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ENGLI SH

-
103
A GUIDE TO
PRAYER
IN ISLAM
M. Abdul Karim Saqib
The Co-operative Office for Csll & to.eigne.s Guidance at Sullrnah
Under lhe suoeftsron 0llvinistrv 0l sam c Alla $ and Endowmenland Cal and Gu dance
Te 4240C/ / F 4251005P0 80x926i 5Ri yadh11663EnE Sul l anah22@hal ma com
ENGLISH - 103
AGUIDETO
PRAYER
IN ISLAM
M. Abdul Karim Saqib
The Co-operative Office for Call &foreigners Guidance at Sultanah
Under the supervisIOn 0I Ministry 01 IslamicAHai rs and Endowment and Cal I and Gu idance
Tel 4240077 Fax 4251005 POBox 92675 Riyadh 11663 E-mail Sultanah22@holmail com
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IN THE NAI}IE OF ALIJ\H
TIIE
MERCIFI,'L THE COMPASSIONAIE
IN'IHE NAME OF ALLAH
11IEMERCIFUL 'IHE COMPASSIONATE
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A GUIJD)E TO
IN ISJLAM
M. KfJrim SoqilJ
GUI DE TO PRAYER
r i l r sLAM
Renearched and Edi ted by:
Mohammed Abdul Kari m Saqi b.
Transl ated by:
l j az Begum Saqi b.
A GUIDE TO PRAYER
IN ISLAM
*
*
Researched and Edited by:
Mohammed Abdul Karim Saqib.
Translated by:
Ijaz Begum Saqib.
FOREWORD
There are many books deal i ng wi th the Subi ect of Sal at i n
both Arabi c and Urdu. Many of these books are l vel l wri tten
and
provi de
an i nformati ve and comprehensi ve vi ew of
how Sal at shoul d be performed
accordi ng to the teach-
i ngs of Prophet Muhammad
(SAW).
Unf onunat el y( t here
are very few books i n Engl i sh whi ch deal wi th the subj ect i n
t he same i nf ormat i ve and comprehensi ve way. The books,
whi ch do exi st, have three mai n di sadvantages.
Fi rst l y, l i t erat ure concerni ng Sal at avai l abl e i n Engl i sh i s
ei ther so bri ef that i t does not cover essenti al
poi nts i n
nearl y enough det ai l , or i t i s so bul ky and det ai l ed t hat i t
becomes di ffi cul t to use i t for qui ck reference, and es-
senti al
poi nts
may
get
l ost i n the unnece$sary detai l .
Secondl y, t he t ext of t he Sal at l acks t he
qual i t y of di rect
research from the zunnah of the Prophet Muhammad
(SAW).
There are al so books whi ch cont ai n mat eri al wi t h-
out any reference to the ori gi nal sources.
Thi rdl y, the maj ori ty of books have been wri tten accord-
i ng to the vi ews hel d by certai n school s of thought and for
thi s reason some
peopl e
hesi tate to fol l ow them.
Because of these weaknesses i n exi sti ng l i terature i n Engl i sh
we fel t that the need exi sted to
prgduce
a medi um si zed
book on Sal at whi ch woul d approach the subj ect accordi ng
i o t he t eachi ngs of t he Prophet Muhammad
(SAW).
The
Prophet , hi msel f , sai d,
"Pray
as
you
have seen me
prayi ng."
Such a book needs. t o cont ai n al l t he essent i al det ai l s of
Sal at wi t hout bei ng t oo bul ky or compl i cat ed so t hat t he
reader can use i t as a
poi nt
oJ reference on a
j ourney
or at
home.
f t was al so f el t t hat a comprehensi ve book on Sal at i n
Engl i sh woul d be usef ul f or convert s t o l sl am and f or
Musl i m yout h
brought up i n t hi s count ry. Keepi ng i n
FOREWORD
There are many books dealing with the Subject of Salat in
both Arabic and Urdu. Many of these books are well written
and provide an informative and comprehensive view of
how Salat should be performed according to the teach-
ings of Prophet Muhammad (SAW). there
are very few books in English which deal with the subject in
the same informative and comprehensive way. The books,
which do exist, have three main disadvantages.
Firstly, literature concerning Salat available in English is
either so brief that it does not cover essential points in
nearly enough detail, or it is so bulky and detailed that it
becomes difficult to use it for quick reference, and
sential points may get lost in the unnecessary detail.
Secondly, the text of the Salat lacks the quality of direct
research from the sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad
(SAW). There are also books which contain material with-
out any reference to the original sources.
Thirdly, the majority of books have been written accord-
ing to the views held by certain schools of thought and for
this reason some people hesitate to follow them.
Because of these weaknesses in existing literature in English
we felt that the need existed to prpduce a medium sized
book on Salat which would approach the subject according
to the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW). The
Prophet, himself, said,
"Pray as you have seen me praying."
Such a book needs to contain all the essential details of
Salat without being 'too bulky or complicated so that the
reader can use it as a point 01 reference on a journey or at
home.
It was also that a comprehensive book on Salat in
English would be useful for converts to Islam and for
Muslim youth brought up in this country. Keeping in
5
mind the needs of our brothers and sisters every effort has
been made to
produce
this book in simple and easy
language.
During our research we sometimes found that differences
occurred between established
practices in various prayer
books. In these circumstances we referred to authentic
hadi ths of the Prophet Muhammad
(SAW),
so that the
poi nts
coul d be cl ari fi ed as much as
possi bl e.
Thi s was,
because, for a true Muslim there is no
greater proof for
settl i ng arguments than authenti c hadi ths and
practi ces
of Prophet Muhammad
(SAW).
We hope that Al l ah wi l l accept thi s humbl e attempt be-
cause without his support and help we would never have
been abfe to do this work.
Fi nal l y we ask al l our Musl i m brothers and si sters to study
the text and to strive to
pray
according to it. lf anyone
fi nds anythi ng unacceptabl e or to be agai nst the sunnah
of the Prophet
(SAW)
we woul d be
grateful i f they worrl d
i nform us.
Muhammad
Abdul
Kari m
Saqi b
6
mind the needs of our brothers and sisters every effort has
been made to produce this book in simple and easy
language.
During our research we sometimes found that differences
occurred between established practices in various prayer
books. In these circumstances we referred to authentic
hadiths of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW), so that the
points could be clarified as much as possible. This was,
because, for a true Muslim there is no greater proof for
settling arguments than authentic hadiths and practices
of Prophet Muhammad (SAW).
We hope that Allah will accept this humble attempt be-
cause without his support and help we would never have
been able to do this work.
Finally we ask all our Muslim brothers and sisters to study
the text and to strive to pray according to it. If anyone
finds anything unacceptable or to be against the sunnah
of the Prophet (SAW) we would be grateful if they wo!!ld
inform us.
Muhammad Abdul Karim Saqib
6
c0ilrEilrs
Foreword
Notes
Chapter One
Before
doing Wudu
(Ablution)
Tooth Sti ck
(Si wak)
Niyat for Wuflu
(Ablution)
Acti ons of wudu
(Abl uti on)
Special facilities in Ab.ution.
Du' i [ at the end of Abl uti on
Tayammum
Chapter Two
Time of
$alat
(Prayer)
Forbidden Times for PraYer
Place for
$alat
(PraYer)
Dress for
$alat
(Prayer)
Types of
$alat
(Prayer)
Far{ or ObligatoryPraPr
Nafl Prayer
Sunnat
Mu' akkadah
(conPul sory)
Nafl
(extra) PraYer
Number
of Rakats
Chapter
Three
Story of Aian
The Muai2in
Text of the Aian
Aian for Fajr
Listening to the Aian
Danidafter
the A2an
Du'ii after the Aian
l qamat
Text of Iqamat
Pages
. . . . . t 2
. . . . . t 2
. . . . . I 2
J2
. . . . . r 2
, . . . . . I 3
. . . . . I 3
. . . . . I 6
, . . . . . t 7
. . . . . l 8
. . . . . . . . l 8
. . . . . I 9
. . . . . I 9
. . . , . l 9
, . . . . . 20
5
t 0
l 4
r6
20
22
22
23
23
24
24
25
25
26
26
CONTENTS
Foreword
Notes
Chapter One
Before doing Wuqu (Ablution)
Tooth Stick (Siwak)
Niyat for Wuc;lu (Ablution)
Actions of wudu (Ablution)
Special facilities in Ab.ution.
Du'a at the end of Ablution
Tayammum
Chapter Two
Time of ~ a l a t (Prayer)
Forbidden Times for Player
Place for ~ a l a t (Prayer)
Dress for ~ a l a t (Prayer)
Types of $alat (Prayer)
FarQ or Obligatory Pra}er
Nafl Prayer
Sunnat Mu'akkadah (canpulsory)
Nafl (extra) Prayer
Number of Rakats
Chapter Three
Story of Azan
The Muazzin
Text of the Aian
Azan for Fajr
Listening to the AZan
Dariidafter the Azan
Du"a after the Azan
lqamat
Text of Iqamat
7
Pages
............................. 5
.............................. 10
.............................. 12
.............................. 12
.............................. 12
..............................12
.............................. 12
.............................. 13
. 13
.............................. 14
.............................. 16
.............................. 16
.............................. 17
.............................. 18
.............................. 18
.............................. 19
.............................. 19
.............................. 19
.............................. 20
.............................. 20
.............................. 22
.............................. 22
..............................23
.............................. 23
.............................. 24
.............................. 24
.............................. 25
.............................. 25
..............................26
.............................. 26
Chapter
Four
'Sutra
Qiblah
Intention
(NiYat)
Takbir Tahrimah
Folding of hands
Recitation
before Fatihah
Ta'awwuz
fasmiah
Surah Fatihah
Ruku
(&owing)
Du'as in Ruku
Du'is in
Qawmah
First Sajdah
Du'[s in Sajdah
Second Rakat
Tashahud
Fnding the Prayer
Du'6s after Salutation
Chapter Five
Witr Prayer
. . . . . 28
. . . . . 28
. . . . . 28
. . . . . 28
. . . . . 29
. . . . . 29
. . . . . 29
. . . . . 30
. . . . . 30
. . . . . 3 I
:":::::::::::::::::::::::::::i1
. . . . . 37
. . . . . 38
. . . . . 38
. . . . . 40
. . . . . 40
:::::::::::::::::::::::.:::::.13
Reci tati on of Surah Fati hah Bdri nd an Imam
..-.-.32
Ameen
. . . . . 32
Reci tati on after Surah Fati hah
.........-....-.33
Qawman
(standing
after Rukfr) ................36
Jalsah
(sitting
between two Sajddrs) .....39
Second Sajdalt
.....40
Jalsah+-Istarahat
(sitting for rest) .........40
Standi ng up for thi rd Rakat
................41
$alat
Alan-Nabi
(Darfid) ................42
Du'5s after
$alat
Alan-nabi
(Darfrd) ........42
Number of Rakat of Witr PraYer
Time of Witr Prayer
How to Pray Witr
Du' i
Qunfit
in witr Prayer
................50
Text of Du'E
Qunilt
Jumah
(Friday Prayer) .................5
1
Importance of Friday
Prayer ..---...........51
lmportance of Cleanliness
for lriday Prayer
.....51
Going early to Friday
Prayer
...-............52
I
Prayer before Jumalt
Chapter Four 28
'Sutra 28
Qiblah 28
Intention (Niyat) 28
Talcbir Tahrimah 29
Folding of hands 29
.Recitation before Fatihah 29
Ta'awwuz 30
'fasmiah 30
Surah Fatihah 31
Recitation of Surah Fatihah Behind an Imam 32
Ameen 32
Recitation after Surah Fatihah ._ 33
Ruku (J,owing) 34
Du'as in Ruku 35
Qawman (standing after Rukii) 36
Du'as in Qawmah 37
First Sajdah .38
Du'as in Sajdah 38
Jalsah (sitting between two Sajdcbs) .39
Second Sajdah 40
Jalsah-e-Istarahat (sitting for rest) 40
Second Rakat 40
Tashahud 40
Standing up for third Rakat .41
~ a l a t Alan-Nabi (Dariid) -. .42
Du'as after ~ a 1 a t Alan-nabi (Dari"xl) .42
Ending the Prayer 45
Du'as after Salutation .45
Chapter Five 48
Witr Prayer .48
Number of Rakat ofWitr Prayer 48
Time of Witr Prayer 49
How to Pray Witr 49
Du'i Quniit in witr Prayer 50
Text of Du'i Qunilt 50
Jumah (Friday Prayer) 51
Importance of Friday Prayer 51
Importance of Cleanliness for Iriday Prayer 51
Going early to Friday Prayer 52
Prayer before Jumah 52
8
Li steni ng to Khutbah
(Sermon
Prayer after Jumah
Eid Prayer
Junazuh l l rayer
Conduct ,
' f
Janazah Prayer
Fi nt l -akbi r
Du' Es of starti ng
Surah Fatihah
Reci tati on of a Surah
Second Takbir
Thi rd Takbi r
Du' frs of Janazah
Endi ng the Janazah Prayer
Fourth Takbi r
Prayer Duri ng a Journey
When to shorten and combi ne Prayers . . . . . . . . 62
Durati on of
j ourney
Nafl Prayer on a
j ourney
.63
oo oa
oo oo oo
t t
::::::::::::::::::::::::ii
. 54
56
s7
57
57
58
58
58
59
59
6r
6l
6l
63
9
Listening to Khutbah (Sennon 53
Prayer after Jumah 54
Eid Prayer 54
Janazah l)rayer 56
Conduct I If Janazah Prayer 57
First Takbir 57
Du'as of starting 57
Surah Fatihah 58
Recitation of a Surah 58
Second Takbir 58
Third Takbir 59
Du'as of Janazah 59
Ending the Janazah Prayer 61
Fourth Takbir 61
Prayer During a Journey 61
When to shorten and combine Prayers 62
D-uration of journey 63
Natl Prayer on a journey 63

9
thtes about the Transliteration
The f ol l owi ng syst em has been adopt ed t 0 represent r: orrespondi ng
sounds of t he Arabi c Al phabet .
Ar.rbi c l etter Engl i sh
Equi val ent
Exampl e
t Ar abi c)
Exampl e
( Engl i sh)
a
b
t
rh
J
h
kh
d
i
I
2
s
sh
I
{
I
1
,
gh
f
g
k
I
m
n
w
h
\
of the letter
I
v
I
Y
dr
,i
c
c
c
J
j
)
)
tA
,.*
. c
f
-b
e
e
15
(l,
J
I
o
t
j
Al l ah Appl e
bi smi l l ah bat
Ti r mi zi
l oy
ut hman t hr ough
Jabi r
i ug
Raheem
[ate
Khal i f ah no Engl i sh
equi val ent
Dn, mi
l be
Ai an reEembl e
fur
liver
zahi d gero
sal5m seen
shuai b shop
sal at sardi ne
wudu no equi val ent
fahi r
no equi val ent
guhr
razor
Jam6' at no equi val ent
Maghri b no equi val ent
Fajr
lan
l qamat queen
kitab
f,een
Ji breel
l ean
Muhammad
l [oon
Ni sai noon
wu{u
fi al l et
janazah
[our
no equi val ent
I
t
i n the mi ddl e
L5
t o
year
Notes
about the Transliteration
The following system has been adopted to represent corresponding
sounds of the Arabic Alphabet.
ArJbic letter English Example Example
Equivalent I Arabic) ( English)
a Allah

b bismillah bat

t Tirmizi
!oy

th uthman t.Drough
'-oJ
C
J Jabir jug
C;
h
bate
C
kh Khalifah no English
equivalent
..)
d Dn.mi
the
oJ
i Aian
J
r Asr river
J
z zahid
!ero
IJ"
s salam

...
sh shuaib
mop
fJ'"
oj'

d
no equivalent
,
fahir no equivalent
j;
?

e
,
JamIt'at no equivalent
e
gh Maghrib no equivalent
f Fajr-
fan

q Iqamat queen
k kitab
feen
J
I Jibreel
lean
r
m Muhammad
!!loon
U
n Nisai noon
j
w wUQu wallet
h janazah
ttour

