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UNIT 1.......Introduction to origin n function of clothing
Origin of Clothes... Clothing and textiles have been enormously important throughout human history²so have their materials, production tools and techniques, cultural influences, and social significance. In ancient times, there were no textile industries or clothing stores. Fur, leather, grass or leaves were believed to be some of the earliest materials that made up clothes. These materials were tied around the body, dr aped or wrapped . Evidently, this first fashion trend had a lot of success, since it is trendy still to this day, with some obvious differences of course. The first actual textile, as opposed to skins sewn together, was probably felt. Surviving examples of Nålebinding, another early textile method, date from 6500 BC. Textiles, defined as felt or spun fibres made into yarn and subsequently netted, looped, knit or woven to make fabrics, appeared in the Middle East during the late stone age. From ancient times to the present day, methods of textile production have continually evolved, and the choices of textiles available have influenced how people carried their possessions, clothed themselves, and decorated their surroundings. Sources available for the study of the history of clothing and textiles include material remains discovered via archaeology; representation of textiles and their manufacture in art; and documents concerning the manufacture, acquisition, use, and trade of fabrics, tools, and finished garments . Archeologists and anthropologists debate on the exact date of the origins of clothing since clothes made from fur, leather, leaves and grass deteriorate rapidly compared to other materials. In Kostensi, Russia, prehistoric sewing needles made of bones and ivory were identified as from 30,000 BC. There was also a discovery of dyed flax fibers in a prehistoric cave in the R epublic of Georgia that is believed to be 36,000 years old. The inhabitants of the Indus Valley Civilization used cotton for clothing as early as the 5th millennium BC ± 4th millennium BC. Cotton has been spun, woven, and dyed since prehistoric times. It clothed the people of ancient India, Egypt, and China. Hundreds of years before the Christian era cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, and their use spread to the Mediterranean countries.
Looms appeared seven thousand years ago, and knitted fabric began to be produced during the Middle Ages. Natural elements such as silk, wool and cotton were very important until the 19th century. Synthetic fibers appeared in the last decades. With the coming of the great industrial production, clothes, in a high percentage, were no longer hand-made products.Since the end of the 20th century, there was a massive interest towards clothes made with artificial fibers, and this was mostly due to the fact that women started working outdoors, and no longer had time to home tailoring or to devote time to garments that needed special care. At this point we can mention the birth of different garments that are current in use to this day: 1. The shirt was created by the Greeks in the 5th century and it was, for a long time, today it is associated with elegance and respectability. 2. The blouse dates from the 15th century, when women started using a type of tight blouse with a belt. For centuries, it was the garment of peasant women, and then it was replaced by a lighter one that matched feminine suits. In 1913, low-cut blouses appeared, and were known as "pneumonia shirts. 3. The skirt was at first made of fur, 600,000 years ago. Since then, and until now, women never abandoned it. In 1915, skirts began to expose the ankles, and the great revolution took place in 1965 with the miniskirt. 4. Trousers (pantalones in Spanish). Four thousand years ago, men from nomad tribes of Central Europe wore a type of loos e trousers tied up to the waist. But it was in 1830 when trousers developed as we know them nowadays. In 1860, jeans were created by Levi Strauss, a German that immigrated to San Francisco during the gold fever. 5. Rompers appeared by the mid 20th century, This garment allowed changing diapers without undressing the baby. It had great acceptance, later becoming a very popular clothing item. 6. Unisex clothing appeared in the forties and enjoyed great popularity among young people. Every garment we or others wear has a history of its own, and that the effort and creativity of others allow us, through their work, to enjoy all those things that make our lives better and more comfortable. Functions of clothing 1. The primary function of clothing is the covering of the body as protection against the elements. In cold regions, it is to keep the body warm. In warm regions, clothes serve as protection from sunburn or wind damage. Early humans may have saved the skins of the animals they hunted and used them as clothes to keep warm or gathered leaves and grass to cover their bodies.
2. The social aspect of the wearing of clothes is another function. Clothing is used to serve as class distinction. In American Indian tribes, their chief or leader wore elaborate headgear. In Ancien t Rome, the wearing garments dyed with Syrian Purple were limited to senators. 3. Another function of clothing is the maintenance of decency. In the Bible, Adam and Eve covered their bodies when they realized that they were naked after eating the fruit from the forbidden tree. In some Islamic countries, women were required to cover the whole of their bodies except the face. In most societies, it is indecent for men and women to mingle with others without wearing clothes. With more relaxed standards in modern times, this function is being undermined as some clothes tend to be provocative that the distinction of decency is becoming blurred. 4. Another use for clothing is for uniforms for occupations, affiliations, etc. Judges and magistrate wear robes in courts. The members of team sports wear identical jerseys to distinguish themselves from other teams. Even in the military, each unit (army, navy, air force) have their distinct uniforms. 5. Self-expression is another function of clothes. In general, wearing clothes with the color of black is a sign of mourning. Also, modern times have seen the influence of fashion to pop culture. Elaborate and artistic pieces of clothing for every occasions and moods are almost always available to most. 6. Decoration seems to satisfy a fundamental human need. Other animals groom themselves, but only human beings have ornamented themselves. Although in some societies people have worn little or no clothing, so far as we know, people have decorated their bodies in some way in all societies throughout history. 7. Modern scholars believe that clothing provides a mark of identity and a means of nonverbal communication. In traditional societies, clothing functions almost as a language that can indicate a person's age, gender, marital status, place of origin, religion, social status, or occupation.clothing can still provide considerable information about the wearer, including individual personality, economic standing, even the nature of events attended by the wearer. 8. A society's economic structure and its culture, or traditions and way of life, also influence the clothing that its people wear. In many societies, religious laws regulated personal behavior and permitted only members of an elite class to wear certain prestigious items of clothing 9. Clothing with a designer label tends to be relatively expensive, so it may function as an outward sign of a person's economic standing. 10. Clothing also derives meaning from the environment in which it is worn. In most cultures brides and grooms as well as wedding guests wear special clothes to celebrate the occasion of a marriage. The clothing
Egypt. The waist is bare and a very scanty skirt is worn. and dyed since prehistoric times. The figure of a man at Harappa might be wearing a close-clinging dhoti. Certain types of recreation.worn for rituals such as weddings. Beards were trimmed in various styles. This difference can indicate to which group a teen belongs Indus valley civilization. Some show the hair woven into a bun after the hair being plaited. and hockey players wear matching jerseys and pants designed to accommodate such accessories as protective pads. Jewellery made of stones. . The inhabitants of the Indus Valley Civilization used cotton for clothing as early as the 5th millennium BC ± 4th millennium BC. Cotton has been spun. The male figures are generally seen to be nude.. Within a single high school.. may require specialized clothing. for example. and funerals tends to be formal and governed by unwritten rules that members of the society agree upon. Some other figurines show the hair coiled in a ring on the top of the head and in similar rings concealing the ears. As a result. gold and silver have been unearthed. football. This civilization also grew cotton and was probably the first people to make clothes from cotton. different clothing subcultures exist. For instance. and China. Footwear as such was not found. one wears his hair parted in the middle and the short locks at the back of the head are which are kept tidy by a woven fillet. The dress on the clay figurine can be considered as the normal attire of the female of the time. soccer. People seem to have been fond of jewellery and hair -dressing. The costumes have been revealed from unearthed figurines. Clothing may also signal participation in leisure activities. Men had varied styles of hair dressing. A tight collar that gives an appearance of greater length to the neck is worn by a few of the figurines. It clothed the people of ancient India. especially active sports. Head-dresses are used which are made of stiffened cotton cloth. Most modern societies comprise different social groups. teenagers known as jocks are likely to wear different styles of clothing than teens called nerds. One figure wears a cloak which is wrapped around the upper part of the body. woven. Probably a rob with or without embroidery was worn over the left shoulder and under the right arm. and each group has its own beliefs and behaviors. graduations. The skirt is held by a girdle that is made of beads or of bands of woven material secured by a pin or fastening of some kind. For example. Costumes of this Civilization have been considered as the basis for Indian clothes.
pectorals. The southern Indians wore much less than in the colder north. Men also had a choice in their clothing though not as varied as the women. Sometimes a choli would be worn with this. People also enjoyed lavi sh embroidery and embellishments. similar for both men and women. which was usually another length of fabric. jadeite. chalcedony. pottery. The basic costume of ancient society was a length of cloth wrapped ar ound the lower part of the body. nepheline -sodalite. wrapped around the head. The age of the Aryans are termed as the Vedic Period. vitreous paste. quartz. The popularly known urban civilisation of Indus Valley collapsed due to several features including various foreign invasions. heliotrope. turquoise. Gold being the preferred. . cones. necklace. onyx. Cotton and wool were the most abundant. and a loose fitting garment for the upper body. the Indus and Harappan culture ruined. but men of the north wore a fitted upper garment. bangles and hair-pins. Northern women adopted a fitted upper garment to be worn under the loose fitting one. Amazon stone. The first being a skirt type garment (dhoti). Historians view that with the coming of the Aryans. plasma. faience. Male headdress was also a lengt h of fabric. called a Turban. Due to the large area of India many differences in clothing emerged. shell. Clothing was made from resources found in each region. Women in the south rarely wore a upper garment. beads. serpentine and haematite were used . Women in Vedic society wore a variety of garments. A headdress was also worn.anklets. nose-rings.Vedic civilisation followed the Indus Valley civilisation. mainly due to climate differences. with a blouse (choli) and scarf. copperand bronze. This could be left as a skirt or brought through the legs and made into a pants type garment. The Adivasi is a length of fabric tied around the waist with no upper garment worn. Men usually wore a Dhoti. bracelets. ear rings. Vedic Civilisation in India. silver. tachylite. though there was also an abundance of silver and precious gems Clothing was for the most part. agate.. which is a length of fabric wound around the body with the loose end (pallu) thrown over the shoulder.Metal ornaments were made of gold. The last garment was worn mainly by tribal women. which is a length of fabric wrapped around the waist. mainly by the men. Stones like lapis lazuli. The ornaments used are girdles.. Women sometimes wore the turban also. finger-rings. Second is a sari. Men of the south rarely wore shirts. electrum. carnelian. Vedic Civilisation in India has been one of the most primitive forms of civilisation .
The fibers were separated. aprons and sashes. It was washed in the river or canal. but there were workshops run by noblemen or other men of means. were sometimes worn by priests and by pharaohs in their role as first servants of the god. The Egyptian climate with its hot summers and mild winters favoured light clothing made from plant fibers. others with . predominantly linen and in Roman times occasionally cotton. kilts. and seldom by Egyptians proper..If the stems were too ripe. above all leopard skins.. scarves.The weaving was done on a loom. the byssus for royalty.The spinner attached the fibers to the spindle.Costumes of world Egyptian Clothing materials.Flax was pulled out of the ground.. head-dresses. But the cloth was often hemmed to prevent fraying. which had to be stitched on such as sleeves or shoulder straps.. It was generally done at home. People who were buried in mastabas or pyramids would not be satisfied with anything less than the best quality linen As the sewing of clothes was very labour intensive and the art of tailoring to fit in its infancy±the tightly fitting dresses which the without exception incredibly shapely women are displayed in notwithstanding±many garments consisted simply of a rectangular pieces of cloth draped around the body and held together by a belt. The most important textile was linen.. The seams used were generally simple or lap-over. All clothes were almost always made of linen which is made from flax Flax: a plant having small leaves. they were used for mats and rope. and loose white woollen cloaks over these.A loom is a frame made of two beams held by four pegs in the ground. called "calasiris". overcast stitch.The fibers were twisted into strong thread..This backbreaking work was done mostly by men. to the coarse cloth peasants wore.. not cut.Linen clothes needed to be repleated every time they were washed. some of them with fine linen linings. Production.UNIT 2. then pounded on a stone. Animal skins. an import from India . blue flowers and stems about two feet tall.To do so they pressed the linen into grooves on a wooden board and let it dry.Flax stems were soaked for several days. Such outfits were found in Tutankhamen's tomb and were depicted quite frequently on the walls of tombs.Then the fibers were beaten until soft. bleached in the sun. The manufacture of clothes was apparently mostly women's work. shirts. gauntlets and gloves. Wool was used to a lesser extent]. caps. rinsed. though run-and-fell and overcast seams were also known.Half-ripe flax stems made the best thread. At times kings and queens wore decorative ceremonial clothing adorned with feathers. They wear tunics made of linen with fringes hanging about the legs. Small amounts of silk were traded to the eastern Mediterranean and traces of silk have been found in Egyptian tombs . and twisted chain stitch Articles of dress.. Tutankhamen's tomb yielded many pieces of clothing: tunics. At times garments had parts. socks. and. with either simple. or rolled and whipped hems. the quality ranging from the finest woven linen.White linen needed constant washing. The number of different stitch types was also limited: running stitch.
and wore wraps and cloaks in winter when temperatures might fall below 10°C. They were sewn from a rectangular piece of cloth twice the desired garment length. The cloth was wrapped round the body and held in place by a belt. a dress with straps for women. While the top could reach anywhere from below the breast up to the neck. if they were working in the water. nothing at all. which was then folded in half. These basic garments with minor variations accounting for fashion. Men or women wore long see-through robes that were pleated. Working women mostly dressed in a short kind of kalasiris. Men doing physical labour wore a loin cloth. The gods had to be dressed as well. although dyed cloth was not unknown. Some had short sleeves. where the god's statue was.The usual toilet articles were tweezers. when it was often supplemented with a sleeveless shirt or a long robe. They did wear gold jewelry and the most transparent clothes. Its colour was generally whitish. After washing. at parties servants and slave girls wore little more than skimpy panties and jewellery. though the cloth of choice was always linen.Better-off people wore wide clothes of white cloth. An opening for the head was cut at the centre of the cloth. they rubbed themselves with scented oil then they placed a large rectangle of linen over their heads. gathered the loose corners up and tied them in a knot below the chest. The clothes were generally made of linen and kept simple: a short loincloth resembling a kilt for men. Children usually ran around nude during the summer months. the bottom hem generally touched the calves or even the ankles. wide galabiyeh-like robes or. The length of the the kilts varied.separate index and middle fingers and a hole for the thumb. being short during the the Old Kingdom and reaching the calf in the Middle Kingdom. If we are to believe the depictions. Nesuhor. Women did not dress without washing (rich people had a tiled area for washing). razor and comb. Very little sewing was done.. Material and cut varied over the centuries. . Clothes were expensive and in the hot Egyptian climate people often wore as little as possible.Wealthy people did not wear more jewelry or fancier clothes to show wealth. in contrast to the colourful clothes foreigners wore in Egyptian depictions. Underwear in the form of a triangular loincloth was also found. others were sleeveless. This was the duty of a small number of priests allowed to enter the holiest of holies. and a crown±most of their subjects had to make do with much less. took care that the tem ple of Khnum had all the servants necessary to serve the needs of the god: Fashion. The fit might be very tight or quite loose. The lower parts of the sides were stitched together leaving openings for the arms. They were often worn with a belt which held together the folds of cloth. commander of the fortress at Elephantine under Apries.The robes worn by both sexes in Egypt were called kalasiris by Herodotus. The kalasiris women wore might cover one or both shoulders or be worn with shoulder straps.. though one may assume that the reason for this undress was not a lack of funds. If royals had a garment for every body part and for any occasion the so-called kilt.
Women's dresses were at times ornamented with beads. Thus these successive bundles were bound together edge to edge. and sometimes decorative gloves as well. Make up.The red cheek powder was called ochre. Sandals seem to have had an importance which mostly escapes us nowadays..At parties women wore a cone of scented fat on their heads that slowly melted making their heads smell nice Headdresses.They mixed powdered minerals with oil to get colors. A small bundle of rush was wound round by a rush thread. but generally they were depicted barefoot. were all used. which at every turn pierced through the edge of a previous bundle. and usually soled with leather.They used a dye called henna to redden their nails and hair.The pharaohs are always represented wearing crowns. to retain the sole on the foot ..The sandals were made of palm fiber or braided papyrus. The shoes seem to have been just originating at that period... symbolizing prosperity and authority. of three or four thicknesses Roman . then ordinary Egyptians did not wear any headdress as a rule.Eyes were rimmed.They wore rings.The jewelry was made of gold or colorful beads. the upper leather being stitched on merely as a covering without its being intended to hold the shoe on the foot. and joining to the sides of the heel. They wore a new wig each day (both men and women wore wigs).Wigs were made from human hair or wool. This was edged round in the same way.Papyrus: tall water plant that grows in the Nile Valley. People usually went barefoot and carried their sandals. wearing them only when needed. The rush sandals soled with leather. The kings wore at times very elaborately decorated sandals. with great neatness. on which the king would tread with every step and another pair which was fastened with buttons. leather sandals alone. but all of them have the leather sandal strap between the toes.. These soles are compound. Sandals were very closely and beautifully stitched up of rush. and leather shoes. They covered the breasts most of the time. Whether you were rich or poor you wore jewelry. and a flat surface built up. Both men and women made up their eyes and lips. though there were periods when fashion left them bare. Footwear. If depictions are anything to go by.Necklaces were made with turquoise and lapis lazuli stones. eyebrows were painted and lashes were darkened with a black powder called kohl. as were the gods Sandals made of gold have been found which cannot have been very comfortable to their wearers if they were worn at all.. There were sandals made of wood with depictions of enemies on their soles. two orthree examples are known. necklaces and ear studs.They wore curled wigs for special occasions.Ear studs: earrings. In basket making exactly the same principle was followed. but whether this is a pictorial convention or whether they did so in every day life can not be decided.
. then later a simple tunic was added. Cold weather would likely see Romans wear two or three tunics to keep warm. The next layer would be the intusium orsupparus. some reaching to the ground.Roman clothing owed much to that of ancient Greece. A purple stripe worn on the tunic was called a clavus and indicated membership to a particular order:. but their fellow Romans understood them somewhat eccentric. the dalmatica. could not appear in public wearing a toga.. If in the early days the toga was worn directly on the naked body.The needles of the day were coarse and unwieldy by modern standards.the latus clavus (or laticlavium) denoted senators..There were some old families with ancient ancestry who insisted on continuing the tradition of dressing without a tunic. in many cases replaced the toga altogether in the later years of empire. due to the influence of Germanic soldiers dominating the ranks of the army. but it had distinct forms of its own.. functioning as a vest. Basically the toga was a large blanket. long. was known to wear as many as four tunics in winter. In the very same age. The richest form of the long-sleeved tunic. The Tunic. The most basic garment in Roman clothing was the tunic (tunica). In that case the tunics nearest the body. Foreigners. whereas women¶s tunics would generally be longer. close-fitting trousers were widely worn The toga. first and foremost clothes needed to be simple. Female tunics often also had long sleeves. tied at the waist with a belt. it took until the second or third century AD for long sleeves to become acceptable for men.. or even exiled citizens. The toga was allowed to be worn only by free Roman citizens. draped over the body.the angustus clavus was the mark of the equestrian order So a senator could wear a tunic featuring a vertical broad purple stripe down the centre. As for possible materials there was only really one.In all the ancient world. Hence any stitching or sewing was kept to a minimum.Through experiments historians have concluded that the vast blanket took the form of a semi circle.There was some formal differences in tunics which denoted social rank. who was of a rather frail constitution. although to some extent linen was also available. Until then it was perceived as highly effeminate to be wearing one. leaving one arm free. For most Romans and slaves the tunic would be the entire clothing they dressed in before setting foot outdoors. would be the subucula. Wool. It was along the straight edge the purple stripe of a senator's toga praetexta ran. . The male tunic would generally reach roughly to the knees. It was the standard dress of Rome. An equestrian could wear a tunic featuring two vertical narrow purple stripes on either side of the tunic. Emperor Augustus. However.
It is perhaps easiest to describe the palla as a draped cloak similar to the toga. li ke the dress of men. If could have long or short sleeves. the garment oddly shared its name with that of the senators. the toga praetexta.So it could range from a large garment which draped around the body to something no more significant than a scarf.Usually the toga spanned between 2 ½ and 3 meters long (though apparently up to 5 ½ metres long in some cases) and at its widest point it will have been up to 2 metres wide... On formally becoming a man. the tunica interior It was often the case that the stola therefore was shorter than the under tunic in order to show the layers of garment (which invariably was a display of wealth and status). In their case.In some cases lead weights were sewn into the hem to help keep the garment in place.There seems to have been no specific size or shape that specified a palla. toga pura or toga libera. slaves were known to place pieces of wood in the folds the previous evening. the young Roman would then dispense with the toga praetexta and instead wear the simple. It was essentially a long tunic reaching to the ground. albeit smaller and much less unwieldy. In order to help the toga drape more gracefully. How to dress in a toga Women¶s dress. or be entirely sleeveless. The stola was generally worn over another long tunic.Another display of wealth could be a wide ornamental border (instita) on the lower hem of either the under tunic or the stola. white toga of the Roman citizen. It is worth mentioning that the white colour of the toga was prescribed by law. usually around his 16th birthday. then didn¶t appear to stay so for long. . Fewer restrictions by laws.The basic female garment was the stola. known as the toga virilis. If initially is believed to have been largely white. The rich ha d the luxury of choice of what kind of wool they sought to wear. Boys of reasonably wealthy families already would be expected to wear the toga. The toga was made of wool. customs and traditions existed on the dress of women. Female clothes instead being of almost any colour.
crepidae or sandalia) were generally regarded as indoor footwear. usually around the age of sixteen. Roman footwear showed little distinction between male and female.Children wore an amulet called the bulla. . Cloaks and other over garments were used to protect against bad weather. It is fair to assume that children.Silk clothing was available to the rich. During the third century BC many barbers from the Greek parts of Sicily moved to Rome and opened shops. but more often replacing it If various kinds of cloaks are known by name. Childrens. Cloaks. at times worn over the toga itself.. It was only with the introduction of the fashion of shaving during the age of Alexander. Beards and Hairstyles. Girls would wear it until they married. It was a soft leather shoe. belted tunics. which were also meant for indoor use There were of course other types of footwear. Footwear. generally speaking a cross between a shoe and a sandal Sandals (soleae. It was as improper to be seen in public wearing sandals outdoors as it was to visit your host's banquet in anything other..It finally took a firm hold in Rome in about the third century BC. as for men it was deemed utterly effeminate until the late empire... where he would change into them. it is today quite hard to discern where the precise differences between these garments are to be found as little more than their name is known. The pero was a simple piece of leather wrapped around the foot. The Romans though until 300 BC remained pretty much ungroomed.. One usually wore sandals tied round the ankle with thin strips of leatherThere were three main types of footwear:The calcei were the standard outdoor footwear for a Roman and formed part of the national dress with thetoga. Hence a wealthy Roman would have a slave accompany him to a banquet. but was solely used for female vestments... worn only by poor peasants and slaves..The third general type of footwear was a pair of slippers (socci). The pallium was worn over the tunic or the toga. A variety are known. The tradition of intricately groomed beards was quite common among the Romans.. Boys would wear it until reaching their manhood.. hence possibly an outdoor vestment of the wealthy. especially those not borne to rich families spent their time in simple. This seems possibly to have been quite a colourful decorated item. to carry his sandals. when the courtiers of the 4th century dressed in elaborately embroidered silk robes. the caliga was the hob-nailed military boot/sandal and the sculponea was a wooden clog.
