CRUMPLE ZONES Crumple zones on cars are located at the front and rear ends of a car.
This provision allows an increase in time in which the momentum of the car changes during a collision, thus protecting those who are inside the vehicle which prevents death and reduces possibilities of severe injuries. The passenger compartments, engine and rear are surrounded by rigid structures to prevent it from being pushed into the passenger compartment during a crash. The possibility of the roof being crushed is being decreased by thickening the windscreen and side windows and using stronger materials and strengthening the roof panel. The passenger compartment is equipped with padded dashboards, collapsible steering wheels and airbags to reduce the rate of change of momentum of the passengers during a collision. Interior fittings like door handles and lights are sunk in so that occupants do not collide with them. The impulse or the rate of change of momentum can be expressed as ∑F=∆ρ/∆t In this equation p symbolizes the change of momentum, t symbolizes the time interval The effect of the net force on the motion of an object can be summarized by the statement. This is Newton’s second law. Cars have crumple zones at the front and the back of the car its purpose is to increase the time interval during the change of momentum. The Impulse or the rate of change of momentum could be written as: Where p= change in momentum and t= time interval and sigma F = total force Therefore we could see that as the time interval increases the total force would become a smaller number hence in a collision a smaller force would be experienced. SEATBELTS Humans experience the “Law of Inertia” every time they drive a car. It usually occurs when the driver makes a sharp turn or sudden stop where the occupant’s bodies jolt and try to move in the same direction in which the car was heading. Due to inertia, it is important that passengers in a car wear their seatbelts whilst driving. During a high speed collision, each car comes to a stop quickly. If an occupant does not have a seatbelt equipped, he or she will move at the same velocity of the car, and according to Newton’s first law of motion, the object will continue moving at the original speed until an external force is acted upon it. An unrestrained occupant would move at a constant speed until: - The occupant has collided with part of the interior of the car, which stops faster than the car itself usually over a distance of several centimeters. - Crashing through the stationary or almost stationary windscreen into the other car or onto the road - Crashing into another occupant that is closer to the front of the car If the occupant was properly restrained with the seatbelt, he or she will stop with the car. In a typical suburban crash, deceleration takes place within a distance of 50cm. the rate of change of momentum of a restrained occupant is less than that of an unrestrained occupant. The net force on a restrained occupant would be less and as well as increasing the time interval over which its occupant comes to a stop a properly fitted seat belt spreads the force of more area of the body.
This will reduce the net force on the occupant. ABS systems benefit the driver in two ways: .
AIRBAG TECHNOLOGY The invention of airbags is designed to increase the time interval in which the occupant’s momentum decreases in a collision. producing sodium compounds and nitrogen gas. Airbags inflate when the crash sensors in the car detect a large deceleration. Thus due to the explosive reaction. As the occupant is thrown forward (according to Newton’s first law). ABS system Abs system refers to the anti-lock brakes.
Another type of seatbelt uses an electronic detection.PHYSICS OF SEATBELTS Inertia reel seatbelts allow car occupants some freedom of movement while they are worn. This is what stops the reel holding the belt from turning. For example if you have been stuck on ice you know that if your wheels are spinning you have no traction. When the sensors are triggered.controller
. The dust that is produced when the airbag is activated is a mixture of the talcum powder used to lubricate the bags and the sodium compounds produced by the chemical reaction. This compound is stored in a metal container at the opening at the airbag. Deceleration must be rapid enough to allow a driver to see after the accident During a crash the sensors will ignite a chemical into the airbag which will instantly inflate the bag. The sensor detects unusual deceleration and releases a gas propellant which causes the reel to be locked. The inertia reel seatbelts are designed with Newton’s first law of motion. Once the occupant’s body and the airbag come into contact. By stopping the wheels whilst skidding. an electric current is used to ignite the chemical compound sodium azide also known as NaN3. The reason that these are known as inertia-reel seatbelts is because the inertia of the pendulum causes the belt to be locked.pump . When the car suddenly stops a pendulum continues to move forward.speed sensors . Once it is triggered the compound burns at a rapid speed. Part of the pendulum prevents the reel holding the belt from turning.being able to stop faster . the inflated airbag applies a restraining force. However in the event of a sudden change in speed of the car. the airbag produces a noise similar to that of a gunfire. the inflated nitrogen gas will then escape through the vents in the bag.being able to steer whilst stopping There are 4 main components to an ABS system: . they lock and restrain the occupant. Within 30 milliseconds the nitrogen gas will inflate a volume of 45 Litres into the airbag. This is because the contact patch is sliding relative to the ice due to friction. This locks the belt into place.valves . you slow down. A skidding wheel (tyre contact patch is sliding relative to the road) has less traction than a wheel that is not skidding.
htm http://hyperphysics.html http://www. that of the brake on that tyre. the second law can also be applied (F=MA).
Bibliography Jacaranda physics textbook http://auto. In some cases.com/news/how-crumple-zones-work-7112.edu/hbase/seatb.howstuffworks.phy-astr.” ABS works by detecting whether or not a tyres rotation has slowed to a speed below that of the vehicles.com/airbags.shtml http://www. “Every Object will remain stationary or moving at a constant speed unless an external force is applied onto it.gsu. has acted slow the tyre down too much that tyre now skidding. The ABS computer is adjusting the brake force on the skidding wheel to keep the acceleration of the car constant.com/physics-tutorial/inertia-seat-belts. To maintain uniform motion of that tyre the ABS system will reduce the braking force on that tyre.com/auto-parts/brakes/brake-types/anti-lockbrake. An external force.autoevolution. A skidding tyre does not supply as much deceleration to the car as a non skidding tyre would.explainthatstuff.Newton’s first law states.html http://www.physics247.html