,
no equivalent
( in the middle of the letter)
c.S y
'year
10
The following system has been adopted to represent some of the
compl ex sounds of the Arabi c l anguage.
A macron
(-) pl aced 0n a transcri bed Arabi c vowel
l engtheni ng of the sound of that l etter.
Arabi c
Engl i sh
Equi val ents
e
Exampl e
(Arabi c)
AilAh
Raheem
istanja
0awfid
awwal
indicates
Exampl e
( Ensl i sh
)
Appl e
seen
si t
seen
he
boot
true
sew
shovel
baY
age
ee
I
i or ee
hT
u
-u
aw
aww
ay
aYy
ivv
r 5l
)
I
6
' 1
ll
j i
ii
$i
t5i
13t
Note: $ometimes an Arabic letter changes sound according t0 its
position in the word; for example; whether it is at the heginning, in
ihe middle 0r at the end. In such circumstances
the Arabic letter has
heen represented by more than one English equivalent.
Abbrwirtionr
The following abbrwiations have been used in this book.
$, A. Uv, $tt
-
ul . Ll l l tj ALAYl l l l IA $Al ,- LAt
I PtACr At0 8l .tS$l l l 0 0F ALt Af{ 8t uP0t l {l t I
RA0t
Ail.llf |J Ailll||
/
lillA
I tAy Arui l 8t PLtA$t0 |1 l l h l l l t / l {tR
R. A.
11
The following system has been adopted to represent some of the
complex sounds of the Arabic language.
A macron (-) placed on a transcribed Arabic vowel indicates
lengthening of the sound of that letter.
Arabic English
Equivalents
.-
a
\.sL ee
J
i
So i or ee
.Jb hi
I'
I u
)1
u
jf
aw
)1 aww
(51 ay
Cf ayy
~ ~
iyy
Example
(Arabic)
Allih
Raheem
istanja
Dawud
awwal
Example
( English)
Apple
seen
sit
seen
he
boot
true
sew
shovel
bay
age
Note: Sometimes an Arabic letter changes sound according to its
position in the word; for example; whether it is at the beginning, in
the middle or at the end. In such circumstances the Arabic letter has
been represented by more than one English equivalent.
Abbreviations
The following abbreviations have been used in this book.
So A0 W0 SAl- lAl LANU AlAYHI WA SAL- LAM
I PEACt AND BLESSING OF AllAH BE UPON HIM I
R0 A0 RADI ALLAHU ANHU I ANHA
I MAY ALLAH BE PLEASED WITh HIMI HER
11
Chcrpter I
BEFOHE DOI NG WI JOU
l f someone needs t o
go
t o t he t oi l et , he shoul d use t he t oi l et and do
i st anj a bef ore doi ng wudu.
ABLUTI O N
SI WAK
( TO
OTH
- STI CK)
It i s a good practi ce
to cl ean the teeth wi th a tooth-sti ck, or a tooth-
brush bef ore perf ormi ng
wudu. I n t hi s way you
can avoi d many
di seases whi ch are caused by uncl ean teeth.
f u ment i oned i n t he hadi t h Ai sha
(R. A. )
report ed Al l ah' s messen-
ger
as sayi ng: -
' The
use of a t oot h-st i ck i s a means of puri f yi ng
t he
mouth and i s pl easi ng to the Lord as wel l
"
(Ahmad.
0armi , and Ni sai . l
Prophet Muhammad
(S. A. W. )
al so sai d: - "l f I woul dn' t have f el t
t hat i t i s di f f i c, ul t f or my
peopl e
I wouf d have ordered t hem t o use a
tooth-sti ck wi th every
prayer,
that i s, before doi ng each wudu. So,
musl i ms shoul d al ways t ry t o f ul f i l t hi s wi sh of our Prophet
(S. A. W. ).
MAKTNG I NTENT| 0N F0R WUgU
( N| YAT)
Before starti ng the acti ons o wu{u i t i s necesary t0 make ni yat.
Make Ni yat that the act of performi ng
wuf,u i s for the purpose
of
puri ty
onfy. Ni yat shoul d be made i n the heart because i t i s an acti on
of t he heart and not of t he t ongue.
Ni yat by words i s not approved by Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.l .
Then start the wu{u by sayi ng:- Bi smi l l bh hi r-ra[rma ni r-raheem
(l n
the name of Al l ah, most graci ou$,
most merci ful )"
ACTI O] t I S FOR PER FO RMI I I I G A8 LUTI OI {.
l . Wash the hands up to the wri st maki ng sure that n0
part of the
hands i s l eft dry.
2. Ri nse the mouth taki ng up water w;th the ri ght hand.
3. Cl ean the nose: sni ff water up from the ri ght
pal m
and then ej ect
water with the left hand.
12
Chapter I
BEFORE DOING WUQU
If someone needs to go to the toilet, he should use the toilet and do
istanja before doing wudu.
ABLUTION
SIWAK (TOOTH--STlCK)
It is a good practice to clean the teeth with a tooth-stick, or a tooth-
brush before performing wudu. In this way you can avoid many
diseases which are caused by unclean teeth.
As mentioned in the hadith Aisha (R.A.) reported Allah's messen-
ger as saying:- ''The use of a tooth-stick is a means of purifying the
mouth and is pleasing to the Lord as well" )
(Ahmad. Oarmi, and Nisai .
Prophet Muhammad (S.A.WJ also said:- "If I wouldn't have felt
that it is difficult for my people I would have ordered them to use a
tooth-stick with every prayer, that is, before doing each wuQu. So"
muslims should always try to fulfil this wish of our Prophet (S.A.W.).
MAKING INTENTION FOR WUI}U (NIYAT)
Before starting the actions 0 it is necessary to make niyat.
Make Niyat that the act of performing is for the purpose of
purity only. Niyat should be made in the heart because it is an action
of the heart and not of the tongue.
Niyat by words is not approved by Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.).
Then start the by saying:- Bismillah nir-raheem
(In the name of Allah, most gracious, most merciful) II
ACTIONS FOR PERFORMING ABLUTION.
1. Wash the hands up to the wrist making sure that no part of the
hands is left dry.
2. Rinse the mouth taking up water with the right hand.
3. Clean the nose: sniff water up from the right palm and then eject
water with the left hand.
12
a.
{ash
the face,
from ear to
-eat,
and forehead
to chin making
sure
that no part
of the face
is left dry.
5.
Then rvash the forearms
(right
forearm first) up to the elbou,s
maki ng sure that no
part
of them i s l eft dry.
6. Rub the head as fol l ows:-
Wet your fi ngers and then wi pe the head wi th your fi ngerqnstarti ng
from the forehead, taki ng them to the nape of the neck, then
bri ng them back to the forehead.
7. Cl ean the ean by i nserti ng the ti ps of the i ndex fi ngers wetted wi th
unter into the ears, twist them around the foids of the ears then
pass
the thumb behi nd the ears from the bottom, upwards.
8.
*Wash
the feet
(right
foot fint) up to the ankles making sure
that no parb
of the feet are left dry, especially betrueen the toes.
*SPECI AL
FACI LI TI ES I i l ABLUTI OT{
Eubbing the socks with wet hands instead of washing the feet
;
al l owed, provi ded
that the socks have been put
0n after
perfonr' ,rg
an abl uti on, i ncl udi ng washi ng the feet. Thi s i s afl owed for 24 hours
f rom t he t i me of abl ut i on, and f or3 days i f t he
person
i sona
j ourney.
After thi s ti me the feet must be washed. Si mi l arl y i f there i s a wound
i n any pars
of the body whi ch has to be washed i n abl uti on, and i f
washi ng that
parti cul ar part i s l i kel y t0 cause harm, i t i s permi si bl e
to wi pe the dressi ng of the
wound wi th a wet hand.
HAOI TH
Mughi ra bi n shu' bah sai d,
"Prophet (S.A.W.)
performed abl uti on
and wi ped over hi s socks and hi s sandal s."
(Ahmad,
Ti rmi zi , Abu Dawi l d, and l bn Mai ah).
Each detai l of abl uti on has been
performed by Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.)
once, twi ce 0r three ti mes
(except
rubbi ng of head and
cl eani ng of ears, i .e. acti ons 6 and 7 shoul d onl y bb done once).
Si nce al l the above methods meet Prophet
(S.A.W.)t
approval we
can
perform abl uti on by doi ng the
acti ons once, twi ce 0r three ti mes.
provided that no
part
has been left drY.
Amr bi n Shuai b,
quoti ng
hi s father on the authori ty of hi s
grand'
father narrated that Prophet Muhammad
{S.A.W.)
sai d,
"l f anyone
performs acti ons of abl uti on more than 3 ti mesrhe has done wrong,
tramgresed, and done wickedly.
OU' A AT THE Ei l D OF ABLUTI OT{
"Ash hadu an l 5 i taha
i l l al l dhu rmh dahu l f shareeka l ahfi
13
(Ni sai ,
l bn Maj ah)
4. Wash the face, from ear to ear, and forehead to chin making sure
that no part of the face is left dry.
5. Then wash the forearms (right forearm first) up to the elbows
making sure that no part of them is left dry.
6.Rub the head as follows:-
Wet your fingers and then wipe the head with your fingers,starting
from the forehead, taking them to the nape of the neck, then
bring them back to the forehead.
7. Clean the ears by inserting the tips of the index fingers wetted with
water into the ears, twist them around the foids of the ears then
pass the thumb behind the ears from the bottom, upwards.
8. *Wash the feet (right foot first) up to the ankles making sure
that no parts of the feet are left dry, especially between the toes.
*SPECIAL FACILITIES IN ABLUTION
Rubbing the socks with wet hands instead of washing the feet;
allowed, provided that the socks have been put on after perfonr',lg
an ablution, including washing the feet. This is allowed for 24 hours
from the time of ablution, and for 3 days if the person is on ajourney.
After this time the feet must be washed. Similarly if there is a wound
in any parts of the body which has to be washed in ablution, and if
washing that particular part is likely to cause harm, it is permissible
to wipe the dressing of the wound with a wet hand.
HADITH
Mughira bin shu'bah said, "Prophet (S.A.W.) performed ablution
and wiped over his socks and his sandals."
(Ahmad, Tirmizi, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah).
Each detail of ablution has been performed by Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W,) once, twice or three times (except rubbing of head and
cleaning of ears, i.e. actions 6 and 7 should only be done once).
Since all the above methods meet Prophet (S.A.W,}'s approval we
can perform ablution by doing the actions once, twice or three times.
provided that no Dart has been left dry.
Amr bin Shuaib, quoting his father on the authority of his grand-
father narrated that Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) said, "If anyone
performs actions of ablution more than 3 times,he has done wrong,
transgressed, and done wickedly.
DU'A AT THE END OF ABLUTION
"Ash hadu an Iii iI aha
iIIallahu wah dahu Ifshareeka lahu
13
(Nisai, Ibn Majah)
wa ash hadu atrna
illuhammadan
'abduhE
wa
rruluhu:
(Mrnliml.
fi;*l
t
f
"e,j'i
$jli,Et
l,f
r
gl
ilfS *r
;i;*i
rfi'i-*$s;#l
"Allah hum mai
'alnse
minat
trpwlbmn
sni hlneo minal
mub
ph-hiren."
(Tirmiril.
<tr;:toiriFi"isl..v}bQy*;5lrtirest;ay;$rf
"l tctify that there is no deity except Allah alone. And I testify
that Muhammad
(S.AW.I
is His servant and messenger."
(Muslim)
"0 Allah make me among those who are
penitent
and make me
among thoss who are
purified."
(Tirmizil
TAYATIi,IUIt|
In circumstancs when rvater cannot be found, or
just
enough is
arailable for drinking, or it is iniufous t0 health: in such situations
Tayammum
(dry
ablution) can be performed.
The
procedure below is
given according to Ouran and Hadith.
".........And if
you don' t find any water, then take clean eafth
(or
sand) and rub it on your face, and hands. Allah does not wish
to
put you in a difficulty, but he wants to make
you
clean, and to
complete-His
frvour unto you, so
you
should be
grateful
to Him."
(Surah
V. verse 6).
(The
permision to use sand for this
purpose is
allorved in the Ouran).
PRO CEO U 8E
l. Make niyat in the hmrt.
2. Begin with the name of Allah.
3. Strike both
palms
of hand on clean sand, dust or anything con-
taining these, e.g. wall or stone etc. fren blow into the
palms.
pan the
pafms
of both hands over the face once and then ruh
your rit'rt hand with the left
palm
and lett hand with the right
palml.
(Bukhari
and Mrslim).
14
wa ash hadu an-na
Muhammadan 'abduhu wa
rasuluhu: (Muslim).
"Allah hum maj 'alnn minat
taw-wlbeen"Mj 'alnee minal
muta 18h-hireen." (TirmizH.
"1 testify that there is no rjeity except Allah alone. And I testify
that Muhammad (S.A.W.) is His servant and messenger."
(Muslim)
"0 Allah make me among those who are penitent and make me
among those who are purified."
(Tirmizi)
TAYAMMUM
In circumstances when water cannot be found, or just enough is
available for drinking, or it is injurous to health: in such situations
Tayammum (dry ablution) can be performed.
The procedure below is given according to Ouran and Hadith.
"......... And if you don't find any water, then take clean earth
(or sand) and rub it on your face, and hands. Allah does not wish
to put you in a difficulty, but he wants to make you clean, and to
complete -His favour unto you, so you should be grateful to Him."
(Surah V. verse 6). (The permission to use sand for this purpose is
allowed in the Quran).
PROCEDURE
1. Make niyat in the heart.
2. Begin with the name of Allah.
3. Strike both palms of hand on clean sand, dust or anything con-
taining these, e.g. wall or stone etc. then blow into the palms.
pass the palms of both hands over the face once and then rub
your right hand with the left palm and left hand with the right
palm).
(Bukhari and Muslim).
14
4. Finish with the same Du'd as
given
at the end of
ahlution.
f{ote: 0ther
procedures include the forearms
and
shoulders as well m
armpits. These have been transmitted by reputable scholan but the
most preferabl e and authenti c i s that
gi ven
above.
oooooo
15
4. Finish with the same Du'a as given at the end of ablution.
Note: Other procedures include the forearms .and shoulders as well as
armpits. These have been transmitted by reputable scholars but the
most preferable and authentic is that given above.
o o o
15
o o
o
Chspter 2
TIME
-
PTACE
-
DRESS
and
-
TYPES OF SALAT
I . TI ME OF SALAT
Each,qalat.
Tult
be offered at or during_iu proper
time..
No plat
crn
be offered before i ts ti me. There are fi ve.obl i gatory
dat
i i i i aai .
FAJR PRAYEB
The time for the Fajr or the morning prayer
starts at dawn and
ends at sunri se.
Zuhr Pnyer
The time for Zuhr or the early aftemoon
prayer
rtarts when the
sun begins to decline f rom its zenith and endr wtren the rize of an
obi ectt shadow i s equal to the si ze of the obi ect.
Jabi r bi n Abdul fah
(R.A.l
narrated,
' The
angel Ji breel cams
to Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.)
and sai d to hi m,
' Stand
up and
pray Zuhr' .
So the messenger of Al l ah
(S.A.W
I prayed
Zuhr
when the sun had decl i ned from i ts zenl th. Then tne Anget
Ji breel came agai n at the ti me of Asr and sai d,
' Stand
up and
Pray Asri Then Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.)
prayed
Asr' when
the shadow of everythi ng was equal to i tsel f. Then Ji breel
came
the next day to Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.)
and sai d, Stand
!p
and pray Zuhr' . Then Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.)
prayed
Zuhr when the shadow of everythi ng was equal to i tsel f. Then
Jibreel came again at Asr time and said,
'Stand
up and pray
Asr'.
Then he prayed
fur when the
shadow
of everything rvas trvice
i t s l engt h
Therr Ji breel sai d,
(after
prayi ng
10 prayers
wi th Prophet Muham-
mad
(S.A.W.)
i n nruo consecuti ve days) that the ti me of
prayer
is in between th$e two timesl"
Ahmad, Nasai, Tirmizi and Bukhari remarked
that this is
the most authenti c hadi th
gi vi ng
the ti mes of
prayer.
We fi nd that many books on
$al at
state the endi ng ti me
of Zuhr prayer and the starti ng ti me of fui
prayer
whEn the
shadow of somethi ng i s twi ce i tsel f. But thi s contradi cts the
above hadi th as 0n the fi rst day Ji breel asked Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.)
t0 pray
fur when the shadow of everythi ng was equaf
to i tsel f. Thi s means that was the end ti me of Zuhr prayer. And
we
al ready know that al l the ul amas of the Musl i m Ummah
16
Chapter 2
TIME PLACE - DRESS and - TYPES OF SALAT
1. TIME OF SALAT
Each must be offered at or during its proper time.. No flist Cln
be offered before its time. There are five obligatory falat in a day.
FAJR PRAYER
The time for the Fajr or the morning prayer starts at dawn and
ends at sun-rise.
Zuhr Prayer
The time for Zuhr or the early afternoon prayer starts when the
sun begins to decline from its zenith and ends when the size of an
object's shadow is equal to the of the object.
Jabir bin Abdullah (R.A.) narrated, "The angel Jibreel came
to Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) and said to him, 'Stand up and
pray Zuhr'. So the messenger of Allah (S.A.W \ prayed Zuhr
when the sun had decl ined from its zenith. Then the Angel
Jibreel came again at the time of Asr and said, 'Stand up and
Pray Then Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) prayed Asr when
the shadow of everything was equal to itself. Then Jibreel came
the next day to Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) and said, 'Stand
up and pray Zuhr', Then Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) prayed
Zuhr when the shadow of everything was equal to itself. Then
Jibreel came again at Asr time and said, 'Stand up and pray Asr'.
Then he prayed Asr when the $hadow of everything was twice
its length _
Then Jibreel said, (after praying 10 prayers with Prophet Muham-
mad (S.A.W.) in two consecutive days) that the time of prayer
is in between these two times:"
Ahmad, Nasai, Tirmizi and Bukhari remarked that this is
the most authentic hadith giving the times of prayer.
We find that many books on the ending time
of Zuhr prayer and the starting time of Asr prayer when the
shadow of something is twice itself. But this contradicts the
above hadith as on the first day Jibreel asked Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.) to pray Asr when the shadow of everything was eQuat
to itself. This means that was the end time of Zuhr prayer. And
we already know that all the ulamas of the Muslim Ummah
16
agree unani mousl y that n0
prayer
can be offered before i ts ti me.
Arr Prryer
The trme for Asr or l ate afternoon
prayer
starts when the shadow
of somet hi ng
i s equal t o i t sel f and ends
j ust
bef ore sunset .
I t i s bet t er t o of f er f ur
prayer
bef ore t he sun beeomes yel l ow
because even
though i t i s al l owed to offer the orayer at thi s
t i me t he Prophet
(S. A. Y{. }
di sl i ked Musl i ms t o 0el ay f ur
prayer
up t o t hi s t i me. He remarked t hat t he Munaf i q
(Hypocri t el
offered hi s
prayer at thi s ti me.
Maghri b Praycr
The t i me f or t he Maghri b 0r t h0 sunset
prayer st art s
j ust
af t er
sunset and ends when t wi l i ght has di sappeared.
!sha Prayer
The t i me f or l sha or ni ght
prayer st art s f rom t he di sappearai t ue
of t wi l i ght and ends
j ust
bef ore mi dni ght .
I t i i
pref erabl e i o of f er t hi s
prayer bef ore mi dni ght
but i t
can be offered ri ght uo tn
the
break of dawn'
l ,l ote:
-
In countri es
where due to cl oudy weather the sun i s not
al urnys
vi si bl e
i t i s advi sabl e to fol l ow pri nted
cal endars
gi vi ng the
accurate
ti me of each
PraYer.
FORBI DDEN TI MES OF PHAYER
uqbah bi n Ami r sai d, " There were t hree t i mes at whi ch Al l ah' s
messenger
(S.A.W.)
used to forbi d us to pray
0r bury our dead.
(i )
When t he sun began t o ri se unt i t i t was f ul l y up.
(i i )
When the sun was at i ts hei ght at mi dday ti l ! i t passed
t he meri di an,
(i i i )
When t he sun drew near t o set t i ng t i l l i t had set l '
( MUSLI M)
FOBBI DDEi l TI MES FOR NAFL PRAYER
{i }
Abu Sa' eed al Khudree
(R. A. )
report ed Al l ah' s mes$enger
(S.A.W.)
as sayi ng,
"No prayer i s to be sai d after the Fai r
prayer unti l the sun ri ses, or after the fur
prayer unti l the
sun setsl '
( Bukhar i ' &
Musl i m)
Onl y naf l
prayer i s f orbi dden at t hese t i mes but a mi ssed
fard
prayer san de offered. Most of the ul amas of the Musl i m
Ummah al l owed the offeri ng of mi ssed fard
prayer
after
Faj r and f ur because of t he f ol l owi ng hadi t h
Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.)
sai d,
' 1/Vho
has forgotten
the
prayer
he shoul d
pray
i t whenever he remembers i ti '
( Bukhar i
& Musl i m)
(i i )
A nafl prayer
cannot be offered once the l qamat for fard
prayer has been said. Abu Hurairah flarrated that the mes-
17
agree unanimously that no prayer can be offered before its time.
Asr Prayer
The time for Asr or late afternoon prayer starts when the shadow
of something is equal to itself and ends just before sunset.
It is better to offer Asr prayer before the sun becomes yellow
because even though it is allowed to offer the prayer at this
time the Prophet (S.A.W.l disliked Muslims to Oelay Asr prayer
up to this time. He remarked that the Munafiq (Hypocrite)
offered his prayer at this time.
Maghrib Prayer
The time for the Maghrib or t h ~ sunset prayer starts just after
sunsp.t and ends when twilight has disappeared.
!sha Prayer
The time for Isha or night prayer starts from the disappearance
of twilight and ends just before midnight.
It is preferable to offer this prayer before midnight but it
can be offered right uo to thp. break of dawn.
Note: - In countries where due to cloudy weather the sun is not
always visible it is advisable to follow printed calendars giving the
accurate time of each prayer.
FORBIDDEN TIMES OF PRAYER
Uqbah bin Amir said, H, There were three times at which Allah's
messenger (S.A. W.) used to forbid us to pray or bury our dead.
(i) When the sun began to rise untir it was fully up.
(jj) When the sun was at its height at midday til! it p ~ s e d
the meridian,
(iii) When the sun drew near to setting till it had set:'
(MUSLIM)
FORBIDDEN TIMES FOR NAFl PRAYER
(i) Abu Sa'eed al Khudree (R.A.) reported Allah's messenger
(S.A.W.) as saying, "No prayer is to be said after the Fajr
prayer until the sun rises, or after the Asr prayer until the
sun sets:'
(Bukhari-& Muslim)
Only naf1 prayer is forbidden at these times but a missed
fard prayer can de offered. Most of the ulamas of the Muslim
Um'mah allowed the offering of missed fard prayer after
Fair and Asr because of the following hadith
Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) said, 'Who has forgotten
the prayer he should pray it whenever he remembers it:'
(Bukhari & Muslim)
(ij) A nafl prayer cannot be offered once the Iqamat for fard
prayer has been said. Abu Hurairah nal'rated that the mes:
17
senger of Allah
(S.A.W.l
said,
't{hen
the lqanlat has been said,
t henrt here i s no
prayer
val i d
(Naf l
or sunnat ) except t he
Fard prayer
for whi ch the l qamat was sai d."
(Ahmad
& Musl i m)
It i s seen i n practi ce that many peopl e
conti nue wi th the
sunnat prayer
wen though the i qamat has been sai d for the
far{ prayer
epeci al l y i n the Faj r prayer. They feel that the
2 Rakat sunnat of Faj r can onl y be offered before the Far{.
Thi s practi ce i s agai nst congregati on Phi l osophy, di sci pl i ne
of Jamd' at, and a cl ear vi ol ati on of Hadi th. They shoul d
offer 2 rakat sunnat of Fai r i mmedi atel y after the Fard or
after sunrise.
2. PLACE FOR SALAT
A pl ace
or a bui l di ng whi ch i s used for the
purpose
of woshi p
and prayer i s cal l ed a mci i d
(Mosque).
A hadi th tel l s us that
"al l
the earth has been rendered for the Musl i ms, a mosque
(Pure
and
cl mn). "
This mears that wherever a muslim might be he can offer his
prayer but the reuard of a prayer offered in a mosque is far
grmEr
than that offered i n an ordi nary
pl ace. The fol l owi ng poi nts
shoul d
be noted when choosing a place for prayer.
(a)
The pl ace
shoul d be cl an and
pure.
$al at
i n a di rty, fi l thy and
impure place such if a rubbish tip, slaughter house, bathing
pl ace
and a camel
pen
i s forbi dden.
(bl
The pl ace
shoul d be free from danger. The danpr coul d be
due to someone or something that may disturb the worshipper.
(c)
A prayer place where the worshipper might hinder movement
of others should be avoided, e.g. busy pavements, public road-
ways etc.
(d)
l t i s forbi dden to pray on the roof of Bai tul l ah
(Ka' bahl .
(e)
lt is forbidden to pray on top of or facing towards a grave.
3. DRESS FOR SATAT
MEN
(i)
The dres for the men should be such that it covers from the
navel to the kneemt lect.
18
senger of Allah (S.A.W.) said, "When the Iqamat has been said"
then, there is no prayer valid (Nafl or sunnat) except the
Fard prayer for which the Iqamat was said."
(Ahmad & Muslim)
It is seen in practice that many people continue with the
sunnat prayer even though the iqamat has been said for the
f a r ~ prayer especially in the Fajr prayer. They feel that the
2 Rakat sunnat of Fajr can only be offered before the F a r ~ .
This practice is against congregation Philosophy, discipline
of Jama'at, and a clear violation of Hadith. They should
offer 2 rakat sunnat of Fajr immediately after the Fard or
after sunrise.
2. PLACE FOR SALAT
A place or a building which is used for the purpose of worship
and prayer is called a masjid (Mosque). A hadith tells us that "all
the earth has been rendered for the Muslims, a mosque (Pure and
clea!l). "
This means that wherever a muslim might be he can offer his
prayer but the revvard of a prayer offered in a mosque is far greater
than that offered in an ordinary place. The following points should
be noted when choosing a place for prayer.
(a) The place should be clean and pure. ~ I a t in a dirty, filthy and
impure place such as a rubbish tip, slaughter house, bathing
place and a camel pen is forbidden.
(b) The place should be free from danger. The danger could be
due to someone or something that may disturb the worshipper.
(c) A prayer place where the worshipper might hinder movement
of others should be avoided, e.g. busy pavements, public road-
ways etc.
(d) It is forbidden to pray on the roof of Saitullah (Ka'bah).
(e) It is forbidden to pray on top of or facing towards a grave.
3. DRESS FOR SALAT
MEN
(j) The dress for the men should be such that it covers from the
navel to the kneesat least.
18
(i i l
ThEshoul ders shoul d not be l eft uncovered.
(i i i l
$al at
can be prayed i n one garment i f i t covers the body
from the navel to the knees as well as the shoulders.
"None of
you must
pray i n a si n$e
garment of whi rh no
part
comes over the shoul derj '
( BUKHARI
& MUSLI M}
l f, however, the
grment i s not l ong enough to uover the
shoul ders
then parts
of the body between the navel and
the knees shoul d at l east be covered.
WOM EN
The dress of the woman shoul d be such that i t covers her whol e
body from head to foot l eavi ng onl y the face and the hands un'
covered. A prayer
offered i n transparent cl othi ng i s not val i d. Al so
t i ght f i t t i ng cf ot hi ng whi ch shows t he shape of t he body shoul d
be avoi ded.
4. TYPES OF SALAT
a) Fard or obl i grtory Sal at.
Fard prayer i s an obl i gat ory prayer. [ very bel i ever i s ordered
by Al l ah t o of f er f i ve obl i gat ory
prayers i n a day. Fai l ure t o
observe any one of the fi ve obl i gatory
prayers i s a seri ous and
puni shabl e
si n.
b) ltlafl Prayer.
Thi s i s a vol unt ary prayer whi ch t he Prophet
(S. A. W. )
observed
bef ore or af t er Fard at speci al and i sol at ed occasi ons. l t al so
i ncl udes t hose whi ch he encouraged
Musl i ms t o
prav.
The Nafl Prayer can be di vi ded i nto three categortes.
(i )
Sunnat Mu' akkadah
(compuhory)
That i s t hose whi c, h are emphasi zed by t he Hol y Prophet
(S. A. W. )
and offered regul arl y by hi m before or after the Fard prayrl r.
(i i l
Ghei r Mu' akkadah
(opt i onal )
That i s t hose of f ered onl y occasi onal l y by Prophet Muhammad
(s.A.w.l.
r 9
(in The shoulders should not be left uncovered.
(iii) $alat tan be prayed in one garment if it covers the body
from the navel to the knees as well as the shoulders.
"None of you must pray in a single garment of whilh no
part comes over the shoulder:'
(BUKHARI &MUSLIM)
If, however, the garment is not long enough to cover the
shoulders then parts of the body between the navel and
the knees should at least be covered.
WOMEN
The dress of the woman should be such that it covers her whole
body from head to foot leaving only the face and the hands un
covered. A prayer offered in transparent clothing is not valid. Also
tight fitting clothing which shows the shape of the body should
be avoided.
4. TYPES OF
a) or obligatory $alat.
prayer is an obligatory prayer. Every believer is ordered
by Allah to offer five obligatory prayers in a day. Failure to
observe anyone of the five obligatory prayers is a serious and
punishable sin.
b) NafJ Prayer.
This is a voluntary prayer which the Prophet (S.A.W.) observed
before or after at special and isolated occasions. It also
includes those which he encouraged Muslims to pray.
The Nafl Prayer can be divided into three categones.
(i) Sunnat Mu'akkadah (compulsory)
That is those which are emphasized by the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.)
and offered regularly by him before or after the
(ii) Ghair Mu'akkadah (optional)
That is those offered only occasionally by Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.).
19
(iiil
thfl Prryrr
(Extnl
Thb is an extra
prayer. There is a reward for praying it and no
sin for leaving it. lt can be offered at any isolated instance accord-
ing to the time and capacity of the believer. Prophet Muhammad
(S.AW,)
encouraged the believers t0
pray
nall to help make
up for any minor ombsions or other defec$ in the obligatory
praysr.
5. TUTIBER OF RAKATS FOR THE FIVE OETIGATORY PRAYERS
(il
Frir Prryrr.
2 rakar sunnat Mu' akkadah,
2 Rakats Fard.
(ii)
Zuhr Prryrr,
2 or 4 rakats sunnat Mu'akkadah, 4 rakab far{, 2 rakats sunnat
Mu'akkadah and an unspecified number of nafl ro time and cap-
acity alloun.
lbn Umar
(R.A.)
said
"l prayed
alone with Allah' s mesengel
(S.A.W.)
2 rakats before and 2 rakats after the Zuhr prayer."
( BUKHARI
& MUSLI M)
rakats sunnat before Zuhr
2 rakat sunnat before the
It is a familiar practice
to offer 4
prayer, but this hadith
proves that
Zuhr
prayer
i s al so al l owed.
(iiil
Arr Prryrr.
2 0r 4 rakat sunnat
$rair
Mu'akkadah, 4 rakats Fard.
Ali
(R.A.)
said,
"Allah's
messenfr
(S.A.W.}
used t0 pray
4 rakafu
before Ae r prayer
ssparatang them with a salu tation........"
(Tl Bf t l l Zl l
Another hadith narrated by Ali
(R.A.)
says,
"Allah' s
mesenger
(S.A.W.}
used to pray tw'o rakas before Asr prayer."
(ABU
DAWUO}
(ivl
Mrghrib Prryar.
2 rakats nafl, 3 rakan
an unspacified number
fard, 2 rakats sunnat Mu' akkadah and
of nafl 6 time and capacity allows.
Abdullah bin Mughaffal reported the Prophet
(S.A.W.)
as saying,
20
(iii) Nell Preyer (Extrl)
This is an extra prayer. There is a reward for praying it and no
sin for leaving it. It can be offered at any isolated instante atcord-
ing to the time and capacity of the believer. Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.) encouraged the believers to pray natl to help make
up for any minor omissions or other defects in the obligatory
prayer.
5. NUMBER OF RAKATS FORTHE FIVE OBLIGATORY PRAYERS
(0 Fejr Prlyer.
2 rakats sunnat Mu'akkadah, 2 Rakats F a r ~ .
(ii) Zuhr Prlver.
2 or 4 rakats sunnat Mu'akkadah, 4 rakats f a r ~ , 2 rakats sunnat
Mu'akkadah and an unspecified number of nafl as time and cap-
acity allows.
Ibn Umar (R.AJ said "I prayed alone with Allah's messenger
(S.A.WJ 2 rakats before and 2 rakats after the Zuhr prayer."
(BUKHARI & MUSLIM)
It is a familiar practice to offer 4 rakats sunnat before Zuhr
prayer, but this hadith proves that 2 rakat sunnat before the
Zuhr prayer is also allowed.
(iii) Asr Praver.
2 or 4 rakats sunnat ghair Mu'akkadah, 4 rakats Fard.
Ali (R.A,) said, "Allah's messenger,(S.A.W,) used to pray 4 rakats
before Per prayer separating them with a salll tation........"
(TfRMIZI)
Another hadith narrated by Ali (R.AJ says, "Allah's messenger
(S.A.WJ used to pray two rakats before Asr prayer." _
(ABU DAWUO)
(iv) Meghrib Preyer.
2 rakats nafl, 3 rakats fard, 2 rakats sunnat Mu'akkadah and
an unspecified number of' nafl as time and capacity allows.
Abdullah bin Mughaffal reported the Prophet (S.A.W.) as saying,
20
"Pray before the Maghri b prayerj '
addi ng when sayi ng i t the
t hi rd t i me,
"Thi s
appl i es t o t hose who wi sh t o d0 s0. "
( EUKHARt &
MUSL| MI
That was because he di d not wi sh peopl e
t0 treat i t as a com-
pul sory
sunnat .
2 rakat s naf l af t er sunset and bef ore t he maghri b prayer
ar e al l owed f or t l i ose l vho wi sh t o do: 0. For t hi s t he above
hadi t h i s a sure proof . However, some peopl e
f orbi d t hi s and
others fi nd i t very srrange i f they see a
person
offer 2 rakats
naf l bef ore Maghri b.
(v)
l sha Pmyer.
An unspeci f i ed number 0f naf l rakat s accordi ng t o t he t i me
and capaci t y,
4 rakat s f ard, 2 rakat s
sunnat Mu' akkadah, un-
speci f i ed number of naf l as t i me and capaci t y al l oran and 3
wi t r.
Some
peopl e i nsi st very emphat i cal l y upon t he of f eri ng of 4
rakats opti onal sunnat before the i sha prayer
but duri ng our
enti re research we coul d not fi nd a si ngl e proof,
any
practi ce
or order f rom Prophet Muhammad
(S. A. W. )
or hi s compani ons
t o
j ust i f y
t hi s cl ai m. Cert ai nl y i t i s al l owed t a
pray
naf l whi l e
wai t i ng f or Jamd' at .
Some
peopl e
offer 2 rakats .nafl after the wi tr prayer. How-
evet , t here i s an aut hent i c hadi t h whi ch st at es t hat t he wi t r
prayer
shoul d be off ered after al l the nafl whi ch a person wi shcs
to pray have been offered.
l bn Umar
(H. A. )
report ed t hat t he Mesenger of Al l ah
(S. A. W)
sai d,
"Make
wi tr as the l at prayer of your ni ght prayerl '
(MtsH
KATI
o o o o o
21
"Pray before the Maghrib prayer;' adding when saying it the
third time, "This applies to those who wish to do so."
(BUKHARI &MUSLIM)
That was because he did not wish people to treat it as a com-
pulsory sunnat.
2 rakats nafl after sunset and before the maghrib prayer
are allowed for tliose who wish to do ::0. For this the above
hadith is a sure proof. However, some people forbid this and
others find it very suange if they see a person offer 2 rakats
natl before Maghrib.
(v) Isha Prayer.
An unspecified number of nafl rakats according to the time
and capacityI 4 rakats fard, 2 rakats sunnat Mu'akkadah, un-
specified number of nafl 'as time and capacity allows and 3
witr.
Some people insist very emphatically upon the offering of 4
rakats optional sunnat before the isha prayer but during our
entire research we could not find a single proof, any practice
or order from Prophet Muhammad (S.A.WJ or his companions
to justify this claim. Certainly it is allowed tQ pray nafl while
waiting for Jama'at.
Some people offer 2 rakats ~ n a f l after the witr prayer. How-
ever, there is an authentic hadith which states that the witr
prayer should be offered after all the nafl which a person wishes
to pray have been offered.
Ibn Umar (R.A.) reported that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.)
said, "Make witr as the last prayer of your night prayer:'
(MISHKAT)
o o o
21
o o
Chspter t
AZAN IQAMAT
As
you
know, i n al f Musl i m countri es Ai an i s cal l ed al oud
fi ve ti mes a day and
you
must have heard i t. Have
you
ever wondered
how it stafted?
sroRY 0F n2nr*r
A l ong ti me ago when the Musl i ms mi grated from Makkah to Madi nah
they used to agree about a fi xed ti me for the congregati onal
prayer.
They found i t di ffi cul t t0 remember the ti me fi xed for the
prayer
someti mesrespeci al l y when they were busy doi ng thei r work. One
day Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.)
and the Musl i ms di scused the
matter of cal l i ng the
peopl e for the congregati onal
prayer
at the
exact time. Some of the believers suggested the use of something like
the bell of the Christians, othes suggested the uss of a horn like that
of the Jews, but Umar
(R.A.)
suggested sendi ng somsone t0 announce
the
prayer. Then Al l ah' s Messenger
(S.AW.)
appoi nted Bi l al t0
cal l the
peopl e t0 prayer. But i t seems through the study of ahadi th
that the method was not sati sfactory. Then Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.}
agreed to use a Naqoose
(a
eonch), something like the bell
of Chri sti ans but he wc not happy to use i t because of i ts si mi l ari ty
wi th the Chri sti ans.
After Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.)
had ordered a bel l to be made
so that i t coul d be struck to
gather
the
peopl e
to
prayer;
on that
same day a compani on, Abdul l ah bi n Zai d bi n Abd Rabbi hi rsai d, "l
vrras sl eepi ng when I saw a man carryi ng a nagoose i n hi s hands, and
I sai d,
' Servant
of Al l ah, wi l l you
sel f thi s to me?' When he cked
what I woufd do wi th i t?l repl i ed,that we woul d use i t to cal l the
peopfe t0 prayer. He sai d, Shal f I not gui de you to somsthi ng better
than that?' I repl i edr' Certai nl y' , so he tnl d me t0 sav,
'Allehu
Akbar, AllEhu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Altdhu
AkMr, ,Ash hadu an lE ildha illal lEh, xh hdu an li il6ha
illal lEh, Ash hadu an-ru, Mufiammadar resitut4en, Ash hadu
an-na MuQammadAr rafilullEh,
bayya
'al4
galEh,
bayya
'alq
galdh
fuayya
'alal
fa6h,
fuayya
'alal-falEh
AllEhu
Aktur, AllEhu Aktur, G ilffia illal lilh.'l
'
22
Chapter J
AZAN ..... IQAMAT
As you know, in all Muslim countries Aian is called aloud
five times a day and you must have heard it. Have you ever wondered
how it started?
STORY OF AZAN
A long time ago when the Muslims migrated from Makkah to Madinah
they used to agree about a fixed time for the congregational prayer.
They found it difficult to remember the time fixed for the prayer
sometimes, especially when they were busy doing their work. One
day Prophet Muhammad (S.A.WJ and the Muslims discussed the
matter of calling the people for the congregational prayer at the
exact time. Some of the believers suggested the use of something like
the bell of the Christians, others suggested the use of a horn like that
of the Jews, but Umar (R.A.) suggested sending someone to announce
the prayer. Then Allah's Messenger (S.A.W.) appointfd Bital to
call the people to prayer. But it seems through the study of ahadith
that the method was not satisfactory. Then Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.WJ agreed to use a NaQoose (a oooch), something like the bell
of Christians but he was not happy to use it because of its similarity
with the Christians.
After Prophet Muhammad (S.A.WJ had ordered a bell to be made
so that it could be struck to gather the people to prayer; on that
same day a companion, Abdullah bin Zaid bin Abd Rabbihi"said, "1
was sleeDing when I saw a man carrying a naqoose in his hands, and
I said, 'Servant of Allah, will you sell this to me?' When he asked
what I would do with it?t replied, that we would use it to call the
people to prayer. He said, 'Shall I not guide you to something better
than that?' I replied/Certainly', so he told me to sav.
'AI/ahu Akbar, A/llJhu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, AI/shu
Akbar,. Ash hadu an Ii ilaha illal lah, ash hadu an la ilaha
iI/allah, Ash hadu an-na Mul)ammadar resulu//iJh, Ash hadu
an-na Mul)ammadilr rasulul-llJh, I)ayya 'a/Sf $a/ah, payya
'alSf ~ a I S h , payya 'alaI falal), Qayya 'alaI-fa Ilh Allahu
Akbar, AI/ahu Akbar, La ilaha iI/allah. '
22
After the
Ai an the stranger
kept
qui et for a whi l e and then
sai d,
{l hen the congregati on
i s ready
you
shoul d say:- Al l i hu Akbar,
Al l 6hu Akbar. Ash hadu an l i l i l aha i l l al l ah, fuh hadu an' na
[l uham-
madar
ras0lul-lifr,
hayya
'alaq
galih,
bayya
'alal
fal-ah,
qad qEma tis
satah,
qad q6ma ti i i ai eh, A[l 6hu Akbar, Al l 6hu Akbar, l i i l i hi l l al
Hh.
When I tol d Al l ah' s Mesenger
(S' A.W.)
i n the morni ng what
I had seenrhe sai d,
' l t
i s a t rue vi si on, i nsha' Al l ah, so
get up al ong wi t h
Bi l al , and when you have taught hi m what
you have seen l et hi m use
i t i n maki ng the cal l to
prayer, for he has stronger voi ce than you
have'.
So
I
got up al ong wi th Bi l al and begnn to teach i t to hi m, and
he used it in making the call to
grayer..
Umar bi n al -Khattab heard
thi s when he wu i n hi s house, and
he came out trai l i ng hi s cl oak and sai d,
' Mesenger
of Al l ah
(S.A.W.),
by Hi m who has sent
you wi th the truth, I have seen the same ki nd
oi thi ng as has been reveal ed' ' To thi s Al l ah' s Mesenger
(S.A.W.)
repl i ed,
' Prai se
be to Al l ah!"'
'
(Darmi ,
Nt mad, l bn Mai ah, l bn, Khuzahah, Ti rmi zi )
So from that day 0n t0 the
present day Ai an i s sai d to gather
peopl e for the congregati onal
prayer.
THE mun2i ru
A
person
who cal l s
peopl e for the congregati onal
Frayer
i s cal l ed
a
Mua2i i n
Before sayi ng the Ai an he shoul d stand faci ng Ka' bah
i n Makkah. He shoul d
rai se hi s hands to hi s ean
putti ng the ti ps
of forefi ngers i nto hi s ears and cal l i n a l oud voi ce. When he says
Havva
' al C
Sal dh he shoul d turn hi s face to the ri ght and when he
$yi'flayya"aial
FalElr he should turn his face to the left.
TEXT OF THE A' NT.I
f.-5{
Ji
i
-.;3 $et
-
";3
fti'i'*-::;l,'}A
,,"iif
glfif
{\tfr::t
',ri,\!r'^ll9
e1;41
r
t^t\
JFui'#&)'rjsAil,
jr, I
J#fsJa, St
"offi
"
rji*rt
'rF"i
l
-e9^1-rr
';*V
og{.dt&G va$5t' e%
,'r{Si,Aii\
,'i5fu"t
'o'"i'r
9yUfX
23
After the Aian the stranger kept quiet for a while and then
said, When the congregation is you should say:- Allahu Akbar,
Allfihu Akbar, Ash hadu an Iii lilaha iIIallah, Ash hadu anna Muham-
madar rasOlul-lah, 'ala, salah, bayya 'alai qad qama tis
qad qama tis salah, AII3hu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, la ilatll illal
lah.
When I told Allah's Messenger (S.A.W.) in the morning what
I had seen1he said, 'It is a true vision, inshaAllah, so get up along with
Bilal, and when you have taught him what you have seen let him use
it in making the call to prayer, for he has stronger voice than you
have'.
So I got up along with Bilal and began to teach it to him, and
he used it in making the call to praver.
Umar bin al-Khattab heard this' when he was in his house, and
he came out trailing his cloak and said, 'Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.),
by Him who has sent you with the truth, I have seen the same kind
of as has been revealed", To this Allah's Messenger (S.A,WJ
replied, 'Praise be to Allah!'"
(Oarmi, Ahmad, Ibn Majah, Ibn, KhuzaicDah, Tirmizi)
So from that day on to the present day Aian is said to gather
people for the congregational prayer.
THE MUAizlN
A person who calls people for the congregational prayer is called
a Muaziin Before saying the Aian he should stand facing Ka'bah
in Makkah. He should raise his hands to his ears putting the tips
of forefingers into his ears and call in a loud voice. When he says
he should turn his face to the right and when he
says 'alai he should turn his face to the left.
TEXT OF THE AlAN