Already as early as the second century BC caustic soap made of tallow and ashes was imported from Gaul to dye ladies hair a reddish-yellow colour. Greek Although we think of Greece today as a relatively small country in the east of Europe. One common factor of the styles of all early clothes is that they are made from uncomplicated basic shapes which rely on girdles.. The fashion history of ancient Greece has been carefully illustrated on vases. as well as additional hair pieces to be added to create such a mass of hair. Especially in the late republic it was seen as very fashionable for young men to keep a small. or coiled it into a knot a the top of the head. The general tradition of clean shaven Romans remained As for Roman men's hairstyles. pinned and tucked into position as shown here. Young women simply gathered their hair into a bun at the back of the neck. At first. pots and in statue form. falling to the face in an abundance of ringlets. clasp or pins to create shape and form around the human body. . though some priestesses still retained its use. philosophies and writings left behind by the Greeks and the resultant archaeological finds from old ruins have created a good source of Greek era material and especially of costume. The ideas. whilst being pampered for hours at the barbers. Pictorial evidence has enabled us to have a very clear idea of Ancient Greek dress. It was a country of eminent thinkers and put Greece at the forefront of civilized thought and argument. wigs. One of the styles used largely at court had the hair arranged in several layers.Under Marcus Aurelius the fashion for shaving one's head clean was introduced. Manners and costume also helped create a Greek culture that gave additional structure to one of the greatest civilisations the earth has seen.Of course Rome was not completely immune to the whims of fashion..Married women's hairstyles were more complicated. it was at one time the 'it' place of its day.Grecian clothes were little more than artfully arranged pieces of cloth.Hair pieces. well-groomed beard (barbula).Such fashion in hairstyle required the services of an expert female hairdresser who also doubled as make up artist (ornatrix). Grecian Clothing.These two images above are representations of ancient Greek dresses. Some very vain ones might have had their hair curled with curling irons. hair lotions and dyes were all known to the Romans. they tended all to keep their hair cut short.Consequently Greece has influenced every other nation that has risen to power since. belts and brooches. the women of early Rome wore their hair in Etruscan fashion. keeping all of it tied up tightly with ribbons on the very crown of the head (tutulus). whilst early Christians tended to have their hair and beards cut short. Though this strange arrangement disappeared very soon.
plus 12 inches. they wore it in much the same two shoulder pinned manner as the woman show right. wore a short knee length Greek chiton although there were times when they wore it long .Cloth was so valuable it was not cut in earlier eras. In early times the Doric chiton was made from fabric which was the height of the wearer. which was made of linen and even silk. The Doric chiton was made from wool .. Men mostly for everyday clothing. In time they evolved into the Ionic chiton... The fabric was folded as shown in the chiton pattern picture shown right. Doric Chiton. The width was that of the full open arm span. but in later times the chiton was constructed from two pieces of cloth.. Both men and women wore the tunic or Greek chiton and it was simply an arrangement of folded and wrapped fabric as shown above and left. A is pinned to A and B is pinned to B.Their elegance is derived from the careful arrangement of folds and complex arrangements of girdles. strapping or belts. Simple borders fall into interesting patterns when arranged as a long chiton robe. A Greek Chiton.Embroidered patterns such as checks and floral forms were used to embellish the fabric edges to create border effects. The earlier Greek Doric Chiton above was made of wool and simply folded around the body. The most famous Greek pattern is the Greek key/fret pattern shown here. Or.Men frequently pinned their chiton on the left shoulder leaving a bare right shoulder. The open sides are wrapped around each other and a girdle tied at the waistline with the loose fabric of C at the same level. Women wore a floor length dress called a Greek chiton. . The gap between B and the side fold will drape when in fabric and become the second armhole.
relaxed. Rustic dress was a more relaxed shorter version like these Grecian folk shown left. but as the society became more sophisticated they traded for silk goods and it was not so much fashion styles that set individuals apart as the differentiation by the luxury that silk fabrics offered. the result was that it hung in fine pleats of diaphanous crepon. the fine pleated look of the Ionic chiton.. short Greek chiton was better suited to working in the fields and tendering to the livestock. Some fabrics were patterned. blue or green. Delicate muslin was also used. The loose. .The female cloak is called a Greek peplos and was worn over their chiton. Chlamys or Himation. The name for this particular short cloak mostly worn as a short military cloak by young men or horsemen was a Greekchlamys. this was called a GreekHimation. purple. The Ancient Greek cloak was a simple rectangle or square of cloth thrown around the shoulders and fastened mostly with a bronze pin. Colours for Ancient Greek clothing were not just white or natural as was first thought. The Ionic Chiton attracted more accessories from the Greek fashion forward of those days.. As a result. Rustic Greek Dresses.With better materials came more sophistication. for example to create sleeves.Men wore white or beige.. The Ancient Greek Cloak... and more scope for the Greek fashion elite of the day. in particular they added brooches to confer wealth and status. Initially Greeks used wool and linen fabrics.. In colder weather the larger cloak was worn.From a costume history concept of fashion repeating itself.The different arrangements of fabric created a variety of styles like these two shown above. While paint had worn away from statue evidence.The advantage of using linen to make the Ionic chiton was that it was much more flexible. red.Ionic Chiton. Ionic chitons used more material and were fitted with fibulae on the shoulders. The Ionic chiton was made from linen or silk. further investigation showed the women of ancient Greece wearing several colours such as yellow.
. The higher the rank the better the dress armour and shield was crafted.Greek male battle dress shares a similarity with Roman battle dress. crimping and waving of female hair as well as decoration with pins. tiaras and bands is well illustrated in Greek imagery and is shown left.Greek light infantrymen wore double felt or leather tunics and leather greaves. the more protective it became. . When making costumes for fancy dress parties always remember the golden rule of getting the hair and feet as near as the style worn to match a costume. Courtesans wore gilded sandals.. Only boys and women had long hair and men cut their hair once they became youths. (but no visor) enabling the soldier to push back the face cover when at ease. One characteristic of the Greek helmet was that it almost totally enclosed the head and sometime had moveable sides. cone headdress and tiaras. Popular styles involved tying the hair up with a fabric scarf. Helmets and leg protection called greaves added more skin coverage The metal battle dress itself was valuable since it had to be crafted by skilled metalworkers. Over the centuries hair dressing was important to create various complex updo hairstyles. Ancient Greeks mostly went barefoot although some wealthy people did wear sandals.Plaiting. .Hairstyles for Women. silver hair pins.. Some of the decorative metal elements paid homage to favourite Gods the Greeks thought would take care of them in battle and in the after life. All wore the Chlamys in battle (see above) as a cloak or as a left arm wrap for battle blows protection. Greek warriors of battle wore tunics of leather with metal plaque reinforcements. Young girls used fresh flowers and ribbons. and possibly. adding ribbons or garlands when a young woman or wearing a 'Stephanie' metal head dress . Horsehair crests made the helmet an impressive sight. Women used gold. Greek Battle Dress.
Clothing in Japan now is very much as per the seasons as is the case all over the world. which is a part of Chinese clothing. Chinese fashion trends gained popularity amongst the Japanese. All robes in Japan were to be worn from left to right just like the Chinese. The Japanese traditional clothing can be seen in many forms and interesting patterns which have evolved over the years. Over the years. Colors. Here¶s a look at some of the various forms of Japanese traditional clothing. During the 8th century. Bright colors can be seen in the spring season and fall colors can be witnessed in the autumn season.. Zori was footwear made of softer materials like straw and fabric with a flat sole. tabi is still worn. Weaving is still unknown and the ancient Japanese clothing from fur. Kimono. Japanese traditional clothing can be seen in many varieties.Japanese fashion trends have evolved over the years.. Since the Japanese people don¶t wear footwear inside their homes. Ancient Japan readily adopted other cultures and practices and most of its own culture is lost among these adaptations. with differences in color. one could see visible changes in the . The kimono turned into a stylish version during Japan¶s Heian period. It also remains to be the national costume of Japan. China influenced clothing in Japan while it was developing from a collection of loose clans to an Empire. These are split ±toe socks woven out of non-stretch materials with thick soles. Clogs have been worn for centuries in ancient Japan and were known as Geta. Formal Japanese clothing can be very elaborate in their design or simple and elegant as well.. These were made of wood with two straps and were unisexual. culture and footwear are slowly regaining their popularity with the western world.Japan Ancient Japanese clothes. The bizarre to the really creative designs can be found out here. Some of these are worn even today. Ancient Japanese clothing was mostly unisex.Japanese ancient clothing was majorly influenced by China. Right to left was considered barbaric in China and the µleft over right¶ became the conventional rule of wearing a Kimono ever since. Some of the earliest designs of the kimono were hugely influenced by the Hanfu. ancient Japanese clothing consisted of a piece of clothing. The Japanese kimono and the yukata remain to be the most popular kinds. combinations and fabric textures changed and separated themselves from Chinese influence. The word Kimono actually referred to all types of clothing. "First of all. length and sleeves.
The yukata is also a part of Japanese traditional clothing and can be considered to be a casual version of the kimono. The j nihitoe can also be considered as one of the most expensive. which are a representation of certain virtues.. men as well as women wear the hakama but in the earlier days. unmarried women wear a specific style of the kimono.. People generally wear the yukata after bathing and this is a common sight to see in traditional Japanese inns. The tabi are actually traditional Japanese socks. These being garments that are meant to cool the body are made in fabrics like cotton. (Between the big toe and the rest of the toes) The jika-tabi are often worn by workmen because they are made of a stronger material. the hakama was worn only by men.... The zori formed a major part of Japanese traditional clothing. This type of Japanese traditional clothing consists of a wide pleated skirt.. The men and women¶s hakama are also found in many varieties today. J nihitoe.designs of the kimono. A hakama has around 7 pleats. As per the Japanese tradition. These are known to hold a lot of importance for the samurai. the hakama was worn by the samurai so that the opponent would not be able to see the footwork. Uwangi. The uwangi consists of a jacket that is almost on similar lines as the kimono. This is an elegant garment that is considered to be a prized possession today. The tabi is generally ankle high and has a separation between the toe areas. This is worn with the hakama.. One can witness the uwangi as a part of the martial arts uniform. An obi belt is used to tie the uwangi ..... Zori.. Yukata. These are worn by men as well as women.This form of Japanese traditional clothing is always worn by women and particularly for special occasions. Footwear and socks Tabi. worn only the court ladies in Japan. Today. These were often worn with the . which is called the furisodei Hakama. In the ancient times. This traditional clothing came onto the scene around the 10th century.
The waragi was worn by all the common people in Japan in the olden days.. Sash Obi. today it is only the Buddhist monks who prefer to wear the waragi. For theatrical and re-enactment work there are clear distinctions in dress in every Victorian decade.... These have a high wooden base and are worn with Japanese traditional clothing such as the Kimono or even the yukata.kimono. but mass communications and mass production both improved so much that by 1901 the history of fashion was moving in a yearly cycle. The Early Victorian Silhouette 1837-56.Movements like the Rational Dress Reform Society and the Aesthetic Dress Movement highlight positive and negative reactions to industrial and technical applications happening in Victorian society. The zori are open sandals that can be described as slip ons.. One can see the obi also worn with martial arts uniform. The obi was worn with many types of Japanese traditional clothing such as the kimono.This is an overview of fashion history of the early Victorian era and can be read in line with other related topics.. Costumes and fashion of different eras Early Victorian Costume and Fashion History 1837-1860 Early Victorian Fashion Overview.. In terms of Victorian fashion history this also brought changes in women's position and dress. when the Japanese wore the waragi. one can see many styles of the zori being used with modern fashion.. Illustrations of Victorian clothes of the last 20 years of the C19 th can be dated to within a year or two. The colors of the obi denote the rank of the individual. The obi is a kind of as sash that is used by men as well as women.A waragi is also a kind of footwear that is worn in different ways by different people. Today. the toes would extend over the front edge of the sandal.. Great hats had given a flirtatious air to clothes and their replacement by bonnets changed the whole character of day .Queen Victoria reigned from 1837 to 1901 and was succeeded by her 60 year old son Edward the Prince of Wales.The look of demure prim gentility was emphasized by the loss of the great hats in 1835 for bonnets. As per tradition..The geta can be described as our regular flip-flops. Bustles and S Bends Corsets would help those new to costume to understand the subtle changes in dress and hairstyles and how to spot the changes from a fashion history point of view... Geta. it can conceal several other sashes that are worn beneath this sash. Dating Victorian Costume. At the start of the Victorian era most fashions lasted about a decade.Where to Look for Fashion Details... Obi also remains to be the outermost sash worn by the Japanese. Waragi. Much fuller details of petticoats styles are given in Crinolines and Bustles. Looking at the section on Crinolines. Victorians .
The early Victorian tight fitting pointed bodice was much longer and had a very small tight fitting waist. Sometimes the bertha neckline was trimmed over with a 3 to 6 inch deep lace flounce or the bodice neckline was draped with several horizontal bands of fabric pleats. As bell shaped skirts of the 1830s became wider and they began to also look dome shaped. The wider skirts were supported by stiffened fabrics like linen which used horsehair in the weave. The boning also helped stop the bodice from horizontal creasing. Evening dresses totally exposed a woman's shoulders in a style called the 'bertha'. In 1836 Gigot sleeves collapsed abruptly and so costume began to develop the sentimental 'early Victorian look' we associate with Queen Victoria's early rule.Typical .Right . 'Crin' is French for horsehair so the word crinoline suggesting a crin lining was used for any garment area that was stiffened to give shaped foundation. A Victorian woman could also emphasize modesty by wearing freshly laundered detachable white collars and false undersleeves called engageantes. crinolines. Prim sentimentality was emphasized by the popular ringlet hairstyle. By 1842 they needed a great deal of support from extra petticoats.dresses. The limited range of arm movements increased the appearance of demure vulnerability and helplessness we so often associate with Victorian femme fatales. but after 1846 flat pleating the fabric gave more overall hemline width. extra flounces were added in the early 1840s to evening dresses and by 1845. To make the skirts appear wider. This meant that an early Victorian woman's arm movements were restricted. flounces and short overskirts were a regular feature of day dresses. c1838 By 1840 the collapsed sleeve was much narrower.Right .The early sentimental Victorian look often used to depict ladies of the era. Cartridge pleats were used at first to draw up the skirt fabric in 1841. All the boned bodice seam lines and trims were directional to emphasize the small waists. Strip hem linings and a sleeve head are just two examples where crin was used.Slimmer fitting sleeves of plainer. By 1845 the boned bodice was even more elongated into a V shape and the shoulder sleeve seam line drooped even more. The cut of the low shoulder line filled in to the neckline by day followed through to evening dresses. Left . more streamlined early Victorian dresses of 1838. Because the new version was larger it acted as an outer wrap and when folded in half and draped over the shoulders would reach almost to ground level in some cases. Lavishly trimmed bonnets stayed in fashion for half a century and weren't worn much after 1890. Later by 1850 the word crinoline began to mean the whole of the beehive shaped skirt. It was then only another step to call the later artificial or cage hooped support frame petticoats after 1856. Softer more demure plain colours and small delicate dimity patterns helped to add a neat ladylike quality to gowns. Both were often made of delicate whitework and gave an air of refinement and daintiness. After being absent for a decade the cashmere shawl was brought back into fashion about 1840. but still retained a restrictive seam line on the dropped shoulder.
with a closed décolletage for day and a décolleté one for evening. Petticoats were always cut following the line of the top garment. Using a separate bodice to skirts meant that a tighter waist could be achieved.Right . but it could be unstable in gusts of wind. sleeves were like large bells too and sometimes had open splits allowing for lavish decorative sleeve hemlines and detachable false undersleeves called engageantes. Engageantes were often made from fine lace.domed appearance of petticoat supported Victorian crinoline dress and child's confirmation dress of 1851. . linen.. Six petticoats at least were needed to hold the wide skirts out. although a top petticoat give a softer foundation for the dress skirt.. Amelia Bloomer denounced the style that needed so many petticoats. suggesting a bifurcated garment as a solution.false detachable undersleeves.To balance the effect of the cage crinoline. Victorian working class women would never have revealed so much flesh. launder and re-stitch into position. All this exposure was restricted to the upper and middle classes. Freed from excess petticoat weight women began to gain a jaunty spring in their step. Within a few years the crinoline was improved when it became articulated and various modifications such as subtle flattening of the front created a less domed more pyramid effect by 1860. lawn. It freed women from excessive petticoat weight.Engageantes . Charles Worth was responsible for many interesting sleeve styles of the mid-Victorian era. Another American W . so it was fortunate that women had universally adopted the wearing of drawers some years before. Skirts among all classes began to look rounded. cambric or Broderie Anglaise and were easy to remove. like gigantic domed beehives and soon they reached maximum size. Lace bertha neckline 1856 very usual on early Victorian evening dress. The décolleté style meant that the shawl became an essential feature of dresses. This fashion for two piece costumes. It is these distinctively styled sleeves that help date the first softer polonaise bustle when looking at illustrations.S Thompson took out a patent on a cage frame in 1856 and then marketed a steel frame cage crinoline throughout Europe. It let women's legs move freely beneath. The cotton. S.. Engageantes. In the early Victorian years time corsets also lost their shoulder straps and a fashion for producing two bodices. The American Mrs.. Thompson. but known as a dress lasted until about 1908. flannel or wool petticoats used under one skirt could weigh as much as 14 pounds. Crinoline Cage Frame of 1856 Patented by W. so clothes were uncomfortably hot and heavy in summer.
Mid-Late Victorian Fashion and Costume History 1860-1901 The Mid Victorian Silhouette 1860-1880 Factors Affecting the Fashion Silhouette after 1860.Right . Older. softer bustled version.In 1866 the new Princess gown also changed the line of fashionable dress. Charles Worth thought the crinoline skirt unattractive. Many would mainly wear occupational dress or household serving uniform. froths of tulle and pleated gauze trims would have emphasised the innocence of virginal girls whilst signalling their availability on the marriage market. . It was thought good etiquette to dress according to one's position in society and that also meant not wearing clothes more suited to a younger woman. Until that time fashion details and changes were suggested by the customers. Such conspicuous waste and conspicuous consumption were hallmarks of Victorian high living. In 1858 he made a collection of clothes that were unsolicited designs. thirdly synthetic dyes would make available intense colours.. secondly clothes would in future become couture design led. Haute Couture during the Victorian period was an ideal foil for conspicuous consumption. The Princess gown was cut in one piece and consisted of a number of joined panels fitted and gored from shoulder to hem that gave the figure shape through seaming.. Firstly the sewing machine had been invented.. Silk flowers. crisp silks and plush velvet.. he is associated with it.. Worth In 1864 Worth designed an overskirt which could be lifted and buttoned up by tabs.Charles Worth Redefines Haute Couture in 1858. Fragile gauze dresses decorated with flowers and ribbons that were made for wealthy young women were only intended to be worn for one or two evenings and then cast aside as they soiled and crushed so easily. The New Princess Line 1866.We arrive at 1860 with four significant facts that were to seriously affect fashion of the future. as a result the shape soon changed to a new trained. which only the really rich found practical. He showed the clothes on live models and when people bought his original designs he became a leading fashion design couturier of the Victorian era. The House of Worth became a leader of ideas for the next 30 years.Fourthly in 1860 the crinoline domed skirt silhouette had a flattened front and began to show a dramatic leaning toward the garment back. This top skirt gave a lot of scope for added ornamentation and by 1868 it was being drawn and looped right up at the back creating drapery and fullness. married more senior women wore statelier fabrics like heavy satins.. as he did manipulate the style.Dress designed by Charles F.In 1857 the Englishman Charles Worth set up a Paris fashion house at 7 Rue de la Paix a then unfashionable Paris district. When researching fashion history it is important to remember that ordinary women were dressed in a much more subdued manner. However.
By 1878 the cuirasse bodice reached the thighs. By 1880 the two ideas merged and the whole of the dress was in Princess line style with shoulder to hem panels..Trains were very heavily ornamented with frills.After 1868 Worth's overskirt really caught on in England and contrasting underskirts and gown linings were all revealed as the over top skirt was divided or turned back.The soft polonaise style bustle styles were replaced by Princess sheath garments without a waist seam with bodice and skirt cut in one. The Soft Bustle Fashion Silhouette 1867-1875. The other main feature of the style change was the introduction of the cuirasse bodice which dipped front and back extending a little over the hips. No bustle was needed for the cuirasse bodice or Princess sheath dress.Right . draped and frilled train. braids and fringing. Rounder waistlines were fashionable and waistlines even began to rise very slightly On the left a tiered soft bustle ball gown of 1872. The Princess Line and the Cuirasse Bodice.By 1878.. The Princess line sheath had a bodice line similar to the very tight fitting cuirasse bodices which had been getting longer and longer. By 1878 the cuirasse bodices had reached the thighs. ball gowns always had a train. Soon by 1873 the train was seen in day dress. pleats. Other top skirts were called aprons and they were also draped making the wearer look like a piece of elaborate upholstery. The silhouette was slim and elongated even more by the train.The Gabriel Princess gown with a small neat white collar was mainly made in grey silk and followed the fuller skirt lines of the era. The cuirasse bodice was corset like and dipped even deeper both front and back extending well down the hips creating the look of a body encased in armour.Women in the Garden . Sleeves in day dresses were often of a banana shape. but a small pad would have helped any trained fabric to fall well. By 1880 the soft bustle styles of the 1870s had totally disappeared. From 1870. ruffles. By 1875 soft polonaise bustle styles were becoming so extreme that the soft fullness began to drop down the back of the garment and form itself into a tiered. Left . Left .. The Late Victorian Silhouette 1878-1901.Slim fitting trained dress with cuirasse bodice 1876. crinolines and cages suddenly disappeared evolving into tournures or bustles.The cuirasse . This is the dress style often used to depict the constrained buttoned up repressed governess character of Jane Eyre in films.. The sewing machine instead of simplifying sewing.. Later Princess styles were slimmer and much more form fitting. women of the late Victorian era have a very different look about them compared to earlier Victorian women.Right . The bustles supported accentuated drapes on the hips.Apron style tablier top layer half skirt over bustle. just became a tool to add more ostentation..By 1867 with the fullness bunched up to the back of the skirt creating a polonaise style.
