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T H E D I T I O N
B ARBARA A. P LOG
PATRICIA J. Q UINLAN
FUNDAMENTALS OF INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH SERIES
The National Safety Council Press’ Occupational Safety and Health Series is composed of materials written to help readers establish and maintain safety, health, and environmental programs. These books contain the latest information on establishing priorities, collecting and analyzing data to help identify problems, and developing methods and procedures to reduce or eliminate illness and incidents, thus mitigating injury and minimizing economic loss resulting from these events. • Accident Prevention Manual for Business & Industry—4 volume set 1. Administration & Programs 2. Engineering & Technology 3. Security Management 4. Environmental Management • Study Guide: Accident Prevention Manual for Business & Industry: Administration & Programs and Engineering & Technology • Occupational Health & Safety • Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene • Study Guide: Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene In addition to the Occupational Safety and Health Series, some recent NSC Press additions include: • Authentic Involvement • Pocket Guide to Safety Essentials • Injury Facts (formerly Accident Facts®) published annually • Safety Culture and Effective Safety Management • Safety Through Design • On-Site Emergency Response Planning Guide • Safety and Health Classics • Lockout/Tagout: The Process of Controlling Hazardous Energy • Supervisors’ Safety Manual • Out in Front: Effective Supervision in the Workplace
FUNDAMENTALS OF INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE
Barbara A. Plog, MPH, CIH, CSP Editor in Chief
Patricia J. Quinlan, MPH, CIH Editor
sufficiency. Industrial hygiene. and procedures that prevent and mitigate human suffering and economic losses arising from preventable causes. the National Safety Council makes no guarantee as to. MPH. stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means. Patricia. WAIVER OF FIRST SALE DOCTRINE The National Safety Council’s materials are fully protected by the United States copyright laws and are solely for the noncommercial. Barbara A. 1951RC967 . photocopying. and assumes no responsibility for. Plog.Editor-in-Chief: Editor: Project Editor: Associate Editor: Barbara A. Schonfeld Patricia M. purchaser agrees that such materials shall not be rented. recording or otherwise. CSP Patricia J. Quinlan. COPYRIGHT. CIH Jodey B. transferred.-. health. 2002 by the National Safety Council All Rights Reserved Printed in the United States of America 05 04 03 02 01 5 4 3 2 1 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Fundamentals of industrial hygiene / edited by Barbara A. 1988. Includes bibliographical references and index. Quinlan. Other or additional safety measures may be required under particular circumstances. or completeness of such information or recommendations. Plog. p.5th ed. Copyright © 1971. Dewey NATIONAL SAFETY COUNCIL MISSION STATEMENT The mission of the National Safety Council is to educate and influence society to adopt safety. internal use of the purchaser. I. Without the prior written consent of the National Safety Council. sold. II. broadcast in any media form. CIH. cm. Plog (editor in chief ). Patricia J. loaned.6'2—dc21 2001052146 2.F85 2001 613. Quinlan (editor). publicly exhibited or used outside the organization of the purchaser.5M 1201 iv NSC Press Product Number: 15148-0000 . or reproduced. the correctness. unless authorized by the National Safety Council in writing. Use of these materials for training for which compensation is received is prohibited. 1996. DISCLAIMER Although the information and recommendations contained in this publication have been compiled from sources believed to be reliable. practices. MPH. assigned. electronic. 1979. mechanical. and environmental policies. ISBN 0-87912-216-1 1. leased.
Vapors. and Pathology 2 The Lungs 3 The Skin and Occupational Dermatoses 4 The Ears 5 The Eyes Recognition of Hazards 6 Industrial Toxicology 7 Gases.Contents Foreword Preface Part I Part II History and Development 1 Overview of Industrial Hygiene Anatomy. and Particulates Control of Hazards 18 Methods of Control 19 Local Exhaust Ventilation 20 Dilution Ventilation of Industrial Workplaces 21 General Ventilation of Nonindustrial Occupancies 22 Respiratory Protection vii ix 3 35 51 83 99 123 149 169 207 257 281 327 357 419 487 523 561 585 607 631 643 667 Part III Part IV Part V v . Physiology. Vapors. and Solvents 8 Particulates 9 Industrial Noise 10 Ionizing Radiation 11 Nonionizing Radiation 12 Thermal Stress 13 Ergonomics 14 Biological Hazards Evaluation of Hazards 15 Evaluation 16 Air Sampling 17 Direct-Reading Instruments for Gases.
CONTENTS Part VI Occupational Health and Safety Professions 23 The Industrial Hygienist 24 The Safety Professional 25 The Occupational Medicine Physician 26 The Occupational Health Nurse 27 The Industrial Hygiene Program Government Regulations and Their Impact 28 Government Regulations 29 History of the Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration A B Additional Resources ACGIH Threshold Limit Values (TLVs®) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs®) C Conversion of Units D Review of Mathematics E Glossary 727 743 765 775 793 807 825 Part VII Appendices: available online for no access charge at http://www.org/nscpress/fih Index 1049 vi .nsc.
occupational safety professionals and noted physicians. Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene provides a useful guide to assist the reader. NATIONAL SAFETY COUNCIL vii . regardless of his or her knowledge base. Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene assists every reader in the establishment of safety and health programs that are the foundation of our mission––preventing injury and illness. I used earlier editions of Fundamentals to obtain in-depth knowledge and insight related to specific occupational environments. the book remains an indispensable tool to me and to National Safety Council staff. Today. wherever they may occur. or as a simple reference tool. up-to-date information––the kind of comprehensive and current information contained in the fifth edition of the National Safety Council’s Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene. Fulfilling this commitment requires accurate. I have often referred to the most current edition of Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene for valuable guidance. processes and procedures. Throughout my own career.Foreword T he National Safety Council was chartered on the belief that information and planning are the keys to safety. collecting and analyzing data. Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene continues to be the acclaimed standard of information for occupational and industrial hygiene professionals. as well as safety and health professionals. I encourage all employers. For those beginning their careers or experienced safety and health professionals. While at the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. evaluate and control hazards in any type of workplace. to recognize. MCMILLAN PRESIDENT. developing procedures to mitigate loss and suffering. Whether establishing priorities. Written and edited by prominent industrial hygienists. ALAN C. volunteers. chapters and affiliates in designing safety and health programs that are grounded in current scientific knowledge and real-life experience. to share the Council’s commitment to preventing injury and illness and protecting people from hazards in the workplace. members.
The primary purpose of this book is to provide a reference for those who have either an interest in or a direct responsibility for the recognition. such as the ones offered by the National Safety Council. industrial hygiene students. labor organizations. It is hoped that this book will be of use to those responsible for planning and carrying out programs to minimize occupational health hazards. and The Occupational Health Nurse (Chapter 26). community. 1995. An understanding of the fundamentals of industrial hygiene is very important to anyone involved in environmental. Volume 6. The increase in the number and complexity of substances found in the workplace—substances that may spill over into the community environment—makes ix .) It is also clear the fundamental principles of industrial hygiene deserve more emphasis than at any time before. it is intended to be of use to industrial hygienists. industry. 10. The Occupational Medicine Physician (Chapter 25). This manual should be of help in defining the magnitude and extent of an industrial hygiene problem. Respiratory Protection (Chapter 22). June/July. still hold true. public service groups. it should help the reader decide when expert help is needed. safety personnel from labor and industry. American Industrial Hygiene Association. Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene is also intended to be used either as a selfinstructional text or as a text for an industrial hygiene fundamentals course.’’ (The Synergist.Preface T he fifth edition of Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene comes at a time of continuing congressional activity that seeks to regulate how the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) promulgates and enforces standards for health and safety in U.S. The words of then-OSHA head Joseph Dear to the American Industrial Hygiene Conference in Kansas City. 1995. nurses. Missouri. Thus. various colleges and universities. architects. government agencies. physicians. and manufacturers. lawyers. or occupational health. and professional organizations. and agriculture. evaluation. and control of occupational health hazards. that OSHA strives to ‘‘guarantee that each worker who leaves for work in the morning arrives home safely each night. p. All other chapters have been extensively updated and revised. Dilution Venilation of Industrial Workplaces (Chapter 20). and allied professional personnel who work with those engaged in business. on May 24. Number 6–7. Others who may find this reference helpful include consultants. workplaces. This edition of Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene presents original new chapters on Particulates (Chapter 8).
we have permitted a certain amount of redundancy. in an overview of the fundamentals of industrial hygiene. Part Two includes chapters on the fundamental aspects of the anatomy. of certain basic information relating to occupational health hazards and resultant occupational diseases. the safety professional. instructions on conversion of units. This background lays the groundwork for understanding how these organ systems interrelate and function. Olishifski. For this reason. PE 2—Solvents and Health in the Occupational Environment— Donald R. and the occupational medicine physician in implementing a successful program are discussed in detail. Part Four describes methods and techniques of evaluating the hazard. For that reason. Basic information is given on the various types of instruments available to measure these stresses and on how to use the instruments properly to obtain valid measurements. each can stand alone as a reference source. physical agents. and eyes. and other resources.PREFACE imperative the dissemination. we have included a completely updated and comprehensive annotated bibliography and a listing of professional and service organizations. ScD3—Pneumoconiosis-Producing Dusts—Fred Cook. occupational health. An extensive index is included to assist the reader in locating information in this text. MS x . Part One introduces the subject areas to be covered. We would like to gratefully acknowledge the work of the contributors to previous editions of the Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene. and pathology of the lungs. Walworth. Part Three is concerned with the recognition of specific environmental factors or stresses. One of the most difficult parts of getting any project started is finding sources of help and information. The basic concepts of industrial toxicology are also presented in this section. Appendix A provides additional resources. and a glossary of terms used in industrial hygiene. government agencies. Included is one of the more important aspects of an industrial hygiene program: the methods used to evaluate the extent of exposure to harmful chemical and physical agents. as efficiently and conveniently as possible. hazards. Wyman. the occupational health nurse. To augment the basics. Anticipation of these hazards is the desired result. and biological and ergonomic hazards present in the workplace are covered. the basic principles of health hazard control. and pollution control. problemsolving techniques. specific information is covered in the chapters on industrial ventilation. physiology. The book is organized into seven parts. Part Seven contains up-to-date information on government regulations and their impact on the practice of industrial hygiene. Other appendixes include the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values (TLVs®) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs®). Particular attention is paid to a discussion of the practice of industrial hygiene in the public and private sectors and to a description of the professional certification of industrial hygienists. The fundamental concepts of the roles of the industrial hygienist. ears. a review of mathematics. MS 4—Industrial Dermatitis—Charles W. First Edition 1—Fundamental Concepts of Industrial Hygiene—Julian B. The chemical substances. Part Five deals with the control of the environmental hazards. Although industrial hygiene problems vary. BS 5—Industrial Noise—Herbert T. skin. and the examples of engineering control measures given here are general enough to have wide application. McFee. Part Six is directed specifically to people responsible for conducting and organizing occupational health and safety programs.
MD. B. Alpaugh. AM 20—Setting Up an Industrial Hygiene Program—Julian B. BS 14—Industrial Ventilation—W. McFee. PhD. PE 13—Ergonomics—Bruce A. Hazard. AM 23—Respiratory Protective Equipment—Allen M. PE 10—Ionizing Radiation—C. PE 8—Effects of Temperature Extremes—E. PE 12—General Methods of Control—J. PE. MPH. PhD. Leopold 15—Industrial Toxicology—Ralph G. L. CIH and Jack E. Olishifski. CSP 2—The Lungs—George S. MD. Peter Zavon. Zatek. PE 4—The Ear—Julian B. Lyle Cheever. PE 30—Sources of Information—Julian B. PE 16—Evaluation— Edward R. MBA 11—Nonionizing Radiation—Edward J. Olishifski. MS. Benjamin. MD. Hogan. CIH and Anne C. ScD. McLean 27—The Occupational Physician—Carl Zenz. ScD 7—Particulates— Edwin L. PhD. BS. Microwaves. Olishifski. Olishifski. Berry 26—The Safety Professional—Willis T. FACS 3—The Skin—James S. L. CIH. B. Hazard. PE. Olishifski. G. Olishifski. McFee. B. Olishifski. Lundin. PE 7—Nonionizing Radiation: Lasers. CSP. Olishifski. PE 18—Air-Sampling Instruments—Julian B. Hazard. CIH xi . CHM 20—Methods of Control—Julian B. CE. Hipp 9—Industrial Noise—Julian B. Hertig 14—Biological Hazards—Alvin L. PE 11—Toxicology—J. Olishifski. AM 15—General Ventilation and Special Operations—W. ScD 28—The Occupational Health Nurse—Jeanette M. PE 3—The Skin—Julian B. Olishifski. PE 21—Sources of Information on Industrial Hygiene—Julian B. Olishifski. MD 4—The Ears—George S. Peterson. Smith and Julian B. Olishifski. PE and Robert Pedroza Third Edition 1—Overview of Industrial Hygiene—Barbara Plog. MPH. Light—Julian B. Alpaugh. BS 24—Governmental Regulations—M. G. PE 25—The Industrial Hygienist—Clyde M. Largent and Julian B. PE 8—Industrial Dermatoses—Larry L. Chain Robbins. CHCM. Olishifski. PE 6—Solvents—Donald R. Cornyn 29—Industrial Hygiene Program—Edward J. MD. PE Second Edition 1—Fundamental Concepts—Julian B. CIH 17—Methods of Evaluation—Julian B. Miller. Largent and Julian B. PE 12—Temperature Extremes—Edwin L. Olishifski. FACS 6—Solvents—Donald R. PE 10—Evaluating the Hazard—J. Benjamin. Olishifski. CIH. Hazard. PE 5—The Eyes—Julian B. Benjamin. Alpaugh. CIH 7—Particulates—Theodore J. Taylor. PE 2—The Lungs—Julian B. Olishifski. PE. PE 9—Ergonomics Stresses: Physical and Mental—Julian B. Alpaugh. AM 22—General Ventilation—Willis G. Olishifski.PREFACE 6—Basic Concepts of Ionizing Radiation Safety—E. PE 13—Respiratory Protective Equipment—A. Olishifski. PhD. Hermann. CSP. CIH. CSP. M. Olishifski. PE 21—Industrial Ventilation—Willis G. Olishifski. FACS 5—The Eyes—George S. Lundin. PE 19—Direct-Reading Gas and Vapor Monitors—Joseph E.
Huey. PhD. PhD 12—Temperature Extremes—Theodore J. and Barry J. Macher. CSP 10—Ionizing Radiation—C. MD. CIH. Bernard. MD 4—The Ears—George S. Cynthia S. Benjamin. CIH. Plog. PE. CSP 2—The Lungs—George S. ScD. MPH. and Kameron Balzer. CIH. PhD. Mintz Fourth Edition 1—Overview of Industrial Hygiene—Barbara A. FACS 3—The Skin and Occupational Dermatoses—James S. Hahne. PhD. MD. PE. CSP xii . CIH 16—Air-Sampling—Maureen A. Zatek. PhD 14—Biological Hazards—Alvin L. Jeff Burton. MBA 11—Nonionizing Radiation—Gordon Miller. Miller. CSP. PhD 30—Governmental Regulations—M. Jeff Burton. MPH. CIH. RN 28—The Industrial Hygiene Program—Maureen A. E. Hogan. CIH 24—The Industrial Hygienist—Barbara A. Jeff Burton. and Solvents—George S. Volk 15—Industrial Toxicology—Carl Zenz. Peterson. BS. Colton. PE. CIH 13—Ergonomics—Karl H. PE. CIH. Raterman. Taylor. Vapors. Manuele. PE. MS. MPH. CSP. CIH. FACS 5—The Eyes—George S. CE. PhD 14—Biological Hazards—A. MPH 29—Computerizing an Industrial Hygiene Program—Adrienne Whyte. MS. Benjamin. Anderson. CHCM. CSP 18—Air-Sampling Instruments—Maureen A. MPH. Kroemer. PhD. CIH 23—Respiratory Protective Equipment—Craig E. CIH 13—Ergonomics—Karl H. Fleming. CIH 18—Methods of Control—Susan M. MS. PhD. ScD 16—Evaluation—Edward R. Plog. Benjamin. FACS 6—Industrial Toxicology—Richard Cohen.PREFACE 8—Industrial Dermatoses—James S. CIH 17—Direct-Reading Instruments for Gases. CHM 20—Methods of Control—Julian B. MD. MD 27—The Occupational Health Nurse—Larry Hannigan. PE. and Janet M. Hogan. CSP 21—Industrial Ventilation—D. Gross. CIH. CSP 10—Ionizing Radiation—C. CIH 7—Gases. CSP 26—The Occupational Physician—Carl Zenz. REPA 19—Local Exhaust Ventilation of Industrial Occupancies—D. MS. Chain Robbins. Olishifski. MS. Diane O. Lynn Harding. Olishifski. E. MPH 19—Direct-Reading Gas and Vapor Monitors—Joseph E. MD. CIH. PhD. CIH 9—Industrial Noise—John Standard. PE 31—Occupational Safety and Health: The Federal Regulatory Program— A History—Benjamin W. MPH. CIH 8—Particulates—Theodore J. MS. CIH 12—Thermal Stress—Thomas E. Hermann. Lyle Cheever. MBA 11—Nonionizing Radiation—Larry E. MPH. CIH 17—Methods of Evaluation—Julian B. and Particulates—Rolfe M. Kroemer. CIH. MPH 15—Evaluation—Elizabeth R. CSP 25—The Safety Professional—Fred A. Kerwin (now Maureen A. MPH. CIH 22—General Ventilation —D. PE. Benjamin. Kerwin (now Maureen A. FACS. Lyle Cheever. MD. Huey).A. PhD. MD 9—Industrial Noise—John J. Taylor. PE. Elise Pechter. Standard. Fulton. MD. Jack E. Vapors. MS. CIH. PhD. MPH. Huey).
Doris and Henry Plog. who again supported having ‘‘the book’’ in our lives over the past two years. Colton. CIH. BARBARA A. Michael and Max. MPH. Coyne. and my mother and father. PE 30—Occupational Safety and Health: The Federal Regulatory Program— A History—Benjamin W. CSP EDITOR IN CHIEF DECEMBER 2001 xiii . Jeff Burton. and to the working women and men who are. PLOG. CSP 22—Respiratory Protection—Craig E. And finally. MPH. CIH. MD 26—Occupational Health Nursing—Barbara J. Huey. CSP 25—The Occupational Physician—Carl Zenz. MPH.PREFACE 20—General Ventilation of Industrial Occupancies—D.Whyte. the point of it all. CIH. tireless attention to technical detail. and professionalism. MPH 28—Computerizing an Industrial Hygiene Program—Adrienne A. Burgel. CIH 23—The Industrial Hygienist—Jill Niland. CSP 21—General Ventilation of Nonindustrial Occupancies—D. and Donna Iverson Appendix E—European Union Initiatives in Occupational Health and Safety— Robin S. this book is dedicated to my family. CIH. CIH. PhD 29—Governmental Regulations—Gabriel J. MS. LIH We would also like to thank Ron Miller and George Kraficsin. COHN 27—The Industrial Hygiene Program—Maureen A. whose excellent work. PE. RN. Jeff Burton. CIH. helped to make this edition the best yet. who reviewed material for the fifth edition: special thanks to Patty Quinlan and Jodey Schonfeld. CSP 24—The Safety Professional—Peter B. Rice. Because this manual will be revised periodically. PE. contributions and comments from readers are welcome. Gillotti. Mintz Appendix A—Deborah Gold. after all. ROH.
Balmes. Barbara J. Chinatown district. He also tries to promote the practice of industrial hygiene through active participation in professional associations. C. Cohen is board certified in both Occupational Medicine and xiv . and Industrial Hygiene supervisor. Burgel. He offers classes in the industrial hygiene program with major responsibilities for ergonomics. radioactive and hazardous waste manager. Director of the Occupational Medicine Residency program. the role of clothing in heat stress assessment. is a Professor of Medicine at the University of California. MPH. MBA. Dr. Ms. Ms. is a Clinical Professor and Adult Nurse Practitioner in the Department of Community Health Systems at the University of California San Francisco School of Nursing. he worked for Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the United States Bureau of Mines. Thomas E. Lyle Cheever CIH-ret. MS. Balmes leads an active research program involving controlled human exposure studies of the respiratory effects of ambient air pollutants in his Human Exposure Laboratory at the UCSF Lung Biology Center. and an Attending Physician on the Pulmonary/Critical Care Service at San Francisco General Hospital. physical agents and controls.Contributors John R. He also collaborates on several epidemiological projects involving the effects of air pollution on respiratory health at the University of California-Berkeley where he is Director of the Northern California Center for Occupational and Environmental Health. Burgel is currently providing clinical care and ergonomic interventions to Asian immigrant garment workers in a free clinic in the Oakland. COHN-S. San Francisco. FAAN. Richard Cohen. Burgel has taught in the Occupational Health Nursing graduate program since 1981. Bernard. CIH. San Francisco (UCSF) where he is the Chief of the Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at San Francisco General Hospital. PhD. MS. MD. and ergonomics. He also lectures at Stanford University School of Medicine. joined the University of South Florida faculty in 1989. RN. Dr. is retired from Argonne National Laboratory where his work from 1957 to 1998 included project manager for decommissioning of radioactive materials facilities. California. associate director of Occupational Health and Safety. Previously. is a Clinical Professor of Medicine at the University of California. His active research programs involve the evaluation of heat stress and strain. MD.
Inc.D. He also quantitatively fit tested OSHA personnel. She is the past-president of ABSA and two local affiliates. Colton has also taught continuing education courses for the University of North Carolina and University of California-Berkeley.CONTRIBUTORS General Preventive Medicine. He is currently a member of the ANSI Z88 Committee for Respiratory Protection.S. Gillotti is the Director of the Voluntary Programs and Outreach Unit in the U. She is co-editor of the third edition of Biological Safety: Principles and Practices. She has worked in various medical settings performing both diagnostic and rehabilitative audiology. became active in biosafety and infection-control in the late 1970s at Wright State University in Ohio. ChABSA and MABSA.12 subcommittee for Respiratory Protection for Infectious Aerosols. and was a member of the ANSI Z88. and Merck & Co. the California Academy of Audiology and the National Hearing Conservation Association. monitoring and responding to regulatory affairs related to respiratory protection. Department of Labor as an industry representative on a Task Force assigned the responsibility to draft and publish safety and health standards and compliance regulations under the Construction Safety and the OSHA Acts of 1969 and 1970 respectively. Diane O. CIH. followed by a number of years as a safety engineer with the California State Division of Industrial Safety and the Boeing Company. Ph. is a Certified Industrial Hygienist in the Regulatory Affairs and Training group of the 3M Occupational Health and Environmental Safety Division with 22 years of experience specializing in respiratory protection. De Groot is employed at the San Francisco General Occupational Health Service as director of the Hearing Conservation Program. biotechnology and electronics sectors. His responsibilities as a senior technical service specialist include conducting workplace protection factor studies on 3M respirators. and providing technical assistance to respirator users. Diane has published articles in peer-reviewed journals and chapters in books dealing with biosafety. Gillotti received a Bachelor of Science degree in Civil Engineering and a Bachelor of Arts degree in Mathematics in 1959 from the University of Notre Dame. CBSP (ABSA). he was an instructor at the OSHA Training Institute where he was course chair for respiratory protection. Fleming is now an independent biosafety consultant for academic. Gabriel J. She is a member of the American Academy of Audiology. Currently Ms. Indiana. He has been a member of the CAL/OSHA PEL Advisory Committee and is a Fellow in the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Mr. as Chairman of their Institutional Biosafety Committee. he joined the U. Sterling Drug. Dr. Colton. she was Chairman of the ASM subcommittee on Laboratory Safety. From 1990–97. Fleming. particularly in the pharmaceutical. Since 1971 he has been an adminisxv . and as Biosafety Manager for Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center. Before joining the 3M staff. Department of Labor’s Region IX Office of OSHA located in San Francisco.S. He provides expertise in industrial toxicology and occupational medicine to industry. She served as Biosafety Officer and Assistant Director of Safety for the Johns Hopkins University and Medical Center. and America’s Section of the International Society for Respiratory Protection. Notre Dame.. He is a past chair of the AIHA Respiratory Protection Committee. He spent four years as a construction engineer for the California Department of Water Resources working on the California Aqueduct system. government and industrial clients. Craig E. published by the ASM. In 1970. Marjorie De Groot received her Masters Degree in Audiology from the University of Colorado in 1985. California.
Currently. and international groups on the subject of workplace safety and health. including work with the Dow Chemical Company. He has been working in industrial hygiene and environmental health for 29 years in both the public and private sectors. He received his BS from Stanford University. Environmental Health Laboratory and Lecturer. methods to reduce workers’ exposure to lead during bridge rehabilitation. and a PhD from the University of Wisconsin.A. is Professor of Environmental Health Sciences at the University of California-Berkeley School of Public Health. Katharine Hammond. where she lectures on Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene. an MA from Columbia University. In both capacities. Pan American World Airways. her research focuses on exposure assessment for epidemiological studies. Mr. Department of Environmental Health. Gillotti is a Registered Professional Engineer in California. S. Ms. the Harvard School of Public Health Industrial Hygiene Program Advisory Board. She is a member of the ACGIH and the APHA. Hammond directs the industrial hygiene program at University of California-Berkeley. she was Assistant Industrial Hygienist at Harvard University. the American Board of Industrial Hygiene. University of Washington. is Director. A. Gross is a Visiting Lecturer at both Harvard and Boston University Schools of Public Health. Lynn Harding. Hahne. Deborah Gold is a Senior Industrial Hygienist at Cal/OSHA. and the University of Washington. she has evaluated and helped control a broad range of potential exposures to workers. external training. support Voluntary Protection Programs and other outreach initiatives.. She has also been an active participant in the American Industrial Hygiene Association. respiratory health effects of automobile assembly work. and the Joint Industrial Hygiene Ethics Education Committee. She is a CIH. MPH. facilities. he and his staff are responsible for interacting with the public and private sector via speech-making. B. Rolf M. CIH. He is also the recipient of a Distinguished Career Service award from the Secretary of Labor. implement. national. Dr. CIH. has extensive experience working with corporate and academic institutions to develop. physical and ergonomic agents. Prior to working at Dana-Farber. as the Director of the Voluntary Programs and Outreach office. environmental tobacco smoke exposure in the workplace and elsewhere. Mr. the Academy of Industrial Hygiene. and xvi . and Office Health and Safety. and evaluate biosafety programs. unintended consequences of environmental regulations on occupational exposures.Sc.CONTRIBUTORS trator in the San Francisco Regional Office. Over those 30 years. an MA from the University of California-Berkeley. and a BA from the University of Michigan. a biomedical research and clinical facility. School of Public Health and Community Medicine. Hospital. Elizabeth Gross is Director of Environmental Health and Safety at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston. Among the major research projects are the relationship between diesel exhaust and lung cancer among railroad workers. She is a chemist. She has developed new methods for collecting and analyzing chemicals in the workplace and assessing exposures without airborne measurements. the University of Iowa. is an independent biosafety consultant. PhD. engaging in partnerships. PhD. In addition. has an MS in Industrial Hygiene from Harvard School of Public Health. CBSP (ABSA). Gillotti has made hundreds of presentations and presented papers before local. the rates of spontaneous abortion among women who work in wafer fabricating clean rooms and their exposures to a variety of chemical. Laboratory.
Director. MPH. Prior to this post. and the Wright Fleming Institute of Microbiology in London on research associated with nosocomial infections. Peggy F. She has published on subjects such as laboratory acquired infections. E. California. MD. He is widely recognized as an expert on peroxidizable chemicals and perchlorate-contaminated ventilation system testing and demolition. bacterial vaccine development and folic acid metabolism. This has served her well in mapping the dangers and pitfalls inherent in the world of Occupational Safety and Health. MS. is a Certified Industrial Hygienist. Ergonomics Research Institute. is a District Manager for the California OSHA program. Ms. Karl H. Germany. he provides industrial hygiene services to the Chemistry and Material Sciences and Decontamination and Demolition organizations at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. Rick was the Supervisor of Industrial Hygiene and Safety at the University of California at Berkeley. He has been an industrial hygienist with Cal/OSHA for the past 12 years. Kivel has extensive experience in the areas of worker exposure assessments. Inc. all from the Technical University Hanover.CONTRIBUTORS training materials. Rick Kelly MS. Prior to working at IHI Environmental. especially training. She is an Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine at the University of California. and is currently in charge of scheduling and logistics for LOHP’s Lead-Safe Schools Training Project. BS (Vordiplom) 1957. Kroemer. MS (Dipl. Donna Iverson earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in Geography at the University of California-Berkeley.D.) 1965. Virginia Tech. Prior to consulting. biosafety in research laboratories. Horowitz. CIH. MIT. San Francisco and is the Medical Director of the Occupational Health Service at San Francisco General Hospital. providing support for major manufacturing. is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Occupational/Environmental Medicine. Kivel.) 1960. She has served as the Regional Manager for IHI Environmental in the San Francisco Bay Area for the past 12 years. she has also served on EPA and RAC taskforces associated with infectious waste and animal and plant containment. He is also a second-generation industrial hygienist. An active member of the American Biological Safety Association. She has a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of California-Berkeley. is a Certified Industrial Hygienist with more than 18 years of experience in the field of industrial hygiene. she was the Director of the Biological Safety Office and Acting Director of the Environmental Health and Safety Department at Harvard University. CIH. course development and writing. development and research divisions. infections associated with Hemophilus influenzae. In his professional capacity. He is a Certified Professional xvii . in this edition. Kivel was a Staff Industrial Hygienist at IBM Corporation in San Jose. Ph. and the development of research tools to study nosocomial infections. CPE. CIH.-Ing. Early in her career she worked at several Harvard teaching hospitals. He provides limited consultation services. Michael J. indoor air quality investigations and hazardous materials management. He was also the founder and interim director of an EPA-grant initiated health and safety training program at the University of California-Berkeley Extension. (Dr. such as the “Particulates” chapter. is Professor Emeritus of Industrial and Systems Engineering. Sarah Jewell.-Ing. Ms. She was University of California-Berkeley’s Labor Occupational Health Program Librarian for 10 years.
where he served as a bioenvironmental engineering officer. (Hank) McDermott CIH. is an air pollution research specialist with the California Department of Health Services.CONTRIBUTORS Ergonomist.. Benjamin W. and microbiology. He published a book. Law and Policy and a number of other articles on OSHA. Occupational Safety & Health. currently is the Team Leader. Air Force. Dr. Materna is also interested in occupational health and safety issues among small business employers. CIH. Department of Labor. He was previously and relevantly Associate Solicitor for Occupational Safety and Health at the U. Jill Niland has more than 20 years of experience in industrial hygiene and occupational health. Medical Center. has provided industrial hygiene expertise within governmental public health programs at the state and local level since 1981. injuries among refuse collectors. OSHA: History. Macher studies engineering measures to control airborne infectious and hypersensitivity diseases. HFES and ES. and occupational lead poisoning. and is a Fellow of the American Industrial Hygiene Association.J. and participates in investigations of bioaerosol-related illnesses in the state of California. She is a Fellow of the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine and co-editor of Occupational Injuries—Evaluation. an occupational safety and health consulting firm. biomechanics. applied physiology. California. She has lectured and written widely on diverse topics including firefighter health and safety. She is currently Chief of the Occupational Lead Poisoning Prevention Program in the Occupational Health Branch. xviii . He is a graduate of the Columbia Law School and also has a rabbinical degree from Yeshivah University. Richmond. PE. pesticide illness. Her work has been focused on preventing occupational health problems including perchloroethylene exposure in dry cleaning. He has written more than 200 publications and obtained two patents. CSP. and office ergonomics. Chevron Research & Technology Co. His international consulting experience includes work in engineering anthropometry. Columbus School of Law. H. toxic exposures in wildland firefighting. which focuses on training. an Master of Science in Civil Engineering from Northwestern. and the role of the treating physician in the workers’ compensation system. MD. evaluates methods to collect and identify airborne biological material. PhD. published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. MPH. the Catholic University of America. He is the author of the Handbook of Ventilation for Contaminant Control (3rd edition).S. International Society for Occupational Ergonomics and Safety. Fellow. Barbara Materna. Mintz is now Professor of Law. Dr. and construction health and safety. human factors engineering. is board certified in Occupational Medicine and Chief of Occupational Health Services for Kaiser Permanente San Francisco. CPE. She has a Master’s Degree from the University of California and doctorate from Harvard University with emphasis on industrial hygiene. He has more than 30 years of safety and industrial hygiene experience in industry and the U. He has a Bachelor of Science degree in Civil Engineering from the University of Delaware. San Francisco. a member of the AIHA. and is an Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine at the University of California. and an Master of Art in Public Administration from the University of New Mexico. intervention effectiveness. public health. California Department of Health Services. and an honorary member. She is principal consultant and partner in CDIC Chicago. Linda Morse. Management and Prevention. cumulative trauma disorders of the neck and upper extremity.S. published by Mosby in 1995. Janet Macher ScD.
