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Labor Unrest after WWI – The Espionage and Sedition Act disallowed workers to be able to strike during WWI, because of the chances that it would hurt the war effort, thus having to worry about conflicts from internal and external sources; there were 3,000 strikes after the war. 2. Boston Police Strike -in 1919, after having not received a pay raise since the start of war, Boston Police took steps to organize a union, even though the department rules banned labor unions. Boston police commissioner fired 19 officers; the whole force voted to strike Rioting broke out, lasting through the night Mayor sent volunteer police force to restore order. MA governor Coolidge called state guard. Peace returned. 3 & 4 Steel Mill Strike, Coal Miners Strike - Steel workers put in 12-hour shifts, +65 hour work weeks. Backed by American Federation of Labor (AFL), workers asked for 8-hour days and 48hour work weeks. In September, workers strike, 350,000 workers walked off the job. Mill in Gary, Indiana was nearly shut down, as were others Company hired private police force to stop strike; killed 18 strikers and beat many others African American workers brought in from South After 10 weeks, AFL called off strike Soft-coal miners went on strike fall 1919, even though their union, United Mine Workers of America (UMW) had made no-strike agreement during the war. Strike continued until December when a coal shortage developed. Government-established coal commission granted 14% pay raise to end strike. 5. Harding “Return to Normalcy” – Warren G. Harding’s "call for the return of normalcy" became his slogan and gave him the edge over Democrat James Cox and FDR, made some wise cabinet appointments (Hoover, Hughes, and Mellon). 6. Fordney McCumber Tariff - A protective tariff during Harding's administration which raised import taxes to historically high levels. 7. Washington Conference - The Washington Conference of 1921 was an effort to prevent to prevent naval armaments race between USA, Britain, and Japan. Five Power Pact, Nine Power Pact, Four Power Pact. 8. Kellogg-Briand Pact - When Secretary of State Frank Kellogg received a suggestion from French Foreign Minister, Aristide Briand, that their two countries formally agree not to declare war on each other, other nations agreed to participate15 nations pledged not to use the threat of war in their dealings; more than 60 nations eventually joined the pact.

. National Origins Act of 1924. sale. Democrat Alfred Smith. 12. The Nation Origins Act of 1924 reduced the annual quota to_% of the number of immigrants already in the country according to the 1890 census. Hoover became president until 1933. was a major obsession. thus it exempt Canadians and Latin Americans from migrating.000 in illegal payments.Plan to set up a payment schedule by the Germans to the Allies. Roman Catholic opposed Prohibition. Republicans nominated Hoover. CA. and many began to have indoor plumbing. In return. secretly gave oil-drilling rights on government oil fields in Elk Hills. One million went into teaching and nursing.9. 10. Women voted in large numbers for the first time Hoover had 21 million popular votes to Smith's 15 million. drew most votes in small town’s Main opponent. Scopes Trial ."Quality of life improved. Fall received +$300.Frivolous young woman with short hair and a skimpy skirt who danced. and Teapot Dome. there was a big demand in labor because of the business growth. The backup was that drinking is sinful and causes corruption.Coolidge didn't run. Immigration Policy of the 1920’s – The immigration policies included the Emergency Quota Act of 1921. reorganize the German national bank.The worst Harding scandal of1921 and 1922. Protestant supported Prohibition.John Scopes was charged with testing the anti-evolution law by teaching it in his school and was found guilty with a $100 fine. Election of 1928 . Fall. Women were labeled as “temporary workers” by the men to reason for their low wages. and transport of alcoholic beverage. which prohibited the manufacture. 14. Gained most votes from cities. Winning the electoral votes by a huge margin. Effects of Prohibition – The 18th amendment was passed in January 1928. 11. and approve a loan to Germany. and the Immigration Restrictions Act set limits on Asians and Japanese. governor of New York. Albert B. who previously held Cabinet posts for Harding and Coolidge. smoked. and the Immigration Restrictions Act of 1927. 15. 2/3 of homes gained electricity by 1930. Dawes Plan . Election of 1924 – Calvin Coolidge defeated Democrat Davis and Progressive Follette with the slogan "Keep cool with Coolidge. WY to two private oil companies. Harding's Secretary of the Interior. and drank in oblivious self-absorption. Women in the 1920’s . limited number of immigrants to 3% of ethnic groups in the US at the time of the 1910 census. 16. Teapot Dome Scandal . The Emergency Quota Act created the quota system. 13.