The pointed bodice began to look quite tailored..The second hard bustle style 1883.Left . The sleeves look like quite a different style than on the bustle dress of the 1870s which had sleeves that would not have looked out of place on dresses of 1860. bright apple green. The slimline style needed good dressmaking skills to get a flattering fit. sea green were used alone. mandarin. but all too often swathes of fabric were wrapped and arranged across the garment in an effort to disguise poor dressmaking skills. shoulder padded clothes. Victorian Fashion History . The new bustle dress had a different look. In 1887 the sleeves were still slimmer. Tailored garments had been introduced in 1874 and their influence on design was subtle. As a fashion it barely lasted 3 years..sThe gowns of the 1880s were almost always made in two colours of material. What drapery there was. Some dresses also had a more severe air about them. For support the spring pivoted metal band Langtry bustle gave the correct foundation for the wider skirts. peacock blue.Tailor made suit of 1895. in combination. Bright Aniline Dyed Colour. but led eventually to the tailor made suit so fashionable in the 1890s.It's interesting to note how late Victorian women embraced the sharper tailored jacket fashion which gave them a difference with a more confident air reflecting the ideals of early female emancipation. The New Hard Bustle of 1883. A similar broad shoulder trend occurred in the Utility Clothing era of the 1940s when women did work usually thought of as men's work.Suddenly out of nowhere in 1883 a new jutting out shelf like style of bustle appeared. Soon even that disappeared.. royal blue. It made an exceptionally form fitting draped sheath dress which was elongated even further by the train. Vivid colours such as deep red. purple. This later bustle fashion was very moulded to the body and the heavy corsetry gave an armour like rigidity to the silhouette. Right . Right Dress of 1889 showing signs of elevation at the sleeve head. It had been shown in Paris in 1880. It was not a very practical garment and only really suited to the very slim and those who did not have to work. was tidily arranged at the front of the dress as a small apron..bodice of 1880 reached the hem actually becoming the princess panel dress. When done well it was attractive. with a much flatter front. It had minimal drapery compared to the former and a slimmer more fitted severely tailored princess bodice. . There are similarities in the period 1885 with 1985 when women also showed their strength in the corporate workplace with Power Dressingthrough more masculine tailored.Power Dressing. but as a fashion took off later outside of Paris. It reappeared even larger than ever as a hard shape that gave women a silhouette like the hind legs of a horse as shown in the page heading. or in tartan fabrics..By 1889 silhouette changes now couturier led were changing more rapidly and the sleeve developed a very slight leg of mutton outline which soon needed support.. plain and close fitting.
The Silhouette after 1890The bustle disappeared from day dresses and the new day skirt style was flared smoothly over the hips from a handspan waist and then gradually widened at the hemline. It was an epoch of beautiful clothes and the peak of luxury living for a select few .. In retrospect we can see it is an era very separate from the 20th century despite belonging at its start. people who were in mourning still followed court guidelines on mourning dress.Evening gown with train 1890.The leg of mutton sleeves continued to develop and sprouted high above the shoulders. La Belle Époque 1895-1914 Edwardian Fashion History What is La Belle Époque?Aspects of Edwardian fashion history are examined in the sections on the Society Hostess.. The size of the sleeves was highlighted by the comparison of the tiny sashed or belted waist against the simple gored skirt that flared out all round to balance the massive sleeve heads. Leg of Mutton Sleeves. Together they set the tone for society and fashion in the last decade of the century in the 1890s and into their own reign of the Edwardian era from 1901 to 1910.By 1895 the leg of mutton sleeves swelled to gigantic proportions and were also used on décolleté evening dresses. By 1895 the sleeves swelled into enormous puffs similar to those of 1833. The real royal influence in fashion was the wife of the Prince of Wales.Some colour combinations were very strange. but clothes before then are more in tune with the elaborate clothes of 1770 and would only be seen today at a costumed event or as bridal wear. The masses started to reject the concept of privilege as the reason for a better life.Gradually the skirt widened and flared as the fullness of the bustle began to fall into pleats down the garment back eventually disappearing to nothing.. Here we give a general overview of the main popular styles in the period 18901914 by which time fashion moved in a yearly cycle. At night ladies evening dresses were in softer hues and although they were extravagantl y trimmed in contrast fabrics and very décolleté. As before the bustle foundation softened until only a small pad was left by 1893. whilst keeping the waist tight and handspan narrow. they followed the general line of fashion. As happened in 1830 to balance the huge shoulders the skirt widened and flared. 1890s. Queen Victoria's influence over fashion was long gone.the very rich and the very privileged through birth.Hostess beauties of the . The armour like hour glass figure soon developed into the S-Bend shape corset which set the Edwardian Corsetry silhouette until 1907-8.The French called the era from 1895 to 1914 La Belle Époque. Princess Alexandra.. The attitudes and lifestyles of two decades were swept away by war and because the war was so atrocious a new socialism and sense of personal identity was born. Clothes worn after 1915 could probably be worn today in certain circumstances. The Edwardian Seamstress and Edwardian Corsetry. Left .
. Looser less fitted versions of a simple suit had been available for informal wear since 1850.. appliqué.The fashionable hour glass silhouette belonged to the mature woman of ample curves and full bosom. more commercial workplace found it a useful all purpose outfit. The corset was too tightly laced at the waist and so forced the hips back and the . Women entering a changing.The Gibson Girl. Middle and upper class women wore them with shirtwaist blouses. Tailor mades were always described as ideal for travelling. For twenty years between 1890 and 1910 he satirised society with his image of 'The New Woman' who was competitive. Another Gibson look was a shirt collar worn with either a tie. Describing female clothes as masculine was intended to be derogatory.... Initially only the jacket was tailored and it was worn with a draped bustle skirt. Men objected to the tailor made female suit as they saw it representing a challenge to their authority. right . The Edwardian Silhouette 1900-1907..The tailor made was called a costume or a suit and made of wool or serge. sporty and emancipated as well as beautiful.Her clothes were fashionable in both America and Britain and set a fashion for skirts worn with embroidered blouses. fine embroidery. Lighter cloths were used in tailor made outfits suitable for weddings and heavier tweeds and rougher serge used for everyday or country wear suits. In the 1890s the tailored suit was thought both masculine and unladylike. By the 1890s and until 1910 the gored skirt also looked more tailored and matched the jacket style which followed the changing silhouette of the time..Right .This particular image was a cartoon character drawn by the American artist Charles Dana Gibson. The S-bend health corset described fully in the section on Edwardian Corsetry set the line for fashion conscious women until 1905... The Gibson Girl. Women seemed to be making a clear statement that they deserved and wanted more independence in the future. Within a decade they became much more versatile with a distinction being made between the cloths used.Grace Palotta Tailor Made Ready to Wear Costumes. floppy artist bow..1890s.Fashion history clearly shows that by 1900 tailored suits were firmly established. pleats and lace trim to get good effects. Edwardian tailored suits ideal for travel.. tie neck cravat with stick pin bar brooch or crosscut ruffle jabot.The pink tailor made shown left here has a short bolero effect jacket. Blouses are detailed in the section on the Edwardian Seamstress.Beautiful embellished ornate blouses took on a new importance and were worn by every class. insertions of lace. But the tailored suit as we know it was first introduced in the 1880s by the Houses of Redfern and Creed. Home dressmakers did their best to emulate the fussy couture blouses and they used fine pin tucks. Left .Mary Moore. The second green jacket is a longer line jacket that continued in popularity. a description usually used for a fairly plain garment. faggoting. but became straighter and less waisted toward the end of the Edwardian era.
The straight sleeves of the late 1890s developed into bloused effects gathered into wrist bands. square and round décolleté necklines allowed women to wear quantities of fine jewellery. Little wire or boning supports covered with buttonhole silk were sometimes dispersed every few inches of the collar to maintain the rigid effect. cascades of lace and ultra feminine clothes were available as labour was plentiful and sweated. Feet showed again.During this time it was still usual to make dresses in two pieces. The corset almost reaching the knees was intended to make the figure look slimmer. No cleavage was visible as the bust was suppressed into a monobosom.Above Left . A top bodice was usually mounted onto a lightly boned under bodice lining which fastened up with hooks and eyes very snugly. Right . but America had dress fasteners as early as 1901 ...The S-Bend Silhouette. Between 1906 an 1909 the silhouette began to show gradual changes and skirts lost fullness and the silhouette straightened... simply flowing to more width at the hemline. pouches of cascading lace or gathered fabric gave emphasis to the low bust line.If you were wealthy like an Edwardian society hostess. but by night exceptionally low sweetheart..The waistline was raised until it was a column like empire line orDirectoire after the styles designed by fashion designer Paul Poiret.By 1905 press fasteners were used in Britain to hold the bodice or blouse to a skirt. The S-Bend corset and pouter pigeon effect. Very deep high lace fabric collars that reached right under the chin elongated the neck. Poiret's ideas were controversial and were directed at younger women. The high collar.High neck blouse 1906. Modified versions were less extreme over the hips.The skirts were often gored and created an elongated trumpet bell shape like the gently opening head of a longiflorum lily. Theywere often kept in place with wire covered in silk that was twisted into a series of hooks and eyes from one piece of wire. . It acted as a stay garment giving extra stability. The bodice was heavily boned and was almost like a mini corset itself worn over the S-bend corset. contour and directional shape beneath the delicate top fabric.drooping monobosom was thrust forward in a pouter pigeon effect creating an S shape. trained skirt and lavish hat all had an effect on the posture of an Edwardian lady and it gave her a certain swaying grandeur. S bend corset.Right . High necks were usual by day. The Edwardian Silhouette 1908-1913.Bodice pouched Edwardian day dresses At the front of the bodice. So after 1907 fashion history looked toward a new fresh direction when a longer line corset became fashionable.
velvet and fur trim on the oversized muff... often change gradually. These are some drawings of hair styles circa 1900-1914. but small decorative delicate bags with a dainty strap that hung from the wrist were sometimes used. Right . Casaques and Mantelets. but gradually it was replaced by other outdoor items such as capes. Lavish trims such as feathers often stuck out well beyond the brim. Parasols. The fur skin of whole animals such as foxes and even two foxes were used as wraps about the shoulders.After the slimmer silhouette arrived.. The hats were named Merry Widow hats after the popular operetta of the era. Edwardian Small Accessories.... Each row shows how hats and hairstyles evolve during the Edwardian era .Parasols were still used as decorative accessories and in summer they dripped with lace and added to the overall fussy prettiness. Bags. moving slowly from one line to another.. Sketches of Edwardian Hair and Hat Fashions in Fashion History from 1899 1912.Martial and Armand Creation depicting the perfectly groomed directoire styled woman of 1912.Handbags were not fashionable in the era.Feathers were used excessively as decoration on hats and as boas.. Gloves.. Aesthetes objected to the use of animal products.Paletots.. hats developed much wider brims..Hairstyles like dress fashions.Washable kid gloves were always worn with outdoor garments both winter and summer.. Fancy gloves were also made in suede and silk and covered with fine embroidery. A Paletot was a short jacket with set in sleeves and the Mantelet was a kind of half shawl.. Note the incredible feather hat and lavish gold metal embroidery.Women wore the shawl for many years. Ladies carried little money as goods were charged to accounts and only minimal make up was usual so none was carried. Feathers. All the items had allowed for the cut of the bustles and pads of the era and the garments ranged from high hip to three quarter length. The Casaque was a deep close fitting basque jacket that buttoned to the neck. Incredible Edwardian Hats. wraps and jackets....
The grace-fullness of the elliptical curve which passed from hips to hem depended on the skirt length and the height of the wearer. To carry the 'S' figure well a woman needed a good carriage and height. with every aspect of the skirt presenting a concave curve.Trailing her obvious wealth behind her the hostess soon found herself the centre of criticism from medical men. They followed the same sinuous lines of art nouveau. The Edwardian Carriage Class.. The Cut of Edwardian Skirt Styles. During the next three years the 'eel skirt' and 'umbrella skirt'. Long trains were denounced as being unhygienic by the medical profession. Circular extensions cut from a circle or deep. They distorted their figures into the exaggerated S bend shape associated with the fashions of the era. Medical Criticism of Unhygienic Trained Skirts. advantages many a hostess possessed. being tight waisted and 'bell' shaped.The hostess achieved this stately movement as much by the restrictive nature of her clothes as by years of deportment and dancing lessons. the yoke being achieved by joining together two widths of fabric which reached the knee. Then a hole was cut in the centre to fit the required waist measurement. . The effect when she moved was very stately mainly because the sheer weight of many under-garments over the corsets restricted her movements.. Buxom ladies tortured their flesh to achieve the hour glass figure Edward VII favoured. The skirt had never before presented concave surfaces other than in the train section... Many skirts had trains which swept the ground. indicating that their owners belonged to the carriage class and could afford to employ servants to valet them. being better fed and ladylike in deportment. It is more than likely however..The Edwardian era was the last period when the mature female figure was every man's ideal.. Skirts were confining. It also favoured the wealthier woman. bias cut flounces were attached to the yoke and these additions tended to flow outwards from the body. The period 1897-1907 was the time of the 'flared skirt'.. Improved versions appeared during the 1900s and the flare became more and more effective with gored skirts having as many as fifteen gores.The S-Bend Figure. both cut on the cross and having an element of flare became fashionable.. This fashion favoured the taller woman. However from 1897 onwards the yoked skirt developed.
and other decorative embellishment as worn by society hostesses. which had appeared in England as early as 1875 lingered on until the 1920s. Right . During this period there was a good chance of romance and sexual intrigue.. Attired in her tea-gown. Exciting theatrical costume designs which broke the rules also paved the way for more relaxed dressing. although the less fortunate paid as little as five shillings and sixpence for a popular make that could swish equally loudly with movement. In the Edwardian era. the hostess must have been a tempting prospect for many men. fringed with lace which formed an enchanting foam around their ankles. Lace. This was all fast forwarded during the .In fashion history terms time never stands still. new influences and a changing society in a young century began to challenge the stiff formality that prevailed.Under their skirts leisured hostesses wore foundation underskirts. the initial break with the traditional styles stemmed from the inspiration drawn from the Aesthetic and Rational Dress Reform Movements of the late 19th century. High fashion was the sartorial art of high living.Between three p.. and it was generally believed that a mass of under -wear was hygienic. a soft flowing robe of filmy chiffon or fine silk. Little wonder then that whilst hemlines rose and fell the tea-gown.m.. Fashions favoured the mature woman and exploited the curves of an elaborately corseted figure amid the allure of tempestuous petticoats.. chiffon and frills were used as an instrument of sex appeal. A wealthy lady might have chosen one costing as much as fifty guineas.A sweeping dress of the early Edwardian era.m. It was in total contrast to the prevailing mood of dreamy pastels favoured by high society when hot tropical colours and a new silhouette was introduced. moiré and other luxury fabrics were advertised. Glamorous Edwardian Rustling Petticoats and Underwear.1914-1920 Dress Reform 1905-1915. With varying degrees of subtlety the hostess used dress to titillate the male imagination. husbands were expected to go out to tea whilst their wives played hostess to visitors both male and female.that they gradually disappeared because women found them uncomfortable to wear. ease of access and a tremendous sense of femininity.. trimmed with an abundance of lace and often free of corsetry.They wore many petticoats.. Such loose gowns afforded women great comfort.Oriental influences have been shown in fashion history in women's dress in other eras such as in the 1800s. No decent lady ever wore less than six petticoats. that rustled as they walked. made of beautiful taffetas or organdies. the mid 1920s and later in the 1970s and 1990s. and six p. In the years between 1905 and 1918 clothing styles emerged that were evolutionary in bridging the gap between the rigid formality of the Edwardian styles and the ultimate changes that led to the knee high dresses of 1926. Edwardian Tea Gowns..Right .. providing the visual symbolism that enabled others to place the hostess on a scale of status. In 1920s fashion history. Petticoats made of silk.' Sexual Titillation through Edwardian Lace. satin.Edwardian bodices blouses dripping with lace. Towards Dress Reform .
but it is the patented record that gives her the credit...Many women had begun to cut their hair when doing war work f or practical reasons. Everyone was affected by the death of a loved one and so subdued dresses were simply a matter of good taste showing patriotism. The effect of war on fashion styles was that military braiding. Dress rules for both sexes were relaxed in theatres and other venues. worn over a slimmer under skirt also made of the top skirt fabric.Right . But the double layered skirts as if to compensate for the length had a fuller top skirt often like a mini crinoline. Colouring the hair with Henna was popular as it was less risky than using the unreliable chemical dyes of the time. What is certain is that a bodice designed separately from the corset had become usual wear by 1905 and Mary Jacobs had the intelligence to patent a design for a bra. 1914 Underwear and the First Patented Bra. Barriers broken in this period laid the foundations for the more relaxed clothes of the 1920s. A compromise between long and short tresses was 'Curtain' hair and was favoured by the genteel.Bright colours faded from sight and only sober colours were worn as the war dragged on.. Waistlines were still quite high following the Directoire style. Hair. and it looked well with the oriental fashions. Clothes Styles During the First World War 1914-1918. a height never before reached. In 1915 the hemline rose dramatically to mid calf. belts with buckles and shorter skirts were seen everywhere. Women began to take part in voluntary philanthropic work which ultimately broadened their horizons and changed their outlook forever. Women stopped wearing jewellery and lavish clothes..All the changes that were forced on a rigid society were a direct result of the war. This era from 1905 to 1915 was particularly important in eroding attitudes to dress which had been stuck in the rigidity of the Victorian era for too long.The fashions of the era needed a new approach to under foundations. Such garments were often fur trimmed. We will never truly know. It is not thought to be the first bra ever.. Lucille and Vionnet all say they invented the bra as correct underwear for their new dress innovations and admonished clients to abandon their corsets. Fashion history shows that clothes got shorter during the First World War out of practical necessity. Cretan women had the idea long before and various BBs or Bust Bodices or improvers had been around in Britain and France since the Edwardian era and exist today in costume collections. As women mixed with other classes social barriers were eroded and the relaxed dress rules meant that they all began to look similar. . Worn with a band it could be dressed more prettily with a feather at night..Sketches of a restrictive hobble dress and the slightly later more liberating double skirted mid calf dress of 1916.. The first bra was patented in 1914 by Mary Jacobs an American. Several designers including Paul Poiret. By 1918 the fuller top skirt had gone and the calf length long skirt remained.war years and led to the major changes in construction of clothes and undergarments for the remainder of the century.
000 women were employed to make munitions. the Navy. When the war ended the same women simply did not want to return to being maids for other people. postal work. Left . They also served in the WAAC. National Standard Dress. The French called the flapper fashion style the 'garçonne'. Recorded fashion history images after the twenties do reflect what ordinary women really wore rather than just the clothing of the rich. wearing a working uniform of blouse and peg top trousers accessorised by scarves and fashion items. changed the role of women in a way that no amount of campaigning by a few liberated ladies could have achieved. Flappers did not truly emerge until 1926. It never took off! Lessons learned from this were used in the 1939-45 war when women were given ration coupons. C20th Fashion History .. The Flapper History. A fashionable flapper had short sleek hair. It was easier to produce up to date plain flapper fashions quickly using flapper fashion Butterick dress patterns. Amazingly after all their efforts only the jobs of bus conductresses remained open to them. Flapper fashion embraced all things and styles modern... It had no hooks and eyes but metal buckles and was supposed to be an all purpose garment that could be a dinner gown.The flapper fashion style flourished amid the middle classes negating differences between themselves and the truly rich..Socio economic changes that occurred during the First World War 1914-18 and became accepted.War poster. The really rich still continued to wear beautifully embellished silk garments .. By 1917 over 700.. wore make up and applied it in public. smoked with a long cigarette holder. but continuing to highlight some differences with the really poor. but had an element of choice in what they wore. But because construction of the flapper's dress was less complicated than earlier fashions. worked as chimney sweeps and nursed. women were much more successful at home dressmaking a flapper dress which was a straight shift. exposed her limbs and epitomised the spirit of a reckless rebel who danced the nights away in the Jazz Age. lamp lighting.. Women did farm work working as Land Girls. a shorter than average shapeless shift dress. day gown or nightdress.High fashion until the twenties had been for the richer women of society. Flapper Fashion 1920s. a chest as flat as a board. They drove trams and collected the fares. but the barriers were broken and soon a wider choice of options became usual. Attainable Fashion for All.Women and War WorkMany women gave up domestic service work and worked. the Red Cross and the Police began admitting women..In 1918 an attempt was made to introduce a utility garment as a National Standard Dress. They had gained a new freedom working outside of homes with set hours and a comradeship and respect that they relished. As a recognition of their efforts it was later replaced by a uniform of khaki overalls and caps..The costume history image in our minds of a woman of the 'Roaring Twenties' is actually likely to be the image of a flapper. 1914 -18 Changes for Women. did administrative tasks..
The Masculine Silhouette of 1920's Females.Gradually by degrees the skirt lengths on dresses gave the illusion of being first long and then shorter with dipping. each year seemed to get more severe in line which almost emphasised the feminine woman beneath. the shoulders became broader and hair shorter and shorter. The Short Skirt Misconception of the Twenties.Between 1920 and 1924 skirts remained calf length with fluctuations of an inch or two according to garment style. The whole leg as far as the kneecap was revealed this was the height of flapper fashion. Narrow boyish hips were preferred. .After the first world war (1914-18) when women's dress became more mannish. faltered then rose again. but were designed to confuse. Skirts only revealed the knee briefly between 1926 and 1928. This was the flapper fashion era. The bust was suppressed. Female clothes became looser and more shapeless in fit. scalloped and handkerchief hemlines in floating fabrics. The Elusive Hemline of the 1920s. and this was the only period when evening dresses were short in line with day dress lengths. Shortness is a popular misconception reinforced by the availability of moving film of the Charleston dance which shows very visible knees and legs on the dancing flappers.By 1929 uneven hems and asymmetric skirt hemlines again helped the transition to longer skirts.. but the length remains steady around the calf area.In 1918 skirt lengths were just below calf length. Longer sheer overskirts and semi sheer top skirts were worn over shorter linings.In 1919 skirt lengths were calf length. New students of costume history often mistakenly assume that all dresses day and evening were short in every year of the twenties and that flappers were the only fashion style of the twenties.. The silhouette emphasised a flattened chest and womanly curves were eliminated as the line became more simplified.. Dating the Twenties HemlineFrom 1913 the hemline had begun to show a little ankle. but the masses revelled in their new found sophistication of very fashionable flapper clothes.. Skirts were actually still rather long. Dress and coat lengths were actually calf length and quite long for most of the decade.. Here we can see examples of the most elusive hemline in fashion history in the 1920s. By 1930 the hemline was several inches below the knee.Between 1916 and 1929 hemlines rose steadily..for evening. By 1926 skirts were at their shortest in the Twenties decade and showed the knee until 1928. the waist disappeared. It was only in 1925 that skirts rose 14 to 16 inches (45 to 50 cm) from the ground making the shorter hemline we associate with the era.Calf length loose dresses circa 1918 compared with those of 1920 where the waist has shown a definite drop..