lr
l7 j (i,\
23
Allihu Akbar
Allah is the
greatest
AllEhu Akbar
Allah is the
greatest
Allahu Akbar
Allah is the
greatest
Allihu Akbar
Allah is the greatesr
Ash hadu an lE il6ha illal l1h
I bear wi tnes that there i s no dei ty but Al l ah.
Ash hadu an ld it1ha
iilat
LEh
I bear wi tnes that there i s no dei ty but Al l ah.
Ash hadu
an-na Muhammadar rasulul Eh
I bear wi tnes that Muhammad
(S.A.W.I
l s the messenger of Al l ah.
Ash hadu an-na
Mul"tammadar rasulul lEh
I bear wi tness that Muhammad
tS.A.ti J.)
i s the messenger of Al l ah.
Hayyalalag
galah
tiome to
prayer
Hayya'alag
sal1h
Come to Prayer.
Hayya'alal
falah
Come t o
your Good
Hayya'alal
falah
Come t o
your GodA.
Alldhu Akbar
Allah is the
greatest
Allahu Akbar
Allah is the
greatest
LE ildha illal
lah
There i s no dei ty but Al l ah.
ainru FoR FA"IB
An addi ti onal phrase i s i ncl uded i n the
Ai an
for the Faj r prayer
after the second
thyya
'alal
Fal6h
!:'j,lrr'+:+'!it>iat
e+Att;Hr)-iit
4tr+1lfl!
Kh-ayrum minan nawm
- prayer
is better than sleep.
As.
ralatu
Khayrum
minan narvm-
prayer
is better than sleep.
TISTEIIIilG
TO THE A2Ail
ll when the beliaren hear the Aian they shourd risten to ir in
24
Allihu Akbar
Allah is the greatest
AlliJhu Akbar
Allah is the greatest
Allahu Akbar
Allah is the greatest
AlliJhu Akbar
Allah is the greatest
Ash hadu an la i!ha iI/allah
I bear witness that thp.re is no deity but Allah.
Ash hadu an la ilaha illal Lah
I bear witness that there is no deity but Allah.
Ash hadu Muhammadar rasululliJh
I bear witness that Muhammad (S.A.W.) is the messenger of Allah.
Ash hadu an-na Muhammadar rasululliJh
I bear witness that Muhammad (S.A.W.) is the messenger of Allah.

(;ome to prayer
1;Iayya 'ala1 salah
Come to Prayer.
/;/ayya 'alaI falal)
Come to your Good
I;!ayya 'alaI falalJ
Come to your Good.
Allihu Akbar
Allah is the greatest
Allihu Akbar
Allah is the greatest
LlI iliha illal Lah
There is no deity but Allah.
AZAN FOR FAJR
An additional phrase is included in the Aian for the Fajr prayer
after the second 'alai
minan nawm .
Khayrum minan nawm-
LISTENING TO THE A!AN
Prayer is better than sleep.
Prayer is better than sleep.
1) When the believers hear the Aian they should listen to it in
24
silence and repeat each
phrase of the Aian in silence immedi'
ately after the Muaiiin has finished
sayingthe phrase.
2l When the Muaiiin says:-
tlayya
' al4
salEh and
Havya' alal-
fal-ah
:.
thQ
.ljstener
should say in reply:-- Lahawla Wala
quw'
wata rlla Bil-hh.
3) When the
Ai an
has been compl eted, the l i stener and the
Muai i i n reci te Oari i d unto Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.}
follomif by the Du f;.
OARi i D AFTER THE AZAN
J3
3t
h\i3
+fu,J
I'
gG,;
;f.e-
UL
Jljfrti
fu:irb' ++P?;i,"f
|*1ai,
+G1
4r'
g.a' t' *i
th.l
''i+V,1,#
-JI:$
W
"*l
Jt F
i
$t!.
JL1tV
dt
*4'q#
U'L-i;+tJ:.
)t
&i
"AlEh humma
Eal-li
hlE Mufiammadin wa
'ald
1li Muftam-
madin kamE qal-layta'alE lbr1hffima wa
'ald
ili lbrEhema
innaka
fiamedum
maied."
"0h Al l ah, l et
your peace
come upon Muhammad
(S. A. W. )
and
the fami l y of Muhammad
(S.A.W.}
as
you have sent
peace upon
l brahi m
tA.S.)
and hi s fami l y. Trul y you are prai seworthy and
gl ori oug: "
!!ilEh
humma ffirik
'alE
Mul\ammadin wa
'alE
6li Multam-
madin kamd bitakta
'ali
lbrhheema wa
'alE
Eli lbrEheema
innaka hamedum maied."
"0h, Al ah, bl es Muhammad
(S. A. W. )
and t he f ami l y of Muhammad
(S.A.W.)
as you hare bl essed l brahi m
(A.S.)
and hi s fami l y. Trul y
you are
prai seworthy and gl ori ous."
DU' A OF A2AN
H,':.\L3\3),:il,i-*{6r-tff:tr{+L:7iur:t
d+V,Ei-id;JF!
silence and repeat each phrase of the Aian in silence immedi
ately after the Muaiiin has finished saying the phrase.
2) When the Muaziin says:- t:tayya and I:tavya 'alat
fal'ah . the listener should say in reply:-- Lahawla Wala quw-
wata Ina Bil-lah.
3) When the Aian has been completed, the listener and the
Muaziin recite Dariid unto Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.)
followed by the Du'a.
OARUO AFTER THE AiAN
"Allah humma l1li 'ala Mul)ammadin wa 'ali ali Muf1am
madin kama 'ali Ibraheema wa 'ala ali Ibraheema
innaka lJameedum majeed. "
"Oh Allah, let your peace come upon Muhammad (S.A.W.) and
the family of Muhammad (S.A.W-l as you have sent peace upon
Ibrahim (A.S.) and his family. Truly you are praiseworthy and

humma barik 'ala Mul}ammadin wa 'ala ali Mu/;Jam-
madin kama blJtakta 'alll Ibraheema wa 'aliJ ali Ibraheema
innaka I}ameedum majeed. "
"Oh, Allah, bless Muhammad (S.A.W.) and the family of Mlihammad
(S.A.W.) as you have blessed Ibrahim (A.S.) and his family. Truly
you are praiseworthy and glorious."
OU'A OF AZAN
't|*.-*3,\tA'"r;\3'2,i#;\'rlJi?,'ttv'ei3iyi
o' nJJUb$t y
"AllEh humma rabba
Hathi hid da'wa tit
tdm mati was sald
tit Oi imati hii
Mufiammada ni I waseelata
wal Fa{eelata wab
'ath-hu
maqimam mahmhda nil
lazee wa ad tahfi."
"0h Al l ah! Lord of t hi s compl et e
prayer
of oun. By t he bl esi ng
of i t,
gi ve Muhammad
(S.A.W.)
hi s eternal ri ghts of i ntercesi on,
di sti ncti on and hi ghest cl ass
(i n paradi se).
And rai se hi m t0 the
promi sed rank you
have
promi sed
hi m.
Jabi r
(R. A. )
report ed Al l ah' s Mesenger
(S. A. W. )
as sayi n$
"l f
anyone says when he hears the Ai an
.
' 0
God, Lord of thi s
perfect
cal l and of t he prayer whi ch i s est abl i shed f oral l t i me,
grant Muham'
rmad
(S.A.W.)
the Wasi l a and excel l ency, and rai se hi m up i n a
prai se-
worthy posi ti on
whi ch you
have
promi sed' , he wi l l h asured of
my i ntercessi on."
(Bukhari )
I OAMAT
l qamat i s the second cal l to prayer and i s uttered i mmedi atel y before
the begi nni ng of the obl i gatory prayer
offered wi th congregti on.
TEXT OF I OAMAT
o'@N
54';i\
i,ltl ly:,iYt'J\'rIal
c,,arr
tCi:
\'r;:Ltt
Sag
cAY.aSt
Jt,s
r,
;*:e,:t&
e
6'-qrt
I.r l*\ii3 i'e!&tl5't3ii
i.
:rl r *
y:r{'1.,'i$
fi;{\'i3 %i
Allahu Akbar
Al l ah i s the
greatest
Allahu Akhar
Al l ah i s the
greate$t
26
"Allah humma rabba
Hazhi hid tit
tam mati was sala
til Qa imati iJii
Muhammada nil waseelata
waf Far;Jeelata wab
maqamam mahmuda nil
taiee wa ad tahu."
"Gh Allah! Lord of this complete prayer of ours. By the blessing
of it, give Muhammad (S.A.W.) his eternal rights of intercession,
distinction and highest class (in paradise). And raise him to the
promised rank you have promised him.
Jabir (R.A.) reported Messenger (S.A.W.) as saying, "If
anyone says when he hears the Aian , '0 God, Lord of this perfect
call and of the prayer which is established for all time, grant Muham-
Imad (S.A.W.) the Wasila and excellency, and raise him up in a praise-
worthy position which you have promised', he will be assured of
my intercession."
(Bukhari)
IQAMAT
Iqamat is the second call to prayer and is uttered immediately before
the beginning of the obligatory prayer offered with congregation.
TEXT OF IOAMAT
Allahu Akbar
Allah is the greatest
Allahu Akbar
Allah is the greatest
26
Ashhadu an ld il6ha illal l6h
I bear witnes that there is no deity but Alah.
Arh hadu anna Mufiammadar nsfrlul lEh
I bear witnes that Muhammad
(S.A.W.}
h the m$sengpr of Allah.
Hayya
'alaq
ldh
Gome to
prayer
Hayya
hlal faldh
Come to
your good
Qad
qmatiS galEh
Jaml'atis rcady
Qad
qlmatiq
sal6h
Jamt'at is reaCy
Alldhu Akbar
Allah is the Gnatest
All1hu Akbar
Allah is the
greatest
LE ildha illal lEh
There is no deity but Allah.
This text of lqamat is the same c that mentioned in the hadith
of Abdullah bin Zaid bin Abd Rabbihi wtto wc the fint to haYe
a vision about Azan.
27
Ashhadu en Ii ilaha il/alliJh
I bear witness that there is no deity but Allah.
Ash hadu anna Muhammadar rasulullah
I bear witness that Mu'hammad (S.A.W.) is the messenger of Allah.
/:Iayya 'alaf $Blah
Come to prayer
/:Iayya 'alaI fa/a/}
Come to your good
Dad QiJmatis salah
Jaml'atis ready'
Dad qamatis salah
Jam. 'at is r e a ~ y .
Allihu Akbar
Allah is the Greatest
AI/shu Akbar
Allah is the greatest
La ilaha illallah
There is no deity but Allah.
This text of Iqamat is the same ~ that mentioned in the hadith
of Abdullah bin Zaid bin Abd Rabbihi who W ~ the. first to have
a vision about Azan .
.-==========.-
27
Chopter 4
CONDUCT Ot ' SALAT ( PRAYER)
SUTRA
Before a person
staru t0
pray
he should
place
something a
short di stance i n front of hi m of the
pl ace
where he
prmtratc (doe
Saj dah). Suc,h an obj ect i s cal l ed SUTRA and i s used when the
pemon
i s
prayi ng
al one. A
person pasi ng i nfront of the
penon
i n
prayer,
shoul d
pass
on the outsi de of the sutra.
l f someone i s prayi ng
i n congregati on, then the i mam ac8 as
the sutra. The i mam, however, must have hi s own i ndi vi dual sutra
i nf r ont of hi m.
0f Et AH
Wherever a person i s i n the worl d, he shoul d face towards the
Ka' bah when he i s goi ng t o pray. The Ka' bah i s i n t hesacred mosgue
of Makkah i n Saudi Arabi . Faci ng towards 0i bl ah
(Ka' bah)
i s a very
i mportant condi ti on of performance
of
prayer. However, i f the
person i s i n a
pl ace
such as a desert,
j ungl e,
unknown strange ci ty
or a
pl ace where he does not know the di i ecti on of the Oi bl ah, he
shoul d t ry hi s best t o f i nd out t he di rect i on of Oi bl ah f rom ot hen.
However, i f i t i s not possi bl e then he shoul d use hi s
j udgment
and
f ace i n a di rect i on whi ch he t hi nks i s t hat of Oi bl ah and Al l ah wi l l
accept hi s prayer.
f t i s i mportant to start the prayer faci ng the di recti on of 0i bl ah
and i t does not matter i f hi s d;recti on changes whi l e he i s prayi ng
e. g. i n a shi p,
a t rai n
0r
an aeropl ane et c.
N0TE: Nowadays, a compas i s avai l abl e whi ch gi ves
t he di rect i on
of 0i bl ah.
In strange pl aces
and aeropl anes i t i s
a useful i nstrument
to
poses.
I i l TEt t l T| ON
Af t er f aci nq t he 0i bl ah t he
person
shoul d make ni yat
(i nt en-
t i on) , The i nt ent i on i s made wi t hi n hi s mi nd, s0 t he per son
shoul d
t hi nk about t he par t i cul ar obl i gat or y, 0pt i onal or naf l pr ayer he I n-
t ert ds t 0 perf orm. He shoul d not ut t er t he words of ni yat al oud,
as t hi s i s not aut hent i c 0r appr oved by t he Pr ophet
( S. A. W. ) .
28
Chapter4
CONDUCT OF SALAT (PRAYER)
SUTRA
Before a person starts to pray he should place something 8
short distance in front of him of the place where he prostrates (does
Sajdah). Such an object is called SUTRA and is used when the person
is praying alone. A person passing infront of the person in prayer,
should pass on the outside of the sutra.
If someol'le is praying in congregation, then the imam acts as
the sutra. The imam, however, must have his own individual sutra
infront of him.
QIBlAH
Wherever a pernon is in the world, he shoul d face towards the
Ka 'bah when he is going to pray. The Ka'bah is in the sacred mosque
of Makkah in Saudi Arabi. Facing towards Qiblah (Ka'bah) is a very
important condition of performance of prayer. However, if the
person is in a place such as a desert, jungle, unknown strange city
or a place where he does not know the direction of the Qiblah, he
should try his best to find out the direction of Qiblah from others.
However, if it is not possible then he should use his judgment and
face in a direction which he thinks is that of Qiblah and Allah will
accept his prayer.
It is important to start the prayer facing the direction of Qibtah
and it does not matter if his o;rection changes while he is praying
e.g. in a ship, a train or an aeroplane etc.
NaTE: Nowadays, a compass is available which gives the direction
of Qiblah. In strange places and aeroplanes it is a useful instrument
to possess.
INTENTION
After fac.ing the Qiblah the person should make niyat (inten-
tion). The intention is made within his mind, so the person should
think about the particular obligatory, optional or natl prayer he in-
ten ds to perform. He should not utter the words of niyat aloud,
as this is not authentic. or approved by the Prophet (S.A.W.L
28
TATBIR TAHRIMAH
After making niyat the
penon
should start his
prayer
saying
"AllEhu akbar"
(Allah
is the
greatest)
raising both of his hands to
the shouldsrs, with fingers stretching to the earlobes. He should
then fdd his hands over his chest right hand over the left hand. This
first "Alliihu Akbar" is called Takbir Tahrimah because after saying
Takbir Tahrimah every common and worldly action, talk or move-
ment is forbidden. Throughout the prayer theeyesof the wonhipper
should
point to the spot where the forehead rests in Sajdah.
WHERE SHOUTD THE HAI { DS BE FOTDED Af { O PLACED
AFTER SAYI TG TAKBI R TAHRI I I AH?
Some
peopl e pl ace thei r hands under the navel , others pl ace
them uoder the chest but there are hadi ths whi ch state that Prophet
Muhammad
(S.A.W.)
ued to
pl ace hi s hands over hi s chest.
al Hal b Al aee
(R.A.)
repofted: "l
saw the Prophet
(S.A.W.)
pfaci ng
hi s ri ght hand over hi s l eft hand over hi s chesti '
(Ahmadrl i rrrni zi ).
bl Wl l l b. Hai r
(R. A. )
sai d:
"l prayed wi t h Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.)
and he put
hi s ri ght hand over hi s l eft hand over hi s
cho$t."
(l bn
Khuzai mah, Abu Dawl d, Musl i m).
There are some other narrati ons whi ch state that some Fuqha
used to
pl ace
thei r han& under the chest but above the navel .
Fl aci ng the hands i n ei ther of these posi ti ons i s correct but i t i s better
to pl ace them over the chest accordi ng t0 the practi ce of Prophet
Muhammad
(S. A. W. )
as ment i oned i n t he above aut hent i c hadi t hs.
RECI TATI OT{ BEFORE FATI HAH
There are several
du' ts
whi ch Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W
used to reci te before Fati hah. We wi l l menti on two
of them.
'ij
tJ;(
(;-
3V\&
1#
i',#i+r:.
iliri,,,
\73 3U\i" L:41'L#)i
o
--Ft5
rt4)t
.*
jr=:ag46' o#.1r-"+
",iit\ 5rll'H
r{cs,V,
o
iili
+L
\s
f,?
?
+
6a
"Alleh humma be'id banee wa bayna khat|yEya KamE
E'adta
baynal mashrigi wal maghribi, Allih humma naq'
2g
TAKBIR TAHRIMAH
After making nivat the person should start his prayer saying
"AII'Ihu akbar" (Allah is the greatest) raising both of his hands to
t h ~ shoulders, with fingers stretching to the earlobes. He should
then fold his hands over his chest right hand over the left hand. This
tim "Anihu Akbar" is called Takbir Tahrimah because after saying
Takbir Tahrimah every common and worldly action, talk or move-
ment is forbidden. Throughout the prayer theeyesof the worshipper
should point to the spot where the forehead rests in Sajdah.
WHERE SHOULD THE HANDS BE FOLDED AND PLACED
AFTER SAYING TAKBIR TAHRIMAH?
Some people place their hands under the navel, others place
them uDder the chest but there are hadiths which state that Prophet
Muhammad (S.A.W.) used to place his hands over his chest.
a) Halb A!aee (R.A.) reported: "1 saw the Prophet (S.A.W.) placing
his right hand over his left hand over his chest:' (Ahmad"Tirtnizi).
b) Wi'il b. Hajr (R.A.) said: "I prayed with Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.) and he put his right hand over his left hand over his
chest." (Ibn Khuzaimah, Abu Oawtid, Muslim).
There are some other narrations which state that some Fuqha
used to place their hands under the chest but above the navel.
"Placing the hands in either of these positions is correct but it is better
to place them over the chest according to the practice of Prophet
Muhammad (S.A.W.) as mentioned in the above authentic hadiths.
RECITATION BEFORE fATIHAH
There are several du'as which Prophet Muhammad {S.A.W,
used to recite before Fatihah. We will mention two of them.
"Allah humma ba'id barnee wa bayna khat5yaya Kama
/ii'adta baynal mashriqi wal maqhribi, Allah humma naq-
29
qinee
min kha6yEya Ram'a
yunag-qath thawnul
a,by$!
minad dan*i, AtEh
hum maghsilnie min KhatEyEya bil
mEee wath thalii wal bardi."
(Bukhari
and Muslim).
"0 Allah set me apart from my sins m East and West are apart
from each other.
0 Allah, cleanse me from my sins as a white
garment is uleansed
from dirt after thorough wCIhing.
0 Al l ah, unsh me off from my si ns wi th water, snow and hai l ."
l f a penon
does not know the du' d
i ust
menti oned then he
should recite the following one. Umar
(R.A.)
is reported to hatre
used thi s du' a- after sayi ng Takbi r Tahri mah.
3 .i+U tiS'#-.. I !,rVj'.t
)iL|j;,fr)t
it; rirg,,
r,
eaSi;al,i;
"
SubfrEna KaltEh
humma wabi
fiamdika
watabhra
kasmuka wata'ald
iad-duka
wali ildha ghamtk.
"Gfory be to you, 0 Allah, and all
praisss
aro due uflto
yoor
and blessed is your name and high is
your
maie$y and none is rwnlry
of wonhi p but youJ'
A person
can read both du 6s, together or
just
one of tftem or
py of the other du'6s which are approved by Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.),andrthere
are about 7. These du'& can be fbund in differertt
places
of sevenl Books of Hadith, e.g. Mulim, Tirmizi, Musnad.r
!I.*
Ahmad, Abu. Dawid, Dar-qulni, Nisai, lbn Majah, lbn llibban,
Muatta l mam Mal i k).
All of the 7 du'f,s can be read tqether before recitfutg surah
Fati hah.
This recitation is called Du'#ul-lstiftah which means DuE of
starti ng. 0ui -ul l sti f tahshoul d onl y be reci ted
i n the fi rst rakat.
TA,A}WYUi
Then the person who i s prayi ng shoul d say:-
t;,:;rrp,i*lr
4;'(;*i
" A'uiu biLEhi minah Shaygd nir-raipm."
"l
seek Al l aht prot ect i on f rom sat an who i s accursed. "
Thi s shoul d onl y be sai d i n t he f i rst rakat .
TASMIA}I
Then
t he
penon who i s prayt ng shoul d say:
30
qinee min khafiJyaya kama yunaqqath thawIJul abyaqu
minad danasi, Allih hum maghsilnee min Khatayaya bil
maee wath thaJji wal bardi." (Bukhari and Muslim).
"0 Allah set me apart from my sins as East and West are apan
from each other.
oAllah, cleanse me from my sins as a white garment is deansed
from dirt after thorough washi ng.
o Allah, wash me off from my sins with water, snow and hail."
If a person does not know the duli just mentioned then he
should recite the following one. Umar (R.AJ is reported to have
used this du'i after saying Takbir Tahrimah.
-" ",,, /'/ " \
,.. ,
.. ":_ \ --.

