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(An Autonomous Institute of Government of Maharashtra)
SE M INAR T OP IC
(ULTRA WIDE BAND TECHNOLOGY)
UNDER GUIDANCE OF
DINESH ALASPURE SIR
PRATIK SAWALE ETX III YR ( 0904077 )
THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT, THE SEMINAR WORK ENTITLED
HAS BEEN SUBMITTED BY Mr. Pratik Sawale 3rd Year Electronics & Telecommunication (0904077) IN A SATISFACTORY MANNER AS A PART OF PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF DIPLOMA COURSE IN ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATION. IN GOVT. POLYTECHNIC, NAGPUR DURING THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2011-2012
D. ALASPURE SIR
HEAD OF DEPARTMENT
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATION ENGG. GOVT. POLYTECHNIC, NAGPUR. (An autonomous institute of government of Maharashtra) 2011-2012
It is our more duty and responsibility to be loyal and grateful to those
who have shown us the path towards innovation and dynamism contributing in a big way in complementing me for “UWB TECHNOLOGY” Seminar report within the stipulated time. It is worth mentioning here that as a guide, “Prof. MR. D. ALASPURE SIR” has enlightened us for our seminar report. Let us be honest to pay his utmost regards for his able guidance to which our seminar report proved to be successful one. We are insufficient to show our thankfulness to our Head of the Department Prof. S. V. TADAS who at every point showed us the telescopic way in respect of our seminar. I also extend my thanks to all those teachers who have contributed to make this seminar a success. At last, I wish to avail myself of this opportunity, express a sense of gratitude and love to my friends for their manual support, strength, help and for everything. Thank you!
Pratik Sawale Electronics and telecommunication Enrol. No. 0904077
Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Introduction What is UWB ? How UWB works? Narrowband communication & UWB Modulation types Spectrum UWB Characteristics Comparison with latest technologies Application
Page No. 4 6 8 9 10 12 13 14 15 16 17
10. Conclusion 11. References
Just as many wireless technologies seem to be moving into high volume production and becoming established a new technology has hit the scene and is threatening to turn the industry upside down. Known as Ultra Wide Band (UWB) this new technology has much to offer both in the performance and data rates as well as the wide number of application in which it can be used. Currently ultra wideband (UWB) technology has been proposed for or is being used in applications from radar and sensing applications right through to high band width communications. Furthermore ultra wide band, UWB can be used in both commercial and military applications. Unlike most other wireless technologies in use today, ultra wideband (UWB) employs a totally different method of transmission. Rather than using a specified frequency with a carrier, the technique that is used by traditional transmissions, UWB uses what may be termed "time domain" electromagnetic. In other words UWB uses pulses that spread out over a wide bandwidth, rather than transmissions that are confined within a given channel. It is the fact that UWB uses a different approach to wireless or radio transmissions is part of the reason UWB development may appear to be slow. With wireless transmissions using traditional techniques filling the airwaves, care has to be taken when establishing UWB, that interference does not result, and that whatever legislation is introduced, does not have to be changed later. UWB, or Ultra-Wide Band technology offers many advantages, especially in terms of very high data transmission rates which are well beyond those possible with currently deployed technologies such as
802.11a, b, g, WiMax and the like. As such UWB, ultra wideband technology is gaining considerable acceptance and being proposed for use in a number of areas. Already Bluetooth, Wireless USB and others are developing solutions, and in these areas alone its use should be colossal.
UWB commonly refers to a signal or system that either has a large
relative bandwidth (BW) that exceeds 20% or a large absolute bandwidth of more than 500 MHz. A 14 February 2002 report and order by the federal communications commission (FCC) authorizes the unlicensed use of UWB in 3.1--10.6 GHz. This is intended to provide an efficient use of scarce radio bandwidth while enabling both high data rate personal area network (PAN) wireless connectivity and longer-range, low data rate applications as well as radar and imaging systems.
WHAT IS UWB................?? WHAT IS UWB ??