The fashion for wearing black stockings continued until 1918. ankles and calves formerly hidden and encased in black stocking were suddenly on show. but it adapted to changing needs.Underwear was minimal. It was a difficult time for the former matrons of Edwardian society. As long as they looked boyish they looked fashionable. a hundred years later go bare legged in Gladiator sandals or encase their feet in cosy Ugg Boots. The 1920's Bra ..Right 1920's modern underwear An Air of Nudity in Stockings and Bare Arms. More youthful women who could party all night and carry the boyish fashions well were all the rage.Between 1920 and 1928 corset sales declined by two thirds. the previous leaders of fashion whose style of dressing became as passé as their rounded figures and older faces. Some purchased bras were like camisoles and they offered no support. By the 1920s stockings with patterns were hot fashion items.Although the 1950s are thought of as the first time of the teenager and the 1960s as the era when the young first led fashion. but few ladies were seeking anything more than stopping the bust from wobbling. Girdles and Underwear... Names of . The arms were bared not only for evening. Twilfit and Symingtons were all making bras that did the job of separating the breasts. Health and beauty clubs helped women refine their silhouettes whilst getting fitter and healthier... Gossard. lined in net. Flesh and soft pastel colours were popular and they were made in either silk or artificial silk known as art silk later called rayon. Until the end of World War I she always wore black wool stockings..Big busted girls turned to bandaging their breasts flat. but also for day and the legs were covered in beige stockings visible to the knee which gave an overall more naked look than ever before. but many adopted the Symington Side Lacer.By the 1930s Triumph. Just as young women of today.The slender flat-chested tanned body and face of a 15 year old became the desired silhouette of the bright young things of the 1920s.For young ladies with youthful figures a satisfactory bra was the four sectioned lace bandeau bra. The rayon stockings were very shiny so girls powdered their legs to dull them before venturing out. Women wore cami-bockers (directoire knickers and chemise) or cami-knickers or knickers and a petticoat. Suspenders were attached to the girdles. Feet.The bras of the early 20s include home made ones in white cotton and which were little more than bust bodices with extra separation. a bra that could be laced at both sides and pulled and pulled in to flatten the chest. sheer and lightweight. the young and fashionable woman of the 1920s also paid attention to her legs and footwear. Maidenform. None of the bras gave much shape. there is no doubt that the possession of a youthful body was a prerequisite of twenties flapper fashion.The Flat Chest of the Twenties. Long Corsets produced the boyish figure. At the same time it was finally acknowledged that women had differing cup sizes and bra sales doubled with the new designs. Warner Brothers. Fast flappers refused to wear corsets and rolled their stockings to the knee to enable them to dance easily. Embroidery snaked around the ankles and up to the knees... but instead of thick boned corsets many women preferred thin elastic webbing Lastex girdles that flattened the abdomen. Spirella.
Short Hair.. since hair had always been thought a woman's crowning glory.. cream. Fashionable Twenties Coats and Outerwear. a rubber based thread was used in knee highs in bright colours. She promoted the styles we associate with flappers. but by the 1930s softer waved hairstyles were a refreshing change.Women wore cloche hats throughout the twenties. They all seemed to have one thing in common in that almost all illustrations of them show them as wrap-over whatever the length. Boulevard and Spanish Brown. The cloche hat affected body posture as it was pulled well over the eyes which meant young women held their heads at a specific angle in order to see where they were going. They were clothes made for comfort and ease in wear making them revolutionary and quite modern. She worked in neutral tones of beige.. . Instead of disappearing to the powder room women got out their engraved compact and applied lipstick and powder in sight of a whole restaurant or nightclub or tearoom.Coats of the 1920s were mostly long until 1926.Coco Chanel sporting short hair wearing one of her simple jersey outfits and revealing bare arms and flesh toned stockings. sand. then Eton cropped in 1926-7. Today compacts from the 1920s are sought after by collectors.. then shingled. The work of other famous designers beside hers seemed old fashioned and outmoded belonging as they did to the pre World War One era..stocking colours were Honey Beige. Hair was first bobbed. Rose Morn.The 1920s saw a universal fashion for short hair a more radical move beyond the curtain styles of the war era. Cloche Hats. Lastex. A cloche hat told everyone that you had short hair. Only maiden aunts and elderly dowagers avoided the severe shorter styles. Foreheads were unfashionable in the 1920s . Gabrielle 'Coco' Chanel. Left . By 1920 the silhouette of her clothing designs have come to be the epitome of 20's style.. Teatime. Ox blood lipstick was used lavishly. but rouge was still used sparingly.. She was the Jean Muir or Donna Karan of her day and the originator of the LBD that little black dress. Right ...1920's Wrapover coats. navy and black in soft fluid jersey fabrics cut with simple shapes that did not require corsetry or waist definition. It was only possible to get a close fitting cloche on the skull if the hair was cropped short and flat. An Eton crop was considered daring and shocked some older citizens..During the era there was an increased use of make up and it was fashionable to perform the rites of make up in public.The great fashion designer Gabrielle Chanel 1883-1971 self styled herself to be known as Coco Chanel. Make Up Rites.
Fashionable sleek day dress of 1936. In the 1930s shoes began to look heavier....Free from corsetry and wearing simplified clothing modern women were able to indulge in sports. Unisex Styles.Many coats had shawl fur collars. A fashion for coordinating coat linings with dress fabrics started at this time.The 1920s coats often wrapped to just one side fastening which was a feature of the garment.Once shoes began to be mass manufactured in the 1920s footwear becam e an essential fashion accessory. T bar shoes or others with buckles and bows made interesting fashion statements. Fair Isle patterns became very popular for both sexes. Soon swimming. Shorts became acceptable wear for cycling and for skating normal dresses were roomy enough for movement.The Mary Jane ankle strap button shoe was the style of the twenties. Strapped shoes were called Mary Janes. The coat fastening was either a huge button or some complex tab and buckle.. In 1936 Ferragamo the Italian shoe designer made wedge heel designs and by the 1940s.T bar shoes with buckles and bows and straps featured in the 1920s. Knitted garments for men really took off in the twenties and women eagerly wore the same knits too..The French designer Madeleine Vionnet opened her own fashion house in 1912. Now women had more productive and busier lives and simpler pared down clothes gave a freedom of movement women relished in daily life. Right . Daywear Versus Evening Glamour.. 1930s Fashion History Stylish Thirties The Female Form Returns to 1930s Fashion. often of peep style. sweet and tidy by day with a return to real glamour at night. Foreheads which had been hidden by cloche hats were revealed and adorned with small plate shaped hats.. Now it was truly visible beneath shorter dresses it needed to be selected with more care. Although styles had been designated day styles if they were impractical it had not really mattered as long as maids took care of chores. chunkier wedged platform shoes with thicker soles made the wearers feel they could walk for miles if needed. Clothes were feminine. ladylike appearance. 1920-1930 Shoes. Heels were over 2 inches high and waisted until the 1930s when they were lower straighter Cuban shapes. New fabrics like metallic lame were very popular at night and were made to shimmer even more richly by adding plastic sequins and glass beads.Chanel had introduced the world to the jumper and i t was worn by both men and women.. Sequin or diamante trims were quite usual. Footwear was visible beneath short dresses and was selected with more care as a fashion accessory.. Madeleine Vionnet and the Cross Cut Bias Method.Until the 1930s wealthy women had not really needed to wear practical day clothes.In the 1930s there was a return to a more genteel. but the toes were less pointed and more rounded. More luxurious gowns were kept for evening. Budding rounded busts and waistline curves were seen and hair became softer and prettier as hair perms improved. She devised .. golf and tennis along with keep fit were the passions of young ladies. The fashionable modern women of the twenties unlike their Edwardian laced and boned mothers truly belong to the twentieth century.
but at an angle of 45 degrees. Some of the clothes were so stylish that they could be worn today.Skirts were frequently longer at the back than the front. To show off the styles a slim figure was essential and that was getting easier for women who were educated and aware as many now used contraception and did not have to bear baby after baby unless desired.1930s Fashion. It is sometimes said that Vionnet invented bias cutting. Below the knee pleats and godets fell from panels so gave fullness at the hemline. crepes and chiffons by cross cutting the fabric. Right .. 1930s Fashion ± Skirts.1930s Fashion. Sketch of a crepe day dress of 1938. She made popular the halter neck and the cowl neck. Many of the gowns could be slipped over the head and came alive when put on the human form.. Left . fabric pattern pieces can be cut not on the straight grain. Cotton was also used by Chanel and suddenly it was considered more than a cheap fabric for work clothes.Sketch of backless 1930's halter neck evening gown. Some evening garments made women look like Grecian goddesses whilst others made them look like half naked sexy vamps.methods of bias cross cutting during the 1920s using a miniature model. Fine wool crepes also moulded to the body and fell into beautiful godets and pleats. silks. Part of their appeal was the draping fabric that was further enhanced by cutting fabrics on the true cross or the bias grain also quite fashionable at the start of the new millennium New Ways With Fabrics . creating a flare and fluidity of drapery that other methods could not achieve. Often it was used to make lingerie for the cheaper end of the market. There was a passion for sunbathing. The bias method has often been used to add a flirtatious and elegant quality to clothes. Rayon dyed well and looked similar to and felt like silk. The hemlines reached the bottom of the calf within a year. but historical evidence suggests that close fitting gowns and veils of the medieval period were made with cross cut fabrics. .The new improved fabrics like rayon had several finishes and gave various effects exploited by designers eager to work with new materials. crepe-dechines. She did really popularise it and the resulting clothes are styles we forever associate with movie goddesses and dancers like Ginger Rogers. The Edwardians also made skirts that swayed to the back by joining a bias edge to a straight grain edge and the result was a pull to the back that formed the trained skirt. Women tried to get tans and then show them off under full length backless evening dresses cut on the true cross or bias and which moulded to the body. To make a piece of fabric hang and drape in sinuous folds and stretch over the round contours of the body. Certain of her gowns still look quite contemporary. But nothing cut and looked like pure silk and it was still the best fabric to capture the folds and drapes of thirties couture... Using her technique designers were able to produce magnificent gowns in satins.
but the escapist fashion was not to be. One interesting facet to fashion was the brief emergence of a wasp waist in the 1939 Paris collections. Navy windcheater jackets. The Rumble of War. white. This was a pivotal time for the fashion industry and lessons learnt developing methods of mass producing uniforms carried over into the ready to wear industry. However the third use of them as a practical beach outfit caught on and every woman made them an essential garment to pack. hold alls. She continued to wear designer garments by Mainbocher and other famous designers. These are illustrated in Sportswear Before 1960.. At the jewellery auction after her death.. soft hats and knitted bathing suits were all given the designer touch.Utility Clothing Fashion . She was thought an icon of style in her younger days.Health and fitness was an important aspect of thirties lifestyle.. It would be 1947 before Dior introduced his wasp waist Corollecollection that got dubbed the New Look. They were soon regarded as correct seaside wear. tobacco pouches and U. They soon became universally used and are now a very reliable form of fastening.The Zip. By the time war arrived in 1939 European designers had shown simple clothes. Blue and white tops or short jackets finished the holiday look... black and buff with touches of red. functional and highly novel. grey. and within acceptable profit margins. Designers began to adjust the mood of their collections to more military inspired square shouldered clothing teamed with low heels as if sensing a need for more functional wear. Her use of the new plastic coloured zip in fashion clothes was both decorative. moderately priced.The era had begun with an economic depression which had lifted by1936 for many. The metal zip had been invented in 1893 and by 1917 it was somewhat timidly used for shoes. 1940s Rationing . the pieces were evidence of great style. cream. In the future it enabled manufacturers to produce quality goods speedily.In 1933 promoted the fastener we call the zip or zipper. Unusual Male Fashion of the 1930s Beach Fashion 1930s. Beach wraps.S. Both Chanel and Mainbocher played with a full skirt and a waist. widely flared and flat fronted with buttons. At the same time the rumble of warmongering in Europe became more evident. They were made up in draping heavy crepe-de-chine. As sun worshipping became a common leisure pursuit fashion answered the needs of sun seekers by making chic outfits for the beach and its surrounds. Pyjamas introduced as informal dinner dress or nightwear for sleeping died quickly as fashions. Swimwear was getting briefer and the back was scooped out so that women could develop tanned backs to show off at night in the backless and low backed dresses. The colours of the beach holiday were navy. The trousers were sailor style. trousers and sweaters and classic shirt waisters designed to stay in fashion. She is also famed for saying 'a woman can never be too rich or too thin'..
mending wool. With its quick zippered front individuals could wear the suit over pyjamas making it ideal for children...A woman's essentials sketches of the turban. Utility designs followed the square shouldered and short skirted fashions of the war era whilst sticking to the strict regulations for minimal cloth usage. but they still used coupons.Fashion items that became popular were the wedge sole shoe. suspenders. The turban equalised people of all sorts. restaurants to gala events.. workmen's bib.. the siren suit and the kangaroo cloak. brace and overalls. boot and shoe laces. It doubled as a disguise for unkempt hair which women had less time to attend to being so busy running homes.. adding items only as if essential. weddings. It began as a simple safety device to prevent the wearer's hair entangling in factory machinery. Coupons were not needed for second hand articles. lace net. braces..In addition to the items listed there were goods that could be bought without coupons such as small items for babies under 4 months old.. The siren suit was practical and warm in . a basic sensible military style suit and the sturdy wedge shoe of wartime Britain.During the Second World War Paris produced restrained clothing to match the economic atmosphere. the tied headscarf. tapes. Non Rationed Items. mending silk. The princesses Elizabeth and Margaret both owned siren suits as did Winston Churchill and others. The general wartime scene was one of drabness and uniformity. Right Standard utility suit designed by the Incorporated Society Of London Fashion Designers. sanitary towels.' Uniforms were seen at all civilian social occasions from cinemas. ribbons and other fabrics less than 3 inches in width. clogs and black out dyed cloth were all ration free. elastic. jobs and giving extra help wherever they could. It was impossible to go anywhere without being aware of war as uniformed men and women in auxiliary services were an everyday fact. Clothing.. The wealthy also had their uniforms tailored at the best tailors rather than wear standard issue.. Even within the Utility scheme there were couture garments for those who could afford them.Uniforms and Patriotic Fashion Looks. sewing thread. the turban. Siren Suit. Clothes of War. Skirts some 19 inches from the ground were usual. braids. There was an austere atmosphere and people were encouraged to 'make do and mend. Buttons were limited to three and turn back cuffs were eliminated.This meant that women were forced to wear clothes that they had in their wardrobes before the announcement . garters.. hats and caps. hard haberdashery. lace. continuing well after the war finished in 1945.Siren suits were the original jumpsuit and the all enveloping sometimes tartan cloth garment was a huge hit especially at night when sirens called citizens to the air raid shelter for cover. Cloth and Footwear Rationing. Boiler suits.
The finer the yarn the more knitwear a person could produce. Vaseline and Vitapointe conditioning cream for . Later in the 1960s it was developed into evening wear in slinky Pucci prints. Not even rayon stockings were readily available. Ponds cold cream. make do with leg make up or gravy browning and get a friend to draw a straight line down the back of the leg. but sturdy and wearers could walk for miles as the wedge stopped the hard road from making feet sore. Stockings. Pillowcases were trimmed with lace and made into blouses.Stockings of all types were scarce. Knitting in the War. They also lasted a long time and needed minimal repair as did clogs which were ration free. Make Up 1940s. The wedge sole was clumpy. The oversized pockets were ideal to stack with essential items as they ran through the house to an air raid shelter. in the hope of a pair of the new nylon stockings. Cast offs would be made into children's clothes.. Pillowcases would be turned into white shorts for summer.. until the original 1939 bride in desperation for new items. Wedding dresses would be worn several times.Face make up was in short supply and news of a fresh stock of well known branded lipsticks at the local chemist meant that the shop sold out within an hour. but it was mainly expert knitters that used very fine silky Mercerised cotton yarns. Women who could sew dresses had trouble getting hold of fabrics so they used everything from industrial blackout cloth to parachute silk or the harsher new parachute nylon. Nothing was wasted and even milk top discs were covered in raffia and made into handbags or accessories. Over the siren suit some would have donned a Kangaroo cloak coat so called because of its huge roomy kangaroo pockets.draughty situations. I. Women were encouraged to wear ankle socks. The only way to have feminine underwear was to sew it yourself.. Blankets were used to make coats and old voluminous swagger coats cut into smaller garments. but noisy in wear. Women working in dangerous conditions were helped to keep up their morale and Max Factor officials from America visited munitions factories handing out the new pancake make up and lipstick. Otherwise it was make do and mend again and in the case of stockings. The severe shortage of leather meant that other thick sole materials such as cork was used... remade the dress up into underwear. borrowed by sisters and friends. French Knickers or nightgowns.Everyone hand knitted and knitted mitts and scarves and socks made up in open lacy patterns stretched yarns even further. Collars would be added and trims applied all to eke out a limited wardrobe. Stockings might be found on the black market and later in the war many befriended an American G. Skirts were made from men's old plus fours or trousers. Munitions workers were encouraged to wear make up as a protective barrier to the grit and chemicals they worked amidst. Wool socks were unravelled to have the yarn intermixed with random colours in fair isle designs often to make short waist cardigans or V neck sleeveless waistcoats for either sex..
Veronica Lake and her glamorous hairstyle. After the War the New look of 1947. During this era Princess Elizabeth popularised the wearing of a headscarf tied under the chin. People were bitter because clothes were being made. Manufacturers read the public's need and their craving desire for newness and innovative change.hair were the few items usually available. Paris continued to produce exotic fashions. Munitions workers often had skin that turned canary yellow if they handled lots of explosive materials. The Veronica Lake hairstyle was very popular as was peroxide bleached hair. Generally hair still had some length as women could wash and dress their hair in ways which made them feel more feminine. Some factories even installed hair salons to improve women's long term attendance.Left . New Times. New Look. They continued to manufacture replicas of the line and soon boxy uniform Forties fashions were consigned to the history books . The American look was simple and classic and continues to have followers today. Glamorous styles with curls were preferred to the short styles of the twenties.. but women still did their best to look good and their hair was important to them.Christian Dior's New Look of 1947 was frowned upon by both the UK and USA governments and people were discouraged from wearing clothes that 'wasted' so much fabric.. The advice was ignored particularly by Princess Elizabeth and Princess Margaret who were soon wearing it because it had influenced their own designers. Hair 1940sThere was never enough stock of anything. but were exported in an effort to rebuild the British textile and wool economy. but America was developing a look of its own which was mainly found in Claire McCardell's designs.After the war the public became resentful and impatient when rationing was not relaxed on clothes.. By day it was kept out of sight in a turban or knitted snood which stopped it getting caught in machinery..
muraja.Middle ages Mauryans Style«Forceful sculptures carved during the Mauryan-Sunga period in the first century BC in the north at Bharut and Sanchi give us a feeling of superhuman power. extending from the waist to the calf or ankles or worn even shorter by peasants and commoners. which is more elegant and finer and adorns the figures seen in soft relaxed postures Costume«Men and women continued to wear three unstitched garments. pattika. or a many-stringed one. and necklaces and strings with amulet boxes suspended on the breasts indicate a fear of evil and dark forces around. who drape it on both shoulders or one shoulder. For men. and then . Turbans coil and twist with the hair to form protuberances . langoti was attached to the kayabandh at the center front.UNIT 3«. vethaka. kalabuka. it later became more and more transparent. very rarely silk. or again as a towel to mop the face when sweating. or diagonally across the chest and casually knotted at the waist. Women tied their antariya in different ways. Originally opaque. and in many other ways according to the whims of t he weather. The drapery hangs heavy folds and the jewellery is massive and somewhat coarse. which was utilized as a long scarf to drape the top half of the body. linen or flowered muslin. as in Vedic times. The main garment was the antariya of white cotton. The third item of clothing called uttariya was another length of material. The uttariya was worn in several ways to suit the comforts of the wearer: very elegantly by those at court. a very elaborate band of embroidery. But for the labourer and the craftsman. or tightly around the waist leaving the hands free for work. A simple small antariya or strip of cloth. or it could even be worn loosely across the back and supported by the elbows or wrist. With the coming of the Sunga dynasty there is greater emphasis on detail in the elaborate jewellery of the women. Theantariya was secured at the waist by a sash or kayabandh. it was more a practical garment to be tied around the head as protection from sun. it was an unstitched length of cloth draped around the hips and between the legs in the kachcha style. flat and ribbon shaped. with serpentine armlets and anklets closing in on strong limbs. long-beaded aprons and crossed scarves at he chest suggest fruitful abundance. often tied in a looped knot at the center front of the waist. Its uses were endless for the poor sections of the society and for them it would be made of coarse cotton. The head veils of the woven are voluminous. The kayabandh could be simple sash. usually fine cotton. one with drum-headed knot at the ends. sometimes embroidered in gold and precious stones.
