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UNIT 1.......Introduction to origin n function of clothing
Origin of Clothes... Clothing and textiles have been enormously important throughout human history²so have their materials, production tools and techniques, cultural influences, and social significance. In ancient times, there were no textile industries or clothing stores. Fur, leather, grass or leaves were believed to be some of the earliest materials that made up clothes. These materials were tied around the body, dr aped or wrapped . Evidently, this first fashion trend had a lot of success, since it is trendy still to this day, with some obvious differences of course. The first actual textile, as opposed to skins sewn together, was probably felt. Surviving examples of Nålebinding, another early textile method, date from 6500 BC. Textiles, defined as felt or spun fibres made into yarn and subsequently netted, looped, knit or woven to make fabrics, appeared in the Middle East during the late stone age. From ancient times to the present day, methods of textile production have continually evolved, and the choices of textiles available have influenced how people carried their possessions, clothed themselves, and decorated their surroundings. Sources available for the study of the history of clothing and textiles include material remains discovered via archaeology; representation of textiles and their manufacture in art; and documents concerning the manufacture, acquisition, use, and trade of fabrics, tools, and finished garments . Archeologists and anthropologists debate on the exact date of the origins of clothing since clothes made from fur, leather, leaves and grass deteriorate rapidly compared to other materials. In Kostensi, Russia, prehistoric sewing needles made of bones and ivory were identified as from 30,000 BC. There was also a discovery of dyed flax fibers in a prehistoric cave in the R epublic of Georgia that is believed to be 36,000 years old. The inhabitants of the Indus Valley Civilization used cotton for clothing as early as the 5th millennium BC ± 4th millennium BC. Cotton has been spun, woven, and dyed since prehistoric times. It clothed the people of ancient India, Egypt, and China. Hundreds of years before the Christian era cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, and their use spread to the Mediterranean countries.
Looms appeared seven thousand years ago, and knitted fabric began to be produced during the Middle Ages. Natural elements such as silk, wool and cotton were very important until the 19th century. Synthetic fibers appeared in the last decades. With the coming of the great industrial production, clothes, in a high percentage, were no longer hand-made products.Since the end of the 20th century, there was a massive interest towards clothes made with artificial fibers, and this was mostly due to the fact that women started working outdoors, and no longer had time to home tailoring or to devote time to garments that needed special care. At this point we can mention the birth of different garments that are current in use to this day: 1. The shirt was created by the Greeks in the 5th century and it was, for a long time, today it is associated with elegance and respectability. 2. The blouse dates from the 15th century, when women started using a type of tight blouse with a belt. For centuries, it was the garment of peasant women, and then it was replaced by a lighter one that matched feminine suits. In 1913, low-cut blouses appeared, and were known as "pneumonia shirts. 3. The skirt was at first made of fur, 600,000 years ago. Since then, and until now, women never abandoned it. In 1915, skirts began to expose the ankles, and the great revolution took place in 1965 with the miniskirt. 4. Trousers (pantalones in Spanish). Four thousand years ago, men from nomad tribes of Central Europe wore a type of loos e trousers tied up to the waist. But it was in 1830 when trousers developed as we know them nowadays. In 1860, jeans were created by Levi Strauss, a German that immigrated to San Francisco during the gold fever. 5. Rompers appeared by the mid 20th century, This garment allowed changing diapers without undressing the baby. It had great acceptance, later becoming a very popular clothing item. 6. Unisex clothing appeared in the forties and enjoyed great popularity among young people. Every garment we or others wear has a history of its own, and that the effort and creativity of others allow us, through their work, to enjoy all those things that make our lives better and more comfortable. Functions of clothing 1. The primary function of clothing is the covering of the body as protection against the elements. In cold regions, it is to keep the body warm. In warm regions, clothes serve as protection from sunburn or wind damage. Early humans may have saved the skins of the animals they hunted and used them as clothes to keep warm or gathered leaves and grass to cover their bodies.
2. The social aspect of the wearing of clothes is another function. Clothing is used to serve as class distinction. In American Indian tribes, their chief or leader wore elaborate headgear. In Ancien t Rome, the wearing garments dyed with Syrian Purple were limited to senators. 3. Another function of clothing is the maintenance of decency. In the Bible, Adam and Eve covered their bodies when they realized that they were naked after eating the fruit from the forbidden tree. In some Islamic countries, women were required to cover the whole of their bodies except the face. In most societies, it is indecent for men and women to mingle with others without wearing clothes. With more relaxed standards in modern times, this function is being undermined as some clothes tend to be provocative that the distinction of decency is becoming blurred. 4. Another use for clothing is for uniforms for occupations, affiliations, etc. Judges and magistrate wear robes in courts. The members of team sports wear identical jerseys to distinguish themselves from other teams. Even in the military, each unit (army, navy, air force) have their distinct uniforms. 5. Self-expression is another function of clothes. In general, wearing clothes with the color of black is a sign of mourning. Also, modern times have seen the influence of fashion to pop culture. Elaborate and artistic pieces of clothing for every occasions and moods are almost always available to most. 6. Decoration seems to satisfy a fundamental human need. Other animals groom themselves, but only human beings have ornamented themselves. Although in some societies people have worn little or no clothing, so far as we know, people have decorated their bodies in some way in all societies throughout history. 7. Modern scholars believe that clothing provides a mark of identity and a means of nonverbal communication. In traditional societies, clothing functions almost as a language that can indicate a person's age, gender, marital status, place of origin, religion, social status, or occupation.clothing can still provide considerable information about the wearer, including individual personality, economic standing, even the nature of events attended by the wearer. 8. A society's economic structure and its culture, or traditions and way of life, also influence the clothing that its people wear. In many societies, religious laws regulated personal behavior and permitted only members of an elite class to wear certain prestigious items of clothing 9. Clothing with a designer label tends to be relatively expensive, so it may function as an outward sign of a person's economic standing. 10. Clothing also derives meaning from the environment in which it is worn. In most cultures brides and grooms as well as wedding guests wear special clothes to celebrate the occasion of a marriage. The clothing
especially active sports. One figure wears a cloak which is wrapped around the upper part of the body. Within a single high school. A tight collar that gives an appearance of greater length to the neck is worn by a few of the figurines. The inhabitants of the Indus Valley Civilization used cotton for clothing as early as the 5th millennium BC ± 4th millennium BC. and China. It clothed the people of ancient India. different clothing subcultures exist. and hockey players wear matching jerseys and pants designed to accommodate such accessories as protective pads. Probably a rob with or without embroidery was worn over the left shoulder and under the right arm. As a result. Head-dresses are used which are made of stiffened cotton cloth. Most modern societies comprise different social groups. The male figures are generally seen to be nude. People seem to have been fond of jewellery and hair -dressing. one wears his hair parted in the middle and the short locks at the back of the head are which are kept tidy by a woven fillet. Certain types of recreation. Men had varied styles of hair dressing. The dress on the clay figurine can be considered as the normal attire of the female of the time. for example. graduations. The figure of a man at Harappa might be wearing a close-clinging dhoti. The skirt is held by a girdle that is made of beads or of bands of woven material secured by a pin or fastening of some kind. Egypt. teenagers known as jocks are likely to wear different styles of clothing than teens called nerds. This difference can indicate to which group a teen belongs Indus valley civilization. For example. The waist is bare and a very scanty skirt is worn. and dyed since prehistoric times. The costumes have been revealed from unearthed figurines. . Beards were trimmed in various styles. For instance. Costumes of this Civilization have been considered as the basis for Indian clothes.. woven. Jewellery made of stones.. and each group has its own beliefs and behaviors. Clothing may also signal participation in leisure activities. may require specialized clothing.worn for rituals such as weddings. Cotton has been spun. and funerals tends to be formal and governed by unwritten rules that members of the society agree upon. Some show the hair woven into a bun after the hair being plaited. Some other figurines show the hair coiled in a ring on the top of the head and in similar rings concealing the ears. soccer. football. Footwear as such was not found. gold and silver have been unearthed. This civilization also grew cotton and was probably the first people to make clothes from cotton.
plasma. nose-rings. cones. which was usually another length of fabric. ear rings. The age of the Aryans are termed as the Vedic Period. nepheline -sodalite. Sometimes a choli would be worn with this. Men also had a choice in their clothing though not as varied as the women. though there was also an abundance of silver and precious gems Clothing was for the most part. . pectorals. Women sometimes wore the turban also. finger-rings. Due to the large area of India many differences in clothing emerged. copperand bronze. Male headdress was also a lengt h of fabric. beads. pottery. quartz. which is a length of fabric wrapped around the waist. wrapped around the head. The southern Indians wore much less than in the colder north. The popularly known urban civilisation of Indus Valley collapsed due to several features including various foreign invasions. tachylite. This could be left as a skirt or brought through the legs and made into a pants type garment. Gold being the preferred. Historians view that with the coming of the Aryans. necklace. onyx. Cotton and wool were the most abundant.Vedic civilisation followed the Indus Valley civilisation.. turquoise. The Adivasi is a length of fabric tied around the waist with no upper garment worn. mainly due to climate differences. faience. Women in the south rarely wore a upper garment. The ornaments used are girdles. Men of the south rarely wore shirts. with a blouse (choli) and scarf.Metal ornaments were made of gold. electrum. shell. similar for both men and women. Second is a sari. A headdress was also worn. jadeite. and a loose fitting garment for the upper body. agate. Women in Vedic society wore a variety of garments. which is a length of fabric wound around the body with the loose end (pallu) thrown over the shoulder. called a Turban. mainly by the men. Vedic Civilisation in India. The last garment was worn mainly by tribal women. silver. People also enjoyed lavi sh embroidery and embellishments. but men of the north wore a fitted upper garment. the Indus and Harappan culture ruined. Stones like lapis lazuli. chalcedony. The first being a skirt type garment (dhoti). bangles and hair-pins. heliotrope. Men usually wore a Dhoti. Clothing was made from resources found in each region. Amazon stone. bracelets. vitreous paste.. Vedic Civilisation in India has been one of the most primitive forms of civilisation . serpentine and haematite were used . The basic costume of ancient society was a length of cloth wrapped ar ound the lower part of the body.anklets. Northern women adopted a fitted upper garment to be worn under the loose fitting one. carnelian.
To do so they pressed the linen into grooves on a wooden board and let it dry. they were used for mats and rope. Wool was used to a lesser extent]. Such outfits were found in Tutankhamen's tomb and were depicted quite frequently on the walls of tombs. scarves. with either simple. Animal skins. which had to be stitched on such as sleeves or shoulder straps. overcast stitch. The Egyptian climate with its hot summers and mild winters favoured light clothing made from plant fibers.Linen clothes needed to be repleated every time they were washed.White linen needed constant washing. blue flowers and stems about two feet tall. At times kings and queens wore decorative ceremonial clothing adorned with feathers. were sometimes worn by priests and by pharaohs in their role as first servants of the god. others with . or rolled and whipped hems.Flax was pulled out of the ground. aprons and sashes. Small amounts of silk were traded to the eastern Mediterranean and traces of silk have been found in Egyptian tombs ..The weaving was done on a loom. kilts. predominantly linen and in Roman times occasionally cotton.The spinner attached the fibers to the spindle. All clothes were almost always made of linen which is made from flax Flax: a plant having small leaves. caps. though run-and-fell and overcast seams were also known. At times garments had parts. gauntlets and gloves.If the stems were too ripe. and loose white woollen cloaks over these. above all leopard skins. called "calasiris". The manufacture of clothes was apparently mostly women's work.UNIT 2. People who were buried in mastabas or pyramids would not be satisfied with anything less than the best quality linen As the sewing of clothes was very labour intensive and the art of tailoring to fit in its infancy±the tightly fitting dresses which the without exception incredibly shapely women are displayed in notwithstanding±many garments consisted simply of a rectangular pieces of cloth draped around the body and held together by a belt. But the cloth was often hemmed to prevent fraying.A loom is a frame made of two beams held by four pegs in the ground.The fibers were twisted into strong thread. to the coarse cloth peasants wore. some of them with fine linen linings.This backbreaking work was done mostly by men... Tutankhamen's tomb yielded many pieces of clothing: tunics. an import from India ..Flax stems were soaked for several days. then pounded on a stone. socks.Half-ripe flax stems made the best thread. They wear tunics made of linen with fringes hanging about the legs. head-dresses..Costumes of world Egyptian Clothing materials.The fibers were separated. rinsed.. shirts. and.Then the fibers were beaten until soft. The seams used were generally simple or lap-over. not cut.. The number of different stitch types was also limited: running stitch. and twisted chain stitch Articles of dress. The most important textile was linen. but there were workshops run by noblemen or other men of means. It was generally done at home. the byssus for royalty. bleached in the sun.. It was washed in the river or canal. and seldom by Egyptians proper. the quality ranging from the finest woven linen. Production.
nothing at all. Very little sewing was done. others were sleeveless.separate index and middle fingers and a hole for the thumb. wide galabiyeh-like robes or. being short during the the Old Kingdom and reaching the calf in the Middle Kingdom. While the top could reach anywhere from below the breast up to the neck. They did wear gold jewelry and the most transparent clothes. Its colour was generally whitish.The usual toilet articles were tweezers. at parties servants and slave girls wore little more than skimpy panties and jewellery. They were sewn from a rectangular piece of cloth twice the desired garment length. Clothes were expensive and in the hot Egyptian climate people often wore as little as possible. when it was often supplemented with a sleeveless shirt or a long robe. though the cloth of choice was always linen. gathered the loose corners up and tied them in a knot below the chest. commander of the fortress at Elephantine under Apries. The cloth was wrapped round the body and held in place by a belt. which was then folded in half.The robes worn by both sexes in Egypt were called kalasiris by Herodotus. Women did not dress without washing (rich people had a tiled area for washing). If we are to believe the depictions. if they were working in the water. Men or women wore long see-through robes that were pleated. Nesuhor. The fit might be very tight or quite loose.Better-off people wore wide clothes of white cloth. If royals had a garment for every body part and for any occasion the so-called kilt. These basic garments with minor variations accounting for fashion. This was the duty of a small number of priests allowed to enter the holiest of holies. though one may assume that the reason for this undress was not a lack of funds. The gods had to be dressed as well. Children usually ran around nude during the summer months. Some had short sleeves. . Men doing physical labour wore a loin cloth. where the god's statue was. although dyed cloth was not unknown. The length of the the kilts varied. razor and comb. Material and cut varied over the centuries. they rubbed themselves with scented oil then they placed a large rectangle of linen over their heads. in contrast to the colourful clothes foreigners wore in Egyptian depictions. took care that the tem ple of Khnum had all the servants necessary to serve the needs of the god: Fashion.Wealthy people did not wear more jewelry or fancier clothes to show wealth. and a crown±most of their subjects had to make do with much less. and wore wraps and cloaks in winter when temperatures might fall below 10°C. An opening for the head was cut at the centre of the cloth. They were often worn with a belt which held together the folds of cloth. The kalasiris women wore might cover one or both shoulders or be worn with shoulder straps. Underwear in the form of a triangular loincloth was also found. After washing.. Working women mostly dressed in a short kind of kalasiris. The clothes were generally made of linen and kept simple: a short loincloth resembling a kilt for men. The lower parts of the sides were stitched together leaving openings for the arms. the bottom hem generally touched the calves or even the ankles. a dress with straps for women..
Ear studs: earrings. They covered the breasts most of the time. They wore a new wig each day (both men and women wore wigs).They wore curled wigs for special occasions.Wigs were made from human hair or wool. If depictions are anything to go by. Thus these successive bundles were bound together edge to edge. but all of them have the leather sandal strap between the toes.They used a dye called henna to redden their nails and hair. There were sandals made of wood with depictions of enemies on their soles. with great neatness.Eyes were rimmed. the upper leather being stitched on merely as a covering without its being intended to hold the shoe on the foot. and usually soled with leather. to retain the sole on the foot .Women's dresses were at times ornamented with beads.. A small bundle of rush was wound round by a rush thread. The rush sandals soled with leather..At parties women wore a cone of scented fat on their heads that slowly melted making their heads smell nice Headdresses. People usually went barefoot and carried their sandals.They wore rings. and joining to the sides of the heel.. which at every turn pierced through the edge of a previous bundle.The pharaohs are always represented wearing crowns.. Footwear. but generally they were depicted barefoot. Both men and women made up their eyes and lips. This was edged round in the same way. Whether you were rich or poor you wore jewelry. Make up. leather sandals alone. two orthree examples are known.The red cheek powder was called ochre. then ordinary Egyptians did not wear any headdress as a rule. as were the gods Sandals made of gold have been found which cannot have been very comfortable to their wearers if they were worn at all.Papyrus: tall water plant that grows in the Nile Valley. The kings wore at times very elaborately decorated sandals. and sometimes decorative gloves as well. but whether this is a pictorial convention or whether they did so in every day life can not be decided. though there were periods when fashion left them bare. eyebrows were painted and lashes were darkened with a black powder called kohl. on which the king would tread with every step and another pair which was fastened with buttons. of three or four thicknesses Roman . In basket making exactly the same principle was followed. symbolizing prosperity and authority.They mixed powdered minerals with oil to get colors. were all used. and leather shoes. wearing them only when needed.. The shoes seem to have been just originating at that period.. Sandals seem to have had an importance which mostly escapes us nowadays.The jewelry was made of gold or colorful beads.Necklaces were made with turquoise and lapis lazuli stones. These soles are compound. Sandals were very closely and beautifully stitched up of rush. and a flat surface built up. necklaces and ear studs.The sandals were made of palm fiber or braided papyrus.
draped over the body. but their fellow Romans understood them somewhat eccentric. . If in the early days the toga was worn directly on the naked body. functioning as a vest. close-fitting trousers were widely worn The toga. would be the subucula. Basically the toga was a large blanket.There was some formal differences in tunics which denoted social rank. the dalmatica. Wool. but it had distinct forms of its own. Female tunics often also had long sleeves.The needles of the day were coarse and unwieldy by modern standards. in many cases replaced the toga altogether in the later years of empire. For most Romans and slaves the tunic would be the entire clothing they dressed in before setting foot outdoors. In that case the tunics nearest the body. The male tunic would generally reach roughly to the knees. Foreigners. who was of a rather frail constitution.the angustus clavus was the mark of the equestrian order So a senator could wear a tunic featuring a vertical broad purple stripe down the centre.. A purple stripe worn on the tunic was called a clavus and indicated membership to a particular order:. The richest form of the long-sleeved tunic. long. An equestrian could wear a tunic featuring two vertical narrow purple stripes on either side of the tunic. The Tunic. tied at the waist with a belt. Hence any stitching or sewing was kept to a minimum. Until then it was perceived as highly effeminate to be wearing one. It was the standard dress of Rome. As for possible materials there was only really one. was known to wear as many as four tunics in winter.. then later a simple tunic was added. although to some extent linen was also available. The most basic garment in Roman clothing was the tunic (tunica).There were some old families with ancient ancestry who insisted on continuing the tradition of dressing without a tunic. The toga was allowed to be worn only by free Roman citizens. In the very same age. It was along the straight edge the purple stripe of a senator's toga praetexta ran.. .. leaving one arm free. Emperor Augustus.the latus clavus (or laticlavium) denoted senators. some reaching to the ground.Through experiments historians have concluded that the vast blanket took the form of a semi circle. whereas women¶s tunics would generally be longer. could not appear in public wearing a toga. However. first and foremost clothes needed to be simple. due to the influence of Germanic soldiers dominating the ranks of the army. it took until the second or third century AD for long sleeves to become acceptable for men.Roman clothing owed much to that of ancient Greece.In all the ancient world. The next layer would be the intusium orsupparus. or even exiled citizens. Cold weather would likely see Romans wear two or three tunics to keep warm.
Female clothes instead being of almost any colour. the tunica interior It was often the case that the stola therefore was shorter than the under tunic in order to show the layers of garment (which invariably was a display of wealth and status). In their case. The toga was made of wool.. If initially is believed to have been largely white.In some cases lead weights were sewn into the hem to help keep the garment in place. The stola was generally worn over another long tunic. Fewer restrictions by laws. It is perhaps easiest to describe the palla as a draped cloak similar to the toga. It is worth mentioning that the white colour of the toga was prescribed by law. In order to help the toga drape more gracefully.Usually the toga spanned between 2 ½ and 3 meters long (though apparently up to 5 ½ metres long in some cases) and at its widest point it will have been up to 2 metres wide. the garment oddly shared its name with that of the senators.. the toga praetexta. usually around his 16th birthday. slaves were known to place pieces of wood in the folds the previous evening. albeit smaller and much less unwieldy. toga pura or toga libera. If could have long or short sleeves. The rich ha d the luxury of choice of what kind of wool they sought to wear. the young Roman would then dispense with the toga praetexta and instead wear the simple. customs and traditions existed on the dress of women. . It was essentially a long tunic reaching to the ground.The basic female garment was the stola. How to dress in a toga Women¶s dress.Another display of wealth could be a wide ornamental border (instita) on the lower hem of either the under tunic or the stola. or be entirely sleeveless.So it could range from a large garment which draped around the body to something no more significant than a scarf. then didn¶t appear to stay so for long. known as the toga virilis.There seems to have been no specific size or shape that specified a palla. Boys of reasonably wealthy families already would be expected to wear the toga. On formally becoming a man. white toga of the Roman citizen. li ke the dress of men.
During the third century BC many barbers from the Greek parts of Sicily moved to Rome and opened shops. as for men it was deemed utterly effeminate until the late empire. usually around the age of sixteen. One usually wore sandals tied round the ankle with thin strips of leatherThere were three main types of footwear:The calcei were the standard outdoor footwear for a Roman and formed part of the national dress with thetoga....... Roman footwear showed little distinction between male and female. The Romans though until 300 BC remained pretty much ungroomed. hence possibly an outdoor vestment of the wealthy. The tradition of intricately groomed beards was quite common among the Romans.Children wore an amulet called the bulla.. This seems possibly to have been quite a colourful decorated item. It was only with the introduction of the fashion of shaving during the age of Alexander. which were also meant for indoor use There were of course other types of footwear. Hence a wealthy Roman would have a slave accompany him to a banquet. Girls would wear it until they married. Cloaks. generally speaking a cross between a shoe and a sandal Sandals (soleae. to carry his sandals. Boys would wear it until reaching their manhood. worn only by poor peasants and slaves. crepidae or sandalia) were generally regarded as indoor footwear. A variety are known. where he would change into them. The pallium was worn over the tunic or the toga. The pero was a simple piece of leather wrapped around the foot. belted tunics. but more often replacing it If various kinds of cloaks are known by name. Beards and Hairstyles.Silk clothing was available to the rich.. Footwear. it is today quite hard to discern where the precise differences between these garments are to be found as little more than their name is known. .It finally took a firm hold in Rome in about the third century BC. Childrens. It was as improper to be seen in public wearing sandals outdoors as it was to visit your host's banquet in anything other. It is fair to assume that children. It was a soft leather shoe.. especially those not borne to rich families spent their time in simple.. but was solely used for female vestments. when the courtiers of the 4th century dressed in elaborately embroidered silk robes. Cloaks and other over garments were used to protect against bad weather.The third general type of footwear was a pair of slippers (socci). at times worn over the toga itself. the caliga was the hob-nailed military boot/sandal and the sculponea was a wooden clog.
. At first.Under Marcus Aurelius the fashion for shaving one's head clean was introduced.Married women's hairstyles were more complicated. belts and brooches. Some very vain ones might have had their hair curled with curling irons. One common factor of the styles of all early clothes is that they are made from uncomplicated basic shapes which rely on girdles. Manners and costume also helped create a Greek culture that gave additional structure to one of the greatest civilisations the earth has seen.Consequently Greece has influenced every other nation that has risen to power since. One of the styles used largely at court had the hair arranged in several layers. pots and in statue form. keeping all of it tied up tightly with ribbons on the very crown of the head (tutulus). they tended all to keep their hair cut short..Such fashion in hairstyle required the services of an expert female hairdresser who also doubled as make up artist (ornatrix). Though this strange arrangement disappeared very soon. wigs. the women of early Rome wore their hair in Etruscan fashion. Grecian Clothing. Young women simply gathered their hair into a bun at the back of the neck. though some priestesses still retained its use. or coiled it into a knot a the top of the head. falling to the face in an abundance of ringlets. Already as early as the second century BC caustic soap made of tallow and ashes was imported from Gaul to dye ladies hair a reddish-yellow colour. It was a country of eminent thinkers and put Greece at the forefront of civilized thought and argument. it was at one time the 'it' place of its day. The ideas. Greek Although we think of Greece today as a relatively small country in the east of Europe. hair lotions and dyes were all known to the Romans. whilst being pampered for hours at the barbers. as well as additional hair pieces to be added to create such a mass of hair. pinned and tucked into position as shown here. The fashion history of ancient Greece has been carefully illustrated on vases. Pictorial evidence has enabled us to have a very clear idea of Ancient Greek dress. philosophies and writings left behind by the Greeks and the resultant archaeological finds from old ruins have created a good source of Greek era material and especially of costume.Hair pieces.Grecian clothes were little more than artfully arranged pieces of cloth. Especially in the late republic it was seen as very fashionable for young men to keep a small..These two images above are representations of ancient Greek dresses. The general tradition of clean shaven Romans remained As for Roman men's hairstyles. clasp or pins to create shape and form around the human body.Of course Rome was not completely immune to the whims of fashion. whilst early Christians tended to have their hair and beards cut short. well-groomed beard (barbula).
. Doric Chiton. but in later times the chiton was constructed from two pieces of cloth.Cloth was so valuable it was not cut in earlier eras.. The width was that of the full open arm span. In early times the Doric chiton was made from fabric which was the height of the wearer.Their elegance is derived from the careful arrangement of folds and complex arrangements of girdles.. A is pinned to A and B is pinned to B.Embroidered patterns such as checks and floral forms were used to embellish the fabric edges to create border effects.. they wore it in much the same two shoulder pinned manner as the woman show right. In time they evolved into the Ionic chiton. The most famous Greek pattern is the Greek key/fret pattern shown here. The earlier Greek Doric Chiton above was made of wool and simply folded around the body. The fabric was folded as shown in the chiton pattern picture shown right. Both men and women wore the tunic or Greek chiton and it was simply an arrangement of folded and wrapped fabric as shown above and left. . wore a short knee length Greek chiton although there were times when they wore it long . Men mostly for everyday clothing. Women wore a floor length dress called a Greek chiton. The open sides are wrapped around each other and a girdle tied at the waistline with the loose fabric of C at the same level. A Greek Chiton. Simple borders fall into interesting patterns when arranged as a long chiton robe. strapping or belts. plus 12 inches. Or. which was made of linen and even silk.Men frequently pinned their chiton on the left shoulder leaving a bare right shoulder. The Doric chiton was made from wool . The gap between B and the side fold will drape when in fabric and become the second armhole.
in particular they added brooches to confer wealth and status. The loose. Delicate muslin was also used. Rustic Greek Dresses. Ionic chitons used more material and were fitted with fibulae on the shoulders.Men wore white or beige. further investigation showed the women of ancient Greece wearing several colours such as yellow.. The Ancient Greek cloak was a simple rectangle or square of cloth thrown around the shoulders and fastened mostly with a bronze pin. this was called a GreekHimation. and more scope for the Greek fashion elite of the day. short Greek chiton was better suited to working in the fields and tendering to the livestock. blue or green.The female cloak is called a Greek peplos and was worn over their chiton. In colder weather the larger cloak was worn. Colours for Ancient Greek clothing were not just white or natural as was first thought. The name for this particular short cloak mostly worn as a short military cloak by young men or horsemen was a Greekchlamys.The advantage of using linen to make the Ionic chiton was that it was much more flexible. The Ionic Chiton attracted more accessories from the Greek fashion forward of those days. Initially Greeks used wool and linen fabrics. The Ionic chiton was made from linen or silk. but as the society became more sophisticated they traded for silk goods and it was not so much fashion styles that set individuals apart as the differentiation by the luxury that silk fabrics offered. .From a costume history concept of fashion repeating itself.. Rustic dress was a more relaxed shorter version like these Grecian folk shown left. The Ancient Greek Cloak. the result was that it hung in fine pleats of diaphanous crepon. red. relaxed.Ionic Chiton.With better materials came more sophistication. purple. for example to create sleeves.. While paint had worn away from statue evidence.. Some fabrics were patterned. the fine pleated look of the Ionic chiton. Chlamys or Himation. As a result.The different arrangements of fabric created a variety of styles like these two shown above...
Greek warriors of battle wore tunics of leather with metal plaque reinforcements.Greek male battle dress shares a similarity with Roman battle dress.Hairstyles for Women. Horsehair crests made the helmet an impressive sight. (but no visor) enabling the soldier to push back the face cover when at ease. tiaras and bands is well illustrated in Greek imagery and is shown left. Only boys and women had long hair and men cut their hair once they became youths.. cone headdress and tiaras. Women used gold. Young girls used fresh flowers and ribbons. adding ribbons or garlands when a young woman or wearing a 'Stephanie' metal head dress .Greek light infantrymen wore double felt or leather tunics and leather greaves. Greek Battle Dress. Helmets and leg protection called greaves added more skin coverage The metal battle dress itself was valuable since it had to be crafted by skilled metalworkers. Over the centuries hair dressing was important to create various complex updo hairstyles. Popular styles involved tying the hair up with a fabric scarf. Some of the decorative metal elements paid homage to favourite Gods the Greeks thought would take care of them in battle and in the after life. Courtesans wore gilded sandals. the more protective it became.Plaiting. Ancient Greeks mostly went barefoot although some wealthy people did wear sandals. . and possibly. When making costumes for fancy dress parties always remember the golden rule of getting the hair and feet as near as the style worn to match a costume.. The higher the rank the better the dress armour and shield was crafted. . silver hair pins. All wore the Chlamys in battle (see above) as a cloak or as a left arm wrap for battle blows protection. crimping and waving of female hair as well as decoration with pins. One characteristic of the Greek helmet was that it almost totally enclosed the head and sometime had moveable sides..
Formal Japanese clothing can be very elaborate in their design or simple and elegant as well. The Japanese traditional clothing can be seen in many forms and interesting patterns which have evolved over the years. During the 8th century. Some of these are worn even today. Over the years. Kimono. China influenced clothing in Japan while it was developing from a collection of loose clans to an Empire. "First of all. The bizarre to the really creative designs can be found out here. The kimono turned into a stylish version during Japan¶s Heian period.Japanese ancient clothing was majorly influenced by China. Colors. Japanese traditional clothing can be seen in many varieties.. These were made of wood with two straps and were unisexual. Clogs have been worn for centuries in ancient Japan and were known as Geta. Clothing in Japan now is very much as per the seasons as is the case all over the world. Right to left was considered barbaric in China and the µleft over right¶ became the conventional rule of wearing a Kimono ever since. Some of the earliest designs of the kimono were hugely influenced by the Hanfu.. length and sleeves. All robes in Japan were to be worn from left to right just like the Chinese.Japanese fashion trends have evolved over the years. tabi is still worn. Since the Japanese people don¶t wear footwear inside their homes.. Zori was footwear made of softer materials like straw and fabric with a flat sole. culture and footwear are slowly regaining their popularity with the western world. The Japanese kimono and the yukata remain to be the most popular kinds. It also remains to be the national costume of Japan. ancient Japanese clothing consisted of a piece of clothing. Bright colors can be seen in the spring season and fall colors can be witnessed in the autumn season. one could see visible changes in the . Chinese fashion trends gained popularity amongst the Japanese. Ancient Japanese clothing was mostly unisex. with differences in color. Weaving is still unknown and the ancient Japanese clothing from fur. These are split ±toe socks woven out of non-stretch materials with thick soles. Ancient Japan readily adopted other cultures and practices and most of its own culture is lost among these adaptations. Here¶s a look at some of the various forms of Japanese traditional clothing.Japan Ancient Japanese clothes. which is a part of Chinese clothing. combinations and fabric textures changed and separated themselves from Chinese influence. The word Kimono actually referred to all types of clothing.
The yukata is also a part of Japanese traditional clothing and can be considered to be a casual version of the kimono. An obi belt is used to tie the uwangi . This is an elegant garment that is considered to be a prized possession today. Zori.. the hakama was worn only by men. (Between the big toe and the rest of the toes) The jika-tabi are often worn by workmen because they are made of a stronger material.. People generally wear the yukata after bathing and this is a common sight to see in traditional Japanese inns.. J nihitoe. These were often worn with the . worn only the court ladies in Japan.. These are known to hold a lot of importance for the samurai. These are worn by men as well as women. The zori formed a major part of Japanese traditional clothing. The uwangi consists of a jacket that is almost on similar lines as the kimono.. Uwangi.. the hakama was worn by the samurai so that the opponent would not be able to see the footwork. This is worn with the hakama. which are a representation of certain virtues.This form of Japanese traditional clothing is always worn by women and particularly for special occasions. The tabi are actually traditional Japanese socks..designs of the kimono. These being garments that are meant to cool the body are made in fabrics like cotton. men as well as women wear the hakama but in the earlier days.. In the ancient times. which is called the furisodei Hakama... Footwear and socks Tabi. The j nihitoe can also be considered as one of the most expensive. unmarried women wear a specific style of the kimono.. The men and women¶s hakama are also found in many varieties today. A hakama has around 7 pleats. This traditional clothing came onto the scene around the 10th century. Yukata. This type of Japanese traditional clothing consists of a wide pleated skirt. One can witness the uwangi as a part of the martial arts uniform. The tabi is generally ankle high and has a separation between the toe areas. Today.. As per the Japanese tradition.
.. Dating Victorian Costume.. Looking at the section on Crinolines. one can see many styles of the zori being used with modern fashion. Illustrations of Victorian clothes of the last 20 years of the C19 th can be dated to within a year or two. The waragi was worn by all the common people in Japan in the olden days.A waragi is also a kind of footwear that is worn in different ways by different people. the toes would extend over the front edge of the sandal..Where to Look for Fashion Details. Much fuller details of petticoats styles are given in Crinolines and Bustles.. These have a high wooden base and are worn with Japanese traditional clothing such as the Kimono or even the yukata. when the Japanese wore the waragi.. At the start of the Victorian era most fashions lasted about a decade.The geta can be described as our regular flip-flops. Geta.Queen Victoria reigned from 1837 to 1901 and was succeeded by her 60 year old son Edward the Prince of Wales. The obi was worn with many types of Japanese traditional clothing such as the kimono. The zori are open sandals that can be described as slip ons. Waragi.kimono. Great hats had given a flirtatious air to clothes and their replacement by bonnets changed the whole character of day .The look of demure prim gentility was emphasized by the loss of the great hats in 1835 for bonnets. One can see the obi also worn with martial arts uniform. Today. Obi also remains to be the outermost sash worn by the Japanese.This is an overview of fashion history of the early Victorian era and can be read in line with other related topics. Costumes and fashion of different eras Early Victorian Costume and Fashion History 1837-1860 Early Victorian Fashion Overview. today it is only the Buddhist monks who prefer to wear the waragi. but mass communications and mass production both improved so much that by 1901 the history of fashion was moving in a yearly cycle. The obi is a kind of as sash that is used by men as well as women.. In terms of Victorian fashion history this also brought changes in women's position and dress.. Sash Obi.. The Early Victorian Silhouette 1837-56. Bustles and S Bends Corsets would help those new to costume to understand the subtle changes in dress and hairstyles and how to spot the changes from a fashion history point of view... For theatrical and re-enactment work there are clear distinctions in dress in every Victorian decade.Movements like the Rational Dress Reform Society and the Aesthetic Dress Movement highlight positive and negative reactions to industrial and technical applications happening in Victorian society. it can conceal several other sashes that are worn beneath this sash.... The colors of the obi denote the rank of the individual. As per tradition. Victorians .
Prim sentimentality was emphasized by the popular ringlet hairstyle. All the boned bodice seam lines and trims were directional to emphasize the small waists. but after 1846 flat pleating the fabric gave more overall hemline width.Typical . The boning also helped stop the bodice from horizontal creasing. Softer more demure plain colours and small delicate dimity patterns helped to add a neat ladylike quality to gowns. c1838 By 1840 the collapsed sleeve was much narrower. This meant that an early Victorian woman's arm movements were restricted. Left . By 1842 they needed a great deal of support from extra petticoats. Cartridge pleats were used at first to draw up the skirt fabric in 1841. The limited range of arm movements increased the appearance of demure vulnerability and helplessness we so often associate with Victorian femme fatales. Both were often made of delicate whitework and gave an air of refinement and daintiness.Right . more streamlined early Victorian dresses of 1838. 'Crin' is French for horsehair so the word crinoline suggesting a crin lining was used for any garment area that was stiffened to give shaped foundation.Slimmer fitting sleeves of plainer. crinolines.The early sentimental Victorian look often used to depict ladies of the era.Right . To make the skirts appear wider. It was then only another step to call the later artificial or cage hooped support frame petticoats after 1856. By 1845 the boned bodice was even more elongated into a V shape and the shoulder sleeve seam line drooped even more. The early Victorian tight fitting pointed bodice was much longer and had a very small tight fitting waist. Evening dresses totally exposed a woman's shoulders in a style called the 'bertha'. Later by 1850 the word crinoline began to mean the whole of the beehive shaped skirt. After being absent for a decade the cashmere shawl was brought back into fashion about 1840. flounces and short overskirts were a regular feature of day dresses. Because the new version was larger it acted as an outer wrap and when folded in half and draped over the shoulders would reach almost to ground level in some cases. As bell shaped skirts of the 1830s became wider and they began to also look dome shaped. Sometimes the bertha neckline was trimmed over with a 3 to 6 inch deep lace flounce or the bodice neckline was draped with several horizontal bands of fabric pleats. Strip hem linings and a sleeve head are just two examples where crin was used. The cut of the low shoulder line filled in to the neckline by day followed through to evening dresses. extra flounces were added in the early 1840s to evening dresses and by 1845. In 1836 Gigot sleeves collapsed abruptly and so costume began to develop the sentimental 'early Victorian look' we associate with Queen Victoria's early rule. Lavishly trimmed bonnets stayed in fashion for half a century and weren't worn much after 1890. but still retained a restrictive seam line on the dropped shoulder.dresses. The wider skirts were supported by stiffened fabrics like linen which used horsehair in the weave. A Victorian woman could also emphasize modesty by wearing freshly laundered detachable white collars and false undersleeves called engageantes.
so it was fortunate that women had universally adopted the wearing of drawers some years before. Within a few years the crinoline was improved when it became articulated and various modifications such as subtle flattening of the front created a less domed more pyramid effect by 1860. It is these distinctively styled sleeves that help date the first softer polonaise bustle when looking at illustrations. Another American W . S. launder and re-stitch into position. Lace bertha neckline 1856 very usual on early Victorian evening dress. Skirts among all classes began to look rounded.S Thompson took out a patent on a cage frame in 1856 and then marketed a steel frame cage crinoline throughout Europe. Thompson. suggesting a bifurcated garment as a solution. Amelia Bloomer denounced the style that needed so many petticoats.false detachable undersleeves. Engageantes were often made from fine lace. The cotton. All this exposure was restricted to the upper and middle classes. flannel or wool petticoats used under one skirt could weigh as much as 14 pounds..To balance the effect of the cage crinoline. cambric or Broderie Anglaise and were easy to remove. like gigantic domed beehives and soon they reached maximum size. The décolleté style meant that the shawl became an essential feature of dresses. although a top petticoat give a softer foundation for the dress skirt. but it could be unstable in gusts of wind. This fashion for two piece costumes. linen. Charles Worth was responsible for many interesting sleeve styles of the mid-Victorian era. lawn.domed appearance of petticoat supported Victorian crinoline dress and child's confirmation dress of 1851. so clothes were uncomfortably hot and heavy in summer.. but known as a dress lasted until about 1908. The American Mrs.. It freed women from excessive petticoat weight. Crinoline Cage Frame of 1856 Patented by W. Using a separate bodice to skirts meant that a tighter waist could be achieved.Engageantes . Freed from excess petticoat weight women began to gain a jaunty spring in their step. In the early Victorian years time corsets also lost their shoulder straps and a fashion for producing two bodices. Victorian working class women would never have revealed so much flesh.Right . Engageantes. Six petticoats at least were needed to hold the wide skirts out. sleeves were like large bells too and sometimes had open splits allowing for lavish decorative sleeve hemlines and detachable false undersleeves called engageantes. It let women's legs move freely beneath. with a closed décolletage for day and a décolleté one for evening.. . Petticoats were always cut following the line of the top garment.
softer bustled version. Such conspicuous waste and conspicuous consumption were hallmarks of Victorian high living. Older. .We arrive at 1860 with four significant facts that were to seriously affect fashion of the future. he is associated with it. which only the really rich found practical. He showed the clothes on live models and when people bought his original designs he became a leading fashion design couturier of the Victorian era. thirdly synthetic dyes would make available intense colours. The House of Worth became a leader of ideas for the next 30 years. froths of tulle and pleated gauze trims would have emphasised the innocence of virginal girls whilst signalling their availability on the marriage market. It was thought good etiquette to dress according to one's position in society and that also meant not wearing clothes more suited to a younger woman. Haute Couture during the Victorian period was an ideal foil for conspicuous consumption.Dress designed by Charles F. married more senior women wore statelier fabrics like heavy satins. Firstly the sewing machine had been invented. as he did manipulate the style. as a result the shape soon changed to a new trained. Until that time fashion details and changes were suggested by the customers.In 1857 the Englishman Charles Worth set up a Paris fashion house at 7 Rue de la Paix a then unfashionable Paris district.In 1866 the new Princess gown also changed the line of fashionable dress. In 1858 he made a collection of clothes that were unsolicited designs.. Silk flowers. However. crisp silks and plush velvet.. Charles Worth thought the crinoline skirt unattractive. The New Princess Line 1866. When researching fashion history it is important to remember that ordinary women were dressed in a much more subdued manner. Fragile gauze dresses decorated with flowers and ribbons that were made for wealthy young women were only intended to be worn for one or two evenings and then cast aside as they soiled and crushed so easily. The Princess gown was cut in one piece and consisted of a number of joined panels fitted and gored from shoulder to hem that gave the figure shape through seaming.Fourthly in 1860 the crinoline domed skirt silhouette had a flattened front and began to show a dramatic leaning toward the garment back... secondly clothes would in future become couture design led. Mid-Late Victorian Fashion and Costume History 1860-1901 The Mid Victorian Silhouette 1860-1880 Factors Affecting the Fashion Silhouette after 1860. This top skirt gave a lot of scope for added ornamentation and by 1868 it was being drawn and looped right up at the back creating drapery and fullness.. Worth In 1864 Worth designed an overskirt which could be lifted and buttoned up by tabs. Many would mainly wear occupational dress or household serving uniform.Charles Worth Redefines Haute Couture in 1858.Right ..