Ultra-wideband is a radio technology that can be used at very low energy levels for short-range high-bandwidth communications by using a large portion of the radio spectrum. Ultra-Wideband (UWB) is a technology for transmitting information spread over a large bandwidth (>500 MHz) that should, in theory and under the right circumstances, be able to share spectrum with other users. A significant difference between traditional radio transmissions and UWB radio transmissions is that traditional systems transmit information by varying the power level, frequency, and/or phase of a sinusoidal wave. UWB transmissions transmit information by generating radio energy at specific time instants and occupying large bandwidth thus enabling a pulse-position or time-modulation. The information can also be imparted (modulated) on UWB signals (pulses) by encoding the polarity of the pulse, the amplitude of the pulse, and/or by using orthogonal pulses. UWB pulses can be sent sporadically at relatively low pulse rates to support time/position modulation, but can also be sent at rates up to the inverse of the UWB pulse bandwidth. One of the valuable aspects of UWB radio technology is the ability for a UWB radio system to determine "time of flight" of the direct path of the radio transmission between the transmitter and receiver at various frequencies. This helps to overcome multi path propagation, as at least some of the frequencies pass on radio line of sight. With a cooperative symmetric two-way metering technique distances can be measured to
high resolution as well as to high accuracy by compensating for local clock drifts and stochastic inaccuracies. Another valuable aspect of pulse-based UWB is that the pulses are very short in space (less than 60 cm for a 500 MHz wide pulse, less than 23 cm for a 1.3 GHz bandwidth pulse), so most signal reflections do not overlap the original pulse, and thus the traditional multipath fading of narrow band signals does not exist. However, there still is multipath propagation and inter-pulse interference for fast pulse systems which have to be mitigated by coding techniques. The fact that UWB transmissions have such a wide bandwidth means that they will cross the boundaries of many of the currently licensed carrier based transmissions. As such one of the fears is that UWB transmission may cause interference. However the very high bandwidth used also allows the power spectral density to be very low, and the power limits on UWB are being strictly limited by the regulatory bodies. In many instances they are lower than the spurious emissions from electronic apparatus that has been certified. In view of this it is anticipated that they will cause no noticeable interference to other carrier based licensed users. Nevertheless regulatory bodies are moving forward cautiously so that users who already have spectrum allocations are not affected. To date the FCC in the USA has approved UWB, ultra wideband technology for indoor and short range outdoor communication, but with restrictions on the frequencies over which the transmission can spread as well as the power limits. This will enable the UWB ultra wideband transmissions to communicate successfully, but without affecting existing 'narrowband' transmissions.
HOW UWB WORKS................?? HOW UWB WORKS ??
UWB differs substantially from conventional narrowband radio frequency (RF) and spread spectrum technologies (SS), such as Bluetooth Technology and 802.11a/b/g. A UWB transmitter works by sending billions of pulses across a very wide spectrum of frequency several GHz in bandwidth. The corresponding receiver then translates the pulses into data by listening for a familiar pulse sequence sent by the transmitter. UWB’s combination of larger spectrum, lower power and pulsed data improves speed and reduces interference with other wireless spectra. In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has mandated that UWB radio transmissions can legally operate in the range from 3.1 GHz up to 10.6 GHz, at a limited transmit power of – 41dBm/MHz. The result is dramatic short-range channel capacity and limited interference. Ultra Wideband (UWB) systems transmit signals across a much wider frequency than conventional systems and are usually very difficult to detect. The amount of spectrum occupied by a UWB signal, i.e. the bandwidth of the UWB signal is at least 25% of the center frequency. Thus, UWB's combination of broader spectrum and lower power improves speed and reduces interference with other wireless spectra. Specifically, UWB is defined as any radio technology having a spectrum that occupies a bandwidth greater than 20 percent of the center frequency, or a bandwidth of at least 500 MHz. The most common technique for generating a UWB signal is to transmit pulses with durations less than 1 nanosecond. It is Radio
technology that modulates impulse based waveforms instead of continuous carrier waves. Table : Advantages and benefits of UWB communications over narrowband wireless technologies.
Advantage Large channel capacity Ability to work with low SNRs Low transmit power Resistance to jamming High performance in multipath channels Benefit High bandwidth can support real-time highdefinition video streaming. Offers high performance in noisy environments. Provides high degree of security with low probability of detection and intercept. Reliable in hostile environments. Delivers higher signal strengths in adverse conditions. Enables ultra-low power, smaller form factor, and Simple transceiver architecture better mean time between failures, all at a reduced cost.
Narrow band communication
MODULATION TYPES MODULATION TYPES
The most common impulse radio concepts are based on Pulse Position Modulation. These techniques use time shift of regularly timed pulses, as it is shown at fig.1b for two modulation states. Bi-Phase Modulation is modulation of the pulse polarity. Fig. 1c shows it graphically. BPM is antipodal modulation method, whereas PPM, when separated by one pulse width delay for each pulse position, is an orthogonal modulation method. Therefore, BPM has theoretically the 3dB gain in power efficiency. If PPM delays by one pulse width, then BPM can send twice number of pulses and, twice the information.
PAM is not the preferred modulation method for most short-range communication. AM signal which has smaller amplitude is more susceptible to noise than that with larger amplitude. On Off Keying is a modulation technique where the presence or absence of a pulse represents pair of modulation states. The major difficulty with OOK is the presence of echoes of the original or other pulses. It makes difficult to determine the absence of a pulse. An example of OOK is in fig. 2c.