Henry Ford – He opened the assembly line to the African American workers in 1914. Many Americans suspected they were innocent. and toasters.Union membership began to decrease because of open shop and welfare capitalism of having better benefits to remove need for unions.An intense fear of communism and other politically radical ideas Americans called for known Communists to be jailed or driven out of the country. Buying on Credit. most major industries were using the assembly line and mass production. Union efforts to organize were violently overturned by state militia and local mobs. This lead to urban sprawl. Catholics. Luxuries eventually became necessities. Red Scare (Palmer Raids) .April 15. stoves. and communists. Rebirth of the KKK – Nativism led to resurgence of the KKK in 1915. . modernists. 23. 80% of all cars in the world were in the U. 20. where workers could live far from work. Credit was pro government in terms of big business. foreigners. Unions in the 20’s. but after an unfair trial (their lawyers appealed to higher courts multiple times) the convictions were upheld. The model T produced every 24 seconds 22. advertising age – businesses expanded advertising on relating products to status and popularity. 24. symbolized the status of a family. 19.Paying on credit was based off the quote: “dollar down and a dollar forever.automobiles were the source that replaced railroads in promoting economic growth. Transaction of consumer appliances leads to increased commercialism and many chain stores allowing people to buy on credit. They aimed at blacks. 21. By the 1920’s. One was a shoe maker and the other a fish peddler. 25. Impact of electricity – Electricity lead to purchase of new home appliances. Frederick Taylor – He increased productivity though Taylor’s principles of scientific management (1911) also caused a business boom. leading for many of them to move north for the job opportunities.17. refrigerators. The appliances of easy access included: irons. New goods equaled a new way to sell. They fought for job competition amongst African American citizens. Made housewives a little easier.” that enabled people to buy more. Sacco & Vanzetti . By the 1920s. 1920. The advertising age is basically a universal national culture.S. MA Police arrested two Italian immigrants. 18. 26. The impacts of the automobile. gunmen robbed and killed guard and paymaster of a shoe factory in South Braintree. The two were sentenced to death April 1927 and died in the electric chair in August (They were anarchists). Both had guns but only one matched the type used in the crime. Jews.

popular during the 1920's. High school graduates doubled to 25% by 1930. Marcus Garvey supported the Universal Negro Improvement Association that concluded as more important than the NAACP. 28. 33. By 1930. wages not keeping up with prices.He captured the essence in art of the grandeur of NY. 30. Tailored curriculum for immigrant and raised taxes to fund schools.George Gershwin was into the Rhapsody in Blues. 34. stood for honesty and bravery. Harlem Renaissance. however many debates between fundamentalism and modernism was waged on radio. The radio was a significant piece of art in terms in mass communications medium to emerge in the 20’s. foreign and domestic news. and was the most famous celebrity of the 1920’s.a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished.the mass media included the news. popular during the 1920's. industry less competitive Industry and agriculture overproduce Government pursues unsuccessful economic policies Stock market crash leads to financial panic.S. weak banking system). Jacy Dempsey of boxing.S. 32.Wealth is unequally distributed among the population. Duke Ellington United States jazz composer and piano player and bandleader (18991974). households had radios. Schools – There were 4 million in H. 31. Many people go into debt on installment plans Old and decaying industrial base makes U. and tabloids. The radio was a means of entertainment.United States jazz trumpeter and bandleader (1900-1971). Georgia O’Keeffe. Knute Rockne: Notre Dame coach. (Overproduction.S. Irving Berlin was the dean of American songwriters. and Bobby Jones. magazine. Causes of the Depression . Tin Pan Valley was the block where music producers were set up. Jazz music became the modern culture for the youthful public. Lindbergh – his 1927 solo flight across the Atlantic was the spirit of St. Gertrude Ederie of swimming. Louis Armstrong . as people could listen to the news on a presidency or a game. and then many investors who had bought their stock "on margin" quickly sold their stocks to avoid going into . Mass Media. Offered broad range of course: vocational and home. 29. Louis.The result of stock prices beginning to fall. 35. Sports Stars – Babe Ruth represented baseball for 60 home runs in 1927. radio. increased buying of stock. Music in the 20’s – the Jazz age reflected the influence of popular music of the time. because of prosperous times and higher educational demands by job industry. inflation. 1/3 of U.27. Stock Market Crash of1929. Red Grange of football.