Left . ruffles. Sleeves in day dresses were often of a banana shape.Slim fitting trained dress with cuirasse bodice 1876. By 1878 the cuirasse bodice reached the thighs..Right .Apron style tablier top layer half skirt over bustle. The bustles supported accentuated drapes on the hips. Rounder waistlines were fashionable and waistlines even began to rise very slightly On the left a tiered soft bustle ball gown of 1872. Soon by 1873 the train was seen in day dress. The Soft Bustle Fashion Silhouette 1867-1875. Later Princess styles were slimmer and much more form fitting.The cuirasse . women of the late Victorian era have a very different look about them compared to earlier Victorian women.The soft polonaise style bustle styles were replaced by Princess sheath garments without a waist seam with bodice and skirt cut in one. The silhouette was slim and elongated even more by the train. From 1870. The Late Victorian Silhouette 1878-1901. The other main feature of the style change was the introduction of the cuirasse bodice which dipped front and back extending a little over the hips.. No bustle was needed for the cuirasse bodice or Princess sheath dress. This is the dress style often used to depict the constrained buttoned up repressed governess character of Jane Eyre in films.. crinolines and cages suddenly disappeared evolving into tournures or bustles.After 1868 Worth's overskirt really caught on in England and contrasting underskirts and gown linings were all revealed as the over top skirt was divided or turned back. By 1880 the soft bustle styles of the 1870s had totally disappeared. By 1875 soft polonaise bustle styles were becoming so extreme that the soft fullness began to drop down the back of the garment and form itself into a tiered.Right . The Princess line sheath had a bodice line similar to the very tight fitting cuirasse bodices which had been getting longer and longer. Other top skirts were called aprons and they were also draped making the wearer look like a piece of elaborate upholstery. pleats. but a small pad would have helped any trained fabric to fall well.. The cuirasse bodice was corset like and dipped even deeper both front and back extending well down the hips creating the look of a body encased in armour.By 1878.Women in the Garden . The Princess Line and the Cuirasse Bodice. braids and fringing. Left .Trains were very heavily ornamented with frills.. ball gowns always had a train. draped and frilled train. The sewing machine instead of simplifying sewing.By 1867 with the fullness bunched up to the back of the skirt creating a polonaise style. just became a tool to add more ostentation. By 1880 the two ideas merged and the whole of the dress was in Princess line style with shoulder to hem panels. By 1878 the cuirasse bodices had reached the thighs..The Gabriel Princess gown with a small neat white collar was mainly made in grey silk and followed the fuller skirt lines of the era.
For support the spring pivoted metal band Langtry bustle gave the correct foundation for the wider skirts. It had minimal drapery compared to the former and a slimmer more fitted severely tailored princess bodice.. sea green were used alone.Suddenly out of nowhere in 1883 a new jutting out shelf like style of bustle appeared. As a fashion it barely lasted 3 years. The new bustle dress had a different look. Bright Aniline Dyed Colour. There are similarities in the period 1885 with 1985 when women also showed their strength in the corporate workplace with Power Dressingthrough more masculine tailored.Power Dressing.. shoulder padded clothes. with a much flatter front. or in tartan fabrics. The New Hard Bustle of 1883. but all too often swathes of fabric were wrapped and arranged across the garment in an effort to disguise poor dressmaking skills.It's interesting to note how late Victorian women embraced the sharper tailored jacket fashion which gave them a difference with a more confident air reflecting the ideals of early female emancipation. mandarin.sThe gowns of the 1880s were almost always made in two colours of material.. but as a fashion took off later outside of Paris. It made an exceptionally form fitting draped sheath dress which was elongated even further by the train. This later bustle fashion was very moulded to the body and the heavy corsetry gave an armour like rigidity to the silhouette. Vivid colours such as deep red.. royal blue.Left . Tailored garments had been introduced in 1874 and their influence on design was subtle. peacock blue. It had been shown in Paris in 1880. in combination.. plain and close fitting. Soon even that disappeared. It reappeared even larger than ever as a hard shape that gave women a silhouette like the hind legs of a horse as shown in the page heading. The sleeves look like quite a different style than on the bustle dress of the 1870s which had sleeves that would not have looked out of place on dresses of 1860. In 1887 the sleeves were still slimmer.Tailor made suit of 1895. purple. Right . bright apple green.bodice of 1880 reached the hem actually becoming the princess panel dress. .. It was not a very practical garment and only really suited to the very slim and those who did not have to work. What drapery there was. Victorian Fashion History . was tidily arranged at the front of the dress as a small apron. but led eventually to the tailor made suit so fashionable in the 1890s. A similar broad shoulder trend occurred in the Utility Clothing era of the 1940s when women did work usually thought of as men's work. Some dresses also had a more severe air about them.The second hard bustle style 1883. Right Dress of 1889 showing signs of elevation at the sleeve head. The pointed bodice began to look quite tailored.By 1889 silhouette changes now couturier led were changing more rapidly and the sleeve developed a very slight leg of mutton outline which soon needed support. The slimline style needed good dressmaking skills to get a flattering fit. When done well it was attractive.
As before the bustle foundation softened until only a small pad was left by 1893.. The real royal influence in fashion was the wife of the Prince of Wales. they followed the general line of fashion. The Silhouette after 1890The bustle disappeared from day dresses and the new day skirt style was flared smoothly over the hips from a handspan waist and then gradually widened at the hemline. Left .Some colour combinations were very strange. The size of the sleeves was highlighted by the comparison of the tiny sashed or belted waist against the simple gored skirt that flared out all round to balance the massive sleeve heads.Gradually the skirt widened and flared as the fullness of the bustle began to fall into pleats down the garment back eventually disappearing to nothing. The armour like hour glass figure soon developed into the S-Bend shape corset which set the Edwardian Corsetry silhouette until 1907-8. Together they set the tone for society and fashion in the last decade of the century in the 1890s and into their own reign of the Edwardian era from 1901 to 1910. In retrospect we can see it is an era very separate from the 20th century despite belonging at its start. Queen Victoria's influence over fashion was long gone. The masses started to reject the concept of privilege as the reason for a better life. By 1895 the sleeves swelled into enormous puffs similar to those of 1833. La Belle Époque 1895-1914 Edwardian Fashion History What is La Belle Époque?Aspects of Edwardian fashion history are examined in the sections on the Society Hostess. Leg of Mutton Sleeves.. Princess Alexandra. The attitudes and lifestyles of two decades were swept away by war and because the war was so atrocious a new socialism and sense of personal identity was born. people who were in mourning still followed court guidelines on mourning dress. It was an epoch of beautiful clothes and the peak of luxury living for a select few . The Edwardian Seamstress and Edwardian Corsetry. At night ladies evening dresses were in softer hues and although they were extravagantl y trimmed in contrast fabrics and very décolleté..Hostess beauties of the . As happened in 1830 to balance the huge shoulders the skirt widened and flared.The leg of mutton sleeves continued to develop and sprouted high above the shoulders.the very rich and the very privileged through birth. Here we give a general overview of the main popular styles in the period 18901914 by which time fashion moved in a yearly cycle.By 1895 the leg of mutton sleeves swelled to gigantic proportions and were also used on décolleté evening dresses.Evening gown with train 1890. whilst keeping the waist tight and handspan narrow. Clothes worn after 1915 could probably be worn today in certain circumstances.The French called the era from 1895 to 1914 La Belle Époque. 1890s.. but clothes before then are more in tune with the elaborate clothes of 1770 and would only be seen today at a costumed event or as bridal wear.
. Another Gibson look was a shirt collar worn with either a tie. Looser less fitted versions of a simple suit had been available for informal wear since 1850.The tailor made was called a costume or a suit and made of wool or serge. By the 1890s and until 1910 the gored skirt also looked more tailored and matched the jacket style which followed the changing silhouette of the time.The fashionable hour glass silhouette belonged to the mature woman of ample curves and full bosom.Grace Palotta Tailor Made Ready to Wear Costumes.. Home dressmakers did their best to emulate the fussy couture blouses and they used fine pin tucks. Tailor mades were always described as ideal for travelling. Women seemed to be making a clear statement that they deserved and wanted more independence in the future.. right . The second green jacket is a longer line jacket that continued in popularity. Describing female clothes as masculine was intended to be derogatory. appliqué.The pink tailor made shown left here has a short bolero effect jacket. The Gibson Girl.The Gibson Girl. Blouses are detailed in the section on the Edwardian Seamstress. For twenty years between 1890 and 1910 he satirised society with his image of 'The New Woman' who was competitive. But the tailored suit as we know it was first introduced in the 1880s by the Houses of Redfern and Creed.. floppy artist bow..This particular image was a cartoon character drawn by the American artist Charles Dana Gibson. Lighter cloths were used in tailor made outfits suitable for weddings and heavier tweeds and rougher serge used for everyday or country wear suits.. tie neck cravat with stick pin bar brooch or crosscut ruffle jabot. insertions of lace.. pleats and lace trim to get good effects.Her clothes were fashionable in both America and Britain and set a fashion for skirts worn with embroidered blouses. In the 1890s the tailored suit was thought both masculine and unladylike. Initially only the jacket was tailored and it was worn with a draped bustle skirt. more commercial workplace found it a useful all purpose outfit. The corset was too tightly laced at the waist and so forced the hips back and the . Edwardian tailored suits ideal for travel.Fashion history clearly shows that by 1900 tailored suits were firmly established.Mary Moore. The S-bend health corset described fully in the section on Edwardian Corsetry set the line for fashion conscious women until 1905.Beautiful embellished ornate blouses took on a new importance and were worn by every class.. Middle and upper class women wore them with shirtwaist blouses. Men objected to the tailor made female suit as they saw it representing a challenge to their authority. sporty and emancipated as well as beautiful. fine embroidery.1890s. faggoting. Within a decade they became much more versatile with a distinction being made between the cloths used. The Edwardian Silhouette 1900-1907.Right . Women entering a changing.. but became straighter and less waisted toward the end of the Edwardian era. Left ... a description usually used for a fairly plain garment.
simply flowing to more width at the hemline. The Edwardian Silhouette 1908-1913. trained skirt and lavish hat all had an effect on the posture of an Edwardian lady and it gave her a certain swaying grandeur. The bodice was heavily boned and was almost like a mini corset itself worn over the S-bend corset.Above Left . Little wire or boning supports covered with buttonhole silk were sometimes dispersed every few inches of the collar to maintain the rigid effect. S bend corset. So after 1907 fashion history looked toward a new fresh direction when a longer line corset became fashionable. The corset almost reaching the knees was intended to make the figure look slimmer. The high collar. No cleavage was visible as the bust was suppressed into a monobosom.Bodice pouched Edwardian day dresses At the front of the bodice..The waistline was raised until it was a column like empire line orDirectoire after the styles designed by fashion designer Paul Poiret.During this time it was still usual to make dresses in two pieces.By 1905 press fasteners were used in Britain to hold the bodice or blouse to a skirt. The S-Bend corset and pouter pigeon effect.. but by night exceptionally low sweetheart. square and round décolleté necklines allowed women to wear quantities of fine jewellery. contour and directional shape beneath the delicate top fabric. Poiret's ideas were controversial and were directed at younger women.Right . .If you were wealthy like an Edwardian society hostess. A top bodice was usually mounted onto a lightly boned under bodice lining which fastened up with hooks and eyes very snugly. Right . Very deep high lace fabric collars that reached right under the chin elongated the neck. Modified versions were less extreme over the hips. cascades of lace and ultra feminine clothes were available as labour was plentiful and sweated.. Between 1906 an 1909 the silhouette began to show gradual changes and skirts lost fullness and the silhouette straightened.The skirts were often gored and created an elongated trumpet bell shape like the gently opening head of a longiflorum lily. High necks were usual by day. Feet showed again.. Theywere often kept in place with wire covered in silk that was twisted into a series of hooks and eyes from one piece of wire.. The straight sleeves of the late 1890s developed into bloused effects gathered into wrist bands. It acted as a stay garment giving extra stability.High neck blouse 1906.drooping monobosom was thrust forward in a pouter pigeon effect creating an S shape.The S-Bend Silhouette. but America had dress fasteners as early as 1901 . pouches of cascading lace or gathered fabric gave emphasis to the low bust line.
. All the items had allowed for the cut of the bustles and pads of the era and the garments ranged from high hip to three quarter length. Sketches of Edwardian Hair and Hat Fashions in Fashion History from 1899 1912.. moving slowly from one line to another. Casaques and Mantelets. but gradually it was replaced by other outdoor items such as capes. hats developed much wider brims. The Casaque was a deep close fitting basque jacket that buttoned to the neck.Hairstyles like dress fashions. wraps and jackets... Parasols. The fur skin of whole animals such as foxes and even two foxes were used as wraps about the shoulders..Parasols were still used as decorative accessories and in summer they dripped with lace and added to the overall fussy prettiness.Washable kid gloves were always worn with outdoor garments both winter and summer. velvet and fur trim on the oversized muff..After the slimmer silhouette arrived.. Aesthetes objected to the use of animal products.. The hats were named Merry Widow hats after the popular operetta of the era. Gloves. These are some drawings of hair styles circa 1900-1914.Feathers were used excessively as decoration on hats and as boas.Women wore the shawl for many years... Feathers. Bags.. Right ... but small decorative delicate bags with a dainty strap that hung from the wrist were sometimes used. A Paletot was a short jacket with set in sleeves and the Mantelet was a kind of half shawl..Handbags were not fashionable in the era. Note the incredible feather hat and lavish gold metal embroidery. Ladies carried little money as goods were charged to accounts and only minimal make up was usual so none was carried. Fancy gloves were also made in suede and silk and covered with fine embroidery.. Incredible Edwardian Hats.. Edwardian Small Accessories.Paletots.Martial and Armand Creation depicting the perfectly groomed directoire styled woman of 1912. often change gradually. Lavish trims such as feathers often stuck out well beyond the brim. Each row shows how hats and hairstyles evolve during the Edwardian era .
Circular extensions cut from a circle or deep. advantages many a hostess possessed. Medical Criticism of Unhygienic Trained Skirts. bias cut flounces were attached to the yoke and these additions tended to flow outwards from the body. Long trains were denounced as being unhygienic by the medical profession. During the next three years the 'eel skirt' and 'umbrella skirt'. Many skirts had trains which swept the ground. The skirt had never before presented concave surfaces other than in the train section. This fashion favoured the taller woman. The period 1897-1907 was the time of the 'flared skirt'. both cut on the cross and having an element of flare became fashionable.The grace-fullness of the elliptical curve which passed from hips to hem depended on the skirt length and the height of the wearer. The Edwardian Carriage Class... Skirts were confining..The Edwardian era was the last period when the mature female figure was every man's ideal. They followed the same sinuous lines of art nouveau. The effect when she moved was very stately mainly because the sheer weight of many under-garments over the corsets restricted her movements. being better fed and ladylike in deportment.. Buxom ladies tortured their flesh to achieve the hour glass figure Edward VII favoured. However from 1897 onwards the yoked skirt developed.. .Trailing her obvious wealth behind her the hostess soon found herself the centre of criticism from medical men. Improved versions appeared during the 1900s and the flare became more and more effective with gored skirts having as many as fifteen gores.The S-Bend Figure... It also favoured the wealthier woman. It is more than likely however. They distorted their figures into the exaggerated S bend shape associated with the fashions of the era.. Then a hole was cut in the centre to fit the required waist measurement. The Cut of Edwardian Skirt Styles.The hostess achieved this stately movement as much by the restrictive nature of her clothes as by years of deportment and dancing lessons. indicating that their owners belonged to the carriage class and could afford to employ servants to valet them. To carry the 'S' figure well a woman needed a good carriage and height. the yoke being achieved by joining together two widths of fabric which reached the knee. with every aspect of the skirt presenting a concave curve. being tight waisted and 'bell' shaped.
Attired in her tea-gown. Little wonder then that whilst hemlines rose and fell the tea-gown. the initial break with the traditional styles stemmed from the inspiration drawn from the Aesthetic and Rational Dress Reform Movements of the late 19th century. This was all fast forwarded during the . that rustled as they walked. Right . Petticoats made of silk. Such loose gowns afforded women great comfort... In the years between 1905 and 1918 clothing styles emerged that were evolutionary in bridging the gap between the rigid formality of the Edwardian styles and the ultimate changes that led to the knee high dresses of 1926...Edwardian bodices blouses dripping with lace.. husbands were expected to go out to tea whilst their wives played hostess to visitors both male and female..Under their skirts leisured hostesses wore foundation underskirts. although the less fortunate paid as little as five shillings and sixpence for a popular make that could swish equally loudly with movement. providing the visual symbolism that enabled others to place the hostess on a scale of status. a soft flowing robe of filmy chiffon or fine silk. High fashion was the sartorial art of high living.m. new influences and a changing society in a young century began to challenge the stiff formality that prevailed. In the Edwardian era. A wealthy lady might have chosen one costing as much as fifty guineas. and it was generally believed that a mass of under -wear was hygienic.A sweeping dress of the early Edwardian era.' Sexual Titillation through Edwardian Lace.1914-1920 Dress Reform 1905-1915.Right . the hostess must have been a tempting prospect for many men. During this period there was a good chance of romance and sexual intrigue.. trimmed with an abundance of lace and often free of corsetry. the mid 1920s and later in the 1970s and 1990s. Glamorous Edwardian Rustling Petticoats and Underwear. chiffon and frills were used as an instrument of sex appeal.m. Towards Dress Reform . moiré and other luxury fabrics were advertised. Edwardian Tea Gowns. Lace. satin. ease of access and a tremendous sense of femininity.Between three p. and six p. which had appeared in England as early as 1875 lingered on until the 1920s. With varying degrees of subtlety the hostess used dress to titillate the male imagination. No decent lady ever wore less than six petticoats.that they gradually disappeared because women found them uncomfortable to wear.They wore many petticoats. In 1920s fashion history.Oriental influences have been shown in fashion history in women's dress in other eras such as in the 1800s.. It was in total contrast to the prevailing mood of dreamy pastels favoured by high society when hot tropical colours and a new silhouette was introduced. made of beautiful taffetas or organdies.In fashion history terms time never stands still. Exciting theatrical costume designs which broke the rules also paved the way for more relaxed dressing. fringed with lace which formed an enchanting foam around their ankles. and other decorative embellishment as worn by society hostesses. Fashions favoured the mature woman and exploited the curves of an elaborately corseted figure amid the allure of tempestuous petticoats.
Hair.Sketches of a restrictive hobble dress and the slightly later more liberating double skirted mid calf dress of 1916.. a height never before reached. Dress rules for both sexes were relaxed in theatres and other venues.. belts with buckles and shorter skirts were seen everywhere.All the changes that were forced on a rigid society were a direct result of the war. worn over a slimmer under skirt also made of the top skirt fabric. but it is the patented record that gives her the credit. 1914 Underwear and the First Patented Bra. Colouring the hair with Henna was popular as it was less risky than using the unreliable chemical dyes of the time. What is certain is that a bodice designed separately from the corset had become usual wear by 1905 and Mary Jacobs had the intelligence to patent a design for a bra. The first bra was patented in 1914 by Mary Jacobs an American. Lucille and Vionnet all say they invented the bra as correct underwear for their new dress innovations and admonished clients to abandon their corsets. Women stopped wearing jewellery and lavish clothes. Worn with a band it could be dressed more prettily with a feather at night. Cretan women had the idea long before and various BBs or Bust Bodices or improvers had been around in Britain and France since the Edwardian era and exist today in costume collections. We will never truly know.. . and it looked well with the oriental fashions. As women mixed with other classes social barriers were eroded and the relaxed dress rules meant that they all began to look similar. A compromise between long and short tresses was 'Curtain' hair and was favoured by the genteel.Right .. Such garments were often fur trimmed. Clothes Styles During the First World War 1914-1918.Bright colours faded from sight and only sober colours were worn as the war dragged on. It is not thought to be the first bra ever.Many women had begun to cut their hair when doing war work f or practical reasons. Everyone was affected by the death of a loved one and so subdued dresses were simply a matter of good taste showing patriotism. Several designers including Paul Poiret. Fashion history shows that clothes got shorter during the First World War out of practical necessity. Barriers broken in this period laid the foundations for the more relaxed clothes of the 1920s. Women began to take part in voluntary philanthropic work which ultimately broadened their horizons and changed their outlook forever. But the double layered skirts as if to compensate for the length had a fuller top skirt often like a mini crinoline... This era from 1905 to 1915 was particularly important in eroding attitudes to dress which had been stuck in the rigidity of the Victorian era for too long. In 1915 the hemline rose dramatically to mid calf.war years and led to the major changes in construction of clothes and undergarments for the remainder of the century. By 1918 the fuller top skirt had gone and the calf length long skirt remained. Waistlines were still quite high following the Directoire style..The fashions of the era needed a new approach to under foundations. The effect of war on fashion styles was that military braiding.
When the war ended the same women simply did not want to return to being maids for other people. a chest as flat as a board.000 women were employed to make munitions. postal work. It never took off! Lessons learned from this were used in the 1939-45 war when women were given ration coupons. changed the role of women in a way that no amount of campaigning by a few liberated ladies could have achieved. 1914 -18 Changes for Women. Flapper fashion embraced all things and styles modern. Women did farm work working as Land Girls. As a recognition of their efforts it was later replaced by a uniform of khaki overalls and caps. They also served in the WAAC. The really rich still continued to wear beautifully embellished silk garments .. Recorded fashion history images after the twenties do reflect what ordinary women really wore rather than just the clothing of the rich. a shorter than average shapeless shift dress.The costume history image in our minds of a woman of the 'Roaring Twenties' is actually likely to be the image of a flapper.. Attainable Fashion for All. exposed her limbs and epitomised the spirit of a reckless rebel who danced the nights away in the Jazz Age. day gown or nightdress.Women and War WorkMany women gave up domestic service work and worked. Flapper Fashion 1920s. It had no hooks and eyes but metal buckles and was supposed to be an all purpose garment that could be a dinner gown. National Standard Dress. the Navy.The flapper fashion style flourished amid the middle classes negating differences between themselves and the truly rich.In 1918 an attempt was made to introduce a utility garment as a National Standard Dress.War poster. Amazingly after all their efforts only the jobs of bus conductresses remained open to them. It was easier to produce up to date plain flapper fashions quickly using flapper fashion Butterick dress patterns. did administrative tasks. the Red Cross and the Police began admitting women... Left . Flappers did not truly emerge until 1926. The Flapper History. By 1917 over 700.. But because construction of the flapper's dress was less complicated than earlier fashions.... but the barriers were broken and soon a wider choice of options became usual.Socio economic changes that occurred during the First World War 1914-18 and became accepted. A fashionable flapper had short sleek hair. smoked with a long cigarette holder. They had gained a new freedom working outside of homes with set hours and a comradeship and respect that they relished. They drove trams and collected the fares. wore make up and applied it in public. lamp lighting. wearing a working uniform of blouse and peg top trousers accessorised by scarves and fashion items. but had an element of choice in what they wore. The French called the flapper fashion style the 'garçonne'. worked as chimney sweeps and nursed. C20th Fashion History . but continuing to highlight some differences with the really poor.High fashion until the twenties had been for the richer women of society. women were much more successful at home dressmaking a flapper dress which was a straight shift...
New students of costume history often mistakenly assume that all dresses day and evening were short in every year of the twenties and that flappers were the only fashion style of the twenties. By 1926 skirts were at their shortest in the Twenties decade and showed the knee until 1928. The silhouette emphasised a flattened chest and womanly curves were eliminated as the line became more simplified. It was only in 1925 that skirts rose 14 to 16 inches (45 to 50 cm) from the ground making the shorter hemline we associate with the era. The Masculine Silhouette of 1920's Females.. faltered then rose again..for evening. The Short Skirt Misconception of the Twenties. . scalloped and handkerchief hemlines in floating fabrics. each year seemed to get more severe in line which almost emphasised the feminine woman beneath.. the shoulders became broader and hair shorter and shorter.After the first world war (1914-18) when women's dress became more mannish.By 1929 uneven hems and asymmetric skirt hemlines again helped the transition to longer skirts. but the masses revelled in their new found sophistication of very fashionable flapper clothes.. Female clothes became looser and more shapeless in fit. but the length remains steady around the calf area.In 1919 skirt lengths were calf length. but were designed to confuse. This was the flapper fashion era. By 1930 the hemline was several inches below the knee. the waist disappeared.In 1918 skirt lengths were just below calf length.Between 1916 and 1929 hemlines rose steadily. Longer sheer overskirts and semi sheer top skirts were worn over shorter linings.. and this was the only period when evening dresses were short in line with day dress lengths. The Elusive Hemline of the 1920s.Between 1920 and 1924 skirts remained calf length with fluctuations of an inch or two according to garment style. Dress and coat lengths were actually calf length and quite long for most of the decade. The bust was suppressed. Narrow boyish hips were preferred..Calf length loose dresses circa 1918 compared with those of 1920 where the waist has shown a definite drop.Gradually by degrees the skirt lengths on dresses gave the illusion of being first long and then shorter with dipping. Here we can see examples of the most elusive hemline in fashion history in the 1920s.. Skirts were actually still rather long. Shortness is a popular misconception reinforced by the availability of moving film of the Charleston dance which shows very visible knees and legs on the dancing flappers. Skirts only revealed the knee briefly between 1926 and 1928. The whole leg as far as the kneecap was revealed this was the height of flapper fashion. Dating the Twenties HemlineFrom 1913 the hemline had begun to show a little ankle.
Women wore cami-bockers (directoire knickers and chemise) or cami-knickers or knickers and a petticoat. Suspenders were attached to the girdles. there is no doubt that the possession of a youthful body was a prerequisite of twenties flapper fashion. sheer and lightweight.By the 1930s Triumph.. Gossard. By the 1920s stockings with patterns were hot fashion items. Embroidery snaked around the ankles and up to the knees.For young ladies with youthful figures a satisfactory bra was the four sectioned lace bandeau bra.Big busted girls turned to bandaging their breasts flat. More youthful women who could party all night and carry the boyish fashions well were all the rage. The arms were bared not only for evening. Long Corsets produced the boyish figure. the previous leaders of fashion whose style of dressing became as passé as their rounded figures and older faces. Maidenform. but few ladies were seeking anything more than stopping the bust from wobbling. Fast flappers refused to wear corsets and rolled their stockings to the knee to enable them to dance easily. The fashion for wearing black stockings continued until 1918.Underwear was minimal. Warner Brothers. Twilfit and Symingtons were all making bras that did the job of separating the breasts. ankles and calves formerly hidden and encased in black stocking were suddenly on show. At the same time it was finally acknowledged that women had differing cup sizes and bra sales doubled with the new designs.. Girdles and Underwear. the young and fashionable woman of the 1920s also paid attention to her legs and footwear. None of the bras gave much shape. Just as young women of today. lined in net.. Flesh and soft pastel colours were popular and they were made in either silk or artificial silk known as art silk later called rayon.Although the 1950s are thought of as the first time of the teenager and the 1960s as the era when the young first led fashion.. but instead of thick boned corsets many women preferred thin elastic webbing Lastex girdles that flattened the abdomen. The rayon stockings were very shiny so girls powdered their legs to dull them before venturing out. but many adopted the Symington Side Lacer.The Flat Chest of the Twenties. a hundred years later go bare legged in Gladiator sandals or encase their feet in cosy Ugg Boots. but also for day and the legs were covered in beige stockings visible to the knee which gave an overall more naked look than ever before.The bras of the early 20s include home made ones in white cotton and which were little more than bust bodices with extra separation.. Some purchased bras were like camisoles and they offered no support. The 1920's Bra . Names of . It was a difficult time for the former matrons of Edwardian society. a bra that could be laced at both sides and pulled and pulled in to flatten the chest. Spirella..The slender flat-chested tanned body and face of a 15 year old became the desired silhouette of the bright young things of the 1920s. As long as they looked boyish they looked fashionable. Until the end of World War I she always wore black wool stockings..Right 1920's modern underwear An Air of Nudity in Stockings and Bare Arms. Feet..Between 1920 and 1928 corset sales declined by two thirds. Health and beauty clubs helped women refine their silhouettes whilst getting fitter and healthier. but it adapted to changing needs.
She worked in neutral tones of beige. sand. Only maiden aunts and elderly dowagers avoided the severe shorter styles. A cloche hat told everyone that you had short hair.stocking colours were Honey Beige. It was only possible to get a close fitting cloche on the skull if the hair was cropped short and flat. Short Hair.During the era there was an increased use of make up and it was fashionable to perform the rites of make up in public..Coco Chanel sporting short hair wearing one of her simple jersey outfits and revealing bare arms and flesh toned stockings.. since hair had always been thought a woman's crowning glory.. The cloche hat affected body posture as it was pulled well over the eyes which meant young women held their heads at a specific angle in order to see where they were going. .. Fashionable Twenties Coats and Outerwear. Ox blood lipstick was used lavishly.. a rubber based thread was used in knee highs in bright colours. but by the 1930s softer waved hairstyles were a refreshing change.1920's Wrapover coats. Teatime. Today compacts from the 1920s are sought after by collectors.. An Eton crop was considered daring and shocked some older citizens. Make Up Rites. cream. Foreheads were unfashionable in the 1920s . then Eton cropped in 1926-7. Boulevard and Spanish Brown. but rouge was still used sparingly.Women wore cloche hats throughout the twenties. She was the Jean Muir or Donna Karan of her day and the originator of the LBD that little black dress. Lastex.. Hair was first bobbed. The work of other famous designers beside hers seemed old fashioned and outmoded belonging as they did to the pre World War One era.The great fashion designer Gabrielle Chanel 1883-1971 self styled herself to be known as Coco Chanel. Instead of disappearing to the powder room women got out their engraved compact and applied lipstick and powder in sight of a whole restaurant or nightclub or tearoom... Right . then shingled. By 1920 the silhouette of her clothing designs have come to be the epitome of 20's style. They all seemed to have one thing in common in that almost all illustrations of them show them as wrap-over whatever the length. Gabrielle 'Coco' Chanel.The 1920s saw a universal fashion for short hair a more radical move beyond the curtain styles of the war era. Left .. They were clothes made for comfort and ease in wear making them revolutionary and quite modern. She promoted the styles we associate with flappers. Cloche Hats.Coats of the 1920s were mostly long until 1926. Rose Morn. navy and black in soft fluid jersey fabrics cut with simple shapes that did not require corsetry or waist definition.
Although styles had been designated day styles if they were impractical it had not really mattered as long as maids took care of chores.The French designer Madeleine Vionnet opened her own fashion house in 1912.Many coats had shawl fur collars. Unisex Styles. Fair Isle patterns became very popular for both sexes. often of peep style.Once shoes began to be mass manufactured in the 1920s footwear becam e an essential fashion accessory. Foreheads which had been hidden by cloche hats were revealed and adorned with small plate shaped hats.. Now women had more productive and busier lives and simpler pared down clothes gave a freedom of movement women relished in daily life.Until the 1930s wealthy women had not really needed to wear practical day clothes.Fashionable sleek day dress of 1936. T bar shoes or others with buckles and bows made interesting fashion statements. New fabrics like metallic lame were very popular at night and were made to shimmer even more richly by adding plastic sequins and glass beads. Budding rounded busts and waistline curves were seen and hair became softer and prettier as hair perms improved....The 1920s coats often wrapped to just one side fastening which was a feature of the garment.Free from corsetry and wearing simplified clothing modern women were able to indulge in sports.. sweet and tidy by day with a return to real glamour at night. Sequin or diamante trims were quite usual. Knitted garments for men really took off in the twenties and women eagerly wore the same knits too. 1930s Fashion History Stylish Thirties The Female Form Returns to 1930s Fashion.. A fashion for coordinating coat linings with dress fabrics started at this time. but the toes were less pointed and more rounded.. Right . ladylike appearance..In the 1930s there was a return to a more genteel. Madeleine Vionnet and the Cross Cut Bias Method. 1920-1930 Shoes. The coat fastening was either a huge button or some complex tab and buckle. chunkier wedged platform shoes with thicker soles made the wearers feel they could walk for miles if needed. Strapped shoes were called Mary Janes. More luxurious gowns were kept for evening.The Mary Jane ankle strap button shoe was the style of the twenties. The fashionable modern women of the twenties unlike their Edwardian laced and boned mothers truly belong to the twentieth century. Footwear was visible beneath short dresses and was selected with more care as a fashion accessory. golf and tennis along with keep fit were the passions of young ladies. Clothes were feminine. Soon swimming. Shorts became acceptable wear for cycling and for skating normal dresses were roomy enough for movement. In 1936 Ferragamo the Italian shoe designer made wedge heel designs and by the 1940s.. In the 1930s shoes began to look heavier. Heels were over 2 inches high and waisted until the 1930s when they were lower straighter Cuban shapes.. She devised .Chanel had introduced the world to the jumper and i t was worn by both men and women.T bar shoes with buckles and bows and straps featured in the 1920s. Daywear Versus Evening Glamour. Now it was truly visible beneath shorter dresses it needed to be selected with more care.
1930s Fashion. The Edwardians also made skirts that swayed to the back by joining a bias edge to a straight grain edge and the result was a pull to the back that formed the trained skirt. but at an angle of 45 degrees. The hemlines reached the bottom of the calf within a year.The new improved fabrics like rayon had several finishes and gave various effects exploited by designers eager to work with new materials. Women tried to get tans and then show them off under full length backless evening dresses cut on the true cross or bias and which moulded to the body. Rayon dyed well and looked similar to and felt like silk. To show off the styles a slim figure was essential and that was getting easier for women who were educated and aware as many now used contraception and did not have to bear baby after baby unless desired. Some evening garments made women look like Grecian goddesses whilst others made them look like half naked sexy vamps. Cotton was also used by Chanel and suddenly it was considered more than a cheap fabric for work clothes.. But nothing cut and looked like pure silk and it was still the best fabric to capture the folds and drapes of thirties couture. It is sometimes said that Vionnet invented bias cutting. Using her technique designers were able to produce magnificent gowns in satins.Skirts were frequently longer at the back than the front. 1930s Fashion ± Skirts. Sketch of a crepe day dress of 1938. She made popular the halter neck and the cowl neck. There was a passion for sunbathing. Part of their appeal was the draping fabric that was further enhanced by cutting fabrics on the true cross or the bias grain also quite fashionable at the start of the new millennium New Ways With Fabrics .1930s Fashion. Below the knee pleats and godets fell from panels so gave fullness at the hemline. crepe-dechines. silks.methods of bias cross cutting during the 1920s using a miniature model. Left . but historical evidence suggests that close fitting gowns and veils of the medieval period were made with cross cut fabrics. She did really popularise it and the resulting clothes are styles we forever associate with movie goddesses and dancers like Ginger Rogers. Right . creating a flare and fluidity of drapery that other methods could not achieve..Sketch of backless 1930's halter neck evening gown. To make a piece of fabric hang and drape in sinuous folds and stretch over the round contours of the body. The bias method has often been used to add a flirtatious and elegant quality to clothes.. Often it was used to make lingerie for the cheaper end of the market.. . Some of the clothes were so stylish that they could be worn today. Many of the gowns could be slipped over the head and came alive when put on the human form. fabric pattern pieces can be cut not on the straight grain. crepes and chiffons by cross cutting the fabric. Fine wool crepes also moulded to the body and fell into beautiful godets and pleats. Certain of her gowns still look quite contemporary.
These are illustrated in Sportswear Before 1960. Beach wraps. Pyjamas introduced as informal dinner dress or nightwear for sleeping died quickly as fashions. The Rumble of War. moderately priced.The Zip. Navy windcheater jackets. As sun worshipping became a common leisure pursuit fashion answered the needs of sun seekers by making chic outfits for the beach and its surrounds. hold alls. The colours of the beach holiday were navy. tobacco pouches and U... The trousers were sailor style. and within acceptable profit margins. One interesting facet to fashion was the brief emergence of a wasp waist in the 1939 Paris collections. Both Chanel and Mainbocher played with a full skirt and a waist. Designers began to adjust the mood of their collections to more military inspired square shouldered clothing teamed with low heels as if sensing a need for more functional wear. Blue and white tops or short jackets finished the holiday look.. In the future it enabled manufacturers to produce quality goods speedily. It would be 1947 before Dior introduced his wasp waist Corollecollection that got dubbed the New Look.The era had begun with an economic depression which had lifted by1936 for many. At the jewellery auction after her death.. soft hats and knitted bathing suits were all given the designer touch.. By the time war arrived in 1939 European designers had shown simple clothes.In 1933 promoted the fastener we call the zip or zipper. At the same time the rumble of warmongering in Europe became more evident. functional and highly novel. They were soon regarded as correct seaside wear. The metal zip had been invented in 1893 and by 1917 it was somewhat timidly used for shoes. They were made up in draping heavy crepe-de-chine. Swimwear was getting briefer and the back was scooped out so that women could develop tanned backs to show off at night in the backless and low backed dresses.S. grey. the pieces were evidence of great style. widely flared and flat fronted with buttons. They soon became universally used and are now a very reliable form of fastening. Unusual Male Fashion of the 1930s Beach Fashion 1930s. 1940s Rationing .Health and fitness was an important aspect of thirties lifestyle. She is also famed for saying 'a woman can never be too rich or too thin'. trousers and sweaters and classic shirt waisters designed to stay in fashion. She was thought an icon of style in her younger days. white. cream.Utility Clothing Fashion . However the third use of them as a practical beach outfit caught on and every woman made them an essential garment to pack. She continued to wear designer garments by Mainbocher and other famous designers.. Her use of the new plastic coloured zip in fashion clothes was both decorative. black and buff with touches of red. This was a pivotal time for the fashion industry and lessons learnt developing methods of mass producing uniforms carried over into the ready to wear industry. but the escapist fashion was not to be.
the siren suit and the kangaroo cloak. Even within the Utility scheme there were couture garments for those who could afford them. braids.. a basic sensible military style suit and the sturdy wedge shoe of wartime Britain. brace and overalls.. restaurants to gala events. braces. lace net.In addition to the items listed there were goods that could be bought without coupons such as small items for babies under 4 months old.' Uniforms were seen at all civilian social occasions from cinemas. hats and caps. ribbons and other fabrics less than 3 inches in width. The princesses Elizabeth and Margaret both owned siren suits as did Winston Churchill and others. the tied headscarf. jobs and giving extra help wherever they could. lace. It began as a simple safety device to prevent the wearer's hair entangling in factory machinery. There was an austere atmosphere and people were encouraged to 'make do and mend. elastic. The turban equalised people of all sorts.Fashion items that became popular were the wedge sole shoe. Coupons were not needed for second hand articles.This meant that women were forced to wear clothes that they had in their wardrobes before the announcement . adding items only as if essential. boot and shoe laces. The wealthy also had their uniforms tailored at the best tailors rather than wear standard issue.. Utility designs followed the square shouldered and short skirted fashions of the war era whilst sticking to the strict regulations for minimal cloth usage. garters.A woman's essentials sketches of the turban. Skirts some 19 inches from the ground were usual. The general wartime scene was one of drabness and uniformity. hard haberdashery. continuing well after the war finished in 1945.. Siren Suit. The siren suit was practical and warm in .Siren suits were the original jumpsuit and the all enveloping sometimes tartan cloth garment was a huge hit especially at night when sirens called citizens to the air raid shelter for cover. It doubled as a disguise for unkempt hair which women had less time to attend to being so busy running homes. Non Rationed Items. clogs and black out dyed cloth were all ration free..During the Second World War Paris produced restrained clothing to match the economic atmosphere. but they still used coupons. weddings. Cloth and Footwear Rationing. With its quick zippered front individuals could wear the suit over pyjamas making it ideal for children. sanitary towels.. Clothing. mending silk.. tapes..Uniforms and Patriotic Fashion Looks. workmen's bib. Right Standard utility suit designed by the Incorporated Society Of London Fashion Designers. Clothes of War. suspenders. the turban... mending wool. Buttons were limited to three and turn back cuffs were eliminated. Boiler suits. It was impossible to go anywhere without being aware of war as uniformed men and women in auxiliary services were an everyday fact. sewing thread.
