tt
2

( )
+
:= X
T
428.535 mm =
Y
T
tt
1
h
t

( )
h
t
2
tt
2
b
t
tt
1

( )

tt
2
2
+
tt
1
h
t
tt
2
b
t
tt
1

( )
+
:= Y
T
199.849 mm =
El Madar for Engineering Projects. 4 of 12 DP
Moment Calculation around the center of the Trench Footing
M
t
P
d1
P
d2
+
( )
l
t
b
t
2

\
|
|

(
(

b
t
2
tt
1
2
+
|

\
|
|

P
d5
b
t
2
X
T

\
|
|

+ P
d4
tt
2
2
+ P
d3
625mm
3
:=
M
t
33.677 kN m =
section modulus for the Trench Footi ng, zt
z
t
l
t
b
t
2

6
:= z
t
1.089 m
3
=
Soil Stress for Trench Footing,

t1
P
d1
P
d2
+
( )
l
t
b
t
2

\
|
|

P
d5
+
l
t
b
t

M
t
z
t
+ :=
t1
46.789
kN
m
2
=

t2
P
d1
P
d2
+
( )
l
t
b
t
2

\
|
|

P
d5
+
l
t
b
t

M
t
z
t
:=
t2
15.076
kN
m
2
=
Given
SBC 120
kN
m
2
= SBC
t1
> 1 = OK 15.076
x
46.789
b
t
x
=
Find x
( )
278.53985290552008405 mm
e
0
M
t
P
d1
P
d2
+
( )
l
t
b
t
2

\
|
|

P
d5
+
:=
x
t0
278.54 mm :=
El Madar for Engineering Projects. 5 of 12 DP
e
0
371.626 mm =
b
t
6
190.5 mm =
c
0
b
t
2
e
0
:= c
0
199.874 mm =
3 c
0
599.623 mm =
b
t
x
t0
864.46 mm =
Maximum Pressure
2
3
P
d1
P
d2
+
( )
l
t
b
t
2

\
|
|

P
d5
+
l
t
c
0

60.452
kN
m
2
= less than 120kN/m2 OK
Trench Design-Wall
vertical reinforcement on wall:
moment on the base at a point A , MA. This moment will be calculated with a lateral force which is
assumed to be generated due to the friction between cover plate on the intact, Friction Coecient
assumed to be 0.3 between concrete and concrete bearing surface.

c
0.3 :=
M
A
P
d3
625mm
3

c
P
d1
P
d2
+
( )
l
t
b
t
2

\
|
|

(
(

h
t
+ :=
M
A
12.487 kN m =
El Madar for Engineering Projects. 6 of 12 DP
Tension developed in the extreme rebar of the wall, T.w T
w
M
A
tt
1
60mm
:= T
w
192.108 kN =
assume T10 rebar provided along the wall, vertically.

wvert
10mm :=
A
wvert

wvert
2
|

\
|
|

2
:=
T10
c
0.87 f
y
A
wvert
:= T10
c
31.432 kN =
Number of T10 bars required to take the Tw, nw per meter length,
per meter requirement, Nw
n
w
T
w
T10
c
:=
N
w
n
w
5m
:=
N
w
1.222
1
m
= this is not applicable
minimum reinforcement requirement:
minimum r/f amount specied
for the sectional area of
concrete as per Tabl e 3.25 BS
8110: part 1 -3.12.5 cl. Because
the structural r/f requirement
is lesser than the amount
specied.
minimum_rf_area_for_wall_v 0.4% 1000 mm tt
1
500 mm
2
= :=

1
10mm := take rebar of size T12 distributed along 1m.
a
s1

1
2
|

\
|
|

(
(
(

:=
spacing calcualation for the steel bars:
spc
wall
1000mm a
s1

minimum_rf_area_for_wall_v
:= spc
wall
157.08 mm =
provide T10@150mm vertically
minimum r/f amount specied
for the sectional area of
concrete as per Tabl e 3.25 BS
8110: part 1 -3.12.5.7 cl. for
horizontal r/f.
Horizontal Reinforcement on wall:
minimum reinforcement requirement:
minimum_rf_area_for_wall_h 0.25% 1000 mm tt
1
312.5 mm
2
= :=