It may be because shoes could not be taken inside a stupa or Buddhist temple. The more primitive tribes who lived in the forest wore garments made from grass (Kusa). being first wrapped around and secured at the waist. shepherds. Women sometimes used turbans of decorated cloth. they sometimes wore a patka. and fur. and the shorter end finally drawn between the legs. was a length of cloth wrapped around the hips tightly to form a tabular type of skirt. and tucked in at the waist at the back. footwear is often mentioned in Vedic literature there is no sculptural evidence for this period. The uttariya could be worn simply hanging down at the back or secured to the head with a headband. As regards male headgear. Although. Their kayabandhs were very similar to those of the men. Kachcha style. except in the case of soldiers who wear the Persian boot. the lehngastyle. worn straight or crosswise. the Amazons wore in addition. the crossed-at-chest belt vaikaksha. but in the Sunga period we find great emphasis on this form of . a decorative piece of cloth attached to the kayabandh in front by tucking in one end at the waist. centrally parted. The uttariyas of upper-class women were generally of thin material decorated with elaborated borders and quite often worn as a head covering. twisted yarn or leather. or at times it could be decorated with a fringe or pendants.passed between the legs and tucked in at the back. In addition. with metal buckles. the longer end then pleated and t ucked in at the front. was made into one or two plaits or in a large knot at the back. hunters and people of similar occupations were mostly aboriginal or belonged to the lowest caste. much the same as we find today. This was not drawn between the legs in the kachchastyle. often resplendent with beautiful borders. Another version. They generally wore simple unbleached coarse varieties of the cotton antariya and turbans. In India. or with one end arranged in a fan at the top of the head. and at times it was also woven. shield. in the early Maureen period there is no trace of the turban mauli. Helmets too are seen as headgea r for phrygian women who probably wore long-sleeved tunic with tight fitting trousers and a phrygian cap which was conical and had ear flaps. Skullcaps were sometimes worn under or over theuttariya to keep it in place. that they were not depicted on the sculptures on stupas. and the practice of tattooing was fairly common. The hair. Headgear and Hairstyles«Women generally covered their he ads with the uttariya. In the more remote villages and jungles. A longer version of the antariya was the knee-length one. skin. and sword. The patka was made from plaited wool or cotton.
and were occasionally studded with precious stones. oran ornamental circle with small bells called ghungru. Jewellery«From the sculptures we find there was a richness and profusion in the jewellery worn by both men and women. A little later. In addition. A short one called Kantha which was broad and flat. bracelets and embroidered belts. in addition. the jewellery became somewhat refined. very often made of square or round beads of gold. and crystals. All women wore anklets and thumb and finger rings. as well as a star-shaped sitaraand bina. In the Arthashastra attributed to Kautilya. with shapes ranging from round to square and oval. chains of gold and silver to which bells were attached. or one end folded in pleats and tucked in like a fan. rubies. This twisted braid was then arranged to form a protuberance at the front or the side of the head but never at the center top. Over the turban a band was sometimes used to hold it in place. inlaid with precious stones. with the Sungas. sankla. Certain ornaments were common to both sexes. Earring or karnikawere of three types-a simple ring or circle called Kundala. Pearls too were used and beads of all kinds we re plentiful including those made of glass. a hip belt of multi-stringed beads. as only priests could use this style. wore girdle calledmekhala. Earlier. sapphires. it had a massive quality to it and the workmanship was coarse. agates. necklaces. Dancing girls added on to these. The rings were plain and crowded together on the middle joints of the fingers. These consisted of thin plate of gold or silver stamped in various patterns. These were remarkable headdresses in which the hair itself was often twisted into a braid along with the turban cloth. the lambanam. and a long one. Necklaces of two kinds were worn. Forehead ornaments for women were quite common and worn below the parting of the hair and at the center of the fore-head. usually gold. like earrings. armlets. At the centre of each string of beads was an amulet for warding off evil forces. Baju band or armlets of gold and silver beads were worn on the upper arm. And a tiny . and in the sculptures of the period we find references which show us that the material used most frequently were gold and precious stones like corals. There is no evidence of nose -rings in the period. a circular disc earring known as dehri and earrings with a flower-like shape known asKarnaphul. They could be in the form of a simple ring. though silver was more common. and richly embroidered cloth belts completed the male ensemble. Kara. These chain or bead necklaces were sometimes three-to-seven stringed and were named after the number of strings of which they were composed. Anklets were often of gold in this period. Women. Bracelets called Kangan. originally made from the red seed kaksha but now made of gold and silver beads.male head dress. decorative elements like a jewelled brooch or a jhalar (fringe) could be attached to the turban. a thick chain.
climatically and functionally. A rain proof woolen cloth was available in Nepal. were used. and a leather belt with sword. Textiles and Dyes«Weaving of fine and coarse varieties of cloth was well established. All varieties of wool were available. whereas the Persians had worn the pointed cap. or black. Military Costume«Sewn garments which had been used by the Persian soldiers were sometimes utilized for military dress by the Mauryans. Kaseyyaka (High quality cotton or silk) and the bright red woolen blankets of Gandhara were worth a small fortune each. Blankets or kambala were either made by completing the edges with borders or braids. silk. wool. trappings and blankets for richer class. wool and a fabric called karpasa were available in the north in both coarse and fine varieties. The mixture of foreign and indigenous garments is interesting as it shows one of the early phases of evolution in the costumes of Indians. called kausheya like Eri or Muga silk of Assam. Cotton. yellowish in its natural color but when bleached calledpatrona. Resist dyeing and hand printing in a pattern on cloth has been mentioned by Greek visitors to the court . from the sheep¶s wool was either pure white (bleached) or dyed pure red. or woven wool strips were joined together. The process of felting (pressing the fibers together. avika. The coarse varieties were used by the populace. This came about in the colder north. The headgear was usually the turban or headband. Furs and the better varieties of wool and silk like tussar. Although.ornament called bindi. Material similar to the khinkhwab(which is the interweaving of silk and gold or silver wires beautiful floral pattern) was in great demand and even exported to Babylon long before the Mauryas. linen and jute fabrics were readily available. Cotton. . The lower garment was more often the Indian antariya rather than the Persian trousers. where the Persian garments were more suitable. There were also fine muslins often embroidered in purple and gold and transparent like later -day material which came to be called shabnam (morning dew). The only material evidence we have of a piece of Mauryan jewellery is a single earring found at Taxila dated second century BC which similar to GraecoRoman and Etruscan Jewellery. coats of mail are mentioned in the Arthshastra there is no visual evidence of it in this period. i nstead of weaving) was also making known. This consisted of a sleeved tunic with cross straps across the chest to carry the quiver. rose. coarse for making head-dresses. Woolen cloth. in case of soldiers.
Kantha: Short necklace of five strings of beads in gold or silver.Uttariya: There are two: one has an embroidered border and is worn crosswise over the head with a jhalar (networking fringe) at the forehead.Kangan: five bead bracelets on each wrist. Baju Band: Decorative armlets worn on upper arms. calf length.Karnika: trumpet-shaped earring or karnaphul. worn in a looped knot with fringed ends.Baju Band: armlets with elaborate incised pattern.Patka: A strip of woven beads tucked in at the front of the waist reaching the ankles. tied in a looped knot . that is between the legs.DONOR FIGURE«Antariya: Lower cloth.Kayalbandh: muraja style.Uttariya: upavita fashion. worn in a looped knot. phalakahara style.Atkan: bead necklace worn aslanr over the left shoulder and under the right arm.Karnika: Trumpet-shaped earrings. both equal ends being taken between the legs after knotting the front. the other is draped across the back and over both arms. Mekhala: Six-stringed hip belt of gold or silver beads. of fine cotton with fluted ends in front.Kangan: several bracelets on each wrist. worn across the chest and over the left shoulder.Kayabandh: Embroidered flat cloth band.Kayabandh: Flat cloth band. pattika style.Baju Band: three row of beads on the upper arms Karnika: trumpet shaped earring Lambanam: long necklace of beads Kantha: Short necklace of beads Sankla: anklets made of thick chains KUVERA YAKSHI«Antariya: Kachcha style.Mekhala: Four stringed beads hip belt. these ends are then held diagonally.Kara: Anklets of twisted wire worn on both ankles. drum-headed knobs at the ends.Sitara: Star shaped forehead ornament of gold or silver with a stamped pattern YAKSHI«Antariya: langoti style small strips of cloth drawn between the legs and attached to a cord at the waist. worn in kachcha style.Mauli: turban of printed cloth held by decorative bands wound over the top knot of hair and at the side of head . pattika style.Lambanam: long necklace made of chains held at intervals by flat bands.Kangan: Ten bracelets adorning each hand. Uttariya: Upper cloth of printed cotton worn crosswise on the head. fluted and tucked into the waist at the back to hang between the legs up to the ground.
A broad flat sword with cross straps on the sheath is suspended from the left shoulder.Hair ornament: jewelled and worn below centre parting of the hair COURTIER «turban is wound around the long hair tied in a top knot. DONOR FIGURE«Uttariya: printed or woven in a lozenge design in stripes. Pattikastyle.Kantha: short necklace with granulated design. with a border.. full front opening with ties at the neck and waist. the other is a finely pleated apron tucked into the centre front of the antariya.Lambanam: phalakahara style necklace.Tunic : one of the earliest depictions of the cut and sewn garment.Antariya: knee-length.4-stringed: chaulari. Karnaphul. WARRIOR. wound around the head and made into a top knot in front. and is hip length.Karnika: trumpetshaped earrings.5-stringed: paklari.7-stringed: satlari .Boots : fitting to the knees..Mauli: turban in which the long hair and cloth are twisted together.Kangan: three bracelets of beads on each wrist. each string consists of graduated pearls and a central gem.Head band: tied at the back over short hair.lambanam: in phalakahara style. to fix the turban in place a decorative band has been used.DONOR FIGURE«Antariya: worn in same style as in the Kuvera Yaksha except that only one long end is tucked in at the back. large disc-type earrings and two strings of beads adorn the neck NECKLACE«Kantha: short neckalce called tilari (3-stringed). it has short sleeves and a round neck.Baju Band: simple leaf-patterned armlet. it is worn crosswise on the head and thrown back hanging to the waist like pouch.Uttariya: looped at the chest and thrown back over both shoulders.Kayabandh: embroidered flat cloth band. worn in kachcha style with fluted end tucked in at centre front.
further enhance the undulating mov ements of the graceful figures. we find jewelled head -dresses. and looped on diadems and around necks. Costume Men«In this period there was a marked preference for the stitched garment. the two outer strands are square. this symbol was used on necklaces and to decorate soldiers. he wears an antariya in the lehnga style. trousers and . Pearl strands decorating the archways. anuttariya and a thick many-stringed kayabandh with knotted ends-kalabuka GIRDLE«Mekhala: elaborate seven-stringed saptaki. The Gupta Kings realized the value of adopting a dress that had traditionally become identified with royalty. and are early imitations of the strings of red rati seeds that were originally worn. as compared to any previous age.COURTIER «long hair is twisted into a top knot at the left around which the turban is wound so as to completely cover it. the coat. an ornament heart shaped brooch is fixed on the right front and a decorative band visible at the forehead is tied under the turban ARMLETS«serpentine armlets are of the Achaemenid type and depict the Iranian influence on Indian jewellery of this period. They are shown on Gupta coins in full Kushan dress. somnolent and languorous. a flat ribbon-shaped embroidered gridle of cloth of gold is also worn EARINGS«Karnika: this style of earring in the form of a triratna or triple gem of Buddhist triad. scabbards and the top of standards Guptas Style«In the highly civilized Gupta empire. and clearly defined garments for north India and the Deccan began to emerge. which later crystallized into t he garment preference we see in India today. was peculiar to the Buddhist. and striped muslin lehngas adding to the sensuous fullness of the body and lending it a free-flowing movement. interspersed with rows of beads across and aslant the hips in gold or hard stone. The mood is relaxed. with sheer floating scarves and shinning radiant eyes accentuating the aura of dream-like delicacy. that is. the pattika.
wound once or twice around and then buckled or knotted in a variety of ways to secure the antariya. as is apparent even today. Foreigners at court were a common sight as trade and commercial intercourse between India and Persia in this period was at its height. Some scholars believe that these elaborate mukuta were never actually used. associated with guardians and attendants of the harem in earlier times. Both these garments invariably had woven borders. Sometimes the uttariya itself was twisted thickly and worn aslant the waist with a large knot at the left shoulder. especially at court. however. Persia¶s influence on Indian art is most clearly seen in the rich floating ribbon decoration. Many forms of cut-and-sewn garments became fashionable. and was now associated mainly with certain dignitaries. and court attendants. Changes had been occurring gradually and the indigenous kancuka. They continued. but were merely signs of divinity or royalty. The ushnisa (turban) was slowly becoming obsolete. guards. uttariya and kayabandh held their own. door -keepers. Just as often is seen a simpler version. which was in fashion at the Persian court of Khusrau II (AD 600). ministers and other officials.boots. uttariya and kayabandh for normal occasions. the indigenous antariya. The kayabandh was used to hold the garments in place. . although royalty on the Gupta coins is shown wearing t he sewn garment of the Kushan Kings. however. Instead of kayabandh a plain cord or belt became more popular. In northern India where climatic conditions were more suitable there was greater emphasis on the stitched garments. These garments were not totally foreign to the Indians. which came mainly from the invaders and traders. probably inspired the brocaded tunic with long or short sleeves worn by ministers. which could be tucked in like a shirt. in the Ajanta paintings the king and other members of the nobility are still seen in their fine silk or muslin antariyas. In female costume. The king¶s costume was most often of striped blue closely woven silk with a floating uttariya. the variety is much greater and hence it is more difficult to pin-point the exact sources. to wear the indigenous antaryia. It was the elaborate mukuta (crown) and exquisite jewellery that really set apart kings and high dignitaries from other members of royal entourage. Strangely enough. a chaddar adding dignity to his attire. but in the south. The lower garment was usually the antariya and with it was sometimes worn kancuka. Costume Women«In the case of male costume it is easier to trace the influence. the white calf-length tunic which the chamberlain wore.
attendant usually wore the shorter form. and was very attractive since the border of the cloth was used vertically in the centre to decorate it. evolved from the antariya which when stitched on one side became tabular and was worn gathered together at the waist. is that the kachcha style became less popular with women. The short or long antariya was worn in thekachcha style or as a lehnga. an elaboration on the ghagri probably introduced by foreigners. From the bhairnivasani evolved the skirt with the drawstring or nada. and held by a girdle. which was 18-36 inch wide and 4-8 yards long. so that the swirling effect is enhanced by its many folds. Another form of the antariya was worn in the Kachcha and lehnga style together. Women wore langoti type drawers. This conservative kachcha style is still adopted by the women of Maharashtra and South India. The skirt is still worn by mainly rural peoples. as distinct from the previous periods.the same length as original antariya. was worn in several different ways. which may have been gored. which was drawn up between the legs and tucked in behind. This was one of the earliest forms of a clumsily stitched skirt and used as early as the Early Bronze period by the Germanic race. Like the bhairnivasani this too was an early garment . The main difference in the Gupta period. in which case it was first wrapped around the right hip then around the body and tucked in at the left hip. Normally the nobility wore the ankle-length antariya and women of high rank. This was usually a very short antariya only up to mid-thigh called calanika. A common form was a skimpyantariya made of cheap linen worn mainly by lower classes.The antariya. This was a short strip of cloth worn around the waist with an attached piece from the centre of the waist. It was drawn first inkachcha style. A heavily gathered skirt. including theLambadi and Banjara gypsies of India. It was drawn very tight across in the hips accentuating their curve most seductively. The antariya was occasionally worn like the Indonesian sarong.a wide garment reaching from under the armpits to mid-thigh in a simple wraparound fashion. although the queen and other ladies of the royal family remained conservative. The ghagri was a narrow skirt six feet long. But in all cases it was tied under the navel and supported by the hip bones. The skirt. and was normally calf length. being replaced gradually by the more feminine lehnga or lungi was we call it today. called ghagri. It seems to be mainly used by dancers. the ardhoruka. It was worn mainly by village women. the longer end of the three yard long material was then wrapped around like a short lehnga. bhairnivasani. which had evolved from the needs of modesty. is also seen.
A further development of the choli was the fold back at the bottom edge and the introduction of string. In medieval Europe. Indian women frequently began to clothe the top half their bodies. and Christianity the belief that the body was sinful and must be concealed to avoid temptation was percolating through India. There were probably two reasons.originally used by women ascetics. Another style of the kurta was with . Jain nuns wore four of these ardhorukas one on top of another. Another choli. or as a modesty covering over the stomach which was exposed. This was also the early form used as protection by the women of the Germanic or Teutonic races in the Early Bronze age. which ends just above the waist. as in the case with certain cholis in use today. an indigenous stitched garment known as cholaka. and women began covering themselves from head to foot. but expose most of the midriff in front. The primitive choli was cut very simply from a square piece of cloth. chola. In the case of the Germanic races it was protection from the cold. as the back was normally covered by the head -veil. probably knotted. must have realized that covering the bosom could even be more attractive than exposing it. cholika and kancholika. slit sides and four-poted hemline had become thoroughly Indianised and was commonly used even by women. This choli appears to be fastened in front. One was that the female attendants in the King¶s court thrown into the company of beautiful foreigners who wore upper garments. This evolution from the unstitched to the stitched garments had an inescapable logic as it evolved for purely functional purposes. There was in addition to the breast-band. and in India it served the purpose of m odesty. similar changes were occurring in female clothing. very like the garments worn today by women in Rajasthan and elsewhere. with a slit for the neck. and accordingly emulated the dress style of the foreigners. with the impact of Buddhism. For many centuries before. is made of diaphanous material and seen particularly in the dress of princesses and other royal ladies. could have evolved from the need for protection against the cold for the front part of the body. attached to make it back less. they had moved around self consciously nude above waist. Also. choli. The breast-band had been used since Vedic times. The Persian shirt or kurta. the skirt or lehnga being worn below the navel. This would cover the back completely. Jainsm. which is mentioned in early Sanskrit literature. something like the medieval µchastity belt¶. mainly as a support for breasts rather than covers them. with its side-opening at the neck. Here again the back was covered by the head -veil. The apron -like attachment at the front of the choli. visible in some of the frescoes. It would be interesting to find a satisfactory answer as to why. at this particular juncture. around this time. as with Greeks.
rather than as the substantial article of clothing it ha d once been. It is normally seen in Ajanta. at other times in the shape of the figure eight. sometimes made of brocade or striped material. The use of missi to darken gums and lips. Tiaras were often used with short or long hair. or just left hanging loose to the shoulders or lower. Of foreign origin was the short hair. as could be jewelled band. and in as many ways to dress the hair as could conceivably be imagined by the women wearing them. and hair was so elaborately dressed at times. or large and loosely wound. there could be a. Turbans too had not disappeared completely and women wore them very effectively. which was also in fashion at the Persian court at this time. The uttariya remained. that the help of maid-servant who were expert hair-dressers was obviously essential. and completely covering the hair. In the Deccan. The latter became extremely popular in the Gupta age. Headgear and Hairstyles«Simple plaits were no longer visible.crossover flaps and side-opening in the angarkha style. or with the coil wound on the left on top of the head. Ankle-length fitted tunics in brocade still appear foreign and may hav e been a Turanian Tartar (a nomadic race of Mongolian stock from Central Asia) contribution to the fashions at court. but almost always surrounded by flowers or had large lotus blossoms tucked into it. jewelled net or a net of pearls called muktajala. Fillets both simple and elaborate were commonly used to hold back short hair. The profuse use of flowers cannot be overemphasized in this period. like the floating ribbon decoration. and pearl string could define the parting of the hair. The bun itself was something a simple tight knot. but was worn very sheer and more as flattering accessory. which was sometimes frizzed in front with luxuriant ringlets quite unlike anything seen today. while the complicated ways of dressing long hair were mainly derived from South Indian and Deccani styles. and henna to redden the palm and soles of the feet was fairly prevalent. Besides surrounding the bun they were used as tiaras. The indigenous style showed itself in long hair worn in a bun either high or low on the neck or knotted at the side of the head. There were seemed to be broadly two styles of foreign origin. . ratnajali. In addition. held by a fillet or a chaplet of flowers. worn over the bun. hair styles of the lower classes (even those belonging to the menial orders) or the peasant women could be as elaborate as those of the higher -class women. delicately wafting behind.
The bali. civic officials and so on. filigree work and twisted wire was skillfully combined with jewelsparticularly pearls. hair was worn loose by men. however. the king is shown in Parthian-Kushan dress and wears a skull cap or helmet as headgear. which was sometimes cut unevenly at the edges. fashions in the dressing of men¶s hair. Generally. ministers. however. Kundala was the general term for earrings. in the gurnakuntala style. but in a more decorative manner. sometimes with a head band to hold it in place. where it had become a distinctive symbol of their respective ranks. or two pearls and one emerald. One was a large ring type and other was a button type. or at sports like hunting. at other times the earlier form of a top knot was employed. Jewellery«Gold or hirana was more commonly used than ever before. attendants wore this as well with shoulder-length hair. There were. a tiara or crown with a band inset with pearls and something festooned with garlands replaced the turban. or adorned with a strand of pearls. giving the appearance of a wig. both of which were circular. It could be of fine muslin tied over a large knot of hair at the centre of the forehead or a striped turban worn flat and twisted giving a rope-like effect to the cloth when wound.is still popular. the rest hanging in curls to the shoulder. especially in the Deccan where there were gold mines. Gold ornaments for both men and women were exquisitely made. In royal entourage. which required military regalia. a small gold wire circlet worn on the upper part of the ear with pearls strung on it. When made of gold with precious stones in the centre. shoulder-length and curled. The sutra was a chain for the neck. The ministers were often Brahmins with all their hair shorn keeping only the ritual top knot. using only a portion of the hair. Large ring -type earring later developed pendants that shook with the movements of the head and were called kancuka-kundala or µtremulous earring¶. karnaphul. with a plain or decorated surface. the turban continued to be worn by high officials. This slowly became more common for the king when informally dressed in indigenous garments. . one of big pearls. which were mainly for two types.For men. The king probably used this latter costume on formal occasions. Very short hair was also fairly common and looked much like the hair worn today except that clear parting in the hair was seldom visible. like the chamberlain. acquiring a new delicacy as beaten work. On the Gupta coins. it was called hemasutra. But this was the era of the pearls necklaces or muktavali a single strand of small pearls was the haravsti. military officers.
ratnanguliya. Women loved to decorate themselves with flowers as well. or rectangular. This is still seen in the Bharata Natyam dancer¶s costume of today. The mala was usually made of fragrant kadamba flowers. like those used by primitive and folk people today. they are not seen on the feet of goddesses in sculpture. The mekhala hung in a seductive clasp at the centre from this string. often having pearls suspended from them so as to delicately surround the face. or there nupura (anklet) could be made from jewelled beads. were worn on the head. in the vaikaksha style. a cylinder made of filigree work or inset with pearls. These were jewelled girdles. This ornament could be quite decorative with festoons of pearls and other ornamentation. was sometimes worn by women on the upper part of the thigh. The nishka or coin necklace also continued to be popular. emeralds. in which it was rolled. and an attractive ornament of two strings of pearls or flowers. the padapatra. Their brows were also adorned with wreaths and heavy garlands . A very provocative garter -like ornament. The latter was probably a string tied at the waist and hidden under the upper edge of the antariya.maninupura. tinkled as they moved. Flowers in the form of necklaces. and the latter. Although women of all classes wore anklets. and looped around the neck or waist or worn crosswise in garlands on the chest. Upper arm ornaments were known as the angada and keyura. that was most sought after. worn crosswise on the chest and back. rosette shaped. anguliya were of gold or studded with precious stones. anklets. The mekhala or girdle was worn by women quite low on the hips and suspended from the katisutra. It was sometimes held by a clasp at the centre. entwined in the hair. with its small bells. On the women¶s ankles the kinkini. All the above ornaments were common to both men and women. Kings wore chaplets of white flowers even on military expeditions and officials of state tucked a bunch of flowers into their top knots. and wreaths of scented flowers hung from their ears.the tarahara. Bracelets. which could have a buckle either square. it was the glorious vijayantika. blue stones and diamonds. round. Bangles of conch shell or ivory were worn in set graded sizes. mala. Men to hold the antariya used a simple straight belt or sometimes above it. and one with gem in the centre of the pearl was known as sudha ekavali. Finger rings. valaya were generally simple or inset with pearls. Tiaras-kiritaand crown-mukuta were worn by men and women of the nobility and were particularly splendid. a necklace made from a successive series of pearls. However. the former like a coiled snake. rubies. over or under which hung a small pleated frill of cloth.