. The wedge sole was clumpy. Women working in dangerous conditions were helped to keep up their morale and Max Factor officials from America visited munitions factories handing out the new pancake make up and lipstick. Otherwise it was make do and mend again and in the case of stockings. Over the siren suit some would have donned a Kangaroo cloak coat so called because of its huge roomy kangaroo pockets. Ponds cold cream. Stockings. in the hope of a pair of the new nylon stockings. Women who could sew dresses had trouble getting hold of fabrics so they used everything from industrial blackout cloth to parachute silk or the harsher new parachute nylon. Pillowcases would be turned into white shorts for summer.Face make up was in short supply and news of a fresh stock of well known branded lipsticks at the local chemist meant that the shop sold out within an hour. but it was mainly expert knitters that used very fine silky Mercerised cotton yarns. The only way to have feminine underwear was to sew it yourself. Pillowcases were trimmed with lace and made into blouses. borrowed by sisters and friends.. make do with leg make up or gravy browning and get a friend to draw a straight line down the back of the leg. Munitions workers were encouraged to wear make up as a protective barrier to the grit and chemicals they worked amidst. Collars would be added and trims applied all to eke out a limited wardrobe. Make Up 1940s. Later in the 1960s it was developed into evening wear in slinky Pucci prints. Wedding dresses would be worn several times. Women were encouraged to wear ankle socks. The oversized pockets were ideal to stack with essential items as they ran through the house to an air raid shelter. remade the dress up into underwear. Cast offs would be made into children's clothes..Stockings of all types were scarce. Nothing was wasted and even milk top discs were covered in raffia and made into handbags or accessories. Stockings might be found on the black market and later in the war many befriended an American G. Wool socks were unravelled to have the yarn intermixed with random colours in fair isle designs often to make short waist cardigans or V neck sleeveless waistcoats for either sex. but sturdy and wearers could walk for miles as the wedge stopped the hard road from making feet sore. Knitting in the War. The severe shortage of leather meant that other thick sole materials such as cork was used. Blankets were used to make coats and old voluminous swagger coats cut into smaller garments. Not even rayon stockings were readily available. I. French Knickers or nightgowns. but noisy in wear.. Skirts were made from men's old plus fours or trousers... The finer the yarn the more knitwear a person could produce. They also lasted a long time and needed minimal repair as did clogs which were ration free.draughty situations.Everyone hand knitted and knitted mitts and scarves and socks made up in open lacy patterns stretched yarns even further. Vaseline and Vitapointe conditioning cream for . until the original 1939 bride in desperation for new items.
They continued to manufacture replicas of the line and soon boxy uniform Forties fashions were consigned to the history books . but were exported in an effort to rebuild the British textile and wool economy.Left .Christian Dior's New Look of 1947 was frowned upon by both the UK and USA governments and people were discouraged from wearing clothes that 'wasted' so much fabric. Glamorous styles with curls were preferred to the short styles of the twenties.hair were the few items usually available. The Veronica Lake hairstyle was very popular as was peroxide bleached hair. Paris continued to produce exotic fashions. During this era Princess Elizabeth popularised the wearing of a headscarf tied under the chin. The American look was simple and classic and continues to have followers today. Hair 1940sThere was never enough stock of anything. By day it was kept out of sight in a turban or knitted snood which stopped it getting caught in machinery. but women still did their best to look good and their hair was important to them. Generally hair still had some length as women could wash and dress their hair in ways which made them feel more feminine. Munitions workers often had skin that turned canary yellow if they handled lots of explosive materials. People were bitter because clothes were being made.. but America was developing a look of its own which was mainly found in Claire McCardell's designs. New Look. The advice was ignored particularly by Princess Elizabeth and Princess Margaret who were soon wearing it because it had influenced their own designers. New Times. Manufacturers read the public's need and their craving desire for newness and innovative change..Veronica Lake and her glamorous hairstyle. Some factories even installed hair salons to improve women's long term attendance...After the war the public became resentful and impatient when rationing was not relaxed on clothes. After the War the New look of 1947.
extending from the waist to the calf or ankles or worn even shorter by peasants and commoners. A simple small antariya or strip of cloth. who drape it on both shoulders or one shoulder. linen or flowered muslin. Originally opaque. The drapery hangs heavy folds and the jewellery is massive and somewhat coarse. With the coming of the Sunga dynasty there is greater emphasis on detail in the elaborate jewellery of the women. or again as a towel to mop the face when sweating. For men. or a many-stringed one. Women tied their antariya in different ways. kalabuka. it was an unstitched length of cloth draped around the hips and between the legs in the kachcha style. long-beaded aprons and crossed scarves at he chest suggest fruitful abundance. vethaka. it later became more and more transparent. The main garment was the antariya of white cotton. flat and ribbon shaped. as in Vedic times. a very elaborate band of embroidery. Its uses were endless for the poor sections of the society and for them it would be made of coarse cotton. or diagonally across the chest and casually knotted at the waist.UNIT 3«. Turbans coil and twist with the hair to form protuberances . with serpentine armlets and anklets closing in on strong limbs. Theantariya was secured at the waist by a sash or kayabandh. often tied in a looped knot at the center front of the waist. it was more a practical garment to be tied around the head as protection from sun. The uttariya was worn in several ways to suit the comforts of the wearer: very elegantly by those at court. very rarely silk. or tightly around the waist leaving the hands free for work. and then . pattika. and in many other ways according to the whims of t he weather. The head veils of the woven are voluminous. or it could even be worn loosely across the back and supported by the elbows or wrist. But for the labourer and the craftsman. muraja. langoti was attached to the kayabandh at the center front. usually fine cotton. The kayabandh could be simple sash. which was utilized as a long scarf to drape the top half of the body.Middle ages Mauryans Style«Forceful sculptures carved during the Mauryan-Sunga period in the first century BC in the north at Bharut and Sanchi give us a feeling of superhuman power. one with drum-headed knot at the ends. which is more elegant and finer and adorns the figures seen in soft relaxed postures Costume«Men and women continued to wear three unstitched garments. The third item of clothing called uttariya was another length of material. and necklaces and strings with amulet boxes suspended on the breasts indicate a fear of evil and dark forces around. sometimes embroidered in gold and precious stones.
In India. It may be because shoes could not be taken inside a stupa or Buddhist temple. with metal buckles. and tucked in at the waist at the back. In the more remote villages and jungles. shield. Another version. the lehngastyle. Helmets too are seen as headgea r for phrygian women who probably wore long-sleeved tunic with tight fitting trousers and a phrygian cap which was conical and had ear flaps. A longer version of the antariya was the knee-length one. worn straight or crosswise. hunters and people of similar occupations were mostly aboriginal or belonged to the lowest caste. they sometimes wore a patka. Women sometimes used turbans of decorated cloth. and at times it was also woven. centrally parted. and the shorter end finally drawn between the legs. The uttariyas of upper-class women were generally of thin material decorated with elaborated borders and quite often worn as a head covering. and the practice of tattooing was fairly common.passed between the legs and tucked in at the back. the longer end then pleated and t ucked in at the front. Skullcaps were sometimes worn under or over theuttariya to keep it in place. the Amazons wore in addition. but in the Sunga period we find great emphasis on this form of . Their kayabandhs were very similar to those of the men. This was not drawn between the legs in the kachchastyle. Headgear and Hairstyles«Women generally covered their he ads with the uttariya. often resplendent with beautiful borders. that they were not depicted on the sculptures on stupas. was made into one or two plaits or in a large knot at the back. footwear is often mentioned in Vedic literature there is no sculptural evidence for this period. much the same as we find today. skin. Although. As regards male headgear. twisted yarn or leather. was a length of cloth wrapped around the hips tightly to form a tabular type of skirt. except in the case of soldiers who wear the Persian boot. The hair. shepherds. Kachcha style. or at times it could be decorated with a fringe or pendants. The more primitive tribes who lived in the forest wore garments made from grass (Kusa). and fur. The uttariya could be worn simply hanging down at the back or secured to the head with a headband. or with one end arranged in a fan at the top of the head. in the early Maureen period there is no trace of the turban mauli. the crossed-at-chest belt vaikaksha. In addition. The patka was made from plaited wool or cotton. being first wrapped around and secured at the waist. They generally wore simple unbleached coarse varieties of the cotton antariya and turbans. and sword. a decorative piece of cloth attached to the kayabandh in front by tucking in one end at the waist.
Pearls too were used and beads of all kinds we re plentiful including those made of glass. armlets. In the Arthashastra attributed to Kautilya. Baju band or armlets of gold and silver beads were worn on the upper arm. it had a massive quality to it and the workmanship was coarse. Jewellery«From the sculptures we find there was a richness and profusion in the jewellery worn by both men and women. or one end folded in pleats and tucked in like a fan. At the centre of each string of beads was an amulet for warding off evil forces. in addition. sapphires. oran ornamental circle with small bells called ghungru. with the Sungas. Anklets were often of gold in this period. inlaid with precious stones. These consisted of thin plate of gold or silver stamped in various patterns. a thick chain. The rings were plain and crowded together on the middle joints of the fingers. originally made from the red seed kaksha but now made of gold and silver beads. This twisted braid was then arranged to form a protuberance at the front or the side of the head but never at the center top. though silver was more common. bracelets and embroidered belts. Dancing girls added on to these. All women wore anklets and thumb and finger rings. agates. decorative elements like a jewelled brooch or a jhalar (fringe) could be attached to the turban. rubies.male head dress. Earring or karnikawere of three types-a simple ring or circle called Kundala. Earlier. a hip belt of multi-stringed beads. Bracelets called Kangan. usually gold. sankla. the lambanam. as only priests could use this style. chains of gold and silver to which bells were attached. Certain ornaments were common to both sexes. A little later. A short one called Kantha which was broad and flat. with shapes ranging from round to square and oval. a circular disc earring known as dehri and earrings with a flower-like shape known asKarnaphul. And a tiny . like earrings. and a long one. These were remarkable headdresses in which the hair itself was often twisted into a braid along with the turban cloth. necklaces. as well as a star-shaped sitaraand bina. and crystals. There is no evidence of nose -rings in the period. the jewellery became somewhat refined. Necklaces of two kinds were worn. and were occasionally studded with precious stones. In addition. wore girdle calledmekhala. and in the sculptures of the period we find references which show us that the material used most frequently were gold and precious stones like corals. and richly embroidered cloth belts completed the male ensemble. very often made of square or round beads of gold. These chain or bead necklaces were sometimes three-to-seven stringed and were named after the number of strings of which they were composed. They could be in the form of a simple ring. Over the turban a band was sometimes used to hold it in place. Forehead ornaments for women were quite common and worn below the parting of the hair and at the center of the fore-head. Women. Kara.
Furs and the better varieties of wool and silk like tussar. from the sheep¶s wool was either pure white (bleached) or dyed pure red. whereas the Persians had worn the pointed cap. Kaseyyaka (High quality cotton or silk) and the bright red woolen blankets of Gandhara were worth a small fortune each. coats of mail are mentioned in the Arthshastra there is no visual evidence of it in this period.ornament called bindi. in case of soldiers. Material similar to the khinkhwab(which is the interweaving of silk and gold or silver wires beautiful floral pattern) was in great demand and even exported to Babylon long before the Mauryas. Woolen cloth. The coarse varieties were used by the populace. yellowish in its natural color but when bleached calledpatrona. Although. called kausheya like Eri or Muga silk of Assam. This came about in the colder north. silk. avika. The lower garment was more often the Indian antariya rather than the Persian trousers. The process of felting (pressing the fibers together. or black. wool and a fabric called karpasa were available in the north in both coarse and fine varieties. linen and jute fabrics were readily available. Resist dyeing and hand printing in a pattern on cloth has been mentioned by Greek visitors to the court . Cotton. where the Persian garments were more suitable. A rain proof woolen cloth was available in Nepal. Blankets or kambala were either made by completing the edges with borders or braids. Cotton. Military Costume«Sewn garments which had been used by the Persian soldiers were sometimes utilized for military dress by the Mauryans. coarse for making head-dresses. wool. trappings and blankets for richer class. This consisted of a sleeved tunic with cross straps across the chest to carry the quiver. and a leather belt with sword. Textiles and Dyes«Weaving of fine and coarse varieties of cloth was well established. The only material evidence we have of a piece of Mauryan jewellery is a single earring found at Taxila dated second century BC which similar to GraecoRoman and Etruscan Jewellery. or woven wool strips were joined together. climatically and functionally. rose. The mixture of foreign and indigenous garments is interesting as it shows one of the early phases of evolution in the costumes of Indians. i nstead of weaving) was also making known. There were also fine muslins often embroidered in purple and gold and transparent like later -day material which came to be called shabnam (morning dew). The headgear was usually the turban or headband. . were used. All varieties of wool were available.
Kangan: Ten bracelets adorning each hand.Mauli: turban of printed cloth held by decorative bands wound over the top knot of hair and at the side of head .Lambanam: long necklace made of chains held at intervals by flat bands. these ends are then held diagonally. fluted and tucked into the waist at the back to hang between the legs up to the ground. worn across the chest and over the left shoulder.Kayabandh: Embroidered flat cloth band.Kayabandh: Flat cloth band.Mekhala: Four stringed beads hip belt. calf length. worn in kachcha style.DONOR FIGURE«Antariya: Lower cloth.Kantha: Short necklace of five strings of beads in gold or silver. both equal ends being taken between the legs after knotting the front.Baju Band: three row of beads on the upper arms Karnika: trumpet shaped earring Lambanam: long necklace of beads Kantha: Short necklace of beads Sankla: anklets made of thick chains KUVERA YAKSHI«Antariya: Kachcha style. worn in a looped knot.Kara: Anklets of twisted wire worn on both ankles.Uttariya: There are two: one has an embroidered border and is worn crosswise over the head with a jhalar (networking fringe) at the forehead. drum-headed knobs at the ends.Kangan: several bracelets on each wrist. the other is draped across the back and over both arms.Baju Band: armlets with elaborate incised pattern.Karnika: Trumpet-shaped earrings.Kayalbandh: muraja style.Uttariya: upavita fashion. that is between the legs. worn in a looped knot with fringed ends. pattika style. of fine cotton with fluted ends in front.Karnika: trumpet-shaped earring or karnaphul.Sitara: Star shaped forehead ornament of gold or silver with a stamped pattern YAKSHI«Antariya: langoti style small strips of cloth drawn between the legs and attached to a cord at the waist. Mekhala: Six-stringed hip belt of gold or silver beads. Baju Band: Decorative armlets worn on upper arms. pattika style. Uttariya: Upper cloth of printed cotton worn crosswise on the head.Patka: A strip of woven beads tucked in at the front of the waist reaching the ankles.Kangan: five bead bracelets on each wrist.Atkan: bead necklace worn aslanr over the left shoulder and under the right arm. phalakahara style. tied in a looped knot .
Tunic : one of the earliest depictions of the cut and sewn garment.Head band: tied at the back over short hair.. with a border. worn in kachcha style with fluted end tucked in at centre front.Kangan: three bracelets of beads on each wrist.Lambanam: phalakahara style necklace.A broad flat sword with cross straps on the sheath is suspended from the left shoulder. Pattikastyle. wound around the head and made into a top knot in front.. DONOR FIGURE«Uttariya: printed or woven in a lozenge design in stripes. full front opening with ties at the neck and waist.Hair ornament: jewelled and worn below centre parting of the hair COURTIER «turban is wound around the long hair tied in a top knot.Karnika: trumpetshaped earrings. WARRIOR. to fix the turban in place a decorative band has been used. it is worn crosswise on the head and thrown back hanging to the waist like pouch. it has short sleeves and a round neck.Kayabandh: embroidered flat cloth band. large disc-type earrings and two strings of beads adorn the neck NECKLACE«Kantha: short neckalce called tilari (3-stringed).Uttariya: looped at the chest and thrown back over both shoulders.Boots : fitting to the knees.DONOR FIGURE«Antariya: worn in same style as in the Kuvera Yaksha except that only one long end is tucked in at the back. and is hip length.7-stringed: satlari . each string consists of graduated pearls and a central gem.4-stringed: chaulari.5-stringed: paklari.Mauli: turban in which the long hair and cloth are twisted together.Kantha: short necklace with granulated design.Antariya: knee-length.lambanam: in phalakahara style. Karnaphul. the other is a finely pleated apron tucked into the centre front of the antariya.Baju Band: simple leaf-patterned armlet.
anuttariya and a thick many-stringed kayabandh with knotted ends-kalabuka GIRDLE«Mekhala: elaborate seven-stringed saptaki. They are shown on Gupta coins in full Kushan dress. and clearly defined garments for north India and the Deccan began to emerge. a flat ribbon-shaped embroidered gridle of cloth of gold is also worn EARINGS«Karnika: this style of earring in the form of a triratna or triple gem of Buddhist triad.COURTIER «long hair is twisted into a top knot at the left around which the turban is wound so as to completely cover it. the two outer strands are square. the coat. this symbol was used on necklaces and to decorate soldiers. scabbards and the top of standards Guptas Style«In the highly civilized Gupta empire. which later crystallized into t he garment preference we see in India today. we find jewelled head -dresses. an ornament heart shaped brooch is fixed on the right front and a decorative band visible at the forehead is tied under the turban ARMLETS«serpentine armlets are of the Achaemenid type and depict the Iranian influence on Indian jewellery of this period. he wears an antariya in the lehnga style. The Gupta Kings realized the value of adopting a dress that had traditionally become identified with royalty. interspersed with rows of beads across and aslant the hips in gold or hard stone. somnolent and languorous. and are early imitations of the strings of red rati seeds that were originally worn. and looped on diadems and around necks. the pattika. trousers and . The mood is relaxed. Costume Men«In this period there was a marked preference for the stitched garment. Pearl strands decorating the archways. was peculiar to the Buddhist. as compared to any previous age. further enhance the undulating mov ements of the graceful figures. with sheer floating scarves and shinning radiant eyes accentuating the aura of dream-like delicacy. that is. and striped muslin lehngas adding to the sensuous fullness of the body and lending it a free-flowing movement.
Many forms of cut-and-sewn garments became fashionable. in the Ajanta paintings the king and other members of the nobility are still seen in their fine silk or muslin antariyas. which came mainly from the invaders and traders. although royalty on the Gupta coins is shown wearing t he sewn garment of the Kushan Kings. It was the elaborate mukuta (crown) and exquisite jewellery that really set apart kings and high dignitaries from other members of royal entourage. In female costume.boots. Foreigners at court were a common sight as trade and commercial intercourse between India and Persia in this period was at its height. Sometimes the uttariya itself was twisted thickly and worn aslant the waist with a large knot at the left shoulder. but were merely signs of divinity or royalty. the variety is much greater and hence it is more difficult to pin-point the exact sources. the indigenous antariya. Both these garments invariably had woven borders. The kayabandh was used to hold the garments in place. ministers and other officials. Some scholars believe that these elaborate mukuta were never actually used. and court attendants. but in the south. Costume Women«In the case of male costume it is easier to trace the influence. especially at court. In northern India where climatic conditions were more suitable there was greater emphasis on the stitched garments. uttariya and kayabandh for normal occasions. Instead of kayabandh a plain cord or belt became more popular. The ushnisa (turban) was slowly becoming obsolete. Changes had been occurring gradually and the indigenous kancuka. however. to wear the indigenous antaryia. . and was now associated mainly with certain dignitaries. the white calf-length tunic which the chamberlain wore. as is apparent even today. Strangely enough. which was in fashion at the Persian court of Khusrau II (AD 600). associated with guardians and attendants of the harem in earlier times. The lower garment was usually the antariya and with it was sometimes worn kancuka. These garments were not totally foreign to the Indians. however. probably inspired the brocaded tunic with long or short sleeves worn by ministers. The king¶s costume was most often of striped blue closely woven silk with a floating uttariya. Just as often is seen a simpler version. guards. which could be tucked in like a shirt. door -keepers. Persia¶s influence on Indian art is most clearly seen in the rich floating ribbon decoration. uttariya and kayabandh held their own. wound once or twice around and then buckled or knotted in a variety of ways to secure the antariya. a chaddar adding dignity to his attire. They continued.
a wide garment reaching from under the armpits to mid-thigh in a simple wraparound fashion. From the bhairnivasani evolved the skirt with the drawstring or nada. The skirt. which may have been gored. It was drawn very tight across in the hips accentuating their curve most seductively. which had evolved from the needs of modesty. called ghagri. A common form was a skimpyantariya made of cheap linen worn mainly by lower classes. It was worn mainly by village women.The antariya. The ghagri was a narrow skirt six feet long. Women wore langoti type drawers. But in all cases it was tied under the navel and supported by the hip bones. although the queen and other ladies of the royal family remained conservative. was worn in several different ways. is that the kachcha style became less popular with women. attendant usually wore the shorter form. Like the bhairnivasani this too was an early garment . evolved from the antariya which when stitched on one side became tabular and was worn gathered together at the waist. The main difference in the Gupta period. being replaced gradually by the more feminine lehnga or lungi was we call it today. The short or long antariya was worn in thekachcha style or as a lehnga. This was usually a very short antariya only up to mid-thigh called calanika. the ardhoruka. bhairnivasani. The antariya was occasionally worn like the Indonesian sarong. It was drawn first inkachcha style. This was a short strip of cloth worn around the waist with an attached piece from the centre of the waist. is also seen. and held by a girdle. as distinct from the previous periods. so that the swirling effect is enhanced by its many folds. an elaboration on the ghagri probably introduced by foreigners. A heavily gathered skirt. This was one of the earliest forms of a clumsily stitched skirt and used as early as the Early Bronze period by the Germanic race. and was very attractive since the border of the cloth was used vertically in the centre to decorate it. This conservative kachcha style is still adopted by the women of Maharashtra and South India. which was drawn up between the legs and tucked in behind. Normally the nobility wore the ankle-length antariya and women of high rank. The skirt is still worn by mainly rural peoples. It seems to be mainly used by dancers. which was 18-36 inch wide and 4-8 yards long. and was normally calf length. the longer end of the three yard long material was then wrapped around like a short lehnga.the same length as original antariya. in which case it was first wrapped around the right hip then around the body and tucked in at the left hip. Another form of the antariya was worn in the Kachcha and lehnga style together. including theLambadi and Banjara gypsies of India.
as the back was normally covered by the head -veil. something like the medieval µchastity belt¶. Another style of the kurta was with . they had moved around self consciously nude above waist. Here again the back was covered by the head -veil. could have evolved from the need for protection against the cold for the front part of the body. This was also the early form used as protection by the women of the Germanic or Teutonic races in the Early Bronze age. is made of diaphanous material and seen particularly in the dress of princesses and other royal ladies. There were probably two reasons. For many centuries before. as with Greeks. probably knotted. This evolution from the unstitched to the stitched garments had an inescapable logic as it evolved for purely functional purposes. Jain nuns wore four of these ardhorukas one on top of another. which is mentioned in early Sanskrit literature. and accordingly emulated the dress style of the foreigners. choli. It would be interesting to find a satisfactory answer as to why. but expose most of the midriff in front. Indian women frequently began to clothe the top half their bodies. slit sides and four-poted hemline had become thoroughly Indianised and was commonly used even by women. The breast-band had been used since Vedic times. an indigenous stitched garment known as cholaka. or as a modesty covering over the stomach which was exposed. This would cover the back completely. Also. and women began covering themselves from head to foot. Another choli. Jainsm. cholika and kancholika. One was that the female attendants in the King¶s court thrown into the company of beautiful foreigners who wore upper garments. In the case of the Germanic races it was protection from the cold. mainly as a support for breasts rather than covers them. visible in some of the frescoes. with the impact of Buddhism. This choli appears to be fastened in front. In medieval Europe. at this particular juncture. There was in addition to the breast-band. chola. The apron -like attachment at the front of the choli. as in the case with certain cholis in use today. very like the garments worn today by women in Rajasthan and elsewhere. around this time. the skirt or lehnga being worn below the navel. which ends just above the waist. and in India it served the purpose of m odesty. The primitive choli was cut very simply from a square piece of cloth. A further development of the choli was the fold back at the bottom edge and the introduction of string. similar changes were occurring in female clothing. The Persian shirt or kurta. must have realized that covering the bosom could even be more attractive than exposing it.originally used by women ascetics. with a slit for the neck. with its side-opening at the neck. attached to make it back less. and Christianity the belief that the body was sinful and must be concealed to avoid temptation was percolating through India.
jewelled net or a net of pearls called muktajala. In addition. and henna to redden the palm and soles of the feet was fairly prevalent. like the floating ribbon decoration. Of foreign origin was the short hair. Turbans too had not disappeared completely and women wore them very effectively. rather than as the substantial article of clothing it ha d once been. which was also in fashion at the Persian court at this time. worn over the bun. but was worn very sheer and more as flattering accessory. and in as many ways to dress the hair as could conceivably be imagined by the women wearing them. The profuse use of flowers cannot be overemphasized in this period. Fillets both simple and elaborate were commonly used to hold back short hair. which was sometimes frizzed in front with luxuriant ringlets quite unlike anything seen today. sometimes made of brocade or striped material. Ankle-length fitted tunics in brocade still appear foreign and may hav e been a Turanian Tartar (a nomadic race of Mongolian stock from Central Asia) contribution to the fashions at court. or large and loosely wound. Tiaras were often used with short or long hair. as could be jewelled band. or just left hanging loose to the shoulders or lower. and pearl string could define the parting of the hair. The use of missi to darken gums and lips. The bun itself was something a simple tight knot. . hair styles of the lower classes (even those belonging to the menial orders) or the peasant women could be as elaborate as those of the higher -class women. that the help of maid-servant who were expert hair-dressers was obviously essential. held by a fillet or a chaplet of flowers. In the Deccan. and hair was so elaborately dressed at times. It is normally seen in Ajanta. The indigenous style showed itself in long hair worn in a bun either high or low on the neck or knotted at the side of the head. ratnajali. There were seemed to be broadly two styles of foreign origin. there could be a. delicately wafting behind. The latter became extremely popular in the Gupta age. at other times in the shape of the figure eight. or with the coil wound on the left on top of the head. The uttariya remained.crossover flaps and side-opening in the angarkha style. but almost always surrounded by flowers or had large lotus blossoms tucked into it. and completely covering the hair. Besides surrounding the bun they were used as tiaras. while the complicated ways of dressing long hair were mainly derived from South Indian and Deccani styles. Headgear and Hairstyles«Simple plaits were no longer visible.
giving the appearance of a wig. shoulder-length and curled. Gold ornaments for both men and women were exquisitely made. The ministers were often Brahmins with all their hair shorn keeping only the ritual top knot. hair was worn loose by men. or at sports like hunting. acquiring a new delicacy as beaten work. This slowly became more common for the king when informally dressed in indigenous garments. where it had become a distinctive symbol of their respective ranks. Large ring -type earring later developed pendants that shook with the movements of the head and were called kancuka-kundala or µtremulous earring¶. But this was the era of the pearls necklaces or muktavali a single strand of small pearls was the haravsti. one of big pearls. at other times the earlier form of a top knot was employed. however. in the gurnakuntala style. but in a more decorative manner. both of which were circular. Jewellery«Gold or hirana was more commonly used than ever before. One was a large ring type and other was a button type. Very short hair was also fairly common and looked much like the hair worn today except that clear parting in the hair was seldom visible. like the chamberlain. attendants wore this as well with shoulder-length hair. which were mainly for two types. Kundala was the general term for earrings. the king is shown in Parthian-Kushan dress and wears a skull cap or helmet as headgear. On the Gupta coins. Generally. military officers. filigree work and twisted wire was skillfully combined with jewelsparticularly pearls. The sutra was a chain for the neck. the rest hanging in curls to the shoulder. however. In royal entourage.For men. or adorned with a strand of pearls. which was sometimes cut unevenly at the edges. civic officials and so on. karnaphul. There were.is still popular. it was called hemasutra. The king probably used this latter costume on formal occasions. with a plain or decorated surface. . a tiara or crown with a band inset with pearls and something festooned with garlands replaced the turban. which required military regalia. It could be of fine muslin tied over a large knot of hair at the centre of the forehead or a striped turban worn flat and twisted giving a rope-like effect to the cloth when wound. especially in the Deccan where there were gold mines. sometimes with a head band to hold it in place. ministers. using only a portion of the hair. a small gold wire circlet worn on the upper part of the ear with pearls strung on it. When made of gold with precious stones in the centre. The bali. the turban continued to be worn by high officials. or two pearls and one emerald. fashions in the dressing of men¶s hair.
The mala was usually made of fragrant kadamba flowers. and one with gem in the centre of the pearl was known as sudha ekavali. or there nupura (anklet) could be made from jewelled beads. and wreaths of scented flowers hung from their ears. emeralds. ratnanguliya. which could have a buckle either square. rosette shaped. tinkled as they moved. a cylinder made of filigree work or inset with pearls. Bangles of conch shell or ivory were worn in set graded sizes. The latter was probably a string tied at the waist and hidden under the upper edge of the antariya. A very provocative garter -like ornament.the tarahara. with its small bells. Women loved to decorate themselves with flowers as well. and looped around the neck or waist or worn crosswise in garlands on the chest. It was sometimes held by a clasp at the centre. they are not seen on the feet of goddesses in sculpture. On the women¶s ankles the kinkini. entwined in the hair. in the vaikaksha style. Upper arm ornaments were known as the angada and keyura. and the latter. Bracelets. Although women of all classes wore anklets. anguliya were of gold or studded with precious stones. the padapatra. Kings wore chaplets of white flowers even on military expeditions and officials of state tucked a bunch of flowers into their top knots. were worn on the head. These were jewelled girdles. in which it was rolled. was sometimes worn by women on the upper part of the thigh. Tiaras-kiritaand crown-mukuta were worn by men and women of the nobility and were particularly splendid. Finger rings. worn crosswise on the chest and back. and an attractive ornament of two strings of pearls or flowers. Men to hold the antariya used a simple straight belt or sometimes above it. over or under which hung a small pleated frill of cloth. This is still seen in the Bharata Natyam dancer¶s costume of today. valaya were generally simple or inset with pearls. often having pearls suspended from them so as to delicately surround the face. Their brows were also adorned with wreaths and heavy garlands . mala. The nishka or coin necklace also continued to be popular. the former like a coiled snake. a necklace made from a successive series of pearls. All the above ornaments were common to both men and women. that was most sought after. The mekhala hung in a seductive clasp at the centre from this string. like those used by primitive and folk people today. rubies.maninupura. This ornament could be quite decorative with festoons of pearls and other ornamentation. However. round. anklets. or rectangular. it was the glorious vijayantika. Flowers in the form of necklaces. The mekhala or girdle was worn by women quite low on the hips and suspended from the katisutra. blue stones and diamonds.
well clad and equipped. that became the prototype on which the new military uniform of the Guptas was based. It was the Kushan army. kancuka. Military Costume«In previous centuries. green with checks in which a flowered motif was set in each compartment. Shields were curved or rectangular.of amarnath hung on their hips. Instead of knee -length kancuka a short tight-fitting blouse. which was often striped. Around the waist. with a helmet or cap. Later the soldier¶s uniform was either a short-or-long-sleeved knee-length tunic. The elephant drivers were picturesque in their short -sleeved tightfitting cholaka with decorative bands at the neck. there was no fixed uniform for the indigenous army. The tunics were sometimes spotted with black aloe wood paste. The king himself adopted the Kushan royal costume in formal occasions as status symbol. and sometimes a fillet to tie back the hair. The king himself. yellow ochre or white). cholaka. and with this indigenous garment the wheel -type disc earring were still worn. was sometimes worn with the short antariya. the former sometimes decorated with a dragon¶s head. This evolved into the more efficient foreigninfluenced kancuka with trousers or short drawers. closer in style to th e original Parthian-Kushan dress being a mid-calf length quilted coat with long ruched sleeves. It is possible that these tunics were worn over a brief antariyas. as the foot soldiers seldom wore trousers to cover their bare legs. completed their very colorful uniforms. and sleeves. the kayabandh could be wound once or twice. which had a centre front opening with V-shaped or round neck. jhangia. lozenge shapes mainly in blue. or bandhni as it is known today. Others in the cavalry wore more colorful and diverse garments. Mid -thigh length tunics of brocade or printed cloth (for example. and high boots. hem. or sometimes a white turban. except occasionally in the Satavahana age. rosettes. trousers and an uttariya-a bossed flowers. or yellow with a pattern of birds. which could be a type of tie-dye. holding a short dagger or curved sword. yellow with blue dots. tight ± sleeved kancuka and an elaborate turban with serpent. With this was worn a fillet or head band. when attired for battle wore a short. In early period the Gupta soldier had worn the antariya with his bare chest inadequately covered by the six jewel-striped channavira. Head-dresses were normally a simple skull cap or just a scarf or cloth wound around the head like a turban. Some soldiers continued to wear only the short antariya. His bodyguard carried curved swords like the Nepalese khukri and shields of rhinoceros hide in . This may have been their version of the camouflage on military uniforms. With this were worn short drawers of plain or gold-striped cloth and a skull cap or scarf on the head. The cavalry wore a more elaborate dress.
and so on. Delicate embroidery on muslins. consisting of hundreds of different varieties of flowers and birds. dyed. which were . Delicat e embroidery on muslins. The leaders or chieftains of the various contingents in the army were decked in pearl-embroidered tunics made from the famous stavarkha cloth of Sassanian origin and chaddars of many colors. Silk was woven in black and white check patterns especially for cushions. probably of Chinese origin. and bird and animal motifs. Armour was worn as further protection. These brocades with floral designs from the Deccan and Paithan were like the Jamiwar and Himrufabrics of today. along with intricately woven brocades. printed. was skillfully executed. His sword-bearer wore a patterned tight tunic with pointed ends reaching to the knees. Bows were of two kinds: the simple one-piece bow and the classic double -curved bow probably made of three pieces. painted. It was known as the cinacola. were still used. and richly patterned in wea ves or embroidery. This had led to the further sophistication of wearing a transparent garment over a brightly colored one. and rugs or floor carpets known as rallaka and kambala were made. Gauze from Decca was noted for its transparency and was said to be so fine that the only evidence of its presence was the delicate gold edging of cloth. and was made of metal. for example geese. Before this. There were checks. Gold and silver woven brocades of Benares. silver or dark-colored cloth embroidered or patterned in silver stars or four petalled flowers. gold. A helmet for soldiers was known as sirastrajala. which had a very ancient tradition. swans. the transparency of the cloth had on ly accentuated the nudity below. and the kayabandh wound twice around the waist. Dyeing too was very sophisticated and the diagonal stripes. stripes. and in the north and the north-west the art of embroidery reached the highest peak of development. Special bedcovers known as nicola and pracchadapata. elephants. which continued to be in vogue. It was sleeveless covering the front and back.checked designs. The former is a silk floral design on a wool background and the latter has cotton for its main wrap. the art of calico printing improved considerably and many of the traditional prints of today originated in this period. or of striped materials with chess-patterned bands. Textiles and Dyes«In the Gupta age the finest textiles were available. consisting of hundreds on. deer. or in the complete Central Asian outfit consisting of a dark blue quilted tunics with a V-shaped neck and long full sleeves with soft dark trousers and a saffron turban of Indian origin instead of Central Asian conical cap. which had handsome covers of.
for which a special cheaper variety known.Keyura: worn on the upper arms-baju. a samller simple ring is worn on the upper part of the ear. Tie dying of Gujarat and Rajasthan.Keyura: armlet of filigree work festooned with pearls on upper arms. after knotting at the centre both ends are passed between the legs.Mekhala: girdle at the hips is decorated with discs.Hairstyle: hair has been drawn back into one plait. it is held first at the right hip then taken once around the body and tucked in tightly at the left hip in pleats or simply as in this figure.Kundala: simple ring-type earrings. a fillet is worn and also a chaplet of flowers to which a semi -circular ornament has been attached on eit her side of the centre parting.Special costly silken fabric known as stavaraka was originally manufactured in Persia and is known to have been imported into India. inset with pearls and tied on with ribbons. and all thin brocades.Mukatavali: necklace of one strand of small pearls (haravsti). as rasimal was available. fluted and tucked in at back centre to fall to the ankles.Kirita: a decorative tiara.Bali: ring-type earrings with pearls strung.Muktavali: several pearl necklaces of small and large pearls including one long strand which hangs between the breasts. PRINCESS«Lehnga: the antariya has now become thelehnga.Valaya: one simple and one ornamental bracelet is worn on each wrist. percolated to form the festive and bridal attire of the poorer classes.Anguliya: ring worn on the little finger of the right hand.Nupura: anklets are simple and cylindrical.Hairstyle: elaborate. The process of bleaching was perfected. and tucked in again at the front.popular.Uttariya: of sheer material. cylinderical. MAID SERVANT«Antariya: worn very short in kachcha style. adorned with flowers and jewels. the hair being worn in a . one end has been tucked in under the mekhala and the other over it. a small frill of cloth hangs at the side which could be part of the end of the antariya pulled around from the back after tucking in. with a few curls at the forehead. This was a cloth studded with clusters of bright pearls and worn by royalty. This beautiful effect was created by the resist dye technique. She holds a fly-whisk (chauri). was called pulakabandha and was used a great deal in the upper garments of women. in many different patterns.Nupura: very simple anklet.It is possible that she wears a short choli of very light material. merged in each other in places as soft and dark tones. thrown over the breasts.Valaya: bracelet of filigree work. which had been the prerogative of rich now.
Hairstyle: centre parting with chignon on nape decorated with ribbons.Kundala: ring-type earrings.Muktavali: two strings of pearls at the neck.Choli: short blouse of diaphanous material.Kundala: large disc-type earrings.She carries an offering and could be of foreign origin as the scarf on the head suggests. The large cushion at the back is covered with printed cloth and the cushion used as footrest has a pearl edge. OLD WOMAN«Sari: an elaongated form of the antariya.She is carrying a flower garland. VOTARY FIGURE«Ardhoruka: langoti type of patterned striped drawers. COURT LADY«Ghagri: the early form of a skirt to the knees in which there is a draw-string (nada).Keyura: flat simple armbands.Hara: bead necklace. the right and longer end is taken around the body and thrown over the left shoulder from the front and is visible in folds at the left.Valaya: graded ivory or conch-shell bangles. further back on the head is a decoration of leaves with a central motif probably tied around a chignon-type hairstyle. the left end is passed between the legs and tucked in at the back.The stool or short-backed chair (piddha) has turned wooden legs very similar to those available in most parts of Inida today. Covering it is a pearl studded or tie-dyed cross-shaped cloth. one on each wrist.Muktavali: string of pearls at the neck. .large bun at the nape. two at each wrist. the border of the woven silk material can be seen vertically down the centre.Vaikaksha: two long strings of pearls crossed at the chest.Valaya: simple bracelets.Valaya: bracelet. tassels are visible behind the right shoulder.Nupura: anklets of simple design Headgear: a striped scarf tied around the head and knotted at the back.a short strip of cloth worn around the waist with an attached strip from the centre of the waist which is drawn up between the legs and tucked in at the back .Uttariya: worn over the left shoulder.Hairstyle: drawn back and knotted. a wreath of leaves is worn around the head.
it has a decorative border. it has l ong sleeves and a four-pointed hem in Persian style. the long sleeves are of dark red brocade.Girdle: ornamented.Ghagri: heavily gathered skirt tied at the hips with a nada.Antariya: lehnga style.Mukatavali: three-stringed pearl beads.Valaya: bangles and pearls bracelets.Hairstyle: simple bun with flower wreath (mala) DANCING GIRL«Cholaka: fitted choli-type blouse with an appron front. is of silk with purple.Keyura: armlets with incised design.Pratidhi: breast-band tied at the back. of striped cloth.Valaya: simple bangles.Kundala: large ring-type earrings Hairstyle: worn shoulderlength and loose She carries a large palmleaf fan.Vijayantika: necklace of strings of looped pearls with precious stones.Kancala Kundala: elaborate earrings with pendants Mukuta: tiara of gold. probably tied at the back with ribbons that are visible.Hairstyle: large bun at the nape with wreaths of flowers and sevral strings of pearls or gols chain (sarasari) wound around and held by brooches YASODA «Angarkha: mid-thigh length tunic with left opening and bordered edge all around. green and yellow stripes with lozenge patterns in white.Valaya: two simple and one ornamental bangle on each wrist .Hairstyle: probably a thick twisted roll of padding is fixed at the centre parting and held in place by .MAID SERVANT«Ghagri: a simple skirt with drawstring (nada).Kundala: ring-type earrings.Kantha: flat heavy short necklace.Anatriya: lehnga style. Valaya: bangle on left wrist. worn over the skirt for additional support.Uttariya: worn over the head and left hanging behind the shoulders. MAID SERVANT«Cholaka: choli-type blouse with an apron front and V-neck made of pulakabandha-tie and dye cloth.Mukuta: tiara-like ornament at the forehead. while the middle is of white silk.