FREQUENCY SPECTRUM FREQUENCY SPECTRUM
The most part of energy of the UWB signal falls into the frequency range from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz, and the energy spectral density doesn't exceed limit determined by Part 15 of FCC Regulations(-
41dBm/MHz). Below 3.1 GHz the signal almost disappears, its level is lower than -60. The more ideal the form of a pulse formed with the transmitter, the less the energy goes out of the main range. But however that may be, the permissible deviation of the pulse from the ideal form must be limited, hence the second purport. The spectral range lower than 3.1 GHz is avoided not to create problems for GPS systems whose accuracy of operation can suffer a lot from outside signals even if their density is lower than -41. The signal, in this way, extends over a large bandwidth (several gigahertzs) and can be buried in the environment noise in a way that does not interfere with other services.
UWB CHARACTERISTICS UWB CHARACTERISTICS
Extremely low transmission energy ( less than 1mW) Very wide fractional and absolute RF bandwidth Very high bandwidth within short range (200Mbps within 10m) Extremely difficult to intercept – Short pulse excitation generates wideband spectra – low energy densities – Low energy density also minimizes interference to other services Multipath immunity Very short pulses Carrier less transmission High rate communication Penetrate through walls Commonality of signal generation and processing architectures Radar – Inherent high precision – sub-centimeter ranging – Wideband excitation for detection of complex, low RCS targets Geo location/Positioning – Sub-centimeter resolution using pulse leading edge detection – passes through building blocks, walls, etc. (LOS not required) Low Cost – Nearly “all-digital” architecture – ideal for microminiaturization into a chipset Frequency diversity with minimal hardware modifications
COMPARISON WITH LATEST TECHNOLOGIES COMPARISON WITH LATEST TECHNOLOGIES
Wi-Fi WiFi is an infrastructure-oriented technology and therefore has difficulty communicating peer to peer. Also it was not designed for streaming audio and video. The IEEE standards 802.11b and 802.11g are used, both operates in the noisy 2.4 GHz ISM band and are subject to interference. Transfer rate is slower with a top rate of 54Mbps. Bluetooth It was designed as a low power technology just to cut down the power requirements of the wired technologies. Still it consumes 50x more power as compared to UWB. The recent version of Bluetooth supports up to a maximum of 12Mbps that is very low as compare to UWB. It is also having problem of interference as it uses same band as that of WiFi system. UWB A UWB signal centered at 2 GHz would have a minimum bandwidth of 500 MHz and the minimum bandwidth of a UWB signal centered at 4 GHz would be 1 GHz. The most common technique for generating a UWB signal is to transmit pulses with durations less than 1 nanosecond. A traditional UWB transmitter works by sending billions of pulses across a very wide spectrum of frequency several GHz in bandwidth. The corresponding receiver then translates the pulses into data by listening for a familiar pulse sequence sent by the transmitter. Specifically, UWB is defined as any radio technology having a spectrum that occupies a bandwidth greater than 20 percent of the center frequency, or a bandwidth of at least 500 MHz.
UWB APPLICATION UWB APPLICATION
There is a wide number of applications that UWB technology can be
used for. They range from data and voice communications through to radar and tagging. With the growing number of way in which wireless technology can be used, the list is likely to grow. Although much of the hype about ultra wideband UWB has been associated with commercial applications, the technology is equally suited to military applications. One of the advantages is that with the pulses being spread over a wide spectrum they can be difficult to detect. This makes them ideal for covert communications. Commercial: High speed LAN / WAN ( >20 Mbps) Avoidance radar Altimeter (aviation) Tags for intelligent transport systems Intrusion detection Geolocation Intelligent Transportation Systems, Electronic Signs, Smart Appliances Wireless Interconnection Military: Radar Covert communications Intrusion detection Precision geo-location Data links
UWB is in early stages of developments. It is proving its worth in various fields with advantages like high bit rate, multimedia connectivity to wireless personal area network. World is on the verge of freedom from wires. UWB technology offers a solution for band-width, cost, power consumption, and size requirements of next generation consumer electronics. A number of UWB components and system are in testing phase and will be releasing in near future. UWB has been redefined as a high data rate (480+ Mbps), short-range (up to 20 meters) technology that specifically addresses emerging applications in the consumer electronics, personal computing and mobile device markets. When compared to other existing and nascent technologies capable of providing wireless connectivity, the performance benefits of UWB are compelling. With the growing level of wireless communications, ultra wide band UWB offers significant advantages in many areas. One of the main attractions for WAN / LAN applications is the very high data rates that can be supported. With computer technology requiring ever increasing amounts of data to be transported, it is likely that standards such as 802.11 and others may not be able to support the data speeds required in some applications. It is in overcoming this problem where UWB may well become a major technology of the future.
INFORMATION SOURCE http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/wireless/index.php Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Technology, Technology & Research at Intel www.intel.com/technology/comms/uwb/ Ultra Wideband (UWB) Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ);
http://www.multispectral.com/UWBFAQ.html UWB OVERVIEW Ultra-wideband - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultra-wideband UWB MODULATION http://www.urel.feec.vutbr.cz/ra2008/archive/ra2006/abstracts/088.pdf UWB DETAILS http://www.antd.nist.gov/wctg/manet/NIST_UWB_Report_April03.pdf
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