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Contents

1 A brief history, 2

Aids in selecting pipe, valves, and fittings,

Metallic Pipe and Tubing. 3 Non-Metallic Pipe and Tubing, 4 Valves and Fittings. 8 Index of Tables and Figures for Valve and Fitting Selection,

17

Standards for piping,

40

American Ctandards Association, 40 Role of Federa1 Government. 40 Other Standards Organizations, 4 1 Arnerican Piping Standards, 41 Piping Design Ctandards, 42 Index of Tables and Figures for Pipe Design, 45 Dimensional and Mechanical Standards for Pipe, Valves, and Fittings. 67 Index of Selected Tables of Ctandard Dimensions for Pipe, Valves, and Fittings, 70 Index of Tables and Figures of Standard Pressure-Temperature Ratings for Flanges. Valves, and Fittings. List of Standard Materia1 Specifications. 109 Pipe, Fitting, and Flange Materials, 112

91

Pressure drop in piping systems and line sizing,

116

Basic Relationships. 116 Working Charis and Equations for Friction-Loss Calculations, 122 Process Line Sizing Techniques, 125 Analysis of Complex Piping Networks, 126 Plurnbing. 126 Index of Working Tables and Figures for Pressure Drop and Line Sizing Calculations. Example Problems. i47

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Contents

! Piping specifications. 3

153
153

Determining the Type and Number of Specifications, Preparing Detailed Specifications, 153 Typical Specifications, 154

Piping design and drafting procedures,


Process Plant Drawings, 164 PipingDesign Drafting Procedures, Modern Drafting Practices, 178 171

164

Process piping arrangement,

181
181

Plant Layout and Equipment Arrangement, Criteria for Equipment Layout, 183 Piping Layout and Arrangement. 189 Pipe Support and Yard Piping, 197 Piping Stress Analysis. 199

Pipe fabrication.

205

Screwed Piping. 205 Field or Shop Fabrication, 205 Drawings for Fabrication. 206 Pipe Fabrication Procedures. 207 Erection of Piping. 215

Utility and underground piping,


Water. 216 Steam, 222 Fuels, 228 Plant Air, 229 Instrument Air. 229 Waste Disposal. 229 Blowdown. 234

216

10

Instrument piping,

237

Instrument Elements, 237 Primary Piping, 237 Piping for Pneumatically Actuated Contro1 Valves, Pneumatic Piping. 251 Instrument.Air Systems, 252 Piping a t Relief Valves. 253

250

Appendix, 261 Index of Additional Tables and Figures in Appendix,


Physical Properties,

261

263 Conversion Factors. 280 Standard Oirnensions. 287

Index,

289

List of figures

2.1 2.2 2.3

Butt-welded pipe manufacture, 4 Seamless pipe and tube manufacture, 5 Manufacture of electric resistance-welded pipe and tubing, 6 Extrusion process for seamless steel pipe and 2.4 tubing, 6 2.5 Tube reducing by Rockrite process, 7 Cold-drawing process, 7 2.6 Cost ratios for shop-fabricated metallic pipe, 13 2.7 Cost ratios for representative non-metallic pipe, 2.8 16 Valves and valve-flow characteristics, 18 2.9 2.10 Typical nomenclature for gate, globe, angle, and check valves, 20 2.11 Typical nomenclature for lubricated plug valve, 21 2.12 Comparison of standard bnnnet designs, 25 2.13 Comparison of stem types for gaie, globe, and angle valves, 26 2.14 Disc variations in gate valves, 27 2.15 Disc variations in globe valves, 27 2.16 Diaphragn-operated, double-port contro1 valve, 29 2.17 Relief valve, 29 2.18 Cost comparison of flanged vaives, 30 2.19 Cost comparison of small steel vaives, 30 2.20 Small-tubing fittings (H to 2 in.), 35 2.21 Cast-iron pipe joints, 35 2.22 Diagram of fitting nomenclature, 36 2.23 Manufactured hangers and supports, 36 2.24 Spring hanger and typical installations, 37 2.25 Expansion joints, 37 2.26 Nomenclature for fabricated pipe bends, 38

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6

Design temperature limitations, 46 Design pressure limitations, 46 Chart fnr selection of tubing and fittings for meter and instrument connecting piping, 47 Reinforced plastic pipe, 47 Summary of pressure-temperature ratings of forged-steel flanges, 101 Method of rating alloy steels not given in Tables 3.33, 102 Moody friction-factor chart, 119 Relative rnughness for pipe, 120 Empirical constants for non-Newtonian frictionfactor Equation 9, 121 Resistance coefficients for 90" bends of uniform diameter, 133 Resistance coefficients for bends of uniform diameter and smooth surface at Reynolds No. 2.25 X 105, 133 Pressure loss due to friction for water, (facing) 133 Pressure loss due to friction for steam, (facing) 132 Resistance coefficients for 100-ft lengths of pipe, 134 Velocity and velocity-head chart, 135 Prersure drop ratio for gas-liquid flow, 136 Correction factor for equivalent diameter, 136 Flow rate and velocity ratios for sewers flowing partially full for fixed diameter and slope, 139 Sewer hydraulic factors which produce equa1 self-cleaning at al1 depths, 140 Conversion of fixture units to flow rate, 142
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4. I 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14