.. ,;4'
"Subpana Kallah humma wabi f)amdika wataliiJra
kasmuka wata 'ala jad-duka wallJ illJha gh;wruk.
"Glory be to you, 0 Allah, and alt praises are due unto you,
and blessed is your name and high is your majesty and none is won'v
of worship but you:'
A persol'1 can read both du'ls, together or just one of them or
any of the other du'as which are approved by Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.),and,there are about 7. These du'as tan be found in different
places of several Books of Hadith, e.g. Muslim, Tirmizi, Musnad-.
Imam Ahmad, Abu Dawiid, Dar-qutni, Nisai, Ibn Majah, Ibn Hibban,
Muana Imam Malik).
All of the 7 du'as can be read together before rettting surah
Fatihah.
This recitation is called Dua:ul-Istiftah which means Du'i of
starting. Du/a-ullstif tah should only be retited in the first rakat.
TA'Awwui
Then the person who is praying should say;

,,; - _" ",.. ,.,; v
" A'uiu bi/./ahi minash Shayta nir-rai-eem. "
"1 seek Allah's protection from satan who is accursed."
This should only be said in the first rakat.
TASMIAM
Then the person who is praying should say:
30
o+ij}$rj1
PF,
"Bism il lEh hi r'nhmd n ir-rahnm.
"
"ln the name of Allah, the mmt kind and the most mercifuli'
This should be said in wery rakat before reciting rurah
Fatihah.
SURAH FATI HAH
Then the percon praying
should recite iurah Fatihah.
;Du
i:-*il
I
d4l
6
;# 6 r
P.
i
;u
"t-it
5+:
^J
6'.'i;{"
!Vyi'*4i
AVL 3
i;rV
;
l]
e
.=1e
i#i(
g
rt,
ur=
e*idrig;;ott
-
*t"l' S
dJ,b\tiirydJb-';ih"F
"Alltamdu
| il-Ehi rab-hi l'6lameen.
Ar rafrma- nir-ralrem.
Mefiki
yawmid
-
den.
lyydka na'budu wa
iyyaka
nasta'een.
I hdl nag sirital
mustagmm.
$iragal
Laieena an'amta
'alayhim.
Ghayril maghQubi
-
hlaVhim walay' ddl-leen. A,mffin."
"Prai se i s unl y for Al l ah, Lord
of the Uni vene.
The most ki nd, the most merci ful .
The master of the Day of Judgment.
You al one we worshi p and t o you
al one
un
pray for hel p.
Show us the straight way,
the way of those whom you have bl essed.
Who have not deserved
your anger,
Nor gone astray."
Reci ti ng Fati hah i s so i mportant that Prophet Muhammad
(S.AW.)
said thit no
prayer wG acceptable wiqhout the recitation of
Fat i hah.
a) Ubadah bi n Sami t
(R.A)
reported Al l :th' s Messenger
(S.A.W.)
as sayi ng:
' There
i s no prayer acceptabl e wi th_out reci ti ng
$ol ,
Fati hah.;'
{Bukhari
Musl i m, Ahmad, Abu Dal frd, Ti rmi zi , Nhai ,
l bn Mai ah) .
b) Abu H urai rah
(n.A.)
reported that the Messenger of Al l ah
(S.A.W.)
was sayi ng that anyone who
prayed any ki nd of
prayer and di d
31
, I ..... ::J, '
_ -...'
_ ....
"Bismfllah hir-rabma nir-raheem. "
"In the name of Allah, the most kind and the most merciful:'
This should be said in FNery rakat before reciting surah Fatihah.
SURAH FATIHAH
"A/hamdu li/-/ahi rab-bil 'a/ameen.
Ar rahma nir-raheem.
Maliki yawmid : deen.
Iyyaka na'budu wa
iyyaka nasta'een.
siratal mustaqeem.
Sira(al Lazeena an'amta 'alayhim.
Ghayril magh{1ubi _
'alayhim walap gal-Ieen. Ameen. "
"Praise is only for Allah, Lord
of the Universe.
The most kind, the most merciful.
The master of the Day of Judgment.
You alone we worship and to you alone
we pray for help.
Show us the straight way,
the way of those whom you have blessed.
Who have not deserved your anger,
Nor gone astray:'
Reciting Fatihah is so important that Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.)
said that no prayer was acceptable wi1thout the recitation of
Fatihah.
a) Ubadah bin Samit (R.A.) reported Allah's Messenger (S.A.W.)
as saying: "There is no prayer acceptable without reciting Surah
Fatihah." (Bukhari Muslim, Ahmad, Abu Oawud, Tirmizi, Nisai,
Ibn Majah).
b) Abu Hurairah (R.A.) reported thatthe Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.)
was saying that anyone who prayed any kind of prayer and did
31
not nad in thatrUmmul Ouran
pnd
in one version Fatihah.tul.
Kitsb hir prayrr will bo deficient, will be deficienr, will be deficient,
and not
complete.
(Bukhrri,
Mrrlim Ahmad).
cl Abu Hurrirah
(R.A.l
reported
Allah's Messenger
(S.AW.}
as
rrying: "[Io praysr
wifl benefit a
person
who did not read in
ftrt rurdr Fati hah."
(l hn
Khuzai mah,
l bn Hi bban.
Ahmad).
In the l i grt of the above hadi ths we undentand that surah
Fatihdr
murt be rscited or read in every rakat
of any type of
prayer.
BECI TATI Oi l
OF SURAH FATI HAH BEHI I TI D Af { I MAM.
$ome. pgopl.o
gE.ysly confused whether
they
should or should
not rsad surah Fatiharr
whire praying
in congiegrion.
Bui
ih;;;
drould not b0 any confusion
in'thii niatter-i
ir,Jiorro",ing
tilli;
vry clmdy. ansnrers
the
question.
al Ubadah bi n
$ami t . (R. A. )
sai d:
' 1Al e
were behi nd t he Prophet
(s.A.w.)
in the Fair praver,
and he recited a passage
from'the
Ouran, but the reci tati on became di ffi curt for' hi m.' Then
when
he fi ni shed hc sai d,
' Do
you reci te behi nd your
l mam?' we
replie.{,.'yE,
^tlgfenggl
of Attah
(S.A.W.)'.
Th'en the Messenger
of Al l ah
(S.A.W.)
sai d:
' Do
not reci te anythi ng
(behi nd
t-he
l mam) except Fati hah-tul -Ki tab (surah
rai i tratrj
because he
who does not i ncl ude i t i n hi s reci tati on
i n prayer
hi s prayer
i s not val i d. ' "
(Abu
DawEd, Ti rmi zi ).
bl Abu Hurai rah
(R.A.)
reported thst the Mesenger of Al l ah
(s.A.w.)
sai d: "l f
anyone obsewes prayer
(sal atl
i n whi ch he does
not read ummul 0ur5n
{Fati hahLi t i s dei i ci ent,
i t i s defi ci ent,
i t i s def i ci ent , and not compl et e. " l t was sai d t o Abu Hurai rahi
' What
shoul d we do when we are behi nd an l mam?, , He,
(Abu
Hur ai r ahl
( R. A. )
r epl i ed,
" Read
i t i n si r ence. . . . . . . "
( Musl i m) .
AMEEI U:
I t i s sunnah i o *y Ameen when a person f i ni shes-reci t at i on
of Surah Fat i hah. l f he i s prayi ng
al one he shoul d say
"Ameen"
i n
si l ence and i f hg i s prayi ng
wi t h congregat i on behi nd an l mam t hen
he shoul d say Ameen f ai rl y l oudl y when t he l mam f i ni shes sayi ng
the l ast verse of Surah Fati hah. when sayi ng Emeen the voi ce oT
the wtrol e congregati on shoul d resound at the same ti mu.
There are many hadi ths whi ch prove that sayi ng Ameen aroud
i s Sunnah of t he Hol y Prophet
(S. A. w. )
and i t was i hei egul ar pract i ce
of the compani ons. we wi l l menti on a few of these hadi ths here.
a) Naeem al Muj ammar sai d: "l prayed behi nd Abu Hurai rah
(n. A. )
He reci t ed Bi smi l f dh hi r-ra[ ma ni r-raheem, t hen he reci t ed surah
Fati hahrand
when he reached wal ad
{al l een,
he sai drAmeen
af t er i t and t he peopl e
behi nd hi m sai d Ameen. . . , . . "
( dukhar i ) .
b) Abu Hurai rah
{R. A. )
report ed t hat t he Messenger
ol Al l ah
(s. A. w. )
sai d:
' when
t he l mam says
Ghayri i Maghd0bi
' arayhi m
32
not read in that,Ummul (luranl.and in one version Fatihahtul
Kitab his prayer will be deficient, will be deficient, will be deficient,
and not complete. (Bukhari, Muslim Ahmad).
c) Abu Hurairah (R.A.) reported Allah's Messenger (S.A.W.) as
saying: "No prayer will benefit a who did not read in
that .nlh Fatihah." (Ibn Khuzaimah. Ibn Hibban. Ahmad).
In the Ii-.t of the above hadiths we understand that Surah
Fatihah must be recited or read in every rakat of any type of prayer.
RECITATION OF SURAH fATIHAH BEHIND AN IMAM.
Some people are very confused they should or should
not l'Iad Surah Fatihah while praying in congregation. But there
should not be any confusion in this matter as the following hadith
very clearty answers the Question.
8) Ubadah bin (R.A.) said: 'We were behind the Prophet
(S.A.W.) in the Fajr prayer, and he recited a passage from the
auran, but the recitation became difficult for him. Then when
he finished he said, 'Do you recite behind your Imam?' We
replied, 'yes, Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.)'. Then the Messenger
of Allah (S.A.W.) said: 'Do not recite anything (behind the
Imam) except Fatihah-tulKitab (Surah Fatihah) because he
who does not include it in his recitation in prayer his prayer
is not valid.' " (Abu Dawiid. Tirmizi).
b) Abu Hurairah (R.A.) reported that the Messenger of Allah
(S.A.W.) said: "If anyone observes prayer in which he does
not read Ummul Quran (Fatihah), it is deficient, it is deficient,
it is deficient, and not complete." It was said to Abu Hurairah:
'What should we do when we are behind an Imam?" He, (Abu
Hurairah) (R.A.) replied, "Read it in silence....... " (Muslim).
AMEEN:
It is sunnah to say Ameen when a person finishes_recitation
of Surah Fatihah. If he is praying alone he should say "Ameen" in
silence and if is praying with congregation behind an Imam then
he should say Ameen fairly loudly when the Imam finishes saying
the last verse of Surah Fatihah. When saying Ameen the voice of
the whole congregation should resound at the same timlt
There are many hadiths which prove that saying Ameen aloud
is Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) and it was the regular practice
of the companions. We will mention a few of these hadiths here.
a) Naeem al Mujammar said: "I prayed behind Abu Hurairah (R.A.)
He recited Bismillah hir-rahma nir-raheem, then hE recited surah
Fatihah, and when he reached walap c)a.!.:lee-n, he said, Ameen
after it and the people behind him said Ameen...... " (Bukhari).
b) Abu Hurairah (R.A.) reported that the Messenger of Allah
(S.A.W.) said: 'When the Imam says Ghayril MaghQubi 'alayhim
32
wal a{dal -l eenral l of you shoul d say, Ameen, becuase t he Angel s
gty Ameen and the f mam says Ameen. And whosoever says
Ameen and hi s voi ce
bl ends
wi t h t hat of t he angel s he woul d
be f orgi ven hi s si ns. "
(Ahmad,
Abu Dawl d, Ni sai l .
c) Ai sha
(R. A. )
report ed t hat t he Mesenger of Al l ah
(S. A. W. )
sai d:
"Jews
are r' nore envi ous of Musl i ms i n two thi np
l a)
our
greeti ng someone wi th
Assal amu
' al aykum
and
(b)
sayi ng Ameen
( al oud)
behi nd t he l mami '
( Ahmad,
l bn Maj ah) .
dl At a sai d:
"l
f ound 200 of t he compani ons
prayi ng i n t he mosque
of t he Prophet
(S. A. W. )
and when t he l mam_sai d wal ad dal -! een,
I heard t he echo of t hei r voi ces resound wi t h Ameen".
BECI TATI ON AFTER SURAH FATI HAH
I t i s sunnah f or a person who i s
prayi ng
t hat he shoul d read
a surah f rom 0ur5n af t er Fat i hah i n t he f i rst t wo rakat s of t he f ard
prayer. He can reci t e one or m0re surahs. Here are a f ew short Surahs
whi ch you
can reci t e.
a) Surah l khl ar
#)'.FJt$g--a
itX'rt-
d;!'*Fa"";Zt
I'4:,i5
t
An63'd3
8'rratfj-rL,jiq;s3
"Oul huwal ldhu ahad.
Allah huq-qamad.
Lam
yalid walam yhlad.
Walam
yakul-lahl
Kufuwan ahad."
"Say:
He i s Al l ah,
t he onl y
one.
Al l ah hel ps and does not need hel p.
He does not pr oduce a chi l d, and He
Was not born of anyone.
Ther e i s no one equal t o Hi m. "
b) Surah Fal aq.
c#itt*;S;IF9'.:"',
7
A)6'5';u:+31
d
Ft
P.
k'5.iri Jrb
L*ii
ih.lJ' J
;-G
u3
F
i5
d
Astil
v4v
h' -, gt i : *' <i i -'
33
walaQ.. all of you should Ameen, becuase the Angels
Ameen and the Imam says Ameen. And whosoever says
Ameen and his voice blends with that of the angels he would
be forgiven his sins." (Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Nisai).
c) Aisha (R.A.) reported that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.)
said: "Jews are more envious of Muslims in two things our
greeting someone with Assalamu 'alaykum and (b) saying Ameen
(aloud) behind the Imam:' (Ahmad, Ibn Majah).
d) Ata said: "I found 200 of the companions praying in the mosque
of the Prophet (S.A.W.) and when the Imam_said
I heard the echo of their voices resound with Ameen".
RECITATION AFTER SURAH FATIHAH
It is sunnah for a person who is praying that he should read
a surah from Quran after Fatihah in the first two rakats of the fard
prayer. He r.an rer.ite one or more surahs. Here are a few short Surahs
whic.h you can recite.
a) Surah Ikhlas
NQul huwal tahu ahad.
Allah hus-samad. .
Lam va/iff walam yu/ad.
Wa/am yaku/-/ahu Kufuwan a,!ad. "
"Say: He is Allah, the only one.
Allah helps and does not need help.
He does not produce a child, and He
Was not born of anyone.
There is no one equal to Him."
b) Surah FalaQ.
33
ilul AlAIubi rab-bil falaq.
Min shar-rimd Khalag.
Vrla min shar-ri gh*iqin iia waqab.
Wa min shar-rin naf-fdthdti fil
'uqad.
Wa min shar-ri hxidin lia Hasao
"Say:
I seek refuge i n the Lord of the dawn,
from the wi l of al l that He has ereated,
and from the evi l of the darkness of ni ght when i t fal l s,
and f rom t he wi l of t hose
(charmers)
who bl ow i nt o knot s.
And from the evi l of the envi er when he envi es."
cl Surrh ilar.
oA-{;tfY 3}orr+'
d
-rfu
rd)
d
.4Lr\*\F d
*t.'
:?'?,'5i;\
'r)3
I , t : , ,
2 e t ) ' -
t t , ! t . t (
t , ( t . l r y
r - : t ( r ' / t t ^
or.;'uli2t.v4 uiy-
Gr^ll
o
--yt-=l Lvr"$V4
t
qEJr;' 93At(a
Ail A'uiuhi rab-bin n&.
Malikin
n*. lld hin-n*.
Min shar-ril
waswd sil khan-n-a-
Attaii Yuwaswisu
fx gudE rin+,fu-
'niA
iii'nati
wan+t*.'
' Say:
I seek re{uge i n the
gustai ner
of manki nd.
t he Owner of Manki nd, Lord of Manki nd.
From the wi l of the sneaki ng whi sperer.
Who wtri spen i n the hearB of manki nd.
(Whether
he be) from among
i i nns
or manki nd."
BUKU
_
BOWI TI G
Then the
person prayi ng shoul d saY
"Al l dhu Akbar" rai si ng
both hi s hands to shoul der l evel wi th the
pal ms faci ng outward
and fi ngers stretchi ng to eadobes. He shoul d then bend i n ruku so
that hi s trunk
(i .e.
from head to hi f) i s
perpendi cul ar to the rest
of the body. Hi s hands shoul d rest on hi s knees wi th the fi npn
spnad apart, taking care that his arms do not touch his body. The
psron sl roul d h cal m and composed i n the ruku
posture and not
hurry it Then he should read:'tubhana rab-bi yal azeem" at lmst
$rse times.
o-p*---$li \A;g[fi*-j*
I
rr
34
Qui Au}ubi rab-bil fs/aq.
Min shar-rima KhaJaq.
Wa min shar-ri ghisiqin iia waqab.
Wa min shar-rin nat-famati fil #uqad.
Wa min shar-ri hasidin /za Hasaa
HSay: I seek refuge in the Lord of the dawn,
from the evil of all that He has treated,
and from the evil of the darkness of night when it falls,
and from the evil of those (charmers) who blow into knots.
And from the evil of the envier when he envies."
c) Surlh Nls.
Qui A'uzubi rab-bin nas.
Malikifl nis. IIi hin-nas.
Min shar-ril waswa sil khan-nas.
AI/ari yuwaswisu fee fudu rin-nas.
Minai jin-nati wan-nas.
''Say: I seek refuge in the sustainer of mankind.
the Owner of Mankind, Lord of Mankind.
From the evil of the sneaking whisperer.
Who whispers in the hearts of mankind.
(Whether he be) from among jinns or mankind."
RUKU - BOWING
Then the person praying should say "Allahu Akbar" raising
both his hands to shoulder level with the palms facing o u t w a r ~
and fingers stretching to eartobes. He should then bend in ruku so
that his trunk (i.e. from head to hips) is perpendicular to the rest
of the body. His hands should rest on his knees with the fingers
spread apart, taking care that his arms do not touch his body. The
person should be calm and composed in the ruku posture and not
hurry it Then he should read :"Subhana rab-bi yal azeem" at least
three times. .
o ~
34
This means:
"Glory be to my Lord who
's
the very
grmtmt:'
He can read it
(3,
5, 7, 9, 1l etc.) times.
There are sgme other du'& which Gan be road with subfEna
rab.bi
yal a3eem or imtead of subfrina rabbi yal r;rm. Two of thsm
are mentioned below:-
0ther Du' i s i n Ruku:
Aisha
(R.A.)
reportod that the melsengpr of Allah
(S.AW-)
mmtly read the follonring du'i in his ruku and nidah.
rtt i,
"
J?+ifrh\
l,f*n;r
t;
a
vl
-41
tl.L.l
t,r
"Sublpflna Kalld humma rab-banE wabifuamdika
AlEh hum maghfirln."
(0ukhari,
Musliml.
Thi s means:
"Gl ory be to
you, oh our Lord, and al l
prai se
be to
you. 0h Al l ah, forgi ve mei '
Ali
(R.A.)
reported that the Messenger of Aflah used to read
the fol l owi ng Du' a i n Ruku:
$Q,l i :-)j 5
3;J,
f
.b?5
&;3s +a
Ld"N v,
V
h.,za-;
*Lz;',#s
e',gs 6F;=--e-f
r.t
ir
t
1,,
{*r
r
o
-,ziJLli
r_;j
hr!,xL
o;,-ii{U, I
"AlEh humma laka Raka'tu,
ffiika Ennntu,
vnlaka alunru,
trta rab-bT
Rhahi'a
sam'ee
wa mukh-kt
E wa
'azme
wa
'qafu
vn mista gal
-
tat
bihe
qada
mav-ya lil-Ehi.
rabSil Elameen!'
(Ahmad,
Mtslim, Abu Dawfid etc.)
"0h!
my Lord, I borwd to you and I believed in you
and lrub
mitud t0 you. You are my Lord. My mr, my sight my brrin, my
bones, my tendom and whatever hr been carried by my fnt b rub'
mitted for the Lord of the worl&l'
There are other du'& which Prophet Muhammed
(S.AW.}
rnd in
Ruku and they can be furnd in other Books of Hadith.
Perfection ol Ruku and Saidah.
Abi Mrud al Badri
(R.A)
rrported ilrrt the Meseqrrr of Al*t
{S.AW.}
sai d:
35
This means:
"Glory be to my lord who is the very
He tan read it (3, 5, 7, 9, 11 ett.) times.
There are some other du'ls which can be read with subbina
rabbi yal or instead of rab-bi TWD of them
are mentioned below:-
Other Du'as in Ruku:
Aisha (R.A.) reported that the messenger of Allah (S.A.W.)
mostly read the du'a in his ruku and sajdah.
\")
.. ,/.; "" ..",
"Subl)ana Kalla humma rab-bana wabi(1amdika
AllAh hum maghfirlee. " fBukhari, Muslim);
This means:
"Glory be to you, oh our lord, and aU praise
be to you. 0h Allah, forgive me:'
Ali (R.A.) reported that the Messenger of Allah used to read
the fonowing Du'a in Rttku:
"Allah humma laka Raka'tu
wabika amantu, ,
walaka aslamtu,
rab-bT khashi'a sam'ee
wa mukh-khee wa 'azmee
wa wa masta qal - lat .
bihee qada may-va lil-Iahi.
rab-bil 'alameen."
(Ahmad, Muslim, Abu Dawiid etc.)
"Ohl my Lord, I bowed to you and I believed in you and I sub-
mitted to you. You are' my lord. My ear, my sight, my brain, my
bones, my tendons and whatever has been carried by my feet is sub-
mitted for the lord of the worlds:'
There are other du'as which Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) .-.d in
Ruku and they can be found in other Books of Hadith.
Perfection of Ruku and Saidah.
Abi Masud a' Badri (R.A.) reported thlt the Messenger of Allah
(S.A.W.) said:
35
"Al l ah
does not consl der the prayer
of a man who does not
strai ghten hi s back when bowi ng for Ruku
and performi ng
Sai dahj '
( l bn
Khuzai mah, l bn Hi bban, Tabr ani ) .
Abi 0atEdah
(R.A.l
reported
that the Messenger
of Al l ah
(S. AW. )
sai d:
' The
n0rst thi ef i s one who steal s i n hi s prayer.,'
Then t he compani ons asked,
"H0w
can someone st ear f rom hi s
prayer?"
Prophet
(S.A.W.
)
ansnered.
"He
does nncompl et e hi s Ruxu and saj dah wi t h
perf ect i on. "
al
he sai d,
"He
does not make hi s back srrai ght i n Ruku and Saj dah. , '
( Ahmad,
Tabr ani , l bn Khuzai mah, Haki m) .
These hadi t hs prove
t hat Ruku
and sai dah shoul d be done
caf mf y, sl owl y and perf ect l y,
ot herwrse sal at of t he
penon
wi l l be
defi ci ent.
OAUWI , I AH
( STAi l OI t { G
AFTER BUKU}
After the perfect Ruku the person prayi ng
shoul d rai se hi s
head f rom Ruku sayi ng: -
6;FdiJ"ol,'*'-
"Sami
hl l eh hu
l i man hami dai ,
"veri l y.
Al l ah l i stens t0 one who
prai ses
hi m." and
*
rai se
hi s
han&
up t o t he l evel of hi s shoul ders wi t h pal ms
f aci ng out wards and
f i ngen stretched to the earl obes and then he shoul d l ower hi s hands
to hi s si des. In the standi ng posi ti on
he shoul d be erect so that the
j oi nt s
of hi s body
go
hack i n pl ace.
whi l e i n t hi s posi t i on
he shoul d
reci te one 0r al l of the fol l owi ng du' i s i N many ti mes as he l i kes.
*some
peopte get
very
hi s hands whi l e goi ng
i nro
l i f t i ng hi s head f rom huku.
annoyed when they
see someone rai si ng
Ruku and agai n rai si ng
hi s hands whi l i
There are, however,
authenti c hadi ths whi ch prove that rrrophet
Muhammad (s-A. w. )
used t 0 rai se hi s hands ai t he begi nni ng of
prayer,
bef ore and af t er Ruku
and when st andi ng
up f oi t he i hi rd
rakat.
^Fugl v l l ngfq
Book of Hadi th l i ke Bukhari , fi l usl i m, Muatti
l mam Mal i k, Abu_Dawr. rd, Ti rmi zi , Ni sai , rbn Maj ah, l bn Khuzai mah,
Haki m, Ahmad, Shafaee, Tabrani , Bai traql
etc. etr. menti ons these
hadi t hs. Nearl y f our hundred
compani ons
al so narrat e t hi s pract i ce
of Prophet Muhammad
{s. A. w. }. s0, t here i s not t he sl i ght esi doubt
that the rai si ng of hands i s sunnat and a person
who
fracti ses
thi s
sunnat gets
a greater
reward than the person
who does not practi se
i t . However,
even t hough t he act i on i s ment i oned
i n t he hadi t hs,
al l t he ul amas agree t hat t he prayer
of a penon
who does not rai se
36
r COnt t nued
on page
37)
"Allah does not consIder the prayer of a man who does not
straighten his back when bowing for Ruku and performing Sajdah:'
(Ibn Khuzaimah, Ibn Hibban, Tabrani).
Abi Gatadah (R.A.) reported that the Messenger of Allah
(S.A.WJ said:
''The WOBt thief is one who steals in his prayer."
Then the companions asked, "How can someone steal from his
prayer?"
Prophet (S.A.W.) ansmred,
"He does nOlcomplete his RUKU and Sajdah with perfection." Or
he said,
"He does not make his balk straight in Ruku and Sajdah."
(Ahmad, Tabrani, Ibn Khuzaimah, Hakim).
These hadiths prove that RlJku and Sa;dah should be done
calmly, slowty and perfer.tly, otherwIse sa/at of the person will be
deficient.
QAWMAH (STANDING AFTER RUKU)
After the perfect Ruku the person praying should raise his
head from Ruku saying:-
"Sami 'allAh hu liman
"Verily Allah listens toone who praises him." and * raise hands
up to the level of his shaul deB with palms facing outwards and
fingeB stretched to the earlobes and then he should lower his hands
to his sides. In the standing position he should be erect so that the
joints of his body go hack in place. While in this position he should
recite one or all of the following du'as as many times as he likes.
*Some people get very annoyed when they see someone raising
his hands while going into Ruku and again raising his hands while
lifting his head from kuku.
There are, however, authentic hadiths which prove that ?rophet
Muhammad (S.A.W.) used to raise his hands at the beginning of
prayer, before and after Ruku and when standing up for the third
rakat. Every single Book of Hadith like Bukhari, Muslim,
Imam Malik, Abu Dawud, Tirmizi, Nisai, Ibn Majah, Ibn Khuzaimah,
Hakim, Ahmad, Shafaee, Tabrani, Baihaqi etc. etc. mentions these
hadiths. Nearly four hundred comDanions also narrate this practice
of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.). So, there ;s not the slightest doubt
that the raising of hands is sunnat and a person who practises this
sunnat gets a greater reward than the person who does not practise
it. However, even though the action is mentioned in the hadiths,
all the ulamas agree that the prayer of a person who does not raise
36
,continued
on page 37)
ou' As
tltl oAwtttAH
a)
"Rab' baha l akal hamdl '
6'i;;+,'tsu*.5
"0h, 0ur Lord, al l t he
prai ses be t o
youl '
b)
"Rab' bani l akal l l amd,l ;ramdan
Katheeran tayyi ban
mubarakan
feei '
o
9Q:1ts&^Wfi#r'-t^3
ii.;Jltt 6
"0h
our Lord, al l
Prai ses
be t o
You,
Very many,
pure and bl esed
prai ses be to
y9u.' '
cl
Al i ' S.' r*o' i f
(rtuui tt
i n.n.t
says
that when the mesenger
of
Al l ah
(S. A. W. )
ued t o say: -
"Sami
' al l 5h
hu l i man hami da" he woul d f ol l ow i t wi t h: -
*
S;*,"i+i
=.5U-;.r
r1Y^,i;.3 t
q
ui:
#ti
J6\rg
(
,;.ZV
i|*t
Jii-i-ii
hiJ;aJ-n4u
|
;
ii,L-{t
W ;9 }^i
-'"rJi
U urt
;',.glj
r
t -
t ) , . i , 2
-
I
a , r , 4
g l r t ! t t
-
-
.^--.J \'&
#\
\
i
Li;
fi JiJ
W'J,a)
1ird1,.drrr)
"Alldh humma rab-bani lakal llamdu mil as
smEwEti wa mil al arQi wa mil ama
shi'ta min shayin ba'du: ah lath
than1e wal maidiahag-gu mE
qdlal
'abdu
Wa Kullu-na Laka'abd, AlEh humma
lE m1ni'a limi a'tpyta wal6 mu'Sya lima
mana'ta wala
yanfa'u
Zal
iad-di
minkal
iad!'
(Muslim,
Ahmad, Abu Daw0d)
"0h Allah, our Lord, all praises
be to
you,
as much as they
tan
fill the heavens and the earth and everything which you want to be
filled after that. You deserve to be praised
andglorified. You deserve
more than what your servant has said and all of us are
your
slavc.
Nobody can
prwent
whatever
you
want to give and nobody can
give
whatever
you
umnt t0 prevent
and a
penon with
high
rank
cannot
benefi t hi msel f or another from hi s hi gh rank agi nst
your
wi l l ."
his hands is acceptable. Therefore, Muslims should not fight over
this issue. lf someone does not wish to raise his hands he should
(continuati_o4. not discourage others from doing so because it is not a major con-
from p4e
36)
$sysrtial point.
37
DU'AS IN QAWMAH
a) "Rab-bana lakal
"Gh, our Lord, all the praises be to you;'
b) "Rab-bana lakal hamd,hamdan
Katheeran niubaraka.n fee:'
,If' ,. "- .I ., ",