Illinois. She teaches Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Safety to graduate students in industrial hygiene and occupational health nursing. CIH. Previously she was senior industrial hygiene consultant at the National Safey Council in Itasca. identifying occupational asthma triggers. in the Department of Community Health Systems. A member of ACGIH. an industrial hygiene and environmental hazard consulting firm. NEAIHA. COEH is a NIOSH Education and Research Center. and APHA. New York. Susan M. School of Nursing. and chair of the Advisory Board for the Work Environment Justice Fund. an insurance broker. She is the Director of the Continuing Professional Education Program of the Center for Occupational and Environmental Health (COEH) at the University of California-Berkeley School of Public Health. In addition.. 3rd. She is editor-in-chief of the 1. Ms. She also holds an appointment as Associate Clinical Professor. In prior positions at Zurich American Insurance. specializes in the areas of comprehensive industrial xix . Ithaca. member of the Health/Technical committee of MassCOSH. She also serves as the Associate Director for Technical Services for the Labor Occupational Health Program and is the Technical Director and Principal Investigator for the Lead-Safe Schools Program. is the founder and President of The Raterman Group. and 5th editions. from 1982–1987. Elise Pechter. teen injuries. San Francisco. she was the industrial hygienist for the Labor Occupational Health Program at University of California-Berkeley. She has been with University of California-San Francisco since 1987. is a Certified Industrial Hygienist and a Certified Safety Professional and has been in the field of occupational health for 20 years. MPH. 4th. The Raterman Group. Prior to University of California-San Francisco. CIH. and a Masters in Public Health degree from the University of Illinois in Chicago. Elise works on several other projects: occupational cancer prevention in an NCI funded small business intervention project. University of California-San Francisco. Ms. Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene.CONTRIBUTORS auditing and program development using new technologies. In this capacity she coordinates intervention activities in response to work-related asthma. Ltd. She is a member of the California OSHA Statewide Advisory and Airborne Contaminants Advisory Committees. Ms Plog is a Lecturer in the School of Public Health’s industrial hgyiene program and an assistant clinical professor at the University of California-San Francisco School of Nursing’s Occupational Health Nursing program. She is a Certified Industrial Hygienist (CIH) and has been active in a number of committees of the AIHA and APHA Occupational Health Section. Plog was manager of Occupational Health at the National Safety Council for five years. she provided industrial hygiene services to clients in a wide variety of industries. Raterman. integrating occupational health into public health. is a Certified Industrial Hygienist who works for the Occupational Health Surveillance Program at the Massachusetts Department of Public Health. CSP.000-plus page textbook. Patricia has been active in the field of industrial hygiene for 20 years. Niland received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Cornell University. and acute chemical poisonings. Pechter is on the executive board of the Harriet Hardy Institute. and providing health and safety training for vocational teachers at an annual conference. Quinlan. CIH. Before coming to the University of California-Berkeley in 1987. where she was also an associate editor of the 4th edition of Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene. CIH. is a Certified Industrial Hygienist in the Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at the University of California. Barbara A Plog. and at Alexander and Alexander. Ms. She holds a Masters of Public Health Degree in Industrial Hygiene from the University of Illinois School of Public Health. Patricia J. Ltd.
and a Bachelor of Arts in Biology from St. and the Board of Directors of the American Academy of Dermatology. James S. Louis University in St. 1976. asbestos and lead hazard assessments and remediation oversight. safety professional. is certified by the American Board of Dermatology and previously served as an industrial dermatologist with NIOSH. Raterman provides management and technical expertise in industrial hygiene and environmental health to clients in the commercial. CIH. Rice currently serves as the Director for Environmental. construction. xx . is Head. Rice most recently managed Harding Lawson Associates’ domestic and international Safety and Industrial Hygiene Programs. Environmental Health and Biology.CONTRIBUTORS hygiene consulting. He is past president of the American Contact Dermatitis Society. Mr.com). hazard communication. Mr. He is a member of the North American Contact Dermatitis Group. Raterman is Certified in the Comprehensive Practice of Industrial Hygiene by the American Industrial Hygiene Association. Bachelor of Science. 1977. the National Occupational Research Agenda Allergic and Irritant Dermatitis Panel. She attained a Master of Science Degree in Environmental Health Engineering from Northwestern University in Evanston. the International Facility Management Association. Northridge. Ms. No. Rice has been partly responsible for developing Cal/OSHA health standards for respiratory protection. Louis. ergonomic. completed his dermatology residency at the Cleveland Clinic. In addition. has 25 years of experience in developing. and waste cleanup projects involving chemical. McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science of Northwestern University. evaluation. Raterman is member of the Advisory Council of Robert D. No. physical. is the author of 185 scientific publications and serves as a consultant to industry and government. Northridge. California State University. Ms. Pete Rice. and is on the Board of Directors for Chicago Real Estate Executive Women. and indoor air and water quality evaluations. and is an Illinois Environmental Protection Agency Licensed Industrial Hygienist. implementing. Additionally.clicksafety. She is also a Registered Environmental Property Assessor with the National Registry of Environmental Professionals. and chief training officer for Cal/OSHA. and control of safety and health practices and procedures on hundreds of various industrial. Rice teaches industrial hygiene and safety at the university level (University of California-Berkeley) and has trained numerous industrial hygienists and safety professionals. Section of Industrial Dermatology. Missouri. He has participated in the recognition. Mr. He is Certified Industrial Hygienist . No. Mr. Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety. 4265 Registered Environmental Assessor . ventilation. California State University. and asbestos. and supervising environmental and occupational safety and industrial hygiene programs. Cleveland Clinic Foundation. A leader in distance occupational safety and health learning. 7287 Registered Environmental Health Specialist . Illinois. Ms. Health and Safety Services for ClickSafety (www.California 1989.California 1977. She is a member of the American Industrial Hygiene Association. she provides compliance program development and training.01050 California Community College Instructor Credential MS. the AMA Committee to Revise the Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment. He is a graduate of the Indiana University School of Medicine. He formerly acted as the senior technical industrial hygienist. the American Board of Industrial Hygiene. biological.American Board of Industrial Hygiene 1981. industrial and public sectors. and is an Illinois Department of Public Health Licensed Asbestos Building Inspector/Management Planner and Asbestos Project Designer. MD. and expert testimony and litigation support to clients on environmental issues. 2156 Certified Safety Professional Board of Certified Safety Professionals 1984. Taylor. and safety hazards. No.
and nonionizing radiation. Mr. vibration. OD. Dr. Her undergraduate education was at Brandeis University. is an Associate Professor in the Department of Environmental Health at the University of Washington. and physical agents. MPH. Prior to joining the University of Washington in 1993. as well as the Director of the Industrial Hygiene and Safety program. both in the pharmaceutical industry and in the semiconductor industry. CIH (retired).CONTRIBUTORS Vic Toy is a program manager for Global Occupational Health Services for the IBM Corporation. in Environmental Health Sciences from the School of Public Health at the University of California-Berkeley in 1981. He also served as a Reader at University of California-Berkeley’s Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences. Zaum currently is in private practice. These projects include the development of a workplace open-path Fourier transform infra-red spectroscope. measurements of pesticide spray aerosols using light detection and ranging. He has been involved with managing industrial hygiene programs and services. Allison S. received a Doctor of Optometry degree from the School of Optometry at the University of California-Berkeley. occupational exposures to electromagnetic fields. Michael Yost. PhD. Zaum. and noise and vibration exposures in forestry workers. in 1998. Yost’s current research projects focus on developing novel tools for environmental and occupational exposure assessment. setting corporate policies and practices. Toy holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Environmental Sciences from the University of California at Berkeley and a Masters in Public Health in Industrial Hygiene from the University of Michigan. His interests include optical remote sensing of chemicals in the environment. xxi . such as noise. He has delivered a number of presentations at professional meetings and has lectured at San Jose State University and University of California-Berkeley’s Labor Occupational Health Program. MS. She received a Masters in Public Health. He is certified in Comprehensive Practice by the American Board of Industrial Hygiene and in Management Aspects by the Board of Certified Safety Professionals. with the implementation of a global occupational health and safety management system. Dr. His background spans 20 years of diverse industrial hygiene experience in government and industry. in the workplace. and was certified in Comprehensive Practice by the American Board of Industrial Hygiene. and most recently. where she received a Bachelor of Arts in Biology in 1979. Dr. Yost was a Research Industrial Hygienist and a Lecturer in the School of Public Health at the University of California-Berkeley. He is a Fellow of the American Industrial Hygiene Association and a past President of the Academy of Industrial Hygiene. Prior to becoming an optometrist. she worked for many years as an industrial hygienist.
HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT Part I .
Overview of Industrial Hygiene
by Barbara A. Plog, MPH, CIH, CSP
4 6 7
The Occupational Health and Safety Team
FEDERAL REGULATIONS ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS OR STRESSES
Chemical Hazards ➣ Physical Hazards ➣ Biological Hazards
20 21 24
HARMFUL AGENTS–ROUTE OF ENTRY
TYPES OF AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS
States of Matter Respiratory Hazards
THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES
Skin Notation ➣ Mixtures Health Standards Federal Occupational Safety and
Basic Hazard-Recognition Procedures ➣ Degree of Hazard ➣ Air Sampling
OCCUPATIONAL SKIN DISEASES
Types ➣ Causes Measures
Engineering Controls ➣ Ventilation ➣ Personal Protective Equipment ➣ Administrative Controls
31 31 31
SOURCES OF HELP SUMMARY BIBLIOGRAPHY
ndustrial hygiene is that science and art devoted to the anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and control of those environmental factors or stresses arising in or from the workplace that may cause sickness, impaired health and well-being, or significant discomfort among workers or among the citizens of the community. Industrial hygienists are occupational health professionals who are concerned primarily with the control of environmental stresses or occupational health hazards that arise as a result of or during the course of work. The industrial hygienist recognizes that environmental stresses may endanger life and health, accelerate the aging process, or cause significant discomfort. The industrial hygienist, although trained in engineering, physics, chemistry, environmental sciences, safety, or biology, has acquired through postgraduate study or experience a knowledge of the health effects of chemical, physical, biological, and ergonomic agents. The industrial hygienist is involved in the monitoring and analysis required to detect the extent of exposure, and the engineering and other methods used for hazard control. Evaluation of the magnitude of work-related environmental hazards and stresses is done by the industrial hygienist, aided by training, experience, and quantitative measurement of the chemical, physical, ergonomic, or biological stresses. The industrial hygienist can thus give an expert opinion as to the degree of risk the environmental stresses pose. Industrial hygiene includes the development of corrective measures in order to control health hazards by either reducing or eliminating the exposure. These control procedures may include the substitution of harmful or toxic materials with less dangerous ones, changing of work processes to eliminate or minimize work exposure, installation of exhaust ventilation systems, good housekeeping (including appropriate waste disposal methods), and the provision of proper personal protective equipment. An effective industrial hygiene program involves the anticipation and recognition of health hazards arising from work operations and processes, evaluation and measurement of the
PART I ➣ HISTORY
magnitude of the hazard (based on past experience and study), and control of the hazard. Occupational health hazards may mean conditions that cause legally compensable illnesses, or may mean any conditions in the workplace that impair the health of employees enough to make them lose time from work or to cause significant discomfort. Both are undesirable. Both are preventable. Their correction is properly a responsibility of management.
In late 1994, the four major U.S. industrial hygiene organizations gave final endorsements to a revised Code of Ethics for the Practice of Industrial Hygiene. These organizations are the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), the American Academy of Industrial Hygiene (AAIH), the American Board of Industrial Hygiene (ABIH), and the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA). The new code defines practice standards (Canons of Ethical Conduct) and applications (interpretive guidelines). The Canons of Ethical Conduct are as follows: Industrial Hygienists shall practice their profession following recognized scientific principles with the realization that the lives, health, and well-being of people may depend upon their professional judgment and that they are obligated to protect the health and well-being of people. Industrial Hygienists shall counsel affected parties factually regarding potential health risks and precautions necessary to avoid adverse health effects. Industrial Hygienists shall keep confidential personal and business information obtained during the exercise of industrial hygiene activities, except when required by law or overriding health and safety considerations. Industrial Hygienists shall avoid circumstances where a compromise of professional judgment or conflict of interest may arise. Industrial Hygienists shall perform services only in the areas of their competence. Industrial Hygienists shall act responsibly to uphold the integrity of the profession. The interpretive guidelines to the Canons of Ethical Conduct are a series of statements that amplify the code (Figure 1–1).
The Occupational Health and Safety Team
The chief goal of an occupational health and safety program in a facility is to prevent occupational injury and illness by anticipating, recognizing, evaluating, and controlling occupational health and safety hazards. The medical, industrial hygiene, and safety programs may have distinct, additional program goals but all programs interact and are often considered different components of the overall health and safety program. The occupational health and safety team consists,
then, of the industrial hygienist, the safety professional, the occupational health nurse, the occupational medicine physician, the employees, senior and line management, and others depending on the size and character of the particular facility. All team members must act in concert to provide information and activities, supporting the other parts to achieve the overall goal of a healthy and safe work environment. Therefore, the separate functions must be administratively linked in order to effect a successful and smoothly run program. The first vital component to an effective health and safety program is the commitment of senior management and line management. Serious commitment is demonstrated when management is visibly involved in the program both by management support and personal compliance with all health and safety practices. Equally critical is the assignment of the authority, as well as the responsibility, to carry out the health and safety program. The health and safety function must be given the same level of importance and accountability as the production function. The function of the industrial hygienist has been defined above. (Also see Chapter 23, The Industrial Hygienist.) The industrial hygiene program must be made up of several key components: a written program/policy statement, hazard recognition procedures, hazard evaluation and exposure assessment, hazard control, employee training, employee involvement, program evaluation and audit, and recordkeeping. (See Chapter 27, The Industrial Hygiene Program, for further discussion.) The safety professional must draw upon specialized knowledge in the physical and social sciences. Knowledge of engineering, physics, chemistry, statistics, mathematics, and principles of measurement and analysis is integrated in the evaluation of safety performance. The safety professional must thoroughly understand the factors contributing to accident occurrence and combine this with knowledge of motivation, behavior, and communication in order to devise methods and procedures to control safety hazards. Because the practice of the safety professional and the industrial hygienist are so closely related, it is rare to find a safety professional who does not practice some traditional industrial hygiene and vice versa. At times, the safety and industrial hygiene responsibilities may be vested in the same individual or position. (See Chapter 24, The Safety Professional.) The occupational health nurse (OHN) is the key to the delivery of comprehensive health care services to workers. Occupational health nursing is focused on the promotion, protection, and restoration of workers’ health within the context of a safe and healthy work environment. The OHN provides the critical link between the employee’s health status, the work process, and the determination of employee ability to do the job. Knowledge of health and safety regulations, workplace hazards, direct care skills, counseling, teaching, and program management are but a few of the key knowledge areas for the OHN, with strong communication
CHAPTER 1 ➣ OVERVIEW
Figure 1–1. The joint Code of Ethics for the Practice of Industrial Hygiene endorsed by the AIHA, the ABIH, the AAIH, and the ACGIH. (From ACGIH Today! 3(1), January 1995.) These guidelines may be supplemented when necessary, as ethical issues and claims arise. 5
The Occupational Health Nurse. The primary goal of the occupational medicine physician is to prevent occupational illness and. and to inform employees of the monitoring results. Formal complaints of standards violations may be made by employees or their representatives.” The OSHAct sets out two duties for employers: ➣ Each employer shall furnish to each employee a place of employment.S. The OHN often functions in multiple roles within one job position. OHNs use a case-management approach to return injured employees to appropriate work on a timely basis.) Determining the work-relatedness of disease is another task for the occupational medicine physician. OHNs deliver high-quality care at worksites and support the primary prevention dictum that most workplace injuries and illnesses are preventable. which is housed within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). conduct periodic workplace inspections. FEDERAL REGULATIONS Before 1970. materials. 1971. biological.) The occupational medicine physician has acquired. The safety and health committee provides a forum for securing the cooperation. The industrial hygienist supplies information on the work operations and their associated hazards and enables the medical department to correlate the employee’s condition and symptoms with potential workplace health hazards. It is housed within the U.S. ➣ Each employer shall comply with occupational safety and health standards under the Act. Its purpose was to “assure so far as possible every working man and woman in the nation safe and healthful working conditions and to preserve our human resources. was enacted by Congress. physical. through graduate training or experience. known as the OSHAct. (See Chapter 26. among others. Joint labor–management safety and health committees are 6 often used where employees are represented by a union. the date the OSHAct became effective. The CDC is part of the U. when illness occurs. and consultant. OSHA was empowered to promulgate safety and health standards with technical advice from NIOSH. The agency is responsible for identifying hazards and making recommendations for . An occasional workplace inspection by the medical team enables them to suggest protective measures and aids them in recommending placement of employees in jobs best suited to their physical capabilities. provide for employee walkarounds or interview of employees during the inspection. require employers to maintain accurate records of exposures to potentially hazardous materials. It provides a means of involving employees in the program. Public Health Service. For employees. The committee meetings also present an opportunity to discuss key industrial hygiene program concerns and to formulate appropriate policies. and processes used. and the treatment of adverse effects. and orders issued pursuant to the Act which are applicable to his own actions and conduct.PART I ➣ HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT skills of the utmost importance. The typical functions of the safety and health committee include. educator. which is free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious harm to their employees. The industrial hygienist provides information about the manufacturing operations and work environment of a company to the medical department as well. NIOSH is the principal federal agency engaged in occupational health and safety research. The Occupational Health Nurse.” The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) came into official existence on April 28. The occupational medicine physician and the occupational health nurse should be familiar with all jobs. and evaluate and promote interest in the health and safety program. Department of Labor. OSHA is also empowered to provide up to 50/50 funding with states that wish to establish state OSHA programs that are at least as effective as the federal program. manager. (See discussion of the Americans with Disabilities Act in Chapter 26. The employee plays a major role in the occupational health and safety program. extensive knowledge of cause and effect relationships of chemical. In many cases it is extremely difficult to differentiate between the symptoms of occupational and nonoccupational disease. There was little uniformity in codes and standards or in the application of these standards. The OSHAct also gives OSHA the right to issue citations and penalties. the Occupational Safety and Health Act. the OSHAct states that “Each employee shall comply with occupational safety and health standards and all rules. regulations. Almost no enforcement procedures existed. and exchange of ideas among those involved in the health and safety program. to restore employee health within the context of a healthy and safe workplace. 1970. Many regulations provide for a minimum medical surveillance program and specify mandatory certain tests and procedures. government regulation of health and safety matters was largely the concern of state agencies. As of this date. to examine company safety and health issues and recommend policies to management. Employees are excellent sources of information on work processes and procedures and the hazards of their daily operations. The OSHAct also established the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). coordination. the signs and symptoms of chronic and acute exposures. If injuries occur. Industrial hygienists benefit from this source of information and often obtain innovative suggestions for controlling hazards. there are 23 approved state plans and approved plans from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. including clinician. OSHA is empowered to enter workplaces to investigate alleged violations of these standards and to perform routine inspections. On December 29. and ergonomic hazards.
Breathing of some materials can irritate the upper respiratory tract or the terminal passages of the lungs and the air sacs. or by skin contact with these materials. Work-related illnesses due to biological agents have been widely reported. depending upon the solubility of the material. The MSDS is a summary of the important health. Contact of irritants with the skin surface can produce various kinds of dermatitis. ionizing radiation (see Chapter 11). and extremes of temperature (see Chapter 12) and pressure. industrial hygienists. vapors. and Chapter 29. or repeated motions in an awkward position can result in accidents or illnesses in the occupational environment. These are any living organism or its properties that can cause an adverse response in humans. work areas. History of the Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The energies and agents responsible for these effects are called environmental stresses. poor visual conditions. a health and safety professional must first know about the chemicals used as raw materials and the nature of the products and by-products manufactured. or work procedures. but in many workplaces their presence and resultant illness are not well recognized. Improper lifting or reaching. Ergonomic hazards. and private facilities. The required information can be obtained from the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) (Figure 1–2) that must be supplied by the chemical manufacturer or importer for all hazardous materials under the OSHA hazard communication standard. NIOSH also issues criteria documents and health hazard alerts on various hazards and is responsible for testing and certifying respiratory protective equipment. gases. Chemical Hazards The majority of occupational health hazards arise from inhaling chemical agents in the form of vapors. The degree of risk of handling a given substance depends on the magnitude and duration of exposure. Other stipulations of the hazard communication standard require that all containers of hazardous substances in the workplace be labeled with appropriate warning and identification labels. NIOSH has training grant programs in colleges and universities across the nation.CHAPTER 1 ➣ OVERVIEW OF INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE regulations. If the MSDS or the label does not give complete information but only trade names. and others in the safety and health field. for a full discussion of federal agencies and regulations. safety professionals. They can be part of the total environment or associated with . biological. These include excessive levels of nonionizing radiation (see Chapter 10). It is estimated that the population at risk for occupational biohazards may be several hundred million workers worldwide (see Chapter 14).) To recognize occupational factors or stresses. (See Chapter 15. These include improperly designed tools. In addition to its own research program. fumes. and toxicological information on the chemical or the mixture ingredients. physical. They also provide continuing professional education for practicing occupational health and safety professionals. These are located at designated Education and Research Centers (ERCs). dusts. noise (see Chapter 9). impaired health. ergonomists. 7 ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS OR STRESSES The various environmental factors or stresses that can cause sickness. safety. for more details. See Chapter 28. Exposure to many of the harmful stresses or hazards listed can produce an immediate response due to the intensity of the hazard. Designing the tools and the job to fit the worker is of prime importance. vibration. Government Regulations. Many industrial materials such as resins and polymers are relatively inert and nontoxic under normal conditions of use. and mists. Engineering and biomechanical principles must be applied to eliminate hazards of this kind (see Chapter 13). Chemical hazards. or the response can result from longer exposure at a lower intensity. NIOSH also funds supportive research activities at a number of universities. History of the Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration. An employee is most often exposed to an intricate interplay of many stresses. or ergonomic. In addition to the hazard of inhalation. occupational health nurses. These are on-the-job investigations of reported worker exposures that are carried out in response to a request by either the employer or the employee or employee representative. but when heated or machined. they may decompose to form highly toxic by-products. some of these materials may act as skin irritants or may be toxic by absorption through the skin. for further discussion of the hazard communication standard. it may be necessary to contact the manufacturer to obtain this information. gases. Information about these hazardous products and by-products must also be included in the company’s hazard communication program. Biological hazards. Government Regulations. or solids in the form of dusts or fumes. These recommendations are called Recommended Exposure Limits (RELs). Physical hazards. and Chapter 29.) a particular occupation. Part of NIOSH research takes place during activities called Health Hazard Evaluations. or significant discomfort in workers can be classified as chemical. These arise from excessive airborne concentrations of mists. This sometimes requires great effort. ERCs train occupational medicine physicians. depending on the duration and severity of exposure. colleges. Evaluation. the work environment can produce significant subjective responses or strain. In certain occupations. (See Chapter 28. not to a single environmental stress.
Nomenclature can be misleading. and when involved in a fire can react violently. a completely different solvent. The widespread industrial use of solvents presents a major problem to the industrial hygienist. chlorinated hydrocarbons. For example. many solvents have these effects. Vapors. The health and safety professional can obtain much valuable information by observing the manner in which health hazards are generated. In varying degrees. Corrosives are capable of destroying living tissue and have a destructive effect on other substances. Toxic chemicals are gases. Use the information on the MSDS (Figure 1–2) or the manufacturer’s label for the specific name and composition of the solvents involved. where. and bone marrow. pneumoconiosisproducing agents. and control of solvents and an understanding of their properties. and health and safety departments in setting guidelines for safe use of these materials. Dangerous materials are chemicals that may. a more detailed description is given in Chapter 7. although some skin absorption can occur. instability. irritant gases. cause injury to persons or damage to property because of reactivity. mixtures. Other gases and vapors can prevent the blood from carrying oxygen to the tissues or interfere with its transfer from the blood to the tissue. and carbon disulfide. can react violently with water. or compounds that are explosive. The information should cover materials actually . The severity of a hazard in the use of organic solvents and other chemicals depends on the following factors: ➣ How the chemical is used ➣ Type of job operation. Some substances may affect the central nervous system and brain to produce narcosis or anesthesia. They may cause a fire in contact with combustible materials. according to the major reaction they produce. such as the degreasing of metals in the machine industry and the extraction of fats or oils in the chemical or food industry. such as the central nervous system. Oxidizing materials are chemicals that decompose readily under certain conditions to yield oxygen. or volatility. The information is useful to the medical. healthful working environment. handling. as asphyxiants. or explosive physical and chemical properties. Explosives are substances. spontaneous decomposition. how. MSDSs can be consulted for toxicological information. and effects of exposure is absolutely necessary in making a proper assessment of a solvent exposure. Dangerous gases are those that can cause lethal or injurious effects and damage to property by their toxic. Occupational exposure can occur in many different processes. or solids that. Storage of dangerous chemicals should be limited to one day’s supply. painting. An approved storehouse should be provided for the main supply of hazardous materials. corrosive. the number of people involved. and the plastics industry. alcohols. carcinogens. although those with higher flash points can be both combustible and dangerous. nomenclature.PART I ➣ HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT The presence of excessive amounts of biologically inert gases can dilute the atmospheric oxygen below the level required to maintain the normal blood saturation value for oxygen and disturb cellular processes. flammable. This information is also very helpful in an emergency. flammable. determine which of the chemicals or agents may result in hazardous exposures and need further study. Substances are often classified. dry cleaning. and Solvents. liquids. engineering. Solvent vapors enter the body mainly by inhalation. application. managerial. Under this definition. purchasing. and others responsible for maintaining a safe. After the list of chemicals and physical conditions to which employees are exposed has been prepared. particularly on combustible materials. thus producing chemical asphyxia or suffocation. Gases. For hazardous materials. we will consider substances. aldehydes. through their chemical properties. can produce injurious or lethal effects on contact with body cells. Some commercial grades of benzine may contain benzene as a contaminant. under specific circumstances. and so on. what. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide are examples of chemical asphyxiants. and the control measures in use. and how long). Flammable liquids are liquids with a flash point of 100 F (38 C) or less. this effect can result in a fire or explosion. ketones. consistent with the safe and efficient operation of the process. The vapors are absorbed from the lungs into the blood and are distributed mainly to tissues with a high content of fat and lipids. or toxic. which determines how the workers are exposed ➣ Work pattern ➣ Duration of exposure 8 Operating temperature Exposed liquid surface Ventilation rates Evaporation rate of solvent Pattern of airflow Concentration of vapor in workroom air Housekeeping The hazard is determined not only by the toxicity of the solvent or chemical itself but by the conditions of its use (who. or compounds capable of entering into a combustion reaction so rapidly and violently as to cause an explosion. liver. Getting the job done using solvents without hazard to employees or property depends on the proper selection. mixtures. corrosive. flammability. benzine is sometimes mistakenly called benzene. the safety professional. systemic toxins. Solvents include aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. A working knowledge of the physical properties. ➣ ➣ ➣ ➣ ➣ ➣ ➣ SOLVENTS This section discusses some general hazards arising from the use of solvents. The storage should comply with applicable local laws and ordinances.
CHAPTER 1 ➣ OVERVIEW OF INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE Figure 1–2. (Continues) 9 . Its format meets the requirements of the federal hazard communication standard. Material Safety Data Sheet.
(Continued) 10 .PART I ➣ HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT Figure 1–2.
or relaxation) ➣ Interference with speech communication and. A number of factors can influence the effect of the noise exposure: ➣ Variation in individual susceptibility ➣ Total energy of the sound Permissible levels. in all cases when the sound levels exceed 85 dBA on an eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA). liquids. ➣ Frequency distribution of the sound ➣ Other characteristics of the noise exposure. they may be exposed to too much noise. TOXICITY VERSUS HAZARD The toxicity of a material is not synonymous with its hazard. physical state of the substance.) The regulations stipulate that when employees are subjected to sound that exceeds the permissible limits. Toxicity is the capacity of a material to produce injury or harm when the chemical has reached a sufficient concentration at a certain site in the body. nonionizing radiation. and those responsible for safety and health be alert to these hazards because of the possible immediate or cumulative effects on the health of employees. Industrial Toxicology. However. Thus.CHAPTER 1 ➣ OVERVIEW OF INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE in use and those that may be contemplated for early future use. and pressure extremes are physical stresses. or aural pain when the exposure is severe) Damage risk criteria. Industrial Noise. etc. temperature extremes. diet. The ACGIH Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. site of absorption.) Administering a hearing conservation program goes beyond the wearing of earplugs or earmuffs. for more details. annoy. for more details. and disrupt concentration. Physical Hazards Problems caused by such things as noise. supervisor. or made up of a series of impacts ➣ Total daily duration of exposure ➣ Length of employment in the noise environment Because of the complex relationships of noise and exposure time to threshold shift (reduction in hearing level) and the many contributory causes. a continuing. but that their hearing is fairly clear in the morning when they return to work. required by OSHAct in 29 CFR 1910. personal protective equipment must be provided and used to reduce sound levels to within permissible levels. (See Chapter 9. or gases. establishing criteria for protecting workers against hearing loss is difficult. The permissible decibel levels and hours (duration per day) are specified. NOISE Noise (unwanted sound) is a form of vibration conducted through solids. ➣ If employees complain that the sounds of speech or music seem muffled after leaving work. Conversation becomes difficult when the noise level exceeds 70 decibels (dBA).) There are three nontechnical guidelines to determine whether the work area has excessive noise levels: ➣ If it is necessary to speak very loudly or shout directly into the ear of a person in order to be understood. Such programs 11 . establishes the permissible levels of harmful noise to which an employee may be subjected. If the ear is subjected to high levels of noise for a sufficient period of time. some loss of hearing may occur. and Appendix B. Industrial Noise. (See Chapter 9.95. it is possible that the exposure limit for noise is being exceeded. The effects of noise on humans include the following: ➣ Psychological effects (noise can startle. ionizing radiation. sleep. they may be exposed to noise levels that cause a partial temporary loss of hearing. This degree of hazard is determined by many factors or elements. According to the Hearing Conservation Amendment to 29 CFR 1910. These criteria are known as the Threshold Limit Values for Noise. The criteria for hearing conservation. Hazard is the probability that this concentration in the body will occur. interference with job performance and safety ➣ Physiological effects (noise-induced hearing loss. a noise level of 90 dBA is permissible for eight hours. (See Chapter 6. and to ensure that MSDSs are received and reviewed for all hazardous substances. It is important that the employer. intermittent. feasible administrative or engineering controls shall be used. and general state of a person’s health. If such controls fail to reduce sound exposure within permissible levels. Industrial Noise. (See Chapter 9. For example. Possibly the best and earliest source of information concerning such materials is the purchasing agent. which can become permanent with repeated exposure. temperature. for a discussion of noise and OSHA noise regulations. effective hearing conservation program shall be administered. a close liaison should be set up between the purchasing agent and health and safety personnel so that early information is available concerning materials in use and those to be ordered.95. criteria have been developed to protect against hearing loss in the speech-frequency range.) The key elements to be considered when evaluating a health hazard are as follows: ➣ What is the route of entry of the chemical into the body? ➣ How much of the material must be in contact with a body cell and for how long to produce injury? ➣ What is the probability that the material will be absorbed or come in contact with body cells? ➣ What is the rate of generation of airborne contaminants? ➣ What control measures are in place? The effects of exposure to a substance depend on dose. The Hearing Conservation Amendment specifies the essential elements of a hearing conservation program. rate. as a consequence. such as whether it is continuous. ➣ If employees say that they have heard ringing noises in their ears at the end of the workday. 95 dBA for four hours.
Evaporation of moisture in the wick. audiometric testing of employees to measure their hearing levels (thresholds). A sensitive and rapidly acting set of temperature-sensing devices in the body must also control the rates of its temperature-regulating processes. Radiant heat (from such . Even if the moisture is replaced by drinking plenty of water. and water vapor pressure. Using these temperatures and referring to a psychrometric chart. One question that must be asked is whether the temperature is merely causing discomfort or whether continued exposure will cause the body temperature to fall below or rise above safe limits. Heat exhaustion can also result from physical exertion in a hot environment. It is critical to undertake emergency cooling of the body even while medical help is on the way. 12 The body attempts to counteract the effects of high temperature by increasing the heart rate. (This mechanism is described in Chapter 3. and others concerned. which is 98. which gives both dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures. to the extent that the moisture content of the surrounding air permits. moist skin. air movement.) The body continuously produces heat through its metabolic processes. weak pulse. Because the body processes are designed to operate only within a very narrow range of temperature. If this five-degree range is exceeded. air temperature. and information and training programs for employees. Heat cramps can result from exposure to high temperature for a relatively long time. or the moisture content of the air. Valid noise exposure information correlated with audiometric tests results is needed to help health and safety and medical personnel to make informed decisions about hearing conservation programs. absolute moisture content of the air. with excessive loss of salt and moisture from the body. for illustrations and more details. People function efficiently only in a very narrow body temperature range. (More details on this subject are given in Chapter 12. often called a dry bulb thermometer. an excessive loss of salt can cause heat cramps or heat exhaustion. not on the skin or at body extremities. dizziness.6 F (37 C) mouth temperature. and professional guidance is essential for establishing programs that are responsive to the need.) Heat stress is a common problem. The effectiveness of a hearing conservation program depends on the cooperation of employers. and cool. The combined readings of the dry bulb and wet bulb thermometers are then used to calculate percent relative humidity. The term wet bulb is commonly used to describe the temperature obtained by having a wet wick over the mercurywell bulb of an ordinary thermometer. impair performance markedly. ENVIRONMENTAL MEASUREMENTS In many heat stress studies. Its signs are a mildly elevated temperature. pallor. cools the thermometer to a temperature below that registered by the dry bulb. a core temperature measured deep inside the body. Air movement is measured with some type of anemometer and the air temperature with a thermometer. so that body temperature does not rise. provision of hearing protection equipment. Considerably more is involved than simply taking a number of airtemperature measurements and making decisions on the basis of this information. EXTREMES OF TEMPERATURE Probably the most elementary factor of environmental control is control of the thermal environment in which people work. Heatstroke is caused by exposure to an environment in which the body is unable to cool itself sufficiently. See Chapter 12. Management’s responsibility in such a program includes noise measurements. Evaluation of heat stress in a work environment is not simple. employees.6 F (37. or thermal stress. Fluctuations in core temperatures exceeding 2 F below or 3 F above the normal core temperature of 99. The capillaries in the skin also dilate to bring more blood to the surface so that the rate of cooling is increased. Extremes of temperature.6 C). the problem is more often high temperatures rather than low temperatures. Heatstroke is a life-threatening medical emergency. the body must dissipate this heat as rapidly as it is produced if it is to function efficiently. It is difficult for a person with only a clipboard full of data to interpret how another person actually feels or is adversely affected. as are the problems presented by a very cold environment. affect the amount of work people can do and the manner in which they do it. and radiant heat. In industry. Sweating is an important factor in cooling the body. The employee’s responsibility is to properly use the protective equipment provided by management. the variables commonly measured are work energy metabolism (often estimated rather than measured). initiation of noise control measures. sweating may cease and the body temperature can quickly rise to fatal levels. Thermal Stress. Radiant heat is a form of electromagnetic energy similar to light but of longer wavelength. An important predisposing factor is excessive physical exertion or moderate exertion in extreme heat conditions. profuse sweating. Heatstroke is a much more serious condition than heat cramps or heat exhaustion. The Skin and Occupational Dermatoses. and to observe any rules or regulations on the use of equipment in order to minimize noise exposure. a health hazard exists.PART I ➣ HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT can be complex. the higher the fatality rate. In heatstroke. Humidity. particularly if accompanied by heavy exertion. Studies show that the higher the body temperature on admission to emergency rooms. the relative humidity can be established. humidity. Thermal Stress. is generally measured with a psychrometer. The method of control is to reduce the temperature of the surroundings or to increase the ability of the body to cool itself.