. People want their money back. and increasing racial violence from unemployed whites. gathered in Washington in 1932 to demand immediate payment in cash. this area of the Great Plains became called that because winds blew away crops and farms. 43. 41. He believed that handouts would weaken people’s self respect and moral fiber. lower wages. Great Depression . New York. 11k of 25k banks had failed.army of WWI veterans who were promised $1000 bonus in 1924 legislation. They had higher unemployment. Hundreds of thousands of people of Mexican descent relocate to Mexico. Dust Bowl . 39. Hoover creates the Glass-Steagall Banking Act which provided insurance for smaller bank accounts.debt. Minorities in the depression – African Americans and Latinos had it worse than others. Political Impacts of the Great Depression – Hoover believed that the economy would fix itself but the government needed to encourage and facilitate cooperation. and young men give up their dreams of going to college. Bonus Army . some are able to withdraw. 40. Hoovervilles . WWII brought an end to the great depression. and blew dust from Oklahoma to Albany. The nomenclature comes from the blame many Americans placed on Hoover for the Great depression. Other slept in parks or sewer pipes wrapping themselves in newspapers to fend off the cold aka Hoover Blankets. Adults stop going to the doctor to save money. Colorado. 42. Kansas. the period began with a crash of the stock market in 1929 ironically. not control it. the price of shares decreased even more rapidly because there were more sellers than buyers in the stock market. Bank Failures – Stock market crash leads to a panic. others deported by the federal government.Shantytowns on the outskirts of cities in which unemployed people of the Depression lived. 38.Parts of Oklahoma. As they were sold. Kindness increased amongst strangers and those down on their luck. and reassured people that banks were safe. In 1929.some voluntarily. 37. Millions lost their savings account. Suicide rates increased by 30% from 1928 to 1932. Social Impacts of unemployment – People became cheap because of poor welfare. New Mexico. others not because the bank invested its money in the stock market. in the united states. People lay off marriages to avoid any possible loss in money. 600 banks close. by 1933. Super Kitchens provided by charity or public organizations were very common.the period from 1929-1940 was marked by a worldwide depression. 36. and Texas that were hit hard by dry topsoil and high winds that created blinding dust storms.

National Recovery Administration. 46. Labor leaders said that FDR wanted people to join unions because of this Public Works Administration. . and attorneys Samuel Rosenman. this election pushed Hoover "from the White House to the outhouse.FDR's key advisers who followed him to Washington.Led by Hopkins.informal talks given by FDR over the radio. Election of 1932 .44.Works Progress Administration. 47.(During 100 Days) all the banks were ordered to close until new laws could be passed. Securities and Exchange Commission. Hoover received 59. 48. etc. (Hundred Days) Period of time (March to June 1933) in which FDR pushed many acts through Congress that were designed to combat the depression." 45. Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC) -Provided employment to young men by sending them to camps in national parks and forests . focused on relief for poor/unemployed. Tennessee Valley Authority. sat by White House fireplace. Agricultural Adjustment Administration. National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) . FDR received 472 electoral votes. they shared a faith in the power of experts to set the economy right and a basic belief in government-business cooperation.-state region around the Tennessee River Valley. 49 and 62. etc. was part of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal. included Columbia law professor Raymond Moley. The Law set up new ways for the federal government to funnel money to troubled banks It also required the Treasury Department to inspect banks before they could re-open. recovery of economy to normal levels.5 million people jobs. supporting prices and wages.Government agency meant to supervise the drafting and operation of the business codes. It authorized the President to regulate businesses in the interests of promoting fair competition. and stimulating the United States economy to recover from the Great Depression. It created many dams that provided electricity as well as jobs. and eventually disbanded but got 8.S. Meant to check the pricing lay out by other companies. under FDR. Brain Trust . June 16. and reform of financial system to prevent another depression. gained the confidence of the people. An emergency banking law was rushed through Congress.election between FDR (Democrat) and Hoover (Republican). Bank Holiday .Very controversial. New Deal . creating jobs for unemployed workers.a series of economic programs implemented by FDR between 1933 and 1936 as a response to the Great Depression. New Deal . build reservoirs. 1933. Fireside Chats . Arts work. Basil O'Connor and Felix Frankfurter.a New Deal agency created to generate electric power and control floods in a seven-U. economists Rexford Tugwell and Adolf Berle. Made cultural contributions.plant trees.