..
"Gh OlJ( Lord, all praises be to you,
Very many, pure and blessed praises be to you."
t) Abi Sa'eed al Khudree (R.A.) says that when the messenger of
Allah (S.A.W.) used to say:-
"Sami 'allah hu liman hamida" he would follow it with:-
"Allah humma rab-bana lakal l;1amdu mil as
samawati wa mil al ardi wa mil ama
shi'ta min shayin ba'du:ah lath
thanaee wal majdiahaq-quma qalal
'abdu Wa Kullu-na Laka /abd, Allah humma
16 mani'a lima a'tayta wala mu'tya lima
mana'ta wala yanfa'u tal jad-di minkal jad:'
(Muslim, Ahmad, Abu Dawud)
"Gh Allah, our Lord, all praises be to you, as much as they tan
fill the heavens and the earth and everything which you want to be
filled after that. You deserve to be praised and glorified. You deserve
more than what your servant has said and all of us are your slaves.
Nobody can prevent whatever you want to give and nobody can Rive
whatever you want to prevent and a person with high rank cannot
benefit himself or another from his high rank against your will."
his hands is acceptable. Therefore) Muslims should not fight over
this issue. If someone does not wish to raise his hands he should
(continuation not discourage others from doing so because it is not a major con-
from page 36) trovertia' point.
37
There are some
other du'is which can be read in the 0awmah
potition and thece can be found in other Books of Hadith.
FIRST SAJDAH
(PROSTBATIO
TI.
After the perfect qawmah
the
person praying
should mwe
to
perform
nidah saying:'
"Allihu Akbar," putting palms downwards on the ground
below
the ean. The knees should be brought downrvards on the ground.
His fingen and toes should be pointing
torvards 0iblah without
spreading the fingers of the han&. During prostration
seven parts
of the body shoul d touch the
ground:
(i )
the forehead al ong wi th the ti p 0f the nose.
(i i l
both hands
(i i i l
both knees
(ivl
the bottom surface of the toes of both feet.
I n t hi s
posi t i on
he shoul d say: -
.}t?tOi6t+p,,,
"Subl76na Rabbi
yal a'16"
He shoul d say thi s at l east 3 ti mes 0r 5, 7, 9, I I
"0h Al l ah,
gl ory
be to
you, the most hi gh."
There are $ome other du' ft whi ch can be read i n
posi ti on.
OTHEB DU' AS I I I SAJDAH
etc. tirnes.
the sajdah
i ) Al i
(R.A.)
sai d that the Mesenger of Al l ah
(S.A.W.)
used to say
whi l e doi ng sai dah: -
3-;J
irl,i:It\;i :>t-ii
+5
LirA-![
-g.ilt,
"
t . z ) / / - - / L - . . / t z t t / r ( r 1 7 i - : , .
1 i - .
r . , i , . - , /
A-rs-,F: oJFo
*;+u
r)y4, a-}li
-9 gj"_
-rfi_l
(
fl-.
1,
..1g.r-Gj I
JA'.*t!:U:X;e; ;
"Al l eh humma l aka saj adt u, wabi ka Emant u,
rmlaka clamtu .
saiada ranjhiya
Littaiikhalaqahl
Waspw
-vrarahfi
fa af.rsana guwarah-u,
Fashaq- q
a sa m'ah fr wa baqa rah-u
fatab-ara kal-l6hu al.rsanul kh-al iqeen
".
(Ahmad,
Musl i m).
38
There are some other du'as which can be read in the Qawmah
position and these can be found in other Books of Hadith.
FIRST SAJDAH (PROSTRATION).
After the perfect qawmah the person praying should move
to perform sajdah saying:-
"Allihu Akbar," putting palms downwards on the ground below
the ears. The knees should be brought downwards on the ground.
His fingers and toes should be pointing towards Qiblah without
spreadinp the fingers of the hands. During prostration seven parts
of the body should touch the ground:
(j) the forehead along with the tip of the nose.
(ii) both hands
(iii) both knees
(iv) the bottom surface of the toes of both feet.
In this position he should say:-
\\. ;:.- l, -;'i ,,/,....... , .I
'-='.-J '\J
.,
"Subl)ana Rabbi yal a'la"
He should say this at least 3 times or 5, 7, 9, 11 etc. times.
"Oh Allah, glory be to you, the most high."
There are some other du'is which can be read in the sajdah
position.
OTHER DU'AS IN SAJDAH
i) Ali (R.A.) said that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W-l used to say
while doing sajdah:-
, / -"" -' /1..... /-' ' ...... ..... ;,/ :./
..
"/ ... "';. (..... ".
, ,,,- - " /" , """, ,. , ". ., /'" (." - #"" .::- ,,,,,::,,. ' \ \ ", ,,....


"Allah humma laka sajadtu, wabika amantu,
walaka aslamtu ,
sajada wajhiya LillaZikhalaqahii
Wasaw-warahii fa ahsana suwarahu,
FaShaq-qa sam'ahu
fatabara kal-Iahu khill iqeen".
(Ahmad, Muslim).
38
"0h
Al l ah, for you I have prostrated,
and i n you I have fai th,
and unto you I have submi tted, my forehead has prostrated
i n
front of one who created i t and gave
shape to i t and made i t
perfeutl y. Then he gave power of hmri ng and si ght and bl esed
i s Al l ah' 5 nafi l s who i s the perfect
creator."
ai ) Abu Hurai rah
(R. n. )
sai d t hat t he Mesenger of Al l ah
(S. A. W. }
used t o say i n hi s sai dah: -
( t
' .
. .
t /
(
/ t ' . / t ( i
, r . 4
l ' ' / | / t L t
4,yi;'{2.r}
dj
!'rL-}'d.3
>'"Y
+
;
J,
V
!.ffn
"'
I
(1t-a)
""h3
"Al l eh hum maghfi rl ee Zanbee kul -l ahD di q-qahi ,
wa
j i l -l ahf
wa aw-wal ah-u wa
-akhi rahf,
wa
' al d
ni y-yatah-u wa si r-rahfi . "
{ Musl i m,
Abu DawDd, Haki m) .
"0h
Al l ah, f orgi ve al l of my si ns, mi nor
ones and maj or ones,
0nes I commi t t ed
previ ousl y and
0nes I commi t i n t he f ut ure.
Ones I commi t openl y
And ones I commi t secret l y. "
There are some other du' E' s whi ch the Mesenger of Al l ah
(S.A.W.)
used
to
say i n hi s Sai dah but these du' i s are t00 l ong to
ment i 0n here. They can be f ound i n aut hent i c Books of Hadi t h l i ke
Musl i m, Ahmad, Ni sai Abu Dawdd etr,. l t i s not surpri sl ng that
Prophet Muhammad
(S. A. W. )
st ayed i n
Ruku and Sai dah f or l ong
i nterval s.
Al l of t he aut hent i cal l y approved du' ds can be sai d wi t h sub[ Ena
Rabbi yal a' l d 0r 0n t hei r own or al t oget her accordi ng t o t he t i me
avai l abl e and capaci t y of t he
person.
I n Sal dah
posi t i on t he wonhi pper i s at hi s cl osest t o Al l ah.
Hence, Saj dah shoul d be perf ormed cal ml y, and
qui et l y, wi t hout
f i gget i ng, and t he worshi pper shoul d t ry t 0 read as many du' as as he
posi bl y
can.
JALSAH
{SI TTI NG
BETWEEI ' I TWO SAJDAH)
Af t er perf ormi ng one saj dah
perf ect l y and cal ml y,
t he perr, on
prayi ng shoul d rai se hi s head f rom sai dah sayi ng,
"Al l aJt u
akbar",
bendi ng t he l ef t f oot and si t t i ng on i t whi l e' keepi ng t he ri ght f oot
propped up wi t h i n t oes poi nt i ng t owards t he 0i bl ah, t he pal ms
of hi s hands shoul d rest on hi s t hi ghs and knees. t he back shoul d
be strai ght so that the
i oi nts
go back i n pl ace. l t i s sunnat t0 say
t he f ol l owi ng du' a whi l e si t t i ng i n bet ween t he t wo sai dahr.
Allah, for you I have prostrated, and in you I have faith,
and unto you I have submitted, my forehead has prostrated in
front of one who created it and gave shape to it and made it
perfectly. Then he gave power of hearing and sight and blessed
is Allah's name who is the perfect treator."
ii) Abu Hurairah (R.A.) said that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.)
used to say in his saidah:-
;" ;;" "," -' , /;.,,,
(')
.-' ,/.,.

hum maghfirlee Zanbee kul-Iahjj diq-qahu,
wa jil-Iahu wa awwalahu wa akhirahu, wa
'alii niy-yatahu wa sir-rahu. "
(Muslim, Abu Oawud, Hakim).
"Oh Allah, forgive all of my sins, minor
ones and major ones,
Ones I committed previously and
Ones I commit in the future.
Ones I commit openly
And ones I commit secretly."
There are some other du 'as whith the Messenger of Allah
(S.A.W.) used to say in his Sajdah but these du'as are too long to
mention here. They tan be found in authentic Books of HaeJith like
Muslim, Ahmad, Nisai Abu DawTId etc. It is not surprising that
Prophet Muhammad (S.A.WJ stayed in R.uku and Sajdah for long
intervals.
All of the authentically approved du'as tan be said with
Rabbi yal a'ia or on their own or altogether according to the time
available and capacity of the person.
In Sajdah position the worshipper is at his closest to Allah.
HenLe, Sajdah should be performed calmly, and quietly, without
figgeting, and the worshipper should try to read as many du'as as he
possibly can.
JAlSAH {SITTING BETWEEN TWO SAJDAH)
-------
After performing one sajdah perfectly and r.almly, the person
praying should raise his head from sajdah saying, "Allahu akbar",
bending the left foot and sitting on it while 'keeping the right foot
propped up with its toes pointing towards the Qiblah, the palms
of his hands should rest on his thighs and knees. the back should
be straight so that the joints go bac.k in place. It is sunnat to say
the following du 'a while sitting in between the two sajdahs.
39
*:liiry'vlr?.lrr-r\';tt3e,rP;N
6'c>J;:ti'ciiLtj
"AlEh hum maghfirlee rvarfrmnee wahdinee
m
'f,finee
warzuqnes wajburnee war fa'nos"
(Abu
Dawild).
"0h Allah, forgive me, and have mercy 0n m0,
and keep me on the right
path,
and keep me healthy,
and
provide
me withhalal sourcc of living
and complete my shortcoming,
and make my rank hidr."
The wonhipper can say this du'i' onco 0r G many timr c he
likes.
SECOTIO SAJDAH
Then the
person
should
perform
the second sajdah saying, ".Allahu
Akbar" and npeat wtrat he did in the fint sqideh.
JAI$AH
-
E- ISTAFAHAT
(SITTIITG
FON RESTI.
Then he should raise his head up saying
'AllEhuAkbar"
rnd sit
for a short while c he did in
ialsah.
He dooE frh befon standing up
for the second rakat.
SECOTD RAKAT
After standing up for the second rakat he should fold his hands
orcr his chect as he did in the first rakat and start hb recitation bv
reading "Bismill6h..........and Surah Fatihah follorrmd by any
pffige
or a chapter of the Holy 0uran." Then he should complete his rscond
rakat in the manner of the fint one.
While choming a passage or a chapter for the rocitation in the
scond or a subsequant rakat the worshipper shoufd observe the
order in which they mcur in the Holy OurEn. Al$0, eoch Surah or
wne should be shorter than the one recited before it. Hence, longer
surahs are rcited before shorter surahs.
TASHAHUD
After completing the lrot sajdah of the second rakat, the
penon
should nise his head srying:
"All6trAkbar".
He should sit as he sat
betryreon the two sajdah,
putting
his left hand on hls left knee and
righthan&n his rigrt knee. TheJist of the right hand is cfosed sxcept
for ths index finpr which is protruded.
lt is
protruded
so that the
40
"Allah hum maghfirlee warlJamnee wahdinee
WI 'ifinee warzuqnee wajburnee war fa'nee"
(Abu DawOd).
"Oh Allah, forgive me, and have mercy on me,
and keep me on the right path,
and keep me healthy,
and provide me withhalal sources of living,
and complete my shortcomings,
and make my rank high."
The worshipper can say this du'i once or _ many times _ he
likes.
SECOND SAJDAH
Then the person should perform the second sajdah saying, ".Allahu
Akbar" and repeat what he did in the first siUdah. .
JALSAH - E-ISTARAHAT (SITTING FOR REST).
Then he should raise his head up saying .All1hu Akbar" and sit
for a short while as he did in jalsah. He does this before standing up
for the second rakat.
SECOND RAKAT
After standing up for the second rakat he should fold his hands
over his chest as he did in the first rakat and start his recitation bv
reading "Bismillih and Surah Fatihah followed by any passagl
or a chapter of the Holy Ouran." Then he should complete his second
rakat in the manner of the first one.
While choosing a passage or a chapter for the recitation in the
second or a subsequent rakat the worshipper should observe the
order in which they occur in the Holy Ourin. Also, each Surah or
verse should be shorter than the one recited before it. Hence, longer
surahs are recited before shorter surahs.
TASHAHUD
After completing the last sajdah of the second rakat, t ~ e person
should raise his head saying: "Allah-Akbar". He should sit as he sat
between the two sajdah, putting his left hand on his left knee and
right handon his riltlt knee. The fist of the right hand is closed except
for the index finger which is protruded. It is protruded so that the
40
{$t
thu.mb b brought
1o
the second division of the index finger. In
ftbporition
the pefion
rhould rad:-
,+Jsl$*ie
qii.r
6
b
rtat6
*y
Lu;iit
,W
#s
ilqi;c;l-Jl i
gl
;
it',J,-J,tt';i;
rii
;ffi gfi'rff-iei,
r V:'[yl
j
Se-, o'r#-L;"1
p r
(+Jeili:.
,
.fr;$;il+5
'At-tal|iy-yEtu
lil-Ehi wq salawatu wat-lay
yiffitu.
Aseafiniu-'alayka ay-yuhrt-nabiy-yu''
wt ral1ma tullEhi wa bankEruhi
As+alEmu
'alaynE
wahl6
'ibediLE
his+alihen."
"Ash hdu anla'ildha illal lEhu
wa ah hdu an-na Mul7ammadan
'abduhi
wa rafiluh."
"All
compliments,
all physical prayer,
and al l moni tary wonhi p are for Al l ah.
Peace be upon you, 0h Prophet,
and Allaht mercy and blessing.
Peace be on u and on all righteous
slares of Allah."
"l bear witness that no one is worthy of
worship except Allah.
And I bear wi tnes that Muhammad
(S.A.W.}
b His slare and Messenger."
Whi l e readi ng "Ash hadu......' abduh-u wa rasi l l uh." a person
shoul d rabe the i ndex fi nger of hi s ri ght hand sl i ghtl y and return
i t to i n prari ous pmi ti on
after he hao fi nsi hed sayi ng i t.
A
person praying 2 rakats only should continue to the next stage
wfri ch i s Sal at Al an-Nabi
(Dar[d].
STAf { DI I { G UP FOR THI RO RAKAT
l f a
penon i s
prayi ng t hree or f our rakat s, t hen he shoul d st and
up after tashahud saying
"All-ahu
Akbar" and raising his hands as he
di d
i n Takbi r Tahri mah st art hi s reci t at i on wi t h
"Bi smi l l 6h. . . . . and
then Surah Fati hah." In the thi rd or fourth rakat of fard prayer
reci tati on of Fati hah i s suffi ci ent. There i s no need to say another
41
riqht is brought to the second division of the index finger. In
thllposltlon the person should read:-
"At-tal}iy-yatu liI-lshi waf war-ray yibiJtu.
As-salBmu 'alayka ay-yuhan-nabiy-yu
W,J ral)ma tUJlahi wa barakiJtuhu
As-salamu 'alayna wa'ala 'iblJdil-/a
"Ash hadu anli iliha il/al/ahu
wa ash hadu an-na Mul}ammadan
wa rasOluh. "
"AII compliments, all physical prayer,
and all monitary worship are for Allah.
Peace be upon you, Oh Prophet,
and Allah's mercy and blessings.
Peace be on us and on all righteous
slaves of Allah."
"1 bear witness that no one is worthy of
worship except Allah.
And I bear witness that Muhammad
(S.A.W.l is His slave and Messenger."
While reading "Ash hadu......'abduhu wa rasiiluh." a person
should raise the index finger of his right hand slightly and return
it to its previous position after.he has finsihed saying it.
A person praying 2 rakats only should continue to the next stage
which is Salat Alan-Nabi (Darud).
STANDING UP FOR THIRD RAKAT
If a person is praying three or four rakats, then he should stand
up after tashahud sayIng "Allahu Akbar" and raising his hands as he
did in Takbir Tahrimah start his recitation with "Bismillah.....and
men Surah Fatihah." In the third or fourth rakat of prayer
recitation of Fatihah is sufficient. There is no need to say another
41
Surah. But a
pgrson praying sunnat or nafl
praYer
can read a surah
after Fatihah. After recitation he should continue t0 complete
his
third rakat
(or
fourth rakat if he is
praying four).
Atter the cornpletion
of lrot rakat he should sit for tashahud
as described above
(as
he sat after
praying
2 rakats).
After Tashthud he should read Salat Alan'ltlabi
(0rr0d]
as follor,rrs:
aL
3ih(J,fai,J
r'
&Gi,{J4
U U'giit
#)\
12+\6
{Lri>L,6-
r3.1
)t,}-'i
I-^+
ytir,
;#!jt$t
CLs\$qk6 JJ;i,P &'54Y
;1#rol"+ltjyoa2V.y)lgi:
"AlEh humma sal-li blE Muhammadin
wa
'atE
6ti Muhimmadin,
KamE qal-layta
'ald
lbrEheema
Wahld Eli lbrdheema
innaka
hameedum
majud."
"0h Al l ah, send
grace
and honour on
Muhammad
(S.A.W.)
and
0n the family and true follovrnrs of Muhammad
(S.A.W.),
just
as
you
sent Grace and Honour on
l brahi m
(A. S. )
and on the fami l y and true fol l owen of l brahi m
(A.S.)
Surely,
you are
praiseworthy, the Grgat'
"
"AlEh humma bilrik hll Muhammadin
wa htE dti MuQammadin,
'
KamE b1rakta'all lbraheema
Wa
'ald
dli lbrdheema
innaka
fiameedum
maied.
"
"0h Al l ah, send
your bl essi ng on Muhammad
(S.A.W.)
and the true fol l owers of Muhammad
(S.A.W.)ri ust
as
you sent bl esi ngs 0n l brahi m
(A.S.)
and hi s true fol l owen.
Surelvryou
are
praiseworthy, the Great."
DU, ES AFTER SALAT ALAI {-I {ABI
(DAR[ D}
There are
qui te a l ot of du' ds wtri ch Prophet
(S.A.W-)
used to
say after DarEd and he taught them to the companiom.
Here we
wi l l menti on a few of them.
i ) Abdul l ah bi n Amr
(R. A. )
sai d t hat Abu Bakr
(R. A. )
sai d t o t he
42
Surah. But a person praying sunnat or nafl prayer can read a surah
after Fatihah. After recitation he should continue to complete his
third rakat (or fourth rakat if he is praying four).
After the completion of last rakat he should sit for tashahud
as described abpve (as he sat after praying 2 rakats).
After TashJhud he should read Salat Alan-Nabi (Dariid) as follows:-
"Allah humma sal-Ii 'ala Muhammadin
wa 'ala ali Muhammadin, .
Kama fal-Iayta 'ala Ibraheema
Wa'ala ali Ibriheema
innaka bameedum majeed."
"Oh Allah, send grace and honour on
Muhammad (S.A.W.) and
On the family and true folloVYers of Muhammad (S.A.W.),
just as you sent Grace and Honour on
Ibrahim (A.S')
and on the family and true followers of Ibrahim (A.S.)
Surely, you are praiseworthy, the GF1!at. IJ
"Allah humma barik 'ala Muhammadin
wa 'ala ali Muhammadin,
Kama blIrakta 'ala Ibraheema
Wa 'ala ali Ibraheema
innaka lJameedum majeed. "
"Qh Allah, send your blessing on Muhammad (S.A.W.)
and the true followers of Muhammad (S.A.W.),just
as you sent blessings on Ibrahim (A.S.)
and his true followers.
S u r e l ~ you are praiseworthy, the Great."
DU'AS AFTER SALAT ALAN-NABI (DARUD)
There are quite a lot of du'as which Prophet (S.A.W.) used to
say after Dariid and he taught them to the companions. Here we
will mention a few of them.
i) Abdullah bin Amr (R.A.) said that Abu Bakr (R.A.) said to the
42
ijl$;J-'t
i
t;*sA3
d,-'
3#3$
;fin,',
:i i s:
yl,j;
rY+4'r;7'iilJ A*-C
dli'J1
r{,std)
'-a};$;-Jt
"All6h humma innee zalamtu nafsee
Zulman Katheran
, wa|
yaghfi
ruz
iunr.lba
illd
anta faghfirlw maghfiratam min
'indika,
war
fiamnee
innaka antal
ghaffirur
ral7eem."
( Bukhar i
and Musl i m) .
"0h Al l ah, I have been very cruel to mysel f
(by
i gnori ng my duty
to you) and there i s no one who can forgi ve the si ns Extept
you. So forgi ve me because
ygu are the onl y forgi ver and have
mercy on me. Veri l y.you are the forgi ver and merci ful ."
i i ) Shadad bi n Aus
(R. A. )
report ed t hat t he Prophet
of Al l ah
(S.A.W.)
used to say i n hi s
PraYer:-
,*1
\
g'-e
-A
\i.i
il
|
4
L\h\'A'ri'LI;ilti
"'
tA3:i{ttj
4;Y+
iJLiiffi1ii
ei;3i;
'Li
ufi,b1$39
r,
+6
Lv; ur.r"
r
"Alleh humma innee as'dtu katn
ThubatA
fil amri, wal
'azeemata
blar rushd[,
wa as-aluka shukra ni'matika
,
wa l4usna
'ib1datixa,
wa ai-aluka
qalban saleeman, wa lis-anan q4diqan,
wa as'aluka min khaYri m:a
Ta' l amu, wa a,uzubi ka
mi n
Shar-ri mE ta'lamu, wa as taghfiruka,
I i m-a ta'lamu."
(
Nisai
).
"0h
Al l ah, I ask
you f or st rengt h i n every mat t er of dean and
a st ronq wi l l power t o be on t he ri ght pat h. And I ask
you
t o
Masenger of Allah,
"Please'teach me a du'd so I can say it in
my
prayer."
So the Mesengnr of Allah
Sry:-
(S.A.W.l
said,
43
Messenger of Allah, "Please'teach me a du'f so I tan say it in
my prayer."
So the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) said,
s.y:-