.Uttariya: wrapped around the waist and thrown over . but the figure appears to be a Turanian Tartar from Central Asia.Kundala: large ring-type earrings. floating ribbons and round cap.This is often reffered to as the Persian Embassy scene.Uttariya: worn over the head and left hanging behind the shoulders in Parthian or scythian style. Turanian Tartars were influenced in their dress by the persians. probably calf length. The angarkha is shown open.Hairstyle: probably a thick twisted roll of padding is fixed at the centre parting and held in place by tiny plaits of hair.tiny plaits of hair. as seen in the tiraz band. the left edge of the neckline fastening is curved to fit the inside right edge probably with ties as in the modren angarkha. this is till used to hold high the head -covering by some women of north India and gives an extremely regal effect to head veil ATTENDANT «Robe: ankle-length in white material with a pale blue frill at the hem. both of beads with the central bead of differnt shape. this is till used to hold high the head -covering by some women of north India and gives an extremely regal effect to head veil.Cholaka: double jacket of bandhni (tie-dye cloth) the upper one with shorter sleeves in the angarkhastyle.Hara: a simple chain. MINISTER«Kancuka: indigenous simple round-neck tunic with long sleeves and a front opening.Hairstyle: curly hair held back by a fillet.The covering of the head with the veil is possibly of parthian/scythian origin and is seldom seen at Ajanta. the hem of the sleeves and the edge of the collar are embroidered.. it has tight sleeves and a collar. the lower one is green in color with longer sleeves . there is a tiraz band trimming at the upper arm and floating ribbons at the back opening.Headgear: a round cap of red material (broad-cloth or velvet) with a white border of fur or wool and white plume at the centre.Hara: two necklaces.Appears to be foreigner as is evident from the simple hairstyle and lack of ornate jewellery. MAID SERVANT. MAID «Angarkha: long-sleeved tunic with probably a left side-opening running down to the pointed hem .
Bali: simple ring-type earrings with pearl suspended. the cloth is star-patterned.This Kancuka has the four-pointed hem of the Kushan-Parthian under tunic.Trousers: gathered in churidar style.Kayabandh: sash tied at the waist. The indigenous influences is in the choice of thinner and more decorative cloth used to suit the climate conditions of India.Kundala: elaborate earrings Kirita: tiara of metal with ornamental discs and motifs.Chaddar: cloth decorated with a fish-scale pattern.the left shoulder in upavita fashion with the final end resting on the left arm. The alck of jewellery would also denote a foreigner. and the rich way of life at court. one on each wrist Anguliya: ring on little finger.Hairstyle: long hair combed back smoothly.Suddha Ekavali: neckalce of pearls with a central gem Keyura: elaborate armlets with loops suspended from a cylinder of filigree work.Necklace: of gems with loops. KING AND QUEEN «. CHAMBERLAIN «Kancuka: indigenous striped white tunic with long sleeves and front opening. KING «Anatriya: short and striped worn in the lehngastyle with a long end visible on the cushion . worn over the left shoulder and under the right arm in upvita fashion.Haravsti: large pearl necklace.Valaya: Ornamnetal bracelet. probably calflength.Torque: simple necklet. the opening in front is held together and the waist . Which was common to all scythian races including the kshatrapas.Silk ties on necklace are visible at the right shoulder .Headgear: skull cap. worn as a mark of office by the chamberlain GUARD«Kancuka: mid-calf length tunic with four pointed ends.Torque: necklet of twisted wire with beads Headgear: flat turban of twisted cloth held by ribbon bands at intervals.Chugha: close-fitting coat of the Kushans with a row of decorative buttons with fastenings at the centre. V-neck and long sleeves.
edge ends in a point at the centre.Trousers: do not appear to have creases at the knee.Headgear: closefitting cap.Earrings: Button style.The queen is dressed in indigenous costume as seen in her antariya and uttariya, her hair is worn in a bun at the top of the head. From the Licchavi tribe, she wears nupura on the ankles. HORSE MAN «Quaba: calf-length striped coat with pointed collar and tiraz band braid on upper arms; floating ribbon ties are visible at the back.Headgear: dome cap with band.Belt: worn at the waist.Probably a Turanian Tartar of Mongolian stock. Their costume is very similar to that of the persians, from whom the tiraz band trimming, pointed collar and floating ribbon ties originated. baggy trousers tucked into boots are probably worn. FOOT SOLDIER «Cholaka: short jacket covering the chest with half-sleeves and a decorative braid at the hem and sleeve-edge.Antariya: short and striped material with a border.Kangan: one bracelet on each wrist.Hairstyle: shoulder length hair; wears no headgear.Equipment: spear and rectangular, curved shield of rhinoceros hide.Elephant riders and foot soldiers in the Gupta army wore a similar uniform. The were sometimes nore resplendent in gold-striped antariya and skull caps or fillets on their heads. GUARD «Quaba: of foreign origin, this calf-length tunic has the Persian-type pointed collar and tiraz band braid trimming on upper arms.Girdle: worn at the waist.Kundala: disc-type earrings.Hairstyle: drawn up in a large top knot.Equipment: oval shield and curved sword.Although, the costume is foreign the hairstyle, sword and earrings are indigenous. This was probably a foreign uniform adopted by the Gupta army.
COURT LADY«Hairstyle: hair is worn with a centre parting which is covered by a decorative ornament attached to the mukuta (tiara) at the forehead and the jewelled braid at the left side of the nape; the braid then continues like a fillet around the crown of the head.Mukuta: highly decorative in embossed gold or silver, has little pendants suspended from it at the forehead.Kundala: large wheel-like earrings.Haravsti: one strand of large pearls.Torque: twisted wire necklace of celtic origin. BHIKKU «Antaravasa: this lower garment was normally 36" wide and 2½ yards long and worn around the waist where it was secured by a girdle or tucked into the nada(drawstring).Uttarasanga: the upper garment is thrown over the shoulder in a loop. FEMALE VOTARY «Hairstyle: hair is worn in a large pompadour style on the crown of the head with t iny curls along the forehead.Ratnajali: from the elaborate tiara-like ornament around the head, strands of pearls form a net over the hair style; there is a central ornament at the forehead from which are suspended strands of pearls.Mala: large flowers above the ears are used as further ornamentation to the hairstyle.Kundala: very large ring-type earrings.Bali: small earrings with suspended pearls; worn higher up on the ear.Suddha Ekavali: pearl neckalce with a gem at the centre; has ribbon ties KING «Hairstyle: short hair.Mukuta: tiara of floral motif from which pearls are looped and suspended.Bali: earrings from which separate drops of pearls and sapphires are suspended.Valaya: bracelets of different kinds at the wrists.Sutra: simple chain at the neck.He wears a brown striped silk garment.He is making an offering of lotus
flowers to the Buddha on a tray which appears to be covered or painted in a design. PRINCE «Hairstyle: appears to be shoulder length and loosely knotted at the nape; bound with ribbo ns with stylized curls at the forehead.Headgear: twisted turban in stripes or bound at intervals with braid; there are large gem-encrusted brooches at the sides and a central ornament on the top Kundala: simple ring-type earrings.Muktavali: one-string pearl necklace. YOUNG MAN «Hairstyle: simple, shoulder length, drawn back without a parting and left loose; a shorter strand is seen over the ear.
Style«The late Satavahanas style expressed more directly the full impact of the Dravidians-Andhra ethos. With the crowded compositions of lean and strong bodies and the ferocious figures looming over terrified crowds, we feel a sense of frenzied activity and turbulence. The kayabandhs make complex arabesques, but there is less differentiation between t he court and the people as they throng together. The Royal Way of Life«From as early as the Mauryan-Sunga period there was six emblems to denote a royal personage. These were the ushnisa or turban, a pair of flywhisks, umbrella, sword, sandals, and the royal standard. Of these, the two most important and almost always used on all formal occasions were the umbrella and the flywhisks. The umbrella was white and gold for kings and nobles, and was carried by the chattradhara or umbrella carrier. The flywhsiks orChauri were made of yak tails with gold handles, usually two, which were waved alternately by the chauri bearers. In addition to this a fan of palm leaves gaily chequered and made of bark, usira grass, or peacock feathers was waved by another attendant. The sword or khadga, a symbol of power, was carried by a female attendant, the khadgavahini, on her shoulder. She normally stood close behind the king or prince. Thonged sandals originally of boarskin were the king¶s prerogative. Both sword and sandals were said to rule the kingdom in the absence of the king.
As influences from the north and from foreign invaders percolated.C. simple or gold . The ushnisa was always worn and a crown or tiara was used when necessary. With this the decorative kayabandh was tied in different styles and knots. which. a mixture of the aboriginal Dravidians and foreign invaders. Court attendants and women of the richer classes wore their hair more fashionably. The kancuka are of mid-thigh length with short or long sleeves. A fillet.Early Satavahana [200-100 B. which is still seen in the Deccan.] Costume«The people of the Deccan were a hybrid race. at times. Headgear and Hairstyles«The aboriginal jungle women wore rolls and headbands with peacock feathers attached. either in a topknot on the right side with a loop of flowers suspended or in a plait. Village women and commoners wore their hair in a simple knot at the nape covered by a large uttariya. The tunic worn by a king in hunting dress has no discernible opening at the neck. the Dravidians aboriginal village women too changed their costume using short antariyas. Kancuka in the stripes or beehive design worn by attendants or hunters. The kayabandh could be tied like a thick cord or be worn looped in a semi circle at the front with conspicuous side tassels. An elaborate turban ushnisa. with the longer style worn in a variety of ways on ceremonial occasions. Shoulder-length hair held by fillets or top knots tied at the centre of the head seems to denote that these attendants were foreigners. In the first Century BC we find tunics. so it is probably at the back. In addition to these. Except for the skirt. With the tunic a thick Kayabandh was wound once or twice around the waist. tikkas on the forehead and a series of conch or ivory bangles on the arms. short and informal at home. All these clothes are represented in Caves IX and X in Ajanta. intertwined with the long black hair of the aborigine wearers was also worn. in some the opening is on the left side. The king and most of his courtiers wore indigenous antariya. they looked very much like the Lambadis who are a gypsy tribe of Deccan today. Their many ±stringed girdles or mekhala were made of beads. In the first century BC their costumes too were an interesting mixture of foreign and indigenous garments. In the royal court dress of the Mauryan-Sunga people the female attendant wore transparent long antariyas with loose kayabandhs tied in a knot at the centre having beautiful ornamental tips. hunters wore two-bar type sandals with a strap for buckling. had elaborate broad borders. or be made of thick twisted silk. and in others it is at the front. large uttariyas with elaborate board borders covering the head and back. Necklines too differed in tha t some were V-shaped and others were round in shape. although nothing in the garments worn seems foreign.
The antariya was still worn by both sexes in the kachcha fashion. the long hair of men was worn intertwined with lengths of cloth to form an ushnisa in a variety of ways. Jewellery«Jewellery in this period had a massive primitive character in strong contrast to that worn in the later Satavahana period. It is almost invisib le in the early Andhra sculptures with only double incised lines to show the drape. earrings. Frequently it had a knot . This knot could be at centre front or protrude over the forehead in a conch -shell shape. Most often it consists of just earrings of the wheel pattern type. and bows and arrows. and tikka on the forehead. in addition. The three articles of clothing.embroidered could be worn to hold it in place. Military Costume«Soldiers wore short-sleeved tunics or jackets. Indigenous jewellery however. 250] Costume«Clothing was generally spares and made of thin cotton. but interesting mixtures of foreign and indigenous garments were fairly prevalent. The uttariya for both men and women was usually white and of cotton or silk. Generally. but this wa y of draping had its own fanciful fashions. the antariya appeared to have been made of almost transparent cloth and was worn very tight and clinging in the case of women. whether at court or in villages. attendants and soldiers. Women did not wear thebaju band but wore a large number of bangles made of conch or ivory. the antariya. disc -type earrings.the original top knot of the aboriginal-covered with the cloth of the turban.A. uttariya and kayabandh were widely used. Most often. They were equipped with axes.D. and they seldom wore it as a head covering. or the tuft of hair could be visible on top of the turban. or carried sickles.C . which meant that one end was passed between the legs and tucked in behind. with elaborate headgear consisting of either a turban with a topknot. the kancuka or tunic. . the mekhala. and a pair of kangan and bajuband for the males. But when the foreign dress. Late Satavahana [100 B. all wear some form of jewellery. When indigenous garments are shown on men. Women attendants at court wore. For men it was normally to the knees or even shorter. very little or no jewellery is seen. the lambanam. It was however. Palace guards however wore the antariyawith a heavy cloak draped over the left shoulder. at times. consisted of Lambanam. chin band and earflaps or two topknots with a turban. of beautiful colors and embroidered. is worn by hunters. Men could wear it across the back and over both shoulders are merely thrown over the chest.
but of hemp for the kshatriya and of wool for the vaisya. It is in the distinctive ways of wearing these three simple garments the antariya. which was arranged in a large topknot at centre front. Women too wore t he shortkancuka with an indigenous antariya. The maulibandha was an elaborated turban wound with the hair which itself was decorated with strings of pearls or flowers wreaths. The true yajnopavita or sacred thread is found on the sculptures of this period. This topknot could also be pear -shaped or elliptical to give it variety. and simple turbans were held in position by ornamental gold strips or pattabandha. At a later stage this sacred thread continued to be used in a limited way by other castes but was retained most strongly by the Brahmins. A stitched skirt-like foreign garment called the kancuka was frequently used by attendants. The kayabandh tied in a bow-shaped knot was worn by both sexes to give further support to the uttariya at the waist. Headgear and Hairstyles«The ushnisa of the men was generally wrapped around three or four times after covering the topknot of hair with one end. A heavy-looking thick jewelled roll with hanging tassels kakshyabandha-was worn by men. and could have jewelled clasp or maulimani at the centre to hold in place the folds of the turban. It was normally white but could also be of dyed cloth. of which one type was a short cylindrical cap studded with gems and ornamented with designs. the hair could be wor n in one or two topknots. This item was worn in a variety of ways. Gold turbans were worn on special occasions. Thekalabuka was a girdle made of many strips plaited together. uttariya and kayabandh and in the headgear and jewellery. or one loop and one topknot. that we can trace the evaluation of costumes and the fashion of the times in areas of India where they were in use. usually silk. Before this. Short hair parted in the middle and reaching the neck . or when calf-length it was worn with a kayabandh and uttariya. Without the turban. and an indigenous long tunic was worn by eunuchs and other attendants in the women¶s apartments in the palace. it existed more in the form of the uttariya worn draped over the left shoulder and under the right arm in the upavita fashion from which the term yajnopavita consisted of three cotton threads each of nine twisted strands. The kayabandh in the form of a simple sash was called the vethaka. guards and so on in the king¶s court. Kirta or crowns were also in use. grooms. and the muraja had drum-headed knots at the ends instead of tassels. The women also wore the pattika. The turban normally covered the hair.The nivi bandha or preliminary knot to tie the antariya at the waist is often alluded to in the literature of ancient India. which was made of flat ribbon-shaped pieces of cloth. and in many other ways.
praveni. If the hair was made in a simple knot it was known as kabaribandha. There were also small crown like fillets through which the hair was drawn and then plaited or hung loose. armlets and necklaces as in previous periods. In the kesapasa style the hair was looped close to the head in an elongated knot at the back of the head or lower downs at the nape. This shape was later made from ivory or gold and could be gem studded. bracelets. pearls. Special ornaments were designed to be worn in the hair. The talapatra originated from a small strip of palm leaf rolled and inserted into the lobe. decorated with jewelled strips and tassels. A full-blown lotus design the kanaka. and jewels that often completely covered the hair like a close cap or turban. asBharat Natyam dancers do today. were inserted at regular intervals.kamalaset in rubies is still popular in South India. One was in the form of a plait. its petals composed of pearls and precious stones. Women no longer wore the turban of earlier periods. The makarika was shaped like fish -crocodile and worn at the front parting of the hair. which could be simple or decorative.was fairly prevalent. sometimes consisting of only a single string called ekavali. at the back. Several of these necklaces could be worn together. especially among the common people. phalaka. This could have veni. These held together the several strings of which a necklace was composed. The yajnopavita. a small fillet of flowers. This was in the shape of lotus seed pod fixed upside down like a tassel. The dhammilia was elaborate dressing of the hair with flowers. Both men and women wore earring. around it or a short garland of flowers dangling from it. or a sacred thread made of pearls called . The more common design in earring was the kundala shaped like a coil. Another common style was the coil with five delicate plaits dangling from it. particularly the indigenous people. and tiger claws were strung around the necks of children probably to ward off the evil eye. This style was greatly admired in the Satavahana kingdom. and whole was called a phalakahara. A simple perfumed cotton-thread necklace was known to have been in use. and a couple of generations ago the karnika or jimiki continued to be in use. Women wore their hair in several ways. Sometimes three or five slab-like gems. very like gold ornament worn by the uriya women in the northern circars. It was worn normally in the centre of the knotted hair. the central bead being often larger than the others. The chudamani was lotus -shaped. A necklace of gems and gold beads was called yashti. a favourite with all classes of women. Necklaces or hara were mainly strung with pearls. Jewellery«Strands of pearls were the main motif in all forms of jewellery particularly in the late period of the Satavahana empire.
The nupura was plain while thekinkini had small bells suspended. a nd the style is still used in Tamil Nadu. continued to be in use and was often of gold set with rubies and emeralds. had an astonishing variety. mekhala. This type is still worn in Manwar. In addition. The finger ring or anguliyaka is visible on some of the Satavahana sculptures but only after A. were prevalent. These girdles. the gold . It consisted of two long wreaths of flowers of pearls crossed at the breasts. beads or precious stones. were also used for the same purpose. The manjira was hollow and light. the shorter form of necklace. This form is still worn in Andhra. Jewelled girdles of one or many strings. A heavier looking one was the tulakotiI whose two ends were enlarged at their meeting point. coiling several times around the ankles loosely. Slab-like gems when set into bracelets.D. Men and women wore bracelets valaya of solid gold set with precious stones. which was similar in function to the early Babylonian and Assyrian sword belts . Armlets or keyura for both sexes were close-fitting and could be engraved or set with jewels. were called phalakavalaya. The more delicate ones were made of filigree. besides being very attractive. held up the lower garment or antariya. seen more frequently in the Kushan period. like the phalakahara necklace. or be in the shape of a snake. This developed in later times into the Channavira. Military Costume«Andhra soldiers wore an antariya which was shortened by lifting it at the hemline and tucking it into the waist to facilitate marching.the muktayajnopavita. These were made in several varieties from the tinkling kanci with bells to the rasana style made of a linked chain or strung with pearls. These gold coins were sometimes replaced by mango shaped pieces of gold or gold set with gems. worn again only by women.150 The hemavaikasha was an ornament worn by women. They also used bangles of ivory and rhinoceros horn.coins necklace nishka strung on silk thread or plaited gold cord was worn in almost the same design as the modern putalya of Maharashtra and the malai of Tamil Nadu. and tinkling when in motion as it had gems inserted in the hollow. Also. Kantha. Anklets. Tinkling anklets of any kind were not worn by the wife in the absence of her husband. also they could be straight -edged or have an angular top edge. were worn only by women. A cloth sash or kayabandh was wound tightly many times around the waist for support and was sometimes crossed at the chest for protection. cloth girdles or kayabandh like those of the men descri bed earlier in this chapter. like the contemporary mangamalai of South India. and elegant rope -shaped ones of fine gold wire were worn generally by women.
of fine-tooled leather were normally fastened on the left side of the waist. bow. Smaller and more ornamental swords and draggers were fastened by gold chains. Textiles and Dyes«From Mauryan times and even earlier. Swords were either curved or straight and could have sharp edge on one or both sides. and simpler ones of bamboo or wood were used by the common soldier. were purely functional and large enough to protect the body. The equipment of a trained fighter was mainly his sword. The club or gada could be short or long but was immensely heavy and was used for striking the enemy forcefully. mainly rectangular in shape. Buddhist and Jain works. and wood and were carved into animal and other shapes. axe and spear. but the bamboo bow was more common. With it was worn a form of churidar or ruched trousers. A very cheap material made of hemp was worn by the weavers and by labourers of all kinds. black and turmeric. club. which had a warm climate. crimson. the military personnel of this period occasionally wore earring and simple jewellery. and had shafts of feathers affixed with sinews. Saka foreign soldiers were employed by some of the Andhra kings in the royal bodyguard. These swords in their sheaths. indigo. and their helmet or sirastra had earflaps. Since washermen were also dyers. the manufacture of textile in India had flourished and there are constant references to its variety in Brahmanical. sometimes the mace. There was a variety of Dyes available from Vedic times. The bowstring was made of sinew or hemp. yellow. bone. and javelin were used. Sometimes the arrow tips were dipped in poison. There were 30 inches long and beautiful crafted. They wore a heavy tunic with ruched sleeves which reached to the knees or mid-thigh. The heads o f arrows were of iron. Footwear was not incumbent for soldiers and was probably worn by foreign rather than indigenous troops. The bow or dhanush made of wood or horn was painted red and gaily decorated. Shields. these colors were known to them and the knowledge of the dyeing processes was . kosha. magenta. A wide sash was worn at the waist. Wool was not need much in the part of India ruled by Satavahanas. Handles of Ivory or horn and hilts of precious metals encrusted with jewels were carried by those in command. but it was used in the form of chaddars or blankets in winter. shield. Silk formed an important part of rich person¶s wardrobe. Sometimes a short quilted tunic was worn with a heavy drape over the left shoulder along with a turban-a mixture of the foreign and indigenous garment. Coarse and fine varieties of cotton were in great demand. In addition.crossed at the chest with a metal buckle in the centre.
Kantha: Short necklace of five strings of beads in gold or silver. but a spotless white remained the favourite with men.Sitara: large disc at the forehead.phalakahara style. of fine cotton with fluted ends in front.Kayabandh: narrow pattika tied in a bow at the front of the waist. calf length. Printed and woven designs on textile were plentiful and embroidery in gold was also common among the richer classes. hair hanging loose to the shoulders and decorated with ornamental chains.Hairstyle :centre parting. Persia and Rome. like China. The uttariya.she carries a fan typical of the times. that is between the legs. in particular. either painted or affixed. or had a pattern of birds along with flowers. NAGA KING «Kantha: broad and flat short necklace with four pendant pieces (base-metal). must also have been incorporated to extend their range of colored textiles. worn in a looped knot with fringed ends.pattika style. worn inkachcha style. Varieties and mixtures of colors known to those countries with which the Satavahanas did a great deal of trade.Karnika: simple disc-type earring called dehri. Precious stones were often used in the borders of th ese uttariyas or they were dyed blue or red.Kangan: both granulated and plain seen on the left arm . Baju Band: Decorative armlets worn on upper arms.. COURT ATTENDANT «Antariya: of sheer cotton. Kayabandh: Embroidered flat cloth band.Karnika: large cylindrical earring with a decorative design (base metal) .kantha: phalakahara style necklace.Karnika: Trumpet-shaped earrings. was very often of silk and embroidered with flowers all over.Mekhala: Six-stringed hip belt of gold or silver beads.Sitara: Star shaped forehead ornament of gold or silv er with a stamped pattern.Kara: Anklets of twisted wire worn on both ankles. VILLAGE WOMAN«Antariya: Lower cloth.Lambanam: long necklace made of chains held at intervals by flat bands.Uttariya: Upper cloth of printed cotton worn crosswise on the head.Kangan: Ten bracelets adorning each hand.probably handed down to each successive generation.
Belt : with granulated pattern worn higher thanantariya.Ushinsa: turban cloth wound with hair and twisted into a top knot.Karnika: ring-like earrings. . PRINCE«Antariya: worn in kachcha style to below the knees. hair is long.Kangan: heavy and cylindrical bracelets (base metal). she wears her hair held back by a fillet and made into a top knot. her earrings are of the pendant type. as worn by aboriginal. a thick roll worn aslant at the hips with beautiful ornamental tips and tied in large loop-knot. a short langotitype antariya is worn. kundalatype.Kayabandh: wide. ATTENDANTS«attendant on the left wears her hair parted at the left and hanging loosely to the shoulders.Baju Band: thick cylindrical armlets with pendant pieces (base metal).Although not visible.Head-dress: turban is twisted around the head and held with a decorative band. a white one being the emblem of the king alone. KING AS HUNTER «Kancuka: mid-thigh length with round neck and short magyar-type sleeves.Kayabandh : kakshyabandha style. the stripes indicate the folds of the drape. and is arranged in a topknot and five crests with ribbons like serpents' hoods. the umbrella was normally a colored one with a handle of gold workmanship. worn wrapped around the waist a couple of times and tucked in. the rest of the cloth is then wound around the head.The umbrella carrier was usually a woman. the one on the right is the umbrella brearer or chhatradhar.
COURTIER «hair is brought forward in a 'conch-shell' knot and decorated. a brooch decorates the centre of the top knot.Uttariya: tied around the neck to free the arms Karnika: disc-type earrings called dehri.Hairstyle: simple top knot at the centre of the head very like that worn by the hiimen of South Manipur and Burma called the Chins. the neck opening is obviously at the back. and are probably hollow. SOLDIERS«Kancuka: both have shortsleeved tunics with round necks. SOLDIERS «Kancuka : mid-thigh length tunic with short sleeves. the fillet is probably used to keep it in place. . earrings are disc-type and necklace is of thephalakahara style with chains held at intervals by flat pieces. earrings are of the double disc-type. bracelets are made of base metal.They carry battle axes.Karnika: Kundala or ring-type earrings. NAGA PRINCE «hair is arranged in a large top knot at the centre with the turban wound around the head after twisted it around the knot.They are carring a kind of spear in their hands. necklace.ushnisa: turban twisted around and through double topknot of hair.
valaya: several bangles of ivory or rhinoceros horn.Kayabandh: elaborately rolled and twisted at the waist.Kantha: three of different sizes worn together to form a collar.Uttariya: heavy and long. wound twice around the waist .Headgear: an ornamental disc worn in front ofjatta or knot of hair. draped formally across the chest and around the left shoulder .Kayabandh: twisted rope-like around the waist.Headgear: an ornamental disc attached to a head band or top knot . worn in kachchastyle with pleats tucked in at the back and visible in the front between the legs.headgear: turban with a .Kundala: ring-type earring. it has a gathered neckline with a band and long sleeves decorated with a braid in stripes. falling in graceful loops at the sides with one rope-like loop in front.Kundala: ring-type earrings with tassels suspended.Valaya: simple bangles at the wrists.kayabandh: simple vethaka style.Kundala: ring-type earrings. coiling twice around and probably making a tinkling sound in movement Hairstyle: drawn back into a simple knot at the nape.Valaya: three bracelets on each hand of some heavy metal or bone and incised with patterns.Manjira: hollow light anklets.WOMAN «Ghagri: gathered calf-length skirt probably with a drawstring at the waist.Uttariya: wrapped loosely around the hips and draped over the left arm.Keyura: straight-edged armlets with pressed or filigree decoration. KING «Antariya: falling to the ankles. but longed and wound several times around the waist.Belt: ornamental belt. then twisted twice to form a knot at the right hip.Kayabandh: heavy.Kantha: short necklace. worn in kachchastyle with pleats tucked in at the back and visible in the front between the legs. the other end suspended in front ends in two ornamental tips.Belt: ornamental belt. PRINCE «Antariya: falling to the ankles.Hairstyle: loose to the shoulders with a small fringe at the forehead. ATTENDANT «Kancuka: probably calf-length.Kundala: ring-type earring.Keyura: flat and decorative armlets.
.Hairstyle: simple.Hairstyle: in top knot. with the pleated ends passed between the legs and tucked in at the back centre.Kayabandh: simple sash vethaka style. tied at the back with hanging ends. he carries a staff.Kancuka: fork-length tunic with long sleeves and round neckline .Uttariya: wide upper cloth draped across the body to form folds and resting on the left arm. MALE«Ushnisa: turban tied casually in a knot with one end going down the other up. worn hanging loose at the back. kachchastyle. in double fish -tail style.Kayabandh: rolled twice at the waist.Kantha: collar-like necklace. PRINCE«long hair is drawn up into several twisted loops held by two twisted coils. PRINCE«Antariya: worn in kachcha style and spread out after tucking in at the back.This depiction of the Buddha on his way to Yashodara. his wife.fan-shaped frill. BUDDHA «Antariya: worn in lehnga style almost up o ankle length.Hairstyle: in top knot. the shorter hair being allowed to hang loose around the face.Umbrella: white with gold work on the handle. then looped in the front so that the two ends are worn loosely spread out as a frill at each side. the little frills in the front could be just a puff of the antariya pulled out at the waist over the nada. CHATTRADHARA «Antariya: ends a little above the ankles. FEMALE«Kirita: a crown-like headgear with semi-circular motifs in front and larger lotus petal designs at the back.Kundala: suspended disc-type earrings. The Uttariya could be the large chaddar used when travelling.Kundala: large ringtype earrings.Probably a master of ceremonies.
their only expression had been the metal work displayed in their horse trappings.Headgear: helmet with peaked top called sirastra.Churidar: narrow ruched trousers. showing in complete detail the kind of heavy garments they wore. The Kushans were not originally an artistic people. Later. But they had lived for many years in Bactria before entering India and this prepared them for the role they were to play as great patrons of the arts. and in the ornamental plaques. Of Scythian origin. The latter have the still.Kayabandh: wound several times around the waist. the foreigners had found aspects of the Indian experience that fired their imagination.This depiction of the Buddha as preacher gives an idea of the type of clothes worn by those Buddhist monks who travelled and preached both in India and abroad. both these styles fused to create the Renaissance of Gupta Art. which they stitched on their garments. while retaining the massive scale of Bharut and Sanchi. In the same period.Torque: necklace of twisted wire. formal depiction of the Kushan Kings. The color of their garments was reddish-yello and no jewellery was worn. where the wiry line of the drawing with its flat brilliant colors dominated by lapis-lazuli gives a heraldic appearance. hunting gear.Hairstyle: in top knot. . Kushans Style«The Kushan influence was felt in what developed into the Gandhara art and the art of Mathura which. some times with ear flaps. It is an if in the provocative display of courtesans with their sinuous bodies in the tribhanga pose and the delicate flower-like gesture of the hands.Uttariya: the upper cloth has a border and is worn in an interesting drape on the left shoulder and hangs at the back loosely to fork length. as seen in the development of the Gandhara art and the evolution of the indigenous art of Mathura. however there are the wall paintings at Kizil in Afghanistan. static and frozen. had carvings more sophisticated and images more flamboyant and sensuous than had been seen before. like the group of portrait statues found at Mathura.BUDDHA «Antariya: worn in lehnga style. DVARPALA: DOOR-KEEPER«Kancuka: knee-length tunic of heavy cloth with long ruched sleeves and gathered neckline.
and where climatically sewn garments were more suitable. they were often adorned with stamped gold or metal plates. square. Begram. This helped to give the distinctive draped effect with four sharp pointed ends at the hemline. The trousers could be of linen. (ii) guardians and attendants of the harem-usually the indigenous and sewn kancuka. It consisted of a ruched long sleeves tunic with a slit for the neck opening. the clothes were simple. uttariya. circular. The chugha was coat-like and decorated with a border down the chest and hemline. bashylk. chalana. and had slits to facilitate movement. The dress was worn by most of Scythian and Iranian races and resembled particularly that of the Parthians. by gathering the cloth along the seams. khapusa. silk or muslin in summer but were woolen or quilted in winter. and kayabandh. redbrown in color. (iii) foreign Kushan rulers and their entourage. These loose or close-fitting trousers.Costume«Kushan costumes may be divided into five types: the costume worn by (I) indigenous people-the antariya. The close-fitting knee-length tunic was sometimes made of leather. to free the spread of knees when riding a horse. An earlier version was used by the Saka warriors. Clothes for women were varied. Although. The drape of trousers too was held in place by means of these gold or metal plates stitched do wn the centre front. worn loose or crossed over from right to left and secured by a belt of leather or metal. etc. and with it could be worn a short cloak or a calf -length woolen coat or caftan. Besides these two upper garments. how some of the purely draped garments of the Indians were replaced by cut -and ±sewn garments. and Surkh Kotal in Afghanistan. were tucked into soft padded boots with leather trappings. and (iv) other foreigners such as grooms. rectangular. simple or elaborately decorated. There are fifth category . The Kushan (Indo-scythian) dress had evolved from a nomad culture based on the use of the horse. or triangular sewn in lines or at the central seams of the tunic. Their purpose was not only decorative but functional as well. Along with this was worn the scythian pointed cap of felt. where the tunic was simply picked up and tucked into the belt on two sides at centre front. This last category is of great interest as it shows how clothes changed and evolved. as they helped lift the tunic in the middle for riding. Taxila. or peaked helmet or head band with two long ends tied at the back. traders. It is seen at Mathura. especially in north and north-west where influences were felt more keenly. At Gandhara there are figures wearing a sari like garment which seems to have evolved from palmyrene (Graeco -Roman) or pure Roman dress. occasionally a third garment t he chugha was used. It is interesting to note that elaborate embroidered panels later replaced these gold or metal plates. This is the palla (draped ± over garment worn over a long .a mixture of foreign and indigenous garments.
The latter is not passed between the legs as the kachcha style. is form-fitting with long sleeves. In the earlier period. trousers were worn by Greek and Persian women. the typical Indian uttariya is worn across the back and over both arms. in addition. It is said the Amazons wearing trousers formed the royal guards of the king. The difference in some of the Gandhara female figures is that they wear. This long antariya is worn in the kachcha style but one end continues over the left shoulder and is broached there like the palla. This wou ld fall under the category of a mixture of foreign and indigenous garments. The tunic. Besides the above mentioned. and may well show the beginning of the sari and one of the earlier attempts to create a garment to cover the breasts. These females guards adapted their own phygian costume to a tight mid-thigh length jacket with crossover at the neck and a gathered or pleated skirt worn with the antariya. which is extended in length. In addition. anantariya. and Indian jewellery completes the ensemble. In yet another female figure we find a Persian-influenced knee or mid-thigh length tunic. a simple round neckline. . The long ruched sleeves are visible underneath and could be sh ortened version of Roman long gown (stola) worn as covering for the breasts. and flaring at the hemline. These Gandhara figures are some of the most intriguing sculptures of the Kushan period. The purely indigenous antariya. stanamsuka. Servants and dancers from many parts of the world were brought into the country from a very early period in Indian history. jasmine and other scents. stanamsuka. worn with the antariya. They are gathered in folds from lengths about 6 -8 feet. ghagri. a large shawl. But very little in the way of elaborate jewellery is used. with a side seam and nada or string to hold them up at the waist are also seen. and was a wide twisted sash used mainly by women in many delightful ways to enhance the suppleness of the waist. continued to be worn by both sexes as protection against th e cold and it was known to have been perfumed with bakul. The wearing of an uttariya with the sari is still seen in the fisher-folk of Maharashtra. but is worn crossed-over in the lehnga style.uttariys and kayabandh continued to be the main costumes of Indians with slight modifications. The total ensemble looks very much like the Deccani sari of today. The pravara or chaddar. which was typical of the Roman matron) pinned at the left shoulder. along with a crossed vaikaksha with metal buckle shield and sword. There are also some figures of women wearing close fitting ruched trousers with a long-sleeved jacket and an uttariya. and have a decorative border at the hem and at the centre front seam. Simple stitched skirts. The kayabandh became a more loosely worn informal piece of attire. the lehnga style antariya and uttariya is sometimes worn.gown with ruched sleeves.
and fruit and berries were woven together to form decorative ornaments. the hair was worn in a topknot or in the shape of a bow. They wear their hair in a tuft at the forehead. Headgear and Hairstyles : Men«Men continued to wear the turban. often softened by curls on the forehead or at the nape especially in the northwest. When bareheaded. This tuft is in the form of a ball or disc. and brooches and decorative hairpins continued to be worn. and sometimes a µrelic¶ or box containing scented sandal or some other perfume paste is secured to the bun by a ribbon. but when arranged it was usually in one or two plaits. a simpler line of twisted rolls of the fabric itself is more in evidence with hardly any of the complications of intertwining the hair with the turban cloth. neck. around which the turban was woun d to form a large protuberance. A sprig of the mimosa tree tucked into the turban was said to give protection against the evil eye. There is little evidence of long hair being worn loose. leaves. or hanging to one side. reeds or cotton-plant stalks. folded in and held with a br ooch at the nape or worn in chignon which protrudes at right angle to the neck or almost vertically upwards. or twisted cord or scarf is tied around the head and over the bun. a jewelled net. Turbans wound around the foreign pointed scythic cap made of striped fabrics and decorated with rows of pearls or a diadem were frequently used. it was said to symbolize love. which covers the line of parting. The Scythian pointed cap was frequently used as was the crown or mukuta. made of nard leaves on fabric. slowly disappeared. If one from the asoka tree was worn. The chaplet of leaves. The commoner would probably wear hers in a simple knot at the nape as is worn today. They were sometimes supported by munja grass. a band of diadem. At other times. horn and bone ornaments. worn at the waist. However. sometimes joined at the tips at the back. or in the hair. shells. or else of silk of many colors and steeped in unguents. Fillets or bands tied on the forehead were common. Sometimes a bow of cloth is placed saucily on top of the head. the rest of the hair is drawn back. was even exported to Rome. Flowers were used to decorate the hair and chaplets of leaves are frequently seen around the high topknot of hair. especially in northwestern India. now called mauli. But srajas or flower garlands were the most popular and could be of many kinds. The knob at the centre or side of the head. Apart from flowers.Headgear and Hairstyles : Women«The wearing of the uttariya on the head seems to have almost disappeared in this period and most of the women in indigenous costume are seen bare-headed. Ratnavali. The common man moved around bare-headed or . as in the Mauryan-Sunga period. Young men had begun to cut their hair short and adopted a short skirted tunic with their antariya. peacock feathers.
The earrings. As the turban and head veils of women went out of fashion they were replaced by a bejewelled diadem or crown called mukuta. which remained popular.used his kayabandh or uttariyato form a casual turban on the head against the sun in almost the same way as is seen today in India. These were used in addition to the garlands of flowers. while others had cores of jasper and turquoise paste and were strung on thread or wire to be worn as necklaces called kantha. a simple necklace of gold wire. or ivory were also used. that is. coral. and elaborately or namented and inlaid. Foreigners wore the torque. and copper as tamra. the simpler kind was used by men. This was simpler and lighter than that in the previous period. was in vogue. Of these. Simple bangles of glass. Stringing coins to be worn as necklaces. Both men and women wore these. . It was a characteristic ornament of the Scythian and Celtic people and was worn as a mark of distinction by the Persian and parthians. as well as inlay work in shell and mother-of-pearl. Armlets were known as keyura and bracelets as valaya. or a simple fillet or headband called opasa. Head ornaments were varied. and these continued to be for making jewellery. There is an absence of forehead ornaments like the sitara and bindi of the Mauryan-Sunga period. shell. Gold and silver were often encrusted with ratna or jewels. silver was known as rupya. the art of enameling was known. The mekhala or girdle was mainly of beads and along with nupura or anklet. diamonds and cat¶s . was worn only by women. Sapphires. called nishka. Those for women were often made thick or thin sheets of gold with hinged clasps. Gold or silver hairpins with attractively ornamented heads held up hair. These included carnelians¶s. Men continued to wear the mauli(turban). kundala. except for foreigners who are depicted as wearing none. scythian in origin. we noticed a tendency towards greater refinement and simplicity in this period. The ring type. sraja. The pendant type often had decorative rosettes and granulation. a ring elaborately decorated with beads as well as bud-like pendants. Shell and terra -cotta beads continued to be strung and worn by the poorer classes. topaz. could be simple with a gold wire wound around or mixture of both types. Jewellery«In relation to the Mauryan-Sunga period. Besides this. Gold was much in use and was called hiranya and suvarana. or long ones worn between the breasts known as hara. garnets.eyes were embedded or sometimes strung in various ways and worn as ornaments. lapis lazuli. Gold beads were beautifully filigreed or filled with lac. all of whom were of the same stock. were of three types and most often of gold though there is evidence of ivory ones as well. amethysts. as were the Sakas and Kushans. agates. and pearls.
