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. The atomic nucleus contains a mix of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons (except in the case of hydrogen-1, which is the only stable nuclide with no neutrons). The electrons of an atom are bound to the nucleus by the electromagnetic force. ATOM An atom containing an equal number of protons and electrons is electrically neutral, otherwise it has a positive charge (electron deficiency) or negative charge (electron excess) and is an ion. An atom is classified according to the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus: the number of protons determines the chemical element, and the number of neutrons determines the isotope of the element.[ Atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom and therefore identical to the charge number of the nucleus. It is conventionally represented by the symbol Z. The atomic number uniquely identifies a chemical element. In an atom of neutral charge, the atomic number is also equal to the number of electrons Atomic mass or mass number, A, which is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. The number of neutrons, N, is known as the neutron number of the atom; thus, A = Z + N. Since protons and neutrons have approximately the same mass (and the mass of the electrons is negligible for many purposes), and the mass defect is usually very small compared to the mass, the atomic mass of an atom is roughly equal to A. The relative atomic mass, or atomic weight, of an element is the weighted average of the masses of the isotopes in the naturally occurring element relative to the mass of an atom of the carbon-12 isotope which is taken to be exactly 12. Atoms having the same atomic number Z but different neutron number N, and hence different atomic mass, are known as isotopes. Most naturally occurring elements exist as a mixture of isotopes, and the average atomic mass of this mixture determines the element's atomic weight. an amphoteric species is a molecule or ion that can react as an acid as well as a base. The word is derived from the Greek word amphoteroi (ἀμφότεροι) meaning "both". Many metals (such as zinc, tin, lead, aluminium, and beryllium) and most metalloids have amphoteric oxides or hydroxides. One type of amphoteric species are amphiprotic molecules, which can either donate or accept a proton. Examples include amino acids and proteins, which have amine and carboxylic acid groups, and self-ionizable compounds such as water and ammonia In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons of an atom, a molecule, or other physical structure. It concerns the way electrons can be distributed in the orbitals of the given system (atomic or molecular for instance). ELECTRON CONFIGURATION An electron shell is the set of allowed states electrons may occupy which share the same principal quantum number, n (the number before the letter in the orbital label). An atom's nth electron shell can accommodate 2n2 electrons, e.g. the first shell can accommodate 2 electrons, the second shell 8 electrons, and the third shell 18 electrons. The factor of two arises because the allowed states are doubled due to electron spin—each atomic orbital admits up to two otherwise identical electrons with opposite spin, one with a spin +1/2 (usually noted by an up-arrow) and one with a spin -1/2 (with a down-arrow). empirical formula of a chemical compound is the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound. An empirical formula makes no reference to isomerism, structure, or absolute number of atoms. The empirical formula is used as standard for most ionic compounds, such as CaCl2, and for macromolecules, such as SiO2. The term empirical refers to the process of elemental analysis, a technique of analytical chemistry used to determine the relative amounts of each element in a chemical compound molecular formula identifies the number of each type of atom in a molecule, and the structural formula also shows the structure of the molecule.
RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS
for both practical and historical reasons. Molecules are distinguished from ions by their electrical charge. as with water (H2O). The experimentally determined value of a mole as adopted by CODATA in 2006 is 6. Thus. organic chemistry.453(2) g/mol M(Fe) = 55. or of different elements.A molecule is an electrically neutral group of at least two atoms held together by covalent chemical bonds.. bases or salts. Furthermore. Atoms and complexes connected by noncovalent bonds such as hydrogen bonds or ionic bonds are generally not considered single molecules. molar masses are are almost always quoted in grams per mole (g/mol or g mol−1). symbol M. Molar mass. It is one of the base units in the International System of Units. The mole is defined as the amount of substance that contains as many elementary entities (e.065(5) g/mol M(Cl) = 35.02214078(18)×1023 a mole of any pure substance has a mass in grams exactly equal to that substance's molecular or atomic mass.007 97(7) × 1 g/mol = 1. Commonly. the term molecule is often used less strictly and applied to polyatomic ions MOLECULE A molecule may consist of atoms of a single chemical element. one mole of pure 12C has a mass of exactly 12 g. The main components required to achieve electrolysis are : • • An electrolyte : a substance containing free ions which are the carriers of electric current in the electrolyte. However. as with oxygen (O2). is a physical property characteristic of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound). Recent measurements give the value 6. and biochemistry..845(2) × 1 g/mol = 55. and has the unit symbol mol. in quantum physics. electrolytes are solutions of acids. Electric current is carried by electrons in the external circuit.g. MOLE ELECTROLYSIS ELECTROLYTE Two electrodes : an electrical conductor which provides the physical interface between the electrical circuit providing the energy and the electrolyte an electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that make the substance electrically conductive. atoms. resulting in chemical reactions at the electrodes and separation of materials. The base SI unit for mass is the kilogram and that for amount of substance is the mole.007 97(7) g/mol M(S) = 32.065(5) × 1 g/mol = 32. as in a solid salt then electrolysis cannot occur.02214179(30)×1023 . If the ions are not mobile. some gases • . However. but molten electrolytes and solid electrolytes are also possible. especially in chemistry. because the Ca-40 isotope has a mass of 39. The most typical electrolyte is an ionic solution. ions. The mole is a unit of measurement for the amount of substance or chemical amount.9625906 amu on the C-12 scale. Electrolysis is the passage of a direct electric current through an ionic substance that is either molten or dissolved in a suitable solvent. by definition. the numerical value of a substance's molecular or atomic mass in atomic mass units is the same as that of its molar mass—the mass of one mole of that substance—in grams. namely its mass per amount of substance. electrons) as there are atoms in 12 g of the isotope carbon-12 (12C). M u = 1×10−3 kg/mol = 1 g/mol: M(H) = 1. e. 1mol of calcium-40 has an approximative mass of 40g. A direct current (DC) supply : provides the energy necessary to create or discharge the ions in the electrolyte. the derived unit for molar mass is kg/mol. MOLAR MASS The molar mass of atoms of an element is given by the atomic weight of the element multiplied by the molar mass constant.g.453(2) × 1 g/mol = 35. In other words. Thus.845(2) g/mol. molecules.