"Allah hllmma innee zalamtu nafsee
?uJman Katheeran , wala yaghfi ruz
zuncJba
ilia anta faghfirlee maghfiratam min
'indika, war I)amnee innaka Mtal
ghaflirur ra!)eem. "
(Bukhari and Muslim).
"Oh Allah, I have been very cruel to myself (by ignoring my duty
to you) and there is no one who can forgive the sins 'except
you. So forgive me because you are the only forgiver and have
mercy on me. Verily.you are the forgiver and merciful."
ii) Shadad bin Aus (R.A.) reported that the Prophet of Allah
(S.A.W.) used to say in his prayer:-
"Allah hUlnma innee as-diU katn ThubatJ
fil alnri, wal 'azeemata 'alar rushdi,
wa as-aluka shukra ni'matika ,
wa I]usna 'ibadatil<a, wa as-aluka
qalban saleeman, wa lisanan facJiqan,
wa as-aluka min khayri rna
Ta'lamu, wa a'uzubika min
Shar-ri rna ta'lamu, wa as taghfiruka,
lima ta'lamu."(Nisai).
"Oh Allah, I ask you for strength in every matter of dean and
a will power to be on the right path. And I ask you to
43
m0k0 me thankful for your bountir and
give me ability to
nronhip
you perfectly. And I ask
you
to make my hoart rincsrs
and my tongus truthful. I aak
you
for cvory
goodnas known
to
you
and I stek refuge in
you
from arerything bad that
you
know is bad.
I ck
your forgiveness for all mistakm you know."
(iiil
Aisha
(R.A)
reported that the Prophet
(S.A.W.)
tsed to say this
dut in his
prayen:-
fuU+')
Ft.)
rfu3
1,-,tLL,4
+'ilLi
Vt*nr
r",
t
c_,\Li))jril3
r
?fu, *
t;!l
S
J,r.F,fu r
t
f'
c'v
)
;rl,rti
+tbt
4+:t'A'eUii:rt
"AlEh
humma innee
A'Eiubika min
Aiibil qabri, va
A1iubika min
fitna tid dai-iEli, wa A'iiubika
min fitna til mabYi wal mam*t.
Alfah humma innee A'friuhika minal
Ma'thami
wal maghrami.'t
{Bukhari
and Mrslim}.
"0h Allah I seek refuge in
you from the
punishment of the
grave, and I seek refuge in
you from the troublc of dqi'ial,
and I seek refuge in
you from the difficulties and troubles of
the life and death. 0h Allah, I seek refuge in you from nrery
kind of sin and unexpected troubles."
'F6}\+j
rL9-+
i+i'r;:i"ltl+1,;:&*r
5
<rt
3
J.r}
33r.'4';4 ; L .n
g.
i'J:,Jl+t W'
K!,
. r
| / 1r
livl'Bab bijbtnee mug*mE gatati wa min
o?\'-14'l
tur-riy
yatee
rab-banE wata
gab-bal
du E, rab
-ba
naghfi rle wal iwal i day-ya
wa lil mumineena yawma yaqfrmul
fiisEb.
"
"0h Lord, make me and my children keep up prayers,
0ur Lord, accept our
prayer,
Our Lord, forgive me and my
parents
and all the Believen 0n the Day of Judgment."
44
make me thankful for your bounti. and gi\lR me ability to
worship you perfectly. And I ask you to make my heart sincere
and my tongue truthful. I ask you for every goodness known
to you and I seek refuge in you from everything bad that you
know is bad.
I ask your forgiveness for all mistakes you know."
(iii) Aisha (R.A.) reported that the Prophet (S.A.W.) used to say this
du'i in his prayers:-
"Allih humma innee A'iiiubika min
Alibil qabri, wa A'Uzubika min
fitna tid daj-jali, wa A'uzubika
min fitna til mal}yi wal mamat.
Allih humma innee A'uzubika minal
Ma'thami wal maghrami. '1
(Bukhari and Muslim).
1I0h Allah I seek refuge in you from the punishment of the
grave, and I seek refuge in you from the troubles of daj-jal,
and I seek refuge in you from the difficulties and troubles of
the life and death. Oh Allah, I seek refuge in you from every
kind of sin and unexpected troubles."
(iv)"Rab bij'alnee muqeemBf salati wa min
zur-riy yatee rab-bani wata qab-bal
du'a,rab-ba. naghfirlee waliwaliday-ya
wa iii mumineena yawma yaqumul
/}isab. 'I
"Oh Lord, make me and my children keep up prayers,
Our Lord, accept our prayer,
Our Lord, forgive me and my parents
and all the Believers on the Day of Judgment. "
44
Al though mmt peopl e rmd Rab bi j ' al nee after DarEd; i t i s per.
mi tted to reci te any ni ce duE Howwer, i t shoul d be known that
this du'6' is not one of those du'a-s which Prophet
(S.A.W.)
used
t0 say after Darfrd. lt is preferable
to read both Rab bij'alnee and
the du' a-s whi ch are authenti cal l y proved from the Prophet
(S.A.W.)
and those he taught to hi s comprni om. We have menti oned onfy
four but there are about twel ve. However, they are too l engthy
t o ment i on here.
EI I I DI t { G THE PRAYEH
After prayi ng
f or hi msel f as much as the
person
wi shes he shoul d
end hi s prayer
sayi ng: -
j
oiltus:r;j*i$!ji-i\
"As-salflmu
'ataykum
wa rafimatul lehr"
"Peace
be on you and the mercy of Al l ahr"
turni ng the face fi rst to the ri ght and then to the l ett, both
t i mes over t he shoul der.
Thi s bri ngs the two, three or four rakats of the
prayer t0 com-
pl et i on.
DU' AS AFTER SATUTATI OT{ S
There are many du' a-s whi ch Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.)
used to say after sal utati on. So, a
person prayi ng
shoul d try t0 mem-
ori se them and fol l ow the practi ce
of Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.).
Some of these du' ai we wi l l menti on here.
It was the conti nuous
practi ce
of Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.l
when he turned away from hi s
prayer
to say:-
r.
oljs\irnf
r,'
o'it';)3:J
ct 6oYr"11it c,
i*t34ii-l"i
w r
*;^
;
V
d)y
-L
6u:, ai^ii t
iu
r
:a\
Hr
c,
t
q-l*l'
S
cratPlts
a) Al l ahu Akbar
(once
al oud)
(Al l ah
i s the greatestl
b) t ut agh f i rul -f 6h
(3
t i mes)
(l
rok Al l ah t o f orgi ve mel .
r.l
Al l i h humma antas sal Emu
Wa minkas saldmu
taharakta
yd
ialialali wal ikrim.
45
Although most people read Rab bij'alnee after Oariid; it is per-
mitted to recite any nice du'i. However, it should be known that
this du'i is not one of those du'as which Prophet (S.A.W.) used
to say after Darud. It is preferable to read both Rab bij'alnee and
the du'as which are authentic.ally proved from the Prophet (S.A.W.)
and those he taught to his compllnions. We have mentioned only
four but there are about twelve. However, they are too lengthy
to mention here.
ENDING THE PRAYER
After praying for himself as much as the person wishes he should
end his prayer saying:-
''As-salamu wa ra/;lmatullfJh, "
"Peace be on you and the mercy of Allah,"
turning the face first to the right and then to the left, both
times over the shoulder.
This brings the two, three or four rakats of the prayer to tom-
pletion.
DU'AS AFTER SALUTATIONS
There are many du'as which Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.)
used to say after salutation. So, a person praying should try to memo
arise them and follow the practice of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.).
Some of these du'as we will mention here.
It was the continuous practice of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.)
when he turned away from his prayer to say:-
1. ,,)
" ..' , /1 ", 1" ,,: 9''>:: ''''',
*' 0 .. 0 4U'A ... .. (r,
::J';, (;j..5l:JI (r')
.
a) Allahu Akbar (onte aloud)
(Allah is the greatest)
b) Astagh firulliih (3 times)
(I ask Allah to forgive me).
I. ) Allah humma antas salamu
Wa minkas salamu
tabarakta ya ialialali waf ikram.
45
2. '
0h Al l ah, you are the
Peace,
And
you are the source of
Peace,
you are bl essed, 0
posessor of Gl ory
and Honour ) .
( MUSLI M)
o
+
5V
1g)'4]&
lJ#z&a";Afri
Altah
humma a'innee atd iikrika
wa shukrika
wa
hunsni
'ibadatika'
(Ahmad,
Abu Daw-ud).
(0h
Al l ah, hel p me to remember
you al l the ti me,
And to think you, and to worship
you perfectly!.
#
j
J,Uj\'Aj
j,'oj i+?
I
L Sgtr;'r
fu
dlf{
,b^t;
i#Li
nr,
eu,t
,;il{'i'p
r
6"
q
V
r,H e,6, ;
r1
:3l(t t
-*J
I\
j'E!{
*
af*g
af
ta ibha itlal tah| wahdah7
la shareeka
tahl.
Lahul Mulku wala hul
Qamdu
wa huwa
'ald
kul-li shay'in
qadrer.
''
Al'arcn humma la mdni'a limd a'gayta
wa la mulgiva limE manata wa ld
yanfa'u
Zaljad-di minkal
iad.
"
(Bukhari ,
Musl i m).
a)
' There
i s no God but Al l ah,
He i s the onl y one and has no
partner,
Soverei gnty and prai se
are onl y for Hi m.
And he has ful l authori ty over everythi ng."
b)
"Nobody
can
prwent
whatever
you
want
to
gi ve
and nobody can
gi ve
whatwer you
want to
prevent
and a pers0n
wi th hi gh
rank cannot benefi t hi msel f or another
from hi s hi gh rank agai nst your wi l l ."
-tt
*j(3iit(
-:!,
rs
tb,ir.a)
(
-
t55 ii't
6g-*
It is sunnat to say subh6 nalfEh
(33
timest,
"Glory be t0
Allah."
Alhamdu lillah
(33
times),
"Praise
be to Allah."
and Alldhu Akbar
(34
times)
"Allah
is the
great6t."
3.
4.
46
Oh Allah, you are the peace,
'And you are the source of peace,
you are blessed, 0 possessor of Glory
and Honour). (MUSLIM)
2,' Allah humma a'innee ali Zikrika
wa shukrika wa Qunsni 'ibadatika.
(Ahmad, Abu Dawud).
(Oh Allah, help me to remember you all the time,
And to thank you, and to worship you perfectly).
3. afLa i laha i lIal lahu wal)dahil Ii shareeka lahu.
Lahul Mulku wala hul hamdu
wa huwa 'ala kul-li shay-in qadeer. "
bf'Allah humma la mini'a lima a'tayta
wa Iii mu:riva lima mana'ta wa la
yanfa'u Zaljad-di minkal jad. I,
(Bukhari, Muslim).
a) ''There is no God but Allah,
He is the only one and has no partner,
Sovereignty and praise are only for Him.
And he has full authority over everything."
b) "Nobody can prevent whatever you want
to give and nobody can give whatever you
want to prevent and a person with high
rank cannot benefit himself or another
from his high rank against your wilL"
..A33 -.JL33
, /; . /
4. It is sunnat to say nallah (33 times), "Glory be to Allah."
lillah (33 times), "Praise be to Allah."
and Allahu Akbar (34 times) "Allah is the greatest."
46
There are very rnany du'[s which Prophet Muhammad
(S.AW.}
used to say and he taught them to his companions. These can be
found in famous Books of Hadith.
or oo oo ol oo l o
47
There are very many du'as which Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.)
used to say and he taught them to his companions. These can be
found in famous Books of Hadith.