In Rome. hunters. Turban cloth for rich women were often diagonally striped with every third line made of pearls. Another soldier is seen wearing full foreign garments in the same army. had at one time been some of the most important cultural centres of the ancient world. woven into a gauze known as jalaka. Augustus encouraged trade with India and exports increased resulting in a flourishing merchant class. His coat of mail is worn over a short tunic. This bejewelled material was also used to cover beds and seats. and his bare legs are encased in greaves. tall shields made of undresses ox hide. the Kushan King. which is visible at the hem and sleeves. woven. hairpins. probably iron. Antariya were very rarely decorated and when they were. But the soldier¶s coat of mail appears to be made of metal scales. others incised with tiny fingers. they appear to have been either embroidered. which was annexed by Kanishka. rather than woven wire. In the northwestern is coarse cotton and wool were used for making tunics and trousers for horsemen. Many other geometric patterns of checks. stripes and triangles . brooches. and Sogdiania in Central Asia. Coats of mail are said to have been. Buddhists missions too were sent to china. or printed in diagonal check design s enclosing small circles. In central India textiles wer e of lightweight cotton. Textiles and Dyes«For the first time trade with China was directly established through the ancient silk route.Finger rings were of solid god. Greeks and then the Kushans. foreigners. Ivory was used extensively to make combs. some plain. At the Ghandhara site of Kushans is a soldier of Mara¶s (Apollo¶s) army wearing the Indian antariya and turban with a Graeco-Roman style of breastplate or coat of mail. boxes and other objects. and Yarkhand. Khorez. and doorkeepers. Indian traders settled down in Chinese Turkestan. All three soldiers carried shields and equipment¶s of various kinds. but rode without saddles. Both indigenous and foreign skills were plentiful but still very expensive. Khotan. attached to a backing. tulapansi. On his head is a three-cornered helmet. Foot soldiers are said to have used six-foot bows with very long arrows. Military Costume«It is in the military dress of the Mauryan-Sunga period we find the earliest traces of foreign influence on indigenous garments. Bactria. They were later taken over by the Persians. made indigenously of metal lic wires. This could be a foreign-influenced improvement on the indigenous equipment for soldiers. This included Kashgar. which suggests the well-known whitish grey felt cap of the Tibetans and Khorezmians. The third soldier in this army of Mara wears the purely Indian antariya and has his uttariya wound around his waist. and board swords three men carried smaller shields and were equipped with two lances each.
Anguliya : finger rings of solid gold.Kantha : Short necklace of beads with central pendant and looped chains. yellow-green. it is possible to maintain that many of the patterns and colors would be similar. COURT LADY «Antariya : worn extremely short in kaccha style.Hara : necklace of pearls.Kundala : square earrings decorated with a flower motif and with pearls suspended. dark bronze-green. in addition. But a large variety of fabrics were recovered from the burial grounds along the silk route. pink. much literary evidence of sophistication of Indian textiles from the earliest times. In a list compiled of fabrics recovered from the ancien t silk route. yellow. light blue. .Mukuta : bejewelled crown on the head and a head band. fabrics in the following color were found: bright blue.Hairstyle : small symmetrical curls at the forehead. probably strung on thread or wire and worn between the breasts. crimson. a thick jewelled roll worn aslant which has a large clasp at the left hip. There is.Nupura : anklets-wide rings with an elaborate design. dark blue -copper.Mekhala : five-stringed pearl or jewelled hip belt.Valaya : bracelets of two kinds : the central one consists of a series of rings like a wrist band. We know for a fact that the beautiful ultra -marine and lapis lazuli blue were sent along the trade route from the famous mines at Badakshan in Central Asia. the other piece is looped to mid-thigh in front and the end tucked in a small looped frill at the centre. the end that is passed between the legs has been tucked in at the back. There is no evidence of actual fabrics being made in India before the twelfth or thirteenth century. rich red. crimson brown. it holds the antariya and cloth kayabandh in place. or had influenced indigenous fabrics. dull gold buff. the other is kakshyabandha. It is only from literary sources that we know of the textiles and dyes available in the earlier period. which can be dated to between the first century BC and the second century AD (Han Period in China). Based on this evidence we may presume that the dyes and textiles of Chinese origin available along this route would surely have found their way into India.were also printed and woven. rich dark yellow-brown. yellow-brown. hair tied in a looped knot projecting vertically at the back.Kayabandh : there are two : one is a wide sash tied in a loop on both sides to the knees with steamers at each side of the hips hanging to floor length. on both sides are larger rigid bracelets.Keyura : simple armlets. bronze-brown. of looped design in gold or silver. These are all variants and mixtures of the colors in dyes that were available in India in this period. Hence.
the left end is loosely tucked in at the waist.Uttariya : thrown casually over the shoulders. like an inverted basket. held at the neck by button.She rests her pitcher on a head-rest probably of cane.Valaya : three bangles are visible on the right hand. the other end being taken across the body and over the left shoulder.Nupura : heavy ring-type anklets.Hara : long necklet worn between the breasts.Hara : one long pearl necklace worn between the breasts and one short one with a pendant.MILK MAID«Ghagri : simple narrow calf-length skirt stitched at the centre-front border.Kayabandh : twisted sash.Kundala :simple ring-type earrings.Mixture of foreign and indigenous costume. this is an example of the earliest form of a stitched lower garment for women.Hairstyle : hair at the front is divided into three portions.Tunic : with front opening. YAKSHI: FEMALE DOOR ± KEEPER«Antariya : worn in lehnga style. the central one is made into roll.Head-dress : chaplet of leaves or turban with a central flower worn around the top knot of hair .Valaya : simple ring-type bangles. FEMALE«Anatriya : sari-like.Kayabandh : simple sash.She carries a long spear and round embossed shield. FEMALE GUARD«Tunic : Kushan type with long ruched sleeves. it has either a drawstring through it to is rolled over a string.Valaya : four bangles on left .Keyura : armlets of same decorative design as forkantha. the two at the side are combed do wnwards with tassels suspended.Kundala : large ring-type earrings.Mekhala : four-stringed girdle with clasp and decorative leaf at the centre. worn in the kachcha style.Uttariya : worn across the back and over both shoulders.Antariya : could be chalana-Kushan loose trousers. twisted in parts. simply wrapped around and tucked in at the left. A mixture of foreign and indigenous costume. tunic is form-fitting.kantha : short flat necklace with decorative design .Sitara : round ornament on the forehead. long ruched sleeves have ruching held by jewelled bands or buttons.
Nupura : simple ring-type anklets. only the pleated end hanging at the back has been shortened . DONOR FIGURE «Antariya : kachcha style.Boots : padded. worn open at centre front. KING KANISHKA«Tunic : calf-length and heavy quilted. the other end is partly pleated and tucked in at the front.Chugha : a coat which is longer than the tunic.Uttariya : worn over the left shoulder across the back and under the right arm. then wound around and worn over the left shoulder . with straps around ankle and under the boot held together by a decorative clasp. He holds two swords in decorative scabbards.Purely indigenous style.Tunic : Kushan style.Hairstyle : in a double knot at the centre of the head.Kantha : short necklace.Belt : with granulated pattern worn higher thanantariya or worn short to waist. .Hairstyle : chaplet of leaves.Hara : pearl necklace worn between the breasts.Kundala : simple disc-like earrings.Valaya : one bangle on each wrist. while one end is passed between the legs.Kundala : twisted or suspended disc earrings.Belt : of metallic decorative plaques. DONOR FIGURE «Antariya : sari-like.Nupura : heavy double rings on the ankles.Hairstyle : centre parting with long hair looped on one side. tied in front.Mixture of foreign and indigenous costume. then across the chest and taken again over the left shoulder . This early form of kachchastyle sari is still used in Maharashtra and parts of South India. with braid at the bottom edge. either the boots are calf length or baggy trousers (chalana) have been inserted into short boots. it has a decorative braid at the centre front and hem with probably long gathered-up sleeves.wrist. pleated and tucked in at the back.This is the dress of Kushan for foreigner of Saka-Parthian origin.Mixture of foreign and indigenous costume.
KUSHAN KING«Chugha : calf-length with a wide richly embroidered border down the centre -front opening, hem and edge of long sleeves (probably ruched); the material of the coat has small rosettes and a V-neck and there is a round motif on the right sleeve.Tunic : Kurta-like undergarment visible at the neck.Chalana : baggy trousers tucked into calflength padded boots; there is a wide band of vine pattern at the centre from toe to top (not visible in drawing); straps around the ankle and instep.Kantha : short necklace with pendant.Purely foreign costume of Scythic origin. SOLDIER«Antariya : worn in kachcha style.Armour : chain armour made of scale or rhombus-patterned plaques, fastened together with strings (like a Japanese or Tibetan armour); the end of the sleeves, waist and hem are strengthened with cording; the skirt portion is made of parallel rows of rectangular plaques.Mauli : turban made of twisted roll of cloth.Equipment : round shield and spear.This is a mixture of foreign and indigenous costume. The armour is Graeco Roman. SOLDIER«Antariya : transparent calf-length and worn in thelehnga style.Armour : scale armour with V-neck and short sleeves; the skirt portion is of square-linked design and of mid-thigh length.Tunic : Visible at the hem and sleeves.Equipment : sword belt with flat, short sword; strap across the chest, probably for quiver; round shield with patterned design,Mauli : turban wound several times and tied at the right side.Mixture of foreign and indigenous costume. GUARD«Antariya : worn in kachcha style up to the ankles.Tunic : knee-length, a fully quilted garment with thick cording at the waist, neck and hem..Quilted upper garments are still worn in north India in winter. Mixture of foreign and indigenous costume.
FEMALE COURT ATTENDANT«this simple hairstyle is made by parting the hair at the centre, drawing it to the right side and allowing it to hang in a loop at the right shoulder COURT LADY«hair is worn in a tuft at the centre as in the figure of Court Lady (Mathura), curls frame the face; rest of the hair is drawn into a knot which is vertically placed at back centre; a turban has been twisted and wound casually around the hair. COURT LADY«a tuft of hair covers the line of parting; it has been to form a ball; rest of the hair is drawn back, looped and held in position by a clip or brooch . COURTIER«Mauli : turban worn simpler than in the previous period: no intertwining of the hair with the cloth; decorated with some clasps in front;there is also a decorative ring at the top through which a string of pearls is passed and attached to the sides . DONOR FIGURE«Mauli : turban of rich material is surmounted by twisted rolls of cloth from the centre of which the pleated end is visible in a decorative fan shape; a band is used crosswise to give shape to the turban. EARRING«Kundala : of gold 'leech and pendant' type; the ring or leech attaches itself to ear and the pendant bud is suspended by a movable ring with granulation's. NECKLACE«Kantha : short necklace of gold in the spearhead and drop' design
UNIT 4.............Mughal influence
The Mughals established one of the greatest empires inunited India. Their leisurely and relaxed lifestyle provided the artisans of the time with an atmosphere of creativity and experimentation with contemporary ideas and philosophies. Some contemporary trends appeared in the miniature painting as local artists were introduced to new trends, which the Mughals had brought with them from the Safavid Court., Islamic inscriptions, symmetry in motifs and overall design, and a tendency towards uniformity in shapes. Mughal emperors paid special attention to textiles ² patterning, cuts and delicate hand work on their garments. The trends and styles that they developed were modern and contemporary to the Subcontinent and are still replicated by architects, artists, film directors and the fashion designers, around the world.Textiles flourished remarkably under the Mughals. Various techniques of crinkling, dying, patterning and embroidery were explored. Lahore received special attention and grew into a leading centre of textile production. Twenty varieties of woollen cloth alone were exported from Lahore to different parts of the Subcontinent and abroad.For weaving shawls there were one thousand karkhanas in the city. Silk weaving also received special encouragement and silk cloth produced in Punjab gained fame throughout the world.Because of its finesse, Indian cotton became very popular in Europe as it was not only colourfast but also far cheaper than the linen available there. This remarkable influence in European markets resulted in many Indian clothing and textile terms entering English and other European languages e.g. bandana, calico (plain-weave cotton fabric with simple block printed design), cashmere (wool from Kashmiri goats), cummer band (a waist band or girdle), dangree (coarse cloth woven with two or more threads per weave), khaki (dust coloured cloth used for military uniforms), muslin (thin cotton fabric), pajama, shawl etc.The priceless legacy of miniature paintings and chronicles from the Mughal era provide an insight into the dress code of the nobility at the time. By examining them one can easily determine that µcostume designing¶ was a major art form that received special encouragement by all the Mughal emperors.Interestingly, each emperor maintained his own contemporary style of dressing in court and otherwise. Babar who was brought up in the cooler climate of Turkistan, retained the costumes of his homeland; the most popular garments in his period were µchafan¶ (long coat) and µpostin¶ (sheep skin coat). It can be said that he must have worn them for traditional rather than practical reasons. Humayun introduced Persian elements in the costumes. He was notorious for seeking the help of planetary movements (every day) in choosing what to wear. He also maintained a special treasure house in his palace to accommodate textiles and garments.Akbar¶s long reign was largely a peaceful one. In this period there was a combination of Indian and imported skills and techniques, which lead to the flowering of classical forms and shapes and later became an integral part of Indian dress design. Akbar took the initiative of introducing local textiles, which were best suited to the hot climate of the region. He himself took interest in the fashioning of court dresses and introduced the µChakdar jama¶ to his court, which is a cross over tunic, with slits around the skirt and an asymmetrical hemline. Although it was in fashion in India since medieval times, Akbar restyled the garment and developed it into a formal gown by removing slits, rounding the hemline and increasing the fullness of the skirt.The emperor was smart enough in maintaining the freedom and religious identity as the Hindu Chakdar Jama was fastened on the left side of the body and Muslims fastened it on the right side.Akbar also developed a vocabulary of clothing and textile. Some new terms were introduced; jama was renamed µsarbgati¶ meaning, that which covers the entire body, µizar¶ (drawers) was renamed µyar pirahan¶ meaning µcompanion of the coat¶, µburqa¶ and µhijab¶ (over garment covering the body and face) were named µhitragupta¶ (Sanskrit word) meaning µthat which hides the face¶ and µshawl¶ took the name µparamnarm¶ meaning µextremely soft¶
in most northern states. they are required to observe purdah by wearing µburqua¶ ± a dress that covers Islamic women from head to toe. turban (the style of tying the turban varied according to social status). the women in Rajasthan started to cover their face to avoid attracting specifically the Muslim invaders. . the women are forced to cover their faces both in public and in privacy of their houses. The Shalwar Kameez has a very significant place in the History of the Textiles and traces its roots back to the Evidence of Persian influence on Textiles and Clothing in India can be traced to the Kushan dynasty . The royal garments became more decorated and lavish with heavy embellishments of floral designs. The intrusions and wars of course left no marks of those garments. while Hindu women do not. choghas and angrakhas remained the height of fashion along with accessories for men such as the atamsukh (a long. The palettes depict people dressed in caps or head-bands. Indian literature is one of the oldest literatures in the world but the Vedic or pre-Vedic period has no record of veil or ³ghunghat. received fresh impetus. [INDIA] Shalwar Kameez is a traditional garment worn by both men and women due to its modesty with Muslim values. Mughal influence on textiles 1. jutis (shoes) and farji (kind of a coat) etc.Shah Jahan¶s reign marked the height of aristocratic elegance and opulence in all the forms of art. emperor Jahangir initiated the printing. calf-length Coats worn loose crossed-over from right to left and secured with leather or metal belt and baggy trousers. By the seventeenth century. a µBikandar coat¶ and a µriding coat¶. patka.Aurangzeb also promoted the same lavish style on clothing. ³In the mythic past of Hindu culture. Strong evidence in favor can be seen by the absence of veil among women in Southern India where there is no insistence on head cover or other such practices neither in public nor in private places. except husbands and close family members Purdah is practiced to protect the dignity of woman.Coinage and stone palettes found show and Persian influences in clothing . in some parts of India. women are supposed to have a Ghoonghat in front of the family elders and men. and paintings dating back to this reign reveal the evidence of Indianisation of Persian fashions in the royal court. especially those for the garments.The Mughal rule is considered a µgolden age¶ of textile crafts in the Sub-continent. jamas. Motifs were outlined with gold thread coupled with µpietra-dura¶ effect of the precious stones.Unlike Muslim and Christian traditions veil has very recent history in Hindu culture and society. The veil appears for the first time in 16th century literature written in Hindi language. If they must leave the house. 2. with the Muslim invasions came the purdah system for Hindu women to practice. Traditionally. The intricate patterning of clothing and the delicate embellishments done by hand marked the finesse. He introduced a garment called µnadiri¶ (literally mean rarity) which was a type of overcoat worn over the jama. In contrast. veil in Indian subcontinent was introduced only after Muslim invasions. comfort and freedom of movement. Mughal ornamentation. loose garment worn like an over coat in winters). The garment was designed exclusively for him. In the museums one finds only two surviving garments from his period.Ghoonghat or Ghunghat is a Hindi word which describes a type of veil or headscarf worn by Indian women to cover their head. [INDIA] The Veil as Ghunghat & Purdah . Muslims practice this particular form of purdah.Although the behavioral rules of purdah are complex and depend upon the particular context and region. ruched long sleeved Tunics. all women figures as exemplified by different goddess statues are bare-headed and their faces are never veiled´ However.During his reign. luxury and exuberance of the garments. purdah is generally a cultural practice that confines women within the four walls of their homes.. weaving and embroidering of Kashmiri flora on textiles.
Akbar restyled the garment and developed it into a formal gown by removing slits. .. styles and shapes that later became an integral part of Indian Dress Design. The men dressed in a Tunic called Jamah and was worn with close fitting Pajama trousers called Izar and later known as Shalwar. loose garment worn like an overcoat in winters). with slits around the skirt and an asymmetrical hemline. The Mughal rule is considered a µgolden age¶ of textile crafts in the Sub-continent. This led to the flowering of classical forms. Although it was in fashion in India since medieval times. which were best suited to the hot climate of the region. During subsequent reigns of Shah Jahan and Aurangazeb the royal garments became more decorated with heavy embellishments of floral designs. The Tunic was tightened at the waist by a belt of fabric with tassels called Patka. each emperor maintained his own contemporary style of dressing in court and otherwise. Humayun introduced Persian elements in the court costumes. He himself took interest in the fashioning of Court Dresses and introduced the Chakdar Jamah to his court. Interestingly. Various techniques of weaving. The women's Dress of the empire consisted of close fitting trousers paired with a bodice (a variation of Jamah called Angharakha or Qameez) that came down to the end of the Shalwar and worn with a half-sleeved embroidered open Jacket with a delicate transparent Shawl (called Paramnarm meaning extremely soft) draped like a sari. Turban (the style of tying the turban varied according to social status). The court Garments of era were marked by intricate patterning of clothing and delicate handmade embellishments. Jutis (shoes) and Farji (kind of a coat) etc. By the seventeenth century. crinkling. His reign encouraged a synthesis of Persian and Indian styles in everything from architecture to clothing. patterning and embroidery were developed and encouraged. Chogha(cape) and Anghrakha remained the height of fashion along with accessories for men such as the Atamsukh (a long. Humayun's successor Akbar led the empire to its classic and most flourishing period in history. The most popular Garments in his period were a long Coat called Chafan and a sheep-skin Overcoat called Postin worn with Pajama-like trousers. Jamah. Patka. reached up to the ankles (referred to as Sarbgati meaning that which covers the entire body) in the later Mughal days. which is a cross over Tunic. Block printing and the art of Kalamkari (meaning pen work) were rejuvenated with Persian influences of Persian flower motifs and designs by the 17th century. Akbar took the initiative of introducing local textiles.The precursor of the current Cummerband was another popular piece of clothing (called Kamarbandh meaning waistband) worn as girdle or waistcoat by both men and women to enhance the bust-line.Textiles flourished remarkably under the Mughals. rounding the hemline and increasing the fullness of the Skirt. Motifs were outlined with gold thread coupled with µPietra-dura¶ effect of the precious stones. dying. Babar who laid the foundation for the empire retained the costumes of his homeland. The Jamah which was knee long in the beginning.The present day Shalwar Kameez in its various styles is an adaptation of the clothing of Mughal era. His son.
Fashion trends towards a more casual look continued in the 1920's. and put into a variety of uniforms.. became normal daywear after 1915. but once it became acceptable to do so.Women's Suits. Poiret. not just to men's only club functions. were promoted as practical fashions for war work. ladies wore these shorter styles with sexy heeled shoes and flesh toned silk stockings. and fabric shortages encouraged a cert ain utilitarian drabness in dress. and practical for women working near the front lines. To a great extent people believed that those values were discredited. the dominant style for fabric decoration and interior design until WWII. Vionnet. Several trends that had roots in the decades prior to the war. Tail coats and frock coats began only to be worn on highly formal occasions.After the War in 1918 the Suffragettes finally won the vote in the UK.. and fashion began to look towards teen and collegeage kids for it's inspiration.. 1918-1929. gradually more and more women did in the following decades. Hobble skirts were instantly jettisoned in favor of slightly wider more practical skirts.Large numbers of women were recruited into military organizations on all sides.. Most women did not suddenly cut their hair. This is why clothing after the 1914-1918 War period is instantly recognizable as "Modern" to our eyes. Young and daring women dumped the corset in favor of brasseries. The Brassiere. Not only did women's hemlines rise to mid-calf length. not high button boots. but the most noticeable change engendered by the war was a relaxation of the formal rules of attire which had bound men and women's dress since early in the Victorian era. rose to mid calf length by 1916. Chanel. During the war. or higher. considered racy in 1912-14. and were eventually stylized into a form which came to be know as Art Deco.. The few women who were soldiers (mostly in Russia and Serbia) were featured in pictoral magazines internationally with close cropped hair and tales of heroism. Zamora and Delaunay all worked in this style through the succeeding decades. ever since.The First World War (1914-1918) had a pronounced effect on women's fashion in the Western world.UNIT 5. Orientalist fashions continued to be popular...1915-16. c. to be almost fully replaced by the modern sack suit. people questioned the values of the older generation that had led to the conflict. like women's trousers.. flatter teenage shape and dress waistlines dipped to hip length to minimize the appearance of adult curves. The tendency for female office workers to wear feminized versions of men's suits and shirts (common since 1900) became virtually standard by this time. American culture in particular became very youth oriented. in breast flattening styles. and soft "lingerie" shirts with soft collars attached to them.. replaced corsets . In the aftermath of the war. and short hair. Notable European designers like Erte. Short hair was considered a safety measure for certain factory workers. The "College Man" and "The Flapper" became the new icons of all that was young and fashionable. and in America voting for women was won in 1920. along with the generation that spawned it. Army officers wore Wristwatches instead of pocket watches. Soft V-necklines. were rapidly accelerated by wartime conditions. during a time of high boned necklines.Barbier. and have stayed that high.Influence of change in costumes Dress from WWI to WWII. Young men wore the more casual "Tuxedo" jacket to formal evening occasions. The most lasting change happened to women's hemlines. decried before the war as sinful and ugly. which also influenced the shape of fashionable dress. Women in particular began dieting to mold their bodies into a slimmer. a dye shortage. Several avant-garde fashions. Hems which had risen from floor length to ankle length prior to the war. but more exciting yet.
Men's suits became sharper edged. Trojan brand condoms.almost completely. fashion took a more conservative turn. Women's Hairstyles got longer.Beaute 1926. 1929-1939. increasingly fashionable. for sex without consequences than before the war. and light cottons in summer. so the head hugging cloche was popular. Rubber condoms (previously hard to find and illegal in most places) were sporadically issued to soldiers along with primitive sex education lessons.Short skirts and college fashions reigned in a booming US economy that kept wildly spending and expanding on credit until the Great Stock market Crash of 1929 put a halt to the prosperity and the fun. and fuller.Gout . looking less youthful and more masculine.. African American tailors in Harlem even revived the long frock coat. The result was that returning soldiers and nurses were better informed. Early versions of "permanent wave" hair curling also spawned a new industry of "Beauty Shops" where women could meet in groups while having hair cut and curled.. re-cut and re-invented as the "Zoot suit". Women's hats grew less substantial and more feminine and .. and prepared to grow up and do penance in the 1930's . and full length for evening wear. Advances in the treatment of Syphilis also made extramarital sex less lethal than before. and even painting them with colored enamels. due to the increased popularity and availabil ity of permanent Marcel Waves. particularly lipstick. a style trend that continued through the 1940's. 1928 Cloche hats. The influence of Hollywood Silent Pictures made makeup. Shorter hair styles necessitated hat shapes that held to the head without benefit of hatpins. was worn out in California by Hispanics. Women's hemlines got shorter until 1925-6 when they peaked at just below the knee. Rayon (acetate) invented by Briton Charles Frederick Cross in 1895 (and first manufactured in the US in 1910) began to be commonly available in the 1920's. Many married couples now regularly limited family size through birth control. and was popularly made of brighter suitings. an idea that would have seemed indescribably foreign. This modernized version had a colorful spin. This style swept jazz and swing clubs in major cities. Art . became a non-taboo subject. and better armed. began to be made and sold to the civilian population. decadent and erotic to the previous generation. with more shoulder padding.As soon as the great Stock Market Crash of 1929 hit the US economy. and young unmarried people were more likely to engage in sex before marriage. Women's hemlines dipped back down to mid calf length for day wear.Sex too. It is as if the world felt that the Great Depression was a judgment on the fast times and youth culture of the 1920's. In 1920. During the war the government & military had set on campaigns to deter soldiers from contracting venereal disease. Western women began growing their nails long. and was a staple fabric for stockings and women's dresses by the end of the decade. "White tie" full dress with a tailcoat popped back into men's evening fashion. and eventually by disaffected and musically daring teens of all races in the US and Europe. Waistlines moved back to the waist and adult female curves again became fashionable.
color and style... was introduced at the World's Fair in New York.By 1947. Platform shoes.. Square shoulders and short skirts were replaced by the soft femininity of Christian Dior's "New Look" silhouette.War broke out in Europe in 1939. with its sweeping longer skirts. The return of fashion. banished from female fashion in the mid 1920's. Bias cutting was promptly dropped as a waste of fabric. Fashion that was not rationed.. For the duration (1939-1945).. shortages directly created the innovations: Men's suits bought before the war typically came with jacket. structural look in the later 1950s. is characterized by the resurgence of haute couture after the austerity of the war years. Men's clothing. "The suit that bought a bond": Woman's suit made from an old man's suit.. Leather and rubber shortages caused shoe makers to experiment with wood and cork soled. Aloha Shirts for casual wear came to the mainland with servicemen returning from the Pacific theatre. In addition to dropping vests from suits. and rounded shoulders. grew creatively elaborate. was increasingly casual. the same year the first true artificial fiber. and hairstyles. and due to large numbers of women engaging in work outside the home during the war. Women and girls were actively encouraged to wear pants.impractical throughout the 1930's. complete with the tailored details and shoulder padding previously found in the garments. where it has stayed ever since. Men's suits were re-cut into women's suits.. During the war this dropped to just a jacket and one pair of trousers. Women's clothing went through the greatest changes in this era. both due to shortages. yet even in Europe men and women managed ways to stay fashionable during the conflict. Suit wearing increasingly was confined to work in offices. short (knee length) black dress. teenagers became a force in fashion. like hats.. fitted waist. which one varied each day and evening with sets of color-matched accessories.. wartime advice centered on sewing old clothes in to new ones. not only suits. going to church. and formal occasions Fashion in the years following World War II. Shoulder pads quickly became stylish in all women's garments. price controls and rationing created by war. and once again Paris resumed its position as the arbiter of high fashion.. Nylon.. 1942.. fashion veered between exiting innovations like this. or rationing to curtail fabric use.Most governments issued either construction guidelines. "The Little Black Dress" was a popular method suggested by style magazines: Having a simple. returned with a vengeance. and "Make Do And Mend". The "orderly. and stayed in fashion until 1949. Ruffles. ties became wildly festive in pattern. which in turn gave way to an unfitted. vest and two pairs of matching trousers. 1939-1945 (WWII). stylishly elevated. when out of uniform. both for war work and warmth.. and a new direction was long overdue. A succession of style trends led by Christian Dior and Cristóbal Balenciaga defined the . the Paris fashion houses had reopened. For the first time. and were combined with Bias cut gowns (first made popular in the late 1920's by Madeleine Vionnet) to make clinging ultra feminine frocks.Innovations in textile technology following the war resulted in new synthetic fabrics and easy-care fabric finishes that fitted the suburban lifestyle of the 1950s with its emphasis on casual sportswear for both men and women. 1945±1960 in fashion. Often. rhythmic evolution of fashion change" had been disrupted by the war. and the shortages.
1947. 1951 Evening gown by Dior.. 1954. silk taffeta.One result of the Post-World War II economic expansion was a flood of synthetic fabrics and easy-care processes. tight trousers worn short enough to show off garish socks. small waist. triacetate and spandex were all introduced in the 1950s. Young adults returning to college under the G.I.. the radical new silhouette soon became immensely popular. Photograph for Harper's Bazaar.. Indianapolis Museum of Art. Social changes went hand -in-hand with new economic realities.greasers had a similar social position. Casual clothing and teenage style.  Acrylic. Teens and college co-eds adopted skirts and sweaters as a virtual uniform. pointed bust. On February 12. curved shoulders. teenagers dressed similarly to their parents. influencing fashion and other designers for many years to come... orlon and dacron. The term "beatnik" was coined by Herb Caen of the San Francisco Chronicle in 1958.Tailored suit features a long pencil skirt and a fitted jacket with peplum.favouring an exaggerated version of the Edwardian-flavoured British fashion with skinny ties and narrow. Television joined fashion magazines and movies in disseminating clothing styles. which could retain heat-set pleats after washing. rounded. Jack Kerouac introduced the phrase "Beat Generation" in 1948. encouraged by the marketing specialists of Madison Avenue. and rounded shoulder line Resisted at first. the curved jacket peplum shaped over a high. The "softness" of the New Look was deceptive. anti-conformist youth gathering in New York at that time. generalizing from his social circle to characterize the underground. establishing the notion of the teenage years as a separate stage of development..The New Look. "Dripdry" nylon. The new collection went down in fashion history as the "New Look". Previously.changing silhouette of women's clothes through the 1950s. In North America. berets. especially in America.. London. functional wardrobe. where fashion magazines showed padded shoulders until 1950. and the stereotypical "beat" look of sunglasses. In the United Kingdom. became immensely popular. and the American fashion industry began to target teenagers as a specialized market segment in the 1940s. Bill adopted an unpretentious. and full skirt of Dior's clothes relied . full-skirt. but now a rebellious and different youth style was being developed. Womenswear. black turtlenecks.. The signature shape was characterized by a below-mid-calf length. polyester. and continued to wear blue jeans with shirts and pullovers for general informal wear after leaving school. Christian Dior launched the first collection of the House of Dior. the Teddy boys of the post-war period created the "first truly independent fashions for young people". and unadorned dark clothing provided another fashion alternative for youths of both sexes.. and one result was that many young people who would have become wage -earners early in their teens before the war now remained at home and dependent upon their parents through high school and beyond.
. Despite the new emphasis on maternity wear in the 1950s maternity wear fashions were still being photographed on non-pregnant women for advertisements. feminine look was prized and accessories such as gloves and pearls were popular. narrower skirts. especially as fuller hairstyles like the short. Even international designers such as Givenchy and Norman Hartnell created maternity wear clothing lines. Sportswear. The sleeveless. princess-line dress was called a skimmer. often made to match low-cut dresses. curly poodle cut and later bouffant and beehive became fashionable. and Dior showed an A-line dress in 1955.Hair was worn short and curled with the New Look. with full. Short shrugs and bolero jackets. In the 1950s. and teenagers adopted the ponytail. Bikinis appeared in Europe but were not worn in America in the 1950s. and hats were essential for all but the most casual occasions.. Pants cropped to mid-calf were houseboy pants. Maternity wear.. frothy skirts. Casual skirts were narrow or very full. especially for sportswear. pants became very narrow. Stretch panels accommodated for the woman's growing figure. a new unfitted style of clothing appeared as an alternative to the tight waist and full skirt associated with the New Look. some had loose bottoms like shorts with short skirts. shorter pants. "Beat" girls wore their hair long and straight. with a braid-trimmed cardigan-style jacket and A-line skirt.. Balenciaga's clothes featured few seams and plain necklines. Tailored suits had fitted jackets with peplums. but these styles only slowly gained acceptance by the wider public.. Shirtdresses. By 1957. The baby boom of the 1940s to the 1950s also caused focus on maternity wear. Coco Chanel made a comeback in 1954 and an important look of the latter 1950s was the Chanel suit.on an inner construction of new interlining materials to shape the silhouette. as were halter-top sundresses. Cocktail dresses.poodle skirts were a brief fad.. Evening gowns were often the same length as day dresses (called "ballerina length").New York had become an American design center during the war. held out with petticoats. Throughout the post-war period. in the post-war period. Wide-brimmed saucer hats were shown with the earliest New Look suits. with jewel or low-cut necklines or Peter Pan collars. Shorts were very short in the early '50s.. Day dresses had fitted bodices and full skirts. either straight and unfitted or in a princess style with a slight A-line. and following his lead chemise dresses without waist seams. A more fitted version was called a sheath dress. Skirts were narrow or very full.In the 1950s.or two-piece. and were worn ankle-length. Very short cropped hairstyles were fashionable in the early '50s.Most of the maternity dresses were two pieces with loose tops and narrow skirts. and mid-thigh length Bermuda shorts appeared around 1954 and remained fashionable through the remainder of the decade. Spanish designer Balenciaga had shown unfitted suits in Paris as early as 1951 and unfitted dresses from 1954.. Loose printed or knit tops were fashionable with pants or shorts. By mid-decade hats were worn less frequently. were worn. a tailored. with a shirt-like bodice. Swimsuits were one.. Casual sportswear was an increasingly large component of women's wardrobes. were popular. "smarter than a day dress but not as formal as a dinner or evening dress"were worn for early-evening parties. most suits featured lightly fitted jackets reaching just below the waist and shorter. but smaller hats soon predominated. and remained so. usually worn with a long.From the mid-1950s. Women who had worn trousers on war service refused to abandon these practical garments which suited the informal aspects of the post-war lifestyle. narrow pencil skirt. were called pedal-pushers. became popular. Clothes for the space age. Hats and hairstyles. to below the knee.. short or long...
Sportswear. Children's wear. broad lapels. leather jackets.Men's hair fashion favored the wet look. and an overall narrower cut.. Young men often grew their hair out and. and the era of the gray flannel suit was born. Jailhouse Rock. Harper's Bazaar proclaimed the "Return of the Beau". Hats and hairstyles. the traditional home of bespoke or custom tailoring. appeared in mid-decade and were worn with knee socks. Demobilised soldiers were provided with a suit by the government. By the later 1950s. Savile Row... Savile Row introduced the "New Edwardian Look". and an emphasis on bold.Sport coats generally followed the lines of suit coats. achieving a "dizzy combination of Edwardian dandy and American gangster. shorter. achieved by the use of products such as Brylcreem. As wartime restrictions on fabric eased. usually in blue or grey chalkstripes. Dark charcoal gray was the usual color. 1959. many boys started wearing jeans to Elementary school. clothing rationing remained in place until 1949. and single-breasted two-piece suits with narrower lines and less padding in the shoulders became fashionable everywhere.Due to the baby boom... Khaki-colored pants. lighter fabrics. Esquire introduced the "Bold Look". called chinos. The front panel of this maternity undergarment was composed of a high degree of elasticity so in extreme stretched conditions. and some even adopted trends popular with teenagers. who added bright socks and a bootlace necktie. and later plaids and checks of all types were worn. with wide shoulders. with pomade or other hair treatments. Some young men wore tight trousers or jeans.. Bermuda shorts. had been heavily damaged in the Blitz and was slow to recover. Tartan plaids were fashionable in the early 1950s. 1957. men's suits were broad-shouldered and often doublebreasted. but the style of business suits continued to move away from the broad English drape cut. there was a high demand for clothing for children. as were corduroy jackets with leather buttons. Suits. natural shoulders. and white tee shirts. the woman could still feel comfortable.Elvis Presley's look ± especially his pompadour hairstyle ± was very influential in the mid-1950s. Many girls' and young women's dresses were styled after those of the older women. a new Continental style of suit appeared from the fashion houses of Italy... Children's clothing began to be made to a higher quality.Immediately after the war. coordinated accessories.. often in madras plaid. the maternity panty was patented which provided expansion in the vertical direction of the abdomen. were worn for casual occasions.. coiffed their hair into pompadours. In 1950. fitted jackets and narrower lapels. with sharper shoulders. and were usually style with cuffs (turn-ups). Menswear.On September 29. Knit shirts and sweaters of various kinds were popular throughout the period. In Britain. This was the style commandeered by the Teddy Boys. trousers became fuller. featuring a slightly flared jacket.... worn with a curly-brimmed bowler hat and a long slender overcoat with velvet collar and cuffs. In America. ." The horrified tailors of Savile Row dropped the overtly Edwardian touches.
. turbans.Pre-War And Post-War 1940s Fashion Trends. the suits that this company made were not as broad -shoulders as others (but were still squared). A very popular suit that women wore during the war was named the ³siren suit´.One of the most significant examples of wartime fashion are the uniforms worn by military members and their brides. World War II Accessories. Additionally. For instance. the British government had made it unlawful to participate in the practice of using excess buttons. Fashion Attitudes During Wartime. navy.Women during World War II typically wore head scarves.. Instead. starting in 1942. Safety for women while working in the factory was just as important as style during this time. a group known as the Incorporated Society of Fashion Designers created over 30 different new utility clothing designs.. Most outfits were of a solid color such as ivory (for women¶s wedding suits). Seal or Beaver Quite a bit of mending was happening during the war to make clothes last as long as they could. Ladies fur coats were available and included Ladies Fur Coats they were made from Coney ( Rabbit ) and dyed to look like Mink.In the year 1942. etc. clothing rations limited the types of materials available for making and/or obtaining clothes. what would be used for folds. they learned how to make a woman¶s suit blazer (suit jacket) look eloquent event with three buttons. and the kangaroo cloak. black. artificial fibers such as viscose and rayon were used.. decorative trimmings. Influence Of Wartime London Fashion Designers.. These suits were made from a tartan cloth. or other dark colors. Even wedding clothing was quite drab during this decade. The jackets and skirts of these suits were more contoured to the shape of a woman¶s body. The London clothing fashion design group made the most of the wartime limitations.. pleats. there was only a limited supply of wool during this time. Perhaps one could liken World War II fashion to that of a perpetual funeral. The only difference was that women¶s wedding suits were usually white or ivory-colored. Clothing was meant just to cover the body. For the women. These materials were derived from wood pulp. wedged-heal shoes (versus high heels). Sable.. Additionally.. frivolous and glamorous style was out..A shift in dress happened from during WWII to after the war ended. after the act of civilians hiding in an air raid shelter to protect themselves.e. and looked more feminine than other box -cut patterned women¶s suits of the time. The kangaroo cloak was a very signature piece of wartime clothing/accessory. This particular group most likely was the one that made the most out of the simplistic clothing style trend of this time.. For instance. It had huge . gathers.Before the war. These suits were more affordable by those who were more affluent.) on clothing Most of the jewelry available in World War II was Costume Jewelry example of ladies costume jewelry from 1945 Practicality was of great essence during this time. The styles of this time signified the darkness of this particular time in history. The groom would usually wear his service uniform and the bride would wear something that today¶s time would consider a simple office skirt suit. and extra stitching (i. The colors of clothing during this time were of plain and solemn colors. and it was designed for the busy men and women involved in fighting or working during this time.