When vasoconstriction (blood vessel constriction) is no longer adequate to maintain body heat balance. if the wind velocity reaches 20 mph.) COLD STRESS Generally. The WBGT combines the effects of humidity and air movement. Once started. a satisfactory microclimate can be maintained. and the top of the thermometer stem protrudes outside through a one-hole cork or rubber stopper. Another index is the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). The measurements are few and easy to make. they become chilled much more rapidly and effectively than when exposed to air of the same temperature. It has been successfully used for environmental heat stress monitoring at military camps to control heat stress casualties. Frostbite occurs when the skin tissues freeze. For example. frostbite can develop at the point of contact despite 13 . (For more details. its cold-insulating property is greatly diminished.3 Tgt Outdoors with solar load: WBGTout = 0. Heat loss. Air movement cools the body by convection: The moving air removes the air film or the saturated air (which is formed very rapidly by evaporation of sweat) and replaces it with a fresh air layer capable of accepting more moisture from the skin. freezing progresses rapidly. Indoors or outdoors with no solar loads: WBGTin = 0. provision for water intake. Furthermore. except for areas that must be cold. such as food storage areas.7 Tnwb + 0. he or she will be more prone to heat loss. Protection requires placing opaque shields or screens between the person and the radiating surface. the effective temperature index combines air temperature (dry bulb). It is also the index used in the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values (TLVs®) for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs®) book (see Appendix B). 50. The ACGIH recommends TLVs for continuous work in hot environments as well as when 25. see Chapter 12. General hypothermia is an acute problem resulting from prolonged cold exposure and heat loss. Heat stress indices. exposed flesh can freeze within about 1 minute at 14 F (10 C). the instrumentation is simple. Thermal Stress. and as exhaustion approaches. and the sun) has no appreciable heating effect on the air it passes through. With clothing providing the proper insulation to minimize heat loss. The NIOSH criteria document also contains a complete recommended heat stress control program including work practices. however. open flames. if the thermometer bulb is fixed in the center of a metal toilet float that has been painted dull black. For this reason. However. An ordinary dry bulb thermometer alone will not measure radiant heat. and application of engineering controls. the answer to a cold work area is to supply heat where possible. or whatever object it falls on.7 Tnwb + 0. humidity (wet bulb).2 Tgt + 0. The numerical value of the WBGT index is calculated by the following equations. heat loss is greater and frostbite occurs more rapidly. Experience has shown that workers do not stand a hot job very well at first. if the skin comes in direct contact with objects whose surface temperature is below the freezing point. when people are immersed in cold water. or 75 percent of each working hour is at rest. If clothing becomes wet either from contact with water or due to sweating during intensive physical work. wall. machine.1 Tdb where Tnwb = natural wet bulb temperature Tgt = globe temperature Tdb = dry bulb temperature In its Criteria Document on Hot Environments (see Bibliography). For example. Conduction is an important means of heat loss when the body is in contact with a good cooling agent. Regulating allowable exposure time in the heat is a viable technique for permitting necessary work to continue under heat-stress conditions that would be intolerable for continuous exposure. and air movement to produce a single index called an effective temperature. shivering becomes an important mechanism for increasing body temperature by causing metabolic heat production to increase to several times the resting rate.CHAPTER 1 ➣ OVERVIEW OF INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE sources as red-hot metal. protective clothing. inexpensive. work and rest regimens. and air temperature. This device is known as a globe thermometer. the freezing point of the skin is about 30 F (1 C). such as water. If an individual becomes fatigued during physical activity. sudden vasodilation (blood vessel dilation) occurs with resultant rapid loss of heat. Only exposed body surfaces are likely to be excessively chilled and frostbitten. The methods commonly used to estimate heat stress relate various physiological and environmental variables and end up with one number that then serves as a guide for evaluating stress. and rugged. and the NIOSH criteria document. Theoretically. distribution of work load with time. NIOSH states that when impermeable clothing is worn. the WBGT should not be used because evaporative cooling would be limited. but develop tolerance rapidly through acclimation and acquire full endurance in a week to a month. General physical activity increases metabolic heat. Cold stress is proportional to the total thermal gradient between the skin and the environment because this gradient determines the rate of heat loss from the body by radiation and convection. regular breaks of a minimum of one per hour. radiant heat can be measured by the heat absorbed in this sphere. thus heating the person. with increasing wind velocity. air temperature and radiation. Work practices include acclimation periods. and the calculations are straightforward. but its energy is absorbed by any object it strikes.
Alphaemitting radioactive materials that concentrate as persisting deposits in specific parts of the body are considered very hazardous. beta. As long as a radioactive material that emits only alphaparticles remains outside the body.PART I ➣ HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT warm environmental temperatures. Control by limiting exposure time. Beta-radiation has considerably more penetrating power than alpha radiation. and neutrons. A quarter of an inch of aluminum can stop the more energetic betas. The exact mechanism of the manner in which ionization affects body cells and tissue is complex. and gamma-radiation. Each atom has a nucleus with its own outer system of electrons. In addition. these are external hazards. see Chapter 10. x-ray. the purpose of this section is to present enough information so the health and safety professional will recognize the problems involved and know when to call on health physicists or radiation safety experts for help. use of barriers or shielding. Many types of meters are used to measure various kinds of ionizing radiation. Of the five types of radiation mentioned. When ionization of body tissues occurs. the energy level of sunlight at the earth’s surface is too low to disturb orbital electrons.) IONIZING RADIATION A brief description of ionizing radiation hazards is given in this section. such materials can be located some distance from the body and emit radiation that produces ionization (and thus damage) as it passes through the body. or a combination of all three is required for adequate protection against external radiation hazards. or broken skin. Each radioactive material emits its own particular kinds of radiation.) However. ➣ Radioactive materials can be hazardous in two different ways. for a complete description. Light consisting of electromagnetic radiation from the sun that strikes the surface of the earth is very similar to xrays and gamma-radiation. some shielding may be required. so sunlight is not considered ionizing even though it has enough energy to cause severe skin burns over a period of time. Kinds of radioactivity. it will not cause trouble. Internally. beta-. it is a hazard because the ionizing ability of alpha particles at very short distances in soft tissue makes them a veritable bulldozer. External versus internal hazards. These are called internal radiation hazards. ➣ Different kinds of radioactivity present different kinds of radiation safety problems. (See description in Chapter 11. For example. some of the electrons surrounding the atoms are forcibly ejected from their orbits. (See Chapter 12. Ionizing Radiation. Certain materials can be hazardous even when located some distance away from the body. At the risk of oversimplifying some basic physical principles and ignoring others. The amount of energy a particular kind of radioactive material possesses is defined in terms of MeV (million electron volts). Neutrons are very penetrating and have characteristics that make it necessary to use shielding materials of high hydrogen atom content rather than high mass alone. for all practical purposes. for example—there is no thick layer of skin to serve as a barrier and damage results. the greater the number of MeV. To understand a little about ionization. x-ray. Air movement is more important in cold environments than in hot because the combined effect of wind and temperature can produce a condition called windchill. Measuring ionizing radiation. The windchill index should be consulted by everyone facing exposure to low temperature and strong winds. They require the same precautions as do alpha-emitters if there is a chance they can become airborne. Although the type of radiation from one radioactive material may be the same as that emitted by several other different radioactive materials. Radioactive materials that emit x-rays. paper. or an open wound. At least three basic factors must be considered in such an approach to radiation safety: ➣ Radioactive materials emit energy that can damage living tissue. Once inside the body—in the lungs. the greater the energy. eating. In other words. Virtually everyone is familiar with the penetrating ability of x rays and the fact that a barrier such as concrete or lead is required to stop them. These . alpha-particles are the least penetrating. Thermal Stress. The greater the intensity of the ionizing radiation. recall that the human body is made up of various chemical compounds that are in turn composed of molecules and atoms. or neutrons are external hazards. and neutron. They do not penetrate thin barriers. Gamma-rays are. The types of ionizing radiation we will consider are alpha-. Meters or other devices are used for measuring radiation levels and doses. gamma-rays. with energy measured in terms of MeV. Other types are hazardous only when they get inside the body through breathing. the more ions are created and the more physical damage is done to the cells. and skin stop alphaparticles. stomach. cellophane. Instruments are available for evaluating possible radiation hazards. gamma. Nonionizing Radiation. the same as x rays and require the same kinds of heavy shielding materials. Beta-emitters are generally considered an internal hazard although they also can be classed as an external hazard because they can produce burns when in contact with the skin. there may be a wide variation in energies. 14 The first four are the most important because neutron sources usually are not used in ordinary manufacturing operations. it differs only in wavelength and energy content. The five kinds of radioactivity that are of concern are alpha. working at a safe distance.
and x-radiation. Microwaves are found in radar. In these cases. Generally. can produce general heating of the body. Nonionizing radiation is covered in detail by OSHAct regulations 29 CFR 1910. because it is unlikely that they would be found in intensities great enough to cause significant effect. the health hazard of exposure to low-level conventional infrared radiation sources is negligible. and shortwave radio. gamma-. The health hazard from these kinds of radiation is very small. broadcast radio. Film badges are used as dosimeters to record the amount of radiation received from beta-. However. Low frequency. including powerline transmission frequencies.CHAPTER 1 ➣ OVERVIEW OF INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE meters must be accurately calibrated for the type of radiation they are designed to measure. Film badges are worn by a worker continuously during each monitoring period. power intensity.97. for instance. Special types of meters are available for measuring neutrons. Alpha-radiation cannot be measured with film badges because alpha-particles do not penetrate the paper that must be used over the film emulsion to exclude light.) NONIONIZING RADIATION This is a form of electromagnetic radiation with varying effects on the body. Ultraviolet radiation in industry can be found around electrical arcs. Longer wavelengths. they allow an estimate of an accumulated dose of radiation to the whole body or to just a part of the body. An intolerable rise in body temperature. Meters with very thin windows in the probes can be used to check for alpha-radiation. To prevent glare. Color contrasts are acceptable. and such arcs should be shielded by materials opaque to ultraviolet. flammable gases and vapors can ignite when they are inside metallic objects located in a microwave beam. is important because it can affect both the quality and accuracy of work. In addition.) Visible radiation. Almost as problematic is an area of excessively high brightness in the visual field. and time of exposure. is almost completely opaque to the ultraviolet in sunlight although transparent to the visible wavelengths. To prevent such conditions. some jobs require contrast lighting. An exception can be found very close to powerful radio transmitter aerials. Electric welding arcs and germicidal lamps are the most common strong producers of ultraviolet radiation in industry. consult Chapter 11. Microwave intensities may be sufficient to cause significant heating of tissues. Nonionizing Radiation. (For information on possible damage to the eye. for a given power intensity. keep the general (or background) light well diffused and glareless and add a supplementary source of light that casts shadows where needed. can result from an exposure of sufficient intensity and time. The ordinary fluorescent lamp generates a good deal of ultraviolet inside the bulb. Devices are available that measure accumulated amounts (doses) of radiation. Ionizing Radiation. A piece of plastic dyed a deep red-violet may be almost entirely opaque in the visible part of the spectrum and transparent in the nearultraviolet spectrum.) One of the most objectionable features of lighting is glare (brightness in the field of vision that causes discomfort or interferes with seeing). shadow-free light. Nonionizing Radiation. Except for thermal burns. longer wavelengths produce a greater penetration and temperature rise in deeper tissues than shorter wavelengths. however. Although it is generally best to provide even. nonreflecting surface or a brightly illuminated control handle on a dark or dirty machine are two examples. Infrared radiation does not penetrate below the superficial layer of the skin. keep surfaces uniformly light or dark with little difference in surface reflectivity. so its only effect is to heat the skin and the tissues immediately below it. such as a hand or arm. The fact that a material can be opaque to ultraviolet has no relation to its opacity to other parts of the spectrum. and diathermy applications. Nonionizing Radiation. (For more details on measurement and government regulations for ionizing radiation. and directed so that it does not create glare. the source of light should be kept well above the line of vision or shielded with opaque or translucent material. some types of cooking. x-ray. there is less subjective awareness to the heat from longer wavelengths than there is to the heat from shorter wavelengths. Depending on how they are worn. The effect is related to wavelength. however. or gamma-radiation and special badges are available to record neutron radiation. 15 . In the following paragraphs. (See Chapter 11. which is about midway in the electromagnetic spectrum. Illumination levels and brightness ratios recommended for manufacturing and service industries are published by the Illuminating Engineering Society. are some hazards associated with different regions of the nonionizing electromagnetic radiation spectrum. because of the absorption of the longer wavelength radiation beneath the body’s surface. Geiger-Mueller and ionization chamber-type instruments are used for measuring beta-. for further information. Good lighting conditions generally result in increased product quality with less spoilage and increased production. Lighting should be bright enough for easy and efficient sight. in approximate order of decreasing wavelength and increasing frequency. A highly reflective white paper in the center of a dark. depending largely on the wavelength of the radiation involved. as well as localized damage to specific organs. see Chapter 10. The brightness can be caused by either direct or reflected light. but it is essentially all absorbed by the bulb and its coating. and in Chapter 11. communications. Ordinary window glass.
the laser’s predecessor. and a familiar result of overexposure— one that is known to all sunbathers—is sunburn. For example. Fluid or tissue forced into these spaces can cause pain during descent or ascent. Keeping the oxygen concentration high minimizes this condition. Under some conditions of work at high pressure. emits microwaves instead of light. 16 EXTREMES OF PRESSURE It has been recognized from the beginning of caisson work (work performed in a watertight structure) that people working under pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure are subject to various health effects. (See Chapter 11. they cause severe cramps. decompression is carried out slowly and by stages so that the nitrogen can be eliminated slowly. If the bubbles lodge at the joints and under muscles. because of the way the eye handles ultraviolet light. where a compressed gas environment is used to exclude water or mud and to provide support for structures. Hyperbaric (greater than normal pressure) environments are also encountered by divers who work under water. To prevent this. Biological effects. Atoms are “pumped” full of energy. Humans can withstand large pressures if air has free access to lungs. gas spaces adjacent to tooth roots or fillings may be compressed during descent. for more details. many workers subjected to increased air pressures suffer from temporary hearing loss. which produce random. the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere can be considerably increased so that the carbon dioxide acts as a narcotic. without forming bubbles. which can occur either during compression (descent) or during decompression (ascent). or by breathing gas mixtures supplied by compression from the surface. (See Chapter 11. some have permanent hearing loss. Deep-sea divers are supplied with a mixture of helium and oxygen for breathing. but many are unaware that some industrial materials. such as cresols. Most people are familiar with certain compounds and lotions that reduce the effects of the sun’s rays. it presents a less formidable decompression problem. breathing from a selfcontained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA). The OSHAct covers protection against laser hazards in its construction regulations. Suitable shielding to contain the laser beam should be provided. The fact that infrared radiation of certain lasers may not be visible to the naked eye contributes to the potential hazard. all traveling in the same direction. commonly called the bends.PART I ➣ HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT The most common exposure to ultraviolet radiation is from direct sunlight. Lasers emit beams of coherent radiation of a single color or wavelength and frequency. which prevents proper equalization of pressure from the throat to the middle ear.) Other factors that affect the degree of eye injury induced by laser light are as follows: ➣ Pupil size (the smaller the pupil diameter. Nonionizing Radiation. Nonionizing Radiation. Unequal distribution of pressure can result in barotrauma. If . The laser (an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) is made up of light waves that are nearly parallel to each other. The work area should contain no reflective surface (such as mirrors or highly polished furniture) because even a reflected laser beam can be hazardous.) The maser. Sinus blockage caused by occlusion of the sinus aperture by inflamed nasal mucosa prevents equalization of pressures. and ears are often affected by pressure differentials. it can have a large energy density in a narrow beam. make the skin especially sensitive to ultraviolet rays. Direct viewing of the laser source or its reflections should be avoided. they give off radiation that is directed to produce the coherent laser beam. but does not prevent it. a kind of tissue damage resulting from expansion or contraction of gas spaces within or adjacent to the body. sinuses. and the middle ear. The teeth. Decompression sickness. Lasers generating in the ultraviolet range of the electromagnetic spectrum can produce corneal burns rather than retinal damage. results from the release of nitrogen bubbles into the circulation and tissues during decompression. The procedure is useful where the carbon dioxide concentration cannot be kept at a proper level.” Because the laser is highly collimated (has a small divergence angle). The eye is the organ that is most vulnerable to injury by laser energy because the cornea and lens focus the parallel laser beam on a small spot on the retina. disordered light wave mixtures of various frequencies. One of the most common troubles encountered by workers under compressed air is pain and congestion in the ears from inability to ventilate the middle ear properly during compression and decompression. the less laser energy reaches the retina) ➣ The ability of the cornea and lens to focus the incident light on the retina ➣ The distance from the source of energy to the retina ➣ The energy and wavelength of the laser ➣ The pigmentation of the eye of the subject ➣ The location on the retina where the light is focused ➣ The divergence of the laser light ➣ The presence of scattering media in the light path A discussion of laser beam characteristics and protective eyewear can be found in Chapter 11. whether by holding the breath while diving. sinuses. The effects of reduced pressure on the worker are much the same as the effects of decompression from a high pressure. Some companies call their lasers “optical masers. Occupational exposures occur in caisson or tunneling operations. This damage is believed to be caused by obstruction of the eustachian tubes. even a short exposure in the sun usually results in a severe sunburn. As a result. and when they are stimulated to fall to a lower energy level. in contrast to conventional light sources. After exposure to cresols. and because helium is an inert diluent and less soluble in blood and tissue than is nitrogen.
To ensure a continued high level of performance. a person receives and processes information. By exerting a strong distracting influence on a worker. This can involve the integration of the information. and other cumulative trauma disorders. conversely. The tendons. Ergonomics. Ergonomic stresses can impair the health and efficiency of the worker just as significantly as the more commonly recognized environmental stresses. and decisions can vary from automatic responses to those involving a high degree of reasoning and logic. there are tasks that are better performed by people than by machines and. in many cases.) The ergonomics approach goes beyond productivity. It deals with the functioning of the structural elements of the body and the effects of external and internal forces on the various parts of the body. result in physical illnesses and injuries such as “trigger finger. Some of the principles of biomechanics can be illustrated by considering different parts of the human anatomy. where the information is processed to arrive at a decision. The task should not require excessive muscular effort. (For more details. sound. and state of health. in an insidious and subtle manner. touch. However. The task of the design engineer and health and safety professional is to find the happy medium between “easy” and “difficult” jobs. of the fingers (Figure 1–3). or if the flexing motion is repeated rapidly over a long period of time. the tendons tend to bunch up on one side of the tunnel through which they enter the hand. Hand anatomy. such as the hand. The person usually forms the part of the system that makes decisions. and safety. Having received the information and processed it. see Chapter 13. and accidents. In any human–machine system. The job should not be so easy that boredom and inattention lead to unnecessary errors. usually through muscular activity based on the skeletal framework of the body. Ergonomics.CHAPTER 1 ➣ OVERVIEW OF INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE pressure is reduced too rapidly. This can lead to a disabling condition called carpal tunnel syndrome. The flexing action in the fingers is controlled by tendons attached to muscles in the forearm. or sensations of heat or cold. material waste. they can exceed the worker’s physiological limitations. Cases of excessive fatigue and discomfort are. The topic of ergonomics is covered briefly here. This information is conveyed to the central mechanism of the brain and spinal cord. decompression sickness and ear disturbances similar to the diver’s conditions can result. the resulting friction can produce inflammation of the tendon sheaths. heat. tasks that are better handled by machines. (See Chapter 13. work systems must be tailored to human capacities and limitations. In the broad sense. sex. forerunners of soreness and pain. the person often forms part of a “closed-loop servosystem. or phalanges. but information can also be conveyed through the senses of smell. and tools and equipment. when awkward conditions or motions are continued for prolonged periods. Cumulative effects of excessive ergonomic stress on the worker can. which contains a network of nerves and blood vessels. which has already been stored in the brain. It includes consideration of the total physiological and psychological demands of the job on the worker. Biomechanics means the mechanics of biological organisms. carpal tunnel syndrome. the individual then takes action (control) as a result of the decision. these stresses can render the worker more prone to major accidents. health. which run in lubricated sheaths. Ergonomics considers the physiological and psychological stresses of the task.” displaying many of the feedback characteristics of such a system. Ergonomics deals with the interactions between humans and such traditional environmental elements as atmospheric contaminants. or tenosynovitis. light. bursitis. should never be used as a hammer or 17 . enter the hand through a tunnel in the wrist formed by bones and ligaments (the carpal tunnel) and continue on to point of attachment to the different segments. It is the application of human biological science in conjunction with the engineering sciences to achieve the optimum mutual adjustment of people to their work. Discomfort and fatigue tend to make the worker less capable of maintaining the proper vigilance for the safe performance of the task. When an individual’s activity involves the operation of a piece of equipment.) The palm of the hand. Ergonomic Hazards Ergonomics literally means the study or measurement of work. and thus has a fundamental part to play in the efficiency of the system. considering the worker’s age. and then acts on it. The receptor function occurs largely through the sense organs of the eyes and the ear. the benefits being measured in terms of human efficiency and well-being. If an excessive amount of force is continuously applied with the fingers while the wrist is flexed. People are the monitoring link of a human–machine environment system.” tenosynovitis. In any activity. the benefits that can be expected from designing work systems to minimize physical stress on workers are as follows: ➣ Reduced incidence of repetitive motion disorders ➣ Reduced injury rate ➣ More efficient operation ➣ Fewer accidents ➣ Lower cost of operation ➣ Reduced training time ➣ More effective use of personnel The human body can endure considerable discomfort and stress and can perform many awkward and unnatural movements for a limited period of time. When the wrist is bent toward the little finger side. BIOMECHANICS–PHYSICAL DEMANDS Biomechanics can be a very effective tool in preventing excessive work stress.
work. and waste products accumulate.) The relevant data concerning lifting can be classified into task. or isometric. is a substantial source of static muscular loading. Alternating static and dynamic work. is static. In general. such as the elbow joints and shoulders. and environmental variables. The injuries resulting from manual handling of objects and materials make up a large proportion of all compensable injuries. Repetitive or prolonged pressure on the nerves and blood vessels in this area can result in pain either in the palm itself or at any point along the nerve pathways up through the arm and shoulder. such as height of the worker ➣ Environmental variables Extremes of temperature Humidity Air contaminants Static work. and when exposed to cold the fingers become white and without sensation. The condition has been observed in a number of other occupations involving the use of vibrating tools. can become painful for similar reasons. The blood supply to the contracted muscle is diminished. Prevention should be directed at reducing the vibrational energy transferred to the fingers (perhaps by the use of padding) and by changing the energy and frequency of the vibration. Because very little outward movement occurs. such work generates more muscular fatigue than work involving some outward movement. see Chapter 13. This problem is of considerable concern to the health and safety professional and represents an area where the biomechanical data relating to lifting and carrying can be applied in the work layout and design of jobs that require handling of materials.PART I ➣ HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT tasks. for example. The circulation in this hand becomes impaired. maintaining any set of muscles in a rigid. The white appearance usually disappears when the fingers are warmed for some time. it seems that no muscular effort is involved. and the Application Manual for the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation. Often. such as the air hammers used for scarfing metal surfaces. A cramped working posture. are more damaging than higher frequencies. unsupported Mechanical vibration. alleviates this problem. Another very fatiguing situation encountered in industry. or providing support for partial relaxation of the member involved. and the chain saws used in forestry. human. ➣ Task variables Location of object to be lifted Size of the object to be lifted Height from which and to which the object is lifted Frequency of lift Weight of object Working position ➣ Human variables Sex of worker Age of worker Training of worker Physical fitness or conditioning of worker Body dimensions. Figure 1–3. Armrests are usually needed in two types of situations. which unfortunately is often overlooked. 25–75 hertz. however. a local deficiency of oxygen can occur. Ergonomics. Lifting. Other parts of the body. the air chisels for chipping castings in the metal trades. unsupported position for long periods of time results in muscular strain. but a few cases are sufficiently disabling that the victims are forced to seek other types of work. A condition known to stonecutters as “dead fingers” or “white fingers” (Raynaud’s phenomenon) occurs mainly in the fingers of the hand used to guide the cutting tool. subjected to continued firm pressure. Diagram of hand anatomy. One is the case just mentioned—to relieve the isometric muscular work involved in holding the arm in a fixed. (For more details. The injury is caused by vibration of the fingers as they grip the tools to guide them in performing their 18 . Low frequencies. as though mildly frostbitten. In many instances both hands are affected. The related damage to blood vessels can progress to nearly complete obstruction of the vessels.
any instrument dial that has poor legibility. and toxins. or any obstruction of vision can contribute directly to an accident or illness. or carcinogenic reactions in workers. leg. When this is done. Any control that is difficult to reach or operate. Worker uses pads to keep her forearm off the sharp table edge. and breadths used to establish the minimum clearances and spatial accommodations. can often be determined satisfactorily only from special surveys that yield descriptive data on human body size and biomechanical abilities and limitations. Displays tell the operator what the machine is doing and how it is performing. a warning bell rather than a warning light). On the basis of considerable experimental evidence. accurate settings easily can be made without undue fatigue. are known to produce infections or allergenic. the controls as extensions of the hands. or over long periods of time. and body movements that are made by the worker during the performance of the task. unambiguous information. although they also can be auditory (for example. thereby avoiding many accidents and operational errors. Most of the identified biohazardous agents belong to these groups: 19 . This is particularly true whenever controls must be operated at high speed. any seat that induces poor posture or discomfort. and the biological characteristics of these people. Accidents. toxic. Because there is a wide variety of machine controls. the others include direct sensing and verbal or visual commands. Anthropometric data. WORKPLACE DESIGN Relating the physical characteristics and capabilities of the worker to the design of equipment and to the layout of the workplace is another key ergonomic concept. BEHAVIORAL ASPECTS—MENTAL DEMANDS One important aspect of industrial machine design directly related to the safety and productivity of the worker is the design of displays and controls. or operational errors. a description of the kinds of people who will use the equipment. incorporated in their design. a decrease in human error. with great precision. when needed on all pertinent aspects of the task. The second case is where the arm is pressed against a hard surface such as the edge of a bench or machine.CHAPTER 1 ➣ OVERVIEW OF INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE position for long periods of time. Padded armrests have solved numerous problems of both types (see Figure 1–4). Problems of display design are primarily related to the human senses. The biological characteristics of the users. Design of displays. especially when there is danger of overloading the visual sensory channels. against large resistances. Thus. Anthropometric data consist of various heights. several different types of information are needed: a description of the job. Displays are usually visual. In general. equipment. Displays are one of the most common types of operator input. The effectiveness of the human– machine combination can be greatly enhanced by treating the operator and the equipment as a unified system. biological allergens. and users—can be defined easily. and the functional arm. Controls should be designed so that rapid. the safety with which controls can be operated—depend on the extent to which information on the dynamics of human movement (or biomechanics) has been Figure 1–4. the instruments should be considered as extensions of the operator’s nervous and perceptual systems. Design of Controls. the mechanical design of equipment must be compatible with the biological and psychological characteristics of the operator. However. and a consequent reduction in accident frequency. advance analysis of the task requirements must be made. the result is an increase in efficiency. it is possible to recommend the most appropriate control and its desirable range of operation. ranging from the simple on–off action of pushbuttons to very complex mechanisms. however. often occur because a worker has misinterpreted or was unable to obtain information from displays. The efficiency and effectiveness—that is. An operator must decide on the proper course of action and manipulate controls to produce any desired change in the machine’s performance. the first three items—job. Biological Hazards Approximately 200 biological agents. an understanding of the kinds of equipment to be used. such as infectious microorganisms. and the feet as simple tools. A machine operator can successfully control equipment only to the extent that the operator receives clear. lengths. In general. The pressure on the soft tissues overlaying the bones can cause bruises and pain.
The conditions and events necessary to result in human exposure to bioaerosols are the presence of a reservoir that can support the growth of microorganisms or allow accumulation of biological material. and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in addition to other biological hazards. or on construction and public works jobs near perching or nesting sites can be exposed to Chlamydia psittaci. Workers engaging in agricultural. or allergic response ➣ Allergens and toxins from higher plants. . cooking. such as water for industrial or firefighting purposes. Risk of infection varies with the type and species of animal and geographic location. and exposure of susceptible workers. feces. and personal service rooms. The potential for exposure to occupational biohazards exists in most work environments. recognizing and identi20 HARMFUL AGENTS–ROUTE OF ENTRY In order to exert its toxic effect. but more often it is acquired in the workplace environment. they must be capable of being closed and equipped with a tap. at least 24 of the 150 zoonotic diseases known worldwide are considered to be a hazard for agricultural workers in North America. and their products) resulting in infection. medical. or allergy ➣ Arthropods (crustaceans. plants. Potable water should be provided in workplaces when needed for drinking and personal washing. as distinguished from sickbuilding syndrome (SBS). for a full discussion. Potable drinking water dispensers must be designed and constructed so that sanitary conditions are maintained.) INDUSTRIAL SANITATION—WATER SUPPLY The requirements for sanitation and personal facilities are covered in the OSHAct safety and health regulations 29 CFR 1910. must be marked in a manner that indicates clearly that the water is unsafe and is not to be used as drinking water. Certain BRI such as infectious and hypersensitivity diseases are clearly associated with biological hazards. washing of foods or utensils.PART I ➣ HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT ➣ Microorganisms and their toxins (viruses. hepatitis A virus. Controls include awareness of specific hazards. Standing water in cooling towers and other air-moving systems should be monitored for legionella bacteria. and fungi causing deep mycoses. rhinitis. emergency responders. aviaries. Schistosoma) and roundworms (Ascaris). and animals and in occupations involving contact with potentially infected people. parasitic protozoa. (See Chapter 14. parakeets. Subpart J—General Environmental Controls. and dander) from vertebrate animals Other groups with the potential to expose workers to biohazards include lower plants other than fungi (lichen. and allergenic fungi. worker education. allergenic fungi growing on timber. Biological Hazards. For example. hair. arachnids. Ice that comes in contact with drinking water must be made of potable water and maintained in a sanitary condition. generation of aerosols containing biological material. BUILDING-RELATED ILLNESSES DUE TO BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS The sources of biological hazards may be fairly obvious in occupations associated with the handling of microorganisms. pigeons) in pet shops. ferns) and invertebrate animals other than arthropods (parasites such as protozoa. The OSHAct regulations for carcinogens require special personal health and sanitary facilities for employees working with potentially carcinogenic materials. insects) associated with bites or stings resulting in skin inflammation. Drinking fountain surfaces must be constructed of materials impervious to water and not subject to oxidation. exposure. Biological Hazards. or ingestion. or asthma ➣ Protein allergens (such as urine. liverworts. Nonpotable water systems or systems carrying any other nonpotable substance should be constructed so as to prevent backflow or backsiphonage. multiplication of contaminating organisms or biological materials in the reservoir. The following are but a few examples in very diverse workplaces: ➣ Workers maintaining water systems can be exposed to Legionella pneumophila and Naegleria spp.) Outlets for nonpotable water. (See Chapter 14. use of personal protective equipment. bacteria. law enforcement officers.) fying biological hazards may not be as simple in other situations such as office buildings and nonindustrial workplaces. where appropriate. ➣ Workers in wood processing facilities can be exposed to endotoxins. A guard over the nozzle prevents contact with the nozzle by the mouth or nose of people using the drinking fountain. saliva. ➣ Sewage and compost workers can be exposed to enteric bacteria. (See Chapter 14. ➣ Workers associated with birds (parrots. Building-related illness (BRI) is a clinically diagnosed disease in one or more building occupants. in which building occupants’ nonspecific symptoms cannot be associated with an identifiable cause. for details. producing dermatitis. ➣ Health care workers. and morticians may be exposed to such bloodborne pathogens as hepatitis B (HBV). a harmful agent must come into contact with a body cell and must enter the body via inhalation. Disease may be contracted directly from animals. The nozzle of the fountain must be located to prevent the return of water in the jet or bowl to the nozzle orifice. fungi. and medical monitoring or prophylactic therapy. hepatitis C (HCV). systemic intoxication and transmission of infectious agents. and laboratory work have been identified as most at risk to occupational biohazards but many varied workplaces present the potential for such exposure. washing of food preparation premises. preventive veterinary care. but the role of biological materials in SBS is not as well understood. infectious or endotoxinproducing bacteria. skin absorption. Biological Hazards. However.
