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Nicole Lee Mr.

Kuzian AP World History 8 November 2010 Chapter 9 Charlemagne - from Latin Carolus magnus, Charles the Great - first in western Europe to bear the title emperor in over three hundred years - became protector of papacy - established the Carolingian Empire - was illiterate, but sponsored a brief intellectual revival medieval - literally meaning middle age - occurred around 500 to 1500 C.E. - point between Greco-Roman and the Renaissance Byzantine Empire - another name for the Eastern Roman Empire - known to the Muslims as Rum - maintained Roman traditions - by 1200, showed signs of decline and military weakness - Christianity was its official religion Kievan Russia - state established at Kiev in Ukraine by scandinavian adventurers asserting authority over a mostly Slavic farming population - shaped by the authority of Byzantine emperors blended with the influence of the Christian Church schism - a formal split within a religious community - occurred between the Latin church and the Orthodox church manor - existed in medieval Europe - a large, self-sufficient landholding - included the lords living quarters, outbuildings, peasant village, and surrounding land serf - existed in medieval Europe - an agricultural laborer legally bound to a lords property - obligated to perform tasks for the lord whose land they lived on fief - land granted in return for a sworn oath to provide military service vassal - a sworn supporter of a king or lord - committed to providing military services to that king or lord papacy - the central administration of the Roman Catholic Church

- lead by the people

Holy Roman Empire - holy roman emperor - secular political authority as the guardian of general Christian interests - a loose confederation of German princes - had little influence west of the Rhine River investiture controversy - the medieval struggle between the church and the lay lords to control ecclesiastical appointments - refers to the broader conflict of popes versus emperors and kings monasticism - Living in a religious community apart from secular society and adhering to a rule stipulating chastity, obedience, and poverty - dominant element of medieval Christianity and Buddhism horse collar - first appears around 800 in a miniature painting shown as a harness for plow horses moves the point of traction from the horses throat to its shoulders increased the efficiency of horses favors the spread of horse-drawn plows and vehicles

Crusades - 1095-1204 - a series of religiously inspired Christian military campaigns against Muslims in the eastern Mediterranean - armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule - brought an end to western Europes centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation pilgrimage - journey to a sacred shrine by Christians seeking to show their piety, fulfill vows, or gain absolution for sins