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Supervision Prof. Ian Atkinson (principal) – JCU A/Prof. Bruce Litow (associate) – JCU Dr. Raja Jurdak (co) – CSIRO
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1 Introduction 2 Major Networking Paradigms - Historical Perspective 2.1 The Telephone System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 The Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5 5 6
3 Dissemination and CCN 8 3.1 CCN Network Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2 CCN Packet Primitive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.3 CCN Forwarding Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4 CCN as Applied to Internet-based Mobile Ad Hoc Networks 11 4.1 CCN Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.2 CCN Caching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 5 Works Related to Dissemination via Mobile Ad Hoc works 5.1 Individual Behavioural Patterns of Mobile Users . . . . . 5.2 Mobile User Classiﬁcation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Mobility and Traﬃc Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Nodal Encounters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Conclusion Net. . . . . . . . . . . . 12 12 13 13 13 14
The engineering principles and architecture of today’s Internet were created in the 1960 and ’70s. Networking aimed to solve the problem of resource sharing — remotely accessing scarce and expensive devices such as card readers, high speed tape drives or even supercomputers. The resulting communication model was one of a conversation between exactly two hosts; a resource consumer and a resource provider . This is embodied in the Internet Protocol (IP) , whose packet header speciﬁes exactly two addresses; a source and a destination. Over several decades, network usage has evolved to be dominated by content distribution and retrieval. At ends with this phenomenon is current 3
networking technology which still only speaks of connections between hosts. Applications wanting to access content and services are made to map from what the user cares about to the network’s notion of where that content lives . A number of works [1, 5, 7, 16, 20, 27, 28] towards content-centric “future Internet” architectures have surfaced in recent years, looking to better meet the demands of today’s applications and mobile environments. One promising long-term approach is Content-centric Networking (CCN) . CCN treats small (e.g. IP packet-sized) chunks of named data as the primary Network layer abstraction, rather than host-addressed packets. CCN routes directly on the names of data, without any notion of host at its lowest level. A device wishing to retrieve some content requests the content by name (e.g. /jcu/web/home/banner/segment1). The request is subsequently fulﬁlled by an (ideally) close by node possessing the relevant data. A salient feature of CCN is that a piece of named content may be retrieved from any node which has previously come into possession of a copy, trusted or untrusted, and that content’s validity, provenance and relevance can be veriﬁed by the receiver regardless. This is possible because CCN cryptographically signs the binding between a piece of content’s name and a piece of content’s data, when the content is created. This signature resides with the content as it travels through the network. CCN signs content at the packet level, leaving content amenable to very ﬁne-grained secure caching at nodes throughout the network. One of the interesting questions this raises is, to what extent does such a ﬁne-grained caching system reduce the demand node’s place on their upstream infrastructure at various levels in the network? The related research proposal is concerned with answering the following sub-question — to what extent could wireless mobile devices reduce their demands on ﬁxed upstream infrastructure if they were to share common interest content directly among themselves? Self-conﬁguring infrastructureless mobile networks are referred to as mobile ad hoc networks, or MANETs. A MANET augmented by existing infrastructurebased access to the Internet is referred to as an Internet-based MANET. Internet-based MANETs are motivated by a number of factors. These include: 1) lower latency and higher bandwidth; 2) reduced cost (c.f. cellular data plan pricing); 3) more eﬃcient utilisation of ﬁnite spectrum through non-interfering short-range transmission; 4) access to content when outside of infrastructure range; and in some instances 5) lower power consumption. The eﬃcacy of packet-level sharing of cached content in Internet-based 4
MANETs has received little attention in the literature to date. Existing works focus on individual behavioural patterns [3, 9, 10, 25], classifying mobile users [11, 19], mobility and traﬃc models [12, 26, 31] or rudimentary nodal encounters [8, 13, 17, 30] (e.g. two Wi-Fi devices connected to the same access point concurrently). To the best of the author’s knowledge, no works to date go any further in evaluating the opportunities for actual packet-level content sharing in Internet-based MANETs based on real packet traces. The research proposal complimenting this literature review suggests merging a trace of wireless nodal encounters with a packet-granularity trace of ingress traﬃc to the same wireless nodes in order to analyse opportunities for content sharing. Using CCN as a conceptual framework and identifying identical packets being received by multiple mobile devices, it will be possible to evaluate what portion of all packets could have percolated through a MANET without eliciting the ﬁxed infrastructure for the purpose of content retrieval. The remainder of this document provides a conspectus of the existing literature relevant to the proposed research project. Section 2 gives a historical overview of the major networking paradigms in use over the last century. Section 3 reviews dissemination, the paradigm behind CCN and related network architectures. Section 4 describes CCN in the context of Internet-based MANETS. Section 5 describes existing works pertaining to dissemination in Internet-based MANETS and Section 6 provides some concluding remarks.
