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CALIFORNIA SCHOOL OF PODIATRIC MEDICINE

HISTOLOGY FALL SEMESTER 2010 Carol Gilson, Ph.D.

Microscopic Anatomy
Structure of cells, tissues and organs Understand how cellular and tissue components come together to make functioning organs and organ systems

Microscopy: Light microscopy (LM): Dyes selectively stain colorless tissue components. Electron microscopy (EM) Heavy metals increase electron scatter or absorption.

Resolving power Depends on the wavelength LM ~ 0.2 mm EM ~ 1 - 2 nm

Plasma cell
RBC

Light Microscope Up to 2,000 times

Blood

Plasma cell Electron Microscope Up to 500,000 times

Dyes for LM: basic dye bind to acid tissue components usually blue or purple
acidic dye bind to basic tissue components usually yellow to red basophilic component : an acidic tissue component dyes with a basic dye DNA, RNA, Nissl substance acidophilic component : a basic tissue component stains with an acidic dye collagen, RBC cytoplasm

Components of the Body:


Cells The structural and functional unit. Trillions in body. Over 200 distinct types. Extracellular Material Nonliving components. Body Fluids 55 to 60% of body weight.

The Typical Cell

Nucleus Cytoplasm Nuclear Envelope Plasma Membrane

Membranes
Membranes form compartments

Cells obtain nutrients & get rid of waste products across the plasma membrane
Membranes isolate organelle contents

internal environment

Fluid Mosaic Model

Selective Barrier

Membrane Proteins: Carrier Proteins Cell Surface Receptors Transmembrane Linkers

Metabolic enzymes

Membranes are flexible. Cells are filled with fluid. Endocytosis Exocytosis Amoeboid action

7.5 10 nm thick

Trilaminar in EM

The Nucleus
1) Nuclear envelope 2) Chromatin 3) Nucleolus
Selective activation & repression of genes

Nuclear envelope double membrane with pores for movement of molecules in/out of nucleus

Chromatin
Genetic material

Complex consisting of DNA, histones & proteins

Condensed or dispersed

Heterochromatin condensed, not capable of being transcribed

Euchromatin dispersed, capable of being transcribed

Chromosomes = individual strands of chromatin, only distinct during mitosis

Nucleolus
Site of production of ribosomes

The Cytoplasm Organelles the nucleus mitochondria ribosomes rough endoplasmic reticulum the Golgi apparatus smooth endoplasmic reticulum lysosomes peroxisomes transport vesicles Inclusions Cytosol Cytoskeleton

Mitochondria

100s to 1000s per cell Catabolism of carbohydrates and lipids Synthesis ATP Calcium storage

Double membrane, inner forms cristae 4-9 um long 0.5 1.0 um wide

Ribosomes and Polysomes

Globular structures rRNA plus protein

Synthesis of cytoplasmic proteins

Erythroblast of rat

Ribosome 20-30 nm diam

Endomembrane System
Nuclear Envelope Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus Transport Vesicles

Lysosomes

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Flat membrane sacs Studded with ribosomes Proteins synthesized for export

rER

Golgi Apparatus
Stack of membrane bound sacs Sort and package proteins for export

trans face

cis face

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum


Branching tubular membrane Synthesis of lipids (steroids), lipoproteins & phospholipids Drug & enzyme detoxification

Corpus luteum

Adrenal

Lysosomes, Endosomes, Peroxisomes and Transport Vesicles

Endosomes Phagosomes

Lysosomes
Membrane bound vesicles Several 100 per cell From rER & Golgi Intracellular degradation of bacteria, debris, organelles

Lysosomes, Endosomes, and Phagosomes

Peroxisomes

Membrane bound vesicles Destroy toxic oxygen byproducts Oxidative enzymes (produce H2O2) Catalase (removes H2O2)

Peroxisome

Catalase forms crystal

Secretory Vesicles and Transport Vesicles

Secretory vesicles

Mast cell

Secretory vesicles

Secretory vacuoles

Inclusions

Nonliving components: Glycogen Lipid droplets Crystals

Pigments

Peroxisomes

Glycogen

Cytosol

Fluid surrounding organelles, part of ICF 50% total cell volume Precursors, 1000s enzymes, stored glycogen, lipid Chemical composition differs from ECF & fluid within organelles

Cytoskeleton

Microtubules Cell shape change Intracellular transport Thin Filaments Contractile processes endocytosis Intermediate Filaments Stabilize cell shape Myosin Contractile processes with actin

Centrioles Mitotic spindle Basal bodies

Micotubules (MT)

Actin & myosin filaments

Intermediate filaments

Ribosomes

MF

MT

IF

Tonofilaments

Centrioles

Specialization = Cell differentiation. Over 200 distinct cell types.