These must be used correctly in order to understand the requirements of OSHAct regulations. Dust can enter the air from various sources. gases. Particulates). see Chapter 6. These are discussed in the following sections. Dust is a term used in industry to describe airborne solid particles that range in size from 0. Lead oxide can cause serious problems if people working with this material are allowed to eat or smoke in work areas. States of Matter Matter is divided into dusts. and many other factors described here. as a route of entry. dust concentration in air.) Except for some fibrous materials. amides. detonation.) TYPES OF AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS There are precise meanings of certain words commonly used in industrial hygiene. Most industrial dusts consist of particles that vary widely in size. Inhalation is the major route of entry for hazardous chemicals in the work environment. cyanides. Consequently (with few exceptions). is particularly important because of the rapidity with which a toxic material can be absorbed in the lungs. Some substances are absorbed by way of the openings for hair follicles and others dissolve in the fats and oils of the skin. gases. mists.CHAPTER 1 ➣ OVERVIEW OF INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE Chemical compounds in the form of liquids. and organic phosphate pesticides. absorption (through direct contact with the skin). crushing. Smaller airborne particles can be detected individually by the naked eye only when strong light is reflected from them. when dust is noticeable in the air near a dusty operation. Only the smaller particles reach the alveoli. Inhalation Inhalation involves airborne contaminants that can be inhaled directly into the lungs and can be physically classified as gases. offers a reasonably good barrier to chemicals. When solid materials are reduced to small sizes in processes such as grinding. If the toxic dust swallowed with food or saliva is not soluble in digestive fluids. fumes. Each term has a definite meaning and describes a certain state of matter. and correctly prescribe personal protective equipment. for more details. effectively communicate with other occupational health professionals. fumes. dusts. and vapors.0001 cm or 1/25. Too often. such as when a dusty material is handled (as when lead oxide is dumped into a mixer or talc is dusted on a product). or ingestion (eating or drinking). crushing. a fume respirator is worthless as protection against gases or vapors. can produce systemic poisoning by direct contact with the skin. Evaluating dust exposures properly requires knowledge of the chemical composition. (See Chapter 2. and drilling. metal. Toxic compounds can be absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract into the blood. recommend or design and test appropriate engineering controls. people can unknowingly eat or drink harmful chemicals. such as TNT. there are many compounds that can be absorbed through intact skin. Inhalation. DUSTS These are solid particles generated by handling. and mists) are used interchangeably. Ingestion In the workplace. and particulate matter including dusts. Compounds that are good solvents for fats (such as toluene and xylene) also can be absorbed through the skin. Particles of dust of respirable size (less than 10 µm) cannot be seen without the aid of a microscope.).1–25 µm in diameter (1 µm = 0. ore. vapors. aerosols. Inhaled toxic dusts can also be ingested in hazardous amounts. and mists. A 21 . Unfortunately. and grain. aerosols. the mechanical action of the grinding or shaking device supplies energy to disperse the dust. and reach the brain. and vapors can cause problems by inhalation (breathing). it is eliminated directly through the intestinal tract. but they may be perceived as a haze. wood. vapors. shaking. Although in the case of gases. with the small particles greatly outnumbering the large ones. terms (such as gases. Absorption Absorption through the skin can occur quite rapidly if the skin is cut or abraded. in addition to airborne contaminants in working areas. rapid impact. however. probably more invisible dust particles than visible ones are present. particle size. and phenols. Large particles. smoke. blasting. the concentration that reaches the alveolar sacs is nearly like the concentration in the air breathed. Toxic materials that are readily soluble in digestive fluids can be absorbed into the blood from the digestive system. coal. Intact skin. Thorough washing is required both before eating and at the end of every shift. this is not the case for aerosols or dust particles. fumes. It is important to study all routes of entry when evaluating the work environment—candy bars or lunches in the work area. such as organic lead compounds. dust particles must usually be smaller than 5 µm in order to penetrate to the alveoli or inner recess of the lungs. grinding.400 in. how it is dispersed. Industrial Toxicology. and most aromatic amines. many nitro compounds. pass into the bloodstream. Many organic compounds. such as rock. (For more details. more than 10 µm aerodynamic diameter. The Lungs. smokes. Dusts more than 5 µm in size usually do not remain airborne long enough to present an inhalation problem (see Chapter 8. For example. solvents being used to clean work clothing and hands. fumes. A person with normal eyesight can detect dust particles as small as 50 µm in diameter. can be deposited through gravity and impaction in large ducts before they reach the very small sacs (alveoli). and decrepitation (breaking apart by heating) of organic or inorganic materials. mists.
such as by splashing. acid mists from electroplating. In evaluating the degree of exposure. fume. These fumes. for instance. mouth. most soldering operations do not require temperatures high enough to volatilize an appreciable amount of lead. it includes the . upper throat. In addition to the definitions concerning states of matter that are used daily by industrial hygienists. However. it includes the nose. FUMES These are formed when the material from a volatilized solid condenses in cool air. 22 Respiratory Hazards Airborne chemical agents that enter the lungs can pass directly into the bloodstream and be carried to other parts of the body. are readily inhaled. and other operations involving vapors from molten metals may produce fumes. the lead in molten solder pots is oxidized by contact with air at the surface. Gases are a state of matter in which the molecules are unrestricted by cohesive forces. metalizing. The respiratory system consists of organs contributing to normal respiration or breathing. SMOKE This consists of carbon or soot particles less than 0. internal combustion engine exhaust gases. such as soldering or lead battery-making. the rod coating is partially volatilized. Examples are arc-welding gases. preventing occupational poisoning is largely a matter of scrupulously clean housekeeping to prevent the lead oxide from becoming dispersed into the air. Arc welding volatilizes metal vapor that condenses as the metal or its oxide in the air around the arc. AEROSOLS These are liquid droplets or solid particles of fine enough particle size to remain dispersed in air for a prolonged period of time. Smoke generally contains droplets as well as dry particles. foaming. If this oxide. the hot vapor reacts with the air to form an oxide. or vapor in the workroom air. The solid particles that are formed make up a fume that is extremely fine. terms used to describe degree of exposure include the following: ➣ ppm: parts of vapor or gases per million parts of air by volume at room temperature and pressure ➣ mppcf: millions of particles of a particulate per cubic foot of air ➣ mg/m3: milligrams of a substance per cubic meter of air ➣ f/cc: fibers of a substance per cubic centimeter of air The health and safety professional recognizes that air contaminants exist as a gas. can produce severe symptoms of toxicity rather rapidly unless fumes are controlled with effective local exhaust ventilation or the welder is protected by respiratory protective equipment. because they are extremely fine. In operations when lead dust may be present in air. VAPORS These are the volatile form of substances that are normally in the solid or liquid state at room temperature and pressure. although the terms are often mistakenly used interchangeably. is mechanically dispersed into the air. The term mist is applied to a finely divided liquid suspended in the atmosphere. often called dross. trachea. In addition. There is no simple one-to-one relationship between the concentration of an atmospheric contaminant and duration of exposure and the rate of dosage by the hazardous agent to the critical site in the body. Other toxic fumes. or atomizing. For a given magnitude of atmospheric exposure to a potentially toxic particulate contaminant. GASES These are formless fluids that expand to occupy the space or enclosure in which they are confined. Strictly speaking.PART I ➣ HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT process that produces dust fine enough to remain suspended in the air long enough to be breathed should be regarded as hazardous until it can be proved safe. Tobacco. the resulting hazard can range from an insignificant level to one of great danger. and air. and to ventilate them adequately to control the hazard. Welding. It is customary to enclose melting pots. Finally. Evaporation is the process by which a liquid is changed into the vapor state and mixed with the surrounding atmosphere. In most cases. such as those formed when welding structures that have been painted with lead-based paints or when welding galvanized metal. Solvents with low boiling points volatilize readily at room temperature. and similar operations.1 µm in size. Gases and vapors are not fumes. and bronchi (which are all air passages or airways) and the lungs. paint spray mist in painting operations. these may be harmful under certain conditions. and results from the incomplete combustion of carbonaceous materials such as coal or oil. dross boxes. Fortunately. mist. MISTS These are suspended liquid droplets generated by condensation of liquids from the vapor back to the liquid state or by breaking up a liquid into a dispersed state. the measured concentration of the air contaminant is compared to limits or exposure guidelines that appear in the published standards on levels of exposure (see Appendix B). depending on the toxicity of the material. dust. usually less than 1.0 µm in diameter. it can produce a severe lead-poisoning hazard. and other factors that determine their fate in the respiratory system. acid or alkali mists from pickling operations. Examples are the oil mist produced during cutting and grinding operations. produces a wet smoke composed of minute tarry droplets. Other controls may be necessary as well. larynx. the size of the inhaled particles. and the condensation of water vapor to form a fog or rain. where oxygen is passed into the blood and carbon dioxide is given off.
fermentation).) All living cells of the body are engaged in a series of chemical processes. or 160 mm. Safeguards should be meticulously observed. immediately loses consciousness. or physical plugging ➣ Toxic vapors and gases that produce adverse reaction in the tissue of the lungs 23 . Oxygen-deficient atmospheres can occur in tanks. and permanent changes and impaired functioning of the brain can result from such damage. Respiratory hazards can be broken down into two main groups: ➣ Oxygen deficiency. Some cells are more dependent on a continuing oxygen supply than others. and Particulates. Other gases and vapors may prevent the blood from carrying oxygen to the tissues or interfere with its transfer from the blood to the tissue. For example. Some cells in the brain and nervous system can be injured or die after 4–6 min without oxygen. Ordinary jobs involving maintenance and repair of systems for storing and transporting fluids or entering tanks or tunnels for cleaning and repairs are controlled almost entirely by the immediate supervisor. which. the person usually has no warning symptoms. and Chapter 22. In the course of its metabolism. the sum total of these processes is called metabolism. if destroyed. nitrogen. In cases of abrupt entry into areas containing little or no oxygen. THE HAZARD OF AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS Inhaling harmful materials can irritate the upper respiratory tract and lung tissue. vats. Direct-Reading Instruments for Gases. depending on the solubility of the material. For this reason. it may have been closed for some time and developed an oxygen deficiency through chemical reactions of residues left in the tank. The Lungs. or where the oxygen may have been consumed by chemical or biological reactions.3 kPa). Inhalation of biologically inert gases can dilute the atmospheric oxygen below the normal blood saturation value and disturb cellular processes.) The first physiological signs of an oxygen deficiency (anoxia) are an increased rate and depth of breathing. but the partial pressure of each gas is decreased. At higher altitudes or under conditions of reduced barometric pressure. The partial pressure of nitrogen and inert gases would be 600 mm (79 percent of 760 mm). The partial pressure of oxygen at the alveolar surface of the lung is critical because it determines the rate of oxygen diffusion through the moist lung tissue membranes. or in areas where the air may be diluted or displaced by asphyxiating levels of gases or vapors. the partial pressure of oxygen would be 21 percent of 760 mm.) Oxygen-deficient atmospheres can cause an inability to move and a semiconscious lack of concern about the imminence of death. and has no recollection of the incident if rescued in time to be revived. the relative proportions of oxygen and nitrogen remain the same. which may enhance the basic OSHAct rules. Such procedures should be consistent with OSHAct regulations and augmented by in-house procedures. and carbon dioxide. A worker should never enter or remain in areas where tests have indicated oxygen deficiency without a supplied-air or selfcontained respirator that is specifically approved by NIOSH for those conditions. Inhaled contaminants that adversely affect the lungs fall into three general categories: ➣ Aerosols (particulates). (See Chapter 2. (See Chapter 16. or the terminal passages of the lungs and the air sacs. Chapter 17. Instruments are commercially available for this purpose. when deposited in the lungs. These cells. producing chemical asphyxia. Respiratory Protection. silos. Air Sampling. or absorbed by porous surfaces such as activated charcoal. cannot be regenerated or replaced.CHAPTER 1 ➣ OVERVIEW OF INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE diaphragm and the muscles of the chest. replaced by inert gases such as argon. there should be a standard operating procedure for entering tanks. eventual disease. some slower tissue reactions. (See Chapter 22. The supervisor should be particularly knowledgeable of all rules and precautions to ensure the safety of those who work in such atmospheres. for more details. for more details. the oxygen content of any tank or other confined space (as well as the levels of any toxic contaminants) should be measured before entry is made. Vapors. mines. in which the oxygen concentration (or partial pressure of oxygen) is below the level considered safe for human exposure ➣ Air that contains harmful or toxic contaminants OXYGEN-DEFICIENT ATMOSPHERES Each living cell in the body requires a constant supply of oxygen. It may be unsafe to enter without proper respiratory protection. holds of ships. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) lists confined space procedures in its respiratory protection standard and NIOSH has also issued guidelines for work in confined spaces including a criteria document for working in confined spaces (see Bibliography). Other cells in the body are not as critically dependent on an oxygen supply because they can be replaced. The senses cannot be relied on to alert or warn a person of atmospheres deficient in oxygen. can produce either rapid local tissue damage. Deficiency of oxygen in the atmosphere of confined spaces can be a problem in industry. Normal air at sea level contains approximately 21 percent oxygen and 79 percent nitrogen and other inert gases. Oxygen-deficient atmospheres may exist in confined spaces as oxygen is consumed by chemical reactions such as oxidation (rust. Even if a tank is empty. which perform the normal respiratory movements of inspiration and expiration. Respiratory Protection. each cell consumes oxygen and produces carbon dioxide as a waste product. At sea level and normal barometric pressure (760 mmHg or 101.
The latest documentation for that substance should be consulted to assess the present data available for a given substance. the precision of the estimated TLV continues to be subject to revision and debate. human studies. and the limit may be selected for several reasons. but can penetrate deeply into the lungs. In mining operations. the nose and throat become very irritated. The TLVs are reviewed and updated annually to reflect the most current information on the effects of each substance assigned a TLV. sulfuric acid. consequently. day after day. even causing chemical burns. Some additional TLVs have been established because exposure above a certain airborne concentration is a nuisance. The carbon monoxide passes through the alveolar walls into the blood. explosives release oxides of nitrogen. a gas that directly affects lung tissue. Hypersusceptible individuals or those otherwise unusually responsive to some industrial chemicals because of genetic factors. chemical pneumonia. Thus. These limits are not fine lines between safe and dangerous concentration. (See Appendix B and the Bibliography of this chapter.) TLVs are airborne concentrations of substances and represent conditions under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed. where they are carried to other body organs or have adverse effects on the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood cells An example of an aerosol is silica dust. A smaller percentage may be affected more seriously by aggravation of a preexisting condition or by development of an occupational illness. These impair the bronchial clearance mechanism so that coal dust (of the particle sizes associated with the explosions) is not efficiently cleansed from the lungs. personal habits (smoking and use of alcohol or other drugs). Other harmful aerosols are fungi found in sugar cane residues. It is a primary irritant of mucous membranes. Still other reasons for establishing a TLV for a given substance include the fact that certain chemical compounds are anesthetic or fibrogenic or can cause allergic reactions or malignancies. Compounds that are insoluble in body fluids cause considerably less throat irritation than the soluble ones. They also can cause lung damage and even death under certain conditions.) The ACGIH Threshold Limit Values® (TLVs®) are exposure guidelines established for airborne concentrations of many chemical compounds. These tolerable levels are called Threshold Limit Values. Control of the work environment is based on the assumption that for each substance there is some safe or tolerable level of exposure below which no significant adverse effect occurs. producing bagassosis. thus causing oxygen starvation. where it ties up the hemoglobin so that it cannot accept oxygen. (See Chapter 15. which causes fibrotic growth (scar tissue) in the lungs. . age. Evaluation.) The data for establishing TLVs come from animal studies. or the fact that a substance is an asphyxiant. Sometimes several types of lung hazards occur simultaneously. there are limits for physical agents such as noise. Cyanide gas has another effect—it prevents enzymatic utilization of molecular oxygen by cells. medication. and industrial experience. If a compound is very soluble—such as ammonia. Consequently. The copyrighted trademark Threshold Limit Value® refers to limits published by ACGIH. the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values (TLVs®) for Chemical Subtances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs®) states that because individual susceptibility varies widely. In its Introduction. In addition to the TLVs set for chemical compounds. The immediate danger from these compounds in high concentrations is acute lung irritation or. The amount and nature of the information available for establishing a TLV varies from substance to substance. nor are they a relative index of toxicity. and Appendix B for more details. Industrial Toxicology. The health and safety professional or other responsible person should understand something about TLVs and the terminology in which their concentra24 THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES tions are expressed.PART I ➣ HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT ➣ Some toxic aerosols or gases that do not affect the lung tissue locally but pass from the lungs into the bloodstream. Smoking may enhance the biological effects of chemicals encountered in the workplace and may reduce the body’s defense mechanisms against toxic substances. (See Chapter 6. Examples of such compounds (gases) are nitrogen dioxide and ozone. or previous exposures may not be adequately protected from adverse health effects of chemicals at concentrations at or below the threshold limits. There are numerous chemical compounds that do not follow the general solubility rule. the TLV can be based on the fact that a substance is very irritating to the majority of people exposed. a small percentage of workers may experience discomfort from some substances at concentrations at or below the threshold limit. An example of the second type of inhaled contaminant is hydrogen fluoride. Inhalation of this gas causes pulmonary edema and direct interference with the gas transfer function of the alveolar lining. Chapter 6. a very serious hazard can be present and not be recognized immediately because of a lack of warning that the local irritation would otherwise provide. possibly. An example of the third type of inhaled contaminant is carbon monoxide. Industrial Toxicology. As mentioned earlier in this chapter. without adverse effect. for example. a toxic gas passed into the bloodstream without harming the lung. They should not be used by anyone untrained in the discipline of industrial hygiene. or hydrochloric acid—it is rapidly absorbed in the upper respiratory tract and during the initial phases of exposure does not penetrate deeply into the lungs. Such compounds are not very soluble in water and yet are very irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract.
and heat stress. whether very high concentrations. Industrial Noise. If any one of these three TLVs is exceeded. independent exposure limit. and the term TLV should not be used for standards published by OSHA or any agency except the ACGIH. of probably greater significance. This designation is intended to suggest appropriate measures for the prevention of cutaneous absorption.1000 (Table Z–2) as national consensus standards. a potential hazard from that substance is presumed to exist. ultraviolet radiation. day after day. The STELs are recommended only when toxic effects in humans or animals have been reported from high short-term exposures. This refers to potential significant exposure through the cutaneous route. Also. segmental vibration. depending on their physiological action. lasers. may be relevant. light. subradiofrequency (≤ 30 kHz) magnetic fields.” Note that the TLVs are not mandatory federal or state employee exposure standards. Exposures above the TLV-TWA up to the STEL should not be longer than 15 min and should not occur more than four times per day. For other substances. Three categories of Threshold Limit Values are specified as follows: TIME-WEIGHTED AVERAGE (TLV–TWA) This is the time-weighted average concentration for a conventional eight-hour workday and 40-hour workweek. All factors must be considered when deciding whether a hazardous condition exists. For some substances (such as irritant gases). There should be at least 60 min between successive exposures in this range. whether the effects are cumulative. promote. Chapter 11. cold stress. to which it is believed that nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed. Thus. Limits based on physical irritation should be considered no less binding than those based on physical impairment. Note: None of the limits mentioned here. certain workplace quality standards known as ANSI maximal acceptable concentrations were incorporated as federal health standards in 29 CFR 1910. Vehicles such as certain solvents can alter skin absorption. and Appendix B. CEILING (TLV–C) This is the concentration that should not be exceeded during any part of the working exposure. even for a short period. static magnetic fields. only one category. produce acute poisoning. as in “the 2001 TLV for nitric oxide was 25 ppm. the conventional industrial hygiene practice is to sample during a 15-min period. or materially reduce work efficiency and provided that the daily TLV–TWA is not exceeded A STEL is a 15-min TWA exposure that should not be exceeded at any time during a workday. and the duration of such periods. SHORT-TERM EXPOSURE LIMIT (TLV–STEL) This is the concentration to which it is believed workers can be exposed continuously for a short period of time without suffering from: ➣ Irritation ➣ Chronic or irreversible tissue damage ➣ Narcosis of sufficient degree to increase the likelihood of accidental injury. especially the TWA–STEL. without adverse effect. Federal Occupational Safety and Health Standards The first compilation of the health and safety standards promulgated by OSHA in 1970 was derived from the then-existing federal standards and national consensus standards. two or three categories may be relevant. except for substances that can cause immediate irritation with short exposures. Mixtures Special consideration should be given in assessing the health hazards that can be associated with exposure to mixtures of two or more substances. many of the 1968 TLVs established by the ACGIH became federal standards or permissible exposure limits (PELs). the TLV–C. ionizing radiation. impair self-rescue. Increasing evidence shows that physical irritation can initiate. (See Chapter 9. either by contact with vapors or. Skin Notation A number of the substances in the TLV list are followed by the designation Skin. subradiofrequency and static electric fields. the frequency with which high concentrations occur.) The ACGIH periodically publishes a documentation of TLVs® in which it gives the data and information on which the TLV for each substance is based. This documentation can be used to provide health and safety professionals with insight to aid professional judgment when applying the TLVs. by direct skin contact with the substance. the year of publication should always preface the value. 25 . There are also biological exposure indices (BEIs®). When referring to an ACGIH TLV. it supplements the TWA limit when there are recognized acute effects from a substance that has primarily chronic effects.CHAPTER 1 ➣ OVERVIEW OF INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE radiofrequency/microwave radiation. To assess a TLV–C if instantaneous monitoring is not feasible. Nonionizing Radiation. The most current edition of the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values (TLVs®) for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs®) should be used. or accelerate physical impairment via interaction with other chemical or biological agents. should be used as engineering design criteria. The TLV–STEL is not a separate. including mucous membranes and the eyes. The amount by which threshold limits can be exceeded for short periods without injury to health depends on many factors: the nature of the contaminant. nearinfrared radiation. even if the eight-hour TWA is within the TLV-TWA.
but also by the conditions of use (who uses what. Evaluation. Anticipating and recognizing industrial health hazards involve knowledge and understanding of the several types of workplace environmental stresses and the effects of these stresses on the health of the worker. ➣ Determine the level of airborne contaminants using airsampling techniques. Consult MSDSs for the substances. how the workers are exposed. and other pertinent information. physical. biological. To recognize hazardous environmental factors or stresses. ➣ Compare the calculated exposures with OSHA standards. masks. levels of air contamination. duration of exposure. The industrial hygienist then compares environmental measurements with hygienic guides. (See Chapter 15. work patterns. ➣ Identify the chemicals and contaminants in the process. and how long?). healthful work environment should be thoroughly acquainted with the concen- Basic Hazard-Recognition Procedures There is a basic. TLVs. find the OSHA PEL or other safe exposure guideline based on the toxicological effect of the material. also includes determining the levels of physical and chemical agents arising out of a process to study the related work procedures and to determine the effectiveness of a given piece of equipment used to control the hazards from that process. Measuring and quantitating environmental stress are the essential ingredients for modern industrial hygiene.PART I ➣ HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT In adopting the ACGIH TLVs. where. for more details. Control involves the reduction of environmental stresses to values that the worker can tolerate without impairment of health or productivity. cleanup after spills. or reports in the literature.) Evaluation involves judging the magnitude of the chemical. or ergonomic stresses in industrial operations. Evaluation. a health and safety professional must first know the raw materials used and the nature of the products and by-products manufactured. Any person responsible for maintaining a safe. ➣ Calculate the resulting daily average and peak exposures from the air-sampling results and employee exposure times. or ergonomic stresses. All of the above are discussed in detail in the following chapters. OSHA PELs. and waste disposal? ➣ Are the ventilating and exhaust systems adequate? ➣ Does the facility layout minimize exposure? ➣ Is the facility well-equipped with safety appliances such as showers. in the broad sense. control measures used. ➣ Determine the actual level of exposure to harmful physical agents. The basic approach to controlling occupational disease consists of evaluating the potential hazard and controlling the specific hazard by suitable industrial hygiene techniques. For each process. What raw material is used? What materials are added in the process? What equipment is involved? What is the cycle of operations? What operational procedures are used? Is there a written procedure for the safe handling and storage of materials? ➣ What about dust control. and emergency eyewash fountains? ➣ Are safe operating procedures outlined and enforced? ➣ Is a complete hazard communication program that meets state or federal OSHA requirements in effect? Understand the industrial process well enough to see where contaminants are released. ➣ Determine the number of employees exposed and length of exposure. physical. Information Required Detailed information should be obtained regarding types of hazardous materials used in a facility. the NIOSH RELs. OSHA also adopted the concept of the TWA for a workday. NIOSH RELs. perform the following: ➣ For each contaminant. or other toxicological recommendations. and are instrumental in conserving the health and well-being of workers. interviews. ➣ ➣ ➣ ➣ ➣ ➣ EVALUATION Evaluation can be defined as the decision-making process resulting in an opinion on the degree of health hazard posed by chemical. respirators. the hygienic guides. the type of job operation. the TLV listing published by the ACGIH. Determining whether a health hazard exists is based on a combination of observation. and measurement of the levels of energy or air contaminants arising from the work process as well as an evaluation of the effectiveness of control measures in the workplace. systematic procedure for recognizing and evaluating environmental health hazards. biological. which includes the following questions: ➣ What is produced? 26 . In general: TWA = CaTa+CbTb+…+CnT 8 where Ta = the time of the first exposure period during the shift Ca = the concentration of contaminant in period a Tb = another time period during the shift Cb = the concentration during period b Tn = the nth or final time period in the shift Cn = the concentration during period n This simply provides a summation throughout the workday of the product of the concentrations and the time periods for the concentrations encountered in each time interval and averaged over an 8-hour standard workday. The hazard potential of the material is determined not only by its inherent toxicity.
the industrial hygienist commonly samples and measures substances in the air of the working environment in concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 ppm. If there are wide fluctuations in concentration. The sampling period must usually be sufficient to give a direct measure of the average full-shift exposure of the employees concerned. and the number of samples to be taken during the course of an investigation of the work environment cannot be overstressed. are useful as an index of general contamination. Area samples. operating and maintenance personnel must be taught the proper operation of the health and safety control measures. and how to weigh the many factors that can influence the sample results. the health and safety professional must consider all the unexpected events that can occur and determine what precautions are required in case of an accident to prevent or control atmospheric release of a toxic material. (See Chapter 16. To meet the requirement of establishing the TWA concentrations.500 pounds of sugar. the proper time to sample. The sample must be sealed and identified if it is to be shipped to a laboratory so that it is possible to identify positively the time and place of sampling and the individual who took the sample. mechanical job. Such periods are often also periods of maximum exposure.000. it is necessary to follow the particular operator through two cycles of operation. Air Sampling. and interference from other contaminants. taken by setting the sampling equipment in a fixed position in the work area. Some idea of the magnitude of these concentrations can be appreciated when one realizes that 1 inch in 16 miles is 1 part per million. The operating and maintenance people should set up a routine procedure (at frequent. Degree of Hazard The degree of hazard from exposure to harmful environmental factors or stresses depends on the following: ➣ Nature of the material or energy involved ➣ Intensity of the exposure ➣ Duration of the exposure The key elements to be considered when evaluating a health hazard are how much of the material in contact with body cells is required to produce injury. actually it is an art requiring detailed knowledge of the sampling equipment and its shortcomings. it is particularly important to find out what the workers do when the equipment is down for maintenance or process change. For operations of this sort. After these considerations have been studied and proper countermeasures installed. and the control measures in use. However. and 27 . the long-term samples should be supplemented by samples designed to catch the peaks separately. (Courtesy MSA) Air Sampling The importance of the sampling location. If a facility is going to handle a hazardous material. Portable pump with intake positioned to collect continuous samples from the breathing zone of an employee. The sample must usually be taken in the breathing zone of an employee (see Figure 1–5). such as ambient temperature. the sampling method and time periods should be chosen to average out fluctuations that commonly occur in a day’s work. Figure 1–5. the actual exposure of the employee at the point of generation of the contaminant can be greater than is indicated by an area sample. If the exposure being measured is from a continuous operation. Although this procedure might appear to be a routine. ordinary facility or process operations. or through the full shift if operations follow a random pattern during the day. the rate at which the airborne contaminant is generated. stated intervals) for testing the emergency industrial hygiene and safety provisions that are not used in normal. the probability of the material being absorbed by the body to result in an injury. The person taking the sample(s) needs to know where and when to sample. season of the year. the total time of contact.CHAPTER 1 ➣ OVERVIEW OF INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE trations of harmful materials or energies that may be encountered in the industrial environment for which they are responsible.) As an example of the very small concentrations involved. The air volume sampled must be sufficient to permit a representative determination of the contaminant to properly compare the result with the TLV or PEL. Only in this way can personnel be made aware of the possible hazards and the need for certain built-in safety features. 1 ounce of salt in 62. unusual problems in work operations. 1 cent in $10.
sunlight. and particularly among farmers. and poison sumac. The examining physician should be given detailed information on the type of work for which the applicant is being considered. or contact with clothing or other objects previously exposed to the plant. SENSITIZATION DERMATITIS This type results from an allergic reaction to a given substance. Detergents and solvents remove the natural oils from the skin or react with the oils of the skin to increase susceptibility to reactions from chemicals that ordinarily do not affect the skin.PART I ➣ HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT 1 ounce of oil in 7. Cutting oils and similar substances are significant because the oil dermatitis they cause is probably of greater interest to industrial concerns than is any other type of dermatitis. fungal. Dermatitis from these three sources can result from bodily contact with any part of the plant. for more details). Examples are ketones. strong acids such as sulfuric acid. and certain nitro compounds. The sources of these antigens are usually cereals. solvents or inorganic materials. and electricity. and intense ultraviolet rays are other examples of protein-precipitating agents. fruit handlers. and even cancer. The sensitivity becomes established during the induction period. Among them are organic solvents. such as mercuric and ferric chloride. esters. Physical agents leading to occupational dermatitis include heat. the physician should determine whether the prospective employee has deficiencies or characteristics likely to predispose him or her to dermatitis (see Chapter 25. ethers. Solvents extract essential skin constituents. . hide. but more detailed information is given in Chapter 3. and pollens. and other emanations. physical. chlorine. barbers. Oxidizers unite with hydrogen and liberate nascent oxygen on the skin. and chromium and nickel compounds. pressure. Chemical agents are the predominant causes of dermatitis in manufacturing industries. The best known are poison ivy. and trauma. chromic acid. flesh. such as acids and alkalis. fur. permanganates. Fungi cause athlete’s foot and other types of dermatitis among kitchen workers. Occupational dermatoses can be caused by organic substances. ferric chloride. but can include feathers. and general infection from occupational wounds. and strong alkalis such as potash. flour. and horticulturists. tannic acid. and horticulturists. bakers. Materials that remove the natural oils include alkalis. and anhydrides take water out of the skin and generate heat. and ozone. and turpentine. Prolonged exposure to sunlight produces skin changes and may cause skin cancer. Causes Occupational dermatitis can be caused by chemical. Biological agents causing dermatitis can be bacterial. Some substances can produce both primary irritation dermatitis and sensitization dermatitis. formaldehyde. Mechanical causes of skin irritation include friction. Allergy is not a factor in these conditions. Alcohol. such as formaldehyde. aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. After the sensitivity is established. are probably the best known among the bacterial skin infections. which may be a few days to a few months. Types There are two general types of dermatitis: primary irritation and sensitization. Dessicators. scales. hypochlorites.812. exposure of any part of the body to smoke from the burning plant. Plant poisons causing dermatitis are produced by several hundred species of plants. PRIMARY IRRITATION DERMATITIS Nearly all people suffer primary irritation dermatitis from mechanical agents such as friction. hydrogen peroxide. laborers. soap. and fruit handlers. and from chemical agents such as acids. The Skin and Occupational Dermatoses. severe burns. mechanical. These can be occupationally induced infections. halogenated hydrocarbons. phosphorus pentoxide. hygroscopic agents. Examples are sulfur dioxide and trioxide. exposure to even a small amount of the sensitizing material is likely to produce a severe reaction. or parasitic. chromic acid. bromine. The Occupational Medicine Physician. OCCUPATIONAL SKIN DISEASES Some general observations on dermatitis are given in this chapter. and biological agents and plant poisons. The x rays and other ionizing radiation can cause dermatitis. x rays.5 gallons of water all represent 1 part per million. Brief contact with a high concentration of a primary irritant or prolonged exposure to a low concentration causes inflammation. Protein precipitants tend to coagulate the outer layers of the skin. poison oak. If the work involves exposure to skin irritants. picric acid. which may facilitate infection with either bacteria or fungi. They include all the heavy metallic salts and those 28 that form alkaline albuminates on combining with the skin. and wool handlers or sorters. Physical Examinations Preplacement examinations help identify those especially susceptible to skin irritations. alkalis. Allergic or anaphylactic proteins stimulate the production of antibodies that cause skin reactions in sensitive people. from physical agents such as heat or cold. phenol. Boils and folliculitis caused by staphylococci and streptococci. Such materials include nitrates. miners. irritant gases. fur. and epoxy resin systems. iodine. Parasites cause grain itch and often occur among handlers of grains and straws. ionizing radiation. Skin irritants are usually either liquids or dusts. cold. and vapors.
The preventive measures discussed in Chapter 18. Brush painting or dipping instead of spray painting minimizes the concentration of airborne contaminants from toxic pigments. Engineering controls that engineer out the hazard. a process can be modified to reduce the hazard. Such built-in protection. The type. Noisy operations can be isolated from the people nearby by a physical barrier (such as an acoustic box to contain noise from a whining blower or a rip saw). the need for accessory ventilation. is preferable to a method that depends on continual human implementation or intervention. and environmental remediation projects. possible dermatitis hazards should be carefully considered. if they are not sufficient to achieve acceptable limits of exposure. Control methods for health hazards in the work environment are divided into three basic categories: 1. and amounts of skin irritants used in various industrial processes affect the degree of control that can be readily obtained. so that hazard control systems require continual review and updating. Hazards can change with time as well. Methods of Control. offices. A change in process often offers an ideal chance to improve working conditions as well as quality and production. Engineering controls include ventilation to minimize dispersion of airborne contaminants. many workplaces today present nontraditional occupational health hazards. and heat control should be considered before the purchase. Industrial hygienists need to possess the skills to implement control methodology in both industrial settings and in workplaces such as laboratories. and their interpretation by the Occupational Safety and Health Review commission. can be adapted to control industrial dermatitis. Personal protective equipment the employees wear to protect them from their environment. isolating hazardous processes in closed systems is a widespread practice. In a solvent substitution. The use of a closed system is one reason why the manufacture of toxic substances can be less hazardous than their use. For similar reasons. Although administrative control measures can limit the duration of individual exposures. for example). equipment. Examples of this type of control are glove box enclosures and abrasive shot blast machines for cleaning castings. isolation. In some cases. number. The federal regulations. However. either by initial design specifications or by applying methods of substitution.) CONTROL METHODS With employment in the United States shifting from manufacturing to the service sector. Enclosing the process or equipment is a desirable method of control because it can minimize escape of the contaminant into the workroom atmosphere. and substitution of a material. a solvent with a lower order of toxicity or flammability can be substituted for a more hazardous one. and can be used in conjunction with engineering and administrative controls. Once these hazards are anticipated. its effectiveness depends on proper wetting of the dust and keeping it moist. Engineering controls should be used as the first line of defense against workplace hazards wherever feasible. In many cases. inherent in the design of a process. “Wetting down” is one of the simplest methods for dust control. the use of personal Engineering Controls Substituting or replacing a toxic material with a harmless one is a very practical method of eliminating an industrial health hazard. Isolation is particularly useful for limited operations requiring relatively few workers or where control by any other method is not feasible. Structural bolts in place of riveting. In the chemical industry.) 3. In buying individual machines. enclosure. it is always advisable to experiment on a small scale before making the new solvent part of the operation or process. or process to provide hazard control. noise and vibration suppression. 29 . Methods of Control. suitable engineering controls should be devised and built into the processes to avoid them. control of health hazards by using respirators and protective clothing is usually considered secondary to the use of engineering control methods. Also included here is employee training that includes hazard recognition and specific work practices that help reduce exposure. health care facilities. In the hierarchy of control methods. or ventilation. the use of engineering controls should be considered first. 2. steamcleaning instead of vapor degreasing of parts. (See Chapter 18. Dust hazards often can be minimized or greatly reduced by spraying water at the source of dust dispersion. but the primary objective in every case should be to eliminate skin contact as completely as possible. mandate the use of engineering controls to the extent feasible. isolation of a hazardous operation or substance by means of barriers or enclosures.CHAPTER 1 ➣ OVERVIEW OF INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE Preventive Measures Before new or different chemicals are introduced in an established process. protective equipment and other corrective measures may be considered. they are not generally favored by employers because they are difficult to implement and maintain. To be effective. and airless spraying techniques and electrostatic devices to replace handspraying are examples of process change. the addition of a wetting agent to the water and proper and timely disposal of the wetted dust before it dries out and is redispersed may be necessary. Administrative controls that reduce employee exposures by scheduling reduced work times in contaminant areas (or during cooler times of the day for heat stress exposure. Personal protective equipment includes anything from gloves to full body suits with self-contained breathing apparatus. (This type of training is required by law for all employees exposed to hazardous materials in the course of their work.
grinding. General exhaust fans can be mounted in roofs. and used cautiously and judiciously. especially during winter. walls. (See Chapter 21. but these air washers are not designed as efficient air cleaners and should not be used as such. which usually makes this method much more effective than general ventilation. In the case of noise. other possibilities may involve intermittent use of noisy equipment. OSHA has ventilation standards for abrasive blasting. ground. A local exhaust system is more effective in such cases. it may be necessary to protect the worker from that environment by using personal protective equipment. or enclosure. roof ventilators. Methods of Control. Leaking containers or spigots should be fixed immediately. it still may require a local exhaust system. Personal protective devices have one serious drawback: They do nothing to reduce or eliminate the hazard. Local Exhaust Ventilation. Good housekeeping is also essential where solvents are stored. spray finishing operations. General ventilation should not be used where there is a major. This is considered a secondary control method to engineering and administrative controls and should be used as a last resort. and spills cleaned promptly. or as many workers as needed to keep each one’s duration of exposure within the PEL.) Processes in which materials are crushed. A local exhaust system traps and removes the air contaminant near the generating source. Consideration must be given to providing replacement air. Therefore. Respiratory Protection. Proper training and education are vital elements for successful implementation of any control effort. by workers wearing proper protective equipment. polishing and buffing operations. Points where conveyors are loaded or discharged. and are required by law as part of a complete federal or state OSHA hazard communication program. handled. see Chapter 19. Examples of some administrative controls are as follows: ➣ Arranging work schedules and the related duration of exposures so that employees are minimally exposed to health hazards ➣ Transferring employees who have reached their upper permissible limits of exposure to an environment where no further additional exposure will be experienced Where exposure levels exceed the PEL for one worker in one day. is a very important control measure.) Personal Protective Equipment When it is not feasible to render the working environment completely safe. Even though a process has been isolated.PART I ➣ HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT Ventilation The major use of exhaust ventilation for contaminant control is to prevent health hazards from airborne materials. changing the process. Air conditioning is mainly concerned with control of air temperature and humidity and can be accomplished by systems that accomplish little or no air cleaning. transfer points along the conveying system. if the barrier fails. ventilation or other control measures should be provided. windows. localized source of contamination (especially highly toxic dusts and fumes). and Chapter 20. For more details. personal protective equipment must be provided and used. An air-conditioning system usually uses an air washer to accomplish temperature and humidity control. and is particularly effective if the contaminant is released at a substantial distance from the worker’s breathing zone. isolation. The supervisor must be constantly alert to make sure that required protective equipment is worn by workers who need supplementary protection. and used. 30 . immediate exposure is the result. as may be required by OSHA standards. see Chapter 19. (For more details. All solvent-soaked rags or absorbents should be placed in airtight metal receptacles and removed daily. Good housekeeping plays a key role in occupational health protection. local exhaust ventilation should be used when exposures to the contaminant cannot be controlled by substitution. General Ventilation of Nonindustrial Occupancies. and chimneys. it is a key tool for preventing dispersion of dangerous contaminants and for maintaining safe and healthful working conditions. three. and should be controlled either by wet methods or enclosed and ventilated by local exhaust ventilation. the job can be assigned to two. Administrative controls must be designed only by knowledgeable health and safety professionals. (See Chapter 22. Immediate cleanup of any spills or toxic material. Workers should be informed about the need for these controls. as in the case of air contaminants or noise.) Administrative Controls When exposure cannot be reduced to permissible levels through engineering controls.) Where it is not possible to enclose or isolate the process or equipment. Dilution ventilation is feasible only if the quantity of air contaminant is not excessive. They interpose a barrier between worker and hazard. General or dilution ventilation—removing and adding air to dilute the concentration of a contaminant to below hazardous levels—uses natural or forced air movement through open doors. or transported are potential sources of dust dispersion. Local Exhaust Ventilation. (See Chapter 18. Air conditioning does not substitute for air cleaning. Where there are short exposures to hazardous concentrations of contaminants and where unavoidable spills may occur. or windows (see Chapters 19 and 20 for more details). and open-surface tanks. an effort should be made to limit the employee’s exposure through administrative controls. They are not as satisfactory as engineering controls and have been criticized by some as a means of spreading exposures instead of reducing or eliminating the exposure. and heads or boots of elevators should be enclosed as well as ventilated. It is impossible to have an effective occupational health program without good maintenance and housekeeping. Basically. Dilution Ventilation of Industrial Workplaces.