worked alongside Molly Dewson to get women more involved in political campaigns.Originally designed to avoid American involvement in World War II by preventing loans to those countries taking part in the conflict. Labor Disputes – 1930’s gave way to new tactics in bargaining. stricter business regular heavier taxes on wealthy." 55. Second New Deal – (Jan 1935 . 54. so he desired to add about 6 new judges so that he could guarantee more passing of his acts. steel. Sit down strikes. Supp for org labor. continues non-intervention in Latin America. Lowered trade barriers by giving the President to make trade agreements with other nations – wanted to reduce tariffs by as much as 50%. to engage in collective bargaining. Assistance to rural poor. Court Packing Bill . strong supporter of women's rights and equality. 52. and agreed to exchange ambassadors with Moscow.84 wounded.The Supreme Court vetoed many of FDR's proposals. It prevented owners from carrying on with strikebreakers or scabs. Wagner Act – (1935) established National Labor Relations Board. and southern textile industries. anti-lynching legislation. author it "It's Up to the Women. 56. FDR Foreign Policy – Recognizes the Soviet Union in 1933. Neutrality . Believed the new deal violated respect for the rights of individuals and property. Industrial Unionism – Committee for Industrial Organization – organize industrial unions within the AFL groups expelled from the AFL form the Congress of Industrial Organizations and become the chief rival to the AFl automobile. it was very effective. . NLRB stepped in and required Republic Steel to negotiate with the union.50. United Auto Workers emerge. protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions. helped to secure jobs for thousands of women through FERA. compulsory health insurance. 51. they were later modified in 1939 to allow aid to Great Britain and other Allied nations. and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands. 58.First Lady to use her prominence to fight for liberal causes. social welfare benefits for elder. Eleanor Roosevelt . 57.Sept1935) Reorganized fed program for jobless relief. 53. Some people disagreed with it saying it violated private property. and child labor reform. Opposition to the New Deal – Conservative group American Liberty League mostly business leaders really angry over Revenue act of 1935 which placed an additional tax on those who made over 50k. Memorial Day Massacre. reciprocal trade agreement act.

Yalta. (1931) Scottsboro Boys Trial – 9 black men were sentenced to death for the rape of a white woman without any evidence. and money. 66.59.The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States. United States refuses to enter the war militarily. Movies included Wizard of Ox. . Fall of Berlin . in July. art and literatures were major improvements and aspects of culture. Britain. tanks. a baby kidnapping. Massive amounts of spending by the federal government on guns. Luxembourg and much of Netherlands from Nazi Occupation. 61. Subsidiary causes included the lack of collective warfare. 68. Forced to join after Pearl Harbor. Truman. and Gangster films. nationalism. Stalin agreed to hold free elections in Easter Europe and to declare war against Japan in return for land lost in the Russo-Japanese war. American neutrality. This opened a 2nd front in Europe.1945. African Americans during FDR’s tenure – FDR did not address anti-lynching bill. This led to the liberation of France. imperialism. outside Berlin. 65. Culture in the 1930’s – movies. Finally decided on the division of Germany. airplanes for war. and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War. Churchill. he did not address Civil Rights. Provided jobs. Potsdam . Britain. The name of the meeting which drew the structure of postwar Europe. Radio included the Guiding Light. Snow White. militarism. 69. Germany's last effort of a counterattack through Belgium and the Argonne Forest. Hitler commits suicide and allies take control. Effects of Depression – Federal government became more powerful. D-Day – Invade France and free Western Europe from the Nazis.April 30. Wished to remain isolated. and U. food. 70. Grant Wood and John Steinbeck’s Grapes of Wrath represented the art and Literature. 1941. 67. and the Hindenburg disaster. Major events included Lindbergh’s solo flight. Allies had to retreat and find different route into Germany. Causes for WWII – the basic cause included totalitarianism. Brother Can You Spare a Dime. and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdam. 1945. Germans surprise the Allies with stiff resistance. Belgium. FDR tried to reform labor conditions.1944. Some reforms are still around and benefit us today. 63 and 64. 60. make assault in Netherlands. the radio.S. Battle of the Bulge . Market Garden – Canada. 800k Allies landed at Normandy Beach. Mary McLeod Bethune was given an appointment by FDR and lobbied to gain black support for the New Deal.