2h
10mm := take rebar of size T10 distributed along 1m.
a
s2h

2h
2
|

\
|
|

(
(
(

:=
El Madar for Engineering Projects. 7 of 12 DP
spacing calcualation for the steel bars:
spc
wall_h
1000mm a
s2h

minimum_rf_area_for_wall_h
:= spc
wall_h
251.327 mm =
provide T10@250mm horizontally.
Shear Check for Wall
critical section is takes as the vertical plane passing through the A point as shown in the gure above.
V
w
P
d1
P
d2
+
( )
l
t
b
t
2

\
|
|

:=
V
w
43.891 kN =
shear stress on plane through point A,

A
V
w
l
t
tt
2

:=

A
0.05
N
mm
2
=
considering tension r/f provided, the Design Concrete Shear Stress C as per BS 8110: 3.5.5 Shear
resistance of solid slabs,
This Design Shear Stress is based on the tension r/f provided into the foundation.
eective height for tension reinforcement, d1w d
1w
tt
2
60mm :=
m
1.25 :=

C
0.79
100
16mm
2
|

\
|
|

2
12
b
f
d
1w

(
(
(
(

1
3
400mm
d
1w
|

\
|
|

1
4

f
cu
25
N
mm
2
|

\
|
|
|
|

1
3

N
mm
2
0.796
N
mm
2
= :=

C
0.796
N
mm
2
=
El Madar for Engineering Projects. 8 of 12 DP
Punching Shear check at d1w distance away
from the face [a1] of the critical plane at A,
vertical load at a1,
V
wa1
V
w
tt
2
l
t
d
1w

conc
+ :=

a1
V
wa1
tt
2
l
t

:=
a1
0.053
N
mm
2
=

a1
Shear Stress and
A
both are very small
compared to
C
, hence no further check
required.

a1
15.034 = OK
Trench Base Design:
Check for minimum reinforcement requirement for this foundation part of the Trench as it doesnt having
signicant loading to consider other than the Shear Load from the Wall, it is checked earlier is not critical
for Shear Design.
Minimum_reinforcement_Requirement_For_Trench_Base 0.13% b
t
tt
2
260.033 mm
2
= :=

2tf
10mm := take rebar of size T12 distributed along 1m.
a
s2tf

2tf
2
|

\
|
|

(
(
(

:=
spacing calcualation for the steel bars:
spc
wall_tf
1000mm a
s2tf

Minimum_reinforcement_Requirement_For_Trench_Base
:=
spc
wall_tf
302.038 mm =
provide T10@300mm both direction
checking the bearing stress of the bending rebar at foundation outer egde:
tensile force developed in one bar due to wall moment,Fbt
F
bt
M
A
tt
2
60mm
25
:= 25 is the total number of rebars on length of 5m
El Madar for Engineering Projects. 9 of 12 DP
Bearing Stress is calculated based on the formula given in BS 8110-Part 1: cl 3.12.8.25.2 "Other bars"
equation 50.
r
b
40mm := rb is the internal radius of the bend

b
12mm := is the size of the bar
Bearing Stress
F
bt
r
b

b

## := Bearing Stress 9.049

N
mm
2
=
Bearing Stress limit:
cover
b
60mm :=
a
b
min cover
b

b
+
( )
spc
wall
,

:=
2 f
cu

1 2

b
a
b
|

\
|
|

+
42
N
mm
2
=
OK
a
b
72 mm =
El Madar for Engineering Projects. 10 of 12 DP
El Madar for Engineering Projects. 11 of 12 DP
El Madar for Engineering Projects. 12 of 12 DP