kancuka. yellow ochre or white). hem. His bodyguard carried curved swords like the Nepalese khukri and shields of rhinoceros hide in . and with this indigenous garment the wheel -type disc earring were still worn. Others in the cavalry wore more colorful and diverse garments. with a helmet or cap. Some soldiers continued to wear only the short antariya. that became the prototype on which the new military uniform of the Guptas was based. green with checks in which a flowered motif was set in each compartment. cholaka. The elephant drivers were picturesque in their short -sleeved tightfitting cholaka with decorative bands at the neck. or yellow with a pattern of birds. jhangia. which was often striped. Mid -thigh length tunics of brocade or printed cloth (for example. trousers and an uttariya-a bossed flowers. and sometimes a fillet to tie back the hair. and sleeves. or bandhni as it is known today. This may have been their version of the camouflage on military uniforms. With this were worn short drawers of plain or gold-striped cloth and a skull cap or scarf on the head. lozenge shapes mainly in blue. It is possible that these tunics were worn over a brief antariyas. It was the Kushan army. Head-dresses were normally a simple skull cap or just a scarf or cloth wound around the head like a turban. which had a centre front opening with V-shaped or round neck. The king himself adopted the Kushan royal costume in formal occasions as status symbol. With this was worn a fillet or head band. except occasionally in the Satavahana age. tight ± sleeved kancuka and an elaborate turban with serpent. well clad and equipped. completed their very colorful uniforms. which could be a type of tie-dye. the kayabandh could be wound once or twice. Instead of knee -length kancuka a short tight-fitting blouse. there was no fixed uniform for the indigenous army.of amarnath hung on their hips. Military Costume«In previous centuries. as the foot soldiers seldom wore trousers to cover their bare legs. the former sometimes decorated with a dragon¶s head. when attired for battle wore a short. Around the waist. and high boots. The cavalry wore a more elaborate dress. holding a short dagger or curved sword. The tunics were sometimes spotted with black aloe wood paste. The king himself. or sometimes a white turban. In early period the Gupta soldier had worn the antariya with his bare chest inadequately covered by the six jewel-striped channavira. closer in style to th e original Parthian-Kushan dress being a mid-calf length quilted coat with long ruched sleeves. was sometimes worn with the short antariya. rosettes. yellow with blue dots. Later the soldier¶s uniform was either a short-or-long-sleeved knee-length tunic. This evolved into the more efficient foreigninfluenced kancuka with trousers or short drawers. Shields were curved or rectangular.
and was made of metal. stripes. the transparency of the cloth had on ly accentuated the nudity below. Gauze from Decca was noted for its transparency and was said to be so fine that the only evidence of its presence was the delicate gold edging of cloth. and in the north and the north-west the art of embroidery reached the highest peak of development. silver or dark-colored cloth embroidered or patterned in silver stars or four petalled flowers. elephants. consisting of hundreds on. gold. probably of Chinese origin.checked designs. This had led to the further sophistication of wearing a transparent garment over a brightly colored one. swans. dyed. consisting of hundreds of different varieties of flowers and birds. painted. which continued to be in vogue. which had a very ancient tradition. and bird and animal motifs. The leaders or chieftains of the various contingents in the army were decked in pearl-embroidered tunics made from the famous stavarkha cloth of Sassanian origin and chaddars of many colors. Textiles and Dyes«In the Gupta age the finest textiles were available. and richly patterned in wea ves or embroidery. These brocades with floral designs from the Deccan and Paithan were like the Jamiwar and Himrufabrics of today. and so on. There were checks. It was known as the cinacola. and the kayabandh wound twice around the waist. Dyeing too was very sophisticated and the diagonal stripes. Bows were of two kinds: the simple one-piece bow and the classic double -curved bow probably made of three pieces. deer. Before this. Armour was worn as further protection. printed. or of striped materials with chess-patterned bands. Delicat e embroidery on muslins. which had handsome covers of. It was sleeveless covering the front and back. for example geese. or in the complete Central Asian outfit consisting of a dark blue quilted tunics with a V-shaped neck and long full sleeves with soft dark trousers and a saffron turban of Indian origin instead of Central Asian conical cap. His sword-bearer wore a patterned tight tunic with pointed ends reaching to the knees. was skillfully executed. along with intricately woven brocades. A helmet for soldiers was known as sirastrajala. were still used. Gold and silver woven brocades of Benares. the art of calico printing improved considerably and many of the traditional prints of today originated in this period. and rugs or floor carpets known as rallaka and kambala were made. which were . Silk was woven in black and white check patterns especially for cushions. The former is a silk floral design on a wool background and the latter has cotton for its main wrap. Delicate embroidery on muslins. Special bedcovers known as nicola and pracchadapata.
it is held first at the right hip then taken once around the body and tucked in tightly at the left hip in pleats or simply as in this figure.Kundala: simple ring-type earrings. merged in each other in places as soft and dark tones. and all thin brocades.Keyura: worn on the upper arms-baju.Special costly silken fabric known as stavaraka was originally manufactured in Persia and is known to have been imported into India.Muktavali: several pearl necklaces of small and large pearls including one long strand which hangs between the breasts.Kirita: a decorative tiara. a fillet is worn and also a chaplet of flowers to which a semi -circular ornament has been attached on eit her side of the centre parting. which had been the prerogative of rich now.Bali: ring-type earrings with pearls strung. as rasimal was available.Valaya: bracelet of filigree work. Tie dying of Gujarat and Rajasthan. cylinderical.Mekhala: girdle at the hips is decorated with discs.Keyura: armlet of filigree work festooned with pearls on upper arms.Uttariya: of sheer material. after knotting at the centre both ends are passed between the legs.Mukatavali: necklace of one strand of small pearls (haravsti). the hair being worn in a . with a few curls at the forehead. in many different patterns.It is possible that she wears a short choli of very light material.Nupura: very simple anklet. for which a special cheaper variety known. MAID SERVANT«Antariya: worn very short in kachcha style. The process of bleaching was perfected. This beautiful effect was created by the resist dye technique.Valaya: one simple and one ornamental bracelet is worn on each wrist. inset with pearls and tied on with ribbons. percolated to form the festive and bridal attire of the poorer classes. thrown over the breasts.Hairstyle: hair has been drawn back into one plait.Nupura: anklets are simple and cylindrical.popular. fluted and tucked in at back centre to fall to the ankles.Anguliya: ring worn on the little finger of the right hand. She holds a fly-whisk (chauri). was called pulakabandha and was used a great deal in the upper garments of women. a small frill of cloth hangs at the side which could be part of the end of the antariya pulled around from the back after tucking in. adorned with flowers and jewels. a samller simple ring is worn on the upper part of the ear. PRINCESS«Lehnga: the antariya has now become thelehnga. and tucked in again at the front. one end has been tucked in under the mekhala and the other over it.Hairstyle: elaborate. This was a cloth studded with clusters of bright pearls and worn by royalty.
the right and longer end is taken around the body and thrown over the left shoulder from the front and is visible in folds at the left.Uttariya: worn over the left shoulder. further back on the head is a decoration of leaves with a central motif probably tied around a chignon-type hairstyle.Muktavali: two strings of pearls at the neck. tassels are visible behind the right shoulder. The large cushion at the back is covered with printed cloth and the cushion used as footrest has a pearl edge. .Nupura: anklets of simple design Headgear: a striped scarf tied around the head and knotted at the back. one on each wrist.Choli: short blouse of diaphanous material.Vaikaksha: two long strings of pearls crossed at the chest. the left end is passed between the legs and tucked in at the back. COURT LADY«Ghagri: the early form of a skirt to the knees in which there is a draw-string (nada).a short strip of cloth worn around the waist with an attached strip from the centre of the waist which is drawn up between the legs and tucked in at the back .Valaya: simple bracelets.large bun at the nape.Hara: bead necklace.Keyura: flat simple armbands.Muktavali: string of pearls at the neck. two at each wrist.She carries an offering and could be of foreign origin as the scarf on the head suggests.Hairstyle: drawn back and knotted. Covering it is a pearl studded or tie-dyed cross-shaped cloth.Valaya: graded ivory or conch-shell bangles.Hairstyle: centre parting with chignon on nape decorated with ribbons. VOTARY FIGURE«Ardhoruka: langoti type of patterned striped drawers.She is carrying a flower garland.The stool or short-backed chair (piddha) has turned wooden legs very similar to those available in most parts of Inida today. the border of the woven silk material can be seen vertically down the centre.Kundala: large disc-type earrings. a wreath of leaves is worn around the head.Kundala: ring-type earrings.Valaya: bracelet. OLD WOMAN«Sari: an elaongated form of the antariya.
is of silk with purple.Anatriya: lehnga style. green and yellow stripes with lozenge patterns in white.Hairstyle: probably a thick twisted roll of padding is fixed at the centre parting and held in place by . of striped cloth.Vijayantika: necklace of strings of looped pearls with precious stones.Mukuta: tiara-like ornament at the forehead.Antariya: lehnga style.Mukatavali: three-stringed pearl beads. MAID SERVANT«Cholaka: choli-type blouse with an apron front and V-neck made of pulakabandha-tie and dye cloth.Pratidhi: breast-band tied at the back.Hairstyle: large bun at the nape with wreaths of flowers and sevral strings of pearls or gols chain (sarasari) wound around and held by brooches YASODA «Angarkha: mid-thigh length tunic with left opening and bordered edge all around.Valaya: bangles and pearls bracelets. Valaya: bangle on left wrist.Kundala: large ring-type earrings Hairstyle: worn shoulderlength and loose She carries a large palmleaf fan.Kundala: ring-type earrings.Kancala Kundala: elaborate earrings with pendants Mukuta: tiara of gold. worn over the skirt for additional support.Valaya: simple bangles.Girdle: ornamented.Ghagri: heavily gathered skirt tied at the hips with a nada.Keyura: armlets with incised design. the long sleeves are of dark red brocade.Hairstyle: simple bun with flower wreath (mala) DANCING GIRL«Cholaka: fitted choli-type blouse with an appron front.Uttariya: worn over the head and left hanging behind the shoulders. it has l ong sleeves and a four-pointed hem in Persian style. while the middle is of white silk.MAID SERVANT«Ghagri: a simple skirt with drawstring (nada). it has a decorative border.Kantha: flat heavy short necklace.Valaya: two simple and one ornamental bangle on each wrist . probably tied at the back with ribbons that are visible.
The angarkha is shown open. floating ribbons and round cap. the left edge of the neckline fastening is curved to fit the inside right edge probably with ties as in the modren angarkha.. MAID «Angarkha: long-sleeved tunic with probably a left side-opening running down to the pointed hem . probably calf length.Uttariya: worn over the head and left hanging behind the shoulders in Parthian or scythian style..tiny plaits of hair. the hem of the sleeves and the edge of the collar are embroidered.Hara: a simple chain. there is a tiraz band trimming at the upper arm and floating ribbons at the back opening.Cholaka: double jacket of bandhni (tie-dye cloth) the upper one with shorter sleeves in the angarkhastyle.Hairstyle: curly hair held back by a fillet. this is till used to hold high the head -covering by some women of north India and gives an extremely regal effect to head veil ATTENDANT «Robe: ankle-length in white material with a pale blue frill at the hem.This is often reffered to as the Persian Embassy scene. this is till used to hold high the head -covering by some women of north India and gives an extremely regal effect to head veil.Appears to be foreigner as is evident from the simple hairstyle and lack of ornate jewellery.Uttariya: wrapped around the waist and thrown over . as seen in the tiraz band.The covering of the head with the veil is possibly of parthian/scythian origin and is seldom seen at Ajanta. but the figure appears to be a Turanian Tartar from Central Asia.Hara: two necklaces. it has tight sleeves and a collar. the lower one is green in color with longer sleeves . both of beads with the central bead of differnt shape. MINISTER«Kancuka: indigenous simple round-neck tunic with long sleeves and a front opening.Hairstyle: probably a thick twisted roll of padding is fixed at the centre parting and held in place by tiny plaits of hair.Headgear: a round cap of red material (broad-cloth or velvet) with a white border of fur or wool and white plume at the centre. Turanian Tartars were influenced in their dress by the persians. MAID SERVANT.Kundala: large ring-type earrings.
Chugha: close-fitting coat of the Kushans with a row of decorative buttons with fastenings at the centre. probably calflength.Necklace: of gems with loops.Suddha Ekavali: neckalce of pearls with a central gem Keyura: elaborate armlets with loops suspended from a cylinder of filigree work.the left shoulder in upavita fashion with the final end resting on the left arm. one on each wrist Anguliya: ring on little finger.Kayabandh: sash tied at the waist.Valaya: Ornamnetal bracelet.This Kancuka has the four-pointed hem of the Kushan-Parthian under tunic. Which was common to all scythian races including the kshatrapas.Haravsti: large pearl necklace.Chaddar: cloth decorated with a fish-scale pattern. and the rich way of life at court. KING AND QUEEN «. The alck of jewellery would also denote a foreigner. KING «Anatriya: short and striped worn in the lehngastyle with a long end visible on the cushion . V-neck and long sleeves.Kundala: elaborate earrings Kirita: tiara of metal with ornamental discs and motifs.Torque: necklet of twisted wire with beads Headgear: flat turban of twisted cloth held by ribbon bands at intervals.Silk ties on necklace are visible at the right shoulder .Torque: simple necklet.Trousers: gathered in churidar style.Hairstyle: long hair combed back smoothly.Bali: simple ring-type earrings with pearl suspended. The indigenous influences is in the choice of thinner and more decorative cloth used to suit the climate conditions of India. the opening in front is held together and the waist .Headgear: skull cap. CHAMBERLAIN «Kancuka: indigenous striped white tunic with long sleeves and front opening. the cloth is star-patterned. worn over the left shoulder and under the right arm in upvita fashion. worn as a mark of office by the chamberlain GUARD«Kancuka: mid-calf length tunic with four pointed ends.
edge ends in a point at the centre.Trousers: do not appear to have creases at the knee.Headgear: closefitting cap.Earrings: Button style.The queen is dressed in indigenous costume as seen in her antariya and uttariya, her hair is worn in a bun at the top of the head. From the Licchavi tribe, she wears nupura on the ankles. HORSE MAN «Quaba: calf-length striped coat with pointed collar and tiraz band braid on upper arms; floating ribbon ties are visible at the back.Headgear: dome cap with band.Belt: worn at the waist.Probably a Turanian Tartar of Mongolian stock. Their costume is very similar to that of the persians, from whom the tiraz band trimming, pointed collar and floating ribbon ties originated. baggy trousers tucked into boots are probably worn. FOOT SOLDIER «Cholaka: short jacket covering the chest with half-sleeves and a decorative braid at the hem and sleeve-edge.Antariya: short and striped material with a border.Kangan: one bracelet on each wrist.Hairstyle: shoulder length hair; wears no headgear.Equipment: spear and rectangular, curved shield of rhinoceros hide.Elephant riders and foot soldiers in the Gupta army wore a similar uniform. The were sometimes nore resplendent in gold-striped antariya and skull caps or fillets on their heads. GUARD «Quaba: of foreign origin, this calf-length tunic has the Persian-type pointed collar and tiraz band braid trimming on upper arms.Girdle: worn at the waist.Kundala: disc-type earrings.Hairstyle: drawn up in a large top knot.Equipment: oval shield and curved sword.Although, the costume is foreign the hairstyle, sword and earrings are indigenous. This was probably a foreign uniform adopted by the Gupta army.
COURT LADY«Hairstyle: hair is worn with a centre parting which is covered by a decorative ornament attached to the mukuta (tiara) at the forehead and the jewelled braid at the left side of the nape; the braid then continues like a fillet around the crown of the head.Mukuta: highly decorative in embossed gold or silver, has little pendants suspended from it at the forehead.Kundala: large wheel-like earrings.Haravsti: one strand of large pearls.Torque: twisted wire necklace of celtic origin. BHIKKU «Antaravasa: this lower garment was normally 36" wide and 2½ yards long and worn around the waist where it was secured by a girdle or tucked into the nada(drawstring).Uttarasanga: the upper garment is thrown over the shoulder in a loop. FEMALE VOTARY «Hairstyle: hair is worn in a large pompadour style on the crown of the head with t iny curls along the forehead.Ratnajali: from the elaborate tiara-like ornament around the head, strands of pearls form a net over the hair style; there is a central ornament at the forehead from which are suspended strands of pearls.Mala: large flowers above the ears are used as further ornamentation to the hairstyle.Kundala: very large ring-type earrings.Bali: small earrings with suspended pearls; worn higher up on the ear.Suddha Ekavali: pearl neckalce with a gem at the centre; has ribbon ties KING «Hairstyle: short hair.Mukuta: tiara of floral motif from which pearls are looped and suspended.Bali: earrings from which separate drops of pearls and sapphires are suspended.Valaya: bracelets of different kinds at the wrists.Sutra: simple chain at the neck.He wears a brown striped silk garment.He is making an offering of lotus
flowers to the Buddha on a tray which appears to be covered or painted in a design. PRINCE «Hairstyle: appears to be shoulder length and loosely knotted at the nape; bound with ribbo ns with stylized curls at the forehead.Headgear: twisted turban in stripes or bound at intervals with braid; there are large gem-encrusted brooches at the sides and a central ornament on the top Kundala: simple ring-type earrings.Muktavali: one-string pearl necklace. YOUNG MAN «Hairstyle: simple, shoulder length, drawn back without a parting and left loose; a shorter strand is seen over the ear.
Style«The late Satavahanas style expressed more directly the full impact of the Dravidians-Andhra ethos. With the crowded compositions of lean and strong bodies and the ferocious figures looming over terrified crowds, we feel a sense of frenzied activity and turbulence. The kayabandhs make complex arabesques, but there is less differentiation between t he court and the people as they throng together. The Royal Way of Life«From as early as the Mauryan-Sunga period there was six emblems to denote a royal personage. These were the ushnisa or turban, a pair of flywhisks, umbrella, sword, sandals, and the royal standard. Of these, the two most important and almost always used on all formal occasions were the umbrella and the flywhisks. The umbrella was white and gold for kings and nobles, and was carried by the chattradhara or umbrella carrier. The flywhsiks orChauri were made of yak tails with gold handles, usually two, which were waved alternately by the chauri bearers. In addition to this a fan of palm leaves gaily chequered and made of bark, usira grass, or peacock feathers was waved by another attendant. The sword or khadga, a symbol of power, was carried by a female attendant, the khadgavahini, on her shoulder. She normally stood close behind the king or prince. Thonged sandals originally of boarskin were the king¶s prerogative. Both sword and sandals were said to rule the kingdom in the absence of the king.
The kayabandh could be tied like a thick cord or be worn looped in a semi circle at the front with conspicuous side tassels. Their many ±stringed girdles or mekhala were made of beads. at times.] Costume«The people of the Deccan were a hybrid race. In the first century BC their costumes too were an interesting mixture of foreign and indigenous garments. With the tunic a thick Kayabandh was wound once or twice around the waist. or be made of thick twisted silk. The tunic worn by a king in hunting dress has no discernible opening at the neck. A fillet. The ushnisa was always worn and a crown or tiara was used when necessary. Kancuka in the stripes or beehive design worn by attendants or hunters. in some the opening is on the left side. simple or gold . Necklines too differed in tha t some were V-shaped and others were round in shape. All these clothes are represented in Caves IX and X in Ajanta. tikkas on the forehead and a series of conch or ivory bangles on the arms. In addition to these. intertwined with the long black hair of the aborigine wearers was also worn. Shoulder-length hair held by fillets or top knots tied at the centre of the head seems to denote that these attendants were foreigners.C. had elaborate broad borders. Headgear and Hairstyles«The aboriginal jungle women wore rolls and headbands with peacock feathers attached. a mixture of the aboriginal Dravidians and foreign invaders. hunters wore two-bar type sandals with a strap for buckling. The kancuka are of mid-thigh length with short or long sleeves. With this the decorative kayabandh was tied in different styles and knots. which is still seen in the Deccan. An elaborate turban ushnisa. although nothing in the garments worn seems foreign. they looked very much like the Lambadis who are a gypsy tribe of Deccan today. Except for the skirt. The king and most of his courtiers wore indigenous antariya. so it is probably at the back. the Dravidians aboriginal village women too changed their costume using short antariyas. In the royal court dress of the Mauryan-Sunga people the female attendant wore transparent long antariyas with loose kayabandhs tied in a knot at the centre having beautiful ornamental tips. and in others it is at the front. large uttariyas with elaborate board borders covering the head and back. either in a topknot on the right side with a loop of flowers suspended or in a plait.Early Satavahana [200-100 B. which. Court attendants and women of the richer classes wore their hair more fashionably. Village women and commoners wore their hair in a simple knot at the nape covered by a large uttariya. with the longer style worn in a variety of ways on ceremonial occasions. As influences from the north and from foreign invaders percolated. short and informal at home. In the first Century BC we find tunics.
