Student Name AP US History Period 2 February 18, 2008

Chapter 29.1: The Cold War
DQ #8: Tension between the US/GB and the Soviets was evident throughout WWII, despite the fact that the USSR was an ally. What issues caused the tension? How important was the Eastern Front to the outcome of the war in Europe?
I. Causes of Tensions b/w US/GB & Soviets A. Prevalent Resentment in America towards Communism

• starting at Bolshevik Revolution (1917)---Wilson’s support of Whites against Redsresult: Red
Scare • Refusal of recognition of Soviet Union until 1933 B. Difference in Post-War Vision • America---embarked in Atlantic Charter (1941)  nations abandoned their traditional beliefs in military alliances & spheres of influence;  govern interrelations with democratic processes w/international organization (later, United Nations) serving as arbiter of disputes & protector of each country’s right of self determination

• Soviet Union & G. Britain  though both signed the Atlantic Charter, both uneasy about the implications of selfdetermination  Soviet Union---create secure sphere in Central & Eastern Europe as protection against possible future aggression from West  Post-War European Structure: great powers control areas of strategic interests to them---similar to traditional European dichotomy of power C. Wartime Diplomacy • Casablanca, Morocco (1943)--- G. B. & America refused for immediate opening of second front in western Europe- Stalin’s most important demand  instead assured Stalin that they would only cease involvement in war with an unconditional surrender from Axis power • Teheran Conference (Iran)- Division of Poland among Big Three---Future of Post-War government  Roosevelt & Churchill---willing to allow Stalin to annex some originally Polish territory

 G.B. & Americasupport Polish gov’t-in-exile in London; Stalin: pro-communist exiled
government in Lublin (Soviet Union) D. Yalta Conference (February 1945)---Vague Compromises • Poland---Stalin already installed pro-communist gov’t; Roosevelt envisioned democratic gov’t similar to America  Compromise: • Stalin agree that unspecified number of pro-Western Poles (“London”) would be granted place in gov’t

also hold “free & unfettered elections” in Poland starting at an undefined date (never occurred until more than 40 years later)

• Disagreement over Germany  Roosevelt: reconstructed and reunited Germany  Stalin: impose heavy reparations on Germany & permanent dismemberment of nation  Compromise:

• • • E. Roosevelt’s Death

Decision on reparationsfor future commission U.S.A., G.B., France, & Soviet Union control own zone of occupation in Germany[determined by position of troops at end of war] Division of Berlin among four sectors [inside Soviet section of Germany] at unspecific date, Germany reunited

• Roosevelt had agreed to Soviet terms of Poland, Germany, Manchuria, Kurile Islands b/c he had thought his personal role as the conciliator would be a key to lasting peace

• Roosevelt’s sudden death (April 12, 1945)- Harry Truman becomes president; highly
suspicious and resentful towards USSR II. Significance of Eastern Front during WWII A. Strategic Importance • forced Germany to arm itself on both sides---West: America & G.B.; East: USSR

• Soviet victory at Stalingrad (August 21, 1942 ~ February 2, 1943) stopped high tide of
German advance • Germany-at end of war- threatened by invasion on both sides--- 1) US & G. B. 2) USSR B. Lasting Impact • destruction of the Third Reich & partition of Germany • rise of Soviet Union as a military and industrial superpower CONCLUSION: Tensions among USSR, Great Britain, and America had long begun before the war and continued to dictate their attitude and treatment towards each other during World War II. Their diverging war vision was one of the major differences in the “Big Three’s” motives. Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin avoided acerbities about the sovereignty of countries in the Eastern Front and the question of government in Poland. They, however, left no plausible peace solution to the conflict and it would evolve a few years later into the Cold War.

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