Major Networking Paradigms - Historical Perspective
The two major networking paradigms in use over the last century have close ties to 1) the telephone system and 2) the Internet. This section gives a historical perspective on how these two important paradigms have emerged and the salient features of each. Later in Section 3, a third networking paradigm is explored — dissemination, which underlies CCN and related network architectures.
The Telephone System
The invention of the modern telephone represents the culmination of works of many individuals spanning several decades or even centuries. The ﬁrst 5
commercial telephone exchange began operations on January 28, 1878 in a storefront of the Boardman Building in New Haven, Connecticut — a pivotal point in the history of the commercial telephone. The utility of the telephone system ultimately depended on running wires connecting individual premises to a central oﬃce as well as wires interconnecting central oﬃces. The revenue model which then emerged around the telephone was to charge callers for the service of dynamically constructing wire paths to callees, enabling phone calls to be made. This is overtly evident in the manual service exchanges used throughout the late 19th century and much of the 20th century. A caller wishing to make a call would lift the receiver oﬀ the hook and be greeted by a human operator. The operator would proceed to ask the caller what number they would like to be connected to. Depending on whether or not the speciﬁed callee’s number was connected to the same central oﬃce or not, the operator woud either plug the caller’s line directly into a switchboard jack corresponding to the callee, or into the jack corresponding to another central oﬃce, where the operator would speak to an “inward” operator in order to coordinate upstream connection of the call. Around the mid twentieth century, manual service exchanges were being supplanted by automatic telephone exchanges using electromechanical devices such as the Strowger switch . These electromechanical devices were in turn superceded by silicon-based technologies. Regardless of which method the telephone network used to connect users, whether via manual or automated service exchanges, the networking paradigm which emerged focused on wires, dynamically building paths between end nodes (in this case, phones). This is generally referred to simply as circuitswitching. Circuit-switched networks like the telephone system provision suﬃcient resources during connection formation to meet the requirements of the connection throughout its duration. Furthermore, the bit delay is constant during a circuit-switched connection. Circuit-switched networking will be contrasted with packet-switched networking next, in the Internet.
September 1962 saw the publication of esteemed engineer Paul Baran’s seminal paper, On Distributed Communications Networks . This paper introduced the concept of segmenting data into small, explicitly addressed pieces. Each piece of data could be routed from the source to the destination independently, potentially over diﬀerent paths, based on localised routing deci6
sions. This networking strategy is now simply referred to as packet-switching. The objective of the packet-switching architecture described by Baran was to provide a networking substrate capable of withstanding a nuclear attack, by virtue of being able to route around destroyed links and nodes. The ﬁrst experimental implementation of a packet-switched network came seven years after Baran’s initial exposition with the creation of the ARPANET in December 1969 . Though the ARPANET integrated the idea of segmenting data to be routed independently across the network, it should be noted that the principal motivation was to accomodate inherently unreliable hardware, not to survive a nuclear attack . Though diﬃcult to deﬁne a date the Internet was “created”, November 22, 1977 saw the ﬁrst successful demonstration of TCP/IP, interconnecting three disparate networks, one of which was the ARPANET . The Internet has since grown to connect billions of users globally. The Internet is distinctly diﬀerent to the traditional telephone system in its use of packet-switching, rather than circuit-switching technology. At the cost of variable delay, packet-switching has allowed the Internet to utilise shared transmission channels more eﬃciently, especially under “bursty” trafﬁc loads. Furthermore, packet-switched networks like the Internet do not incur the connection setup overhead of circuit-switched networks (though using TCP at the Transport layer largely negates this). This can permit far greater eﬃciency for short transmissions across links with a high bandwidthdelay product. Finally, packet switched networks are more resilient to link or component failures in the network, as data can be re-routed ex post facto resulting in an Internet relatively resilient to component failure. The networking paradigm behind the Internet moved the focus away from wires and onto endpoints. One of the features carried over from the telephone system however was the abstraction of a conversation between exactly two hosts. In the telephone system, the conversation is implicit in the concatenation of wires connecting a caller to a callee. In the Internet, the conversation is explicit in the addressing of an IP packet whose header specify exactly two addresses, a source and a destination . A third networking paradigm focused not on wires or on endpoints but on data is described in the next section.