g. is placed in water. Electrolyte solutions are normally formed when a salt is placed into a solvent such as water and the individual components dissociate due to the thermodynamic interactions between solvent and solute molecules. The formation of uncharged atoms from ions is called discharging. The key process of electrolysis is the interchange of atoms and ions by the removal or addition of electrons from the external circuit. whereas negatively charged ions (anions) move towards the positive anode.. when table salt. electrons are absorbed or released by the atoms and ions. For example.g. according to the dissociation reaction NaCl(s) → Na+(aq) + Cl−(aq) It is also possible for substances to react with water producing ions. such as a metal.. DNA. lubricity.) to a surface that otherwise lacks that property. At the electrodes. Those ions that gain or lose electrons to become uncharged atoms separate from the electrolyte. abrasion and wear resistance.g. Those atoms that gain or lose electrons to become charged ions pass into the electrolyte.. carbonate. the salt (a solid) dissolves into its component ions. Each electrode may become either the anode or the cathode depending on the direction of current through the cell. A bipolar electrode is an electrode that functions as the anode of one cell and the cathode of another cell. The energy required to cause the ions to migrate to the electrodes. For example. These gaseous products bubble from the electrolyte and are collected. aesthetic qualities. The anode is now defined as the electrode at which electrons leave the cell and oxidation occurs. A liquid containing mobile ions (electrolyte) is produced by • • PROCESS OF ELECTROLYSIS Solvation or reaction of an ionic compound with a solvent (such as water) to produce mobile ions An ionic compound is melted (fused) by heating ELECTRODE An electrical potential is applied across a pair of electrodes immersed in the electrolyte. ELECTROPLATING . polystyrene sulfonate). carbon dioxide gas dissolves in water to produce a solution which contains hydronium.may act as electrolytes under conditions of high temperature or low pressure. polypeptides) and synthetic polymers (e. termed polyelectrolytes. Another application uses electroplating to build up thickness on undersized parts. and hydrogen carbonate ions. An electrode in an electrochemical cell is referred to as either an anode or a cathode (words that were also coined by Faraday). The required products of electrolysis are in some different physical state from the electrolyte and can be removed by some physical processes.g. in a process called solvation. etc. The process uses electrical current to reduce cations of a desired material from a solution and coat a conductive object with a thin layer of the material. The anode is always the negative electrode. and the cathode as the electrode at which electrons enter the cell and reduction occurs. Positively charged ions (cations) move towards the electron-providing (negative) cathode. is provided by the external source of electrical potential Electroplating is a plating process in which metal ions in a solution are moved by an electric field to coat an electrode. e. Electrolyte solutions can also result from the dissolution of some biological (e. which contain charged functional groups. and the energy to cause the change in ionic state. NaCl. in the electrolysis of brine to produce hydrogen and chlorine. Electroplating is primarily used for depositing a layer of material to bestow a desired property (e. corrosion protection.. Each electrode attracts ions that are of the opposite charge. the products are gaseous.
(see chart below). These cations associate with the anions in the solution. like stereoisomers. For example. enantiomers. isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas. Structural isomers have different IUPAC names and may or may not belong to the same functional group. ISOMERS STRUCTURAL ISOMERS REDOX . copper is oxidized at the anode to Cu2+ by losing two electrons. zero valence state. the Cu2+ is reduced to metallic copper by gaining two electrons.a battery or. The Cu2+ associates with the anion SO42.PROCESS Electroplating of a metal (Me) with copper in a copper sulfate bath. Isomers do not necessarily share similar properties. and functional group isomerism in which one functional group is split up into different ones. etc. When the external power supply is switched on. the atoms and functional groups are joined together in different ways. At the cathode. geometrical isomers. This group includes chain isomerism whereby hydrocarbon chains have variable amounts of branching. The cations are reduced at the cathode to deposit in the metallic. more commonly. The result is the effective transfer of copper from the anode source to a plate covering the cathode. There are many different classes of isomers. position isomerism which deals with the position of a functional group on a chain.in the solution to form copper sulfate. The anode is connected to the positive terminal of the supply. the metal at the anode is oxidized from the zero valence state to form cations with a positive charge. The anode and cathode in the electroplating cell are both connected to an external supply of direct current . sometimes referred to as constitutional isomers. There are two main forms of isomerism: structural isomerism and stereoisomerism (spatial isomerism In structural isomers. and the cathode (article to be plated) is connected to the negative terminal. in an acid solution. unless they also have the same functional groups. a rectifier.
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