Most often. very little or no jewellery is seen. Most often it consists of just earrings of the wheel pattern type.embroidered could be worn to hold it in place. Jewellery«Jewellery in this period had a massive primitive character in strong contrast to that worn in the later Satavahana period.A. chin band and earflaps or two topknots with a turban. and they seldom wore it as a head covering. Women did not wear thebaju band but wore a large number of bangles made of conch or ivory. Women attendants at court wore. and tikka on the forehead. disc -type earrings. in addition. 250] Costume«Clothing was generally spares and made of thin cotton. consisted of Lambanam. Men could wear it across the back and over both shoulders are merely thrown over the chest. with elaborate headgear consisting of either a turban with a topknot. Generally. uttariya and kayabandh were widely used. the antariya appeared to have been made of almost transparent cloth and was worn very tight and clinging in the case of women. is worn by hunters. the long hair of men was worn intertwined with lengths of cloth to form an ushnisa in a variety of ways. earrings. Military Costume«Soldiers wore short-sleeved tunics or jackets. or carried sickles. The three articles of clothing. . the antariya. the kancuka or tunic. For men it was normally to the knees or even shorter. of beautiful colors and embroidered. at times. Palace guards however wore the antariyawith a heavy cloak draped over the left shoulder. and bows and arrows. But when the foreign dress. whether at court or in villages.D. the lambanam. but this wa y of draping had its own fanciful fashions. or the tuft of hair could be visible on top of the turban. which meant that one end was passed between the legs and tucked in behind. This knot could be at centre front or protrude over the forehead in a conch -shell shape. the mekhala. Frequently it had a knot . attendants and soldiers. The antariya was still worn by both sexes in the kachcha fashion. They were equipped with axes. and a pair of kangan and bajuband for the males.the original top knot of the aboriginal-covered with the cloth of the turban. The uttariya for both men and women was usually white and of cotton or silk. When indigenous garments are shown on men. Late Satavahana [100 B. but interesting mixtures of foreign and indigenous garments were fairly prevalent.C . all wear some form of jewellery. It was however. It is almost invisib le in the early Andhra sculptures with only double incised lines to show the drape. Indigenous jewellery however.
the hair could be wor n in one or two topknots. This item was worn in a variety of ways. and in many other ways. It was normally white but could also be of dyed cloth. grooms. usually silk. that we can trace the evaluation of costumes and the fashion of the times in areas of India where they were in use. and simple turbans were held in position by ornamental gold strips or pattabandha. and could have jewelled clasp or maulimani at the centre to hold in place the folds of the turban. The kayabandh tied in a bow-shaped knot was worn by both sexes to give further support to the uttariya at the waist. Without the turban. Thekalabuka was a girdle made of many strips plaited together. The true yajnopavita or sacred thread is found on the sculptures of this period. it existed more in the form of the uttariya worn draped over the left shoulder and under the right arm in the upavita fashion from which the term yajnopavita consisted of three cotton threads each of nine twisted strands. guards and so on in the king¶s court. but of hemp for the kshatriya and of wool for the vaisya. of which one type was a short cylindrical cap studded with gems and ornamented with designs. The turban normally covered the hair. or one loop and one topknot. It is in the distinctive ways of wearing these three simple garments the antariya. and the muraja had drum-headed knots at the ends instead of tassels. which was arranged in a large topknot at centre front. A stitched skirt-like foreign garment called the kancuka was frequently used by attendants. Women too wore t he shortkancuka with an indigenous antariya. The maulibandha was an elaborated turban wound with the hair which itself was decorated with strings of pearls or flowers wreaths. Before this. A heavy-looking thick jewelled roll with hanging tassels kakshyabandha-was worn by men. Gold turbans were worn on special occasions. Short hair parted in the middle and reaching the neck . The kayabandh in the form of a simple sash was called the vethaka. Kirta or crowns were also in use. which was made of flat ribbon-shaped pieces of cloth. At a later stage this sacred thread continued to be used in a limited way by other castes but was retained most strongly by the Brahmins.The nivi bandha or preliminary knot to tie the antariya at the waist is often alluded to in the literature of ancient India. and an indigenous long tunic was worn by eunuchs and other attendants in the women¶s apartments in the palace. or when calf-length it was worn with a kayabandh and uttariya. Headgear and Hairstyles«The ushnisa of the men was generally wrapped around three or four times after covering the topknot of hair with one end. uttariya and kayabandh and in the headgear and jewellery. This topknot could also be pear -shaped or elliptical to give it variety. The women also wore the pattika.
and whole was called a phalakahara. One was in the form of a plait. This could have veni. The dhammilia was elaborate dressing of the hair with flowers. Special ornaments were designed to be worn in the hair. The more common design in earring was the kundala shaped like a coil. There were also small crown like fillets through which the hair was drawn and then plaited or hung loose. very like gold ornament worn by the uriya women in the northern circars. Both men and women wore earring. Women wore their hair in several ways. The talapatra originated from a small strip of palm leaf rolled and inserted into the lobe. around it or a short garland of flowers dangling from it. and jewels that often completely covered the hair like a close cap or turban. or a sacred thread made of pearls called . The yajnopavita. its petals composed of pearls and precious stones.was fairly prevalent. sometimes consisting of only a single string called ekavali. It was worn normally in the centre of the knotted hair. This style was greatly admired in the Satavahana kingdom. a favourite with all classes of women. The makarika was shaped like fish -crocodile and worn at the front parting of the hair. especially among the common people. This shape was later made from ivory or gold and could be gem studded. A full-blown lotus design the kanaka. Women no longer wore the turban of earlier periods. a small fillet of flowers. armlets and necklaces as in previous periods. phalaka. The chudamani was lotus -shaped. were inserted at regular intervals. pearls. A simple perfumed cotton-thread necklace was known to have been in use. particularly the indigenous people. and a couple of generations ago the karnika or jimiki continued to be in use. bracelets. These held together the several strings of which a necklace was composed. and tiger claws were strung around the necks of children probably to ward off the evil eye. If the hair was made in a simple knot it was known as kabaribandha. asBharat Natyam dancers do today. Several of these necklaces could be worn together. praveni. decorated with jewelled strips and tassels. A necklace of gems and gold beads was called yashti. Jewellery«Strands of pearls were the main motif in all forms of jewellery particularly in the late period of the Satavahana empire. Sometimes three or five slab-like gems. the central bead being often larger than the others. at the back. This was in the shape of lotus seed pod fixed upside down like a tassel. which could be simple or decorative.kamalaset in rubies is still popular in South India. Necklaces or hara were mainly strung with pearls. Another common style was the coil with five delicate plaits dangling from it. In the kesapasa style the hair was looped close to the head in an elongated knot at the back of the head or lower downs at the nape.
Kantha. It consisted of two long wreaths of flowers of pearls crossed at the breasts. The manjira was hollow and light. besides being very attractive. were worn only by women. Slab-like gems when set into bracelets. Armlets or keyura for both sexes were close-fitting and could be engraved or set with jewels. The more delicate ones were made of filigree. A cloth sash or kayabandh was wound tightly many times around the waist for support and was sometimes crossed at the chest for protection. Anklets. a nd the style is still used in Tamil Nadu. like the phalakahara necklace. The nupura was plain while thekinkini had small bells suspended. These girdles. The finger ring or anguliyaka is visible on some of the Satavahana sculptures but only after A. Military Costume«Andhra soldiers wore an antariya which was shortened by lifting it at the hemline and tucking it into the waist to facilitate marching. were called phalakavalaya.coins necklace nishka strung on silk thread or plaited gold cord was worn in almost the same design as the modern putalya of Maharashtra and the malai of Tamil Nadu. or be in the shape of a snake. mekhala. the gold .D. like the contemporary mangamalai of South India. Jewelled girdles of one or many strings. Men and women wore bracelets valaya of solid gold set with precious stones. coiling several times around the ankles loosely. and elegant rope -shaped ones of fine gold wire were worn generally by women.150 The hemavaikasha was an ornament worn by women. They also used bangles of ivory and rhinoceros horn. A heavier looking one was the tulakotiI whose two ends were enlarged at their meeting point. held up the lower garment or antariya. In addition. were prevalent. seen more frequently in the Kushan period. were also used for the same purpose. worn again only by women. This developed in later times into the Channavira. This form is still worn in Andhra. These were made in several varieties from the tinkling kanci with bells to the rasana style made of a linked chain or strung with pearls. had an astonishing variety. and tinkling when in motion as it had gems inserted in the hollow. These gold coins were sometimes replaced by mango shaped pieces of gold or gold set with gems. cloth girdles or kayabandh like those of the men descri bed earlier in this chapter. This type is still worn in Manwar. also they could be straight -edged or have an angular top edge. continued to be in use and was often of gold set with rubies and emeralds. Tinkling anklets of any kind were not worn by the wife in the absence of her husband. Also. the shorter form of necklace. beads or precious stones.the muktayajnopavita. which was similar in function to the early Babylonian and Assyrian sword belts .
The bowstring was made of sinew or hemp. yellow. indigo. There were 30 inches long and beautiful crafted. and their helmet or sirastra had earflaps. bone. and simpler ones of bamboo or wood were used by the common soldier. shield. crimson. In addition. sometimes the mace. A very cheap material made of hemp was worn by the weavers and by labourers of all kinds. Since washermen were also dyers. Coarse and fine varieties of cotton were in great demand. these colors were known to them and the knowledge of the dyeing processes was . Smaller and more ornamental swords and draggers were fastened by gold chains. were purely functional and large enough to protect the body. bow. but the bamboo bow was more common. but it was used in the form of chaddars or blankets in winter. There was a variety of Dyes available from Vedic times. The club or gada could be short or long but was immensely heavy and was used for striking the enemy forcefully. They wore a heavy tunic with ruched sleeves which reached to the knees or mid-thigh. With it was worn a form of churidar or ruched trousers. the manufacture of textile in India had flourished and there are constant references to its variety in Brahmanical. Textiles and Dyes«From Mauryan times and even earlier. and wood and were carved into animal and other shapes. Swords were either curved or straight and could have sharp edge on one or both sides. black and turmeric. axe and spear. Saka foreign soldiers were employed by some of the Andhra kings in the royal bodyguard. The heads o f arrows were of iron. club. Footwear was not incumbent for soldiers and was probably worn by foreign rather than indigenous troops. The bow or dhanush made of wood or horn was painted red and gaily decorated.crossed at the chest with a metal buckle in the centre. Wool was not need much in the part of India ruled by Satavahanas. and javelin were used. The equipment of a trained fighter was mainly his sword. Sometimes a short quilted tunic was worn with a heavy drape over the left shoulder along with a turban-a mixture of the foreign and indigenous garment. and had shafts of feathers affixed with sinews. kosha. Buddhist and Jain works. mainly rectangular in shape. Shields. magenta. These swords in their sheaths. of fine-tooled leather were normally fastened on the left side of the waist. which had a warm climate. A wide sash was worn at the waist. Silk formed an important part of rich person¶s wardrobe. Sometimes the arrow tips were dipped in poison. the military personnel of this period occasionally wore earring and simple jewellery. Handles of Ivory or horn and hilts of precious metals encrusted with jewels were carried by those in command.
Mekhala: Six-stringed hip belt of gold or silver beads. calf length. in particular. NAGA KING «Kantha: broad and flat short necklace with four pendant pieces (base-metal). either painted or affixed. Persia and Rome.Sitara: large disc at the forehead. that is between the legs. of fine cotton with fluted ends in front. Baju Band: Decorative armlets worn on upper arms.Uttariya: Upper cloth of printed cotton worn crosswise on the head. worn in a looped knot with fringed ends.Karnika: Trumpet-shaped earrings.phalakahara style.Kayabandh: narrow pattika tied in a bow at the front of the waist. must also have been incorporated to extend their range of colored textiles. COURT ATTENDANT «Antariya: of sheer cotton.Lambanam: long necklace made of chains held at intervals by flat bands. like China.Karnika: simple disc-type earring called dehri. Varieties and mixtures of colors known to those countries with which the Satavahanas did a great deal of trade.Kangan: Ten bracelets adorning each hand.Kantha: Short necklace of five strings of beads in gold or silver. or had a pattern of birds along with flowers.she carries a fan typical of the times.pattika style.Kara: Anklets of twisted wire worn on both ankles.Hairstyle :centre parting. hair hanging loose to the shoulders and decorated with ornamental chains. Precious stones were often used in the borders of th ese uttariyas or they were dyed blue or red. The uttariya.Karnika: large cylindrical earring with a decorative design (base metal) . Kayabandh: Embroidered flat cloth band. but a spotless white remained the favourite with men.Kangan: both granulated and plain seen on the left arm .probably handed down to each successive generation.kantha: phalakahara style necklace. Printed and woven designs on textile were plentiful and embroidery in gold was also common among the richer classes. VILLAGE WOMAN«Antariya: Lower cloth. was very often of silk and embroidered with flowers all over.Sitara: Star shaped forehead ornament of gold or silv er with a stamped pattern.. worn inkachcha style.
KING AS HUNTER «Kancuka: mid-thigh length with round neck and short magyar-type sleeves. worn wrapped around the waist a couple of times and tucked in. hair is long. a short langotitype antariya is worn.Although not visible. the umbrella was normally a colored one with a handle of gold workmanship. the stripes indicate the folds of the drape. kundalatype.Kangan: heavy and cylindrical bracelets (base metal).Kayabandh : kakshyabandha style. ATTENDANTS«attendant on the left wears her hair parted at the left and hanging loosely to the shoulders. and is arranged in a topknot and five crests with ribbons like serpents' hoods. as worn by aboriginal. the rest of the cloth is then wound around the head. a thick roll worn aslant at the hips with beautiful ornamental tips and tied in large loop-knot. she wears her hair held back by a fillet and made into a top knot.Ushinsa: turban cloth wound with hair and twisted into a top knot.Belt : with granulated pattern worn higher thanantariya. her earrings are of the pendant type. a white one being the emblem of the king alone.Kayabandh: wide. the one on the right is the umbrella brearer or chhatradhar.Head-dress: turban is twisted around the head and held with a decorative band. PRINCE«Antariya: worn in kachcha style to below the knees. .The umbrella carrier was usually a woman.Karnika: ring-like earrings.Baju Band: thick cylindrical armlets with pendant pieces (base metal).
and are probably hollow. a brooch decorates the centre of the top knot.Hairstyle: simple top knot at the centre of the head very like that worn by the hiimen of South Manipur and Burma called the Chins. NAGA PRINCE «hair is arranged in a large top knot at the centre with the turban wound around the head after twisted it around the knot. the neck opening is obviously at the back.Uttariya: tied around the neck to free the arms Karnika: disc-type earrings called dehri. earrings are of the double disc-type. .Karnika: Kundala or ring-type earrings. SOLDIERS«Kancuka: both have shortsleeved tunics with round necks. earrings are disc-type and necklace is of thephalakahara style with chains held at intervals by flat pieces.They are carring a kind of spear in their hands. bracelets are made of base metal. necklace.ushnisa: turban twisted around and through double topknot of hair. the fillet is probably used to keep it in place.COURTIER «hair is brought forward in a 'conch-shell' knot and decorated. SOLDIERS «Kancuka : mid-thigh length tunic with short sleeves.They carry battle axes.
then twisted twice to form a knot at the right hip.Kantha: three of different sizes worn together to form a collar.Headgear: an ornamental disc worn in front ofjatta or knot of hair. coiling twice around and probably making a tinkling sound in movement Hairstyle: drawn back into a simple knot at the nape.Kayabandh: heavy.Hairstyle: loose to the shoulders with a small fringe at the forehead. PRINCE «Antariya: falling to the ankles. ATTENDANT «Kancuka: probably calf-length. draped formally across the chest and around the left shoulder . it has a gathered neckline with a band and long sleeves decorated with a braid in stripes.Uttariya: heavy and long.Valaya: simple bangles at the wrists.Valaya: three bracelets on each hand of some heavy metal or bone and incised with patterns.Belt: ornamental belt. wound twice around the waist . worn in kachchastyle with pleats tucked in at the back and visible in the front between the legs. falling in graceful loops at the sides with one rope-like loop in front.Kayabandh: elaborately rolled and twisted at the waist.Keyura: straight-edged armlets with pressed or filigree decoration.Kundala: ring-type earrings.Kantha: short necklace.kayabandh: simple vethaka style.Manjira: hollow light anklets. KING «Antariya: falling to the ankles.WOMAN «Ghagri: gathered calf-length skirt probably with a drawstring at the waist. but longed and wound several times around the waist.Headgear: an ornamental disc attached to a head band or top knot .Keyura: flat and decorative armlets. worn in kachchastyle with pleats tucked in at the back and visible in the front between the legs. the other end suspended in front ends in two ornamental tips.headgear: turban with a .Kayabandh: twisted rope-like around the waist.Kundala: ring-type earring.Uttariya: wrapped loosely around the hips and draped over the left arm.Belt: ornamental belt.valaya: several bangles of ivory or rhinoceros horn.Kundala: ring-type earrings with tassels suspended.Kundala: ring-type earring.
BUDDHA «Antariya: worn in lehnga style almost up o ankle length. PRINCE«Antariya: worn in kachcha style and spread out after tucking in at the back. with the pleated ends passed between the legs and tucked in at the back centre.Kundala: suspended disc-type earrings.Hairstyle: in top knot. in double fish -tail style. he carries a staff.Kayabandh: simple sash vethaka style.Kancuka: fork-length tunic with long sleeves and round neckline .fan-shaped frill.This depiction of the Buddha on his way to Yashodara.Kantha: collar-like necklace. CHATTRADHARA «Antariya: ends a little above the ankles. then looped in the front so that the two ends are worn loosely spread out as a frill at each side. FEMALE«Kirita: a crown-like headgear with semi-circular motifs in front and larger lotus petal designs at the back. tied at the back with hanging ends. MALE«Ushnisa: turban tied casually in a knot with one end going down the other up. the shorter hair being allowed to hang loose around the face. kachchastyle.Hairstyle: in top knot. the little frills in the front could be just a puff of the antariya pulled out at the waist over the nada.Kayabandh: rolled twice at the waist. .Uttariya: wide upper cloth draped across the body to form folds and resting on the left arm. worn hanging loose at the back. The Uttariya could be the large chaddar used when travelling.Umbrella: white with gold work on the handle.Probably a master of ceremonies.Kundala: large ringtype earrings. his wife.Hairstyle: simple. PRINCE«long hair is drawn up into several twisted loops held by two twisted coils.
. hunting gear. both these styles fused to create the Renaissance of Gupta Art. The color of their garments was reddish-yello and no jewellery was worn.Uttariya: the upper cloth has a border and is worn in an interesting drape on the left shoulder and hangs at the back loosely to fork length. DVARPALA: DOOR-KEEPER«Kancuka: knee-length tunic of heavy cloth with long ruched sleeves and gathered neckline. while retaining the massive scale of Bharut and Sanchi. where the wiry line of the drawing with its flat brilliant colors dominated by lapis-lazuli gives a heraldic appearance. like the group of portrait statues found at Mathura.This depiction of the Buddha as preacher gives an idea of the type of clothes worn by those Buddhist monks who travelled and preached both in India and abroad. which they stitched on their garments. Of Scythian origin. formal depiction of the Kushan Kings.Kayabandh: wound several times around the waist. It is an if in the provocative display of courtesans with their sinuous bodies in the tribhanga pose and the delicate flower-like gesture of the hands. But they had lived for many years in Bactria before entering India and this prepared them for the role they were to play as great patrons of the arts.Churidar: narrow ruched trousers.BUDDHA «Antariya: worn in lehnga style. some times with ear flaps.Headgear: helmet with peaked top called sirastra.Hairstyle: in top knot. however there are the wall paintings at Kizil in Afghanistan. and in the ornamental plaques. had carvings more sophisticated and images more flamboyant and sensuous than had been seen before. their only expression had been the metal work displayed in their horse trappings. In the same period. as seen in the development of the Gandhara art and the evolution of the indigenous art of Mathura. Later. The Kushans were not originally an artistic people. showing in complete detail the kind of heavy garments they wore. Kushans Style«The Kushan influence was felt in what developed into the Gandhara art and the art of Mathura which. The latter have the still. the foreigners had found aspects of the Indian experience that fired their imagination. static and frozen.Torque: necklace of twisted wire.