Philadelphia: J. Cincinnati: ACGIH. 2000. Brown. Gosselin RE. Documentation of Threshold Limit Values. American Industrial Hygiene Association. eds. recognition. 2: Unit Operations and Product Fabrication. Chemical Protective Clothing. Layout. McDermott HJ. 5th ed. Respiratory Protection Standard Z88. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Cralley LJ. New York: Wiley. 2001. Burgess WA. published annually. SUMMARY No matter what health hazards are encountered. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 3: Selection. Caplan KJ. 1430 Broadway. Using methods relevant to the problem. NIOSH has a Technical Information Center that can provide information on specific problems. The industrial hygienist’s recommendations place particular emphasis on effectiveness of control. Schenker M.CHAPTER 1 ➣ OVERVIEW OF INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SOURCES OF HELP Specialized help is available from a number of sources. American Industrial Hygiene Association.. ed. Harber P. ed. 1991–1995. Balmes JR. American Industrial Hygiene Association. Kroemer K. and ease of maintenance of the control measures. 1A–B. 3rd ed. Engineering Reference Manual. Many insurance companies that carry workers’ compensation insurance provide industrial hygiene consultation services. Fairfax. which can be undertaken to identify and catalog individual environmental exposures. American Industrial Hygiene Association.2-1992. 1. Fire Department Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus Program. VA: AIHA. VA: AIHA. 2nd ed. WV: NIOSH Pub. he or she secures qualitative and quantitative estimates of the extent of hazard. evaluation. Threshold Limit Values (TLVs®) for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs®). New York: Taylor & Francis. A Guide to Safety in Confined Spaces. 2000. Fairfax. just as they provide periodic safety inspections. 1990. 7th ed. 24th ed. contains names and addresses of state and national health and hygiene agencies. and Building Design. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. Cralley LJ. IL: National Safety Council. Wegman DH. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products: Acute Poisoning. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Hygienic Guide Series. Lansing. et al. Procter NH. VA: AIHA. If a situation hazardous to life or health is shown. Ergonomics Guide Series. New York: Macmillan. Fairfax. 4th ed. Fairfax. London. 1986. Clayton FE. 5th ed. VA: AIHA. Cincinnati: ACGIH. American Industrial Hygiene Association. 2000. ANSI/NFPA Standard 1404-1989. Fairfax. Additional Resources. and control are the fundamental concepts of providing all workers with a healthy working environment. Vol. 2nd ed. published periodically. eds. 2000. Cralley LV. Fairfax. BIBLIOGRAPHY American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Hathaway G. 9th ed. recommendations for correction are made. 1984. Grandjean E. 3rd ed. Stoneham. 1: Process Flows. MI: ACGIH. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. 1997. 4th ed. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists and Committee on Industrial Ventilation. Chemical Hazards of the Workplace. 31 . Recognition of Health Hazards in Industry: A Review of Materials and Processes. Occupational Health & Safety. 1995. 2001. USDHHS Division of Safety Research. 3A–B. VA: AIHA. Air Sampling Instruments. 1990. Many states have excellent industrial hygiene departments that can provide consultation on a specific problem. 1996. 2001. Handbook of Ventilation for Contaminant Control. no. These data are then compared with the recommended exposure guidelines. series eds. Industrial Hygiene Aspects of Plant Operations: Vol. Boston: Little. Vol. Vol. Occupational & Environmental Respiratory Diseases. Fitting the Task to the Human: A Textbook of Occupational Ergonomics. Balge MZ. American National Standards Institute. 1999. American Industrial Hygiene Association. 2001. New York: Wiley. Lippincott. American Industrial Hygiene Association. Industrial Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended Practice. The Noise Manual. New York. Some provide consultation services to nonmembers. Biosafety Reference Manual. Krieger GR. et al. Morgantown. NY 10017. Levy BS. MA: Butterworth. Every supplier of products or services is likely to have competent professional staff who can provide technical assistance or guidance. St. 4th ed. VA: AIHA. Lists of certified analytical laboratories and industrial hygiene consultants are available from the AIHA. Patty’s Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. the approach of the industrial hygienist is essentially the same. Hughes JP. 2nd ed. Criteria for a Recommended Standard. cost. 2A–F. Itasca. Louis: Mosby/Yearbook. 2: Product and Performance Information. Vol. Cincinnati: ACGIH. Chemical Protective Clothing. 1995. Anticipation. Scientific and technical societies that can help with problems are listed in Appendix A. VA: AIHA. Professional consultants and privately owned laboratories are available on a fee basis for concentrated studies of a specific problem or for a facilitywide or companywide survey. Occupational Exposure to Hot Environments. Mutchler JF. Fairfax. USDHHS Division of Safety Research. 1987.B. A list of organizations concerned with industrial hygiene is included in Appendix A. Respiratory Protection: A Manual and Guideline. Vols. Appendix A. published periodically. Occupational Health: Recognizing and Preventing Work-Related Disease. American Industrial Hygiene Association. 3rd ed. Clayton GD. Fairfax. 5th ed. 1996. they all have much accessible technical information. 87–113. VA: AIHA.
Itasca.(2000). FL: Lewis Publishers. 1994. 1994. IL: National Safety Council. NIOSH Pub. 1986. St. Vol. 80–106.PART I ➣ HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT revised criteria. Complete Confined Spaces Handbook. Vol. 1999. National Safety Council. 3: Environmental Management. 1992. Cincinnati: NIOSH Publications Dissemination. Protecting Workers’ Lives: A Safety and Health Guide for Unions. 2: Engineering & Technology (2001). Rekus JF. Itasca. Accident Prevention Manual for Business & Industry. Application Manual for the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation. 1979. 1: Administration & Programs (2001). National Safety Council. USDHHS Division of Safety Research. 1997-2001. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. no. 32 . Horvath EP. MO: Mosby-Year Book Medical Publishers. National Safety Council. Occupational Medicine. 94–110. Vol. NIOSH Pub. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. no. Cincinnati: NIOSH Publications. Cincinnati: NIOSH Publications Dissemination. 3rd ed. IL: NSC Press. 1994. NIOSH Pub. Safety Through Design. 86–113. Dickerson OB. IL: National Safety Council. Vol. Itasca. USDHHS Division of Safety Research. eds. Louis. 4: Security Management (1997). Zenz C. 2nd ed. Boca Raton. no. National Safety Council. Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Working in Confined Spaces. 12th ed.
735. 159 Acetylcholine.Index A Absorption. 150. 54. 863 1049 . 856. personal protective equipment for. for disinfection. Threshold Limit Value for. Acini. 69 Academy of Industrial Hygiene. 297. 279. hazard from. 69. 310–11 Accident investigation. 227 Acoustic trauma. 158. 440. 131 Acid: chemical composition of. 348 Accrediting Board of Engineering and Technology (ABET). 208 Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). 263. 21. 844 Actinic keratosis. 126 Accumulation (in workplace). gas removal. 109. 124. 525. 66–67 Acoustic enclosure. through hair follicles. 28. 754–55 Acclimation. 21. 58. 68 Actinolite. 753-54 Accident prevention. 690. 447 Acrolein. 68 Acrylonitrile. 59. through eye. of solvents. 55. air sampling. 109 Acanthoma. 40 Acne. of neutrons. of ionizing radiation. 840. sampling method for. for lasers. 739 Acanthamoeba. 532–36 Acetone. 748 Accident report. skin. 108. to heat stress. 739 Accumulation (in tissues). 587 Acetic acid. 180. 617. 130 Acro-osteolysis. 690. of radiofrequency and microwave radiation. 498. 58. 345. 125. 643 Accessible emission limit (AEL). 423. 68 Acceptable indoor air quality. 158. 61.
839. 162–63 Air pressure (ventilation): calculation of. 185. 164–65. 73 Air-sampling suction pump. 358 Ambient water vapor pressure. Mists. 496. 50 Amalgam. 429–30. history of OSHA regulation of. 844 Age: and dermatosis. 8. 159. 337 Albinism. Gas. See also Sensitizer Allergic alveolitis. 131. 880. 524–27. analysis. 163 Alkene. Fume. 646–47 Air movement: and cold stress. 643. area. 131 Alkane. 68 Alpha-particles. proposed smoking standard opposed by. 561-80. 57. Smoke. respiratory hazards from. See also HVAC system Air conduction. 615 Air-handling unit. 425. 615–18 Air conditioning. method. of cold stress. See also Ventilation Air-O-Cell cassette. 608–11. toxicological effects of. 853. toxicological effects of. 685. 429–30. 457. 8 Algae. Dust. 731 . 159. 170. 735-36. 13. 840. 822 Agriculture: and biological hazards. 532–36. 420. personal. 359 AFL–CIO. 14. hazards of. 186–88. 144. breath analysis for. 668. 636. 28. 624–25. 525–27. See Microorganism Aliphatic hydrocarbon. 597–99. 180–81 Aerosol. 258 Alveoli. 159 Allergen. for ionizing radiation. 831 AFL–CIO v. 19. 144. 170. Particulate. 394 Administrative control. 28. 28. See Air pollution. 829. 440. particulate. 47. 234 Airflow rate. 348. 90–91. 523–24. 62. 195–202. 28. effects of. 627–29. 636–37. 855. direct-reading instrument for. direct-reading monitor for. 633-34. active. 685-86 Air mixing. 428. 644 Air-line respirator. 838. vs. for respirator use. 373. 524. biological. 161 Aldehyde: and air pollution. record keeping for. and exposure guidelines. 571. membership qualifications in. 186–94. steadystate. 336–37 Ambulatory care facilities: infection control. 586. for disinfection. static. 830. 570 Amar. 23–24. 40–41. 63. 426. 634–36. 527. and field sanitation. 30. 440. 875 AIDS. 30. 617. 106 Adenoid. 200 Air pollution. velocity. respirator for. 383 Action for Smoking and Health. 458–65. and exhaust ventilation hood. 104. 626–27. 161. 159. 23. 165 Alkali: for disinfection. for biological hazards. 215. sample collection device for. 684–86. 13. 525–27. demand. 682. 58. for legionellae. 163 Alkyne. 313–15. 218. 73. 523–27. 452. and vision. 102. 24. 351. 163. fire and explosion prevention. 129. 820. of noise. 229. 1050 HVAC system problems with. and hearing loss. integrated. purging. hazard from. 857–58. See Dermatitis. 686. housekeeping. 837. chemical composition of. 579–80. 336. 163. 128 Acute exposures (toxicity). and duct velocity. Vapor Air cleaner. 185 Allergic contact dermatitis. 632. for disinfection. See Human immunodeficiency virus Airborne contaminant. challenges to OSHA by. for particulates. continuous flow. of lasers. adsorption. measurement of. 22. 27–28. 89. allergic contact Allergy to Latex Education and Support Service (ALERT). natural ventilation. 425. for skin exposure monitoring. for lifting. biological sampling. Marshall. passive. and solvent hazard control. 621. See also Cleaning and maintenance Adsoprtion. biological effects of. 457. 346. 30. 837. 128–130. dermatitis from. 622–24. 524–32. 680. 30. 525–27. and workplace design. 62. 64–65. 4–5. 59. 527–31. 131. 72 Activity of ionization. 261–62 Alpha-radiation. 854. 675–79. Indoor air quality Air sampling. 653. 131. chemical composition of. OSHA requirements for. 851. 645. 142–43. air cleaning. 842. 47. 739. gases and vapors. See also Aerosol. 279. grab.. infectious. See also Particulate Affordance. 128 Acute-angle closure glaucoma. 159. biological. 131. for lead. Hodgson. 625–27 Air-purifying respirator. 838 AFL–CIO v.INDEX Action level (AL). 651–653. 459. 525. absorption. 208. 47. 634 Airfoil fans. graduate curricula. 680 Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens. 152. Brennan. breakthrough times. 531 Air speed. release of biological agents. 73. pressure demand. 106 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 478 Aerodynamic equivalent diameter (AED). contributions to ergonomics by. 815. 129. vs. 451 American Academy of Industrial Hygiene (AAIH). 540–43. 502 Action limit (AL). 188. 66 Alopecia. 702 Air quality. 523–60. for heat stress control. design data. 353. 524. 856. 347. 517. 859 AFL–CIO v. 53 Alcohol: and air pollution. 681. and impairment guidelines. aliphatic. 163. 61–62. 440. and ethics. of skin hazards. 258 Acute effects (toxicity). 28. 866 Activities of daily living (ADL). 37 Adjustability.
301. 138. 731–32. 162 Angioedema. 749. 395. 729–30. 738. 777. cumulative trauma disorder standards of.INDEX American Academy of Occupational Medicine. 734. 424–25 American Medical Association (AMA): Evaluation of Permanent Impairment. work injury reporting standard of. 444. 337 Anesthetic. 94. 424. 24. 595. and ethics. 766 American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. eye and face protection standards of. 505. 668. 222. 147. thermal comfort standard of. 236. biological monitoring. 746. 573. and ethics. 504 Anthophyllite. 238–39 Annual limit of intake (ALI) of radiation. 309–12 American National Standard Method of Measuring and Recording Work Injury Experience. 777 American Board of Health Physics. 856. 158. 894. 101 American Public Health Association (APHA). 309–12. 302. 101 American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAOHN). 842 American Petroleum Institute v. 894. 843 American Public Health Association. 139. 894 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). 131 Antagonistic action. 848 American Dental Association. 47. 148. 217. 834 American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM). Hygienic Guide Series. 106. 879 American Journal of Infection Control. 879 American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). 766. Methods of Testing Air Cleaning Devices Used in General Ventilation for Removing Particulate Matter. 425–26. 500. 369 Anthropometry. hazards from. 776. 180. 829. 608. 789. 887 American Textile Manufacturers’ Institute v. 180 Amplification. 354. OSHA. 23. 219. 894. 258–59 Annual Report on Carcinogens. 466. 13. 690. history of. 458. 762. 529–30. 796 American Iron and Steel Institute. 894 American Board for Occupational Health Nurses (ABOHN). OCAW. 216. 749. 65 Anhydride. 202. 841. 138. Biological Exposure Index (BEI). 693. 728. 651 American Society of Microbiology (ASM). 129 Amosite. 894 American Smelting and Refining Company v. reversibility of effect of. 48–49. 167. 4–5. 76. 466. 25. 153 Amine. committees. 165. 240. 826 American Iron and Steel Institute v. 739–40. hazards from. 77–78. 427. 166. 144. 489. 738–39. See also Threshold Limit Value American Cyanamid Co. and ethics. ventilation standards of. Documentation of Threshold Limit Values. hand protection standard. lighting standards of. 466. 109–10. 414. Biosafety Committee. 147. See Allergen. 23. 510. 844 Ames test. An Ergonomics Guide to Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. 25-26. 767 American Petroleum Institute (API). 141. biological Anaphylaxis. 734. 695 American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers. Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. Industrial Ventilation—A Manual of Recommended Practice. assigned protection factors. 400 Annual audiogram. audiometric standards of. 728. video display terminal workstation standards. 831 American Optometric Association. 728. 893 American Biological Safety Association. direct-reading monitor for. 426. and noise exposure measurement. 306. Bioaerosol Committee. 156. 139. 19. 831 American National Standards Institute (ANSI). respiratory protection standards of. 369–74 1051 . 141. 97 American National Standard for Respiratory Protection. 571 American Society of Heating. 69. ventilation standards of. particle size selection efficiency guidelines by. impairment guidelines of. 647–48. 669. 131. membership in. 863 American Federation of Government Employees. 160 Anoxia. 740-41. 769. 4–5. 159. 894. 840. 458. 433 Annihilation (electromagnetic). 129. 130. 778–81. safety professionals’ familiarity with. 303. sampling laboratory accreditation by. radiofrequency and microwave exposure standards of. OSHA standards adopted from. 668. 519 Animals. 28 Aniline. 601. 64. 188. OSHA. 313. 370 Anthropometric Sourcebook. 466. 859 American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA). OSHRC. 136–137. 643. 223. 440 Ammonia. 766–67. 739. 159. 4–5 American Board of Preventive Medicine. 648–49. 307. 452 Anthropometric. 153. See Sensitizer Anemometer. certification of industrial hygiene professionals by. 193 Amide. A Strategy for Assessing and Managing Occupational Exposures. 502. 740. 734. 319. 219 Anaphylactic protein. 467. 762 American Board of Industrial Hygiene (ABIH). 744. 19. 420 American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE). 298–99. 766 American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology(AAOO). 194. 649. laser safety standard of. 317. 199 Amplifier. 141. 738. 68 Animal experimentation. 58. 466. 894. industrial hygiene defined by. 144. Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). 466. 258 Annoyance scale. 224. 409. v. membership in. 863 Anthrax. Donovan. 502. 86.
59. 28. 281 Atomic number. cleaning and maintenance program for. baseline audiograms. 199–201. specifications for. 829–30. 180 Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA). 23. 753. 845. 160. 640 B Bacillus: anthracis. chemical. 16 Barrier cream. 195–97. hazards from. 58 Antineoplastics. emergency temporary standard for asbestos issued by. 234. 821. 702 Atmospheric pressure: and air sampling. OSHA assistant secretary term of. from particulates. 100. 863. 16–17. 693–94. 197 Asbestosis. 172. history of OSHA regulation of. atopic. 194.. 54 Arsenic. threshold. 131. 208. See Equilibrium Barium. 760 Auditory canal. 208. testing. 160. 259 Backward-curved blade fan. 150. 47. 466 Astatine. 46. 423 Area monitoring (sampling). 93. 186. 847. 166 Archaebacter. 53 Aqueous humor. 500. 55. 93–94. 238 Becquerel. 195–98. 259 . 171. 421 Arachnid. 144. 132. 133. 186. 615. 599. See Earplug Auricle. 506–07. 197–98. 839. natural defense against. 20. 178. See Audiometry Audiometer. varieties of. 185 Baghouse particulate air cleaner. response to OSHA criticism by. 57. 165 Arrectores pilorum. 421. 104 Atelectasis. 180. 238. OSHA. 361 Baseline audiogram. government regulation of. 60. 445. 158. 75. 234 Audiometry. 852 Audiogram. 615 Bacteria: hazards from. 131. OSHA. 63 Attenuator. 47 Atlas Roofing Company Inc. 160 Asthma. 203. hazards from. 131. 874 Asbestos Information Association v. 8. 851. 840. 20 ASARCO v. 499–500. 753. 844 Arthropod. Antoine-Henri. for static work. 860. 184. 638. 452. 265 Becquerel (Bq). 463 Asphalt. 565 Armrests. 877. 159. 856 Asbestos International Association. 159. bone-conduction. 135 Axial flow fan. 65 Asthmatic bronchitis. OSHRC. annual audiograms. 62. 267. 189. 409 Autonomic nervous system. 575. Department of Labor. 184. 539. Thorne: deregulatory policies of. 261. 304 Apocrine sweat. 839. 616 Balance. 87 Aural insert protector. See also Microorganism Bagassosis. 380 Background radiation. J. 20. v. 880. 159 Argon ionization detector. 59 Barotrauma. 185. 523–24 Arene. 172. 47. 8. 459. air conduction. 219 Auchter. 834 At least as effective as (ALAEA) state plan provision. 178 Back belts. 615 Backward-inclined blade fan. biological sampling for. 65. 235–36.INDEX Antimony. 259 Atomic weight. 259 Atopy. 702 Associate Safety Professional (ASP). 23. biological effects of. 166 Basal ganglia. 200. 46. microvacuuming of. 851. 60 Aphakia. 854. 196. 424–25. 809. 746 Associated Industries v. 420–21. 186. 387-88 Back school. 428. 695 Antioxidant. 172. 238. 83 Autoimmunodeficiency syndrome. 590 Aspergillus. 233–37. 129 Astigmatism. biological effects of. 234 Audit: of industrial hygiene program. 359 Autophonia. 800. 528. safety inspection. photoionization detector for. 853. identification of. 821. sampling and analysis. 93. 88–89 Auditory nerve. 165. 291 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes. Johnson Controls. 178. 196. 420 Arbovirus. 856. subtilis. 18–19 Armstrong. 844 Asbestos: area sampling for. 186 As low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept. exposure monitoring of. 504. control methods for. breath analysis for. 840. 855. 93. simple. 131 Assigned protection factors (APFs). See Human immunodeficiency virus Automated information system. 303 Aqueous solution. T. 238. 172. See Computerized industrial hygiene system Autonomic nerve. and OSHA state plans. 856. 409 Aromatic hydrocarbon. See Petroleum products Asphyxia. 89 Auto Workers v. 838 Association of Professionals in Infection Control (APIC). 837 1052 Atmosphere-supplying respirator. 830. and solvent hazard control. 178. 43 Atom. 101.
423–27 Biological monitoring. 437–39 Biological sampling. 423 Bruising. 452–53. 56. personal protective equipment. 452–55. 428. 440. CDC emergency response. See Teratogenesis Bis (chloromethyl) ether (BCME). 39. 625 Braune. William E. 332. 488. 163. 61 1053 . 828. 61 Biological warfare agents. 454. 426 Bleach. 427–30. 19–20. 262. 421 Beryllium. 101 Bioaerosol. 407 Bone-conduction hearing. 504–05 Biological toxin. release of biological agents. 432 Brucellosis. 361. 842–43. 423. agents and treatments. sources of. 841. Eula: OSHA policy of. 202 Biological organisms. 452–53 Biological Defense Research Program (BDRP). 453. 267 Bel. 454. 144. 790. 848. See Biosafety Biological safety cabinet. 454–55 Birds. 261 Bingham. See Recombinant DNA Bioterrorism. 290 Biological agent. 845. 62. 455 Bioassay. See Biological sampling Bioelectromagnetics Society. recognition of release. 479–84 Biosafety manual. substitutions for. 843. 454–55. 502 Biological hazard. 193. 303. See Animals Birth defect. 500. 850. 448. 850. 184. 842. 450 Biosafety in the Laboratory. Giovanni Alfonso. 259. 442–43 Biotechnology. 831. 166. 46. 842. 164. 466. 48 Bronchiole. and air pollution. 54. 862. 46. 50 Bronchial contraction. 848. 445. 854. 17–19. 160. decontamination. 62. 185 Bronchus. 153. 358. 144. hazards from. support. 262–63 Beta-radiation. and state plan benchmarks litigation. 853. 174. 41–46. 431. impairment of Blinking. damage. 443 Biosafety program. 526-27 Breath analysis. 420–27. 8. and sampling. 61 Blood analysis. 359. 442–45. 681. 212 Bends. 25. identification of outbreak. standards for. 47884. 350 Blood disease. 844. 47. controls for. and workplace. 343 Body dimensions. response to release. dermatosis. 409 Board of Certified Safety Professionals (BCSP). 333. 60 Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. 453. 186–88. chemical composition of. 447. 185 Bronchitis. 865. OSHA standards issued by. 422. 790 Blood circulation. history of OSHA regulation of. See Aerosol. 162. 445. 436–40 Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL). 446. 107. 500–02. biomechanical research of. 57. 265 Bony labyrinth.INDEX BEIR V report. exposure guidelines for. 832. 59. 87 Borelli. 434–45. 844 Brock. 453. 62 Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). 263 Brennan. 843. 161 Brake horsepower. 840. 47 Brownian movement. 14. William. 478–84 Biosafety cabinet. 133. OSHA standards advisory committee created by. 28. 445–55. 199–201 Biological safety. control of. 374–78 Biosafety. 851. 182 Brucella. 19. 178. 230 Bone marrow. 144 Breathing. 420 Biomechanics. 369–70 Bone. 374 Breakthrough. 447–48. 133 Blastomogen. 420 Biological exposure index (BEI). See Chlorine. 374 Borg’s rating of perceived exertion. rate. route of entry of. guidelines for good large-scale practices. 160 Bronchi. 48 Bronchioconstriction. 857 Bromine. 420. See also Aromatic hydrocarbon Benzidine. 442 Biosafety specialist. 500 Bloodborne pathogen. 16 Benzene. 746. 259. Donovan. 444 Biosafety level (BSL). biological Bioagent release. 133. 329–30. 7. Leukemia Blood vessel. 49–50. 93. 202. 424 Brachial plexus neuritis. 761 Body core temperature. 45 Bremsstrahlung. testimony at OSHA oversight hearing of. 408. dermatosis from. 728. 465–66. 846. opinion in American Textile Manufacturers’ Institute v. classification of. 430–33. 172. 202 Beta-particles. 436. 849 Binocular vision. history of OSHA regulation of. 433. 420. role of professionals. assessment of. 367 Botanical hazards. term as OSHA assistant secretary. limitations of. 152. 304 Blister. 47. 409 Brain. 881. response to. 430–33. See also Anemia. 59. 40. 202 Beryllium Lymphocyte Proliferation Test (BLPT). 68 Benzoyl peroxide. See Carcinogen Blastomycosis. 837.. 39. 437–39 Biosafety equipment. 452. 142–44. 860. See Vision. Sodium hypochlorite Blindness.
7–11. 439–50 Cerebellum. 105. 58 Calcium oxide. primary. Jimmy. 886. OSHA determination of. skin absorption. 69–70. 694–95 Cashew nut oil. 532 Chemical Warfare Service. 317 Center for Responsive Law. 458–59. 431–34. 188. 842. 875 Butadiene. 8–11. 651–53 Carbon disulfide. 807 Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS): occupational disorder statistics by. 6. 568. 144. 459 Bureau of Labor Standards. 349–50. 151. See also Carcinogen. 131. 20. 17. 188. 818 Central nervous system. 109. 131. 407–08 Cartridge (for respirator). 580. See Phenol Carbon dioxide. incidence of. 59. 109. See Video display terminal Caustic. 160. 70. 133. 375 Central nervous system depressant (CNSD). 702. See Cancer Cardiac sensitization. 839 Ceiling values.. reactivity. 60 Catalyst poisoning. 539. 24. safety guidelines for. 158. 69–70. 859. 566 Catalytic combustible gas detector. 847 Checklist for hazard evaluation. 132. from particulates. 133. 7. 158. 746 Cerumen. 497 Chemical detector tubes: certification of. 57–61. investigation of. 493–94. of lung. from sunlight and ultraviolet radiation. 232 Cancer: from asbestos. 832. 852 Centers for Disease Control (CDC). 458. subradiofrequency fields. 41–42. chemical. 124. 191. 504. 132. 361. 495. 814. 45. secondary. 49. hazards from. cataracts from. 185 Calcium cyanide. 359. 611 Capsid. 502. 338. evaluating. 304–05. 47. 131. 732 Certified Safety Professional (CSP). 421 Capture hood. 361 Certified assosciate industrial hygienist (CAIH). 131 Carlsson. 872–73. 808 Bureau of Mines.INDEX Building-related illness (BRI). 838–39. 4 Canopy hood. 296. 68. 185. 420 . Leukemia Canons of Ethical Conduct. 536–37. administrative control methods for. 80. 62. 820 Burkhart Spore Trap. 436. 62. 452. 170. 58 Calibration. 881 Carbon monoxide: diffusion capacity (D CO ). control methods for. 453. 538–39 California Occupational Health Program. 57. 56. 505 Callus. for heat stress. 69. 572–73 Chemical hazard. 443 Chemical Sampling Information CD-ROM. 58 Calcium cyanamide. 131 Carbolic acid. 831–32. 184. 500. monitoring and control. 409 Chamber of Commerce of the United States v. 615. 137. 681 Carboxyhemoglobin. 84 Cervicobrachial disorder. 188. 536–39. 61. 673. 48. 568. 680. See Ear wax Ceruminal gland. 183. 149–50. See also Toxicity Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board. 451. 202. 47. 62. 21. 134. 141. of skin. chemical. 827. 865 Cadmium oxide. 573. B. 430. 166. from beryllium. 186. 102. occupational causes of. 682. 304–05. from hot environments. 862–63. 68. 399. 304 Cathode ray tube (CRT). 875 Chemical safety committee (CSC) and recombinant DNA. 158. 69–70. 70. training on exposure. 159. responsibilities under OSHAct. 161 Centrifgal fan. 132 Carbon tetrachloride. environmental factors in. 106. 756. classification. and biosafety. 488. 399. 411 Carter. 449. burns from. 17. Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases Branch. 68. Threshold Limit Value for. 850 Cartilage. biosafety guidelines. 431. 55. Hospital Infections Branch. 466 Canal cap. 140 Cement. 693. and biological hazard assessment and classification. See also Cancer 1054 Carcinoma. 237. 409 Bush. of respiratory tract. 160. dermatosis from. 183. 67. 840. OSHA. NIOSH organized under. 843. 160. 500. 25. 180. 609 Carbofuran. 448. 108. 304. 78 Carpal tunnel syndrome. 180. 431–33. to eye. 842. 865. complications. 68. 163. from electromagnetic radiation. 296. George. 56 Bursa. guidelines for bioterrorism threats. 109. 638 Centrifugation. 450. 502. 878. burns from. 134 . of liver. sampling for. solvents. 266. of bladder. 8. parameters for. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL). 361 Cerebrum. of bone. 73–74. See Alkali Ceiling limit. 290–91. 448. 77. 270–71. 874. 487. from coal tar. 408 Bursitis. bronchogenic. 597. 690. 172. 69 Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH). biological. 53. information resources. 878 C Cadmium. 134. 19. change-out schedule. 500 Carcinogen. from electric shock. 133–34. 203. 454. from ionizing radiation. 61 Campus Safety Association. 55. 200 Burn. 48. 805–06. 409–10. 568. history of OSHA regulation of. legionellae contamination. 562 Cataract. emergency response for bioagent release.
quality of life. 861 Cold-related disorders. 519 Coke oven emissions. Noise Complaints against state program’s administration (CASPA).. 874 Clean bench vs. 304 Chromic acid. 644 Constant-concentration tracer gas calculation. 191. OSHA standard proposed for.INDEX Chemisorption. clarity. 4–5. 866. 96–97. 868 Congenital malformation. See Teratogenesis Conjunctiva. 159.. 180 Chrysotile. 66 Chlorinated ethylene. medical evaluation. 494. control methods for. 762 Compressed gas. 201 Chromium. 448. biosafety cabinet. 154 Clinton. 46. 24. 162 Clayton. exposure guidelines. 878. 351 Cold stress. 160 Coast Guard. 100. 349. 151. 132. 680 Chilblain. 48 Ciliary body. 128 Chronic exposures. 350. Video display terminal Computer-aided design. 303 Commodity Specification for Air. See also Time-weighted average Concentration–decay tracer gas calculation. 822–23 Comprehensive practice examination. 590. 353 Coal dust. 835. 97. 105. 133. and hazard evaluation. 101. 504 Cilia. 838. 783 Confined space. 203. background noise. 427 Chloracne. See Earmuff Ciriello. 128 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 866. E. 502. Hearing loss. 841. psittaci. 259 Computer workstation. 191. 107. Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). 328 Cones (of retina). 100. 28. 426. 106. 887 Closed-cup flash point. 809. and workplace design. 421 Coccidioidomycosis. 154. 329. 94 Coconut shell charcoal. 130 Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). 237 Construction industry regulation. See also Hearing. 96. 212 Compton effect. See Sample collection device Color vision. 651–53 Conchae. 351 Chimney effect. 400 Commissioning (of HVAC system). 101. dermatitis from. 202 Chronic effect. 105–106 Connective tissue. 96. 48. 180. 131. 732. 163 Chlorinated hydrocarbon. 351–52. 671–72 Compression: sound pressure. hazards from. for disinfection of biological hazard. 351 Collection device. 579–80 Condensed Chemical Dictionary. 352–53. loudness. D. 633. 347. 158. 826. 157 Combustion systems. 837 Compliance safety and health officer. 37 Condensation nuclei counters. 570–74 Combustible gas. 159. 813 Comprehensive Environmental Response. 65. 96. 494. 162 Clean Air Act Amendments. 30. rehabilitation. 875. no-effect level. 105 Colorimetric sampling device. 329. F. 203 Coccidioides. 46 Chrysolite. 427 Coal Mine Health Research Advisory Committee. 126–27. 466 Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 433 Clayton. 304 Confidence limit. 162. V. 127. 684 Communication (and hearing). 329. 96. Bill. 644. 348–49 Circumaural protector. 96–97. See Halogenated hydrocarbon Chlorine. 364 Choroid. measurement of. checklist. 860. 808. 109 Conjunctivitis. second hand smoke. 877. 561–67 Combustible liquid. 159. 407–08 Constant air volume (CV) system. 505. 880 Chronic beryllium disease (CBD). 651–52 Constant-emission tracer gas calculation. 28. synergistic effects of. 511 Confidentiality of health information. 172. 812. 130. lethal. M. 838. 12–13 Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act (CLIA). 599. measurement of. 384-86 Classification of Etiologic Agents on the Basis of Hazard. 821 Coal tar. speech sounds. 91 Conductive heat exchange rate. 58. 59. 590 Compressed gas cylinders. 13–14. 441. 865–880. 617–18 Comfort scale. 672 Compressed Gas Association. of respirator. 37. 362–63. 589 Climatic conditions. 856. 73–74. 196 Cigarette smoking: biological effects of. See Office workstation. 439 Cleaning and maintenance. 87. 160 Choice reaction time. 101 Circadian rhythm. 39. 72. 26–27. G. 868. 154 Conductive hearing loss. 28. 154 Closed-face filter cassette. 160. 671–72. 845 Cobalt. 871 1055 . 348 Circulating water system. 650 Commission Internationale d’Eclairage (CIE). 97. 350–53. 528 Clothing and thermal balance. 133. 488. 525 Code of Ethics for the Practice of Industrial Hygiene. 59. 442. 172. and dilution ventilation. 651–52 Construction Industry Noise Standard. 291 Circulating air system. 186. 865–66. monitoring device for. 358 Concentration. 188 Cochlea. 639 Chlamydia. 19..