Dissemination and CCN
The Internet Protocol was created in a time in which machines cost several million dollars, occupied multiple rooms and were largely inaccessible to the vast majority of the population. The problem networking aimed to solve was resource sharing — remotely accessing scarce and expensive resources such as card readers, high speed tape drives or even supercomputers . The resulting communication model was one of a conversation between exactly two hosts; a resource consumer and a resource provider. This model is embodied in the Internet Protocol (IP)  whose packet header speciﬁes exactly two addresses; a source and a destination. Over several decades, the cost of both storage and computational resources has fallen dramatically and network use has evolved to be dominated by content distribution and retrieval. This has lead to a number of architectural research works [1, 5, 7, 16, 20, 27, 28] looking to promote data to the primary network abstraction, rather than host addresses. One of the more promising long-term approaches is Content-centric Networking (CCN) . CCN treats small (e.g. IP packet-sized) chunks of named data as the primary Network layer abstraction, rather than host-addressed packets. The remainder of this section gives a broad overview of CCN. The interested reader is referred to  for an in-depth exposition.
CCN Network Stack
CCN replaces IP packets at the “thin waist” of the network stack with chunks of named content. This is illustrated in Figure 1. Devices wishing to retrieve some piece of content request it from the network directly by name, without having to perform the translation from what the user cares about (named data) to where that data is stored (i.e. IP host addresses). As illustrated in Figure 1, above the thin waist CCN doe not use a traditional transport layer protocol and instead has a security layer which provides a stronger notion of content integrity (described shortly in section 3.2). Because CCN names data directly, many of the existing application layer naming schemes are rendered redundant, and so a “File Stream” (i.e. reconstitution of content chunks into meaningful data objects) is shown as the application layer abstraction 1 . Below the thin waist, the CCN “Strategy” layer handles the forwarding
CCN is at least as general as IP and so in practice CCN can run atop of anything and anything can run atop of CCN, including existing protocols
decisions of interests in content chunks.
Figure 1: CCN moves the universal component of the network stack from IP to chunks of named content .
CCN Packet Primitive
The two CCN packet types “interests” and “data” are illustrated in Figure 2 and an example content name is shown in Figure 3. The desire to receive some content is expressed by transmitting an interest with the appropriate content name, along with some associated metadata. Importantly, the data packet response includes not only the content name and its associated data, but a cryptographic signature of the binding between the name and its data. This signature allows the receiver to verify that the received data is a complete, uncorrupted copy of what the publisher sent (validity), that the publisher is one the receiver trusts (provenance) and that the content is the answer to the question asked (relevance). The interested reader is referred to  for an extended discussion of securing named content.
Figure 2: CCN packet types .
Figure 3: Example Content Name .
CCN Forwarding Engine
Figure 4 illustrates the key components of a CCN “router” (any networked device can potentially act as a router in a CCN network). The Content Store is essentially a cache which can store any seen content at a packet granularity. The Pending Interest Table (PIT) holds a record of all requests the router has seen, but has not yet fulﬁlled. Finally, the Forwarding Information Base (FIB) holds a record of which faces2 content for a given preﬁx may be accesThe term face rather than interface is used because packets are not only forwarded over hardware network interfaces but also exchanged directly with application processes within a machine.
sible over. Note that unlike IP, CCN is not restricted to forwarding interests over a single interface.
Figure 4: CCN forwarding engine model .
CCN as Applied to Internet-based Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a network of mobile devices which communicate via wireless links without the assistance of any dedicated infrastructure. An Internet-based MANET combines a regular MANET with traditional infrastructure to provide either multi-hop access to the Internet or access to Internet content cached by other mobile devices . The CCN security and caching model make it an attractive option for Internet-based MANETS. This is elucidated in the remainder of this section.