47


Cheipter 5
,OCCASIONAT
PRAYERS
WITB PBAYER
Witr Prryer b runnat Mu'akkadah. lt is very much emphrized
by Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.).
He did not leave this
prayer
even
dudng a
joumoy
or when mounted on camelbac,k.
It rns ro m' ach emphaci zed that some Musl i m schol ars under-
stood that it was wajib
(compulsoryl
but after a c,areful study of
hadiths it can be said that it is not wajib but a very much emphas-
ized prayer.
Witr prayer is often mistrkenly thought of as part of the lsha
prayer.
This is not so. Witr
prayer
is a separate prayer which can be
offered after the lsha
prayer right up to the break of dawn. For the
convenience of the believen Prcphet
(S.A.W.)
allowed Witn to be
offered straight after lsha.
tn Arabi c tne word wi tr means, One. In hadi ths the Mesenger
of Al l ah says:
"Al l ah i s onqso hel i kesthe number, 0NE."
{Musl i m}.
Al l ah al so l i kes odd numbers because wten an odd number
i s di vi ded by 2rthe remai nder i s al ways one. For thi s reason Prophet
(S.A.W.}
preferred odd numbers.
Hel i kedto do thi np i n odd numbers
i n hi s routi ne l i fe, al so, such as: when sayi ng
prayers, sayi ng
du' ds,
eati ng dates etc.
That i s why Prophet
{S.A.W.}
asked the bel i evers
to pray wi tr at the end of the ni ght
prayer
so that i t can make the
ni ght
prayer i nto an odd number.
-
Abdul l ah
bi n Umar
(R.A.!
says that the Messenger of Al l ah
(S.A.W.)
sai d:
"Ni ght prayer i s to be offered i n 2 rakats uni ts. When
one of
you feel s that dawn i s near then he shoul d offer 1 rakat whi ch
can make al l the ni ght
prayer
he offered i nto an odd number."
( Bukhar i ,
Musl i m) .
] ' I UMBER OF BAKATS OF WI TR PHAYER
Abdul l ah bi n Umat
(R. A. )
sai d t hat t he mesenger of Al l ah
(S.A.W.)
sai d:
' l ,Vi tr
prayer i s one rakat at the end of the nafl
prayer
at ni ght . "
Abu Ayub
(R. A. )
says t hat Prophet Muhammad
(S. A. W. )
sai d:
"Everv Musl i m shoul d
pray
wi t r. Anvone who l i kes t 0 pray 5 rakat s
of wi t r he shoul d do so, anyof r e who l i kes t o
pr ay
3
r al kat s, ne shoul d
do so, and anyone who l i kes t o pray one rakat , he shorrl d
d0 s0. "
( Abu
Oaw[ d, Ni sai , t bn Mai ah] .
48
Chapter 5
'OCCASIONAL PRAYERS
WITR PRAYER
Witr Prayer is sunnat Mu'akkadah. It is very much emphasized
by Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.). He did not leave this prayer even
during a journey or when mounted on camelback.
It \WI so mt.ch emphasized that some Muslim scholars under-
stood that it was wajib (compulsory) but after a careful study of
hadiths it can be said that it is not wajib but a very much emphas-
ized prayer.
Witr prayer is often mistakenly thought of as part of the Isha
prayer. This is not so. Witr prayer is a separate prayer which can be
offered after the Isha prayer right up to the break of dawn. For the
convenience of the believers Prcphet (S.A.W.) allowed Witrs to be
offered straight after Isha.
In Arabic tne word witr means, One. In hadiths the Messenger
of Allah says: "Allah is one-so helikesthe number, ONE."
(Muslim).
Allah also likes odd numbers because when an odd number
is divided by 2"the remainder is always one. For this reason Prophet
(S.A.W.) preferred odd numbers. Helikedto do things in odd numbers
in his rOlltine life, also, such as: when saying prayers, saying du'as,
eating dates etc. That is why Prophet (S.A. W.) asked the believers
to pray witr at the end of the night prayer so that it can make the
night prayer into an odd number.
Abdullah bin Umar (R.A.) says that the Messenger of Allah
(S.A.W.) said: "Night prayer is to be offered in 2 rakats units. When
one of you feels that dawn is near then he should offer 1 rakat which
can make all the night prayer he offered into an odd number."
{Bukhari, Muslim}.
NUMBER OF RAKATS OF WITR PRAYER
Abdullah bin Umar (R.A.) said that the messenger of Allah
(S.A.W.) said: ''Witr prayer is one rakat at the end of the nafl prayer
at night."
Abu Ayub (R.A.) says that Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) said:
"Every Muslim should pray witr. Anyone who likes to pray 5 rakats
of witr he should do so, anyone who likes to pray 3 rat:kats, he should
do so, and anyone who likes to pray one rakat, he should do so."
(Abu Dawud, Nisai, Ibn Maiah).
48
We understand from the above menti oned hadi ths that the
actual witr
prayer
is one rakat, although a
person
can offer, 1,3,
5,7, or I rakats of witr prayer. All of these numbers are apprnved
by Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.)
i n authenti c hadi ths.
TI ME OF WI TR PBAYER
Wi tr prayer
can be oftered after the l sha prayer
ri ght up to the
oreak of dawn.
Ai sha
(R.A.)
sai d:
"Prophet
Muhammad
(S.A.W.)
prayed wi tr
duri ng al l ti mes of the ni ght. Someti mes he prayed
Wi tr duri ng the
fi rst part
of the ni ght, someti mes duri ng the mi ddl e
part
of the
ni ght, and someti mu duri ng the end
part of the ni ght but he used
to compl ete the prayer
before the break of dawn.
o
(Bukhari ,
Musl i m).
However, a person
who thi nks he coul d not
get
up to pray
witr at the end
part
of the night can offer witr immediately atter
l sha or before he
goes
to bed. But someone who thi nks that he
can
get
up and
pray
nafl at ni ght shoul d
pray
wi tr at the end of hi s
night prayer.
Jabi r
(R.A.)
sai d that the Prophet
{S.A.W.) sai d:
"Anyone of
you who coul d not
get
up at the end part of the ni ght he shoul d
pray
wi tr i n the fi rst part
of the ni ght and anyone of you who thi nks
he can
get
up at the end part of the ni ght he shoul d pray wi tr then,
because the angels are present for the prayer
offered at the end
part
of the night. "
(Musl i m,
Ahmad, Ti rmi zi , l bn Maj ah).
HOW TO PRAY WI TR
When praying one Witr a
person
can offer it as the usual prayer.
When prayi ng
3, 5, 7 or I rakats of wi tr prayer
there i s morn
than one way the prayer
can be offered.
For exampl e: -
a) A person praying
3 rakats
witr can
pray 2 rakats like the
usual prayer.
After the Salutation, As-salSmu
'alaykum
wa
nhmatul-16h, first to the right and then to the left he should
gei
up immediately to com-plete the third rakat. This way of
.
offering witr prayer
is called, witr bil fasal'.
b) A person praying
3 rakats or 5 rakais Witr should not sit
for Tashahud in between the rakaB except in the last rakat.
c) A penon prayi ng
3, 5 or 7 rakats Wi tr shoul d si t i n Tashahud
in the last but one rakat, .9. in the second rakat if he is
offering 3 Witr, fourth rakat if he is offering 5 witr, or sixth
rakat i f he i s offeri ng 7 Wi tr and so on. He shoul d read
Tashahud and then
get up for the lat rakat and complete it.
49
We understand from the above mentioned hadiths that the
actual witr prayer is one rakat, although a person can offer, 1,3,
5,7, or 9 rakats of witr prayer. All of these numbers are
by Prophet Muhammari (S.A.W-l in authentic hadiths.
TIME OF WITR PRAYER
Witr prayer can be oftered after the Isha prayer right up to the
oreak of dawn.
Aisha (R.A.) said: "Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) prayed witr
during all times of the night. Sometimes he prayed Witr during the
first part of the night, sometimes during the middle part of the
night, and someHmes during the end part of the night but he used
to complete the prayer before the break of dawn. "
(Bukhari, Muslim).
However, a person who thinks he could not get up to pray
witr at the end part of the night can offer witr immediately after
Isha or before he goes to bed. But someone who thinks that he
can get up and pray nafl at night should pray witr at the end of his
night prayer.
Jabir (R.A.) said that the Prophet (S.A.W.) said: "Anyone of
you who could not get up at the end part of the night he should
pray witr in the first part of the night and anyone of you who thinks
he can get up at the end part of the night he should pray witr then,
because the angels are present for the prayer offered at the end part
of the night. II
(Muslim, Ahmad, Tirmizi, Ibn Majah).
HOW TO PRAY WITR
When praying one Witr a person can offer it as the usual prayer.
When praying 3, 5, 7 or 9 rakats of witr prayer there is
than one way the prayer can be offered.
For example:-
a) A person praying 3 rakats witr can pray 2 rakats like the
usual prayer. After the Salutation, As-salamu 'alaykum wa
rahmatul-Iah, first to the right and then to the left he should
get up immediately to complete the third rakat. This way of
offering witr prayer is called, witr bil
b) A person praying 3 rakats or 5 rakats Witr should not sit
for Tashahud in between the rakats except in the last rakat.
c) A person praying 3, 5 or 7 rakats Witr should sit in Tashahud
in the last but one rakat, e.g. in the second rakat if he is
offering 3 Witr, fourth rakat if he is offering 5 witr, or sixth
rakat if he is offering 7 Witr and so on. He should read
Tashahud and then get up for the last rakat and complete it.
49
Al l 3 met hods are aut hent i r. and are pract i sed by t he
great
ul amas
and suhol ars. So Musl i ms r; an
uhoose any one of t hese 3 met hods t o
of f er t he wi t r prayer. When prayi ng
3 rakat s, wi t r, however, i t i s
pref erabl e t o r. hose met h0d
' a'
or
' b' as
Prophet Muhammad
(S. A. W. )
sai d:
" Do
not make your wi t r pr ayer si mi l ar t 0 y0ur maghr i b pr ayer . "
( Oi amul - l ai l ) .
Du, A OUNUT I N WI TR PBAYER
Readi ng du' a Ounut i n t he l ast rakat of t he Wi t r Prayer i s a
proved pract i r: e
of Prophet Muhammad
(S. A. W. )
and i t can be read
bef or e r uku or af t er r uku.
a) someone
who want s t o read Ounut bef ore ruku he shoul d
read i t af t er he has f i ni shed reci t i ng
surah Fat i hah
ana cr, api ei
of t he Hol y 0ur an. whi r e r eci t i ng
du' a 0un0t
. pr oon
?r n
. . l up
hi s hands i n f r onr of hi m oi he
can l eave t hem f of ded.
b) someone
who wants to read du' a- 0unu:t i tter ttre ruku
he
can r ead i t wi t h hi s hands
cupped i n f r ont of hi m or he ci n
l et hi s hands re6t at hi s si des. sayi ng du' E'
af t er t ne ruku
and ruppi ng hands i n f ront i s pref eral l e
as t hi s was t he
pract i ce
of Prophet Muhammad
(S. A. t / . ).
some Fuqhas
i nsi sr
t hat readi ng du' i 0un[ t i s
compul -
sory i n the l ast rakat
of the wi tr
and some others say i t i s
rompul sory i n t he l ast rakat
of t he Faj r prayer,
but i f you
st udy hadi t hs caref ul l y you
wi l l f i ncl t hat ' i t ' i s not , ori rt -
sory
ei ther i n the wi tr or i n the Faj r prayer.
Therefo re, i t a
person
l eaves du' a ouni l t
i n hi s wi t r prayer
hi s prayei ' wi l r
not be def i ci ent .
Al so, i f someone does not ' know du, i 0unf i t
he need not say anot her
uhrpt er of t he Ouran 0r any ot her
words i n i t s repl acement . Du' a
ounDt
can be reao i n i ny
prayer.
TEXT OF DU' A OUr uUT
a) Hasan
bi n Al i
(R. A. )
sai d t hat t he Messenger
of Al l ah
(S. A. W. )
t aught
me t he woi ds whi ch I shoul d
say i n t he du, d' oi wi t r: -
+
; i iilbL
;;+'&;L,.Vi
q'^h
;*'j i
j4;i
t
j#,
\;)t',1:?
;
!j--ii
tfo |).'!:.Uj
:i#',#l
-nC \-,
G !+*'/ l.t.ta-e
j;$f;
b?hi
j:,j;r,
'J_H,;
a;r2;
;
ej
gj1
U,,tG
;;1+.
j
t
.ai-r
t
6e'oirt'AC ;
it$,S.
fr i
50
All 3 methods are authentic and are prac.tised by the great
and scholars. So Muslims lhoose anyone of these 3 methods to
offer the witr prayer. When praying 3 rakats, witr, however, it is
preferable to Lhose method 'a' or 'b' Muhamma.d
said: "00 not make yourwitr prayer similar to your maghnb
(Qiamullall).
DU'A DUNUT IN WITR PRAYER
Reading du 'ei Dunut in the last rakat of the Prayer is a
proved practire of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) and It c.an be read
before ruku or after rui<.u.
a) Someone who wants to read Qunut before ruku he should
read it after he has finished reciting surah Fatihah and chapter
of the Holy Duran. While reciting du'a Qunut a person tan
rup his hands in front of him or he can leave them folded.
b) Someone who wants to read du'a Dunut after the ruku he
can read it with his hands cupped in front of him or he can
let his hands rest at his sides. Saying du'a after the ruku
and Lupping hands in front is preferaQle as this was the
practice of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.\JV.).
Some Fuqhas insist that reading du'a Qunut is compul
sory in the last rakat of the Witr and some others say it is
compulsory in the last rakat of the Fajr prayer, but if you
study hadiths carefully you will find that it is not compul-
sory either in the Witr or in the Fajr prayer. Therefore, if a
person leaves du 'ei Dunut in his witr prayer his prayer will
not be defic.ient. Also, if someone does not know du'a Qunut
he need not say another chapter of the 'Ouran or any other
words in its replacement. Ou'(j QunIit can be read in any
prayer.
TEXT OF OU'A QUNUT
a) Hasan bin Ali (R.A.) said that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.)
taught me the words which I should say in the du'a of witr:-
50
"AlEh hum mahdinu feeman hadaYta,
Wa
'ifinu
feman Efayta,
wata
tanl-lanre feeman tawal-layta,
wa barik lee f*mE a'taita,
waqine shar-ra mE
qaQayta,
fa-innaka aqde wald
yug(Etalayk,
innahD lE Yaiillu manw wllayt,
walE
ya'iz-zu man Edaita,
tabeJakta rabbanE wata Elaia,
n alagh fi iil *a wanatu bu
i lav ka,
Wa qal-lal lahu alan
-
nabffi."
Abu Dawfid, Nisai, tbn Maiah).
"0h Allah.
make me among those whom you have guided,
and make me among those whom you
have saved, and make
me among those wtrom you have chocen, and blcs whatever
you hwe given
me, and protect
me from the evil which you
hrve decreed; verilyr you decide the things and nobody can
decide against you;
surely the penson you
befriended can' t
be dlsgraced, and the
penon you
opposed cant be honoured.
You are blecsed, our Lord, and exalted, rtr aslr tor your forgivenes
and turn t0 you. Peace and mercy of Allah be upon the Prophet."
b
)'s
g
;
+
b'
*
j'rJaiL*,,
-!i;;;E:)
vfiut\
'{1;
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-'!j!,rt-
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y
4,'i;
"AlEh humma innd nista'eenuka w nntaghfiruka wa
nu'minu bika vn natawak-kalu
'atayka
yw
nuthne
'alayk-al
khayr. Wa nashkuruka wa 16 nakfuruka wa nakhla'u wa
natruku man-y yafjurka.
Allih humma iyyhka ne'budu
wa laka nugal-le wa nxjudu vn ilayka n*'d
tn
naltfidu
wa narj0 rahmataka wa nakhshE hzibake inna
'azfraka
bil kuf-fdri mulhig.
"0h
Al l ah, we ask you for hel p and seek
your forgi venes,
and we believe in you and have trtst in you, and we
praiso
you in the best way and we thank
you
and vve aIE not un-
grateful
to you, and um forsake and turn away from the one
wtro di sobeys you. 0 Al l ah, we worshi p you onl y and
pray
51
"Allah hum mahdinee feeman hadayta,
Wa '5finee feeman 'afayta,
wata wal-Ianee feeman tawal-Iayta,
wa barik lee feemi a'taita,
waqinee shar-ra ma
fa-innaka taqdee wala yuCl'/a'alayk,
innahu II Yazil-lu manw wllayt,
wala ya'iz-zu man 'Idaita,
tablJrakta rabbana wata '!Iaita,
nastaghfiiuka wanatubu ilavka.
Wa sal-Ial lahu alan- nabee."
(Abu Dawud, Nisai, Ibn Majah).
"Oh Allah, make me among those whom you have guided,
and make me among those whom you have saved, and make
me among those whom you have chosen, and bless whatever
you have given me, and protect me from the evil which you
have decreed; verily., you decide the things and nobody can
decide against you; surely the person you befriended can't
be disgraced, and the person you opposed can't be honoured.
You are blessed, our lord, and exalted, we ask tor your forgiveness
and turn to you. Peace and mercy of Allah be upon the Prophet."
"Allah humma inna nasta'eenuka .w nastaghfiruka wa
nu'minu bika wa natawak-ka/u 'a/ayka .w nuthnee 'atayk-al
khayr. Wa nashkuruka wa /5 nakfuruka wa nakhla'u wa
natroku man-y yafjurka. Allah humma iyyaka na'budu
wa /aka wa nasjudu wa ilayka nas'i wa nahfidu
wa narjO rahmataka wa nakhsha 'azabake inna 'azabaka
bil kuf-fari mulhiq.
"0h Allah, we ask you for help and seek your forgiveness,
and we believe in you and trust in you, and we praise
you in the best way and we thank you and we are not un-
grateful to you, and we forsake and turn iNlay from the one
who disobeys you. 0 Allah, we worship you only and pray
51
to you and
prostrate 0urselves before you, and we run towards
ycu and serve
you, and we hope to rec,ei ve your mercy, and
we fear your puni shment. Surel y, the di sbel i evers wi l l recei ve
your puni shment . "
some ul amas recommend
thi s-du' a- i n the wi tr prayer.
0f courue,
i t uan be read as i t i s a ni ce du' i but i t i s not one of those du' 6' s whi ch
Prophet Muhammad
(S. A. W. )
read i n hi s 0unf rt ,
There are some ot her du' f s whi ch Prophet Muhammad
(S. A. W. }
used to read i n hi s 0un[t i n the Wi tr
prayer
0r i n hi s other
praves.
A penon
uan read al l these du' frs together or
j usi
one of them
or combi ne t hem wi t h ot her du' a-s.
JUMAH
( FRf
0AY PRAYERI
I MPORTANCE
OF ATTENDI NG FHI DAY PBAYER
Fri day Prayer i s very amp0rtant i n l sl am. l t has got
i ts own moral ,
soci al and pol i t i cal
benef i t s. l t i s obl i gat ory f or every,
Musl i m
except
w0men, chi l dren, sl aves, seri ousl y i l l peopl e
and t ravel l en. They
ci n
pray
Jumah but i t i s not obl i gat ory on t hem.
Prophet Muhammad
(s.A.w.)
has gi ven
a strong warni ng to a
person
who l eaves hi s Jumah prayer wi t hout a
good
reason.
I n one hadi t h Abdul l ah bi n Masu-d
(R. A. )
narrat es what t he
Messenger of Al l ah
(S. A. W. )
once sai d abour t he peopl e
who di d
not come t0 the Fri day Prayer wi thout a good reason.
' . ' l
wi sh t o appoi nt someone t o l eadt heprayer
and mysel f go
t o
the houses of those who mi ssed the Fri day Prayer and i et fi i e to
t hei r houses wi t h t he occupant s i n t l -em. "
{Musl i m,
Ahmad}.
Anot her hadi t h st at es,
"A
pen; on
who l eaves 3 Fri day prayers
uonsecut i vel y, Al l ah put s
a seal on hi s heaf t . "
(Ahmad,
Ti rmi zi , abu Dawf d).
I MPORTANCE OF CLEANLI NESS FOR FBI OAY PBAYER
Because i n Fri day Prayer a c0mparati vel y l arge number or Mus-
l i ms
gat her
i n a bi g pl acersorl sl am
emphasi zes 0n t he physi cal
cl ean-
l i nes as wel l .
Prophet
(S. A. W. )
sai d,
"A
person who has a bat h on Fri day,
cl eanses hi msel f ful l y, uses ci l and perfume;
then goes to the mosgue
earl y i n t he af t ernoon and t akes hi s pl ace qui ef l 1,
wi t hout pushi ng
or di st urbi ng peopl e;
t hen he
prays (opt i onal
prayer as much as
he was abl e t o
pr ay) ; t hen
si t s
qui et l y
l i st eni ng t o t he Khut bar h; he
wi l l be forgi ven hi s si ns between thi s Jumah and the next Jumah."
(Bukhari ).
52
to you and prostrate ourselves before you, and we run towards
you and serve you, and we hope to your a.nd
we fear your punishment. Surely, the disbelievers will receive
you r punishment."
Some ulamas recommend thisdu'a in the witr prayer. Of course,
it Lan be read as it is a nice du'a but it is not one of those du'as which
Prophet Muhammad (S.A. W.) read in his Qunut.
There are some other du 'as which Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W-l
used to read in his Qunut in the Witr prayer or in his other
A person Lan read all these du'as together or jUSl one of them
or combine them with other du'as.
JUMAH (FRIDAY PRAYER)
IMPORTANCE OF ATTENDING FRIDAY PRAYER
Friday Prayer is very important in Islam. It has got its own moral,
social and political benefits. It is obligatory for every' Muslim except
women, children, slaves, seriously ill people and travellers. They can
pray Jumah but it is not obligatory on them.
Prophet Muhammad (S.A. W.) has given a strong warning to a
person who leaves his Jumah prayer without a good reason.
In one hadith Abdullah bin Masud (A.A.) narrates what the
Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) once said about the people who did
not tome to the Friday Prayer without a good reason.
"I wish to appoint someone to leadthe prayer and myself go to
the houses of those who missed the Friday Prayer and set fire to
their houses with the occupants in
(Muslim, Ahmad).
Another hadith states, "A pen;on who leaves 3 Friday prayers
Lonsecutively, Allah puts a seal on hi:) heart."
(Ahmad, Tirmizi, abu Oawud).
IMPORTANCE OF CLEANLINESS FOR FRIDAY PRAYER
Because in Friday Prayer a comparatively large number 01 Mus-
lims gather in a big place,so,lslam emphasizes on the physical clean-
liness as well.
Prophet (S.A.W.) said, "A person who has a bath on Friday,
cleanses himself fully, uses oil and perfume; then goes to the mosque
early in the afternoon and takes his place quieti',' without pushing
or disturbing people; then he prays (optional prayer as much as
he was able to pray); then sits quietly listening to the Khutbah;he
will be forgiven his sins between this Jumah and the next Jumah."
(Bukhari).
52
I TI PORTATTGE
OF GOI I I G EARTY TO FRI DAY PBAYER
0n Friday it is more rewarding to
gnt
ready quirkly
to
go
to the
mosque.
Abu Hurai rah
(R.A.)
narrated that the Mesengnr of Atl ah
(S.A.W.}
sai d,
"0n Fri day the Angel s stand ot the door ol the nrosque
and wri te down the names of the peopl e
i n the order i n whi ch they
enter the mosque for Fri day prayer.
The fi rst group
of
peopl e who
enter the mosque get
the reward equivafent to that of sacrificing a
camel, the
people
who enter the mosque after them
get
the rermrd
equi val ent to that of sac,ri fi ci ng a cow. The peopl e who enter the
mosque after them get
the reward equivalent t0 that of sacrificing
a ram and the peopl e
who fol l ow 0n l i kewi se get the rarard of a
chi c,ken, egg and s0 0n there i s a
gradati on
of raruards for the
peopl e
as they enter. The angel s keep wri ti ng the names of the peopl e
as they
ent er t he mosque unt i l t he l rnam si t s down t o
gi veKhut bah. Then
the angel s col l ect thei r regi sters and si t and l i sten to the Khutbah."
(Bukhari ,
Musl i m).
PRAYER BEFORE JUMAH
A parson who goes t o at t end Fri day prayer
can
pray as many
nafl s as he wi shes after the sun has decl i ned from i ts zeni th to wherr
t he l mam comes t o
gi ve Khut bah. Anyhow he i s expect ed t o
pray
at
l east 2 rakats sunnat.
LI STEi I I t { G TO KH UTBAH
( SEBMON}
0nue the Khutbah starts, the whol e codgregati on shoul d l i sten
t o i t i n si l ence. l f a
person arri ves whi l e t he l mam i s gi vi ng Khut bah
then thi s person
shoul d pray 2 rakats nafl before si tti ng dorrun to
l i st en t o Khut bah.
Jabi r
(R. A. )
sai d t hat t he Messenger of Al l ah
(S. A. W. )
sai d
whi l e he was
gi vi ng Khut bah:
"l f
anyone of you goes
t o at t end t he Fri day Prayer whi l e t he
l mam i s del i veri ng Khut bah he shoul d pray
2 rakat s and shoul d
not make t hem l ong. "
( Musl i ml .
There i s anot her hadi t h. Jabi r
(R. A. )
says t hat once a man came
to Fri day Prayer whi l e the Messenger of Al l ah
(S.A.W.)
was del i veri ng
Khut bah. so Al l ah' s messdnger
(S. A. W. )
asked hi m,
"Di d you pray?"
"N0",
hg answgrgd.
Then Prophet
(S. A. W. l
sai d t o hi m, ' St and up and
pray
. "
(Bukhari ,
musl i m, Abu Dawf d, Ti rmi zi ] .
I t i s a
. cont i nuous
pract i ce i n soi ne mosques t hat t hose who
arri ve whi l e' t he l mam i s gi vi ng speech si t down and l i st en t o t he
speech. When the l mam has fi ni shed the speech he
gi ves
ti me to the
late arrivals
to pray
2 or 4 rakatr sunnat. After that the lmam
gives a
53
IMPORTANCE OF GOING EARLYTO FRIDAY PRAYER
On Friday it is more rewarding to get ready quickly to go to the
mosque.
Abu Hurairah (R.A.) narrated that the Messenger I)f Allah
(S.A.W.) said, "On Friday the Angels stand Q. t the door of the mosque
and write down the names of the people in the order in which they
enter the mosque for Friday prayer. The first group of people who
enter the mosque get the reward equivalent to that of sacrificing a
camel, the people who enter the mosque after them get the reward
equivalent to that of sacrificing a cow. The people who enter the
mosque after them get the reward equivalent to that of sacrificing
a ram and the people who follow on likewise get the reward of a
chicken, egg and so on there is a gradation of rewards for the people
as they enter. The angels keep writing the names of the people as they
enter the mosque until the Imam sits down to give Khutbah. Then
the angels collect their registers and sit and listen to the Khutbah."
(Bukhari, Muslim).
PRAYER BEfORE JUMAH
A pdrson who goes to attend Friday prayer can pray as many
nafls as he wishes after the sun has declined from its zenith to whtm
the Imam comes to give Khutbah. Anyhow he is expected to pray at
least 2 rakats sunnat.
LISTENING TO KHUTBAH (SERMON)
Once the Khutbah starts, the whole congregation should listen
to it in silence. If a person arrives while the Imam is giving Khutbah
then this person should pray 2 rakats nafl before sitting down to
listen to Khutbah.
Jabir (R.A.) said that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) said
while he was giving Khutbah:
"If anyone of you goes to attend the Friday Prayer while the
Imam is delivering Khutbah he should pray 2 rakats and should
not make them long."
(Muslim).
There is another hadith. Jabir (R.A.) says that once a man came
to Friday Prayer while the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) was delivering
Khutbah, so Allah's messenger (S.A.W.) asked him, "Did you pray?"
"No", he answered.
Then Prophet (S.A.W.) said to him, ''Stand up and pray:'
(Bukhari, muslim, Abu Dawud,Tirmizi).
It is a continuous practice in Saine mosques that those who
arrive while'the Imam is giving speech sit down and listen to the
speech. When the Imam has finished the speech he ~ i v e s time to the
late arrivals to pray 2 or 4 rakats sunnat. After that the Imam gives a
53
short Khutbah i n Arabi c before prayi ng the Jumah Prayer.
Thet e peopl e get
very annoyed i f t hey see a person of f er
2raxas sunnat whi l e t he l mam i s
gi vi ng
speech. They
-f eel
t hat t he
psnon i s bei ng di srespect f ul i o t he l mam. Thi s i s i ncorrect and
unproved f rom t he
pract i ce
of Prophet Muhammad
(S. A. W. ).
f t i s al so agni nst t hose hadi t hs whi ch we ment i oned above and
i l teone we are menti oni ng bel ow.
Abi
0at adah(R. A. l
says t hat t he Mesenger of At t ah
(S. A. W. )
$i d,
"Whaneyer ong of you
ent ers t he mosque he shoul d not si t
down wi thout offeri ng 2 rakats."
( Bukhar i ,
Musf i m) .
These hadi ths cl ari fy the
poi nts whi ch are mi spracti sed above.
The l mams and ul amas who have even a sl i ght f ear of Al l ah and
respect f or nadi t h and t he sunnah of Prophet Muhammad
(S. A. W. )
shoul d stop thi s practi ce
and shoul d not become annoyed when
othen
pray 2 rakats.
ACTUAT JUMAH PRAYER
Jumah Prayer i s 2 rakat s f ard. l f a
person i s l at e and f i nds ont y
I rakat wi t h t he congregat i on he shoul d compl et e
t he second
rakat
al one. l f a
penon arri ves so l ate that he mi ses the Jumah
prayer
compl etel y
then he has to offer 4 rakat far{ of Zuhr prayer. The
Jumah
prayer i s repl acement of Zuhr
prayer but t he l mam has t o
reci te Oi r6t al oud i n Jumah Prayer.
PRAYER AFTER JUt t , I AH
Af t er t he Jumah Prayer 2 rakat s of sunnat
prayer i s an aut hen-
t i cal l y
proved pract i ce of Prophet Muhammad
(S. A. W. )
but some
compani ons used to pray 4 or 6 rakats sunnat after the Jumah Prayer-
l bn Umar
(R. A. l
says t hat t he Messenger of Al l ah
(S. A. W. )
di dnot
pray af t er t he Fri day prayer unt i l he went home and t hen
he
pr ayed 2 r akat s'
( Bukhar i ,
Musr i m) .
Abu Hur ai r ah
( R. A. )
nar r at ed t hat t he Mesenger of Al l ah
(S. A. W. }
sai d:
"Anyone of you who i s goi ng t 0 pray af t er t he Fri day
prayer,he shoul d
pray 4 rakats."
( Musl i m) .
At d says:
' l Vhenever
Abdul l an i bn Umar
( 8. n. )
pr ayed Jumah
i n Makkahrhe woul d move a l i t t l e f orward af t er t he Jumah
prayer
andof f er
2 rakat s; t hen he woul d move a l i t t l e f orward agai n and
of f er
4 rakat s. And whenever he prayed Jumah i n Madi nah, he di d
not
pray i n t he mosque af t er t he Jumah prayer unt i ! he went back
home; t hen he
pr ayed 2 r akat s. When he was asked why he di d not
pray i n t he mosque af t er t he Jumah prayer, He answered,
' Thi s
uas t he
pr act i ce of
Pr ophet Muhammad
( S. A. W. ) : "
These hadi t hs cl ar i f y t hat 2, 4 or S r akat s t an be of f er ed af t er
54
short Khutbah in Arabic before praying the Jumah Prayer.
These people get very annoyed if they see a person offer
2rakats sunnatwhile the Imam is giving speech. They Jeel that the
person is being disrespectful to the Imam. This is incorrect and
unproved from the practice of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.).
It is also against those hadiths which we mentioned above and
the one we are mentioning below.
Abi Oatadah (R.A.) says that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.)
said, "Whenever one of you enters the mosque he should not sit
down without offering 2 rakats."
(Bukhari, Muslim),
These hadiths clarify the points which are mispraetised above.
The Imams "nd ulamas who have even a slight fear of Allah and
respect for nadith and the sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.)
should stop this practice and should not become annoyed when
others pray 2 ra leats.
ACTUAL JUMAH PRAYER
Jumah Prayer is 2 rakats f a r ~ . If a person is late and finds only
1 rakat with the congregation he should complete the second rakat
alone. If a person arrives so late that he mis:;es the Jumah prayer
completely then he has to offer 4 rakat f a r ~ of Zuhr prayer. The
Jumah prayer is replacement of Zuhr prayer but the Imam has to
recite Qirat aloud in Jumah Prayer.
PRAYER AFTER JUMAH
After the Jumah Prayer 2 rakats of sunnat prayer is an authen-
tically proved practice of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) but some
companions used to pray 4 or 6 rakats sunnat after the Jumah Prayer.
Ibn Umar (R.A.) says that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.)
did not pray after the Friday prayer until he went home and then
he prayed 2 rakats.
(Bukhari, Muslim).
Abu Hurairah (R.A.) narrated that the Messenger of Allah
(S.A.WJ said: "Anyone of you who is going to pray after the Friday
prayer, he should pray 4 rakats."
(Muslim).
Ata says: ''Whenever Abdullah ibn Umar (R.A.) prayed Jumah
in Makkah,he would move a little forward after the Jumah prayer
and offer 2 rakats; then he would move a little forward again and
offer 4 rakats. And whenever he prayed Jumah in Madinah
J
he did
not pray in the mosque after the Jumah prayer until he went back
home; then he prayed 2 rakats. When he was asked why he did not
pray in the mosque after the Jumah prayer. He answered, 'This
was the practice of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.): "
These hadiths clarify that 2, 4 or 6 rakats can be offered after
54
the Jumah prayer
according to the time and capacity of the person.
It is not
good practice
to accuse people
who read 2 raka$ only
because this, toorwas the authentic practice
of Prophet Muhammad
(s.A.w.l.
EI D PRAYE R
PTACE FOR EI D PRAYER
Eid prayer
should be offdred 0utd00r in the open, e.g. in a
park
field, or a desert etc. ff it is wet or not
posible
to find a suitable
outdoor
place
it can be
prayed
in a mosque 0r a large hall.
(Abu
Dawfid]
TI ME OF EI D PRAYER
Eid prayer
should be offered when the sun n obvious above
the horizon.
I {UMBER OF BAKATS OF EI D PBAYER
Eid prayer is 2 rakats. There is no nafl.prayer before or after
the Eid Prayer. There is no lqamat or azin for Eid Prayer.
lbn Abbas
(R.A.)
reported: "N0 doubt, Prophet Muhammad
(S.A,W.}
used to
pray
2 rakats only for Eid Prayer. He did not pray
anything before or after that.
(Bukhari ,
Mrsl i m).
COI {D UGT OF EI O PRAYER
2 rakats of Eid prayer
should be offered in the same manner 6
the 2 rakats of the usual
prayer
except that there are 7 takbin in
the first rakat and five takbirs in the second rakat. With Ech extra
takbir the hands should be raised up to the shoulder level
(as
in
Takbir Tahrima).
All extra takbin should be pronounced
before starting Oir6t
(recitation).
Kathir bin Abdullah reported from his father and his father
from grandfather
that Prophet
(S.A.W.I
said 7 takbin in the fint
rakat of Eid prayer and 5 takbin in the second rakat of Eid Prayer
before beginning recitation.
(Tirmizi,
lbn Majah, Darmi).
EI O PRAYER I S OFFEBED BEFORE KHUTBAH
Jafar Uin f,rtutrammad
19.a1
lgporteo\-
Muhammad
(S.A.W.I,
Abu Bakr
(R.A.l
and
exrra takbin in the firsr rakat of their Eid
"No
doubt, Prophet
Umar
(R.A.)
said 7
and Rain Prayer and
55
the Jumah prayer according to the time and capacity of the person.
It is not good practice to accuse people who read 2 rakats only
because this, too, was the authentic practice of Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.).
EIO PRAYER
PLACE FOR EIO PRAYER
Eid prayer should be offered outdoor in the open, e.g. in a park
field, or a desert etc. If it is wet or not possible to find a suitable
outdoor place it can be prayed in a mosque or a large hall.
(Abu Dawlid)
TIME OF EID PRAYER
Eid prayer should be offered when the sun IS obvious above
the horizon.
NUMBER OF RAKATS OF EID PRAYER
Eid prayer is 2 rakats. There i5 no nafl. prayer before or after
the Eid Prayer. There is no Iqamat or azim for Eid Prayer.
Ibn Abbas (R.A.) reported: "No doubt, Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.) used to pray 2 rakats only for Eid Prayer. He did not pray
anything before or after that.
(Bukhari, Muslim).
CONDUCT OF EID PRAYER
2 rakats of Eid prayer should be offered in the same manner as
the 2 rakats of the usual prayer except that there are 7 takbirs in
the first rakat and five takbirs in the second rakat. With each extra
takbir the hands should be -raised up to the shoulder level (as in
Takbir Tahrima).
All extra takbirs should be pronounced before starting Girst
(recitation).
Kathir bin Abdullah reported from his father' and his father
from grandfather that Prophet (S.A.W.) said 7 takbirs in the first
rakat of Eid prayer and 5 takbirs in the second rakat of Eid Prayer
before beginning recitation.
(Tirmizi, Ibn Majah, Darmi).
EID PRAYER IS OFFERED BEFORE KHUTBAH
Jafar bTrl--MlJhammad (R. A.-)-re-p-o-rte-d-:--'-'N-o-do-u-bt-,
Muhammad (S.A.Wol, Abu Bakr (R.A.) and Umar (R.A.) said 7
extra takbirs in the first rakat of their Eid and Rain Prayer and
55
fi ve extra takbi n i n the second rakat of thei r Ei d and Rai n Prayer.
Prophet
(S.A.W.)
offered Ei d Prayer before Khutbah and reci ted
al oud.
"
(Shafaee).
JANAZAH PRAYEH
( FUNERAL
PRAYER}
JATI AZAH PRAYER
It i s a ri ght of a Musl i m that when he
passes away other Musl i ms
shoul d
pray Janazah prayer f or hi m. Janazah prayer i s supererogat ory
prayer. l f no one f rom t he whol e of t he Musl i m Communi t y prayed
t he Janazah pr ayer ; t hen t he whol e communi t y woul d be consi der ed
si nf ul
i n t he si ght of Al l ah. l f some of t he peopl e prayed t he Janazah
prayer t hen t he whol e communi t y i s saved f rorn t he anger of Al l ah
even t hough t he reward wi l l onl y be gi ven t o t he
part i ci pant s
onl y.
I n hadi t hs Prophet Muhammad
(S. A. W. )
emphasi zed and err--
couraged t he Musl i ms t o at t end f uneral ceremoni es. Sorevery Musl i m
mal e shoul d try hi s best to futf tl hi s dut' ,, for tne deceased.
l . Janazah
prayer
shoul d be prayed i n congregat i on as t hi s i s more
rewardf ul . l t c, an be prayed i n more t han one congregat i on but
by di f f erent
peopl e.
2. Janazah
prayer shoul d be offered i n an open
pl ace but i n case
of rai n or bad weat her 0r any ot her reason i t can be prayed
i n a mosque or a hal l et c.
3. WHI LE PRAYI NG JANAZAH
PRAYER
The l mam shoul d st and l evel wi t h t he head and shoul ders of
t he dead body i f t he body i s mal e. l mam shoul d st and l evel wi t h
t he mi ddl e
part
of t he body i f i t i s a f emal e.
4. WHERE JANAZAH PRAYER DI FFERS
Janazah prayer i s onl y sl i ght l y di f f erent f rom ot her prayers i n
t hat t here i s no ruku, no saj dah, and no Tashahud i n i t . There i s no
f i xed t i me f or of f eri ng t hi s
prayer. l t has t o be prayed i n a st andi ng
posi t i on onl y. 0t her condi t i ons l i ke puri f i cat i on, f aci ng 0i bl ah,
sutra, dress etc. have to be sati sfi ed as i n the usual prayers.
5. CONDUCT OF JANAZAH PRAYER
a. Li ke other prayers faci ng Oi bl ah i s a necessary condi ti on.
The
l mam shoul d ask t he
peopl e t o st rai ght en t hei r rows. There
shoul d be an odd number of rows as i t i s m0re rewardf ul .
b. Maki ng i ntenti on i s necessary i n Janazah prayer as i t i s necessary
i n other
prayers. Before begi nni ng prayer the i ntenti on shoul d
56
five extra takbirs in the second rakat of their Eid and Rain Prayer.
Prophet (S.A.WJ offered Eid Prayer before Khutbah and recited
aloud."
(Shafaee).
JANAZAH PRAYER (FUNERAL PRAYER)
JANAZAH PRAYER
It is a right of a Muslim that when he passes away other Muslims
should pray Janazah prayer for him. Janazah prayer is supererogatory
prayer. If no one from the whole of the Muslim Community prayed
the Janazah prayer; then the whole community would be considered
sinful in the sight of Allah. If some of the people prayed the Janazah
prayer then the whole community is saved from the anger of Allah
even though the reward will only be given to the participants only.
In hadiths Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) emphasized and eu--
couraged the Muslims to attend funeral ceremonies. So,every Muslim
male should try his best to tUlfll his dut'/ for me deceased.
1. Janazah prayer should be prayed in congregation as this is more
rewardful. !t can be prayed in more than one congregation but
by different people.
2. Janazah prayer should be offered in an open place but in case
of rain or bad weather or any other reason it can be prayed
in a mosque or a hall etc.
3. WHILE PRAYING JANAZAH PRAYER
The Imam should stand level with the head and shoulders of
the dead body if the body is male. Imam should stand level with
the middle part of the body if it is a female.
4. WHERE JANAZAH PRAYER DIFFERS
Janazah prayer is only slightly different from other prayers in
that there is no ruku, no sajdah, and no Tashahud in it. There is no
fixed time for ,offering this prayer. It has to be prayed in a standing
position only. Other conditions like purification, facing Qiblah,
sutra, dress etc. have to be satisfied as in the usual prayers.
5. CONDUCT OF JANAZAH PRAYER
a. Like other prayers facing Qiblah is a necessary condition. The
Imam shoul d ask the people to straighten their rows. There
should be an odd number of rows as it is more rewardful.
b. Making intention is necessary in Janazah prayer as it is nec.essary
in other prayers. Before beginning prayer the intention should
56
d.
be made i n the heart as utteri ng any words of ni yat al oud was not
t he pract i ce nf Prophet Muhammad
(S. A. W. )
or of hi s comp'
ani ons.
FI BST TAKBI R OR TAKBI F TAHBI MA.
Janazah prayer contai ns 4
Takbi m. Fi rst Takbi r i s Takbi r Tahri ma. The l mam says Al l dhu
akbar and rai ses hi s hands up t0 the shoul der l evel wi th fi ngers
stretchi ng to the earl obes and the congregati on
doa the same'
Then t he l mam f ol ds hi s hands on hi s chest ri ght hand over
the
lgft.
DU' , A 0F STARTl t rl G.
0u' 6' of Starti ng. Then the
person
can read one of those du' as
whi ch are recommended i n the fi rst rakat of the usual prayer
bef ore reci t at i on of Fat i hah. For
exampl o'
'4
1+ tti: srr^t'
i
l;V; I
)el$)t
lit;.'i
"izft.L,^I\,U
"SubfiEna
Kaltdh humma wabi
hamdikawa tabara kasmuka
iata"dli
jad'ouka
wali ildha
gh'ayruk."
"Gl ory
be to
you, 0 Al tah, and al l
prai ses
are due unto
you,
and bl essed i s your name and hi gh i s your maj esty and none
i s
wort hy of worshi p but you. "
0r
he can say ot her du?s. Some schol an do not recommend
du' 5 of starti ng i n Janazah
prayer but readi ng i t i s preferabl e.
However, i f someone does not read i t, i t does not affect hi s
prayer. Both ways are
practi sed by
Musl i m schol as..
Then t he person shoul d say: -
6tl;..1r .+\L:J
\
6r
+!
\ ;fr
o
j,
yj;',
".,i-3;l
l"
l+!"
"A'fiu
biHehi minash shayg1 nir rajeem!'
"Eismilldh
hir-rahnE nir-rafieem."
and t hen he shoul d
reci t e surah
Fat i hah.
t i*v{^:tb;#r.r;i;rd
;i41it
'>;S
3*6}i
i
""""
r
yri-qtur;;6'#
!tiui#5'56-I
t - 1 a - ' - t / - .
, /
8
Jd)tt1;,
N
J#-i
W
L;1;l,6
3x,^i'J')rt
i
W-
-
cat'f
57
be made in the heart as uttering any words of niyat aloud was not
the practice nf Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) or of comp-
anions.
c. FIRST TAKBIR OR TAKBIR TAHRIMA.
Janazah prayer contains 4
Takbirs. First Takbir is Takbir Tahrima. The Imam says Allahu
akbar and raises his hands up to the shoulder level with fingers
stretching to the earlobes and the c.ongregation does the same.
Then the Imam folds his hands on his chest right hand over
the lett.
d. DU'A OF STARTING.
Du'a of Starting. Then the person can read one of those du'as
which are recommended in the first rakat of the usual prayer
before recitation of Fatihah. For examplo'
" ..., ".