361 CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 616 Cytochrome oxidase system. 139. 434 Copper. 335. See Dermatitis. Dermatitis. 820–821. 832 Cornea. Joseph. 434. of biological agent exposure. 808. appraisal during field survey. 454 Dehydration. See also Enclosure. See also Administrative control. 302–03. 434–42. 195–98. 840. 808. 808 Construction Safety and Health Advisory Committee. 413–14 Curie (Ci). 808. countermeasures. 815 Control of Communicable Diseases Manual. 850 Contact dermatitis. See Petroleum products Cresol. 496. 569 Council for Accreditation in Occupational Hearing Conservation. optical radiation. 100. 19. 24 Cyclic hydrocarbon. 158 Decontamination. 421 Criteria document. 644. 216. NIOSH recommended stan- . 325–26. 259 Coupling and hand tools. of cumulative trauma disorders. 820. Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. 875. 434. 303 Corporate medical department. 259 Current Intelligence Bulletin (CIB). 882–83 Coordinated Framework for Biotechnology. of skin hazards. 185 Coulometric detector. 56. 878. 60. 765–66 Dead finger. 159 Cyclohexane. 237. and solvent hazard control. 16. 165. 152 Creosote. irritant contact Contact lenses. 838 Consultation service. 835. 466 Department of Energy. 810. 102. 413–14. 196 Cross-sensitivity. of nonionizing radiation. 337 Critical-flow orifice. allergic contact. 172. 429 D Damage control program. burnetii. 277 Crocidolite. 647 De Morbis Artificum. 114 Control (of hazard). 567. 870. 313–15. Co. 832–33. 113–14 Corrosives. 306–07. 886–87 Contrast sensitivity (vision). 64 Crustacean. 8. United Transportation Union. Food Safety and Quality Service. of ionizing radiation. 62. 226–33. 389-91 Coxiella. 104. lacerations to. 111. 131 Cytomegalovirus (CMV). 420 Cryogenic liquid. 154. 405 Convective heat exchange rate. 423 Cranial nerves. 411 Cumulative trauma disorder. 786. 529. 853–55. 79 Cuyahoga Valley Ry. 810. 405–14. of asbestos. 843. OSHA standards adopted from. 38. 191. Isolation. 864–65 Cough. Engineering control. toxicological effects of. 829 Construction Safety Amendments. 107–08. 108 Corn. 193 Department of Health and Human Services. 409 Cotton dust. 343–50. 424 Controls (equipment). 113. 157 Cryptococcus. 106. 352–553 Demand respirator. causes of. 361 Cost–benefit analysis for OSHA standards. and industrial hygiene program. 761 Costoclavicular syndrome. 819 Criteria Document on Hot Environments. 807. 101. 73–74. 60 Cooperative Compliance Program (CCP). Morton: OSHA policies of. Healthy People 2010. 180. 48. 352–53. Food Safety and Inspection Service. 112–113 Containment: of biological hazards. 702 Density. for air cleaning. 399. 56. 838. of cold stress. 264 Decibel. Personal protective equipment Controlled area. 848 Cyanide gas. mine safety enforcement by. 259. 157. 440. 876 Consumer Product Safety Commission. NIOSH established by. 797–98. 333. 826. by OSHA. 102. 531–32 Criticality. 878 Decay (radioactive). 31 . 313–15. 216–17 Damper. 877. 139. See Raynaud’s phenomenon Deafness. 450. of lasers. 138 Department of Labor. 331. 58 Creutzfeldt–Jakob dementia. 421 Cryptosporidiosis. 285 Department of Agriculture. mine health advisory committee appointed by. 406–07. for eye safety. 212–15 Decompression sickness. 139 Cutting oil. 159 Cycloalkane. 423 Cubital tunnel syndrome. 828. for tuberculosis control. 17. 29–30. Personal hygiene. 852. of heat stress. 13. 466. 20. term as OSHA assistant secretary. 236 Counter. See Hearing loss Dear. Shielding “Contract with America” Act. of biological hazards. 767–68 Corrective eyewear. 293. 860. 131 Cortex. 867 Cost-effectiveness safety analysis. 850 Department of Commerce.INDEX Construction Safety Act. 843–44. 106. foreign bodies in. 153 Cyclone: for particulate sampling. v. 107. 434–35. 760 Damage-risk criteria. 16 1056 Cresylic acid. 854–55. 328 Coolant. of noise. 274-79. 869. 159.
28. v. 64. 72–80. 832. 851 Dose: and hazard evaluation. 183–84. OSHA under jurisdiction of. 169–71. 841 Documentation of Threshold Limit Values. and lethal concentration. 191. 70. diagnosis of. 53 Dermatology. 191. 346. 841. 201–02. See also Particulate Dust cyclonic separators. 191 Direct-reading instrument. 807–08. 498. 29. 159. See also Dermatitis Dermis. 441. 819. 221–22. 580. predisposing factors for. 570. 101. 73. 15. 566. 316 Diplopia. federal regulation of. irritant contact. 487. calibration of. 316 Dinitrobenzene. 442. 72 Disinfection. 62–63. atopic. prevention anad control. 632. systems. 821. 73. laser. nonoccupational. 595. 104 Dioxane. 64–65. 645 Diffusion (particles). fans. 259. 299 Diopters. 430. 466. 28 Detoxification. 864 Donovan. 392. 56–57. See Employee health care facility Display. causes of. disadvantage of. 292. 181 Dyspnea. spectrometric. control methods for. 538 Dual-phase monitoring. 430. 877 Dilution ventilation. 19. 52 Dermatophycoses. for indoor air quality. 137 Desorption. 79. 411 Derived air concentration (DAC). as control method. 405. medical waste. 259. 266-67 Dosimeter: electronic alarm. 279. 632-34. 190 Dust spot filter. 56–57. 21–22. 56. 578. 78–79. 442 Disintegration. 527. for magnetic field measurements. 53. pocket. 28.. 194 Dermal PUF patch. 693. 638. 466. 575-76. 223–24 Detergent. metal oxide semiconductor. 299–300 Dequat dibromide. 362 Diving. 28 Detailed noise survey. 640. 338 Duration of exposure. 38. 47. 834 Department of Transportation. classification of. 217. 68. 769. 595. 63. 27. 24. 129. 158. fibrous glass. measurement. 561–74. 632. 114 Dipole/diode field survey instrument. 259. Inc. 562–63. 170. 183. types of. vs. 839. 125-26. 172. 57–62. 636–37. 73. 566. catalyst poisoning of.INDEX dards transmitted to. OSHRC. 161. infectious. 190. 845 Diaphragm. radioactive. for particulates. 573–74. 63. Bureau of Mines. 78. 62–63. Department of Labor. 12. incidence of. See Pneumoconiosis Dye. 631–41. silica. 194 Dermatitis: allergic contact. asbestos. 684 Diode. 174. and infectious agents. See also Video display terminal Disposal. 858 Diving Contractors Association. design of. fire and explosion prevention. See also Bureau of Labor Statistics. design considerations. 428. 624. 844 Dichloromethane. causes of. 835. gas chromatographic. interference with. 162 Dole v. 561–81. for hazard evaluation. 188–189 Diffraction. 840 Dry-gas meter. hazards from. mercury vapor. 44 Dibromochloropropane (DBCP). 70–72. 211 Diffuser (HVAC). 845. See also Decay (radioactive) Dispensary. 64. See Hazardous waste management Distal stimulus. 56980. 681 Diesel exhaust. 191. unoccupied enclosed spaces. 56 Descriptive study. 682 Dessicator. 820 Department of Justice. 24. 579–80. 259 Dermal monitoring. dermatosis. 608. 6. 127. prevention of. lead. 192 Duct. dermatitis. 171. 195. and susceptibility to infection. 129. 189–90. 634-36. 569. 351 Dry Color Manufacturers Association v. 269 Dry bulb temperature. 59 Dioctyl phthalate (DOP). 59. 63–69. 162 The Dilemma of Toxic Substance Regulation—How Overregulation Causes Underregulation. heat stress research by. mica. 611–15. 597–98 epoxy. Ray. 71 Disfigurement. 218. 336. noise. 644 Dusty lung. Mine Safety and Health Administration Department of the Interior. 838–39. 427 Dermatosis. 79. 143 Diamond Roofing Co. 277. 860. for exposure guidelines. See also Dermatosis Dermatoglyphics. nonspecific. 677. 673. 185 1057 . 56. 598. 576–77. 158. 144 Divinyl ether. 89. 850. 579 Disability. 834. incidence of. evaluation of worker’s compensation. and replacement air. 171. 494. 28. 16. 568. 675 Digestive tract. 141. coal. vs. for specific compounds. of radiation. airflow. 269. 269. United Steelworkers of America. 190. 607. See also Airflow Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). See also Time-weighted average Dust. 30. sensitization. 316 Dynamic shape factor. 442 Depth perception. colorimetric.88. 638–40. kaolin. 654 Dukes-Dobos. 264 Dose–response relationship. 28. 265 Diisopropyl ether. 440. 876. 195–98. 105 DeQuervain’s syndrome.
291-92. 423. spectrum. RLV. 210 Electret fibers. 230–31. 89. and Comprehensive Environmental Response. 459–61. 229–30. 87. 150 Equipment: checklist. 285. 301. 92. 233 Earplug. 466. 462. lead regulation by. direct current (DC). 287 Electromagnetic radiation. pathology of. of cold stress. 7. 12. 198. 296. 345–46 Emergency situation. 61. National Primary Ambient-Air Quality Standards. 815–16. 216. hearing measurement. 831. 488 Epidermis. 434.INDEX E Ear: anatomy of. 362 Ekman’s rating of perceived exertion. OSHA regulation of. 461–62. 436–40. 232 Eardrum: anatomy of. 197 Engineering control. 198. See also Containment. types of. 821–22. 586. and earplug fitting. 879. 29. 529–30. 821. 58791. federal regulation of. 751. 7. 878 . 6. noise regulation by. 232. Shielding End-of-service-life indicator (ESLI). subradiofrequency. 47. 426 E. 493. asbestos regulation by. 231–32. 302. 847. 351 Ergonomic hazard. of lasers. 87–92 physiology of. 530–31 Emergency care: for eyes. emission requirements. 88–89. 281–82. TB skin testing. See Engineering control Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). time-varying. 73. for temperature-related disorders. 287. Hazardous Chemical Reporting Rules. 702 Endotoxin. 165. 831. 885 Employee assistance program (EAP). 821. measurement of. 92. 54 Echinococcosis. biological effects of. impairment of. concentrations. 462 Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence. 675–76 Electrostatic precipitator. whistle-blower protection. 259 Electrostatic attraction (particles). and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. 409. pulsed. radiation. 83-88. 288–89. 860. for noise control. 427. Nonionizing radiation Electromyography (EMG). 876 Enclosure. 839. 131 Epoxide. sampling. 874. 197. 826 Employment Standards Administration. pathology of. 575–76 Electron volt (eV). 702 Employee health care program. strength. 293. in video display terminal. 285. physiology of. 83–88 Ear canal. and sound. 38 Epinephrine. 200–01. 63 Education for Latex Allergy Support Team and Information Coalition (ELASTIC). 287. 821. cap for hearing protection. 89. for exhaust ventilation hood. 180 Equivalent chill temperature (ECT). 875. 868. 287–89. 800. radon regulation by. 313–15. 702 Emphysema. 787 Employee exposure. design of. 138. 66 Education and Resource Center (ERC). 337. 208 Earmuff. 858. 48. of radioactive particulates. OSHA evaluation of. and biological hazards. 506–07 Environmental stresses. 586. 188. corrected. safety education and training. health effects. See Occupational health program Employer. 287. 227–29. 451. 93–94. 7–20 Epicondylitis. role in occupational health. 498. 89. 259 ELF radiation. 808. 162 Equal-loudness contour. 751–52 Equivalent aerodynamic diameter (EAD). 231–32. 85. 302. 838. 29. vs. 871. at design stage. 413. 174. 821 Environmental sampling. 55 Epiglottis. 337 Effector. 462. 94–95. of heat stress. 802. 591-97. 283–85. control of. 1058 845. 165 Engineering program. 185 Employee: and heat stress behaviors. 313–15. 821-22. microwave. 850. 215 Equilibrium. 648. 868 Electrocardiogram (ECG). 609–11. 19. 261. 297–98. See Extremely low frequency radiation Elutriator. 78. 28788. 756–59. 600. 233 Ear wax. 461–62. 109. and Toxic Substances Control Act. 353. 330–31. 411 Epidemiology. 463. 138–139. 367 Elastic waves. Compensation and Liability Act. 817. 819 Effective temperature. 341 Electrical hazard. medical removal protection (MRP). and OSHA jurisdiction. atopic. 292. for laser control. 616 Element. 847–48. 289-90. 426 Eccrine sweat. noise exposure. participation under OSHAct. 52–53. exposure guidelines for. of skin hazards. radiofrequency. 346. 822–23. 376 Electron. 233. responsibilities under OSHAct. 499–500. 822–23. 230–31. for plutonium control. 494. 808. 751 Environmental control. 17–19. of organic dusts. hearing process. OSHA requirements for. coli. 259. injury and illness record. of cumulative trauma disorders. 425 Eczema. 735. 421. 293–94. 289-90 Electromagnetic device. purchasing of. 16. 827. 676 Electric field. 755. hearing protective. 278. 231–32 Ebola. See also Ionizing radiation. 464. 285. 85. 281 Electron capture detector. 831. and interaction with matter. 30. 165. atmospheric pressure effects on. of solvents. of noise. See also Nonionizing radiation Electric Power Research Institute. and vapor pressure. 229–30. 293–94. principles of. 594. 89. 290–91. walkaround right. Isolation. and earplug fitting.
887 Fan. 615–18. 266. and sampling results. 821. Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). noise from. and equipment design. by process analysis. visual performance. 38. 849 Federal Aviation Administration. 107–08. by respiration. duct. chemical hazards to. airflow principles. 114–15. makeup air. 615. dilution. 157. 88–89. 612–15 Expiratory reserve volume (ERV). 495–97. 832. 287. 840. 361 Extremely low frequency (ELF) radiation. 11. and biomechanics. 409 Erysipelas. 488.. 608. 618. 608. 819. 102–03 Fascia. 426 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. 271. 108–09. 128. 611–12. field strength. 427 Erythema. 161 Ether: biological effects of. 863 Ethyl ether. and hand tools. Recommended Exposure Limit. interview for. 162 Ethics. Threshold Limit Value External auditory canal.INDEX Ergonomics. 17. 454 Federal Employee Health and Safety Program. 820. 638. 88–89 External work rate. v. 83–85. 408 Fatigue. 201 Ethylene oxide: for disinfection. 287. for airborne contaminants. 631. 45 Explosives. for cumulative trauma. 28. 131 Ethanol. 413. natural defenses of. 850. and vapor pressure. 640. 850 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). 624–25 Faraday cage. 23–24. 608. 105 Farsightedness. 374-78. 608. 431 Eustachian tube. infection. 841–42. 831. axial-flow. 16. 351-52. 4-5 Ethylene glycol ethers. 109. 161–62. and Toxic Substances List. 595–97. 37. Sampling Evaluation of Permanent Impairment. protective equipment. 266. and mode of use. 392–95. for ionizing radiation. nonionizing radiation effects on. vision conservation program. problems. 430–33. 357. 596. for nonionizing radiation. 378–82. 303–04. 161–62 Ethane. 151–52. 441. Ventilation Fan laws. 329 Excimer lasers. breath analysis for. 369–74. purpose of. 531 Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA). biological effects of. See also Monitoring. 287-91. for biological hazards. 60 Explosive range. 516–19. 487–521. 28. See also Permissible Exposure Limit. 493–94. 109. 644. and workstation design. 615. 85. 303 Farmworker Justice Fund Inc. 835 Farnsworth D15 Panel Test (vision). 618–20. 838 1059 . 598 F Factory Mutual Engineering Corp. 107–09. 857. 826 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). 368–69 Fault tree analysis. 83–85 External ear. 329. 30. and industrial hygiene program. pathology of. 562 Exposure: acute. 421 Eukaryote. 615. magnetic field measurement. field survey for. 106. 795–97. and workplace design. disorders. pathology of. 128. 138. centrifugal. 110–13. 421 Esophagus. 421 European Commission for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC). 30. See Sunburn Escape-only respirator. See also Corrective eyewear. 296. evaluation. 108. air cleaner. emergency care for. 7. Brock. federal regulation of. chemical composition of. 608–11. breath analysis for. See also Dilution ventilation. system performance. for HVAC system. 581 European Federation of Biotechnology. 300–01. 436–40. 138. optical radiation exposure. 395–404 An Ergonomics Guide to Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. 165. 89. 162 Eubacteria. 465–66. 841. and anthropometry. Protective eyewear. physical hazards to. 440. 454 Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act. 138–39. 151 Exposure assesment: of respirator wearers. 382–88. 638. 159. 37. 59. ionizing radiation effects on. checklists. job approach. general. 399 Eyewash fountain. 858. fan. 162. 26–28. 144. 108. chemical composition of. 495. hood. design of. inflammation. 607–29. 109. 59. 17–19. 790. 328 Exteroceptor. and radiofrequency and microwave exposure guidelines. 389–91. 615. burn of. 8. 392. 495. 875. 422 Exhaust stacks. 854. for heat stress. 388–391. 638. 113–14. 638. 30. 144. 292 Eye: anatomy of. See Corrective eyewear Eye-hazard area concept vs. 104–05. 217 Evaporative heat loss. evaluation of. 303–04. 405–14. 105–07. 102–04. 295–99. 183–84. 495. Vision Eyeglasses. chronic. 702 Escherichia coli. 99–101. for noise. for cold stress. for solvent hazard control. 16. defects. 109 Eyestrain. and cumulative trauma disorders. 316–17 Exhaust ventilation. static pressure. 153. 104–04. 153. and material handling. 596–97. 858 Farm Workers Occupational Safety and Health Oversight Hearings. 68. 151–52. 625–29 Exogenous infection. 303–07. 761 Fair Labor Standards Act. 13. 761 Federal Agency Safety Programs. 668 Exposure guidelines. 822 Federal Insecticide. 488. 624. 859 Federal Facility Compliance Act. 30. 89 Evaluation (of hazard). 39 Ester: biological effects of.
109–10. 698. 749. See also specific regulations Ferric chloride. 580 Fibrosis. 58 Forsberg. 440. 19. for air cleaner. 215 Florida Peach Growers Association v. 48. 426. identification of. 282 Forced expiratory flow (FEF). 807.. 28. 200. 571 Fluid replacement. 301. for air disinfection. and sampling results. OSHA regulation of. interception capture. 702 Fit testing. 28. 576–77 Fovea. Edwin G. 154 Flammable liquid. 570 Formic acid. 574–75 Fluorinated hydrocarbon. 768 Freon. for measuring particulate exposure. 696–701. 769. 407 Ford. respirator for. 683–84. 615 Foulke. 171. 104. 517. 857. 160 Freon TF. 820 Federal Radiation Council. 536 Field Inspection Reference Manual (FIRM). 609 Flash point. 267 Federal Railroad Administration.. 22. 114 Fungus: biological effects of. Threshold Limit Value for. 46 Functional Vision Score (FVS). 22 Functional residual capacity (FRC). diffusion. biomechanical research of. 374 Fit factor. 46 Forced expiratory volume (FEV). 525 Frostbite. 69 Fischer. Department of Labor. 196-98. 302. 163 Folliculitis. 575 Flame photometric detector. Jr. for radiofrequency and microwave exposure. for tuberculosis control. 692–93 Fire Hazard Properties of Flammable Liquids.88. high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA). See also Center for Devices and Radiological Health Food Safety and Inspection Service. 13–14. for asbestos. electrostatic capture. 28 Food and Drug Administration (FDA). for biosafety cabinets. 840 First aid. 154 Fire point. 850. for insecticides. 46. 6–7. 314–15. 702. 675–79. 684. 420 Forward-curved blade fan. 527–28. 259. 820 Federal Mine Safety and Health Act. 180. for disinfection. for laser exposure. 633. 185 Field blank. Department of Labor. 433 Filter: for aerosol-removing respirator. from particulates. 315. 840. 107–08 Formaldehyde: biological effects of. for respirator. for respirator. and exposure guidelines. 450 Fire fighter. 203 Fluorimetric affinity biosensor. 78 Fort Detrick Biological Defense Research Program (BDRP). 437–38. 196. 858 Field survey. qualitative. 450. before OSHAct. 15. 427. 195 Freestanding occupational health clinic. respirators for. See Emergency care First-aid report. 611 Fritted bubbler. 450. 706. 363 Flame ionization detector. 225–26. 61. 61-62. 28. 351 Frostnip. 8. from welding. 644. Gases and Volatile Solids. monitor for. 864. 675–76. 531-32. 464. 698–99 Fitts’ Law. for particulates. monitors. 28 Fertility. 304 Free crystalline silica. 50 Forcefulness. air cleaner for. See also Microorganism Fusarium. 838. 268 Filovirus. 570. for biological hazards. 495–97 Film badge. 46. 733 Field Operations Manual. 314 Flammable range.INDEX Federal Metal and Nonmetallic Mine Safety Act. 49. 110. 702. 154. 733 Field sanitation. 464 . for eye and face protection. 359 Foreign bodies. 154 Fletcher–Munson contour. 677–79. 49. for power air-purifying respirator. K. 24. 441. 210–11 Friction. 47. 711-21. 160 Fluorocarbon. concentrations of. 60. 242–55. 850 Force. 420–21. sedimentation capture. electret fiber. 839 Forebrain. 465-66. mycotoxic. 189. 171. for HVAC system. in eye. NIOSH–MSHA certification of. 854. 578 Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. 157 Fire safety. 675. 157 Flammable materials and lasers. 820. 344 Fluorescent tube. 130. for asbestos exposure. 637 Firestone Plastics Co. 676. 237–38. 875 Food Safety and Quality Service. spectrophotometer. 835 Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission.. 616. v. 351 Fume. 675. See Halogenated hydrocarbon Fluorine. See Explosive range 1060 Flanged hood. 60. 840 Flow-rate meter. 875 Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR). 675. quantitative. safety professional’s familiarity with. 321–22 Fluoride. 460. 24. for noise exposure. 199–201. 138. 434. 618. 47. 62. 696-98. 861 Fiber. 835 Federal regulations. 25–26. 50 Forced vital capacity (FVC). See Reproductive hazard Fetal protection policy. 138–39. 755 First-degree burns. endotoxic. Gerald. 160 Frequency. 675–79. 464.
390 Hand tool. 505. 440 Halogenated hydrocarbon. 617. 603. 449. 762 Health Physics and Radiological Handbooks. 413 H Hair. 831. 423. 859. 165. 855–56. 201. mode of use and exposure hazard. for solvents. See Dilution ventilation Gerarde. 23. 66. 881 Glycerol.. gamma analysis. 162 Goggles. adsorption of. 586.. 759–60. M. 22. 154. 872. and Paperwork Reduction Act. 605 Healthy People 2010: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives. 617. 441. 55 Half-life. 144. 388–91 Hand washing rinsate analysis. 68 Hamann. 525 Geiger–Mueller counter. 388. 27. of skin. See Computerized industrial hygiene system Harless. George C. 166. 258. history of. 832. 78 Hand. 129. 254. 54. 682 Gas/vapor removing respirator. 864.. 527 Glasses. vs. and air pollution. 819 Health physicist. 337 Glove box. 786 1061 . toxicity. 7. 144. 77–78. properties of. 450. 160 Giardia. selection. 71. 524 Grain dust. 15. 22. federal regulation of. toxic. 524–27. See Corrective eyewear. 161 Glycol. 264 Half-value layer. C. 151. Protective eyewear Glaucoma. of respiration. 821–22. and recognition of. degree of. identification. of respiration. H. 13. evaluation. 114-119 Guyon tunnel syndrome. absorption of. 411 Gas. and solvent hazard control. 488. 502. 26–27. 290 Health Physics Society. control of. 269–70 Geiger-Mueller (GM) tube. biomechanical research of. 78. dermatosis from.. biological effects of. 154 Global warming. 867 Health care facility: biological hazards in. 164–67. 519. 167. 156. training program required by. 315 Golgi organ. 880 Health surveillance program. regulation of. 102. 11. 75. permeability of. 124–25. 861. 810. 198. 160. 402 Granuloma. 261. 319. 827. beta. classification. control methods for. of hearing. 71–72. 263. 581 Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE). 263 Hall effect. 27. 54. 316–17 Gas chromatograph. 259 Greenhouse effect. 70. asphyxiant. State and local regulations Grab sampling. 478–84 Goose bumps. 424–25. 811–12. 7. inhalation of. 47–48. protection. 105. 795–97. 7–20. P. 163. 217. W. 811-12 Hazard Communication Standard. 198 Ground fault circuit interupters (GFCIs). 166 Glutaraldehyde. latex. biological effects of. certified. in respiration. 838 Guenther. 48. 278 Gloves. 151. 62. Wayne B. 108–109. 398. 578 Gas diffusion study. 160. 861. barrier cream. 131. 524. 495 Hazard communication program. 432. 8. 600. 680–82 Gas wash bottle. 49 Gas exchange. 150. 68 Graphite. 153. See Federal regulations. medical surveillance. 759.. 399 Glass fiber filters. 361 Gonioscope. 48. 139. 48-50. 877 Gray (Gy). 195 Gravimetric analysis. 263–64. vs. 158. 16465 Halogen-containing compound. 152..INDEX G Gade v. 316–17. breath analysis for. 159. 63 Hazard. 106 Gleason. 430–34. 259. N. 17–18 Handle. 421. 759. 191 Grain handling. 815 Hazardous waste management. 163 Gross alpha. irritant. 860–61. 138. 161. 102 Good large-scale practices (GLSP). 28. 440. 600. 272–73 Ganglion. 198–99 Gray. 680. 8. 163 Globe temperature. 427 Glare. 191 Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. respirators for use in. 894 Health Research Group. National Solid Wastes Management Association. 129. 54 Government regulations. 573. 269 General Industry Noise Standard. concentration calculation. of vision. shielding for. 512–13. 14. 162–63. loss from ionizing radiation. E. 374 Hay fever: atopic. 835 Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment. 110. 292 Halogen. 266 Hair follicle. 23–24. 46–48. 41-42 Gas mask. 124 Hazard and operability study (HAZOP). 888 Gamma-radiation. in lasers. 237 General ventilation. 867 Grandjean. 426 Hardware. 848. sampling devices for. elimination. 160–161. 426 Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. 695. 259. See also Employee health care facility Health Effects Research Laboratory. 8. 194 Hantavirus.
331 Heat-related disorders. 339–40. 283 Hertz (Hz). 587. exposure guidelines for. 608–11. 881. 158 Hydrogen peroxide. 217. 229–30. 67 . See Human immunodeficiency virus Hive. 446. 443 Humidity. 429. 28 Hyperabduction syndrome. 456. 451. 210. 236–37. N. 175. 132. 684. 131. 427. conductive. 83. and legionnaires’ disease. 874 Housing and Urban Development (HUD): surface sampling. isokinetic sampling. measurement of. 67. 231. 217. 12–13. 653–54. See Recombinant DNA Hydrazine. 97. 159 Hygroscopic agent. C virus (HCV). 102-03 Hyperpigmentation. See Coupling. 331 Heating. 644–47 Hybridoma technology. 881 Human subject review board (IRB). 855 Hearing conservation program. 97–98. 328 Heat stress. 524 Hygienic Guide Series. recognition of. 61. 77 HEPA filter. history of OSHA regulation of. 96–97. 441 Hydrogen sulfide. and air pollution. 13. 236. speech. causes of. measurement of. 365 Heat balance analysis. See High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter Hepatitis. 333–35. 13. 790. 240. 210. HVAC system problems with. 96–97. 12. communication problems from. Heinrich. 346–47. history of. threshold of. 591 Hydrofluoric acid. 333–43. 217. 702. 125. 150 Hiccup. 422. standard threshold shift (STS). 131. 94–95. 69 Hydrogen. measurement of. 283 Hexane. 28. 826. and tinnitus. 162–63. 194 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. 67. for biosafety cabinets. zones.INDEX Hearing. 351 Heat rash. 608–11 Hood entry loss. 12. 217–18. 150. 327. 331 Heat exhaustion. 428. troubleshooting. 61. 58 Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC). 622–24.. 20. 91. 234. oxygen-containing. 239 Heart rate. vaccination program. 12. 97. 450. 342 Heat stroke. history of. 426 Hertz. 28. 404 Hood. 447. 242–55. 420. 238. 702 Hemoglobin. 234. 329–50. 650. A virus. 331 Helium. control methods for. 839. 152. static pressure. 150. 335. 97. 20. 426 HIV. 92. 332–33. exposure guidelines. 38 High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. sensorineural. types. C virus. 151 Hydrogen halides. reduction of. 193. 881 Herpes simplex. 208. 223. 150 Hydrogen fluoride. 24. 125. 192–93. 330. 622 Horny layer. 208. 429 Herpes virus: simiae (B). 428–29 Housekeeping. 644. risk factors for. for handling plutonium. 212 Hearing aid. 336–37. and indoor air quality problems. 234. See Cleaning and maintenance Housing and Community Development Act. 61. 702. 894 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). 106. record keeping for. 63. and threshold of pain. 446. 12–13. 131 Hydrogen cyanide. 359 Histoplasma. See Urticaria Holding. 412 Hyperbaric environment. 426. 423. 622 Hood entry loss coefficient (F). 97. 653. 432. 681-82 HVAC system. 246–47 Hearing loss. 869. 331–32 Heat storage rate. 92. 423. maintenance. 237–40. 94. for respirator. 154 Helmet: hearing-protective. 153 Hydrochloric acid. noise-induced. 881 Hydrocarbon. 238–39. 97 Hearing Conservation Amendment (HCA). 647–50. 000. for vacuum. 61. 647. 47. 211. 216. 357. 500. 869. 421. 627–29. 330–33 Heat Stress Index (HSI). 278. 125. 208. 160. 504. 12. respiratory. 58. 874 Hindbrain. 237. 597. 437. 243–45. evaluation of. 94–95. 343–50. 92. for tuberculosis control. See HVAC system Heat loss. and chemical hazard synergism. See Atmospheric pressure Hyperhidrosis. 427 Histoplasmosis. 212–15. 131. 68 Hypersusceptibility. 866. 96–97. history of OSHA regulation of. 42 Henry. 860. 97 Hearing-protective device. 94. protection. 229–30. 60. 698. 341–42 Heat cramps. 864. 132. B virus (HBV). 62 Hyperopia. and communication. 217. See Health care facility Host susceptibility. treatment for. 494 1062 High Risk Occupational Disease Notification and Prevention Act. B virus. 28 Hypopigmentation. 96–97. 93–94. 450. 451. environmental measurements of. 603. Handle Home office design. See Stratum corneum Hospital. 129 Hypochlorite. 860. 175. 446-47. 331 Heat syncope. standards. for air disinfection. 651. 631. 343. 423. 653. 230–33. 93–94. relative. for particulates. 24. dermatitis from. B virus.