Current IP networks trust content based on where (from what host) and how (over what sort of pipe) it was obtained . A client must therefore retrieve content directly from its original source in order to trust it. CCN 11
ties security to content itself, not the host over which it was retrieved. The crucial implication of this security model on Internet-based MANETs is that it allows trust to be placed in content that is retrieved from untrusted sources. This allows nodes in a MANET to securly share cached content among one another without needing to retroﬁt an auxillary security mechanism.
CCN is built around the notion of packet-level content cachability. Such ﬁne-grained caching is likely to work well in dynamic environments such as MANETs, where connectivity is intermittent and devices may only encounter one another for very short durations. Traditional application layer object-level caching schemes are likely less eﬀective as they require that an encounter last long enough for the entirety of an object to be transferred. Furthermore, objects such as streaming video which users often access only certain segments of are notoriously diﬃcult to cache at the object level.
Works Related to Dissemination via Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
The idea of MANETs transferring information among a network of mobile nodes without ﬁxed infrastructure is not in itself new and can in fact be traced back to the mid 70’s with the DARPA Packet Radio Network (PRNet) . In more recent times, the proliferation of cheap mobile devices has lead to renewed interest in MANETs for, among other things, sensing, consumer and military applications. A vast number of routing protocols have been proposed for MANETs, many of which are described in . Still, very little work has been done towards analysing opportunities for reducing mobile device’s reliance on ﬁxed infrastructure for content access, in the context of Internet-based MANETs. Those works closest in relevance however are described in the remainder of this section.
Individual Behavioural Patterns of Mobile Users
Several works [3, 9, 10, 25] have looked at the behavioural patterns of users in various mobile environments. These works however have primarily focused on characterizing individual user behaviour and general usage properties of 12
various wireless networks. Such analyses do not address any corresponding implications on the opportunities for Internet-based mobile ad hoc networking and so are only of peripheral interest.
Mobile User Classiﬁcation
Works in  and  describe techniques for classifying users into behavioural groups based on trace data taken from wireless LANs. Though descriptive of usage characteristics, these works again do not address the implications on information dissemination opportunities if Internet-based MANETs were to be formed.
Mobility and Traﬃc Models
Works in [12, 26, 31] look to generate realistic synthetic mobility and traﬃc models based on existing wireless network traces. Though these models are useful in constructing realistic simulations, they do not directly answer the question of what opportunities exist for the dissemination of data through Internet-based MANETs.
A number of existing works [8, 13, 17, 30] have considered the “encounters” of mobile nodes in various environments.  recorded 9 months of bluetooth encounters of 100 mobile phones given to students and faculty at MIT university.  recorded three days of bluetooth encounters of 41 Intel “iMotes” given to participants at the 2005 Infocom conference.  analysed nodal encounter patterns of ﬁve university campuses with user bases ranging from 275 to 44,751 users and recording lengths of one month.  recorded two sets of nodal encounters of two groups of university students given PDAs, each group being around 20 students in size and the experiments lasting for two-and-a-half weeks and eight weeks. Of all works in the literature, these works on nodal encounters perhaps come closest to describing what opportunities are likely to exist for dissemination of content via mobile ad hoc networks. The works in  and  particularly are motivated by the question of, given some set of nodal encounters, what opportunities exist for data transfer through a MANET. Where these works fall short of what is outlined in the related research proposal is 13
that they do not integrate realistic packet data traces. Speciﬁcally, evaluating the eﬃcacy of an Internet-based MANET requires some knowledge of what content individual devices are demanding from the network and how much of this content in turn overlaps between devices which encounter one another.
History has seen several major networking paradigms deployed at scale, most recently that of the Internet and before that the telephone system. Dissemination is a possible future networking paradigm, with CCN representing a promising dissemination architecture. CCN is well suited to Internet-based MANETS due to its secure packet primitive which is cachable at and retrievable from any node in the network, including mobile nodes. Many works have been published in recent times examining various characteristics of real-life mobile networks and some of these have considered their implications on MANETs speciﬁcally. A lacunae however exists in addressing how eﬀective an Internet-based MANET scheme is likely to prove at reducing mobile node’s reliance on access to ﬁxed infrastructure.
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