The Battle of Coral Sea was a battle between the United States and Japanese forces in the Pacific between their respective naval and air forces. 75. Japan won U. 78. Many men were killed on the Bataan Death March. bringing the United States into World War II.71. 79. The Japanese were attempting to invade Midway Island and were attacked by the US fleet sent there to stop them.S. that resulted in a standoff between the two sides 6 months later. Cut off the steel and iron sources off of Japan. Coral Sea . adopted the cash and carry policy which was neutral.United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan. The Filipinos and the U. began selling Britain destroyers to help them stave off German U-boats in return. Prelude to Pearl Harbor – FDR met with Churchill secretly at the Atlantic Charter to discuss objectives. and built bases on British islands in the Caribbean. U. Lend Lease Act . It was SIGNIFICANT because it was the decisive turning point in the Pacific War as the Allies won basically all of the battles in the Pacific after it.The Battle of Midway Island was fought a month after the Battle of Coral Sea. Doolittle’s Raid on Japan – In revenge for Pearl Harbor. Midway . but aided Britain.S. FDR ordered a peacetime draft to be better prepared. 74. in which the American forces began to gain the upper hand in the Pacific theater. The Japanese also lost all of their carriers which were a devastating blow to their navy. forced Japan to abandon the island. This was to defend weak islands close to Japan. The perseverance of defense delayed attacks on other areas.This was USA's way of assisting Great Britain at the beginning of WWII by allowing GB to borrow items then needed for War. it set the stage for the Battle of Midway Island. the Japanese fleet of carriers was all sunk and the Japanese were forced to turn back.U. sent 16 B-25 bombers to bomb Japanese cities. 72. marines seize Japanese airfield and fought on land and sea for control of the island. Although the battle resulted in a standoff between the Japanese and American forces. Americans wanted to fight Japan more. mainly Tokyo. 77. The significance of the attack was that Japan could be attacked and that the attack raised American morale.S’s largest surrender. This began MacArthur’s island hopping method to counterattack. In the battle.S. Election of 1940 – U.S. the U. Pearl Harbor . defend the island. .S. 76. Japan would attack if we did not resume trade. Guadalcanal. 73. German ships attacked US ships when escorting the British ships to Iceland. Battle of the Philippines – Philippine invades the Philippine islands.

even when discrimination hit them in the face. 87. Government took over any business that threatened to a conflict during wartime. Racial shifts to urban areas for jobs led to racial tensions. So many people were needed that the Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps was created to fill in for the positions.S. Victory Gardens – Homeowners planted these in their yards. The purpose of this was to send American shipment of food to Allies. electricians. US industries began to rise again. 88. Economy in the War – Stimulated by wartime demands. 85. War Bond Drives. Treasury bonds to finance the war effort and to fight victoriously. and pilots. 5 million people wanted to be drafted for military services. It was well defended by the Japan. radio operators. which freed more men to fight. 81.Detention centers where more than 100. yet the needed man power was to be expanded. . Women were paid just as much as men doing the same jobs. 90. 82. Women during the War – Women helped during the war by filling in positions that included: nurses. 89. 86. (Similar to how the Espionage and Sedition Acts was set out).S. 83. 91. Wartime Conservation – In support of war efforts. people road bikes to reduce gas and rubber usage. except for combat related positions.top-secret operation for creating the nuclear bomb. War Mobilization – After Pearl Harbor.80. did not want German to make a nuke before they did. wiped out the Japanese imperial Navy. It was referred to as being the most heavily defended spot on Earth. One million African Americans served for the armed forces. ambulance drivers. U. Japanese Internment Camp . All American industry was devoted to supplying the needed goods to the Allies. Manhattan Project .demanded FDR end discrimination in the workplace. Minorities during the war – minorities questioned the fact that it was a burden of theirs to serve America. People began to recycle all possible junk in order to produce needed production. 84. A Philip Randolph . Leyte Gulf – Japan makes last attempt by throwing its entire navy into battle aka kamikaze pilots. Iwo Jima – strategically important island.000 Japanese Americans were relocated during World War II by order of the President.The campaigns to encourage Americans to buy U.

V-E day on May 8. secretary of state George Marshall in 1947 to give money to needy European countries. We would provide machinery and other materials to Western Europe and stop Soviet expansion. United Nations. MacArthur’s Plan – his plan was directed upon the Japanese armed forces.S. FDR was re-elected but changed running mate from radical Henry Wallace. Election of 1944 – the 1944 election gained little attention.The UN was founded after the end of World War II by the victorious allied powers with the hope that it would act to prevent and intervene in conflicts between nations and make future wars impossible or limited. 95. He created a government ruled by the people. Results of the war – Germany were divided into 2 countries and Berlin was divided up into different pieces 4. Germany was in debt to many countries. Marshall plan – it was proposed by the U. 94. 96. FDR dies. they were awarded for their skillful actions. advocated the needed laws for workers and farmers in the new democracy.92. He left the Japanese with a small burden. 97. . 1945. Broke the power that was needed to produce soldiers and limit the number within the country. 93.A majority of the volunteered minorities that included the African Americans and Japanese were usually the ones ranking top in military commendation. Minority heroes. Harry Truman takes over.

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