PHYS 3 LABORATORY TUTORIAL SERIES HOW TO ANSWER EXERCISE 6.1 KARL SIMON A.

REVELAR INTRODUCTION This document will teach some of the basics of using Microsoft Office Excel to create the Energy curves of the glider and hanging mass system. If you would try to remember the experiment that we did in Exercise 6.1, you would know that the data that we had was only the data for the glider. In order to determine the velocity and position of the hanging mass we use the following assumptions: 1. The velocity of the glider and the hanging mass are the same at any given time after the glider is released and 2. The height of the hanging mass after release can be taken from the distance travelled by the glider. TUTORIAL PROPER Open the Logger Pro File of your data and get only the points that are relevant to our experiment. You can highlight the data points that correspond only to the part of the velocity versus time graph that is going downward or the part of position versus time graph that looks like a parabola opening downward. See Figure 1.

Figure 1. Only the needed data points are highlighted.

Now copy the time, position, and velocity points and paste them into the Excel file with filename phys3ex6.xlsx under the appropriate headings. See figure 2.

. Paste the t.Figure 2. Figure 3. type in the initial data that we gathered such as the mass of the glider and hanging object. type in the following instruction: =0. Under the Kinetic Energy heading.5*[Cell location of mass of glider]*( [Cell location of first velocity data ] ^2) See Figure 4. Potential and Mechanical Energy of the glider and hanging mass. We will create the equation to solve for the Kinetic energy. we will use the basic Excel techniques of solving using equations and dragging. x. See figure 3. and the initial height of the glider and hanging object. and v of the glider under appropriate column headings. In the Excel file. At this point. Remember that these data should be in kilograms and meters. . you can now calculate the Kinetic. We start with calculating the energy of the glider. As we all know in mathematical symbolic form We will translate this equation to an equation that Excel will understand. in the Excel file. Type in the initial data Now that you have all the necessary data in the file.

Type the equation for Kinetic Energy DON’T FORGET: Since the mass is a constant. you need to put a dollar sign (\$) before the column letter and before the row number of the cell location of the mass so that Excel would only get the value for mass from that location.Figure 4. After typing in the formula press ENTER key and then the value of the Kinetic energy would show at the cell where you typed the formula. Figure 5. Hover the mouse cursor at the bottom right border of the cell with the initial formula then the cursor will change into a plus (+) sign signifying that we can now drag by holding the left click then highlighting the cells down the last row of data. we instruct Excel to compute the Kinetic energy using the velocities from cell C7 down to cell C31 as seen in Figure 6. The above example would now look like this: =0.5*\$C\$1*(C7^2) You don’t have to put a dollar sign before the cell location of the velocity since we want to solve the Kinetic energy for the different velocities. Drag the formula down to the last row By dragging the formula down to the last row. We can now instruct Excel to solve for the kinetic energy of the succeeding velocities by dragging the formula down to the last data row. . See Figure 5.

press Enter key. type in the following instructions: = [Cell location of mass of glider] * 9. Dragging the formula down instructs Excel to compute till the last row Next.Figure 6.8*\$G\$1 Take a look at Figure 7 for the illustration of this procedure.8 * [Cell location of height of glider] Or in our example: =\$C\$1*9. Then DRAG the formula down to the last row. Figure 7. Since the mass and the height of the glider are constant together with g = 9. After typing. Under the potential energy heading. Equation to solve for potential energy We also placed a \$ dollar sign before the cell location of the height of glider because it is a constant. The instruction is as follows: . we solve for the potential energy of the glider.8. We now calculate Mechanical Energy of the glider by just adding the kinetic and potential energy of the glider at every point. then we expect the value of the potential energy of the glider to be a constant.

Figure 8. As we said in assumption 2. we will first calculate the change in position of the glider from the previous position to the final position. we expect the hanging mass to be 1 cm lower than its previous position. Follow the same procedure as above but of course with different cell locations for mass of the hanging.= [Cell location of glider’s first kinetic energy point+ + *Cell location of glider’s first potential energy point] Or =E7+F7 Better look at Figure 8 on how this is done. Following this logic. . Since for example the glider moves one cm to the right. We will now calculate the Kinetic. To solve for the kinetic energy of the hanging mass. we will determine the position of the hanging object from the data taken from the glider. Potential and Mechanical energy of the hanging object. Type the equation for the Mechanical Energy Now DRAG this formula down to the last row to calculate the ME of the glider. Calculating for the kinetic energy of the hanging object is easy but calculating the potential energy of the hanging object is a little tricky. just use the same velocity as the velocity of the glider since they are the same due to assumption 1.

We expect this to be mostly negative simply because the final position is smaller than the initial position in terms of magnitude. Initial position of hanging mass . Since these values are negative. we ADD them to the initial height of the hanging object. See Figures 10-12 on how to do this. so in principle we are subtracting the change in position to lessen the height.Figure 9. Figure 10. Final position minus the initial position of glider We need to subtract the initial position from the final position. However there would be results that are positive and that happens due to the fluctuations in the movement either of the sensor or the glider.

Now that you have the position and velocity of the hanging mass. compute the Kinetic and Potential Energy of the hanging mass using the same procedures as above. Formula for the succeeding position values Don’t forget to drag the cell with the formula until the last row. Following assumption 1. Add the change in position to the initial position to calculate the second point then DRAG until last row Figure 12. copy the velocity of the glider into the column for the velocity of the hanging object. You don’t have to put \$ dollar signs since we want the position values to be computed per row. . Finally.Figure 11. both velocities are just the same.

THEN FINALLY.5 2 1. A SAMPLE OF YOUR GRAPH SHOULD LOOK LIKE THIS: ENERGY CURVE FOR HANGING MASS GLIDER SYSTEM 4 3.5 1 0. FINALLY. POTENTIAL AND MECHANICAL ENERGY IN ONE GRAPH WITH RESPECT TO TIME. SEE THE PREVIOUS TUTORIAL ON HOW TO GRAPH.5 0 ENERGY (J) KINETIC ENERGY POTENTIAL ENERGY MECHANICAL ENERGY 1 2 TIME (S) 3 4 .5 3 2. THEN GRAPH THE KINETIC. FINALLY ADD THE KINETIC AND POTENTIAL TO CALCULATE THE MECHANICAL ENERGY OF THE SYSTEM.Then finally. ADD THE KINETIC AND POTENTIAL ENERGIES OF THE HANGING OBJECT AND GLIDER.5 0 -0.