People anxiously awaited the day when newer types of clothing would be allowed to be distributed.. Furthermore. France or London.. we find many changes in France. It took quite some time before the U. and each of the narrow stripes has tiny hearts imprinted in them. which were rare. Europe turned to the U. One of the most dramatic new additions to male fashion introduced after 1947 was the Hawaiian and Carisa shirts.S. Post War Fashions: 1947-1949... An illicit item during the war was called the ³zoot suit´.Men wore suits for special occasions made from rationed materials as well-sometimes until they had been worn out. This was an item that was usually worn in night clubs. It had broad shoulders and was very loose-fitting. The shoes that women wore during these times contained cork. women.. This was largely in part as a result of the shortage of leather. In the last year of the 1940s decade another new fashion item had emerged.S. Double-breasted suit jackets designed with center vents and peaked lapels also became more popular after the war. and low crotches. These were first worn on California and Florida beaches. Industrial cloth.With the rise of the people against the house of Bourbon. especially the cork-soled ones. The military outfits of this time were very simply made. Men¶s fashion in the U. Hand knitted winter gloves and scarves were also very popular during these times. broad shoulders. It consisted of an oversized jacket. the ³Make Do and Mend´ motto of these times included created shorts out of sheets (or pillow cases). and their influence was felt through . Wartime Men¶s Clothing Fashions. Moreover. parachute silk. The most memorable attribute of this historical dress is the way the stripes on either side of the dress meet and create a ³W´ shape around the waist as well as the bodice. however. Both of these types of shoes were very comfortable to walk in. Ankle socks were worn more often than pantyhose.. handbags were made from milk tops.S. wide lapels. The pant legs of these suits narrowed towards the ankles. and were made with fabric imprinted with patterns of ocean flora. Sportswear also became the American clothing icon after World War II was over. Clogs were worn quite a bit during these times as well. or flames. This Clair Mc Cardell dress has a V-necked bodice. American created its own new look during this time. In fact. Additionally. was able to access the same kinds of fashions that were made available in Paris. One of her signature pieces is a cotton dress that is grey with brown and red stripes. The Esquire jacket had came out. and wedding dresses out of nightgowns. They did not come with pocket flaps or vests. One of the major influences of U. and parachute nylon were some of the household materials that clothing was made of. island flowers. A large amount of casual evening and sports wear was made after the war as well. the sleeves are flared and the skirt is of and eight-gore style with soft folds. England.. They sometimes wore Vnecked sweater vests or knitted waist coats for these occasions as well. after the war had changed as well. and the trousers were neither made with pleats nor cuffs. fashion after the war was Clair Mc Cardell.. after awhile for new ideas pertaining to sports fashion Dress And Costume During The French Revolution . This was fitting for people of an active lifestyle.pockets for stuffing household items into while running for shelter after the siren would go off. over a shirt and tie (under a suit jacket). coats out of warm blankets.S.
On 14th of July . to be followed by lace and muslin caps. they were remnants of the huge. Simplicity was the key-note in costume. Straight lines had taken the place of panniers a few years before.²Women were too busy or too poor to take the trouble to change fashions as often as had been the case in former years. through love or fear. The best known of these were run by Quenin. or. 1790. the hoop or vertugadine having gone the way of the pannier. generally black. this was ornamented with the tricolored cockade or rosette. ribbons. Head-dresses. Materials. Men's Dress. Extravagance in architecture. Dark colors. 1789. Powder had gone with Costume of the period of the French Revolution. and had given up the stiff stays that were necessary when wearing the pointed waist and the pannier. the skirt hung plain and straight from the high waistline. and many wealthy persons rigidly adopted the simple attire. Women's Dress. Teillard. and a bunch of tricol ored flowers placed at the left side above the heart showed the wearer's patriotism. All furbelows. Little or no trimming was used. furniture. or the national cockade. is not the first time . the most popular of these being the mob-cap. of course. "all classes were mingling. and ribbons had disappeared. and blue stripes. and Mme. and a period ofthe strictest simplicity was to follow. and laces of the former reigns.²The manner of living was also simplified. both in the names of materials and the articles of apparel. and dark colors and cheaper materials. Fashion still mirrored the events of the times. Now women were looking for comfort as well as simplicity. ruffles. as Calthrop declares. now known as the "Charlotte Corday " ." ' The tricolor. In 1791 shops were established in Paris where ready-to-wear clothing might be purchased. laces. and men and woman were addressedas citizen and citizeness. were in evidence. Gowns were made with bodices cut short in the waist and with sleeves to the elbow .²The Revolution brought about the greatest change in the costume of the men. the hair was worn low in front and hung in clusters of curls behind. a style borrowed from the English sailors. overtrimmed hats of the time of Louis XVI. This. with a deep lace ruffle around the face and neck. were taking the place of the silks. white. had been the result.One of the first acts of the General Assembly was the abolition by solemn decree of all distinction in dresses of the classes. and instead of the huge piles that had been in vogue a short time before. Printed lists of prices were sent out by both of these shops. Titles were dropped by all of the upper class who survived the guillotine. the neck was low and still finished with the fichu. and for the first time in years the hair showed its natural color. who catered to the wants of the women. The breeches lengthened until they reached the ankle. but this unfortunately lasted but a short time. and cloth and leather took the place of silk and velvet.²The style of hair-dressing also under went a change.many countries. The other symbols of aristocracy. borrowed from the English. and soon disappeared. invented by Beau Brummel for common wear. Straw bonnets with high crowns and large flaring brims were used for a while. as it was exceedingly dangerous to be seen without it in the days when one government succeeded another in such rapid succession. the Parisians made open display of their demands in the streets oftheir city and gave the signal for the fall of a whole social system by their attack on the Bastile. The cotton materials were printed with the national trophies and revolutionary symbols.costume and mode of living at its height. except an occasional ruffle at the edge of the skirt. the whole theory of it was based on the assumption of equality in dress. all this was to be done away with. especially cotton. appeared on every costume. so we find little or no change taking place between 1789 and 1793. they being considered aristocratic and not suitable to the dress of a democratic citizen. velvets. who supplied the men. willingly or unwillingly. or with red. and a masculine type of dress.
the long trouser was used for informal dress and went through many changes until it finally reached its present style. One of the most aristocratic of these dance-halls was called the "Bal des Victimes". and sometimes long and tied behind in a queue.²In England the powdered wig was still worn. the Parisians started a whirl of gaiety and pleasure as soon as the government became a trifle more stable. At the Elysee National." and as a result very little politeness or consideration was shown them by the men. they closed in front with four or five large buttons. For many years after the introduction of pantaloons they fitted very snugly to the figure. it was held at the Hotel Richelieu. and hair in the natural color prevailed. young and old. it came from the character of Pantaloon.that long trousers. and the toes square. and had a narrow tail at the back with the plaits pressed flat from the waist. when the men cut their hair short. and this style was soon known as "coiffure a la Titus. came up over the long. followed its outlines." It was a time of great license. The cuff had gone and several small buttons closed the sleeve at the wrist. and were generally buttoned above the ankle. were worn by all men. but France seems to have discarded it with the rest of her aristocratic paraphernalia. and this showed in the adoption of classic dress. Women's Dress. and were well-nigh transparent in texture. the music was led by a negro. They were cut away in front at a rather high waistline. to simulate the fashion that had been designed by Sampson. and were worn by the early Asiatics and the Persians. Black felt hats. and could be attended only by those who had lost a relation by the guillotine. Head-dresses. a clown. once the Elysee Bourbon. and ornamented with the tricolor cockade. also buttoned and a trifle longer than the coat in front. but they now became the forerunner of the modern plain dress for men . and shaved the back of their hair. to distinguish the victims of the Revolution. women set aside all edicts for the regulation of "virtue and morality. was open at the neck. as they were called.²Women began to dress to charm. The name pantaloon was first used as a term of derision or ridicule. turned up in the front. Even the women took this up. of high and low estate. they . there had been a return to nature. or pantaloons. The Directory. familiar t o the readers of Italian comedies of the seventeenth century. Foot-gear. This style might well be called undress. The style of coats had not changed except in the material and color. were worn. they drew their inspiration from nature and pagan mythology. They were considered a mark of the barbarian by the Romans. A new style of hair-dressing originated here. the heels were rather low. sometimes short.²High leather boots with close turn-over tops. The collar was high. They danced and danced. and turned over squarely where it met the large revers. as they vied with each other in discarding garments and reducing the weight of those retained. "In the beginning these garments left the body free. A waistcoat of fancy material. Julien.²As a protest against the simple life that had been forced upon them during the first horrible years of the Revolution. tight pantaloons. where it showed the white stock collar and small cravat of lace. and open air pavilions were much in evidence. for while the kneebreeches returned for formal dress and are still worn in England for court dress. generally made of a different colored leather.
and followed the harmonious lines of Grecian beauty. painted gauze. or long and tight. Head-dresses.000 if embroidered and with a train. "gowns of Indian calico cost 2. and was made of lawn and trimmed with lace. Tallien had "thirty. The most valuable of these laces finally came into the possession of the Empress Josephine. For outer garments over these very thin gowns a scarf of cashmere. black. Delsarte declared that he had seen more young girls die .000 to 60.000 francs. The cost of these costumes was enormous. as paper money had taken the place of gold and was much lower in value. including shoes and ornaments.²Hair was being powdered. Mme. and one of blonde lace at 6. or they were thrown over the shoulder of the man when dancing. A little later caps of all descriptions replaced the hats and bonnets. or 6. like those of the men.000 to 8. Jewels were much sought after. and many died of pneumonia and other lung troubles.' Part of this expense was due to the low state of the currency. similar to the Greek himation. from a velvet in green. like great barrels. the mistress of the Deputy Mandrin. jewelry. like the Corinthian chiton of the Greeks. Heelless slippers.500 francs. were trimmed with flame-colored ribbons. T hey even went so far as to wear rings on their bare toes and bracelets on their ankles. a la Grec. Trains became so exaggerated "six yards for ordinary wear" and "fourteen yards for dress occasions" that they had to be wound around the figure several times and then held by the end. The under-clothing consisted in most cases of flesh-colored silk tights. This style was finally supplanted by the "Titus" described before. and flowers. and several women appeared in public with nothing but a chemise in order to win a wager. or of Small bonnets similar to an infant's cap. Often the skirt was slit to the waist on one side and showed the lower limb. were carried. or cerise. Laces were highly prized.400 francs. The materials used were sheer embroidered India muslin. nearly a yard long. Felt hats. or soles were strapped to the foot by crossed ribbons. and were valued at from 40." The skirt was scant and hung from a high waistline trailing at the back.aimed at concealing nothing. Some of the gowns had no sleeves and were caught together at the shoulders with cameo brooches. Close straw bonnets with high square crowns were decorated with flowers and ribbons and tied under the chin. lace. and women spent ruinous sums on diamonds. The weight of a woman's costume. Needless to say that the women of that time had very delicate constitutions. with the short sleeves were worn long gloves of kid. and those belonging to Marie Antoinette were owned by Mlle. silk. of every shade of light hair. reaching to the wrist. Huge muffs. or other light-weight material was used. Lange. The most popular of these fitted close to the head like an infant's first cap.000 francs. the neck was low and round and the sleeves were small. or Grecian sandals." The trousseau of Marie Louise included a gown embroidered in silver and gold tinsel which cost 7. short puffs.000 francs." The hair was curled and banded with ribbons or jewels. were worn with white stockings. violet. and lightweight cottons. one of pink tulle at 4. a diamond crescent being a favorite ornament. with the seams covered with a flat galloon. and toques made of light-colored silks and satins were ornamented with white aigrettes. was often as low as eight ounces. and when not split were draped on the left side to show the limb to the knee. The physicians were loud in their demands for more clothing. and a craze for wigs of all sorts and colors had developed.
" These vests had high turn-over collars. The government. which had been practically ruined during the Reign of Terror. and while the style of dress had not changed to any great extent. often had three layers at the lower edge of the vest. Velvets. Women's Dress. giving a goitre-like appearance to the neck. Rome had the same influence during the Empire. This industry was introduced into France by Louis Ter naux. were made by a clever chemist and botanist. although Uzanne asserts that they had very healthy appetites in private. He describes the women as being "buxom. and one below the other. the materials had." Fashion became less frivolous as the everyday life became more stable. except in the size and style of the neck-cloth and the color and materials used in their clothing. and silver flowers made by him took a prize at the Industrial Exposition of 1802. and the silk industry in France. broad in their talk. silks. loud-voiced beings. England was still the criterion for men's fashions. The Empire. which flourished under the First Empire. more precious an hundredfold than any rights political. healthy. this was concealed by a huge muslin cravat. set up factories at Rouen. yellow. white being the favorite for the . Napoleon was as fond of pomp and show as Louis XIV had been. as Uzanne says. this is especially true of the vest or waistcoat.²The day of the diaphanous gown was over. A jabot of lace filled in the opening of the vest. and many other industries were started.' It was the fashion for women to eat very little while in public. "in 1791. and opulent of charm. a padded silk cushion was first adjusted. green. laces. Women began to tire of the plain skirt. was resumed. "he brought the licentious freedom in which the population had run riot under control. and corsets were often worn to make their waists smaller. Quentin. and the first noticeable change came when they added a short tunic to the Greek dress. The Incroyables exaggerated the size of the revers and the collars of their coats. Color and heavier texture were introduced through this means. which was necessary in order to prevent the chest attacks which were so prevalent. and. The stocks were built out about the neck . Sequin. The coats fitted very snug at the waistline. who imported goats from Thibet. masculine in their ways. Cashmere shawls were the rage. and dress assumed much of the gorgeousness that had been discarded a few years before. or "Incroyables.of nakedness and gauze during the reign of this style of dress than during the forty years before. each of a different color." Men's Dress. and ate heartily. and clothed nearly all the women of France. The little Corsican general was making order out of chaos. The dandies. many of these were brought into France from Egypt in 1792-1802. gradually this was lengthened until it formed an overskirt which was open in the front. Artificial flowers. which showed inside the neck of the coat. and endowed the nation with its civil rights. and embroideries came into their own.²If all that was Greek dominated dress during the Directory. then much in demand. St." of France. and mother -of-pearl was considered very chic. and the styles for top-boots and even top-hats were borrowed from there.²Very little change took place in the costume of the men during the years of the Directory. and sometimes their coat-tails were so long that they had to pick them up as the lady did her train. and Tarare. realizing that there was much revenue from the manufacture of cot-ton. and that in turn was covered by a figured silk handkerchief which came up over the chin.
banded with fillets or broad ribbons. For outer covering shawls were in great demand. Recamier attended a ball in a very splendid velvet dress. The use of powder and rouge had almost disapp eared. Sir Thomas Lawrence. one over the other. David. The red velvet court train of Josephine and the cape-like robe of Napoleon were lined with ermine and embroidered all over with gold bees. and covered with a veil. and these were kept in place by a net. and either lined and trimmed with fur.under-dress. The Empire style is so familiar to all that it is unnecessary to go into many particulars. Turkish. a niece of Josephine. Napoleon was a dictator in fashion. Recamier. Tacher de la Pajerie. Before this time the bath seems to have been considered as superfluous. and Queen Margaret only once a week. . The waist was still very short. Italian. a few straw hats and turban-like toques were worn when Turkish fashions prevailed. Classic coiffures. The sleeves were wide and turned back at the hand. with sleeves reaching to the wrist and made of colored silk or cashmere. the spencer. and the trousseau of Mlle. Sleeves were short puffs for ceremonial costumes. and Mme. cost 650. and the skirt had grown shorter. which she removed when the dancing began. and long and tight for the street or at home. The neck was cut very low or very high. and appeared in a ball-gown of embroidered white silk. styles felt the influence of the countries where he had been. the brims rather straight and very deep. Napoleon and Josephine had started a crusade for cleanliness. Each of the ladies in attendance received 1. but kept flat to show the contour of the head. although even then the French were not as clean as the English. showing the feet. This necessitated a much more bountiful supply than had been needed before. and no lady dared to appear in his presence wearing a gown more than once. a gift of the empress.²By 1806 the style of dressing the hair had become very conservative. Often more than one gown was worn at a time. Vigee Lebrun. Mme. and then only her hands. cape -like collars. and the Empress Josephine. made by Leroy and Mme. the coronation robes of Napoleon and Josephine. As Napoleon returned from his different campaigns. Vigee Lebrun. Hats had given place almost entirely to bonnets of the coal-scuttle type. These were painted by the celebrated painters. are shown in many of the portraits of the day. such as Mme.000 francs to be spent on her costume. The cost of these gowns was still very great . as in everything else. while Napoleon made one. or simply lined with lighter-colored material. Head-gear and Accessories. and much art was shown in the way these were draped . By 1800 soap had become an article in general use in Paris. these were trimmed with high-standing feathers or flowers. a short jacket." after Queen Elizabeth. Gerard. ladies even went so far as to take lessons in the art of draping and posing. For outer wear. The longer pelisse was also made in color and of heavier material. and Oriental fashions. Raimbaud. Another form of cleanliness for which France is indebted to Napoleon was the frequent changing of underlinen.000 francs. It is reported that Louis XIV never washed himself. Mme. was much liked. large sums of money were paid for these shawls. and the coats had round. braids of hair were also used. and English followed in rather quick succession.000 francs. the latter finished with a ruff made of lace and called a "Betsy. besides shawls. Spanish. contained underclothing worth 25. almost hiding the face. Josephine made three changes a day. it was held close to the head in flat curls.
finally these gave place to the short hair-cut. it had developed from the sailor-hat. dark-blue.000. called reticules.' Men's Costume. and the brim had become narrower and turned up at the side. he made little headway except in the matter of ceremonial dress and military uniforms. The value of these collections was almost unbelievable. of course. . this was called "au coup de vent". Men had found that plain dress was much more comfortable and more suited to the affairs of everyday life than the elaborate velvets. Breeches were long and tight. bell -shaped. Dress was still showing the influence of political upheavals. Rings on the hands and feet. the lace cravat had become a frill attached to the front of the linen shirt. and had two or three capes. and wine-colored broadcloth were favorites. and they refused to go back to . and many from famous Italian collections found their way to France to grace the fair ladies of the Empire. as during the one hundred days after Napoleon's return from Elba no Imperialist lady appeared without her bunch of violets. and tied in a small bow in the front. girdles and jewelled combs and earrings with three pendants all these and many more were worn. Fashion papers were published every five days to keep pace with the changing styles. followed the lead of the emperor. silks. adopted the fashion of carrying bags. At one ball in Paris the value of the jewels worn was estimated at about 20. Pearls were not considered fashionable. had taken their place. Perhaps this was due to the fact the Empress Josephine spent most of her time with her dressmakers trying different effects. and embroideries. Uzanne states that between 1805 and 1814 Paris fashions were never the same for more than a week. and were buttoned with two rows of buttons. Colors were used for the coats. cha ins so long that they might be wound around the neck five or six times and still almost reach the floor.Valuable jewels. and of course her word was law for a time at least.' A change was also seen in the stock. the pad and the silk handkerchief had gone.them. Fashions were changing rapidly in minute details. the crown had grown much higher and broader at the top. which hung over the forehead and eyes. and they were made of cardboard or lacquered tin in the shape of Etruscan vases. These were supposed to be a revival of the bag carried by the Greek women. as the gems were mostly diamonds. to show their loyalty to Louis XVIII. full skirts. in 1806 it was cut short in the back. when a reaction set in. in order to have their small personal belongings with them. and high boots were still worn. they were short in the waist. gave the wearer the least trouble and was not disarranged by the hat. bracelets and anklets. and a small cashmere shawl with a vermilion border.000 francs. This craze for jewels was at its height from 1806 t o 1809.' They also wore small bonnets made of white silk striped with straw. in 1809 it was curled and called "en cherube". having no pockets in their dresses. but amethysts were held in high favor. that. The ladies. and very few jewels appeared at the court functions. The dandies and exquisites. England had adopted the top -hat. and had long curled locks in front.²Although Napoleon made an effort to bring back the elaborate dress for men that had been given up at the time of the Revolution. The skirts of the ladies of the royalist party were decorated with eighteen tucks. with this costume were worn dark prunella boots. Frenchmen were still using the cocked hat made familiar by the pictures of Napoleon. such as cameos of ancient design. and a plain black silk stock wrapped twice about a standing linen collar. Perhaps the greatest change took place in the way of wearing the hair. dark-green. were chosen to wear with the classical dress. Over-coats of fur or cloth had long. brown.
with their diverse cultural heritage. attest the place to be a potpourri of the ancient and the modern. kurti (tops). It is evident that the costumes they would cater to would represent their life-pattern. residing in this land.. prepared from fine cotton. have become the order of the day and have become the popular costumes of Andhra Pradesh. The myriad costumes of Andhra Pradesh. like wedding party. displays the wide spectrum of varied population. attired in salwar-kameez and jeans-shirts. Dharmavaram in Andhra Pradesh has world wide repute for the production and distribution of gorgeous silk sarees. Costume of a place reflects upon the cultural traditions. The cost of pearls varies according to radiance. The Muslims in general wear pyjamas instead of dhotis and kurta and the Fez cap. are an agricultural sector of the social fabric of Andhra Pradesh. shape and size. What is unique is the saree`s cotton body. The folk. Among the Hindus and Christians men usually wear a Dhoti and Kurta. Lambadies are a familiar tribal group in Andhra Pradesh and are well-known for their . sowing.. This fourth largest state of India. and likings. are one of the most exclusive linen. in addition to their use of dresses that suit their climatic and geographical conditions. available in the world. It requires a weaving -pattern. with pure silk borders and pallu (the tail-end of the saree). The skill of draping the saree is in itself an expression of a woman`s creativity. The enthusiastic Nizams of Hyderabad inaugurated pearl trade. The pearl small-industries. Costumes of Andhra Pradesh. rural element is a component of Andhra Pradesh`s society... reaping and so on. A proper know-how is indispensable in their creation. The half nomadic tribes. This particular art form is prevalent in Machilipatnam of Andhra Pradesh. the tastes and preferences and finally the impact of present modernity on the mindsets of its inhabitants. ceremonies. salwar-kameez. and social context. The crowning glory of the costumes of Andhra Pradesh is the awesome Hyderabad`s pearls.UNIT 6. are Saree and Blouse for women. class.. and Dhoti and Kurta for men. hailing from Lambadi or Banjara or Sugalis. Hyderabad... Kalamkari sarees. All these sarees are the most happening costumes of Andhra Pradesh. working at the same company with today`s cosmopolitan girls. wherein the yarn is arbitrarily dyed in zigzag or geometric structures. The hallmark of these splendid sarees is that their borders are generally brocaded with gold plating. Here it is normal to come across burqha-clad.Costumes of different regions of India. Sarees of the original handlooms of Andhra Pradesh are complete with ethnicity and richness of texture. Urbanity in its refined form rules in the epicenter of sophistication. The Kalamkari fabric contains the paintings of mythological figures and events with vegetable colours. Pochampalli and Chautuppal villages of Andhra Pradesh. Now its chief production-sites are Puttapaka. craftsmen and jewelers are situated near the wellknown Charminar. veiled Muslim woman. Andhra Pradesh is the insignia of the cultural convergence of South India. but in India and other parts of the globe also.. The Gadwal sarees. The women of all communities together with Muslims wear Sarees and blouses. manufactured in Gadwal of Andhra Pradesh. These Dharmavaram sarees make for ornate costumes. The Ikkat saree was first woven in the Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh. which though is not so common now. not only. or festivals. the lifestyle. Some Muslim women also put on Salwar Kameez Dupatta. in Mangalgiri. They earn their livelihood through harvesting. appropriate for bridal wear.. The last category of sarees and not the least is the Mangalgiri saree.
Costumes of Arunachal Pradesh. to appease their appetite for exotic garments and pearl-jewellery. Accessories are a must for any woman. above a sleeveless chemise.. they also cover themselves with woolen coats and trousers. It is typical of tribe lifestyle. shirts and so on. trousers. be she a tribal or a city-girl. forming the costume of a place. They dress in wide skirts in many gay and loud shades of red. dress and costumes. living on the islands. waistband. who after years of no-dress culture. though one tribe is diverse from the other in terms of distinct vernacular. The Monpas also are no exception.Grown amidst the remote surroundings and forests of the islands of Andaman and Nicobar islands. salwars .colourful costumes. Costumes of Andaman & Nicobar Islands are in harmony with the blue romance of the sea and the sylvan ambience. pants. Costumes of the different tribes of Arunachal Pradesh are endowed with fascinating vibrant colours and myriad patterns. The Sentinelese tribe till today. flaunt themselves in necklaces. the costumes of Andhra Pradesh cast such an enigmatic spell. The Monpas who live north of the Bomdila range. un-invaded by civilization. However. but also the tourists who flock there. now drape themselves in the costume of the land. exhibit themselves in their traditional costumes of sari.. The Lambada men have taken on the regional dress but the women folk have to this day preserved their gorgeous colourful and heavy garments. the predominant community of the Jarwas. orange and blue. It signifies their aesthetic taste and zeal for embellishment. Major changes has entered the lifestyle and culture of the Car Nicobar islanders. Thus the traditional costume of the Monpas of Arunachal Pradesh is shaped by Tibetan culture. with lot of mirrors and beads studded on them. In general. that not only the denizens of the state. Therefore. are spellbound with their aura. to shield themselves from the cold. residing in 3649 dispersed villages. Costume-patterns of Andaman &Nicobar islands are on the tide of change . characteristic of tribe culture. The Monpas women wear a jacket. It is interesting to see the sea-shell ornaments and natural products like leaves of trees. Kurtas.. be it as their food. wears nothing. This eastern-most state on India`s northeast frontier is crowded with twenty six native tribes and several subtribes. who no longer restrict themselves to the traditional costumes of coconut -leaf petticoats and other similar costumes. The magnificent finesse of the costumes of Andhra Pradesh definitely highlights the deft craftsmanship of the different handlooms and textile-industries. reflect the cultural and ethnic way of life of the tribal people residing there. Dhoti. pearls have always been a woman`s pride. They bind this chemise round their waists with a lengthy and narrow strip of cloth. armband etc. Costumes of Andaman & Nicobar Islands . However. the Arunachal people have a Mongoloid descent. Indian ethnicity and tribal life finds its fullest expression in the serene hills and the sylvan surroundings of the picturesque Arunachal Pradesh. Besides. The Shompen people cover themselves only from their waist. Sikhs and Christians. Pajamas. The Monpa females . crafted from shells and barks of trees. They wear a skullcap made of felt with laces or tassels as adornments. They now have adopted modern clothes. go naked.. skirt-blouse. the Hindus. Furthermore. to use animal body-parts in their daily life. Same about the Onges. the aboriginal tribes of this virgin land. or in the making of their dresses or in other regular articles used by them.. adhere to Buddhism. observed in the venerated Tawangmonastery..
bear striking resemblance with their fellow. Miji women.beautify them with silver rings. The women arrange their tresses into a ball. A brass skewer. The tattoo done by the women involve broad blue stripes painted from the forehead down to the tip of the nose. also. endowed with a fascinating peacock-feather. The women sect of Sherdukpen. that this peculiar costume-pattern evolved from the strategy of safeguarding. to ensure safety. One will be awe -struck to learn that these tribal women know the art to extract bio-chemical cosmetics from pineresin. By custom. The costume is normally kneelong. red and white yarns. Tangsa women put in a very attractive looking woven petticoat. acts as the upper garment. and five vertical lines. The tassels protruding from the gurdam over the face form a slope to glide away rain-water. It is curious to note that Sherdukpen women are adept in weaving clothes with praiseworthy finesse. The intricate design and colour-abundance of the costume of the Apatanis is indeed captivating. is worn above the patent robe. A sleeveless shirt. dress themselves in a collarless and sleeveless garment. middle-length people cater to the Burmese costumestyle. The Tangsa men wear green lungi. Tattoo-drawing and the attaching of conspicuously big nose plugs called Yaping hullo are the major highlights of this group. to appear unimpressive to the men of other tribes. living in the West Kameng and East Kameng districts. earrings cut from bamboo-bits and appended with red beads or lovely turquoises. Added to this. exhibt simplicity as well as refinement in their costume. known as Ading Akh. perfectly augments the beauty. It is said. with its two edges. a full-sleeved jacket with nice embroidery and waist cloth. the Monpas. is often passed through the Dilling. The ankle-long white cloak gives the Miji women an immaculate look. The hallmark of their dress-code is the gurdam skull-caps smeared with yak`s hair. the . They tie the hair in a knot just above the forehead. proficiently seamed in with matching yellow. They were. pinned at the shoulder region. The women often tie their hair into a bun at the back. since old times. And the final touch is given by an ornate red jacket. stretching from the shoulders to the knees.Buddhist community. dwelling in the Tirap district and Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh. often. drawn under the lower lip in the chin. The hairstyle is also interesting. called Dilling on the head-top. is a Naga tribe. The Sherdukpen. inhabiting south of Bomdila in the Tengapanai valleys. A strip of silver chains is occasionally. The usual apparel of Sherdukpen men folk is a sleeveless silk material. Their women wear attractive "crinoline of cane rings" which serves the purpose of a blouse but now it is not seen in the urban areas. called mushaiks. keen. along with a linen blouse to top it. The Tangsa tribe. Big-sized silver earrings and resplendent necklaces. The Hill Miris inhabiting the lower Kamla valley look attractive in their costume. Another popular dressitem is a cap. in a horizontal direction. as their residential-zone is subject to torrential rain. worn around the head by the wealthier Miji women. devised by the beautiful Aptani women. commonly decked with jade. These robust.
But. indulge in experimentation. and Di bang Valley. The Assam silk saris are perfectly suitable for parties. comes down in loose hanging down in narrow form. illuminate the mind with their ever -glorious aesthetic appeal. thriving for ages in the hills and forests of Arunachal Pradesh are enchanting. which is tied around the loins. It is interesting watching the silk-cultivation in Assam. The costume of each of the tribes. for example the flora and the fauna. In accordance with the geographical circumstances of the region. Therefore the costume of the plethora of tribes. already married.. Assam silk saris Bridal wears are decked with gold and silver threads. The characteristic of the durable Muga silk is that it lasts for years and adds radiance to itself. This high quality textile of Assam. Costumes of Assam. in the temperate and sub-tropical regions within the districts of West Siang. They offer contrast creations of pinkish red or greenish blue and other innovative as well as traditional colors of red. and finally the conversion of the threads into the gorgeous saris at the handloom. instantly gives glimpses of the galae. East Siang. One can watch the silkworm in its cocoon stage. Now-a-days. yellow. Adi.e. Upper Siang. Aptani.Muga or the golden silk fiber of Assam constitutes the lion`s share of the costumes of Assam. who wears it. blue.Aptani men. A galae. an aura of elegance. wedding ceremonies and mirthful festivals. The Adi tribe is a chief tribal community. till the unfolding into worm`s generated silk-thread. men secure themselves with helmets made from cane. even . against the inherent golden color of the fabric. after every wash. The delicate designs. on the saris cater to patterns in nature. Almost twenty eight thousand families are engaged in silk -rearing in Assam. It endows on any woman. serves as the material-base. acquainted and culture-related things. Muga artisans. Muga silk. The local name of this hairstyle is as Piiding and the bras rod used in the creation of this knot is known as Piiding Khotu. namely. make a knot of their hair just above the forehead. Senior women. Monpa>. stand on the high pedestals of fame and reputation. signify the unmarried status of a young girl.. Tattooing is a common feature among the older women. stuck under their petticoats.. finely woven. Tangsa. Sherdukpen. bear and deer skin. So. going for make -up in their own unique manner was included in the heritage-laws of the Aptanis. In fact it is the rare tribal artistry and indigenous caliber that makes Arunachal Pradesh. a poly-utility garment. The men also like to apply tattoo or Tiippe on their chin. to make the bride catch a marvelous get-up on her special occasion. Upper Subansiri. i. The topic of the costume of the Adi. the presence of beyop. The tattoo-sketch resembles the shape of a `T` under the lower lip. embellish themselves with yellow necklaces and coiled earrings. green.. used by both the genders. such as architecture and stone-sculptures on the Madan Kamdev Temple in Assam. an ornament compiled of five to six brass plates.. and so on.. Embroideries also incorporate. staying in the Himalayan hills of Arunachal Pradesh.
They are indeed the producers of Endi. by wearing multicolored blouse. called Mekhla Chadar. he matches his Fatong. adorns himself in a white shirt with long sleeves. They enhance their prettiness. The Thai Phake women are inclined towards beautification of themselves. this Chaddar acts as the customary veil to the bride. The costume of the Thai Phake tribe stands illuminat ed with respect to its attractive charm. whereas a sari is a single piece of cloth. There exists a cloth belt encircling her waist. Along with the Chaddar. below Chadar. and is yet not a sari. A Thai Phake woman uses a striped girdle.5 m. and silk-weavers in profession. The Chadar is worn in a special criss-cross pleated-form. this happens to be the usual costume of the rustic people of Assam. One half of the Mekhla is worn as the skirt or petticoat or Lungi. while the other half. tribal community. an upper -wrap called Riha. It is called Chairchin. enriched with a plain bordered white shawl called Fa fek mai. like the Bodo men. locally named as Rikhaosa. dresses themselves in Dhoti (an Indian loin cloth) and Chaddar. Very similar to the costume of the Bodo tribe. known as the as Rigu. is akin to the sari`s Anchal. In fact.for the traditional costume of Assam. A Mekhla is hence a mix and match of Aanchal and Lungi. called Chekhamchum. Dimasa men. called Fatong. called Rijamphai. The . Jewellery is a fundamental aspect of costume of any place. The Mekhla is an awesome ensemble. While attending invitation or paying visit to far-flung places. with a shirt called Sho. The distinction lies in the fact that a Mekhla is composed of two or three pieces of cloth. wears. It has a width of about 6 cm and a length of 1. Again. integral to the weaving-ace Assamese. made from Endi (a material made from conglomeration of silk and cotton). called Chin which stretches from the waist down to the ankles. Upwards. Ceremonies and merry occasions see the women. is adorned with spell-bound weavings. this is a loin cloth of deep green colour. yellow or white lining. the Chadar. The Bodo tribal womenfolk acknowledge Mekhla as their prevalent costume. While venturing out. is the dressing style of another. Chaddar. the Thai Phake men. Bodo tribe of Assam resides amidst the lush greenery of Assam. they flaunt themselves in dignified white shawl-like cloth called Chaddar. used as the upper-garment for the skirt. Young girls resort same upper-cloth structure. decorating themselves in more ornate Rijamphai. It is called Fafek. At times of wedding. A Dimasa woman covers herself in a skirt-like attire. which resembles a sari. to make himself presentable at the place of his visit. called Rimsao. to complete the dress. The men of the Bodo tribe. He puts in a vest. the Mech tribe. invested with black stripes and red. down the front side. Added to the Chaddar. blouses are worn. He also attaches on his head. but the Anchal is lightweight for easier handling. Assamese women look marvelous in these fascinating costumes of Assam. with the only difference being in size. topped by an embellished vest-like cloth. TheDimasa tribes are renowned for their expertise in silkculture and weaving-prowess. He wears a chequered green loin cloth. a Risha. The costume of the Thai Phake man is to some extent same. a turban woven from pure cotton or Endi. He also bears a white turban called Fa ho ho. However. The Mekhla skirt bears a broad border and is thicker in texture.
remarkable feature of Assamese jewellery is Khopo Phool, an earring which appears like an orchid. The outlook is like two small shoes paired together and crowned by a floral construct, which is again connected to a chain. Gaam Kharu is a large-sized silver bangle with shimmering gold polish. Another fashionable earring is Lokaporo, wherein two gold or ruby or mina or enamel -plated, bird figures are conjoined together, back to back. Assamese costume has cast an enchanting spell on not only India, but on foreign nations also, because of their mind-blowing perfection. Costume of Bihar..... the land that has inculcated traditional old values to the core, is noted for its hand woven textiles in the field of costume. Particularly, the rustic crowd of Bihar adheres to the traditional pattern of dresses and jewellery. Though most of the populati on of the state still remains in rural areas the costumes worn by them are still traditional. The clothes for the people of different religions are a bit divergent. The senior male citizens of Bihar, irrespective of Hindu or Muslim, favour tradition, when it comes to costumes. If a Hindu elderly person prefers Dhoti (an Indian loin cloth), a Muslim person might dress himself in Lungi (a type of petticoat for men) or Pyjama (loose trousers). As an upper garment, men usually go for Kurta (loose, normally cotton, Indian, T-shirts), and shirts. However, the men resort to attractive apparels for ceremonies, festivals and social gatherings. Kurtas, Churidar, Pyjamas and Sherwani are the ideal costumes, chosen for such special occasions, where accurate attitude owes a lot to an impressive dressing style. The Muslims, Sikhs, and Christian males are habituated in luxuriating in the fragrance of perfumes and "attar" on an every day basis. It is interesting to note that men of Bihar inhabit a penchant for ornaments. They decorate themselves with bala or bali (bangles) in Shahabads, Kanausi in Patna and Gaya. Again Gowalas (the milkmen) flaunt themselves in Kundals (earrings). However, malas or bead necklaces are on the rise these days, than, the other ornaments. The costume of the women folk of Bihar is chosen carefully in keeping with tradition. As per tradition, married women, smear the hair- parting zone with powder of Sindoor or vermillion. Tikli, a forehead-adorning little ornament is added to the hair-partitioning area. On the forehead, a Bihari married woman, be she an urban or a rural one, usually applies bindi. A lot of Bihari women, love applying Kajal i.e. eye-pencil, or antimony eye-make-up called Surma, to improve the appeal of their eyes. They also indulge in flattering their senses with soothing aromatic oils that leave them perfumed, and refreshed, in the mind and body. Tattoo-paintings are broadly prevalent among Bihari women. They give detailed attention to their hands, and beautify them with Mehendi-designs (a kind of tattooing, done with colors fetched from herbal product like, amla or shikakai). Ornaments with elaborate designs and extravagant look, such as Chandrahar, Tilri, Panchlari, Satlari, and Sikri are the common accessories, accompanying a woman in Bihar. Indeed, the plethora of accessories, replicate upon the craze for jewellery and ornaments. Women`s passions for
jewellery are not restricted to necklaces only. They buy and wear myriad ornaments for arms, wrists and fingers. The most popular are bangles, rings, for hands and the anklets (worn around ankles). Beauty-consciousness is an inherent characteristic of feminine nature. And in this respect, even the tribal women of Bihar, are not lagging behind. Even the men participate in these regular grooming-sessions. Tribal people, inclusive of both men and women, wrap a thin strip of cloth round the waist. By rule, they maintain two pieces, of cloth, one for home-use and the other for going out. Their men are accustomed to wearing Dhotis, whereas women attire themselves in sarees. Drawing tattoo on the forehead, arms and legs is very much in vogue among tribal population. This is especially in harmony with their belief in magic. To sum up, simplicity is the mantra which provides an aura of elegance to the costume of this tribal elegance of Bihar. The costumes of Bihar, thus exhibit the richness, refinement and immeasurable worth of a heritage that remains ever-glorious, even in the face of changing times. Costumes of Chandihgarh.... the capital city of both Punjab and Haryana , has ranked as one of the highest income-generating state-economy of India. This superb city, forging ahead on the advancing wave of improvement is bound to flourish in all possible aspects of life. The city populated with Hindus, including the Punjab is, Sikhs, Muslims and Christianity, certainly projects forth a potpourri culture respecting traditional norms but welcoming innovations as well. This amalgamation of tradition with modern newness is reflected in the costume-types of Chandigarh in India. The urban ambience of Chandigarh, requires men to go for formal office costumes. The longsleeved shirt, with tie, coat and formal trousers make up a total office-suit for men, is very much in vogue. At times formal trousers are topped off by sober T-shirts, that contributes to the dignified appearance of Multi-national executives, servicemen, businessmen, during office-work, conferences, meetings and important deals. In the winter months, men assume a stylish look with handsome jackets, or woolen garments, which wards off the biting cold of North India as well. As casuals, jeans and other branded or quality cotton fabric , rule the list of men`s favourite costumes. The traditional bridergroom`s costume of Chandigarh, is the resplendent and sophisticat ed Sherwani, an attire suiting the inherent attribute of manliness. Sherwanis , invested with Western-eastern fusion, has the best outlook, and is in keeping with the contemporary air and traditional choices. A Sherwani is a body-fitting, long coat-like garment, with ornate buttons, installed in the front side, which are buttoned up , while wearing. A Sherwani has a Nehru collar (collars worn by the first Indian Prime Minister, Jahawarlal Nehru, the trendsetter). This coatlike knee-length upper garment is perfectly matched with a bodyhugging Churidar-trousers. The tall and sturdy Chandigarh grooms look regal in Sherwanis. Sherwanis usually, come in light shades like, off-white, or beige. The grooms` Sherwanis are decorated with mind-blowing Zardozi (a kind of gorgeous Persian embroidery, decked with stones, gold and
silver thread, and present with copper wire,with gold sheen, or gold coloured thread) and embroidery designs. They can be fashioned in different forms, for example the Peshawri or the Baloochi. Indian embellished shoes, for instance, Nagra, Khussa, Mojri in general , gives a finishing touch to this elegant groom costume, Sherwani. The urbanized women of Chandigarh have laid their hands on both Indian and Western outfit. Their costume ranges from salwar-kameez, sari, kurtis, jeans, shirts, T-shirts, formal trousers, chic capris, to be very precise all the popular variety. The casual versions of these entire can serve as workplace costume, and costume for daily wear and tear. Salwar-kameez, which glorifies the innate beauty of the Indian woman, is the forever priority for the Chandigarh women. The plethora of diversity in salwar-kameez involves, suit with mirror and Kundan embroidery, Persian embroidery, Aari and Resham work , Cut-work salwarkameez, golden filigree salwars-suits, vegetable dye kurta churidar, Phirozi salwars, handloom jacquard salwar suit, camric cotton salwar suit, chikan suit (cotton fabric with self-design) . Added to these, Zardozi salwar-kameez, Phulkari -work kameez and other ornamented salwar-suits. Sleeves of kameez can be of short, bell and umbrella shaped . The textile-manufacturers of salwar-Kameez play with different hues, starting from the bright shades like red, maroon, mustard, yellow, green , navy blue, black to the pastel and light colours, like baby pink, pink, sky-blue, saffron, peach, crème, beige, white and so on. The traditional bridal costume for the beautiful maidens of Chandigarh is the marvelous Lehenga-cholidupatta. Traditional wedding Lehenga-choli or Ghagra-choli and designer wedding Lehenga-cholis created out of a splendid synthesis of traditional costume-pattern and modern designs, cut, mix and shot colour shades , etc., happen to be the bridal love. A today`s Lehenga can be a mantle of vibrant marron, finely toned with beige contrast, and golden Zardozi, harmonised with butawork. The colours may vary from maroon, red, to the sunet yellow, to the pink, blues and pesta. The beautiful , long -flowing get-up of Lehengas, with a flare towards the bottom, make the bride appear like a pretty princess.The bride endowed with lustrous make-up and luminous Lehenga , also dons an equally adorned blouse , called Choli. The dazzling Dupatta, the decorated and matching piece of cloth , either covers the upper front portion of the bride, as it passes round her neck , to the back of the head or is suspended from the back of her head, being pinned into her braided hair. The brilliance of accessories is a must for bridal costume. Kundan and gold jewelry wonder , studded with ruby,emeralds, turquoise, coral , entails elaborate necklaces, chokers, malas (necklaces as garlands), haars or kanthas (a kind of necklace); bajubandhs (armbands) for brides, payals (anklets) and mangtikas (headdress-ornament) and finally the Zaridar, threadembroidered sandals furnish the bride with an awedsome splendor. Now a days, the semiprecious jewelry, of breathtaking beauty, are simultaneously present with gold ornaments, in the bridal costume, of some brides. They augment the shimmer on the whole.