88. of ear. 297. 800. 702 International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 880 Indoor Radon Abatement Act. 793. 800–02. 525-27. 305-06. See Protective eyewear Impinger. 13. 336. 125 Inner ear: anatomy of. and hazard control. 173–74. 448. thermal effects of. 266. 798–800. and reproductive hazards. 428 Infectious waste. of eye. 359–63 Information system. 581 Insulation. 729–30 Industrial Truck Association v. 424–26. 85. 108. secondary. 351 Hypoxia. 731-32. 3–4. See Lighting Illumination Engineering Society (IES). 888 Industrial Union Department v. 108. monitor for. 865–66. 510. 800. 786 Impaction. job descriptions. 524 Interagency National Response Team. 519 Integrated sampling: absorption. 643. 195 Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP/MS). and particulate inhalation. 259. 525. 794 International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. 415. standards. 732–34. 530 In-vitro testing. 279. physiology of. for hazard evaluation. and skin protection. 443 Institutional biosafety committee (IBC). 174. and employee training. 581 International Lighting Commission (CIE). 733 Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). 303 International Organization for Standardization (ISO). 111. 795. 352. 144. 140. American Petroleum Institute. 429–30. 675 Interior structural firefighting. 131 I IBP Inc. Hodgson. 800. 15. and hazard evaluation and control. Immunization Insect. 727–41. control methods. 152 Interoceptor. 303. 15. 185. 651. modes of transmission. 667. 875 Interagency Regulatory Liaison Group (IRLG). 62 Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 802. summary of criteria and activities. 794–95 Industrial hygienist. and record keeping. 735. 87 Inoculation. 61. education and training of. 440. 843 Industrial Union Department v. 136 Incus. human. evaluation of. 429. 466–67. 267 International Conference on Radiation Protection. certified (CIH). 530 Infection. 342. 78 Industrial hygienist-in-training (IHIT). 195 Industrial hygiene. 105–06. 298 Institute of Occupational Medicine. 20. 850 Interception (particle deposit). 290 International Commission on Radiological Protection and Measurements (ICRP). grab sampling. 731 Industrial hygiene program. 422–23. and employee involvement. biological effects of. 421–22. 422. 170 Injection: of biological hazard. 576 Infrared radiation. See Injection. 28. 795–98. 885 Ice garment. 59. 67 Interview. 530 Impact-resistant eyewear. 442 Inflammation: of eye. See Computerized industrial hygiene system Infrared analyzer. 821 Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICPAES). 86 Index of Difficulty. 728–32. 428. 192. of biological aerosols. of ionizing radiation. controls for. adsorption. 425. of biological agent. epidemiology of. 591 Industrial hygiene manager. 443 Instrument Society of America (ISA). 444. 350. 644 Integrated Management Information Systems (IMIS). organizational responsibilities. 794. 5. 431 Information processing. ethics of. 338. Secretary. 45 Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). 3–4. 794. 87. See Pesticide Inspiratory capacity (IC). 447-48. 160 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). 349 Illumination. 19. 496–97 Intrapulmonic pressure. 125. 454 Institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC). 90. pathology of. exposure guidelines for. 289. 329 Intake (for HVAC system). 568. 87. calculation of. 4. 91-92. 89.INDEX Hypothermia. 732–34. 183 International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). 420 Insecticide. 843 Industrial Union Department v. 363 Indoor air quality. 442. 87. 317. 525. vs. 427–28. 730–31. functions of. of particulates. 21. cochlea. 190. 422. 306. 44 1063 . 165 Inertial impactors. 105–06. 702 Immunization. 276 International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). vestibular system. of toxin. written. Bingham. 735. 762. vs. 124–25. 3–4. 21. 894 Immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH). 451. 306 Ingestion. 408 Influenza vaccine. 830 Industrial Ventilation—A Manual of Recommended Practice. and biosafety. civil service. of soft tissue. 217-18 Intertrigo. code of ethics. 4. Henry. 66 Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV). 428 Inhalation. 303–05. 361 Intersociety Committee on Guidelines for Noise Exposure Control. 675 Impactor. implementation of. control. 425 Infectious dose. 692.
and chemical exposure. 575 Ionization chamber. 501. operational safety factors. contributions to ergonomics by. 129. 131. 844. aliphatic. Lane. 108. sensitizer. 28. 39. and air pollution. 423. 878 Jamar dynamometer grip strength testing. 151. irritant contact Ishihara color plate test (vision). monitoring exposure to. control methods for. 303 Iritis. 261 Iris. for material-handling personnel selection. See Dermatitis. 144. 314. 308. Charles N. 309. 698 Irritant contact dermatitis. weak. 279. 61. cumulative trauma disorders of. 18–19 Isotope. 184. See International Organization for Standardization Isoamyl acetate protocol. 406 Kick. 829. 38–39. sources of. See also Containment. 268. 850 Konimeter. 879. latent period. dermatosis from. 863–64. 424. 310–12. contributions to ergonomics by. 260. 285 Irritant. 14–15.INDEX Introduction of Recombinant DNA-Engineered Organisms into the Environment. 440. 753–54 Iodine. controls for. 192–93 Isolation. 143. 108. 64. 840. 68 Keratoconjunctivitis. 267–68. 315–17. 159. biological effects of. 772 Job design. 831. 132–133. 57 Keratin stimulant. biological effects from. accident. 153. 882 Label (for controls and displays). 279. 378 Job safety and health analysis. 14. 57 Keratitis. 304. 172. 257–80. 502. 107 Lacrimal gland. 14. 435–36. 313–15. 753. 195. 282. 105 ISO. 264–67. 111. exposure standards for. 261–64 Ion mobility spectrometer. biological monitoring of. 101. electromagnetic spectrum. 269 Ionizing radiation. 58 L’Ambiance Plaza construction accident. 8. 759 Johannson. 141. 307–17. toxicological effects of. 193 1064 . 441 Ion. 163. eye protection. pointers. 78 Lavoisier. 279. See Stratum corneum Keratinocyte. 68 Ketone. biological effects of. 59. 259. exposure guidelines for. 14–15. Enclosure. 425 Labyrinthitis. 440. 592–95. 274–79. 152 Isometric work. breath analysis for. 137. measurement of. vs. 579 Ion pair. nuclear. 50 Laser. 358 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. 268–70. 500. 30. types of. exposure factors. 201 Kirkland. 14. tuberculosis controls for. 161 Keyboard user. 172. 316 Lead. 62. 92 Laceration. 60. 144. 308. See also Dermatitis. 451–52 Laboratory animal allergy (LAA). 295 Keratoacanthoma. history of OSHA regulation of. and blinking. 78 Kidney damage. 861. 421 Kyphosis. 839. 131. 697 Isocyanate. 833 Keratin. cleaning and maintenance program for. 46 Larynx. 263. 259. blood analysis for. biological sampling for. 358 Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). 53 Laryngitis. 192 Isokinematic technique. 312 Laser Institute of America (LIA). design of. 877. 874. irritant contact Irritant fume protocol. 586. 52. 160 Iodophor. 62. 285. 315. 821. 424. 466 Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 271. 56. 405 Laboratory: biological hazards in. 489 Investigation. Shielding Isomer. 203. 27174. 304. 308–09. 426 Kuru. 376 Isokinetic sampling. 109 Irradiance. 308. 158. 868. 16. 108 Keratosis. 62. continuous wave (CW). safety factors. 133. 100. 767 Justice National Crime Victims Survey.. 64. 279. 266. 871 Langerhans’ cells. 260 Isotopic enantiomer. 106. 202 Korean hemorrhagic fever. 65–66. pulsed. A. 161. internal hazard from. 7–8. 317 Latex allergy. 864. 111. 191 Kepone incident. to eye. 278. shielding from. 162 Kinetic Limulus Assay with Resistant-Parallel-Line Estimation (KLARE). 599. 756. external hazard from. 179 Itching. 54 Keratin layer. 304 Keratin solvent. for disinfection. 109 Lactic acid. surface sampling.. 28. federal regulation of. record keeping for. 275–77. 129. S. 433 Inventory. of chemicals. 261. 59. nonbeam hazards of. 28. 107 Lacrimation. 67. strong vs. 397 L J Jefress. of respiratory system. 72 K Kaolin dust.
subradiofrequency. prevention of. 864. 507. 456. radiation. 843 Lung. safety concerns. 89 Mastoiditis. 321–32. for lasers. 427 Malignancy. 11. 872 Martin v. 176–77 Longshoremen and Harbor Workers Act. 289–90. 198 Literature review. 16. 161 Load constant (LC). 127 Lethal dose (LD). 106. 290. 456 Legionellosis. 462 Liquid scintillation counting. 201. Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission. lumbar. 100. 455. 797 Manufacturers Association of Tri-County v. 157. 426 Marine terminal. Thurgood. S. 9–10. 185. Thomas. Lynn. 850 McGarity. biological effects of. 321. 293–94. pneumophila. See Cancer Malleus. 297–98. 287–88. radiofrequency. 290–91. role in occupational health. for video display terminal use. 290. Barlow’s Inc. 702 Maximum permissible dose (MPD). of computer office. 133. 532 Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test. 427 Lethal concentration (LC). 858 Maritime Safety Act. 155–56. 52. 365 Maximal user output. 188. sources of. 856 Marburg virus. 63 Lifting. Carl. 78 Manual of Analytical Methods. 127 Leukemia. 290–94. 338 Lipid-soluble material. 319. 7. for organic solvents. 188. 106. 842. 823. 85. for carcinogens. 86.. 618 Malaria. 134 Leukoderma. 384 Ligament. 861. 843 Marshall v. 310–11. 63 Lyme disease. 101. 67 Lichen planus. 289–90. 319. colored. 562. See Animals Legionella. measurement of. 881 Loops (magnetic measurement). 829. 590 Local exhaust ventilation.INDEX Lead Industries Association (LIA). 133. 850 Marshall. 457–58 Legionnaires’ disease. and hazard evaluation. 290 Maintenance. anatomy of. 35–50. See Material handling Lifting index (LI). and the Paperwork Reduction Act. 312. 510. injury to. 236 Maximum use concentration (MUC). in video display terminal. 802 Manganese poisoning. 215–16 Louisiana Chemical Association v. 831 Leptospira interrogans. 208 Mass spectrometers. 462 Lind. 511 Lower explosive limit (LEL). 461. Lloyd. volumes and capacities of. 578 Mastoid air cells. 290. 808 Marshall. 317–22. strength of. in hazard evaluation. static. 849. 89-90 Material handling. 15. 455–58. and glare. 157 Lowest-feasible-level policy. 282–83. 298–94. 383 McBride. 102. 876 McGowan. 285. 590 Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Krepper. 172 Manmade vitreous fibers (MMVF). 846 Martin. 848 Lower confidence limit (LCL). 39–41. 57 Lipopolysaccharides. 292 Loose-fitting facepiece. 144–47. information resources. 399. edema. 285-86. 845 Leather. 4. colors for. exposure guidelines for. 459 Length-of-stain dosimeter. 102 Magnetic field. and contrast. 18. 131. training for. fluorescent tubes. See Material handling Loading operation. 750. 830 1065 . 49–50 Lupus erythematosus. 571 Lens (of eye). time-varying. excessive. 455. 20. 274 Maximum permissible exposure (MPE). 78–79. 860–61. 408 Lighting. See Cleaning and maintenance Makeup air. 53 M Macrophages. 383 Load handling.. 488–89 Liver damage. 190 Mansdorf. Ray. 511. pulsed. 378–79. 301 Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) voltage. 319. vs. control of. microwave. 875 Maser. 399. Bingham. See also Aphakia Leone v. 702 Lordosis. 866–67 Log-normal distribution. 811–12. 760 Loudness. 430. 45–46. 304 Macular degeneration. 505.. 427. 287. 539. 532. 288. 604 Maximal oxygen uptake. 279 Limit of detection (LOD). Mobil Oil Corp. 682. 378 Maximum Permissible Ambient Noise Levels for Audiometric Test Rooms. 47 Macula. 154. 322 Light signal. 692-93 Lower flammable limit (LFL). 86 Management. 397 Loss retention. 427 Lymphatic vessel. 405 Limitation of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation. 405. and EPA Hazardous Chemical Reporting Rules. 489. 313 Maximum permissible load. See Exhaust ventilation Lockout/tagout (LOTO). 147. transmission of. 287. Alexander. 827. Z. types of.
839. 195. 839 Medulla. 180 Metabolic cost (of work). 820. 820. 843 The Merck Index. 161 Methods of Air Sampling. 200 Mole fraction. 238. 335–36. 28. 536 Methods of Testing Air Cleaning Devices Used in General Ventilation for Removing Particulate Matter. 531 Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA): certification standards of. 52–53. 564–66 Metering circuit. ionizing radiation exposure. 131. 61. 219–20 Methane. 569 Meter readings. for hazard monitoring. 528. 857 Migration. 878 Methylenedianiline (MDA). Virus. 865 1066 Methylene diisocyanate (MDI). 218. 574 Methyl butyl ketone. 532. 328. 466. Robert D. 67 Min-max strategy. 59. 373 Mine Safety Administration. radioactive. 194 Microwave oven. 161 Mica dust. 217 Monitoring.INDEX McKevitt. 28. See also Evaluation. OSHA evaluation of. 85–86. 304 Mellstrom. noise exposure. 785-86. 92 Mercaptobenzothiazole. 281. 22. required by OSHA. routes of entry. 50 Medical band. 143. 428. modes of transmission. identification of. 172. analysis of air samples. for disinfection. 815. 45 Meissner’s corpuscle. 572 Merkel cell. 268–70. 20. 295–96. 171. 887 Mini-cascade impactor. 361 Melanocyte.. 722-25 Medical facility. 191 Microbial organisms. 28. 202. 53 Mesothelioma. 405–06 Microvacuuming. 536 Mediastinum. 202. 821 Mist. pathology of. 502. 29596. 605. 649 4. 260 Molecular chain. biological effects of. 525 Migrant Legal Action Program. James. 77. 187-88. for respirator use. 189. 39. 23. 64. 427–28. 543 Medical removal protection (MRP). 186 Metallic salt: biological effects of. Health care facility Medical records: employee access to. 252–53. 57. 702–06. 885 Methanol. 527–28 Moderator. 877 Ménière’s disease. 133. 854. 287. 151 Molecule. John E. See also Bacteria. infectious dose. 294 Medical examination. 850 McNamara–O’Hara Service Contracts Act. 374–75 Monaural hearing impairment. 530 Mining. 232–33. 497–505. 365–366 Metabolic rate. 152. 682 Miliaria. 16–17. 500 Mercury vapor lamp. 875 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. 108 Mixed cellulose ester fiber (MCE). 159. time-weighted average (TWA) for. 59. 829 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 359 Middle ear. 61 Mechanical ventilation. biological effects of. occupational health nurse’s role in. 295-96. 68 Methyl ethyl ketone. 769 Medical surveillance: for exposures to particulate matter.. 178–79. 260 Modified duty program. 644 Media blank. 505 Metal. and hearing. 89–91 Midget impinger. 587 Microbiological sampling. 440 Metal oxide semiconductor monitor. measurement of. radiation. 810–11. 133. 131. 219 Microtrauma. G. 815. 173.4-methylene(bis)-2-chloroaniline (MOCA). 222–23. dosimetry. 72. 353. 562. 48. 850. 105 Montoya. 322 Mercury vapor monitor. 235. 60 Merchant. OSHA requirement for. 420–21. 632. preplacement. OSHA requirement for. 15. 811. A. 841 Methylene chloride. 681. See Employee health care facility. 431 . Sampling Monocular vision. 154 Mercuric chloride. 132. 285. Fungus. 28 Mercury. 835. asbestos exposure. 569-70. 653 Microorganism: hazards from. diesel exhaust.. safety guidelines for. 302 Microwave radiation. 300. assessment of. 788. 163 Moran. 838. 151. 668–69. 293–94. exposure guidelines for. field vs. 277 Metal fume fever. Mike. 808 Measles. 173 Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration (MESA). 299–301 Midbrain. 673. 335-36 Metabolite. specific microorganism Microphone. 819. 78 Membranous labyrinth. control of. and OSHA jurisdiction. 459 Mechanical hazard. 237. 789 Mold spores. 428. 299–301. 87 Mendeloff. 749. 502 Medical review officer (MRO). 152 Moment. Velma. establishment of. 500. 865. 345.
882 Neoplasm. sampling guidelines of. 185. 139. 133. 36. 131 Neurotoxic effect. 581. 702–03 Negotiated Rulemaking Act. 577–78 Multispecialtygroup practice. Recommended Exposure Limit (REL). 505. 673. 673. 466. 819. 409 Neurasthenia. Manual of Analytical Methods. 463. 6–7. 431–34. See also National Research Council National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH). 749 National Sanitation Foundation. 466 National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. 240. Testing and Certification Laboratory. organic dust. 233. 894 National Environmental Balancing Bureau (NEBB). and Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act. OSHRC. assigned protection factors. 466. 821. on mine health advisory committee. 510. 427 Nail (finger and toe). latex allergies. 427 Mycotoxicosis. 68 Narcotic. Usery. 650 National Federation of Independent Business. 695 Mycoplasma. 48. 818. material handling guidelines. 810. 502. 420. 411 Negative pressure respirator. 26. 20. 375–76 Mutagen. Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) by. carcino- N gen. 272. 154. 37. 159. 59 Nasopharynx. 834 National Research Council: biosafety publications of.INDEX “De Morbis Artificium Diatriba. 159. 768 Muscle. technical assistance to OSHA by. 673. 237. safety professional’s familiarity with. 859. 749 National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities Act. 818. 877. 448. 13. 37. sorbent tube recommendations of. 85. Proficiency Analytical Testing Program. 857 National Congress of Hispanic American Citizens (El congreso) v. 821. 820 National Stone Associations. 466. 810. marinum. 450. hazards to. 690. 693. 37 National Academy of Science. resources available from. 539. 874. 820–21 National Priority List (NPL) hazardous sites. 856 National Toxicology Program. 511. 822 National Realty and Construction Co. respirator standards of. training by. 375. 66. Donovan. 808 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 519.” 207 Motion-related injury. 409 Motor vehicle safety. 819. 677–79. 868 National Institutes of Health (NIH): biosafety guidelines. 152. 361. 268. 362 Motor nerve. 267. 37 Nasal mucosa. 809. See Cancer Neoprene. 693. 65–66 Natural ventilation. Appalachian Laboratory for Occupational Safety and Health (ALOSH). 431. 333. 432. 737. 105–06 Mucous membrane. heat exposure guidelines. of middle ear. 48 Multisensor arrays. 258. 735. 489. 632 Natural wet bulb temperature. respirator certification by. 237. noise exposure. establishment of. 532. Respirator Design Logic. criteria documents. 160 Natural rubber latex (NRL). 601. Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. 267. 237. definition of. 668. 161 Nasal cavities. as natural defense. 427. 433. 432 Mucus. 448. 60. 337 Nearsightedness. 454 National Safety Council. 692. 37. 887. 830–31. 819. OSHA standards adopted from. 138. 19. 421 Mycosis. 895. 131 1067 . 102–03 Neck tension syndrome. Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS). 489. 166 Nerve. 338. 436. 782. 819. 850 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): fire hazard standards of. 423. Educational Resource Center (ERC). See Cumulative trauma disorder Motion time. 463–64 Myopia. penetration by infectious agent. 868-69 Mucous discharge: of eye. 6. 813. 383. 260. 532. Current Intelligence Bulletin (CIB). 427. 290 National Institute of Standards and Technology. 525. 464 Mycotoxin. hearing protective devices. 882 National Association of Occupational Health Professionals. 466 National Science Foundation. 819. skin injury statistics by. 187. 56. 829. safety professionals’ familiarity with. 878. 878. 443. v. 54. 873. Health Effects Research Laboratory. 357 National Response Center. 544–60. 837. 139. tuberculosis. 572. 134 Mycobacterium. 767 National Cancer Institute. 857 National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). 819. 518. 809. 157. See Mucous membrane Nasal septum. 466 National Congress of Hispanic American Citizens (El congreso) v. 819. 489. 7. standards development by. 818–20. and Bureau of Labor Statistics reporting. occupational health nursing study by. 408 Muscle strength. 819 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). 755. 189. 438. 507. 7. 573. 102–03 Naegleria. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL). Human Subjects Review Board. Committee on Human Factors. 68. 450.
field vs. protective equipment for. Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union. 856 Ohm’s law. 59. 293–94. protective eyewear for. 126. exposure levels. 858. 317–22. measurement of. scientific. measurement of. 207. 295–99. liquid. exposure guidelines. Richard. 314 Nomogram. nonauditory effects. 161 Nitrobenzene. 144 O 1068 . control methods for. effects of. 775. 834. 36–37. 111. 776-77 Occupational health program. 778–81. 297–98. 225. 859 Oil. 161. 395–99 O’Hara (House subcommittee chair) and OSHA farm workers oversight hearing. 848 Oil. 4. 94–97. 882 Office workstation: design of. 28. 221–22 Noise Reduction Rating. 294. code of ethics. 222–23. 395–96. 777. 519 Noise. 201 Olefinic hydrocarbon. 392–405. 11–12. 15. 263 Neutron radiation. See Seat Office of Health and Safety Information System (OHASIS). permissible levels of. vs. 303–06. 107 Observation. 644 Octave-band analyzer. 165 Nixon. certified (COHN). 94–95. 287–88. 496 Office chair. 192 Night blindness. Hughey. OSHRC. 218. 47. 285 Oil and gas drilling. 854. 697 Occupational Exposure Sampling Strategy Manual. 242–55 Occupational physician. role in occupational health program. 62–63 Nickel salt. radiation. 808. 831. 14. 825. 864 Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). 165 Nitroalkane. 870. functions of. 746 Occupational skin disease. 223–24 Nominal hazard zone (NHZ). 767 Occupational medicine physician. 293–94. biological effects of. standards of practice of. 4 Occupational health nurse (OHN). 813–15 Occupational hearing conservationist (OHC). 263 Neutron capture. 524 Nitrogen oxide. 818. 174. 6. 856 Newton’s laws of motion. 489. 281 Nystagmus. 6. 130. 638. 852. and solvent hazard control. 28991. 69. 293. 765 Occupational Medicine Board Examination. 224. 14. 192. 433 Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). See OSHAct Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 260. Chemical & Atomic Workers International Union v. subradiofrequency. 15–16. 4. Sound Noise dosimeter. and medical (ISM) bands. 260. 302. 765–73 Occupational Safety and Health Act. synergistic effects. 218. 861. 216–17. ultraviolet. 728–29 Occupational health hazards. City of Akron. 877 Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (OSHRC). optical. 11. See also Hearing. 108. impact. 242–43. 848 Oil gland. continuous. 208. 238. 217. 812. 233 Noise survey. 261. 183. sound. 6. 54. 281–325. 303. See Dermatosis Occupied zone. OSHA evaluation of. 845. 6. 776. sampling device for. 127 No-effect level. 846. 235–36 Occupational medicine. 106 Nitrate. scope of practice of. 15. 4. 508 Occupational health and safety team. 224–25. and industrial hygiene program. 208. 374 Nickel allergy. for hazard evaluation. 24. 173.INDEX Neutron. exposure monitoring. 161. 288–91. 208. goal of. 164 Occupational health and safety technologist (OHST). 60 Nitric acid. reduction. health problems from. 229–30. for lasers. 260. 850 Nose. 227. 95. 569 Nitro compound. 238. 11–12. and posture. 15. from fan. 291–93. 835 Ohio Manufacturers’ Association v. 443–44. infrared. 172. 162-63. microwave. 220–21 Odor. 452 Office of Management and Budget (OMB). 263 New Directions Grants Program. nontechnical guidelines. 496–97 Obstructive bronchopulmonary disease. 226–33. 50 Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 261. 782. 765–73 Occupational Noise Exposure. intermittent. 46 Obstructive ventilatory defect. 800-02 models of. 832 No Observable Effect Level (NOEL). 154 Nitrogen dioxide: and air pollution. 306–07. 782. 782–84. 59. 504. 131. 161. exposure guidelines for. 337 Nonionizing radiation. 234. in manufacturing. 295–99. 153. 313–15. 55 Oil mist. industrial. 498. 808. See OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Reporter. exposure factors. 86061. 847. controls for. 11. 153 Nitrogen. 4. radiofrequency. 58 Nitric oxide. 825. 16. video display terminals. 4. pulsed. 302–03. 267 Nucleus (of atom). 299–301. 208. 207-12. 46 Occupational exposure limits (OEL). 784-91. 226. 303–07. 303–05. 240. biological effects of. 875 Occupational safety and health technologist (OSHT). respiratory hazards from. 220–21. 24 Nitrohydrocarbon. 301-02 Northwest Airlines OSHRC review. 876 New Jersey State Chamber of Commerce v. 285-87. 283. definition of. 775.
816–17. 840. for ethylene oxide. air-sampling worksheet. history of. 108. 100 Organic chemistry. for asbestos. 812–13. 874. 813. 812–13. for ethyleneimine. 856. history of. 790. 829 OSHAct. 885 OSHA’s Failure to Establish a Farmworker Field Sanitation Standard Hearing. cost-effectiveness approach for. 865. general responsibilities. Industrial Hygiene Field Operations Manual (IHFOM). 881. 812.INDEX Olfactory nerve. 733. 868. 854. 604. 810. 809. 832. butadiene. Training Institute. state plans. 734. 884. 827–28. 420. 887. biological effects of. for confined spaces. for compressed air for cleaning. 827. 838 Organ of Corti. 858 OSHA standard: Access to Employee Exposure and Medical Records. biological effects of. 850. 840. 882. 876. 303. 826. 836–37. 828. 101 Optometrist. 144 Organized Migrants in Community Action v. 733. 884–885. 603–05. 833. for coke oven emissions. 854. 868. 832. compliance programs for. Job Safety and Health Quarterly. 854. 158. history of. 839. 853. 867. for ergonomic hazards. 189. 689. Voluntary Protection Program (VPP). emergency temporary standard (ETS). Cooperative Compliance Program (CCP). 852. 839. 842–43. 253–54. 510. for cotton dust. 853. 867. 604. 864–65. 827. 826-27. 511. 847–48. 825–26. 725. 888. 875. 885. Federal Agency Safety Programs. 305-06. 841. 845. jurisdictional issues. 883-84. 61. citation by. 843–44. 844. controls for. 131 Organic solvent. for arsenic. petrochemical industry special-emphasis program (PetroSEP). 840. 87 Organophosphate pesticides. 844. 810. 863. 835–36. 106. 877. See Body core temperature Ora serrata. sampling by. 673. 306–07. 873. 838. Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines. 851–52. history of. 101 Oral temperature. 815. 6. 871. 414. 809. 838. 466. 895. 838. 159. form 200 record-keeping log. 828. 131 OMB. training program for industrial hygienists. 856. 826–27. Toxic Substances List. 111. whistle-blower provision. 158 Organic dust toxic syndrome. cost–benefit analysis for. employer responsibilities under. 887. 812. history of. 828. 867. 833. State Plan Task Group. respirator cleaning procedures. 876. 865. measurement of. 839. for agriculture. 830–31. 831. 847. 887. 888. 37. 838–39. 101 Opticians Association of America. 869. 831. and occupational medicine. 843. 869. 543. 813–16. 858. 196. Technical Manual. 869–71. New Directions grant pro- gram. See Carcinogen Oncogenesis. and oversight. 853–55. 878–79. protective eyewear for. 150. 833. 876. 844. National Emphasis Program (NEP). 875. 604 OSHA Appropriations Act. 722. 138–39. 502. 112. history of. 138–39. Integrated Management Information System (IMIS).2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP). multi-employer citation policy. 447. citation appeals. 152–54. 877. Division of Training and Educational Development. Field Inspection Reference Manual (FIRM). 814–15. 868. 845–47. for beryllium. 808–09. 303–05. 854. 841. tuberculosis infection control plan. 841. Office of Training and Education. 577 Ophthalmologist. amendments. recommendations on workplace violence. 885. for diving. 860. history of. Division of Administration and Training Information. 810. 853. 307. evaluation of. 871–72. 815–16. photochemical effects of. toxic substances list. 863. 858. inspection by. 721–22. cumulative trauma disorder program. 303. riders. 871. 810. 502. 159. consultation service. 862–63. for benzene. 852. NIOSH certification authorized by. medical surveillance of PEL effectiveness. 102 Optical density (OD). for electricity. home work place. compliance activity. 882–83. 813. 871. 604. 152 Organic compound. 722–25. for acrylonitrile. 834–35. 838. 846. 450. 57. 841. checks and balances for. 876. 876. 185 Open path infrared analyzer. for construction industry. 237. for eye and face 1069 . 869–71. 832–33. hazard abatement verification. 711–21. 880. breath analysis for. 839.816. 599. 840. 848–50. field operations. 152. 489. 869–70. 494. 882–86. 827. 812–13. thermal effects of. 812. 870. 884. history of. 237. 317. respirator user seal check procedures. history of. for 1. 868. history of. 504 Occupational acne. 732–33. testing laboratory qualifications. enforcement of. history of. 807. 861. 807–09. 816. for bloodborne pathogens. Compliance Manual. history of. reorganization of. 826. 798–800. 819. employee participation under. 766. provisions of. exposure guidelines for. 868. 854–55. 840. 858. 845. 6. 101 Ophthalmoscope. 846. for carcinogens. 138–39. 66–67 OSHA. universal coverage. 68. occupational health program evaluation by. 839. program structure. 838. 517–18. 598. cadmium. “common-sense” enforcement policy of. 860. 840. 201 Organic phosphate. 856. standardsetting process defined by. 755. 735. 138–39. Voluntary Training Guidelines. 808. 878. 306 Optical radiation. 880. 844. 849. 810. 829–30. 851–52. 840. See also Infrared radiation. 888. criminal violations of. respirator medical evaluation questionnaire. 463 Organic particles. Division of Training and Educational Programs. 832–33. 733. 814. 303. 873 Oncogen. 733. 541-42. respiratory protection program. respirator fit test protocols. See Office of Management and Budget Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA). Laser. 878. Brennan. 881. Ultraviolet radiation Optician. 789–90.
810. suppurative. requested for tuberculosis. for personal protective equipment. 189-92. See Cumulative trauma disorder Oxalic acid. 159. 219. setting process. steel industry. 157. 810–838. history of. for monitoring exposure. 60. 35. 72 Patty’s Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. vertical. 591. 170. 689-90. size. for radiofrequency and microwave exposure. 178. for sanitation facilities regulation. 859. 193-94. 702–710. 878. 24. and asphyxiants. 466. organic. for flammable and combustible liquid handling. 202. 872 Perchloric acid. history of. 495. exposure limits for. 47–48. effects of. 198. See Cumulative trauma disorder Otitis media: nonsuppurative. 888. 810. 856. 881. for noise. 855. for protective clothing. 815. 838. inhalation of. monitoring exposure to. methylene chloride. 502. 508. 881. 16. 202. sample collection device for. horizontal. 866. 861. for respirators. 879. for methylenedianiline (MDA). 42 Ozone: atmospheric. 260 Paperwork Reduction Act. 364 Overuse disorder. 845. 827. 639. for vinyl chloride. dual-phase monitoring. 840. 216. 62. 203 Parker. 879. 881. 811. 866. for lockout/tagout (LOTO). natural defense against. 838. Toxic and Hazardous Substances. 878. 860–61. Occupational and Environmental Control. 85. 173-75 Passive monitor. 684. 48. start-up. See also Action limit. 839. 21–22. 8. 810–811. 567-68. 170. 183 Peak expiratory flow (PEF). 672 1070 Oxygen-deficient atmospheres. 811–12. 361 Pair production. 527. for oil and gas drilling. 839. 820–21. 811. for motor vehicle safety. 881–82. 441 Paraquat. 181–82. history of. 675–79. radioactive. 28 Permeability. 867. 46 Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). 180. 604. Hazard Communication. 649. history of. for process safety management. 602. 863–64. Chicago Magnet Wire Corp. 41. requested for chromium. 888. 848. 644. 65. 809–11. 815. 868. 47 Particle deposition. 23–24. 673. 166. 854. 360. 651-53 Oval window (of ear). for record keeping. 74. 874. history of. 238. for pesticides. history of. 89. history of. history of. 858. 20. 527–31. for grain elevators. in respiration. for hazardous waste management. 70. 616. respirators for. 87 Perimeter. 877.INDEX protection. 838. 859. biological monitoring. 867. 290. 150. 860. 191 Parasite. 877. 131. 571–72. for sulfur dioxide. 291. 815. 201. 671. 879. 11. 681 Peres. 878. Permissible exposure limit. 829. 858. 86 Overloading. 810. 224–25. maritime. size-selective sampling and analysis. 604. 882. biological reactions. 857–58. 102 Peripheral nervous system. 632. 22. 877. monitoring of. 160. 175–77. 159 PCB. 406 Perilymph. 855–56. Barrington. nuisance. for lighting. Short-term exposure limit. 240. 28. 866. 839. 838. history of. 811. 307. Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA) required for. 828. 881. 41. 124–25. 4. John. 874. for wheel rim servicing. 427 Parathion. 114 Permanganate. history of. 860–61. 863-64. 831 Paronychia. 868. 864 Papilla. 110. 90–91 Osteoarthrosis. 28. See Polychlorinated biphenyl Peak above ceiling. 201–02. 144. 85-86. 138. 573 P Pacemaker. surface sampling. 163. 866–67. 359. for lead. 192. 41–44. hazards from. 420.. 89 Otosclerosis. 131. 861. 881. 819. not otherwise classified (PNOC). 839. for laser hazard. 617–18 Oxygen: acids. 359. 840. 888. 161. 810. 200 Pentachlorophenol. 839. respirator selection. 811. logging. 163. 97–98. 76. longshoring. 882. for shipyards. 695 People v. 865. 851. for indoor air quality. 838–40. 53 Paraformaldehyde. direct-reading monitor for. 58 Oxidizing material. 68 Particulate: air cleaners. 466. 94 Permanent visual impairment. 23. history of. 844. for training. 60. 757. 839. 178–85. 132. 854. 130.4-methylene (bis)-2-chloroaniline (MOCA). 604. for field sanitation. 573 Patch test. 20. 865. 392 Pendergrass. 139. performance. 508. N. history of. 667. 689. 808. 881. V. permit-required confined spaces. 810. 160.. for trichloroethylene. 832. 237. 408 Peripheral neuropathy. 129. NIOSH recommendations for. 489. 579-80. definition of. 90–91 Outdoor air. 302 Pacinian corpuscle. 859. Timeweighted average Ossicles. shape. for power presses. J. 808. 298-99. 229. 840. 886. 329 . 46 Peak flow meter. 827. 703 Oxygen tension. 203 Pentamidine. 599. for medical surveillance. 317. 365. history of. 185–86. 154 Perchloroethylene. direct-reading monitor for. Hearing Conservation Amendment. for respiratory protection. 7. for sound level meters. 237. types of. 815. 466. 48. 47-48 . 308–09. 869. 169. for general industry. 869 Penicillium. 869. 494–95. allergenic. 816–17. 854. 46 Pedal. 808. violation of. 500 Permanent threshold shift (PTS).