".\\",:-J/

#Sub!}ana Ka//ah humma wabi f}amdi ka wa tabara kasmuka
wata 'ala jad-duka wafS il5ha ghayruk."
"Glory be to you. 0 Allah, and all praises are due unto you,
and blessed is your name and high is your majesty and none
;s worthy of worship but you."
Or he can say other du'as. Some scholars do not recommend
du 'a of starting in Janazah prayer but reading it is preferable.
However, if someone does not read it, it does not affect his
prayer. Both ways are practised by Muslim scholars..
e. Then the person should say:-
jI ,... "'""", '\' -

o \
J)'-'. ,;:T '" ,/ "
uA 'uiu bil-Iahi minash shaY!8 nir rajeem:'
"Bismill5h hir-rahma nir-ral;eem"
and then he should recite surah Fatihah.
57
"Alfamdu lillehi rab-hil
'6lameen.
Ar ralt ma' n i r
-ra
fiee
rfi .
Mefiki
yawmid
-
deen.
lyydka na'budu wa
iyyika
nasta'een.
I hdi n ag g i rE gal m us t aqee m.
$irEgal
ladheena an'amta'alayhim.
Ghayril maghdubi
-
'alayhim
walaf,
/dl-leen.
Ameen."
" Pr ai se i s onl y f or Al l ah, Lor d
of t he Uni verse.
The most ki nd, t he most mer ci f ul .
The mast er of t he Day of Judgment .
Yo' . al one we wor shi p and t o you al one
we
pr ay f or hel p.
Show us t he st r ai ght way,
t he way of t hose whonr you have bl essed.
Who have not deserved your anger,
Nor gone
ast r ay" .
Some
peopl e do not read surah
Fat i hah i n Janazah prayer but
surah Fat i hah i s necesary f or t he val i di t y of any t ype of
prayer as
Prophet Muhammad
(S. A. W. )
has sai d t hat no
prayer i s val i d wi t hout
surah Fat i hah.
Tal hah bi n Abdul l ah bi n Aouf
( R. A. )
says t hat he
pr ayed t he
Janazah
pr ayer behi nd Abdul l ah bi n Abbas
( R. A. )
and Abdul l ah
bi n Abbas
(R. A. )
read surah
Fat i hah al oud. Af t erwards he sai d:
" l di d r ead i t out l oud so t hat you may know t hat i t i s t he
sunnah of Pr ophet Muhammad
( S. A. W. ) . "
( B
ukhar i ) .
I hi s hadi t h
proves t hat reci t i ng surah Fat i hah i s necesary i n
Janazah
prayer as wel l .
6. RECI TATI ON OF A SUHAH
A chapt er or
part
of a r"napt er ran be read af t er t he reci t at i on
of surah
Fat i hah but i t i s not essent i al t o read i t .
I . SECOND TAKBI R
Then t he l mam shoul d say t he second t akbi r and t he r . ) ongr eg-
at i on shoul r i f ol l ow but i t i s not ner essar y t o r ai se t he hands up t 0
t he shoul der
l evel but i f someone does, i t i s al r i ght . Bot h ways ar e
pract i sed by
great
ul amas and schol ars.
s8
"AIJ:1amdu lil-Iahi rab-bil 'alameen.
Ar rahmanirraheem.
Maliki yawn1id: deen.
Iyyaka na'budu wa
iyyaka nasta 'een.
mustaqeem.
Sirafalladheena an 'amta 'alayhim.
Ghayril maghdUbi _
'alayhim wala{1 cjal-Ieen. Ameen."
"Praise is only for Allah, Lord
of the Universe.
The most kind, the most merciful.
The master of the Day of Judgment.
YOI; alone we worship and to you alone
we pray for help.
Show us the straight way,
the way of those whom you have blessed.
Who have not deserved your anger,
Nor gone astray".
Some people do not read surah Fatihah in Janazah prayer but
Fatihah is necessary for the validity of any type of prayer as
Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) has said that no prayer is valid without
surah Fatihah.
Talhah bin Abdullah bin Aouf (R.A.) says that he prayed the
Janazah prayer behind Abdullah bin Abbas (A.A.) and Abdullah
bin Abbas (R.A.) read surah Fatihah aloud. Afterwards he said:
"1 did read it out loud so that you may know that it is the
sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.)."
(Bukhari).
fhis hadith proves that reciting surah Fatihah is necessary in
Janazah prayer as well.
6. RECITATION OF ASURAH
A chapter or part of a chapter can be read after the recitation
of surah ratihah but it is not essential to read it.
7. SECOND TAKOIR
Then the Imam should say the second takbir and the congreg-
ation shoulrl follow but it is not necessary to raise the hands up to
the shoulder level but if someone does, it is alright. Both ways are
practised by great ulamas and scholars.
58
8. AFTER THE SECOND TAKBI R
Af t er t he sec. ond Takbi r t he per$on prayi ng Janazah shoul d
reui t e dari d i n hi s heart . l t i s pref erabl e t o read t he dar0d whi ch
a
pers0n reads i n Tashahud of hi s usual
prayer.
9. THI HD TAKBI R
Then t he l mam
shoul d
say t he t hi rd t akbi r and t he congregat i on
shoul d
f ol l ow. Now, each
person shoul d
pray f or t he deceased.
Al t ernat i vel y t he l mam can
pray
out l oud and t he congregat i on
r. an say, Ami n, af t er hi m. Al l ki nds of du' Bs f or t he benef i t of t he
deceased t.an be sai d. Some of these are menti oned bel ow.
10. DU' A OF JANAZAH
a. Abu Hur ai r ah
( R. A. )
sai d t hat t he Mesenger of Al l ah
( S. A. W' )
prayed Janazah of a Musl i m and he sai d i n hi s du?
(t he
f ol l ow'
i ng wor ds) :
(j
-
+;'r $vs(++
*r u++
;
(+-1
*,jfri
\La'"t+=15
f-[Li,i
r\t$";;u;3;
'l:-'"-t
ri
,a','-JJr:r'9"
,.n;+)tj"yl
,*
t-dJ
,
{,
-;i-J"u+ii
7;'o-$
g}-;..:',.l
H)i
q
;r-
!
I
"Al l ah
hum maghf i rl i hay-yi na wa may
yi t i na. wa shi hi di ni wa
gh6-i bi nE,
wa sagheeri nE wa kabeeri nS' wa i akari n-a waunthi i nl ,
Al l eh
humma man ahyayt ahI mrn-nd l a ahyi hee
' al al
i sl d' m.
waman tawaf-faytahu mi n-na fatawaf-fahu al al i man.
Al l ah
humnra
l a t ahri mna ai rah[
wal 6 t af t i n-ni ba' dahi l . "
(nhmad,
Abu Dawl d, Ti rmi zi , l bn Mai ah).
"0
Al l ah, f orgi ve our peopl e who are st i l l al i ve and who have
pased
av,Ey, forgive those who are
present
here and those who
are absent, forgi ve our
young and our el derl y, forgi ve our mal es
and femal es. 0 Al l ah, the one whom
you
r
' sh
to keep al i ve
f rom among us make hi rn l i ve accordi ng t o l s. n, and anyone
whom you wi sh t o di e f rom among us, l et hi m 0r' r i n bel i ef and
fai th. 0 Al l ah, do not depri ve us from hi s reward and do not
put us i n fi tna
{hardshi p
or any type of tri al } after hi s death."
b 4ouf bi n Mal i k
(R.A.)
sai d that the ft4essenger of Al l ah
(S.A.W.)
prayed a
Janazah
prayer and I heard hi m sayi ng the fol l owi ng
du' d and I memori sed i t .
t l t . ' ,
' / .
r)
jJf
+i\s
,'rjj-Jn 6'aAti'i'r'liit'r;liffr
59
8. AFTER THE SECOND TAKBIR
After the second Takbir the person praying Janazah should
reLite darud in his heart. It is preferable to read the darud which
a person reads if! Tashahud of his usual prayer.
9. THIRD TAKBIR
Then the Imam say the third takbir and the c.ongregation
should follow. Now, eac.h person should pray for the deceased.
Alternatively the Imam tan pray out loud and the congregation
can say; Amin, after him. All kinds of du'as for the benefit of the
deceased Lan be said. Some of these are mentioned below.
10. DU'A OF JANAZAH
a. Abu Hurairah (R.A.) said that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.)
prayed Janazah of a Mus\im and he said in his du'a (the follow-
ing words):
,.. ;' /;' /"./ .,
I'" . .;.; \. -!.\.,/ \,; \ .... Li:w ::.
.... ,/ ..,' ...... ,/.r;;- y-vv
- (, "/,; \ / "" /.'..1,;" ./ / ..".) ",/
\:- - -,.;' 1 . ;.. --.P. 1, \ \. \;.' \ \. \.:".' -('
_U'-=AI
./' ..... ,.". , /' ",,, /" ""...-
\/.,. GZ
- ,., ... ,-/

"Allah hum maghfirli wa may-yitina. wa shahidina wa
gha-ibina, wa sagheerina wa kabeerina wa zakarina wa unthana,
Allah humma man ahyaytahu mlO-oa fa ahyihee 'alai islam.
waman tawaf-!aytahu min-na fatawaf-fahu alai iman. Allah
hummJ Iii tahrimmi ajrahu taftin-na ba'dahii"
. (Ahmad, Abu Dawlid, Tirmizi, Ibn Majah).
"0 Allah, forgive our people who are still alive and who have
passed away, forgive those who are present here and those who
are absent, forgive our young and our elderlv, forgive our males
and females. 0 Allah, the one whom you " :sh to keep alive
from among us make him live ac.cording to Is, 11, and anyone
whom you wish to die from among us, let hi;n Ql1 in belief and
faith. 0 Allah, do not deprive us from his reward and do not
put us in fitna (hardship or any type of trial) after his death."
b Aouf bin Malik (R.A.) said that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.)
prayed a Janazah prayer and I heard him saying the following
du'a and I memorised it .
59
++
i
H\):id-!
t;
i# V:4*V'aiL
*'v
;
t
U$i
S
+h\
At',#.1,.S.-r'
eg;
13 UtSHtt
5^
t'i;Yri;
+J
f i;
,[L.u3ij
Pri';ilirLrit3
3,
x
;
j&i \ "t+
#
3'l'4
lrja;5
#j b
rf rrq\ rt t
"Al l 6h hum maghfi dahfr warhamh[ wa' fu
' i nhu
wa
' dfi hee
wa
akri m nuzul ohI un was-si f hudkhal ah-u, waghsi l hu bi l m-aee
wath thalji wal bardi, wa naq-qihl- minal
'khatdy1
Kama
yunaq'
qath thawbul abya{u mi nad danasi , wa abdi l hu d6ran Khayram
mi n dari hr-, wa ahl an Khayram mi n ahl i hTwa zawi an khayrum mi n
zawi i hi wa adkhi l hul
j an-nat a,
waqi hT f i t nat al
qabri wa' Ai a
ban ndr"'
, Musri m)
"0
Al l ah, f orgi ve hi m, have mercy on hi m,
pardon hi m, grant
hi m securi ty,
provi de hi m a ni ce
pl ace
and spaci ous l odgi ngs,
wash hi m
(off
from hi s si ns) wi th water, snow and i ce, puri fy
hi m from hi s si ns as a whi te
garment i s cl eansed from di rt, repl ace
hi s
present abode wi th a better one, repl ace hi s
present
fami l y
wi th a better one, repl ace hi s present partner wi th a better one,
make hi m enter
paradi se and sare hi m from the tri al s of
grave
and t he
puni shment of hel l . "
c. Abu Hurai rah
(R.A.l
sai d that the mssenger of Al l ah
(S.A.W.)
prayed
and sai d: -
i\i
\&
)
j
a,v
\#I-
gr1
i \#.
jei$$
"#\ J;jvtj,i 3:i
i
l;i:
+Y-;gt
lL$
55
l,^+.
i'lui4irii\'ii
[+ l|#Jciw?
prt
-lrVtr
I
"Alleh humma anta reb-buh|
,, wa anta KhalaqtaltS, wa
anta razagtahS, wa anta hadaytahE lil islEm, vw anta
gaba{ta rilfiahl
,
wo anta a'lamu bislr-rihi wa hlE niy-
yatiie,
ii
ni shuia'a'a, faghfir
lah}
Lan
'banu
"
Abu
Daw0d, Ahmad).
"0
Al l ah, you
are i ts Lord, you
have created i t, and
vou have
gui ded
i t t oramrds l sl am, and you have t aken out hi s souf and
you know best about i ts secret and open deeds. we have
come
as i ntercesors. so forqi ve hi 0.' :
60
"Allah hum maghfirtahu warhamhti wa'fu 'anhu wa 'afihee wa
akrim nuzulohu wa was-si' 'mudkhalahu, waghsilhu bil maee
wath thalji wal bardi, wa naq-qihT minal 'khataya Kama yunaq-
qath thawbul minad danasi, wa abdilhu d3ran Khayram
min darihT, wa ahlan Khayram min ahlihi wa zawjan khayrum min
zawjihi, wa adkhil hul jan-nata, waqihT fitnatal qabri wa ' Aia
ban nar."
(Muslim)
"0 Allah, forgive him, have mercy on him, pardon him, grant
him security, provide him a nice place and spacious lodgings,
wash him (off from his sins) with water, snow and ice, purify
him from his sins as a white garment is cleansed from dirt, replace
his present abode with a better one, replace his present family
with a better one, replace his present partner with a better one,
make him enter paradise and save him from the trials of grave
and the punishment of hell."
t. Abu Hurairah (R. A.) sa id that the messenger of Allah (S.A. W.)
prayed and said:-
... '..... , .... '" .... ,. "'\ .... t" :. /1--: ....

"', , " /'" / .>

r ".; :J if' ,""'" ,/' / ,/ ""
:.0'" '1-;: "'U:"'_-'
. '/ " ..
)
"Allah humma anta r3b-buha " wa anta Khalaqtaha, wa
anta razaqtaha, wa anta hadaytaha IiI islam, VIla anta
qabacjta rD!)aha , wa anta a bisir-riha wa niy-
yatiha, ji shufa'a'a, faghfir lahu Zan -banu "
(Abu DawiJd, Ahmad).
"0 Allah, you are its Lord, you have created it, and vou have
guided it towards Islam, and you have taken out his soul and
you know best about its secret and open deeds. We have come
as intercessors, so forgive him."
- r
60
One thing we can see clearly from the obovo mentioned hadiths
that every companion wtro narrated ilo duT of Janazah
prayer
rays that he heard the Prophet
(S.AW.I
$ying fio words of dut
in Janazah
prayer. Thir prores that ths Mosssngor of Allsh
(S.A,W.!
used to say the Janazah
prayer
or at least the duB in Janazah
prayor
aloud. Therefore, there should not bs any objection or confusion if
the lmam recites aloud in Janazah Prayer.
There are $ome other du'is which are narrated from Prophet
Muhammad
(S.A.W.)and
they can be found in Hadith Books. All
of these du?s can be said together or individually. 0ther duft can
be said with thesa dutr but it is better to stick to duE approved
by Prophet
(S.A.W.}.
Er { ot ] { c THE JAi l AZAH PRAYER
( F0
URTH TAKBt RI .
Then the lrnam shoufd say the fourth trkbir and fie congngl
ation should follorru and after that tre lmam should ray "Ar*ali'mu
'alaykum
yva
rafmatul-16h" turning his face to the ri$t firt rnd thsn
to the left; and the congregation should do tho $mB.
Ilote:- Some
people
stress a lot on saying du & aftsr ths completion
of Janazah prayer but we did not find a ringle hadith ruppgrting
$is idea. Janazah prayer
is designed so that all dto dub a
poron
uyants t0 say for the dececed can be nid afbr fie ftird bkbir.
This was the authentic pnctice
of Prophet Muhrmmrd
(S.AW.}
and hn compantons.
PRAYEB D URIi l G A JO URTEY
lslam is a
practical way of lite and corsiden tre rituatior in
which it follorwn may face difficulties. So Allah hc made the
thinp emy for the believen in such.situatiom.
Included in ths$
facilities is the
permision for shortening and combining
daily
prayoll
during a
joumey.
I. OASR PRAYER
(SHORT
PRAYERI.
When a Muslim
's
on a
iournoy
he should
prry 2 raks6 far{ for
Zuhr, lcr and lsha. Fair and m4hrib
Prayg6
remoin c they rre.
2. IT IS ]TORE REWARDFUL TO PBAY A OASR PBAYER
($HORT
PRAYERI
It is more rervardful to pray a 0asr Prayer wtrile on a
iournoy.
The Ms$snger of Allah
(S.AW.)
said:
"lt h a
gift from Allrh h'hhh
hs hc bectornd upon
you;t0 you rhould accept it."
(tttrsliml.
61
(Muslim).
One thing we can see clearly from the above mentioned haditM
that every companion who narrated the du'i of Janazah prayer
says that he heard the Prophet (S.A.W.) saying the words of du'i
in Janazah prayer. This proves that the M..nger of Allah (S.A.W.)
used to say the Janazah prayer or at least the du'is in Janazah prayer
aloud. Therefore, there should not be any objection or confusion if
the Imam recites aloud in Janazah Prayer.
There are some other du'is which are narrated from Prophet
Muhammad (S.A.W.)and they can be found in Hadith Books. All
of these du'is can be said together or individually. Other du'is can
be said with these du'is but it is better to stick to du'is approved
by Prophet (S.A.W.).
ENDING THE JANAZAH PRAYER (FO URTH TAKBIR)
Then the Imam should say the fourth takbir and the congreg-
ation should follow and after that the Imam should say "As-alimu
'alaykum wa turning his face to the right timand then
to the left; and the congregation should do the same.
Note:- Some people stress a lot on saying du'. after the completion
of Janazah prayer but we did not find a single hadith
this idea. Janazah prayer is designed so that all the du. a person
wants to say for the deceased can be said after the third mkbir.
This was the authentic practice of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.)
and hiS companions.
PRAYER DURING AJOURNEY
Islam is a practical way of life and considers the situations in
which its followers may face difficulties. So Allah h. made the
things easy for the believers in suclLsituations. Included in th_
facilities is the permission for shortening and combining daily prayers
during a journey.
1. QASR PRAYER (SHORT PRAYER).
When a Muslim is on a journey he should pray 2 rakats for
Zuhr, Per and Isha. Fajr and maghrib prayers remain. they are.
2. IT IS MORE REWARDFUl TO PRAY A QASR PRAYER
(SHORT PRAYER)
It is more rewardful to pray a Qasr Prayer while on a journey.
The Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) said: "It is a gift from Allah which
he has bestowed you;so you should accept it."
61
3. COMBI NI NG PRAYERS.
A person
on a
j ourney
can combi ne Zuhr and Asr
prayers
t 0-
get her prayi ng t hem bot h at Zuhr or Asr t i me. He can al so combi ne
Maghri b and l sha
prayers t oget her
prayi ng
t hem bot h at Maghri b
or l sha t i me.
l bn Abbas
(R. A. )
says t hat t he Mesenger of Al l ah
(S. A. W. )
used t o combi ne Zuhr and Asr t oget her when he was on a
j ourney
and al so he used t o combi ne Maghri b and l sha.
( Bukhar i i .
Mu' 62
(R. A. )
says t hat t he Messenger of Al l ah
(S. A. W. )
was
on a
j ourney
f or t he Bat t l e of Tabook. l f t he sun had al ready de-
cl i ned when l re want ed t 0 st art hi s
j ourney
af t er havi ng camped
somewhere, he woul d combi ne hi s Zuhr and f ur
prayers
t oget her
and
pray t hem bot h at Zuhr t i me, and i f he deci ded t o move bef ore
t he sun had decl i ned t hen he del ayed t he Zuhr prayer and prayed
i t cornbi ned wi t h f ur
prayer at Asr t i me. And i f t he sun had al ready
set when he want ed t 0 move he woul d combi ne Maghri b and l sha
t oget her at Maghri b t i me. And i f t he sun had not set when he want ed
t o move he woul d del ay Maghr i b and pr ay
i t wi t h l sha at l sha t i me.
( Abu
Dawi l d, Ti r mi zi ) .
These hadi t hs are very cl ear i n t hei r meani ng and
prove
t hat
combi ni ng
prayers whi l e 0n a
j ourney
i s a
proved and a regul ar
pr act i ce of Pr ophet Muhammad
( S. A. W. ) .
St i l l , t her e ar e
peopl e who
do not bel i eve i n combi ni ng
prayers t oget her whi l e t hey are t ravel -
l i ng, However, t hi s i s a
gi f t
f rom Al l ah whi ch t he bel i evers shoul d
accept
grat ef ul l y and i f someone
want s t o rej ect Al l ah' s and hi s
Mesenger' s of f er i t i s up t o hi m.
4. WHEN TO SHORTEN AND COMBI NE PBAYERS.
Now, t here i s t he quest i on
m t o what i s t he l i mi t i ng di st ance
and t he dur at i on of t he
j our ney
t o make t he f aci l i t y of Oasr and
Jama val i d.
a. Yahya bi n Yazeed sai d,
" l
asked Anas bi n Mal i k
( H. A. )
when
t he Oasr prayer was al l owed. " Anas
(R. A. )
answered t hat t he
Mesenger of Al l ah
(S. A. W. )
whenever he went away about
3 mi l es he prayed Oasr.
( Musl i m,
Ahmad, Abu Dawf d, Bai haqi ) .
b. Abu Sa' eed
( R. A. )
says t hat whenever Rasul ul l ah
( S. A. W. l
t r avel l ed about 1 f ar sakh appr oxi mat el y 3 mi l es, he woul d pr ay
0asr.
( Tal khees
l bn Hai r ) .
0n t he basi s of t hese hadi t hs a per son
can pr ay0asr
and can
cor nbi ne pr ayer s
when t he di st ance he t r avel s away f r om home
i s 3 mi l es. Thi s di st ance i s t he mi ni mum f i mi t f or Oasr pr ayer .
However , t her e ar e many var i ed opi ni ons 0n t he mi ni mum
l i mi t of t he di st ance' f or exampl e I mi l es. 48 mi l es 0r one day' s
62
3. COMBINING PRAYERS.
A person on a journey can combine Zuhr and Asr prayers to-
gether praying them both at Zuhr or Asr time. He can also combine
Maghrib and Isha prayers together praying them both at Maghrib
or Isha time.
Ibn Abbas (R.A.) sa'ys that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.)
used to combine Zuhr and Asr together when he was on a journey
and also he used to combine Maghrib and Isha.
(Bukhari).
Mu/az (R.A.) says that the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) was
on a journey for the Battle of Tabook. If the sun had already de-
clined when he wanted to start his journey after having camped
somewhere, he would combine his Zuhr an"d Asr prayers together
and pray them both at Zuhr timet and if he decided to move before
the sun had declined then he delayed the Zuh r prayer and prayed
it combined with Asr prayer at Asr time. And if the sun had already
set when he wanted to move he would combine Maghrib and Isha
together at Maghrib time. And if the sun had not set when he wanted
to move he would delay Maghrib and pray it with Isha at Isha time.
(Abu Dawud, Tirmizi).
These hadiths are very clear in thei r meaning and prove that
combining prayers while on a journey is a proved and a regular
practice of Prophpt Muhammad (S.A.W.). Still, there are people who
do not believe in combining prayers together while they are travel-
ling. However, this is a gift from Allah which the believers should
accept gratefully ard if someone wants to reject Allah's and his
Messenger's offer it is up to him.
4. WHEN TO SHORTEN AND COMBINE PRAYERS.
Now, there is the question ~ to what is the limiting distance
and the duration of the journey to make the facility of Qasr and
Jama valid.
a. Yahya bin Yazeed said, "I asked Anas bin Malik (R.A.) when
the Qasr prayer was allowed." A.nas (R.A.) answered that the
Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) whenever he went away about
3 miles he prayed Gasr.
(Muslim, Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Baihaqi).
b. Abu Sa/eed (R.A.) says that whenever Rasulullah (S.A.W.)
travelled about 1 farsakh approximately 3 miles, he would pray
Qasr.
(Talkhees Ibn Hajr).
On the basis of these hadiths a person can pray Qasr and can
combine prayers when the distance he travels away from home
is 3 miles. This distance is the minimum limit for Qasr prayer.
However, there are many varied opinions on the minimum
limit of the distance' for example 9 ,lliles, 48 miles or one day's
62
j ourney
et c.
I n our opi ni on t he oor r ect
def i ni t i nn of a
i our ney
i s what
t he soci et y as a whol e
reCogni ses ut rdet t hei r ci rcurt t st ances,
t he mi ni mum l i mi t bei ng 3 mi l es.
5. DUBATI Oi l OF JO URNEY
A
person
can
pray Oasr and combi ne
hi s prayers for as l ong
as he remai ns on a
j ourney,
whether i t takes weeks, months or yearu.
Even i f he stays
put i n one pl ace to ful fi l the purpose of hi s
i ourney
he can cont i nue t o pray Oasr and combi ne hi s prayers. However,
i f he i nt ended t 0 st ay i n a pl ace f or a f i xed number of days t hen
t he opi ni ons di f f er on how l ong he can
g0 on combi ni ng andshor t en"
i ng hi s
prayers,
e. g. 4 days, 10 days, l Tdays, 18 days et c.
Af t sr a caref ul st udy of hadi t hs we can say t hat when s0meone
st ays i n a f i xed pl ace t el nporari l y he woul d be consi dered a t ravel l er
on a
j ourney,
and t here i s no l i mi t on t he nunrber of days he cart
pray Oasr and combi ne hi s prayers.
6. NAFL PRAYER ON AJOURNEY
Prophet
(S. A. W. )
al ways of f ered Wi t r prayer duri ng hi s
j ourney
and he exmphasi zed and expressed the i mportance of 2 rakat sunnat
of the Faj r prayer. Therefore, the bel i evers shoul d
pray these, whi l e
on a
j our ney.
But what about any other nafl and sunnat
prayer?
The fol l owi ng hadi th answers thi s
questi on.
Haf s bi n f ui m says,
" l
accompani ed Abdul l ah bi n Umar
( R. A. )
on a
j our ney
t o Makkah. 0n t he way t 0 Makkah he l ed us i n t he
Zuhr prayer
and offered 2 rakats. Then he went to si t i n hi s tent.
He saw some
peopl e prayi ng
and asked me what they were doi ng.
They ar e pr ayi ng naf l ' , sai d l . Then he sai d, ' l f l coul d pr ay naf l
t hen I shoul d have prayed
t he compl et e f ard prayer. ' Then
he cont i n-
ued,
' l
accompani ed t he Messenger of Al l ah on i ,
j ourney.
He di d
not
pray duri ng hi s travel s more than 2 rakats. Then I accompani ed
Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman and thev di d the same as Pr.ophet
Muhammad
(S. A. W. }' .
There F a
good
exampl e f or
you
i n t he
pract i ce
of Propher
Muhammad
{S. A. W. ). ' ,
( Bukhar i l .
There are some other hadi ths whi ch prove that some of the com-
pani ons
used t o pray naf l s duri ng t hel r
j ourney.
l t i s bet t er not t 0
pray
nafl s whi l e travel l i ng but i f you
stay somewhere and have ti me
you
may do so.
ot ol oo l t ao 10 l c oo ol
63
journey etc.
In our opinion the correct definition of a journey is what
the society as a whole recognises urlder their c.ircUlllstances,
the minimum limit being 3 miles.
5. DURATION OF JOURNEY
A person can pray Qasr and combine his prayers' for as long
as he remains on a journey, whether it takp.s weeks, months or years.
Even if he stays put in one place to fulfil the purpose of his journey
he can continue to pray Qasr and combine his prayers. However,
if he intended to stay in a place for a fixed number of days then
the opinions differ on how long he can go on combining and shorten-
ing his prayers, e.g. 4 days, 10 days, 17days, 18 days etc..
A f t ~ r rt careflll study of hadiths we can say that when someone
stays in a fixed place temporarily he would be considered a traveller
on a journey, and there is no limit on the number of days he can
pray HaST and combine his prayers.
6. NAFL PRAYER ON AJOURNEY
Prophet (S.A.W.) always offered Witr prayer during his journey
and he exmphasized and expressed the importance of 2 rakat sunnat
of the Fajr prayer. Therefore, the believers should pray these, while
on a journey.
But what about any other nafl and sunnat prayer?
The following hadith answers this question.
Hafs bin Asim says, "1 accompanied Abdullah bin Umar (R.A.)
on a journey to Makkah. On the way to Makkah he led us in the
Zuh r prayer and offered 2 rakats. Then he went to sit in his tent.
He saw some people praying and asked me what they were doing.
'They are praying nafl', said I. Then he said, 'If I could pray nafl
then I should have prayed the complete farq prayer.' Then he contin-
ued, 'I accompanied the Messenger of Allah on (. journey. He did
not pray during his travels more than 2 rakats. Then I accompanied
Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman and they did the same as Prophet
Muhammad (S.A.W.)'. There IS a good example for you in the
practice of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.). J)
(Bukhari).
There are some other hadiths which prove that some of the com-
panions used to pray nafls during their journey. It is better not to
pray nafls while travelling but if you stay somewhere and have time
you may do so.

63
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