. enveloping the front porti on of the body.It is evident. a turban . have a unique pattern. Beads necklaces of resplendent hues. and along with them. They. Women love to deck themselves in silver and white ornaments. The air of Delhi is abuzz with the mantra of variety and ethnicity. on the forehead and on other parts of the body.is replete with the ethnic culture of tribes. Above 62%of the population in Dadra and Nagar Haveli is tribal. An additional adornment catered by the Kokna men and women is a tattoo-painting. Delhi is a fashionable city and it is showcased in Delhi`s costumes.. Costumes of Dadra and Nagar Haveli. such as earrings and silver chains. augment the natural beauty of the woman folk. the largest tribal community. cover themselves in a white knee-length Dhoti . like the Varli to act as the headdress. bear the signature of tradition and modern designs at the same time. The traditional costumes of Delhi are churidar orsalwar kameez dupatta for women. tastes and preferences. that the costumes of Chandigarh.. The Dhodia men are inclined towards wearing ornaments. and kurtas and pyjamas for men. business. Delhi. A living example is the admired . stretching upto the knees. encircling the waist. is a dark blue saree. to arrive at the best.. Kokna women flaunt themselves in sarees of myriad colours. they have also brought their culture. A turban furnishes a Kokna man with dignity.. don themselves in Dhoti. on the other hand. either knee-long or toe-long. a waist coat or shirt. wrap themselves round the waist in Lugden (a one yard sari). coming down till the knees. People from diverse states have come and settled in Delhi for education. and the national capital of the country.. languages. metal bangles on wrists and dainty metal Kadas (a kind of anklet) round the ankles. comprises of a loincloth . The traditional costume of the Dodhia women. reaching down till the knee and another piece of cloth called Padar.. is much akin to that of the other tribes. the microcosmic India. dressing style. has a simple as well as aesthetic complexion. The Varli women. a waist-long coat. The sturdy Kokna men. treasures a rich cultural heritage of splendid diversity and secular democracy that the country stands for. etc. Kokna and Varli. and a headgear i. etc..e. career. a cap of white or coloured shades . Costumes of Delhi. The main tribes include Dodhia. topped off by a shirt or a waistcoat. here youth and adolescents are very fashion conscious. The costume of the men of Varlis origin . Dhodia men.. and with the aanchal . It is wonderful to watch that the costumes of Dadar and Nagar Haveli . founded on the truth of intermingling of cultures. in the choice and setting of the costume-trends. The costume of the Koknas. situated on the west of the western Ghats. The cosmopolitan Delhi denizens have reflected this tradition of an all-accommodative mindset.
However. ghagra lehenga choli. Western jeans tops. The dress-designers namely Ritu Kumar. including Zardozi. Salwar-suits with sequined embroidery or semiprecious stones` embroidery. and sherwanis. exhibited himself in Sherwani with Nehru collars (collarstyle. This costume of Salwar-Kameez. and cut of a traditional attire. even workplace dress for men. shades and get-up. men try out ornate Sherwanichuridars. all alluring on excellent fabric is the characteristic of salwar-kameez in Delhi these days. however. colours. varying in sizes and shapes. and choli is the upper blouse.Kameez. hand paints. but also enrich a woman`s aura of style and smartness. jeans. or simple but elegant cut. hugely popular among girls. Salwar . Kurta-Salwar. blouses. shirts. narrowed down towards the bottom. sari is the traditional Indian costume for women. But a modern-day Delhi sari. namely. Dhoti-Kurtas. or salwar-kameez or churidar-kameez (churidar is a body-hugging trouser). prints. as well as their values. trousers. Exclusive silk materials. or Kurta-Pajamas. crepe. done with gold or silver thread. The distinct charm of today`s Ghagra Lehenga Choli of Delhi is the modern designs. Kurta. They are increasingly becoming a woman`s passion in Delhi. work as the perfect base for shimmering Zardozi. cut-work. modern innovations have started impressing their signatures on the traditional element of the costumes of Delhi. Along with the ethnic costume of sari. and introduced by the Muslim rule in India. to obtain a gorgeous appearance. When it comes to making themselves presentable in proper costume. ari work. worn by men. crowd a fashionable and modern-day woman`s wardrobe. Neeta Lulla and Sabyasachi Mukherjee are weaving magic with their embroidery splendour. The young generation. the men of Delhi are not lagging behind. a Persian form of embroidery. georgette. These costumes are not only wear -friendly in the course of daily busy schedule of modern-life. on ceremonial occasions. skirts. His costume was helpful in emphasising his role as the national leader to the country. chiffon and other types of fabric possessing a rich texture. Dhoti. For instance. and so on. topped off by a long shirt or tunic like dress. kurta-pajama. In fact this conjunction of the old and the new is the mark of excellence of the costumes of Delhi. and even on skirts and blouses. Ghagra is an oriental ankle-length skirt. They are not only keen to preserve the culture they belong to. but also assert the Indianness of their identity. which get well-communicated through this costume-type. can very much be invested with design. popularised by him) and Nehru cap. and a cl oth -piece called dupatta. at present compete with the original gold. or Turko-Mongol costume. Resplendent semi-precious jewelry. was imported into the Indian horizon. Tshirts and the other modern-day chic male garment. The senior and the venerated generation cater to the ethnic costume of India. happening to be the daily costume. The same applies for Ghagra-choli and salwar-kameez. including fascinating Kundan work. Sherwani-salwar. covering the front upper portion. tissue cloth. Women of Delhi are well-aware of fashion-updates. frequently turning out to be a designers or a . The pattern of this Turko -Persian. usually dress themselves in formal shirts. mirror-work. is not inherent to India. T-shirts. Zardozi can be on sari. silver.female costume of Delhi. which refers to a dress of baggy trousers. A very noteworthy attribute of today`s costumes of Delhi is that. with the adv ent of the TurkoIranian dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. or Kurta-pajamas. the first Prime Minister of India. Jawaharlal Nehru. crafted by the deft craftsmen of the neighbouring Jaipur and Rajasthan. diamond or authentic gem-studded ornaments. or salwar kameez.
waistcoat. Pagri. like marriage ceremonies or special occasions. These weave-ace people are the dexterous creators of exclusive shawls. is usually worn with Sherwanis. and with a hand towel. Nevertheless. for attending ceremonies. Men sometimes adorn themselves in ornaments like bangles. as well as fascinating patterns. Western influence is visible on the costumes of the younger generation of Himachal Pradesh these days..The farmers and worker classes required to toil. Their wives and daughters used to venture out within the enclosed confines of curtained palanquins. to effect a royal outlook. Kinnars. for important consultation. have made Delhi a dream-destination of the costume-lovers. Traditional shoes. The soothing suppleness of the . and the tribal people like Gaddis. and shoes with pointed edges. The boasted thick moustaches and a dignified frown in the forehead-region. These women normally dress themselves in kurtas (shirt-like oriental blouse).. Costumes of Delhi make the style statement and are a yardstick for the clothing industry nationwide. The difference in style and the quality of Kurtas. The utility shoes made from grass. wristbands.. Gujjars. The Rajputs wear body-hugging churidar pyjamas. though not so much in vogue. These shawls are famous for their elegance and smooth textures. to augment their manliness. the costumes of Delhi have manifold facets of cultural and ethnic identities despite its primarily global look. The costume of the women hailing from the Brahmin and the Rajput clans are quite traditional.. Over all. Again the costumes of each community are different. the Rajputs.. The native women are famous in weaving headscarves. a loincloth and a cap. turban. Peculiarities in kinds of feminine ornaments are well demonstrated by the bangles and rings produced from horsehair. allured by the availability of the recent inthings as well dignified traditional dress there.e. along with stylish wrist-watches. but previously the Rajputs adhered to the Purdah or veil system for their women. carried under the arm. an astrological yearbook. such as festival. They cater to long pyjamas. choli (blouses or tops with intricate embroidery) and rahide (nice crimson headscarves decked with golden fringes). ghaghri(Indian long skirts). His attire is thus in keeping with the cold atmosphere. like. Now a days. The expanding range and plethora of patterns. i. serve as the insignia of Himachal handlooms. a starch-stiffened turban with a unique mould. comprise an awesome diversity owing to the plethora of culture and religion. By heritage. Costumes of Himachal Pradesh. be it the Hindu Brahmins. theDhoti-clad Brahmin priests roam around in Kurta. Hand-woven excellence is the hallmark of the costumes of Himachal Pradesh. placed upon the shoulders and with a valuable copy of Panchang. are perfect for keeping the feet warm. coat.boutique`s collection. Nagra shoes. on special occasions. and curiously enough with his priestly profession that involves astrological predictions too. go for kurta. is symbolic of manliness in Rajput society. Pangawals and Lahaulis. are assets for any costume-lover. related to the costumes of Delhi. saris and gowns woven by indigenous weavers. salwars. a long coat.
Turbans are common among Muslim men. . The `pathani` suit. The pheran has a lot of beautiful embroidery work done on it and is decorated with floral motifs and designs. The kangri is an earthen vessel which is filled with flaming coal. celebrate the ages-old Pahadi designs. To be very precise. The striking shawls originating from Kulu. embroidered with marvelous embroidery. Manufactured from the hair of Pashmina goat. Kasida.. abundance of resplendent dyed and printed fabrics and costumes in Himachal Pradesh. are th e leading. The Muslim men wear lace -free shoes known as Gurgabis. The dwellers of Lahaul-Spiti and Kinnaur are deft in this task who weaves ornate draperies for special occasions. ThePashmina shawls are made from traditional woollen textiles which are obtained from mountain goat. `Dhobroo` and `Pattu`. The embroidered caps of the Kulu. these shawls find their demand worldwide. quilts. Costumes worn by Kashmiri men The pheran is the most commonly worn garment among men. The kangri is usually placed in the front. doll and elephant figures constructed of rags are all native productions.renowned Pashmina shawl is the specialty of the handlooms of Himachal Pradesh. especially in Srinagar. Lahaul. Wool weaving acts as a major vocation in Himachal. Skull caps are extremely prevalent. especially among the peasants and the `karakuli` or fur skull caps along with the Pashmina shawls worn by men often symbolize royal lineage. is done in such a manner that the patterns appear in a uniform manner on both sides of the fabric. the traditional `pheran` is the most popular form of dressing among both men and women. The fancy needlework available on these shawls has its source in the Kangra and Chamba schools of paintings. interacted with various prosperous civilizations like the famous Greeks. And the resultant is that we come across. is a popular garb among the men. Among the favorite types of shawls. Most of the garments are made of wool. The wool products are knitted from Byangi wool. which serve as vital constituents of the gorgeous attire for the bride. Brocade. Such influences of its cultural ethos and tradition coupled with the climatic factors find a reflection in the attires of its people. In these mountainous regions. It is then placed within a container made of natural fibre. reflect the richness of the culture and landscape of the region. It has been historically seen that the early Aryan descendants who lived in this region. The pheran is a loosely fitted woollen garment which makes use of the `kangri`. also referred to as `Khan-dress`. camel hair and cashmere are the main elements that are used in the making of coats and fleece for men. The Pashmina belts and `kamarbands" are common too. The special Kashmiri embroidery work.. silk with intricate embroideries and cotton. Costumes of Jammu and Kashmir. Exquisite patchwork. Embroidered blouses and caps gives a glimpse of the commendable taste of the Himachal inhabitants. Sirmair.. the Romans and the Persians. Thapada is also a broad shawl.. Hindu men usually wear churidars while the Muslim men are dressed in salwars beneath the formidable pherans. skillfully shrouded by the pheran. Kinnaur and Lahaul are all brands of skilled craft by themselves. Intricate work is done on both sides of these shawls. The Farahada and the Chhiba group people are the experts in this business. the splendid costumes of Himachal Pradesh owe a lot to the impressive craftsmanship of the prolific weaving-talents and the outstanding handlooms of the state. Dyeing and printing of fabrics makes for a traditional craft in the region. It functions as an internal heating system in order to keep the wearer warm during the extreme cold winters.
The Hindu women wear a headdress called the `taranga`. The elaborate headgears are replaced by exquisitely ornate skull caps embellished with threads of gold. It is worn by the Muslim women as a part of their regular attire. the costumes vary to some extent. `Dejharoos` or golden pendants are worn by the Hindu women. talismans and gems. stretching up to their feet with narrowed down sleeves. It is symbolic of a woman`s married status among the Kashmiri Pandits. Similar fitted pajamas and kurtas of considerable length constitute the costume of the Dogra men. The pherans worn by the Muslim women are traditionally characterized by their broad sleeves and reach up to the knees. there are the `poots` and the pheran. Traditionally. Earrings. towards the heels. The pheran worn by women usually has zari embroidery on the hem line.Costumes worn by Kashmiri women The pheran is the prominent attire for Kashmiri women as well. The pheran is accompanied by red headgears known as the `kasaba`. the Hindus of Jammu and Kashmir wear their pherans long. anklets and bangles are widely used apart from the use of ornamentation in clothing. For unmarried Muslim women. Brocade patterns adorn their long sleeves. These dejharoos comprise two decorative gold pendants which are suspended through gold chains or silk threads. A pin-scarf suspended from the kasaba descends towards the shoulder. Often. The `abaya` is also commonly worn by them. comprising two robes placed atop the other. The use of kamarbands and turban are prominent among the Dogra elders. The Dogra womenfolk are found attired in fitted pajamas and tunics accessorized with a suitable headdress. The taranga is an integral part of the wedding attire among Hindus. However. the pherans are wrapped tightly by a piece of creased cloth called `lhungi`. Silver jewellery is popular among the Muslim women and they adorn themselves with neckpieces. Costumes worn by ethnic groups of Kashmir The Jammu and Kashmir landscape is dotted with various ethnic groups. The kasaba is stitched in the form of a turban and is pinned together by ornaments and silver brooches. stitched to a suspended cap and it narrows down at the back. Accessories worn by Kashmiri women The intricate patterns of a woman`s costumes in Jammu and Kashmir are further enhanced by the use of various accessories. bracelets and heavily bejeweled chains. . around pockets and mostly on the collar area. Elaborate zari embroideries or floral patterns around the neck and the pockets are a prominent feature of a Muslim woman`s pheran. The Dogras are tribes residing amidst the hilly topography of Jammu.
The sari is more popular among the Hindu women after the 1930 s Reform Movement. can hardly ignore the dazzle of the ethnic as well as awesome Tussar silk sarees.. meaning land of woods. Costumes of Jharkhand. adorn themselves in better quality and attractivelooking kurta. The Gujjar women are dressed in loose sleeved tunics coupled with baggy salwars. despite these influences. a brightly decorated shawl that can aid in carrying packages and even children. This is noticed primarily among the men have appropriated the western attire to a great extent. as natural protein fibres round its cocoon. silk-worms is the task of the deft tribal labourers. happens to be the habitat of ages -old tribal population .. Men in Ladakh wear velvet multihued caps while the women adorn turquoise colored hats named `Perak`. kurta & shirts . Tribal females traditional attire is the Panchi and Parhan . They cover their head by an elaborate headgear. According to tradition. live the non-tribal people. The costumes of the inhabitants of the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir deserve special mention because of their extraordinary variety. unique in appearance . also residents of Jammu. belonging to well-off families.. Vananchal . `Kuntops` are woolen gowns worn by women. In Ladakh. It extends to about 2 metres in length and 20 cm in breadth. Men while featuring in ceremonies. Parhan. The rearing of the source.. called Bhagwan. are the second-largest group of ethnic tribes inhabiting in Kashmir. It has been seen that over the years. bearing the popular sobriquet. . Side by side with the tribals. However. and almost the whole of India. indispensable in the weaving of silk threads into wonderful Tussar silk sarees. or costume-crazy women. pajama. the traditional pheran continues to remain the symbol of the culture and couture of Jammu and Kashmir. Tussar silk is cultivated in the Kharsawa district of Kuchai area of Jharkhand. Women cover themselves in sarees and blouses. which got its political dimension as a state. for instance the Paharis and the Santhals follow a dress-code. akin to the ones worn by the women in Turkish villages. the people of Jammu and Kashmir have adopted the dressing style and habits of the west as well as those of other regional Indian cultures. only in November 2000. Women. The silk is produced by the mature silkworm. The men wear `Goucha`. The members of this tribe are mostly shepherds. The major tribes of Santhal Pargana .The Gujjars. The Skerag serves as an enclosure for the Ladakhi men to carry their bare essentials. dhoti. has been previously the southern portion of Bihar. footwear made of Yak skin and wool is known as `Papu`. a woollen robe made of sheep skin fixed at the neck. pajama and sherwani. upon a woman`s demise. These people envelop themselves in the traditional costume of Jharkhand. the perak is handed down to her eldest child. It is wound at the waist by a bright sash called `Skerag`. manufactured in Jharkhand. This state. the lower garment is topped off by the upper Parhan. It is accompanied by a `bok`. Men however maintain their decency with only one piece of cloth .
Normally men prefer white clothes except the Muslims who prefer colored clothes. a plain or silk-bordered cloth. `Abha` is the name of the typical choli worn by women folk and `Kanjari` is a long blouse beautifully embroidered and with mirror work.e. however the workmanship differs. a district in Gujarat. The local women. Memon and Korja Muslim communities of Kutch is a sight to behold. Typical Kutchi costume is incomplete without `Abha` or `Kanjari`. the Garacia Jat women wear only red or black chunis while Rabari women wear black open blouses or cholis with odhnis to cover head. then that individual must make a visit to the tribal heaven of India. they can present forth. i. silver and beads ornaments are indeed aesthetic and hence. The tribe-centric culture of Jharkhand . Abhas. In the rural areas women wear Chaniya choli during the whole year. The twinkling lights played mischievously over the gold and thread embroidery while the sequins and badla work sparkled continuously. the traditional costume of the region of Kutch. People of Jharkhand harbour a love for perfumes and their aromas. and tribal festivals. demonstrating tribal dances. has entered the world of high fashion. zari . eyecaptivating. the increasing demand for Tussar silk can be met. For instance. various nuances of tribal life. Chaniya choli`s are of many designs and fashion. A woman in an abha. In fact the various communities can be identified by the pattern of handicrafts and dress or costumes they were. respecting ethnicity. Fashion-conscious women are flaunting themselves in this new innovation. Successfully adapted to modern styles by Anjali Mangaldas. the traditional costume of the Khatri. The people also use perfumes oil. that if someone wants to view the sophistication and the magnificence of native -talents in India. Dazzling with vibrant colours. The mirror work and embroidery work forms an integral part of Kutchi Handicrafts irrespective of the community or ethnic group to which they belong. in general. and a short coat. a long-sleeved under-jacket. only due to the prowess of these silk-weavers and silk-farmers. are endowed with a lustrous texture. has exhibited its preference for plain but elegant accessories. this beautiful garment has become a rage with the fashion conscious women. the women looked beautiful in their fabulous Abhas as they swayed to the music. and often with traditional paintings or print.Indeed. It is a veritable truth. Costumes of Kutch.. The silk sarees. People of higher status of the society use the modern European dresses. Most men in Kutch wear loose trousers. Recently. beautify themselves with the help of this ethnic and artistic costumes of Jharkhand. the newly launched Anjana and Swarnarekha silks of Jharkhand are ruling the market. Gold. Jharkhand and enjoy the lovely costumes. In the village of Kutch. the kutchi attire is simply eye-catching. In ancient times the women wore the abha embellished with beautiful tie-dye designs. This garment from Kutch. So they have the habit of applying perfumes.Exquisitely stylized and intricately embroidered.. flooded with striking mirror work and stunning jewellery it`s one of the most alluring customs in India. has a history that is as colourful and exciting as the garment.
There is a discrete charm about the costume of the Minicoy population. the Thakrufans. don themselves in white or coloured lungi . The younger generation. in ceremonial participation. done with glass or gilt bits. is basically a kalidar kurta without a slit on the sides. with a lose flair and it hangs lower than a normal kurta. However. known as Thattam. for their inherent sense of artistry. The color-smeared scarf . with its edges . . Manikfan men dress themselves in the customary lungis and shirts costume. reflected in their customes too. contains fine embroidery. invested with impressive embroidery. Costumes of Lakshadweep. The jacket. on the front side. but unstitched unlike that of men. The abha based on an age-old traditional classical cut and style. Normally. The Manikfan class has an air of elegance about them. serves as a wonderful headdress.. often made of silk fabric. similar to the pattern of jeans. Kachis are. The abha has been a collectors item since the last four generations. men do not covers themselves upwards the waist. coming as a rectangular piece of cloth. This cloth is passed around the shoulders. The abha has been a collectors item since the last four generations. and the Amini cluster of islands. The plain . for daily wear and tear. enveloping a woman from the waist. However. shimmering in the golden radiance of sunlight makes Lakshadweep a dream-destination. The trousers are worn from the waist and are supported with a cord. other than Minicoy. but also women tie a silver thread round the waist. as their daily costume. a rectangular piece of cloth. The best have even been part of collections auctioned in the west by Christys and Sothebys Research scholars have not yet been able to pinpoint the historical period or influence on these costumes.thread embroidery that was very minute and intricate embroidery in coloured silk or cotton thread in a combination of a variety of stitches. all of which are marvels to watch at. The shades of Kachis are generally black or white with black borders. The blue sea lashing against the beaches of Lakshadweep. Unfortunately modernity has compelled these lovely costumes into museums or wooden boxes in far off villages. The scenic landscape is hence in tune with the resplendent costumes. they flaunt themselves in cotton or silk drapery. blue. is tucked into the waistband of silver thread. The abundance of colours enriches the traditional costumes of Lakshadweep. The trousers are available in black. Not only men. of this coastal land. the Thakrus and the Raveri project their own traditional dress. The word abha-has been derived from aba a word commonly used in the Middle Eastern countries which means a top garment or a mantle. The genuine abhas could be date back nearly a century. The various stratas of this community namely. but colorful costumes of Lakshadweep. This Kachi. the men of the remaining classes have embraced trousers. deserve praise. integrating minuscule mirror discs into its elaborate and distinct pattern. the silk Kachis . The tribal men... It is topped off by a full-sleeves close-fitting jacket around the waist. white. who pulls the lungi through the string to hold it firmly round his waist. exhibit themselves in shirts. pink or green hues. However. the Manikfans. This acts as a girdle for a senior person. stitched together. . The traditional costume of women comprises of Kachi. commonly come up in red body with contrasting black borders. A colored embroidered tapelines along the sides as and around the ankles.
that they can demonstrate themselves in the lustrous gold ornaments. Ornaments are in vogue among the islander women. The number of protrusions. marked with black stripes. The libus is usually seen as a brick-crimson cloth. The waist -belt could be of gold or of silver. are decked with floral patterns. This cloth has an opening only at the neck. The plenty of ornaments. for the wrists. The design of koodu . and a necklace. ear-rings. None is entitled to wear such trousers. A waistornament called aranchan. with an width of one inch . is a string of black beads. except those courageous males. The two types . is maintained in accordance to the class-status of the various classes. classified . worn around the chain. In general. are the kannadi aracha. are the popular jewelry items. The younger generation has exhibited a liking for trousers and shirts to their costumes. Waistband associates the trousers. The Minicoy women are economical about their ornaments choices. The scenario is again different for the Raveri class. after becoming mature adults. There exist some prohibitions regarding the use of jewelry. stretching from shoulder to ankle. can lay their hands on silver ornaments only. The waistband is a strip of white cloth. is a remarkable item. the necklace. are bestowed with greater detail . with embroidery decorating that part. along with a long cloak. The Urukku is however. The costume for the ceremonial occasions. interspersed with gold. At times. and the adippu. women use a veil-like covering. the female belonging to Manikfan class. Raveri men achieve ownership of wearing these clothes. called libus. The headgear emerges is a stripy red or black cloth. Alikkath are small rings embellishing the ear. and the good choice . because. The intricacy of design. koodu and alikkath. It has a pyramidal structure. beautifying a bride for the most special important occasion of her life. all women wear a modram. apart from the Minicoy women. with blue or green colors. The practice of wearing a headdress prevails among these women. who have undertaken sea-expeditions. women of other classes . functioning as a bracelet. It is the privilege of the Manikka women . possessing a lock. a fingerring . The upper part of the women`s body is left without clothes. white in color and expanding from the face down to the chin.The custom is a little different for the Thakrus and Thakrufans . be it four or two. The vala is an ordinary bangle has a glamorous kodakam . an eardrop is special. urukku. It is a strip of black cloth. The costume of the Minicoy women is an under-garment. bangles called vala or kodakam.
girls. These shoes are tough and lasting in order to endure the immense toil of he primarily agricultural rustic people of Madhya Pradesh. or the school-going group of Madhya Pradesh. It is interesting to watch that the air of Western dress-pattern has already started blowing in the towns and Kasbas of Madhya Pradesh. The majority of the people of Madhya Pradesh attest Dhoti as their traditional costume. Furthermore. is the headgear. with a medium coarse quality. Costumes of Madhya Pradesh comprise handicrafts and diverse textile techniques which have given rise to a rich array of costumes of Madhya Pradesh. Red and black. modern dresses form an integral part of the daily costume in Madhya Pradesh. to retain a decent and sober look. and that of Madhya Pradesh. Bandhani (locally called Bandhej) cloth is produced on a huge scale in Maundsar. are the favourite shades for this feminine costume. Special occasions and delightful festivals witness people roaming around in utmost revelry. specifically in Bundelkhandand Malwa. a white or black jacket called Bandi or Mirzai. enriched with fascinating prints. have uniforms. colourful costumes. call for recognition and praises of their taste and preferences. but in the remote ambience of the forests they feel cozy in minimal garment. The tribal women of this state augment their beauty in silver or Kathir ornaments. which is the common feature of Madhya Pradesh`s costume.. made by the village-cobbler. whereas. rampant in weekly markets are the daily costume. It is definite that a costume is incomplete without shoes. Tribal people. Indore and Ujjain. Immaculate white garments are celebrated as the foremost priority. The delicate Chanderi sarees and Maheshwari sarees produced in Madhya Pradesh are hand-woven. cover themselves in ghaghri. and they are quite renowned all over India.Another additional strip of cloth called Orni or Lugra is draped around the head and shoulders. a kind of turban. Ready-made dresses. Contrast patterns on Batik cloth are quite wellknown. called langot. or in Western frock. a kind of Indian skirt.. for presenting themselves in public wear short-sized Dhotis. Ornaments are a natural accompaniment to Indian costumes.. very similar to the student`s costume of other states. Aluminium . The myriad colours of this traditional costume of the men of Madhya Pradesh. Their costumes in such wonderful moments are resplendent. Costumes of Madhya Pradesh. is no exception to this rule. Mill-manufactured clothes are in vogue in urban areas. The womenfolk of Madhya Pradesh dress themselves in Lehenga (long Indian skirt) and Choli (Indian blouse). gives the men a radiant and dignified appearance. Description: Costumes of Madhya Pradesh show multiplicity in various aspects. is a part of the men`s attire. Their treasure-chest incorporates Kadas (bracelets) and Kangni (bangles) on hand and Hansli and Haar (necklace). The villagers of Madhya Pradesh wear raw-leather shoes. The fabric is painted with molten wax and is dyed with cold dyes to create a cloth variety called Batik. Safa. Handicrafts and different textile techniques have given rise to a rich diversity of costumes of Madhya Pradesh. which are a necessity and no more a luxury. The children. Boys visit school in short-pants and shirts.of colours and quality of fabric of the costumes of Lakshadweep. In fact.
and for special occasions. Bali or little ear-studs. Kolhapuri Saaj. During the Maratha rule. engage in a lot of captivating tattooing.. bearing often.e. Zele on the forehead. The fabric of Nauvari Saree is usually cotton. fundamental to the social system of Madhya Pradesh. The Brahmin ladies of Maharashtra wear sarees in a particular pattern where the pleats are located at or near the back and these are tucked in waist and the decked part of the saree is left open on the shoulder part. The Nauvari saree has a historical background. an element of ethnicity and discreteness. The Maharashtrian women prefer to deck themselves in beautiful jewelleries. This specific style of draping does not require a petticoat or a slip beneath it. Among the most favoured jewelleries are the haar. which has given the costumes of this region. Their necks are adorned with sleek silver or golden chain. The traditional costume of women in Maharashtra is a nine-yard long saree. nath or nose ring decorated with pearl or vibrant coloured stones. one of the largest and most populous states of India. subjects from the wide range of the flora and the fauna encircling them. Bhilala. They go for similar types of ornaments. an ox. self-name or picture of a god. the Maharashtrian women then introduced the Nauvari Saree. They use choli with the sarees and often polkas and blouses. and dhoti and shirt as the traditional costume of the men folk. To facilitate easy movement. Costume of Maharashtra.. And into this rich silk texture. Maharashtra. Young girls. called Nauvari. i. This saree bears a resemblance to male trousers. silver Kandora on the waist-line. one must praise the intermingling of tribal as well as non-tribal cultures in Madhya Pradesh. attractive pendant or locket. demonstrates an array of costumes. gives the tribal woman a gorgeous look. women were entrusted with the grave responsibility of helping their male partners. payal (anklet) and Bichhudi on the toes. Particularly.or silver bracelets decorate the wrist and armbands. hanker for silver or aluminum made Pyjeb to embellish their feet. Charan. To conclude. In tribal-crowded zones like Bhil. The Paithani saree. Paithani sarees happen to be the treasured creation of Maharashtra`s textile-industry. as well as weather conditions. the tribes.. the women of these tribal sects prefer drawing on their arms tattoos of flower. The accessories of the refined and educated elite women have a different charm. but they have the affordability to indulge in the delight of gold. at emergency period of wars. the upper-arm. Banjara. comprises a nine yard sari as the traditional costume for the women. suiting the purpose of any occasion. who are by profession potter. owes its origin to adept textile-designing. Silk is woven to constitute the body of the royal Paithani silks. Kahar and Kumhar. invested with an 18 inch to 25 inch pallu. pure Jari- . Tattoo painting is an important constituent of the costume-pattern of Madhya Pradesh. tode and patlya. Some of the necklaces they wear include bangdya. Meghwal. Most of the designs of the jewelleries are of Peshwa and Maratha style. Semi-precious or today`s imitation jewelry are quite popular among the young generation of girls. sil k tops the priority list.
sherwanis. Costumes in the state of Meghalaya show the ethnicity of the tribes namely the Garos. The bright Paithani sarees are very popular as the bridal costume in Maharashtra. and other kinds of resplendent men`s attire. Time and the effect of globalisation have brought a drastic change in the costumes of each and every state and Maharashtra as well. In the urban areas of Maharashtra. produce rich protein fiber and accordingly spin round the open-ended cocoon.made of gold and silver threads. Endi silk is the product of the domesticated silkworm.Khasi and the Jaintias. costumes display themselves in their variety best. feeding on castor leaves. Pyjama. Probably. hence has achieved a splendid synthesis of the old and the new patterns in costume. the beautiful state of Meghalaya houses these three famous hill tribes of India. Indeed. The men of Maharashtra uphold Dhoti as their cultural heritage. It has also focused on the traditional and regional textile-accomplishments like Paithani as the `in-thing` now. and the abode of Bollywood. The hill communities rear Philosamia ricini. are interwoven. every family earns their livelihood through weaving. is the trendsetter for costumes. It may be worn along with a shirt or kurta. salwarkameez. skirt-blouse. It is interesting to note that the Garos are the most skilled weavers of the region. T-shirts. the tradition has not faded its glitter. flaunt themselves with the halo of grooming. the silkworms. establishing their sway. Women put in Kurta-Pajamas. and especially in its cosmopolitan capital. Indeed. Pune. is an unstitched garment wrapped around to cover the body. and jeans-trousers. The other weaving-sites of this exclusive item are Yeola. thus the traditional dresses have not lost the glory of their past. ornate Dhotis. Ackan or Survar. The urban Mumbai men on the other hand. to give the Saree the ornamented get-up. and Dhoti is often substituted with trousers. for the whole of India. They also wear `bandi` over the shirt and turban called `pheta` and `pagadi`. It is from this fibre that the coveted silk is generated. baggy trousers. The sarees have received their name after the place of its origin. trousers. On occasions. The state of Maharashtra. all possible types of casual wears. The Paithani sarees are thus essentially linked to the culture and society of Maharashtra. kurta-pajamas. the traditional costume for women. Fashion experiences its high. Nasik and Malegaon in Maharashtra. in the posh cities of Maharashtra. Though the modernisation has a great impact in the society. branded shirts. the silkworm. Philosamia ricini that feeds mainly on castor leaves. Mumbai. with fashion-designing institutes and business units. Sonidan is the hub of Endi or Errandi silk-production in Meghalaya. The crowning glory of the costume of Meghalaya is the Endi silk shawl. Mumbai the glam-epicenter of India. exotic Sarees and so on. Paithan in Maharashtra. It is woven from mulberry silk cultivated in the local region. They shift from wearing jeans. The festive occasions of the Maharashtrians allow themselves to indulge in the festive mood and during this time most of the men wear Churidar. These nature`s artists. Nestled in the peaceful hills of the north-eastern part of India. rank among their favorites. called Jainsen. .