842. 66 Phototoxicity. 188. 578 Positive-pressure respirators. 166. transmission. 260. 577 Photoallergy. for asbestos. 153 Phenolic. and action level. 316. for airborne contaminants. 172. 173. 426. 46. clothing. 201 Polyol. 151. 863. 864–65. and weather. 810. 47 Pneumonitis. for radioactive particulate control. See Medical examination Physical hazard. 37. 281 Polarization. proposed for gluteraldehyde. Teratogenesis Preliminary noise survey. for particulates. 440. 74–75. for cotton dust. 130. 202. for solvent hazard control. history of. 262 Postal Employees Safety Enhancement Act. 489. 40. history of. 881. 70 Photophobic eye. 840 Petroleum products. 47. 58 Potassium hydroxide. 104 1071 . 61. 279. proposed for trimellitic anhydride. proposed for carbon disulfide. 703 Picric acid. 841. 887 Posture. 58 Potentiometer. 110. 66 Phototropic lenses. 166 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) filter. 138. 450. 523 Personal protective equipment. history of. 112 Physical examination. for formaldehyde. for solvents. 431 Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). 421 Pleating. 198. 208. 844. 573 Phosphorus pentoxide. 682–84. 856. from dust. 185. 24. 74–75. 506. 166. for skin. 524 Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). 861–62. 838. 62. 881. 105–06 Pitch. 159 Pfiesteria piscicida. for zoonotic diseases. 28 Photoacoustic spectrometer. 879. 171. 508. 865. 76–77. for solvents and gases. 396–401 Potash. proposed for butadiene. 409 Pharynx. 815. for arsenic. noise dose. 633. See also Noise. 829. 102. See Reproductive hazard. 489 Polarity (of electric field). 677 Pleura. history of. 160. 881. proposed for hydrozine. 703 Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection. 66 Photoelectric effect. 693 Precision rotameter. 47. 165–67. 260 Photopatch test. 538–39 Pregnancy. 107–09. 500 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). 60. 600. 839. 28 Potassium cyanide. 197 Polarographic detector. 165. 845. 568 Poliovirus vaccine. 88 Pink eye. 59 Phenylmercury compound. 151–52 Permissible heat exposure limit (PHEL). 703 Positron. 348. 55. 197 Phenol. and sampling. for benzene. 162. 92. 869. 102 Phosgene. 69. and chemical inventory. 700–01. 603. 50 Phase-contrast microscopy (PCM). Heat stress Physician or other licensed healthcare professional (PLHCP). 166–67. 47 Plutonium. 25. 575 Photon. for coke oven emissions. See Biological toxin Plasmodium. 458. 171 Pneumonia. 63. 58. 223 Preplacement examination. 626 Plant toxin.INDEX Permissible exposure limit (PEL). 66 Photosensitizer. history of. for building-related illness control. 865. 167 Practices for Respiratory Protection for the Fire Service. Protective eyewear. 225. 441 Phenylhydrazine. 192. 455. 295 Polarized light minerological analysis (PLM). 865. 879. Respirator Perspiration. sources of. 138–39. 161 Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gloves. See Sweat Pesticide. for lead. 456. 602–03. 344 Personal monitoring (sampling). setting procedure for. 8. 183. 224. 880. protective eyewear. coal workers’. 598–99. for methylenedianiline. 772 Presbycusis. 185. 60 Phoropter. 215 Presbyopia. 260 Photoionization detector. 47. 30. 863–64. 158. See Petroleum products Pitot-tube devices. 63. 28. 158 Pneumothorax. 132. 881. 569 Powered air-purifying respirator. See also Gloves. 865. 47 Pleurisy. 61–62. 843. 76–78. 133. for tuberculosis. history of OSHA regulation of. history of. 11–17. OSHA requirement for. and dermatosis. 527–28 Pontiac fever. 498–99. 341 Personal hygiene. 810. proposed for methylene chloride. for thermal stress. for cadmium. 586. for carbon tetrachloride. 40. 106 Photosensitivity. 178. for glycol. for biological hazards. 354. 440. 178. 839. for thermal stress control. 454–55. 58 Pigmentary abnormalities. respirators. 183. Hearing-protective device. 456 Portable gas chromatographs. 465 Phalen’s test for carpal tunnel syndrome. 67 Pinna. 753. 840. 59. 865. 278 Pneumoconiosis. 189. 865. 7. 40 Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. 430.
137–138 Protective clothing. 302–03. 426. 852. 171. 166–67. 275. See Ionizing radiation. 858 Public Citizen Health Research Group v. 591-92. 304. irritant fume protocol. for skin hazard control. 494–95. 620–25. 173. 765 Randot stereo test (depth perception). 615 Radian. 634-36 Pus. 822 Public Law 91-173. respiratory effects of. 703 Preventing Illness and Injury in the Workplace. 106. 276–77 Radionuclides. 297–98. 299–301 Radioisotope. See Maritime Safety Act Public Law 91-54. 264 Radiation-producing machine. 412 Propanol. 602 Rad. 487 Process flow sheet. 261. Nonionizing radiation. 61 Proton. 113. 422. 43–44. 603 Protein allergen. Bernadino. 260. 55–56. 72–73. 111–112. See Silica dust Quaternary ammonium compound. protocol. 49–50. See Personal protective equipment Protective eyewear. 260.INDEX Pressure. for solvent hazard control. 188. 531 Pressure demand respirator. 114. Auchter. 15. See Construction Safety Amendments Pulaski v. and air movement. 124 Puncture. 270 Radiation field. 684 Radiospectroscopy. 62 Radiofrequency radiation. 111. 161 Propeller fans. 421 Psittacosis. 420 Protein precipitants. 188. 60 Pyroelectric detector. 361 Prospective study. 185 Pulmonary mycosis. See Ionizing radiation. 212 Rate of convective heat exchange by respiration. 28. isoamyl acetate protocol. goggles. 106 Prion. 12–13. 111. 303 Purging (dilution ventilation). 349. measurement of. 309. 331 Primary irritant: dermatitis from. 62. 440 Quick Selection Guide to Chemical Protective Clothing. 19. 488 Psychrometric wet bulb temperature. 430 Psoriasis. 30. 105 Raoult’s law. 443 Radioactive decay. 858 Public Health Service. 158. 406. 603. for noise control. 16. 603 Radiant heat exchange rate. for visual display terminal use. 818. 362 Pruritus. 703. 425. 281 Protozoa. 821 Radon progeny. sunglasses. for lasers. 183. 427. 703. 316 Qualitative fit testing. and air sampling. 328 Radiation. 28. California Occupational Safety and Health Standards Board. 129 Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). 698–99. 329 R . 48. fitting. 603. 305 Radiant heat. 855 Public Citizen Health Research Group v. 712–17. 15. exposure guidelines for. field vs. biological effects of. 198 Radium. 158. palmar. 63. 151 Rare faction. 260 Radar. See Federal Mine Safety and Health Act Public Law 91-596. 208. See Microorganism Proximal stimulus. compensating devices. 28. in respiration. 110. 854. 638 Proprioceptor. spectacles. 277 Radioactive particles. 61. 426. 295–96. 430 Q-switching. 866 Professional engineer. 188 Ramazzini. for welding. 188. 57. 317 Quartz. See OSHAct Public Law 85-742. 295–301. See Laceration 1072 Pupil. 717–21. plastic vs. 110. for solvent hazard control. dosimetry. 106 Pyrethrum. 696–97. 110. specific radiation Radiation counter. 166–67. 539. 421 Process analysis. 285–87. for optical radiation hazards. 492–93 Process modification. 314. 329 Rate of evaporative heat loss. 762 Prokaryote. 67. 697–98 Quality factor (Q). 63 Psychological hazard. 295-99. 47. 264 Radioactive metals. specific radiation Radiodermatitis. 111. changes. 281 Radial-blade fans. 198 Radioactivity. 263 Quantitative fit testing. 421 Pronator (teres) syndrome. 699–700 Quantum detector. 276 Radiation Protection Guides. 293–94. glass. 164–65 Process safety management. 888 Pulmonary edema. 698. 697. 490. 347. 260. 6. saccharin and Bitrex solution aerosol protocol. 454. 825 Prickly heat. 336 Public Citizen. 64. 272 Radiation safety committee (RSC). radiation. 260 Radon. 170. control of. 72 Pseudomonas. 207. 422. 317 Q Q fever. Tyson. 167. 227. 101. 430 Pulmonary ventilation.
690–91 Respiratory inlet covering. Wilhelm. 106. 688. 600–02. 427 Rod monochromatism. 600–02. 689. 600-01. 425 Rickettsial agent. 877 Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA). 854 Relative humidity (RH). 857 Rubber manufacturing. 675-88. 135. 704. 45. positive-pressure. 710. 684-86. and particulates. 362 Reactive scrubbing. 675–82. OSHA form 200 log. medical aspects of use of. 789–90. 100. 267 Recommended alert limit (RAL) for heat stress. 20–21. 600. gas/vapor-removing. 165. radiation effects on. 519 Regulated area. 459 Ribavirin. 710. 303–04 Roentgen. 413. See Cumulative trauma disorder Rhinitis. 645. 124–25. 671–72. 240. 696. 692–93. self-contained breathing apparatus. 688–96. 673. See Evaluation Risk management. determination. and United Auto Workers v. administration. 172–73. user seal check. 861. 443 Recommendations for the Safe Use and Regulation of Radiation Sources in Industry. maintenance and storage. Johnson Controls Inc. 11. 160–61 Regional musculoskeletal disorder. 61 Reflective clothing. schematic drawing of. 102 Refrigerant. for solvents. 383 Record keeping. 267–68. 105 Rods (of retina). 48 Renovation workers. 367 Raynaud’s phenomenon. 53 Retina. 36 Response time. 832. 647 Rheumatic disease. 162. Injection Rowland. aerosol-removing. 427 Repetitive motion injury. 839. 304 Retrospective study. 134. 349 Refraction equipment. 617 Reactivity. 86 Route of entry (of hazardous material). 159. for heat stress. 101. decision. 688. 362 Restrictive ventilatory defect. 101. 7 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). 877. assigned protection factor (APF). 722. selection of. for health care facilities. 502. 41–46. 41–46 Respirator. from lead. 183. of work-related illnesses and injuries. 695. combination self-contained breathing apparatus and air-line. from radiofrequency and microwave radiation. worksite-specific procedures. 134. 489. 60 Rotating vane anemometer. 65. 854 Receiving hood. 800. 815 Regulating Safety. 707–08. 626 Rotenone. 68. Medicine. 246. 821 Residual volume (RV). 152. 134. seat designs of. 703–04.INDEX Rate of evaporative heat loss by respiration. Inhalation. 827. air-purifying. 702 Respiratory protection program. atmosphere-supplying. 601. 45. 667. from glycol. 407 Reproductive hazard. regulations for. diagnostic Root-mean-square (rms) sound pressure. 882 Redesigned Occupational Safety and Health (ROSH). 689 Respiratory system. 131 Respiratory hazard. 675–79. 869 Rosin. 260 Roentgenogram. 839. 668 Respirator Selection Table. 138. 851. 420. 22–24. 48. 873 Reducer. 137 Return air register. 303–04 Retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). from ionizing radiation. 695 Rickettsia. 700–01. 79 Rubella. 129. 759–60 Rocky Mountain spotted fever. for hearing conservation program. causes of. See Cumulative trauma disorder Repetitiveness. 601. evaluation. 672-73. 821-22 Respirable dust curves. 682-84. Research and Teaching. 329 Rating of perceived exertion. 190 Respiration. for tuberculosis control. 46 Resin. 132. 171. 425. 611 Recombinant DNA. 670 Respiratory center. 673. 265 Roentgen (R). See X ray. 815. Robert. 47–48. and chemical inventory. 684–88. 680–82. airsupplying. 878. 260 Roentgen equivalent man (rem). 839. classes of. 851. 425 Ridder. fit testing. 46. 409. 338 Recommended exposure limit (REL). for fire fighting. inflammation of. 668-73. airline. 60 Round window (of ear). 450. 601. 60. powered air-purifying. combination air-purifying and atmosphere-supplying. cleaning procedures. 46 Reticular dermis. Ingestion. 669-70. See Cumulative trauma disorder Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS). 26. natural defenses. Ronald. 429. combination aerosol filter/gas or vapor removing. See also Absorption. 105. 861. 7. 63. 681–82 Renal injury. Linda. 260 Roentgen absorbed dose (rad). 668. OSHA requirement for. 429 1073 . 105. 450. 696–701. 295. 402 Risk assessment. 351 Reaction time. See also Teratogenesis Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act. 675-84. 686–88. 165. 212 Rosenstock. 181–82. 450. 338 Recommended weight limit (RWL). 18. 190 Respirable mass fraction. 85. 151 Reagan. record keeping. 36–37.
and workplace design. 191 Silicates. 825. 499–500. 686–87. 850 Sanitation facilities. 158 Silica gel tubes (adsorption). 276 Safety and health committee. See Vision Silane. 516–19. 277. See also Containment. Evaluation. 524–31 Sampling. 794. 270 Sclera. for particulates. 78–79. 498–99. 61. integrated. 863. 46. absorption. for formaldehyde. legionellae. 272–74. adsorption. 173 Silicon dioxide. 743–64. 571. 183. 830 Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning National Association (SMACNA). 527 Silica dust. See also Metallic salt Sample collection device. closed circuit. See Department of Labor Secretary v.INDEX Rubner. 197 Schistosoma. stand-seat. 506–07. for benzene. codes and standards. Biological sampling. 174. OSHRC. 185. See Dermatitis. 816. See Protective eyewear Safety inspection. 524 Sampling train. 525–27. 753 Salmonella. 160.. 426 Sine waves. 524. 25. 858. 462. 364 Sin nombre hantavirus. 688. 506. 498–99. 62–63 Shapiro. 128. OSHA setting procedure for. 802 Safety Equipment Institute (SEI). 529 Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). 751–72. 752–53 Safety investigation and analysis. 297 Safety professional. See Diving Seat. 524. certified (CSP). 293. 590. 573 Safety Fundamentals Examination. 884 Secretary of Labor v. 639–40 Short-term exposure limit (STEL). escape. Healy v. 427 S S. 505. accuracy and precision of. results interpretation. dermatitis from. 571–72. and industrial hygienist. 64. 599. 60 Shielding. 69 Secondary irritant. 409 Sensory perception. for asbestos. 182. and chronic exposure. for radiation and radiant heat. 525–27. 510–12. 743–47 Safety program. allergic contact Sensitizer. 182. See also Allergen. 73–74 Sawtooth waveform. 432 Salt. 283 Single-zone constant-volume system (HVAC). 675 Self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA). 886 Saccharin and Bitrex solution aerosol protocol. 423. 703. open circuit. 65. 16 . Gerard. by OSHA. associate (ASP). 693. John T. method. See also Air sampling. 524. 860 Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). 24. 6. 423 Shivering. of water. 344. 841 Sensitization dermatitis. 524–31. duties of. 361 Russian spring summer fever. 865. 876 Shaver’s disease. 20. 524. 393 Sebaceous gland. record keeping for. directreading instrument for. 260. 753–54 Safety in the Federal Workplace Hearings. 882 Sedimentation (particle settling). for gases and vapors. 599. 749. 426 Simple reaction time. A.. 47. 136. 802. 92 Sensory nerve. Howard. 54 Second-degree burns. 398–99. 427. 536 Samuel. See Silica dust Silicosis. Union Tank Car Co. 697–98 Safe Handling of Radionuclides.. 173. scope and function of. 703 Sewage. 79. environmental. Monitoring Sampling and analytical error (SAE). equipment purchasing. 687 Selikoff. passive. 505–12. Arcadian Corporation. 525. and safety inspections. Isolation Shigella. 129 Secretary of Labor. 260 Sight. 20. D. 400–03.. for ethylene oxide. 4. contributions to ergonomics by. 849 Schwope. 527. active. Richard. and sampling time. 427 Sex. 508. Jack J. 459-60. 183. 302–03. 802 Safety technician. 511 Sampling pump. 78 Scintillation counter. for carbon tetrachloride. collection device for. 428 Scholz. grab. 671. 808 Service life. 301 Scannel. 101 Scotoma. 64–65. 362. 495–96 Serum banking. Enclosure. 260. 864. 877 Schweiker. 456–57. biological Sensorineural hearing loss. 506–10. 20. 100. for heat stress control. 762. area. 178. 644–645 Sinus. 154. and exposure guidelines. 863. 524–27. Sidney. 421 1074 Scuba diving. 525–27. Irving. endotoxins. 140. 459 Sievert (Sv). 178. personal. See Pneumoconiosis Sheehan. 508. 753. 814–15. 350 Short-circuiting. 173. 841 Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields. 508 Sick-building syndrome (SBS). 63. 839. 761–62. 650 Shellac. 762 Safety glasses. 392. A. 489. 304 Scrapie. 444 Service Contracts Act. 358 Ruffini organ.
296. 894 Sodium. 809. Dorothy Y. information references. generation. 621–22. 297 Specification for Personal Noise Dosimeters. 8 Strain. 812. 807. 425. 440 Stevens. 152–54. 361 Sorbent cartridges and canisters. S. 295. diffraction. 39. 392. 212–14 Sound waves. defense mechanisms. 408 A Strategy for Assessing and Managing Occupational Exposures. sampling monitor for. John H. 85-86 Staphylococcus. 407 Static pressure. noise. 367 Storage. 464 Stack. 283. 625. 211 Speech. 821. properties of. 376–78 Strontium-90. Dermatosis Skin notation. 612-15 Standard operating procedure (SOP): for industrial hygiene program. 827. 11. 566 Solvent-repellent cream. 672 Sound. 48 Snellen chart. cold hazard to. 165. 66 Spinal cord. vs. 94. 611 Smair ring. John Paul. 191 Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA). 61. See Cigarette smoking Sneeze. before OSHAct. 64. v. 612 Static strength. 397. Inc. 856 State Implementation of Federal Standards Hearings. 352. See Dermatitis. exhaust. Dermatosis Skin irritation. Noise Sound level contour. 837 Stenosis. 215. 208. 150. and thermal balance. See also Dermatitis. organic. 152–54. 25. 754 Steiger. 69 Sling psychromter. 576–77 Spectroscopic analysis. 208–16. chemical absorption. 210. 392. properties of. classification of. 397–99. See Cleaning and maintenance Spina Bifida Association of America. 211–12 Spill. 871–72. 826. 794-95 Standard Practice for Measuring the Concentration of Toxic Gases or Vapors Using Length-of-Stain Dosimeters. 821 Solubility. 159. 304–05. H.. 55–56. 222. 384–86 Soap. 236 Spectacles.INDEX Sitting. 525 Spirometry. 110 Spectrometer. 211 Southern Railway v. 195 Spectrum. 330. 834 Specific absorption (SA). 856. 690. 96. weighting. measurements. 149. 653 Slit-lamp microscope. 40 Stapes. 853 Static muscle tension. 59 Sodium cyanide. 295 Specific absorption rate (SAR). 18–19 Statistical method of analysis. hearing. 536. 843 Stevens’s rating of perceived exertion. 836. biological effects of. 212–14. 760 Stachybotrys chartarum. 216. 401-03 Skin. OSHRC. 105 Sterilization. 212–15. 150 Solvent. pressure. 222–26. 75 Somatic nervous system. 104 Snook. 669 Spot-checking. OSHA. 162–63 Smoke. surveys. 833. 46. 359 Somesthetic sensors. 58 Sodium hydroxide. 89 Steradian. 102 Slot hood. 159–62. 222 Specifications for Audiometers. 61. pressure level. 198 Solid Waste Disposal Act. 840 Society of Toxicology. 576–77 Spectrophotometer. 653 Smoking. 55. 217 Speed of light. 60 Soap-bubble meter. 150. 853. 213. William A. 832. 440 Software. 28. 101–02. 163–64. 22. 171 Smoke tube tests. 58. 835. 154. 194 Smog. 424 State and local regulations: ANSI and NFPA standards. 305 Stereoscopic vision. 861. 63. protective. 234.. 536-37 Soap stone. 101. See Computerized industrial hygiene system Solid-state scintillator. 150. control methods for. 894 Society of Plastics Industry. 361 Spiral absorber. 59. aureus. 208. right-to-know law. 285 Speed of sound. 199. 51–56. evaluating hazard of. 173 Sodium hypochlorite. 224 Sound level meter. radiation effects on. 224 Sound power level. 260 Strunk. 212. 8. 466 Society of Manufacturing Engineers. 304 Stratum malphigii.. power. 304 Strength. human reaction. 627–29 Static pressure regain. 796 Stratum corneum. 262. 732 1075 . 640. 830. 836–38. 571 Standards of Occupational Health Nursing Practice. 361 Spinal nerves. 28. 376 Static work. 776–77 Standing. 208. 164–67. See also Hearing. 218–20. under OSHAct. 150 Solute. 837 Stender.. of dangerous chemicals.
151. extremes. See Cold stress. 61 Surface sampling. for aliphatic hydrocarbons. 28. 16. 134. and concentration of airborne contaminant. 317 Thermal stress. 88. 409 Tendon. 761 Third-degree burns. 336–37. 760–61 T Talc. 841. 68. 576 Thermal detector. reactions. 53–54 Swedish Board for Technical Accreditation (SWEDAC). 807. 759 Supply air. 289–90. 500. 138. 55. 141–42. effects on skin. See Thermal balance Temporary threshold shift (TTS). 191. 130. 653. 290–91. 304 Superaural protector. 412 Thoracic Particulate Mass (TPM). 191 Thorium. 489. 55. 106. 29. 408 Tennis elbow. 350. 191. 860–61. measurement of. Heat stress. 28 Target organ. 69. 861. and skin. 591 Substitution of process. from lead. 234 Threshold audiometry. 234 Threshold Limit Value (TLV). for carbon tetrachloride. 829. 38 Sweat. 69 Third-party inspections. 289. 408 Synovitis. 160. secondary calibration. 293. 58. 28. 56. 647 Testes. calibration parameters for. 160. 68–69 Systems safety. 62. 201 Sunburn. 328-29. extremes Thermo-anemometer. 874 Superfund Extension Act. 343. and vapor pressure. 562. 409 Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturers Association v. 757. and fetal infection. 353–54 Thermal conductivity detector. primary calibration. 24. 100 Taylor Diving and Salvage Co. 16. for cold stress. 38. 55. from radiation. 420. 160 Textile workers. 637. See also Body core temperature. particulate. for fluorine. See Process modification Suction pump (for air-sampling device). 62. 854–55. static magnetic field. 754. 268–69 Thermoregulation. Johnson Controls Inc. 681 Subcutaneous layer. 100 Teeth. 112 Sunlight. 350 Thermal comfort zone. 844 Tears. 136. decisions affecting OSHA. 411 Tenosynovitis.INDEX Styrene. 287. 53 Subradiofrequency radiation: biological effects of. 159. for aniline. 73. 810. 861 Terminal devices. 344 Sweat gland. 68 Temperature: and concentration calculation. 53. 288 Substitution of equipment. Brennan. for direct current electric fields. 16. 524. 55. 139. 399. 134. Heat stress Temperature regulation. 531. 68. 409. 17. outdoor. diquat dibromide. 61. adopted by states before OSHAct. 644 Supply diffuser. control methods for. 839 Sulfur hexafluoride. 67. 134. 427 Thallium. 151. Temperature. for coal dust. 644 Supreme Court. 875. 757. 867. 44 Thoracic outlet syndrome. 191. 296 Testing and balancing (HVAC system). 577 Surface lipid film. 170. 55. 885–86 Surface acoustic wave detectors. 296 1076 Tarsal gland. 822. for cadmium oxide. adopted as OSHA standard. and United Auto Workers v. 848. v. 352. 232 Superfund. 183. 567. 131. and thermal balance. and indoor air quality. 302 Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees (TCO). 131. 327. 536–39. 428–29 Swallowing. for carbon monoxide. and eye protection. 872. 330. 576 Sulfuric acid. 173. 625–26 Thermoluminescence detector (TLD). 24. 822 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). 841 Systemic toxin. for . 295. 47. 517. 173 Threshold audiogram. 874 Susceptibility. 16 Telangiectasia. 191 Tannic acid. training. 536–37. decision. for benzene. 739. 690. 291-92. and chemical inventory. 287. 160. 864. 54–55. 140. 575. 12–13. for chemical asphyxiants. 135. 753 Thoracic cage. natural defense against. 54–55. 29. 184 Thermal balance. uses of. 12. 304–05 Sunglasses. 625 Synergism. 633. See Antagonistic action Synovial fluid. documentation of. 843-45. 227 Substitution of material. 94–95 Tendinitis. 48. 846. field strength. 193–94 Surface Transportation Assistance Act. timevarying. and dermatosis. 809. and hazard monitoring equipment. 28. Cold stress. by animal experimentation. 290–91. 854. 650 Tetrachloroethylene. Department of Labor. 56. 409 Teratogenesis. measurement of. 882 Supervisor: role of. 302 Swinging vane velometer. 538–39 Sulfur dioxide. 7. See Thermal balance THERP.
storage. 303. 124. 290 Tinnitus. 413 Trimellitic anhydride. 493 Toxoplasma. 423. 68. 450. General Dynamics Land Systems Division. and unlisted substances. 374 Total lung capacity (TLC). 651-53 Trachea. 333–35. for refrigerants. 426. OSHA inspector’s determination of. and permissible exposure limit (PEL).INDEX formaldehyde. 191. 432 Toxoplasmosis. Patrick R. 524. 123. for noise. for static magnetic fields. 108. 123. 591. 26. 856. and disposal (TSD) facility. 703 Time-weighted average (TWA). 811. 413 Ultra high efficiency air (ULPA) filter. 28 Trisodium phosphate. See also Aromatic hydrocarbon Toluene diisocyanate (TDI). 126 Threshold of hearing. 341. 191. for static magnetic fields. 863 Trench foot. 422. history of. 38. 499. for heat stress and strain. 240. 839. 822 Tremolite. 123 Toxicity.. 160–61. 306–07. 814–15. 881 Trioxide. 136. 190. 239. See Eardrum Typhoid fever. 191. 124. 362 Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). 68 Ulnar artery aneurysm. 448–49. 139–40. 426 Tumor. 37–38 Tidal volume (TV). 260 Trypanosoma. 191. 46 Tight-building syndrome. vs. 132. 489. 681. 68. 185 Tularemia. 180. for OSHA industrial hygienists. 63 Ultraviolet radiation. 732–34. 136. 857 U U-tube manometer. 136 Toxicology. 238. 839 Trigger finger. 336. 37 Topical steroids. 810. 291. 163. for noise. for subradiofrequency fields. local. 444. 140–41. 827. 111. 59 T wave. photochemical 1077 . for mixtures. 428. 297–98. 25 Threshold of effect. 61 Traverse. 108. 459. 139. by NIOSH. 212 Threshold of pain. 175 Ultraviolet light. 69. 504. chronic. 141 Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 39. for impact noise. for metabolic rate. talc. 851. 450. 430. 338. 197. See also Chemical hazard. for 1. 603–05. 421. 878. 508. 106 Torque. for nuisance dusts and aerosols. 147 Toxicology and Biochemistry of Aromatic Hydrocarbons. 448–51. patient care. 290. 756–59. 161. 130. 124 Toxicological screening. for lifting. 46 Toxic chemical. 579 Tonometer. 92 Titmus “Fly. 39 Training: and biosafety. 13. 799 Transducer. occupational transmission. 17. 11. 298. 191. for respirator use. for optical and infrared radiation. 102 Tonsil. 11. 188. 504. Toxicity Toxic effect. 487. 421. 428 Tubeaxial fan. 821. 303–05. 223. for solvents and gases. 159 Toxic Substances Control Act (TOSCA). safety and health. 815. hazard control. skin notation. 459 Tight-fitting facepiece. for heat stress control. and synergism. 603–05. 786. 504. See Carcinogen Turbinates. 139. OSHA setting procedure for. 13. 45. 575 Ultraviolet light-sensitive disease.1. 161. 58 Tritium. 128. 429 Tracer (radioactive). 50 Tracheitis. 59. for silica dust. for soap stone. 451. for mica. 68. 317 Ulceration: of mucous membrane. exposure guidelines for. 344. 138. OSHA standard requested for. 160. exposure guidelines for. 139. 11. 191. and recommended exposure limit. 260 Tracer gas airflow calculation. 409. 422. 212 Throat. and sampling. 161. for paraquat. 153. 140. 62. 306. 239. acute. limitations. and chemical inventory. 413 Ulnar nerve entrapment. 123. control methods for. 160. 681. 465. 140. 812. 28. as industrial hygienist. 144. 821 Toxic Substances List. 573. OSHA requirement for. 25. for radiofrequency and microwave radiation. 638 Tuberculosis. 709–10. 24–25. 502. information resources. 67–68 Tumorigen. 164. of skin. 11. for particulates. and hazard evaluation. control methods for. 25. for trichlofluoromethane. for respiratory irritants. and silicosis. cutaneous. 732–34.1-trichloroethane. 352. 37. 819. biological effects of. 305-06. 153 Trichloroethylene. as legal requirement. 839. for cold stress control. and in-vitro testing. 198 Trauma. 878–79. 866. 226. 620–21 UAW. for nitropropane.1-trichloroethane. 246. 351 1. 55. 379–82. calculation of. for hearing conservation. 338. 16.” 105 Toluene. 126. graphite. 37 Turpentine. 138–39 Toxic use reduction (TUR). history of. 422 Tyson. Brock v. for ethylene oxide. 290 Tympanic membrane. 671. 798–800 Training Requirements in OSHA Standards and Training Guidelines. 449–50. 626 Treatment. 15.1. hazard. 570. 55. 151–52.
22. 115. 511 Upper explosive limit (UEL). control methods for. flammable range. 60. loss. See Raynaud’s phenomenon Vibrissae. 421 Virulence. 115. 640 Voluntary Training Guidelines. protective eyewear for. 306. 105.for heat stress control. 618–20. 216 Weil. 160 Velocity. properties of. and dermatosis. 307. 895 Union occupational health physicians. 150 Variability of response. 808. concentration calculation. 78 User seal check. 111. 856 United Steelworkers v. 208 Vibration syndrome. 111–12. 165. 199–201. 840 Viroids. 144. T. HVAC system Vertigo. 113. 157 Uranium. 586. 165. 621–22 Venezuelan equine encephalitis. 161 Vestibular sensor. evaluation of. OSHA. of hearing device. 208. 87 Veterinary practice. 875 Weighting networks. impairment of. 769 United Auto Workers v. 211–12. 495 Walsh–Healey Asbestos Standard. 67–68 Water. 301–02. potable. 703. Patricia. 859 Urticaria. 531. See also Microorganism Visceroceptor. 53. 644. 569 Underloading. 877 Weisberg. 179–80. and workstation design. 838. . 524. 451. 135. pressure. biological effects of. 399. 364 Underwriters Laboratories. 617. 359. 879 Walsh–Healey Public Contracts Act. 428 Virus. biomechanical research of. 173. 49–50 Vitiligo. 646 Universal Construction Company Inc. 361 Visible light. 63 Wedum. 374 W Wald. 171. 861 United States Pharmacopoeia. tests of pulmonary function. 141 Ultraviolet spectrophotometer. 840 Visual acuity. design of Vinyl chloride. 237. 514 Weighted-frequency scale. 150 Vaporphase water. for asphyxiant control. 30. 64. Marshall. 101–02. hazards from. 513–14. 638 Vanishing cream. 108. R.. 20 Water loss. 139. 260. 49–50. 399. Pendergrass. 101. 20. 562 Upper flammable limit. 104–05. 150. threshold limit values. for solvent hazard control. OHSRC. and dark adaptation. 106 Uveitis. 681. 114. 856 Vaneaxial fan. 100. David. 647 Varicella. 75 Water system. 68. 880 Walkthrough. 507. natural. toxic. 203 Vanderbilt. adsorption of. 22. 829. 500 Urquhart. 420–21. 135. 595–97. 211 Weather. 672 United Steelworkers. 879 United Steelworkers of America v. Michael. 304 . 72. 361 Vestibule (of inner ear). 382 Unit ventilator. 277 Urine testing. and tuberculosis control. 106. 105. See also Office workstation. 348–49 Wave length. Arnold G. See Animals 1078 V Viability. See also Eye Vision conservation program. 444 Vanadium pentoxide. 38. 62. 459 Vasodilator. Optical radiation Vision: acuity of. 84 Video display terminal (VDT). 861 Wart. 67 Vitreous humor. 420 Weight-per-unit volume. 101–02. Stuart E. Johnson Controls Inc. 23. 645-46. 18. 104–05.INDEX effects of. 855 United Steelworkers of America v. 157. 107–09. equivalents. 75 Vapor. 409.. 46. 188.. 303. 114 Vital capacity (VC). and depth perception 101. 39 Volumetric airflow. 721–22 Uveal tract. 23 Vapor pressure. 604 von Meyer. 617–18. 105–06 Vaccination. 428 Vibration. 111. Auchter. 303 Vocal cord.. 512–13. 422 Ventilation. 827. 157. hazards from. 524–27. 113–14 Vision screening device. of color. 230. 143. 114 Visual display terminals: eye protection. 219 Welding arc: eye protection for. 178. 92. sampling monitors for. 845 Unit size principle. 595. 55. 113 Visitron v. 148. 293. testing. 111–12 Visual field. airflow principles. See Lighting. and sound generation. 488 Variable air volume (VAV) system. 192. 829 Walsh-Healey BD standard. 105. 885 Upper confidence limit (UCL). See Dehydration Water-repellent cream. Exhaust ventilation. 65–66. See also Dilution ventilation. 15. 111. 680. 158. v. 346. 347.
351 Wirtz. 454 Workload. 576 Whirlpool Corp. 207–08. 161. 849–50 Windchill index. 337. 29. Harrison A. 364–65 Workplace: and associated hazards. diagnostic. 604–05 X X-radiation. Basil. 563. See also Building-related illness Workplace violence. design of. 850 Williams. 164. 260. 825 Wiseman.INDEX Welding fumes. 261 X-ray diffraction. 877 Workers’ compensation: hearing conservation program. 847. 848. 195 X-ray fluorescence (XRF). 366-67 Work capacity. mental. 842 Williams–Steiger OSHAct of 1970. 276 Xylene. for hazard control. 427 Woodprocessing. 392–405. 337–38. 786–87 West Nile virus. 501 X-ray machine. 197 Yellow fever. 348 Workers at Risk—The Failed Promise of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 28. 431 Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). 329. v. 815 Work Practices Guide for Manual Lifting. for process safety management. 562. 440. 14. for injury or impairment. 19. 681 Y Yamate method (microscopy). 148. 13.. 291. 59. William. 364–369 Work demands. West Virginia Cooling Tower Collapse Hearings. 238. 70–72. 263. 874 Working Group on Civilian Biodefense. 353 Work seat. 383 Work/rest cycles. 333. 431. 348. 836. 15. 30. 263. and thermal balance. psychrometric. 616 Wet-test meter. 286. 336. 333. 336 Wet process. 194 What-if scenario. 436 Written Injury and Illness Prevention Program. 495 Wheatstone bridge circuit. classification of. 501 Zoonotic disease. See Raynaud’s phenomenon Whiting. 789 Workers’ Family Protection Act. 392-96. 173 Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP). 341 Wet bulb temperature. 382-83. design of. 62 X ray. 885 White finger. 261. 335. 423–25.. 427 Work. 875 Wood dust. Marshall. natural. See also Office workstation World Health Organization (WHO). 183 Workstation. 175 Wellness program. See Seat Workplace Exposure Evaluation Levels (WEELs). 882 Work-practice control. 538 Wet wiping process. 114. 173. 427 Z Zero adjustment. Donald G. dermatosis from. and occupational medicine. 597–98 Wet scrubbers: for air cleaning. 425–26 1079 . 12–13. 367–68 Work schedule as hazard control method. 59 Zinc oxide. 564 Zinc chloride. See OSHAct Willow Island.