There exists a practice among Jaintia men and women. made by local jewelry-smiths. A Jaintia woman envelops her h ead with a cloth-piece with checks called "Kyrshah". brown. by fastening it round the waist. is used by the senior women. is added to this attire. at the times of harvest-work in the field. to present themselves in gaudy. the element of tradition is much alive in the costume of the Khasi women. the costume of the Jaintia women in Meghalaya is a little different from the other groups. but assets to boast of. a silver circlet worn round the head as a forehead -decoration. is lusterless for Jaintia women. resplendent costumes. Its specialty is the six to ten inch broad borders embellished with attractive motifs or floral patterns. a short cloth round the waist. flowing down to the ankles. It entails a Jainsen.Sericulture is a popular small-scale industry of Meghalaya. to keep the flame of tradition. flaunt themselves in a pure gold pendant kown as Kynjri Ksiar. akin to Dhoti. in the recent times. a cotton shawl. glowing. They are favorites of not only the local tribal. the women drape eking. They adorn themselves with earrings and other ornaments of gold and silver. A Garo woman dons a blouse. owing to the costume they wear. The traditional costume of the Khasi man in Megha laya is unstitched lower apparel. she ties the edges of tap-moh khlieh. round her neck or pins at the shoulders. but also of any fashionaddict of India. emit a discrete aura. Another strip of woolen cloth called Jainkup. Western concept of dressing has entered the realms of costume-design in Meghalaya. and wears a Lungi like mantle of unstitched cloth called Dakmanda. with a velvet blouse. so as to assume a radiant appearance. The costume of the male members of the Jaintia tribe bears similarities with that of the Khasi men. The Dakmanda is an example of hand-woven cotton fabric. have the affordability to deck themselves in ornaments of pure gold and silver. The elegance and grace inherent to the ethnic costumes of Meghalaya complements the scenic beauty of the picturesque landscape of Meghalaya. The Khasi sect comprising fifty percent of the total population in India. These shawls are invested with natural soothing shades of crÅ me. to serve somewhat like an apron. while the men put in a loincloth. as the Kashis are not so much attached with weaving today. completed by a jacket and headgear or turban. She also ties round her shoulders an Assam Muga silk cloth. on festive and happy occasions. Khasi women. a long piece of Assam Muga silk. The silk-weavers use the Endi silk threads to weave splendid shawls. like. concealing till the ankles. It is a custom to dress in head ornaments. white. in keeping with the air of the ambience they are residing in. In the remote areas of Garo hill villages. But the Garo women go for a longer version of cotton attire in the crowded zones. men display themselves in traditional garments only on social festivals and ceremonies. But the base material for these costumes is mill-manufactured. Dressing without the embellishments of ornaments. During occasions. However. . The weaver-ace Garos cater to different forms of costume. that are not only warmth-retentive or supple. along with a sarong called Thoh Khyrwang wrapped round her waist. She covers herself from the shoulders to the ankles. However. Both the Khasis and the Jayantis. beige and gold. However. Ka Jainsem Dhara. which is topped off by a blouse. Above these garments. Jainkup is not so much in vogue among the younger generation.
invested with designs adorn the sleeves of these coats. typical of the costumes of the North East. cultivated in the region itself. They drape themselves in an almost . 7 feet long and 5 wide cloth-piece. The Lusei men believe in simplicity. Puanchei . . along with a white coat. for example. The vibrant color and the outstanding designs are the reasons behind this marvelous costume. comes down from the throat enveloping till the thighs. which is of the same pattern. This petticoat is topped off by short white jacket and a cloth. Usually.. They too are hand-woven and cotton material. the gorgeous attire of Mizo girls is a must during weddings and festivals such as `Chapchar Kut` and `Pawl Kut`. The beautiful and serene Mizoram.. Moreover. one on top of the other. the costume is different. The black portion of the textile is constructed from some kind of synthetic fur.. Along with this. to cov er the chest. situated on the Northeastern corner of India. White and red bands. as it is the costume for revelry and merry-making. wrapped in the same way as the men`s. is the home of the Mongoloid relatives. stretches itself upto the knees. i. It is a fabulous blouse for Mizo girls. Kawrchei is akin to Ngotekherh . festivals. the costumes come in white colour. worn by all women. worn round the waist and tightly held by a girdle or belt of brass wire. The fundamental patterns speak volumes for the prevalence of the ethnic heritage. They are made from cotton and the colors are made by a thing called `Ting`. a Lusei man contrives a piece of cloth as a turban or Pagri . Ngotekherh is a cotton and hand-woven festive-attire apt for kuts. these were all hand woven but nowadays these are mostly machine made.Costumes of Mizoram. some additional attires are worn. There is hardly any difference existing in the costumes of the ordinary Lusei and the head of the community. people tie these clothes around the waist to feel comfortable. This are usually worn along with `Puanchei` and while performing the various dances of the Mizos In earlier times. The traditional costume of the Lusei women is the dark blue cotton petticoat.e. with the remaining end concealing the left shoulder. The shades in the cloth are black and white.. During the hot months. Only during festive occasions. This is uniform. namely `Chapchar Kut`. The entire costume of the Lusei men is made of cotton . a blouse. bear conspicuous resemblance with that of the other hill-states of the Northeast. is usually worn. It reaches the left shoulder to the back and then passes under the right arm. living for years in the Equality-championed hill societies The hot favorite costume of a Mizoram woman is Puan . when it comes to deciding their traditional costume. at times to avoid the blazing sun. but sometimes men want to wear other shades. blue colour bestowed with stripes. `Mim Kut` and `Pawl Kut`. In cold season.
a quilt woven cloth. the ornate warrior-celebrating shawl. women indulge in smoking like men. and upper edges of these quills are added green wing feathers of the common parrot. They are put in on the occasions such as `Chawn Day`. The little but praiseworthy costumes of Paiteis are captivating. Thangou Puon. Again. Among them. the resplendent item in the Lusei girl`s costume is the headgear. Rongsu shawl is wearable only by those . It matches with the gravity of the situation etc. a knapsack. while coming down to settle in her husband`s abode. Disul. worn during dances. The warrior`s costume in Lusei society entail a cloth passed round the waist. The handwoven Hmaram . The use of colours. In the Lusei society. carrying at their tips tussocks of wing covers of green beetles. brightening the outlook. called Tsungkotepsu is a characteristic of the Aos clan. etc. casts light on the artistic prowess of the people of Mizoram. Paite is project themselves in the Puon Dum. and the depictions of elephant and tiger speaks of the courage of the concerned man. wears a particular cloth to signify his status. while the human head attests accomplishment in head-hunting and other tasks like wielding spear and dao. Costumes of Nagaland mainly comprise shawls which are an extensively used item of the state. On the median band are painted black with a pattern in black mithun figures. signifying affluence of the owner. A valorous Lusei. yellow. and even their wives. Aomelep su made from dog`s hair. The costume of the Riang group of Mizoram is similar to that of the other tribes. by wearing t hem. fortified with a bear or tiger hide over one shoulder. yellow and black stripes to bring the striking effect of contrast. sometimes relish in the pride of their husband`s might. associated with costumes. The cloth is gifted with several designs like Sakat Zang Zie. while the one who has wiped off people in war have special headdress. through a hookah-type pipe . built from brass and colored cane. This headdress is composed of a coronal. is a must for every girl. It appears with black lines along with white.which is 9 inches in height. Only. is the shawl flaunted by the rich men or the sons and daughters of affluent fathers. the producer of maximum quantity of crop can wear the Thangou Puon. one must mention the Thangsuo Puon. also called Kawkpui zikzial are very much in vogue among the children and girls. The Hmars tribes are weaving-experts . Zakuolaisen this is a blouse piece with crimson stripes used mainly by the unmarried girls. This shawl contains alternate red. their national cloth to attend commiseration. formal meetings and observance of National Dayand so on. cuttings and finally the style of dressing. Those valiant Hmar warriors wear them. Puon Pie. For instance. a gun in one hand an weapon called dao on the other. post marriage. Against the dark base colour of this particular shawl. This the prized possession of the victorious and the destroyer of optimum number of foes in war. where men and women are considered equal. endowed with porcupine quills. deft in creating multiple patterns . ranks as the most significant costume of Paiteis community. Puon Laisen is a red cloth with two black stripes at the middle. who had been conferred upon the honorable title of the Thanhchhuah. meaning famous cloth in Hmars vocabulary. red or green stripes. red and white bands.However. a brave warrior who has slaughtered rivals in inter-tribal tussle or in war is allowed to claim ownership of this costume. known as "chhawndawl" and "arke -ziak". dyed red in colour. `Chhawnghnawh Day` and `Chapchar Kut`. there is a central white band with two horizontal black. designs.
the Ngami su or fish tail skirt. The casual costume of a dress of Angami women includes a petticoat called neikhro. lines and hues. a white skirt called pfemhou. though Rongkhim ranks first. the strip broadens accordingly. This latter one is a dark blue cloth with five stripes of light blue and with thin marginal stripes on either side. The cotton cultivated by them is the source for the material of the white or beige shawls and the skirts that they use. This is a daily-purpose shawl. There is only one cloth in the wardrobe of the Angamis. Women often wear men`s garment. The popular types of the Ao skirts involve Azu jangnup su. the successful man resorts to stone-dragging which permits him to wear Lungpensu. and men`s girdles. meant for wear and tear. Multifarious patterns. The Ze-liangs-rong.who have a glorious heritage of Mithun sacrifice. contrasted with six black bands of varying measurements at both ends. The cowries are bestowed with distinct importance. and finally the Yongzujangau or cucumber seed skirt. Black bands of different sizes on the border. A daily costume. They differ from village to village and also from clan to clan. Women in general are clad in plain blue cloth and a white cloth with black marginal bands of changing breadth. of skirts and belts. Men wear black kilt. Kechinger Rongkhim is too a warrior-respecting shawl. The third genna allows a man to put in the Ethasu. The costume of the Ao women is a skirt. With the fulfillment of the mission. The women of the remaining groups go for diversity. committed by the forefathers and also by the individual himself. considerably same with that of the Angamis. The western Angami villages have their unique style of costume-design. alienated by red and pink borders also decorate the body of the shawl. endowed with red and yellow-black stripes. The phichu-pfe is the priest`s costume. The Angamis. a major Naga tribe. Shawls of Lothas are graded by the number of gennas or festivals arranged by the wearer. woven in red on a black base. is the black shawl called ratapfe. which is one and a quarter meter long and about two thirds of the meter. a sleeveless top called vatchi. called lohe. decorated with embroidered cowries in three or four lines. Thus a man who has given the first genna wears the phangrhup. The soldier who annexes the right . The costume of the Zemei women is restricted to white-coloured clothes and skirts with very narrow black and red border. demonstrate themselves in clothes with white. With the performance of the second genna. which is indicative of social prestige. with respect to mettle. beautified with a narrow red line in the middle. red and black bands called Loramhoushu and black background with red and yellow bands. The skirts come up in an inexplicable variety. intricately embroidered red border and three white central bands. There is a wide spectrum of shawls woven by the Yimchunger Nagas. Liangmais and Rongmei exhibit themselves in costumes. a mixed group of Zemis. is draped round the waist and the surface outer edge is implanted for the grip. and at present with green. The commonest costume is a white cloth. Rongkhim is a fantastic shawl. wearable by a venerated warrior only. The favourite dancing skirt is black with a broad. required during dances characterise the occasion-costume of the Rongmei.
pyjamas. This particular shawl is maintained with care. . come in many different shapes. as there is the peculiar law among the Konyaks. jewellery and even the footwear establish the identity. The hallmark of the Konyaks is nye-myon the shawl worn by the senior villagers in important conferences and meetings. Costume worn by Rajasthani Men The pagari (turban). also known as pagaris. clothes. known as Shatni is a luxury item. religion. the men from rich families wear designs and colours which are suited to the occasion. `a raga in music.. It appears as red bands and red lines. while pagaris of the people of Jaipur are angular. that at the time of her death. colourful and elegant. Cummerbund or patka (waistband) form an integral part of a Rajasthani male`s attire. patterns and vibrant shades make the world of Naga costumes a rainbow world. It is an awesome fusion of wide black and red bands. there are specific turbans for specific occasions as well. A shawl.hand of the killed enemy is acknowledged to win the right to wear this particular shawl. The style of the turban. It is the custom. affordable by the wealthy Konyak woman. The clothes worn by the people of Rajasthani people have been designed keeping in mind the climate and conditions in which they live. Well-off Konyaks decorate themselves in a splendid cloth called nyauni.. her corpse would be enveloped in this specific shawl. Resplendently coloured shawl. The plethora of designs. are extremely bright. Turbans of Rajasthan.` The turban is significant of many important things. Pagari There is a proverb in Rajasthan which goes so. A `safa` is shorter and broader. dedicated to the blue-blooded Konyak chiefs or Ang and the elderly women of the village is called meyni. Costumes of Rajasthan. The people of Udaipur are accustomed to wearing a flat pagari. woven alternately. The beautifully designed and vibrantly coloured clothes lend cheerfulness to the dull-coloured monotone of the sands and hills. A common pagari is usually 82 feet long and 8 inches wide. Nikola is a white shawl which functions as a woman`s attire. Moreover. sizes and colours. taste in food and knots in a pagari are rare accomplishments. that an affluent man`s daughter. and the economic and social status of the population of Rajasthan. dhoti. It is a black cloth. angarkha. its colour and the way in which it is wound is of special significance to the people of Rajasthan as it is symbolic of the caste and region to which a person belongs. In Rajasthan about 1000 different types of pagaris can be found. motifs. The safa from worn by the men of Jodhpur has the distinction of having slightly curved bands. during wedding is gifted with a Shatni shawl by her parents. Everything from head-to-toe including the turbans. Whereas the common man in Rajasthan wears a turban of one colour only. Interesting costumes and jewellery of these desert people are not mere ornaments for them.. The exotic shawl tsungrem khim is an asset for the Yimchunger Naga women. possessing narrow grey bands at two margins.
The ghagra comes in many colours and styles. It has a narrow waist which increases in width and flares towards the base. The former type styled like a frock and reaches till the waist. designs and accessories. the traditional style of dressing has also undergone a change. The dhoti is a piece of cloth which measures 4m by 1m and requires quite a bit of practice to be worn properly. chunari and laharia prints. Today. It is a piece of cloth which is about10 feet long and 5 feet wide. Much like the pagaris of the men folk. durable and require little maintenance. The latter is longer and goes beyond the knees. The two principal kinds of angarkhas which are common to Rajasthan are kamari angarkha and the long angarkha. When there occasions of celebration and festivities in the region. The Rajasthani man is often seen to dress in the urban garb of trousers and a shirt. With changing times.Angarkha Angarkha. have been slowly replacing cotton as the favoured choice of the consumer. The Odhni is a specialty of Rajasthani costume. or. type of costume and occasion. Synthetic fabrics that are easily available. dyes and sewing techniques have enhanced this transformation of Rajasthani costumes. Also mechanisation in the manufacture of textiles. the traditional costume of the Rajasthani women is almost in a state of transition.5 metres by 1 metre. sometimes. jewellery. One corner of the Odhni is tucked in the skirt whi le the other end is taken over the head and right shoulder. coloured fabric known as `sinjaf` is sewn below to make it stronger. are said to symbolise the wealth of a person. An `odhni` with a yellow background and a ce ntral lotus motif in red called a `pila` is a traditional gift of parent to their daughter on the birth of a son. which can be loosely translated as body protector. Both Hindu and Muslims women wear `odhnis`. though one can still see Brahmins who wear traditional dupattas on their shoulders. while preserving the cultural identity as well. This transition of Rajasthani costumes now . However it is no longer in use and has become out of date. It was traditionally kept on the shoulders or worn around the waist to tuck in the weapons during medieaval times. Dhotis or pyjamas Dhotis or pyjamas are used to cover the lower part of the body. kurti or choli (tops and blouses respectively) and odhna. The skirt is usually not folded at the lower end like normal skirts but a broad. people can be seen wearing printed angarkhas or those which have been subject to the popular tie and dye method. The women are opting for new fabrics. They provide comfort and utility. is a garment which is mostly made of cotton. Ateh commonly worn dhotis are white in colour. However on special occasions people also wear silk dhotis with a border of zari. Patka Patka was a garment worn by people of upper classes and royal families. The colours and motifs which are found on the Odhnis are particular to caste. Most of the Rajasthani women wear the ghagra which is a long skirt that reaches up to the ankle. The width and the number of pleats in the `Ghaghra`. It is a cotton cloth which measures about 1. in an attractive combination of both urban and traditional garments teamed together. The ghagras which are most popular among Rajasthani women are those which are cotton ones which are coloured or printed with mothra. Costume worn by Rajasthani Women The Rajasthani female`s attire includes Ghaghra (long skirt).
becomes more apparent among the affluent. furnished with resplendent colours. flaunt themselves in costumes. South Indians and Punjabis. and at the waist region with a silk or cotton belt. The `siwankhana` ensured faultless and clear tailoring. The traditional costume of the Lepcha male is Thokro-Dum which involves a white pajama. a waist coat. earrings. It is a loose mantle which is tied at the neck on one side. Nyamrek. the shirt. a Lepcha shirt and Shambo. has over years become rooted in the culture and social norms of Sikkim.. a belt and Taro. The `Ranghkhana` and the `Chhapakhana` were departments that took care of dyeing and printing the fabrics respectively.. However. A Bhutia woman`s general costume consists of Kho or . that took care of the da ily wear and formal costumes of the king. The original inhabitants of Sikkim. a clothbelt and Shambo.. draped like a saree. Bengalis. Gyar.. However. the educated and those who. called Namchok. The changes ushered in by modernisation were felt even in the changing costumes of the Rajasthani people. through their work or otherwise. shirt. embroidered and woven Kashmiri shawls and delicate cottons from Chanderi and Dhaka were procured at great cost to make the various outfits of the Kings and nobility of Rajasthan. a bracelet. the Lepchas. maintaining the spirit of Rajasthani dress. have gained exposure to a range of other external influences. Kera. Bhutias and Nepalis. and so on. There were two special sections. Richly brocaded material from Banaras and Gujarat. also known as Bakhu. The traditional costume of Bhutia males comprises Kho. magazines. hailing from the adjacent country of Tibet. The rich and luxurious dresses that were created for the royalty were made under the careful attention of special departments that were in charge of royal costume. The hereditary costume of Lepcha women is Dumvum or Dumdyam. Lyak a necklace. newspapers and most importantly migration and urbanization have contributed to the modifications in traditional costume. namely the `toshakhanand` and the `kapaddwadra`. Cosequently they dressed up in their most colourful and formal best. a kind of smooth and cosy ankle-long dress. The texture of the male dress is rough. the cap. called. entail. reflect the social and cultural lifestyle of the major communities namely Lepchas. Costumes of Sikkim. a cap. The Bhutia community. Marwaris. Yenthatse. The magnificent ornaments exhibited by the Lepcha women. cinema. the influence of television. have settled to conduct business and serve in government services. The popular culture that prevails in Rajasthan. in the cities and urbanised sectors of the state. and long-lasting. Costumes of Royalty in Rajasthan Royal costumes in Rajasthan reflect the regal taste of the state. Biharis. The Rajput kings were quite close to the Mughal court. stretching only to the calves. the cap. Added to this basic garment. traditional garments are still extensively worn in Rajasthan even today and the change has merged harmoniously with tradition. Yenthatse. Tago a loose-fitting comfortable blouse. a Bhutia man dons Jya Jya. suitable for the hardy toil in the field and forest.
Dungri. Bengali or Punjabi communities cater to their traditional costumes of salwar-kameez dupatta. Khao. suspended from the head to the waist..e. The dressing gets the right finish with a long loose blouse. the signifier of marital status is a symbol of married Bhutia females.for the most part comprise the traditional wears. i. Phiru. again a necklace. Nepali. and Joko. Being the abode of South Indian silk sarees with rich zari work. saree. the shoe. another predominant group of Sikkim. The other Marwari. is fastened from four sides and hence is called Chaubandi Cholo. The distinctness amongst the four corners within the country makes this very factor even more interesting when admired. The traditional costume of the Nepali women of Sikkim is endowed with fabulous hues. a pearl-necklace. is utilised as adornment during dance performances. Kantha. Chandrahar. known as Daura.. substantial. The dance costume of the Nepali women is amazing. The ornaments that give a gaudy appearance to the Nepalese women are Sir-Bandi or tiara. Tik-mala. Tilhari. woolen textiles. Bulaki. i. Diu. definitely augments the grace of the Nepali women. wrist coat and their belt. The ageless charm of these sarees is the identity of the people of Tamil Nadu. Gadwari. a jeweled head-ornament. the costumes reflect the traditions of India and Tamil Nadu itself. Bihari. an earring. Chepti son. Costumes of Sikkim. and Kalli. Pachauri. trousers. The Nepalese men dress themselves in Shurval. the necklace. and have most of their ornaments crafted from pure gold. a different pattern of the cap. Another variety in blouse is the Tharo Cholo... Pharia. a Churidar Pajama. The women of this state are decked with these traditional sarees that mark them from rest of the communities. a silver Chura. anything which suits their taste and preferences. a nose-pin.. Pangden. a jacket. India has always been looked at as a land of enigmatic resources and many have staked their lives just to acquire it and call those their own. T-shirts. reflects in the resplendence of the dress and ornaments of the people. a green bead with an elongated gold pendant. a bracelet. The ornaments enhancing the appearance of the Bhutia women are Yencho. the saree. the earring. silver anklet . gorgeous in vibrant shades. Shambo and Shabchu.. a necklace. attired mainly by married women. an ear ring. Hanju. the pearl ornament. the ring. The upper portion of the body is daintily enveloped with a piece of cloth with wonderful prints. Bhutia people are obsessed with the pure form of gold. Charanihari. called Patuki. It is associated with Aaskot. Kushen. Naugeri.Bakhu.e. their love for beauty and inventive finesse. has sustained the ethnicity of their own culture in their costume. Costumes of Tamil Nadu . The South Indian costumes possess a certain aura within . the Gold bangle. a nose-ring. a thick. 24 carats. a colourful piece of cloth. and even to Western outfit. the stripy apron. a silky full-sleeve loose blouse. It is called Hembari. like jeans. topped off by a shirt.
The children put on a loincloth. etc. Full-length skirt. because they . called Kubai . sarees are available in a variety of materials like cotton. In earlier times it was donned instead of an upper garment. the extra piece of pallu established thereby wrapped around her waist. Sarees are available in the state in a wide variety of fabrics. What is remarkable about this draping fashion is that a woman wears the most dazzling of Kanchipuram saree in the most informal manner.` Saree. normally manufactured from cotton. men also occupy a considerable position. In Tamil Nadu. Costumes of Tamil Nadu absolutely falls within this genre. and for regular work. called Rikutu Gamcha . Costumes of Tamil Nadu dominate with traditionalism speaking out every time for both the sexes. chiffon. Costumes of Tripura. silk. Saree is the traditional dress of Indian women and Tamil Nadu women as well. ranging from silks. the men resort to a pagri . A Saree from Tamil Nadu possesses an everlasting charm due to it not being cut or tailored for a particular size. but with an additional length of material hauled up within the legs. A dhoti is a rather longer lungi. There is a striking resemblance in the traditional costume of the Khakloo and the other fellow tribes. To combat the blazing heat of the sun and to continue working in the open heat. but nowadays men wear an angavastra over a shirt. together with a shirt and Angavastra. is the land of skilled weavers. the half saree or Pavada besides serving as the traditional dress was also the most admired costume of young girls in Tamil Nadu. micro silk. gifted with proper know-how . Pattola silk. such as the Khakloo. with zari work predominating amongst women and white dhoti amongst men.their dress materials. Men are generally encountered dressed in lungi. crepe silk. cottons. the Halam. This traditional pleated dress however has been replaced by salwar kurtas. the Lushei and the Kuki-Chin tribe . The style.. i.. georgette. Western influence is prominently visible on the young boys of today`s Manipur. the lower part of the calf exposed. men wear `lungi`together with a shirt and `Angavastra.e.. the sheer six yards of pure excellence is one such costume that ladies of all ages prefer to don for each special festivity. draped around the waist and pleated in front at the groin. The infants are hardly given clothes except when it becomes essential in the winter and rainy season. Costumes of Tamil Nadu are although not just restricted to the fairer sex only. In Tamil Nadu women don the ubiquitous Indian saree and blouse. The traditional and tremendously popular lungi originated in the South and it is purely a short length of material worn around the thighs. The daily work-costume of a full-grown male is a towel-like sheet of loin cloth. short blouses and a davani (shawl) successfully completed this dressing style. whereas. with women dressing up intricately for any festive occasion and men also are looking towards the similar direction.The women of the local tribes. topped off by a self-woven shirt. The plain dressing style is apt for the hilly climate. Sarees have a special place in the costumes of Tamil Nadu. The traditional Tamil woman chooses to drape her heavy Kanchipuram saree around herself. resembling a sarong. colour and texture of a saree cloth vary and it might be manufactured from cotton. organza. and are an indispensable part of the state`s heritage. Till a few years ago. as is attested in the diligent traditional costumes. the frontier hilly state of the North-East. a turban. which they diligently preserve. chiffons to georgettes and crepes. The lungi is a rectangular cloth. silk or one of the various man-made materials. The Angavastra is an elongated piece of cloth wrapped around the shoulders. excel in the art of weaving. jeans and trousers.
The neck areas of women are adorned with plethora of beads and coin strands. and at large the Tripuri women. specifically during dance-performance. gets an extra item. known as Rinai. is associated with an upper-attire. This upper-attire passes under the arms . the Garhwalis and the Kumaonis.. still among few clans. The Khakloo. an oriental long skirt. The element of finery is dim in the costume of the women of the Lushei tribe. However. Wool fetched from goat or sheep is used to manufacture warm costumes. The Rinai-like cloth. Side by side. However. happen to be the traditional costume of the ethnic groups. Risas are often invested with beautiful embroideries. Now-a-days. She dons herself in a shorter piece of cloth called Risa. made of brass and coloured cane. a short white jacket and a cloth to invest in their appearance the sobriety. reflect the culture and lifestyle of the ethnic communities. Saipi -khup. Children. namely. covers themselves in a loingarment. topped off by a Choli. This headdress is a coronal. and even Nepalis. garments suitably shield them. seen on the hide of snakes . This long as well as broad cloth is draped around the waist and reaches the knee. so as to ward off the biting cold in winter season. The infants are normally kept undressed. with tussocks of contrasting red wool. the Garhwalis and the Kumaoni. which falls down to the knees. the upper edges of these quills are studded with the green feathers of the parrot`s wings. to serve as a skirt or petticoat. Moreover. although in winter and monsoon season. imitated from the patterns. the simplicity yet attractiveness of the traditional costume of Tripura . such as Thangang.. Ghagri. This cloth. the female costume. The Garhwals residing in the Garhwal hills of Uttaranchal follow a costume-pattern suitable to the climatic conditions of the place they belong to. a cloth covering the head and the front portion. many Punjabis.. as being more management-friendly. further embellished with porcupine quills .. Ponmongvom. and Khamtang. The graceful Uttarakhand is adjacent to the neighbouring states of Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh. an Indian blouse and an Orni. Every woman wear a dark blue cotton fabric . Bengalis. They bore several names. and conceals the entire chest-region of the body. the younger generation of girls prioritize blouses over Risa. these clothes were previously the prerogative of the women of the aristocrat background. from neighbouring Tibet. envelop themselves in a greater size of clothpiece . In the mirthful times of revelry. The earlier costumes of the Kuki-Chin women had deigns. The .prefer wearing shirts and pants. the wearing of Risa during wedding is mandatory. Women folk also are found to use some kind of headdresses while at work outside. have settled in the state. Costumes of Uttarakhand. is attributed to the artistic fervor and weaving-talent of the natives. like those from the chief`s family and other noble-blood. usually fastened to the waist. wrapped around the waist. Indeed. a dignified headgear. is held firmly by a corset of brass wire or string. decorated at their tips .
Ethnicity and tradition has very well been maneuvered to be at par with convenience. called Nath. or the Lungi. akin to Ghaghra LehengaCholi . a black beaded necklace is worn by the married woman. mainly sleeveless in form. A luxury ornament item is Hansuli. a part of their traditional costume. Both women and men wear sweaters or woolen jackets in winter. Some of the ethnic groups. and in silver. or poor. The traditional male costume of Uttaranchal is the loin-cloth Dhoti. drape themselves in mantle-like clothing. and an enormous gold ring. to serve as the upper-attire. Kurta -Pajamas are another good alternative for men of Uttarakhand. by the less affluent. The men love to present themselves with headgear. signifying warmth and cordiality and red. preferred in gold by the rich. Muslin textiles.traditional bridal costume of the Kumaoni is Ghaghra-Pichora. called Sarong. The hallmarks of Kumaoni woman are sindoor smeared on the forehead. Chareu. a kind of necklace. girdled by a waistband and completed with a top-blouse. . The Uttaranchal man dons himself in Kurta. Further. specially muslin veils or Rangwalis are assets of Uttaranchal costume designing. symbolic of the holy bond of marriage. or turban. when it comes to considering the costumes of Uttarakhand. used as the lower-garment. But women also go for sarees. is a holy accessory for Garhwali married woman. endowed with gold and silver tatting. Pichora is a Kumaoni veil or Rangwali. They come in auspicious hues of yellow.
the Bengali women usually resort to the traditional Banarasi sarees in shades of red coupled with a golden veil to cover their heads. women had to cover their heads with the ends of their saree or "pallu" as a mark of respect for the family elders. the dhoti is worn by the men as regular attire. though. the apparels of West Bengal display fine works of creativity and sophistication. the saree is wrapped around the waist and the remaining portion is swathed over the shoulder. In the rural areas. Dhotis are lengthy pieces of fabric spun in cotton or silk worn by the Hindus. designs and motifs to the assimilation of western attires and styles within the Bengalis` cultural domain. The dhoti is tied at the waist and wrapped around like a loin cloth passing in between the legs. It is suitably matched by a panjabi. The panjabis are loosely fitted garments. While western attire has overtaken the dhoti`s popularity as regular wear. such conventions have subsided slowly with the passage of time. They are worn with immense dignity and perfection particularly during Social occasions and festivals. sarees are primarily woven in cotton and silk. At present. dhotis were prevalent only in white though at present coloured dhotis are also in vogue. reaching close to the knees and are available in a wide variety of colours. the combination of dhoti and panjabi is an irreplaceable ingredient during traditional festivals and occasions like the Durga Puja and wedding ceremonies. However. the traditional dhoti and panjabi have lost much of their appeal and the `pyajamas` are in vogue. Previously. In West Bengal. For the men in West Bengal. Over the years.Costumes of West Bengal. In Bengal. the traditional garment is the "dhoti" and the "panjabi". also made of silk or cotton. Indian sarees can be draped in various ways. blouses are available in multitudes of fashionable patterns which when teamed with a saree does wonders to the attire. During wedding ceremonies however. In the olden days. The traditional weavers or "tantis" of West Bengal are reputed worldwide because of the quality of fabric spun and their elaborate thread work.. worn atop. The salwar kameez dupatta is nowadays in the same way popular among the Bengali women as the sarees. From the use of traditional fabrics.. "Salwars" are loosely fitted trousers worn with a "kameez" or long tunic. These sarees have been named chiefly after their weaving techniques. In . Sarees are worn over petticoats or long skirts tied at the waist with cords which help in keeping the saree tightly fastened about the waist. It is also wound around the waist and is often plaid. Ornamented with glittering stones and detailed thread work.. The "lungi" is another variation of the dhotis worn by men in West Bengal. The exquisite beauty of a saree is further enhanced when it is accessorised suitably with a blouse. sarees are characteristic of the refined Bengali woman of today. mirror the state`s multi-ethnic way of life. The graceful icon of elegance that symbolises the quintessential Bengali woman is the saree.
. the rural community of Shantipur is well-known for the better quality of "Shantipuri Jamdani" sarees that display delicate thread work. Birbhum. for instance. at present it is concentrated mostly in the districts of Birbhum. Nadia. Body art or tattoos are quite popular among them as well as the Mahli tribesmen of West Bengal. the cultivation of mulberry was common in almost every corner of Bengal. In the district of Nadia. Some of the most prevalent motifs used in these sarees are lamp and lotus imageries. Initially.the various districts of West Bengal like Murshidabad. It is available in brighter shades and is characterised by extended wide borders. Bengal silk is famous for its sophisticated quality and texture. Silver and gold along with alloys of zinc and precious stones are mostly used for jewellery production. These quilts were to serve as covers during the winter. However. The kantha embroidery is a supreme work of art and requires utmost concentration and meticulousness. The Baluchari sarees are noted for their elaborate designing in the pallu and borders with prominent motifs of a specific kind known as "kalka". Earlier. it referred to the needlework done on coloured patchwork coverlets put together from redundant apparels. Bankura andHooghly. West Bengal is also home to plenty of tribes who display enormous variety with reference to their costumes. However. This variant of Jamdani is affordably priced and hence used commonly by the women in West Bengal. cover their heads with a special form of headgear commonly referred to as "goungpoung" during the festive season. now the kantha stitch has been incorporated for use on designing clothing garments like sarees and has gained immense popularity. Murshidabad and Malda. These motifs are woven with silver zari and often display tales from the Indian Puranas. Malda. which are variants of the Baluchari and are woven in silk. It is interesting to note that the Dhaniakhali Jamdani gained popularity due to their utilisation in dhotis for men. They are available in a variety of colours and are favoured by the modern Bengali woman because of its light texture. This is accompanied by the "prakha angyi" which is a fitted coat wrapped over the shirt. West Bengal is well -known for its delicate and fine thread work known as "kantha". While traditional designs are still in vogue. The kalka motif can be observed in the "Garad" and "Korial" sarees as well. The costumes of West Bengal are suitably accessorised by delicately designed jewellery which is indigenous to its rich culture. The men of the Magh tribe. The Tangail sarees are characterised by their use of diverse colour patterns which produce a novel effect called "meenakari". The town of Baluchar located in Murshidabad is famed for the incredible threadwork on silk called "Baluchari". Apart from these traditional handlooms. Jamdani sarees of West Bengal are extremely popular. different varieties of sarees are woven with supreme efficiency and dedication. The districts of West Bengal are also home to the very prevalent "Tangail" sarees. often referred to as "maatha" or "beluaari paar". Another variation of the Jamdani saree is the "Dhaniakhali Jamdani".
. Gold chokers decorated with gems and diamonds are commonly worn by the women of West Bengal in social ceremonies. mind-blowing colours. Hence. make the saree assume an enchanting look. In weddings. smooth silks. Patola Sarees. dazzle the eye with the rich texture. Kora Silks.recent trends dictate a preference towards lighter accessories. and fabulous designs. Therefore.. different civilisations have left their mark upon the culture of West Bengal which finds its manifestation in the varied costumes and accessories of the people of the State. the lustrous zari and the rich silk. The Kanchipuram Silk Saree is a hand-woven creation. its reasonable costs make it more affordable for the ordinary people and. Bengaluru and Mysore are the epicenters of silk-industries in South India. With the progress of the passage of time. Yet. Crepe Silk Sarees. sleek chiffons. Sarees with this impressive variety is thus the traditional costume of Karnataka. The saris are woven in a blue cotton yarn together with a silk yarn in other multiple shades. The technique of Kanchipuram-making calls for Sarees the conjunction of three threads to concertedly make the silk thread used for weaving. Pure Jari is a silk thread. Indeed. The silk yarn is dyed to bring the desired colour and afterwards Jari is interleaved into the yarn. The Kanjeevaram or Kanchipurram silks. is apt as costume for office or workplace. The women also embellish themselves with a variety of bangles and bracelets like the "mantasha" and also the "ratanchur". consist of regal silk sarees. The Kornadu sarees are fascinating in their fusion-display of cotton and silk. Arani Silks. The Jari adds the element of shimmer in the yarn. attribute to the profound popularity of the sari as the favorite costume. of Kanchipuram in Karnataka. These sarees are less expensive than the queen of silks. women adorn their foreheads with a thin string of small gold chain often strewn with pearls and precious stones. A supreme example here would be the "dokra" artworks. Over the years. such cross-cultural influences have by no means demeaned the worth of the traditional attires. intertwined with a thin silver wire and then gilded with pure gold. and gorgeous brocades. Kanchipuram silks. mostly. Valkalams. Among the other popular items. still give them the elegance. but also establish its sway in other parts of the country and in foreign nations. the super quality thread and the interweaving of gold threads in exclusive creations. deserve mention. This is the "tikli". It has abundant variety. The tribal jewellery of West Bengal has also achieved immense popularity because of its exclusivity. The marvelous shine. which happen to be the traditional costumes of this place. The magnificent mantle. namely. Mysore silk. These saris not only decorate women in the state. a shift towards western trends has been noticed. Karnataka silk has a wide spectrum. they are searching for. The Mysore crepe silk. Costumes of Karnataka. exclusive Designer Mysore Silk Sarees. and Raw Silk saris can satisfy the aesthetically aware population of Karnataka. Chiffon Sarees. the outstanding Kanchipuram sarees usually turn out to be the bridal costume of Karnataka.. Karnataka is the silk hub of the country. These sarees are used as daily comfort wears. . The motifs in the sarees are varied and the body of the sari either bestowed with checks or stripes. This gives the sari a durable quality.
In recent times. while going to office. which isDhoti-like apparel. This costume is worn every day and in the festive seasons people wear the same but with an ornamental `kara` or a border which is either copper coated. When it comes to considering the office costume of Karnataka men. At the time of the celebration of the famous festival of Onam. and easier maintenance. It is used for regular wear and tear and also as traditional costume. suitable for working environs. Recent technological improvement rather has set the textile industry of Karnataka on a boom. The women also wear `sari` (a five to six meter long cloth which is embroidered with golden border) and jacket. only the rustic men of Karnataka stick to Panche. The `neriyathu` is the name of the upper garment which is put over the blouse having one of its ends inserted in the mundu and the other long end worn over the front torso. are mostly seen dressed in offwhite and white attires. women take on a special type of blouse. But surprisingly enough. Mysore Peta is the traditional headdress for Karnataka.. or Karnataka handloom`s cotton salwar or saree. evidence the innate simplicity of the lifestyle of the Malayali people. The people from `God`s own country`. both men and women. is very comfortable to wear in the summer season. The cloth is creamy or white in colour and possesses a coloured strip called border or `kara`. These saris are dyed in spectacular colours after the completion of the weaving. women belonging to different age groups wear it and participate in the folk . When Bangalore reigns as the Silicon Valley of India. This hand-woven cloth made of cotton. has not declined. without having the privilege of many options. The Ilkal and the Mokalmuru sarees stand as the ethnic motif of Karnataka. This state has established an ideal example of blending present priorities with tradition.` The conventional piece is the `mundu` which is the lower garment and it consists of two cloth pieces. by a fashionconscious Karnataka lady. It is supple opaque crepe silk complemented with Jari margins. the demand for the traditional costume of Karnataka. Both the `neriyathu` and `mundu` is stiffened and then worn with a blouse matching the border or Kara`s colour. but is on the rise with the passage of time. The `mundu` is worn around the hips and beneath t he navel. Over the `mundu`. Costumes of Kerala. or even Western jeans and trousers.more because of its light-weight. golden or artificial colored with temple or peacock design.. The colour of the blouse is decided by the marital status and age of the women. the `mundu` is folded up in multiple folds and this part is hung at the back. men might dress themselves in ornate versions of their traditional costume. especially those of women. on special occasions. However. This is worn in a diagonal way.. Today`s girls might wear Mysore crepe salwars. Unmarried young Keralite girls take on green blouse whereas the married ones wear red blouse. For them. as their everyday costume. it is evident that women and men will also adhere to the formal office wear. The traditional form of dress worn by the Keralites is Mundu and Neriyathu (a piece of white cloth having borders of golden zari symbolising royalty) for both men and women. Karnataka presents before the world its harmonisation of modernity and tradition. The magic wand of technology has cast its spell on Karnataka.. The women of Kerala wear mundu in this way except for the women of Christian origin. or T-shirts or trousers. from the right hips to the left shoulder looking like a sari. the Panche. The principal dress which the people of Kerala wear is largely traditional in nature. to achieve the best of costumes. they wear formal shirts. covering the navel. Costume Worn By Women of Kerala The traditional garment worn by the women of Kerala is the `mundum neriyathum.
Many men wear no garment above the waist. like the mundu. it has become an old fashion and is mostly worn by the old women of the state. the dress codes of the Keralites have changed considerably. The traditional wear of the Hindu men residing in the state of Kerala is Kasavu Mundu. more particularly in the northern and central regions of Kerala. take on a long dark black or blue garment along with purdah and also cover up their abundant and long hair with beautiful kerchief. But while moving out of their house. Costume Worn By Men of Kerala The men are more conservative than the women. This attire is a piece of cloth made of cotton. one may wear fine rather than coarse cotton. Lungy or Kaily acts as an informal dress for Keralite men. which is tucked at the waist and reaches to the ankle. which was once universal for both sexes. but their wealthier compatriots make simplicity a cult. Nowadays. except for the small westernized minority who have gone over to bush shirt and cotton slacks. . Daily wear of the people of Kerala The daily use garments for the people of Kerala are saris and churidar or salwar-kameez for women and for men. are always washed to a dazzling whiteness. unless. and if they consider themselves modern they wear shirts which. In keeping with the old tradition of Kerala they wear white. but one does not wear silk. trousers and shirts. This dress is very much popular in the rural or remote areas. these men take on a shirt and mundu as well as a neriyathu over their shoulder and apply a paste of sandal on their chest and brows which provides them a much dignified appearance and a royal look. so that among Malayalis one rarely sees the ostentation which in northern India is almost regarded as a duty of the rich. Their main garment is the long cloth called mundu. The Muslim style of wearing mundu is somewhat dissimilar to that of the Christian and Hindu Keralites.dance known as `Kaikotti Kali Dance`. he kilts it to the knees. The people of this state have accepted the northern mode of dressing with men wearing trousers and tea-shirts which is a comfortable item for travel and their female counterparts have accepted the churidhar of north Indian style. With continuous change in designing and fashion. The `mundum neriyathum` was the traditional costume of the people of Kerala. giving its wearer a peculiar mincing walk. The Keralite Muslims wear the same but they just wear an additional cap over their head. but those who belong to the higher castes at least drape a towel like cloth over the shoulders. The women belonging to the Muslim community in Kerala. This garb is worn by men of all religions and all classes. But today. it is being taken over by the `set-sari` which has become the dress of the Keralite women as a quasi `mundum neriyathum` and today as the `Kerala sari`. Nowadays. The western type of dressing is also well-known among the generation of the young. The local traditions set a value on eating sparingly and doing without elaborate furniture. to stride more freely. three to four meter long having a silk border. The traditional form of dressing is reserved for special occassions and the women and men of today`s Kerala are seen wearing a range of dresses. they are mostly seen attired in sari and blouse. The poor people of Kerala live simply from necessity.
with much of the ground cloth exposed.. baggy pants which are tied at the waist. It may be noted here that the state of Punjab is well known for the use of phulkari in its costumes. After adolescence. so that the base cloth was not visible at all. During winters they can be seen wearing bright colourful sweaters. but is now worn almost everywhere. Accessories worn by Punjabi Women Punjabi women can be seen bedecked in gold. Skirt and other form of western outfits are worn by the women of Punjab today. a special kind of phulkari known as "bagh" (garden) was made in which the whole of the ground was covered with embroidery. comfort and beauty. are indicative of the bright and vibrant culture and lifestyle of the people. The pyjamas are loose. The women can also be seen wearing shawls adorned with the beautiful phulkari shawls. Sikh women and men are seen wearing the kada. and almost certainly after marriage. Jeans. Salwar kameez`s and duppattas come in a variety of colors and designs. Phulkaris were made for everyday wear. rings. It is a kind of flower work embroidery done most often on shawls. However it may be mentioned here that this trend is rapidly changing and women can be seen wearing a variety of western wear. Some men also wear the kurta with the loongi or tehmat. The Sikhs among the Punjabis can be distinctly identified by their attire as they are obliged by religion to wear turbans known as `puggs`. Jackets. Trousers. earrings. nose-pins. comfortable and convenient dress worn by the women of Punjab is the churidar kurta. at all times. A duppatta is a piece of colorful cloth that women wear around their necks. The costumes are a mix of colour. They adorn themselves with necklaces. This was traditionally the dress worn in Punjab. anklets and ornaments to pin up the hair with. a steel bangle. A salwar kameez has two pieces of clothes. These shawls are worn over a tight -fitting choli and ghagra. In earlier days. The kurta is a kind of loose shirt which is long and straight-cut. Punjabi girls and women also wear salwar kameez`s with bright colored duppattas. (pants) or bottom piece. For ceremonial purposes.Costumes of Punjab. Costume worn by Punjabi Men The traditional costume of the men of Punjab comprises a kurta pyjama. Punjabi girls and women wear salwar kameez`s with bright colored duppattas. toe-rings.the kameez. Usually the border and field of the shawl were not so densely embroidered. Phulkari forms the traditional costume of rural women of this region. bangles.. or shirt or top piece.. particularly among the younger generations. The shawl is completely covered in thick silk embroidery and folk motifs done in jewel-tones on an ochre background. . which is a kind of sarong. women are expected to wear traditional Indian clothing. and the salwar. Some of the boys and even the brown up men can be seen wearing loose pants or slacks with a collared shirt or t-shirt. Costume worn by Punjabi Women A popular.
called juttis are extremely popular with men in both the rural and urban areas. especially in the rural areas.Traditional Punjabi shoes. For the purposes of formal wear. . Punjabi men can be seen wearing shirts and trousers. The modern urban Punjabi men have also adopted the western style of dressing and are equally at ease in a pair of jeans and t-shirt as they are in the loongi and kurta. They are extremely comfortable and also look very elegant. Thus the costumes of Punjab can be best seen in all their beauty and resplendent colours in the state of Punjab.
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