An earlier version was used by the Saka warriors. traders. to free the spread of knees when riding a horse. The trousers could be of linen. redbrown in color. square. khapusa. The close-fitting knee-length tunic was sometimes made of leather. The chugha was coat-like and decorated with a border down the chest and hemline. bashylk. or triangular sewn in lines or at the central seams of the tunic. The dress was worn by most of Scythian and Iranian races and resembled particularly that of the Parthians. uttariya. These loose or close-fitting trousers. The Kushan (Indo-scythian) dress had evolved from a nomad culture based on the use of the horse. and where climatically sewn garments were more suitable.a mixture of foreign and indigenous garments. how some of the purely draped garments of the Indians were replaced by cut -and ±sewn garments. This is the palla (draped ± over garment worn over a long . Their purpose was not only decorative but functional as well. etc. (ii) guardians and attendants of the harem-usually the indigenous and sewn kancuka. There are fifth category . the clothes were simple. were tucked into soft padded boots with leather trappings. Clothes for women were varied. silk or muslin in summer but were woolen or quilted in winter. At Gandhara there are figures wearing a sari like garment which seems to have evolved from palmyrene (Graeco -Roman) or pure Roman dress. Along with this was worn the scythian pointed cap of felt. or peaked helmet or head band with two long ends tied at the back. they were often adorned with stamped gold or metal plates. It is interesting to note that elaborate embroidered panels later replaced these gold or metal plates. simple or elaborately decorated. It consisted of a ruched long sleeves tunic with a slit for the neck opening.Costume«Kushan costumes may be divided into five types: the costume worn by (I) indigenous people-the antariya. by gathering the cloth along the seams. worn loose or crossed over from right to left and secured by a belt of leather or metal. Begram. rectangular. It is seen at Mathura. This helped to give the distinctive draped effect with four sharp pointed ends at the hemline. This last category is of great interest as it shows how clothes changed and evolved. (iii) foreign Kushan rulers and their entourage. where the tunic was simply picked up and tucked into the belt on two sides at centre front. and (iv) other foreigners such as grooms. as they helped lift the tunic in the middle for riding. The drape of trousers too was held in place by means of these gold or metal plates stitched do wn the centre front. chalana. circular. Taxila. and kayabandh. and Surkh Kotal in Afghanistan. Although. and with it could be worn a short cloak or a calf -length woolen coat or caftan. occasionally a third garment t he chugha was used. Besides these two upper garments. and had slits to facilitate movement. especially in north and north-west where influences were felt more keenly.
a large shawl. in addition.uttariys and kayabandh continued to be the main costumes of Indians with slight modifications. The long ruched sleeves are visible underneath and could be sh ortened version of Roman long gown (stola) worn as covering for the breasts. The wearing of an uttariya with the sari is still seen in the fisher-folk of Maharashtra. These Gandhara figures are some of the most intriguing sculptures of the Kushan period. which is extended in length. In addition. The latter is not passed between the legs as the kachcha style. which was typical of the Roman matron) pinned at the left shoulder.gown with ruched sleeves. but is worn crossed-over in the lehnga style. . There are also some figures of women wearing close fitting ruched trousers with a long-sleeved jacket and an uttariya. and may well show the beginning of the sari and one of the earlier attempts to create a garment to cover the breasts. In yet another female figure we find a Persian-influenced knee or mid-thigh length tunic. jasmine and other scents. The purely indigenous antariya. anantariya. The kayabandh became a more loosely worn informal piece of attire. trousers were worn by Greek and Persian women. It is said the Amazons wearing trousers formed the royal guards of the king. the typical Indian uttariya is worn across the back and over both arms. The difference in some of the Gandhara female figures is that they wear. They are gathered in folds from lengths about 6 -8 feet. and was a wide twisted sash used mainly by women in many delightful ways to enhance the suppleness of the waist. stanamsuka. and have a decorative border at the hem and at the centre front seam. ghagri. These females guards adapted their own phygian costume to a tight mid-thigh length jacket with crossover at the neck and a gathered or pleated skirt worn with the antariya. In the earlier period. with a side seam and nada or string to hold them up at the waist are also seen. The tunic. is form-fitting with long sleeves. worn with the antariya. This long antariya is worn in the kachcha style but one end continues over the left shoulder and is broached there like the palla. Besides the above mentioned. and Indian jewellery completes the ensemble. stanamsuka. a simple round neckline. the lehnga style antariya and uttariya is sometimes worn. along with a crossed vaikaksha with metal buckle shield and sword. continued to be worn by both sexes as protection against th e cold and it was known to have been perfumed with bakul. The pravara or chaddar. Servants and dancers from many parts of the world were brought into the country from a very early period in Indian history. But very little in the way of elaborate jewellery is used. The total ensemble looks very much like the Deccani sari of today. This wou ld fall under the category of a mixture of foreign and indigenous garments. Simple stitched skirts. and flaring at the hemline.
it was said to symbolize love. Headgear and Hairstyles : Men«Men continued to wear the turban. made of nard leaves on fabric. Fillets or bands tied on the forehead were common. a jewelled net. The common man moved around bare-headed or . shells. The chaplet of leaves. or hanging to one side. There is little evidence of long hair being worn loose. However. The knob at the centre or side of the head. or in the hair. and brooches and decorative hairpins continued to be worn. They wear their hair in a tuft at the forehead. The Scythian pointed cap was frequently used as was the crown or mukuta. which covers the line of parting. This tuft is in the form of a ball or disc. folded in and held with a br ooch at the nape or worn in chignon which protrudes at right angle to the neck or almost vertically upwards. was even exported to Rome. Ratnavali. the rest of the hair is drawn back. reeds or cotton-plant stalks. At other times. But srajas or flower garlands were the most popular and could be of many kinds. worn at the waist.Headgear and Hairstyles : Women«The wearing of the uttariya on the head seems to have almost disappeared in this period and most of the women in indigenous costume are seen bare-headed. now called mauli. sometimes joined at the tips at the back. a simpler line of twisted rolls of the fabric itself is more in evidence with hardly any of the complications of intertwining the hair with the turban cloth. or else of silk of many colors and steeped in unguents. peacock feathers. often softened by curls on the forehead or at the nape especially in the northwest. A sprig of the mimosa tree tucked into the turban was said to give protection against the evil eye. They were sometimes supported by munja grass. Apart from flowers. neck. The commoner would probably wear hers in a simple knot at the nape as is worn today. but when arranged it was usually in one or two plaits. around which the turban was woun d to form a large protuberance. Flowers were used to decorate the hair and chaplets of leaves are frequently seen around the high topknot of hair. Young men had begun to cut their hair short and adopted a short skirted tunic with their antariya. as in the Mauryan-Sunga period. especially in northwestern India. When bareheaded. the hair was worn in a topknot or in the shape of a bow. a band of diadem. horn and bone ornaments. and fruit and berries were woven together to form decorative ornaments. Turbans wound around the foreign pointed scythic cap made of striped fabrics and decorated with rows of pearls or a diadem were frequently used. slowly disappeared. If one from the asoka tree was worn. and sometimes a µrelic¶ or box containing scented sandal or some other perfume paste is secured to the bun by a ribbon. leaves. Sometimes a bow of cloth is placed saucily on top of the head. or twisted cord or scarf is tied around the head and over the bun.
while others had cores of jasper and turquoise paste and were strung on thread or wire to be worn as necklaces called kantha. Besides this. Head ornaments were varied. we noticed a tendency towards greater refinement and simplicity in this period. was worn only by women. Jewellery«In relation to the Mauryan-Sunga period. Gold or silver hairpins with attractively ornamented heads held up hair.eyes were embedded or sometimes strung in various ways and worn as ornaments.used his kayabandh or uttariyato form a casual turban on the head against the sun in almost the same way as is seen today in India. as were the Sakas and Kushans. a simple necklace of gold wire. diamonds and cat¶s . the art of enameling was known. As the turban and head veils of women went out of fashion they were replaced by a bejewelled diadem or crown called mukuta. The pendant type often had decorative rosettes and granulation. Shell and terra -cotta beads continued to be strung and worn by the poorer classes. as well as inlay work in shell and mother-of-pearl. Sapphires. except for foreigners who are depicted as wearing none. These included carnelians¶s. Gold and silver were often encrusted with ratna or jewels. the simpler kind was used by men. scythian in origin. which remained popular. garnets. coral. This was simpler and lighter than that in the previous period. It was a characteristic ornament of the Scythian and Celtic people and was worn as a mark of distinction by the Persian and parthians. a ring elaborately decorated with beads as well as bud-like pendants. all of whom were of the same stock. called nishka. and these continued to be for making jewellery. or a simple fillet or headband called opasa. and pearls. Simple bangles of glass. silver was known as rupya. These were used in addition to the garlands of flowers. or ivory were also used. lapis lazuli. The mekhala or girdle was mainly of beads and along with nupura or anklet. The earrings. Foreigners wore the torque. were of three types and most often of gold though there is evidence of ivory ones as well. sraja. topaz. There is an absence of forehead ornaments like the sitara and bindi of the Mauryan-Sunga period. and copper as tamra. Stringing coins to be worn as necklaces. . that is. could be simple with a gold wire wound around or mixture of both types. Men continued to wear the mauli(turban). shell. Of these. and elaborately or namented and inlaid. kundala. was in vogue. Both men and women wore these. or long ones worn between the breasts known as hara. The ring type. agates. Armlets were known as keyura and bracelets as valaya. Gold was much in use and was called hiranya and suvarana. Gold beads were beautifully filigreed or filled with lac. Those for women were often made thick or thin sheets of gold with hinged clasps. amethysts.
This could be a foreign-influenced improvement on the indigenous equipment for soldiers. and Yarkhand. This included Kashgar. and board swords three men carried smaller shields and were equipped with two lances each. Buddhists missions too were sent to china. Khorez. attached to a backing. and his bare legs are encased in greaves. Another soldier is seen wearing full foreign garments in the same army. tulapansi. brooches. All three soldiers carried shields and equipment¶s of various kinds. Foot soldiers are said to have used six-foot bows with very long arrows. Many other geometric patterns of checks. Antariya were very rarely decorated and when they were. and doorkeepers. Both indigenous and foreign skills were plentiful but still very expensive. In the northwestern is coarse cotton and wool were used for making tunics and trousers for horsemen. In central India textiles wer e of lightweight cotton. made indigenously of metal lic wires. rather than woven wire. The third soldier in this army of Mara wears the purely Indian antariya and has his uttariya wound around his waist. Turban cloth for rich women were often diagonally striped with every third line made of pearls. On his head is a three-cornered helmet. tall shields made of undresses ox hide. Coats of mail are said to have been. At the Ghandhara site of Kushans is a soldier of Mara¶s (Apollo¶s) army wearing the Indian antariya and turban with a Graeco-Roman style of breastplate or coat of mail. Khotan. Ivory was used extensively to make combs. Greeks and then the Kushans. but rode without saddles. which is visible at the hem and sleeves. woven into a gauze known as jalaka. some plain. Bactria. hunters. probably iron. Indian traders settled down in Chinese Turkestan. They were later taken over by the Persians. Textiles and Dyes«For the first time trade with China was directly established through the ancient silk route. they appear to have been either embroidered. But the soldier¶s coat of mail appears to be made of metal scales. woven. Augustus encouraged trade with India and exports increased resulting in a flourishing merchant class. His coat of mail is worn over a short tunic. Military Costume«It is in the military dress of the Mauryan-Sunga period we find the earliest traces of foreign influence on indigenous garments. and Sogdiania in Central Asia. hairpins. foreigners. others incised with tiny fingers. This bejewelled material was also used to cover beds and seats. or printed in diagonal check design s enclosing small circles. boxes and other objects. had at one time been some of the most important cultural centres of the ancient world. In Rome. which was annexed by Kanishka. which suggests the well-known whitish grey felt cap of the Tibetans and Khorezmians. stripes and triangles .Finger rings were of solid god. the Kushan King.
the end that is passed between the legs has been tucked in at the back. In a list compiled of fabrics recovered from the ancien t silk route.Nupura : anklets-wide rings with an elaborate design. a thick jewelled roll worn aslant which has a large clasp at the left hip. . yellow.Valaya : bracelets of two kinds : the central one consists of a series of rings like a wrist band. There is. much literary evidence of sophistication of Indian textiles from the earliest times. yellow-brown.Kayabandh : there are two : one is a wide sash tied in a loop on both sides to the knees with steamers at each side of the hips hanging to floor length. hair tied in a looped knot projecting vertically at the back. These are all variants and mixtures of the colors in dyes that were available in India in this period.Mukuta : bejewelled crown on the head and a head band. which can be dated to between the first century BC and the second century AD (Han Period in China). rich dark yellow-brown. it holds the antariya and cloth kayabandh in place. of looped design in gold or silver. dark bronze-green.Keyura : simple armlets.were also printed and woven. in addition. it is possible to maintain that many of the patterns and colors would be similar. the other piece is looped to mid-thigh in front and the end tucked in a small looped frill at the centre. Based on this evidence we may presume that the dyes and textiles of Chinese origin available along this route would surely have found their way into India. rich red.Anguliya : finger rings of solid gold. fabrics in the following color were found: bright blue. the other is kakshyabandha. bronze-brown.Kundala : square earrings decorated with a flower motif and with pearls suspended. Hence. dark blue -copper.Hairstyle : small symmetrical curls at the forehead. on both sides are larger rigid bracelets. crimson brown.Hara : necklace of pearls. But a large variety of fabrics were recovered from the burial grounds along the silk route. probably strung on thread or wire and worn between the breasts. pink. It is only from literary sources that we know of the textiles and dyes available in the earlier period. light blue.Mekhala : five-stringed pearl or jewelled hip belt. crimson. yellow-green. We know for a fact that the beautiful ultra -marine and lapis lazuli blue were sent along the trade route from the famous mines at Badakshan in Central Asia. There is no evidence of actual fabrics being made in India before the twelfth or thirteenth century. or had influenced indigenous fabrics.Kantha : Short necklace of beads with central pendant and looped chains. dull gold buff. COURT LADY «Antariya : worn extremely short in kaccha style.
Valaya : four bangles on left .MILK MAID«Ghagri : simple narrow calf-length skirt stitched at the centre-front border.Tunic : with front opening. A mixture of foreign and indigenous costume.Sitara : round ornament on the forehead. the left end is loosely tucked in at the waist.Keyura : armlets of same decorative design as forkantha.She rests her pitcher on a head-rest probably of cane.kantha : short flat necklace with decorative design . tunic is form-fitting. YAKSHI: FEMALE DOOR ± KEEPER«Antariya : worn in lehnga style. long ruched sleeves have ruching held by jewelled bands or buttons.Valaya : simple ring-type bangles. this is an example of the earliest form of a stitched lower garment for women.Mekhala : four-stringed girdle with clasp and decorative leaf at the centre. held at the neck by button.Antariya : could be chalana-Kushan loose trousers. the other end being taken across the body and over the left shoulder. FEMALE«Anatriya : sari-like.Hairstyle : hair at the front is divided into three portions. the central one is made into roll.Mixture of foreign and indigenous costume.She carries a long spear and round embossed shield. FEMALE GUARD«Tunic : Kushan type with long ruched sleeves.Head-dress : chaplet of leaves or turban with a central flower worn around the top knot of hair . twisted in parts.Uttariya : worn across the back and over both shoulders.Kayabandh : simple sash.Hara : one long pearl necklace worn between the breasts and one short one with a pendant.Nupura : heavy ring-type anklets. simply wrapped around and tucked in at the left.Valaya : three bangles are visible on the right hand. worn in the kachcha style.Kundala :simple ring-type earrings. the two at the side are combed do wnwards with tassels suspended.Hara : long necklet worn between the breasts.Uttariya : thrown casually over the shoulders. it has either a drawstring through it to is rolled over a string. like an inverted basket.Kayabandh : twisted sash.Kundala : large ring-type earrings.
then wound around and worn over the left shoulder .Mixture of foreign and indigenous costume.Nupura : heavy double rings on the ankles. DONOR FIGURE «Antariya : sari-like.Chugha : a coat which is longer than the tunic.Hairstyle : in a double knot at the centre of the head. the other end is partly pleated and tucked in at the front. This early form of kachchastyle sari is still used in Maharashtra and parts of South India. KING KANISHKA«Tunic : calf-length and heavy quilted. with braid at the bottom edge. only the pleated end hanging at the back has been shortened .Kantha : short necklace.Uttariya : worn over the left shoulder across the back and under the right arm.Purely indigenous style. worn open at centre front.Kundala : twisted or suspended disc earrings. pleated and tucked in at the back.Hara : pearl necklace worn between the breasts.Nupura : simple ring-type anklets. He holds two swords in decorative scabbards. tied in front.Valaya : one bangle on each wrist. it has a decorative braid at the centre front and hem with probably long gathered-up sleeves.wrist.This is the dress of Kushan for foreigner of Saka-Parthian origin. then across the chest and taken again over the left shoulder .Belt : of metallic decorative plaques.Hairstyle : chaplet of leaves.Mixture of foreign and indigenous costume. DONOR FIGURE «Antariya : kachcha style.Boots : padded.Tunic : Kushan style. with straps around ankle and under the boot held together by a decorative clasp.Hairstyle : centre parting with long hair looped on one side. either the boots are calf length or baggy trousers (chalana) have been inserted into short boots. while one end is passed between the legs.Kundala : simple disc-like earrings. .Belt : with granulated pattern worn higher thanantariya or worn short to waist.
KUSHAN KING«Chugha : calf-length with a wide richly embroidered border down the centre -front opening, hem and edge of long sleeves (probably ruched); the material of the coat has small rosettes and a V-neck and there is a round motif on the right sleeve.Tunic : Kurta-like undergarment visible at the neck.Chalana : baggy trousers tucked into calflength padded boots; there is a wide band of vine pattern at the centre from toe to top (not visible in drawing); straps around the ankle and instep.Kantha : short necklace with pendant.Purely foreign costume of Scythic origin. SOLDIER«Antariya : worn in kachcha style.Armour : chain armour made of scale or rhombus-patterned plaques, fastened together with strings (like a Japanese or Tibetan armour); the end of the sleeves, waist and hem are strengthened with cording; the skirt portion is made of parallel rows of rectangular plaques.Mauli : turban made of twisted roll of cloth.Equipment : round shield and spear.This is a mixture of foreign and indigenous costume. The armour is Graeco Roman. SOLDIER«Antariya : transparent calf-length and worn in thelehnga style.Armour : scale armour with V-neck and short sleeves; the skirt portion is of square-linked design and of mid-thigh length.Tunic : Visible at the hem and sleeves.Equipment : sword belt with flat, short sword; strap across the chest, probably for quiver; round shield with patterned design,Mauli : turban wound several times and tied at the right side.Mixture of foreign and indigenous costume. GUARD«Antariya : worn in kachcha style up to the ankles.Tunic : knee-length, a fully quilted garment with thick cording at the waist, neck and hem..Quilted upper garments are still worn in north India in winter. Mixture of foreign and indigenous costume.
FEMALE COURT ATTENDANT«this simple hairstyle is made by parting the hair at the centre, drawing it to the right side and allowing it to hang in a loop at the right shoulder COURT LADY«hair is worn in a tuft at the centre as in the figure of Court Lady (Mathura), curls frame the face; rest of the hair is drawn into a knot which is vertically placed at back centre; a turban has been twisted and wound casually around the hair. COURT LADY«a tuft of hair covers the line of parting; it has been to form a ball; rest of the hair is drawn back, looped and held in position by a clip or brooch . COURTIER«Mauli : turban worn simpler than in the previous period: no intertwining of the hair with the cloth; decorated with some clasps in front;there is also a decorative ring at the top through which a string of pearls is passed and attached to the sides . DONOR FIGURE«Mauli : turban of rich material is surmounted by twisted rolls of cloth from the centre of which the pleated end is visible in a decorative fan shape; a band is used crosswise to give shape to the turban. EARRING«Kundala : of gold 'leech and pendant' type; the ring or leech attaches itself to ear and the pendant bud is suspended by a movable ring with granulation's. NECKLACE«Kantha : short necklace of gold in the spearhead and drop' design
UNIT 4.............Mughal influence
The Mughals established one of the greatest empires inunited India. Their leisurely and relaxed lifestyle provided the artisans of the time with an atmosphere of creativity and experimentation with contemporary ideas and philosophies. Some contemporary trends appeared in the miniature painting as local artists were introduced to new trends, which the Mughals had brought with them from the Safavid Court., Islamic inscriptions, symmetry in motifs and overall design, and a tendency towards uniformity in shapes. Mughal emperors paid special attention to textiles ² patterning, cuts and delicate hand work on their garments. The trends and styles that they developed were modern and contemporary to the Subcontinent and are still replicated by architects, artists, film directors and the fashion designers, around the world.Textiles flourished remarkably under the Mughals. Various techniques of crinkling, dying, patterning and embroidery were explored. Lahore received special attention and grew into a leading centre of textile production. Twenty varieties of woollen cloth alone were exported from Lahore to different parts of the Subcontinent and abroad.For weaving shawls there were one thousand karkhanas in the city. Silk weaving also received special encouragement and silk cloth produced in Punjab gained fame throughout the world.Because of its finesse, Indian cotton became very popular in Europe as it was not only colourfast but also far cheaper than the linen available there. This remarkable influence in European markets resulted in many Indian clothing and textile terms entering English and other European languages e.g. bandana, calico (plain-weave cotton fabric with simple block printed design), cashmere (wool from Kashmiri goats), cummer band (a waist band or girdle), dangree (coarse cloth woven with two or more threads per weave), khaki (dust coloured cloth used for military uniforms), muslin (thin cotton fabric), pajama, shawl etc.The priceless legacy of miniature paintings and chronicles from the Mughal era provide an insight into the dress code of the nobility at the time. By examining them one can easily determine that µcostume designing¶ was a major art form that received special encouragement by all the Mughal emperors.Interestingly, each emperor maintained his own contemporary style of dressing in court and otherwise. Babar who was brought up in the cooler climate of Turkistan, retained the costumes of his homeland; the most popular garments in his period were µchafan¶ (long coat) and µpostin¶ (sheep skin coat). It can be said that he must have worn them for traditional rather than practical reasons. Humayun introduced Persian elements in the costumes. He was notorious for seeking the help of planetary movements (every day) in choosing what to wear. He also maintained a special treasure house in his palace to accommodate textiles and garments.Akbar¶s long reign was largely a peaceful one. In this period there was a combination of Indian and imported skills and techniques, which lead to the flowering of classical forms and shapes and later became an integral part of Indian dress design. Akbar took the initiative of introducing local textiles, which were best suited to the hot climate of the region. He himself took interest in the fashioning of court dresses and introduced the µChakdar jama¶ to his court, which is a cross over tunic, with slits around the skirt and an asymmetrical hemline. Although it was in fashion in India since medieval times, Akbar restyled the garment and developed it into a formal gown by removing slits, rounding the hemline and increasing the fullness of the skirt.The emperor was smart enough in maintaining the freedom and religious identity as the Hindu Chakdar Jama was fastened on the left side of the body and Muslims fastened it on the right side.Akbar also developed a vocabulary of clothing and textile. Some new terms were introduced; jama was renamed µsarbgati¶ meaning, that which covers the entire body, µizar¶ (drawers) was renamed µyar pirahan¶ meaning µcompanion of the coat¶, µburqa¶ and µhijab¶ (over garment covering the body and face) were named µhitragupta¶ (Sanskrit word) meaning µthat which hides the face¶ and µshawl¶ took the name µparamnarm¶ meaning µextremely soft¶
and paintings dating back to this reign reveal the evidence of Indianisation of Persian fashions in the royal court. The palettes depict people dressed in caps or head-bands. Indian literature is one of the oldest literatures in the world but the Vedic or pre-Vedic period has no record of veil or ³ghunghat. [INDIA] The Veil as Ghunghat & Purdah . they are required to observe purdah by wearing µburqua¶ ± a dress that covers Islamic women from head to toe. the women in Rajasthan started to cover their face to avoid attracting specifically the Muslim invaders.Although the behavioral rules of purdah are complex and depend upon the particular context and region. Mughal influence on textiles 1. The royal garments became more decorated and lavish with heavy embellishments of floral designs. [INDIA] Shalwar Kameez is a traditional garment worn by both men and women due to its modesty with Muslim values. Traditionally. purdah is generally a cultural practice that confines women within the four walls of their homes.Coinage and stone palettes found show and Persian influences in clothing . weaving and embroidering of Kashmiri flora on textiles. all women figures as exemplified by different goddess statues are bare-headed and their faces are never veiled´ However. the women are forced to cover their faces both in public and in privacy of their houses. . veil in Indian subcontinent was introduced only after Muslim invasions. loose garment worn like an over coat in winters).The Mughal rule is considered a µgolden age¶ of textile crafts in the Sub-continent. women are supposed to have a Ghoonghat in front of the family elders and men. luxury and exuberance of the garments. jutis (shoes) and farji (kind of a coat) etc.Shah Jahan¶s reign marked the height of aristocratic elegance and opulence in all the forms of art. ruched long sleeved Tunics. calf-length Coats worn loose crossed-over from right to left and secured with leather or metal belt and baggy trousers. ³In the mythic past of Hindu culture. He introduced a garment called µnadiri¶ (literally mean rarity) which was a type of overcoat worn over the jama. The veil appears for the first time in 16th century literature written in Hindi language. with the Muslim invasions came the purdah system for Hindu women to practice. In contrast. The intricate patterning of clothing and the delicate embellishments done by hand marked the finesse. jamas. emperor Jahangir initiated the printing. Strong evidence in favor can be seen by the absence of veil among women in Southern India where there is no insistence on head cover or other such practices neither in public nor in private places. a µBikandar coat¶ and a µriding coat¶. in most northern states. If they must leave the house. comfort and freedom of movement.During his reign. patka. choghas and angrakhas remained the height of fashion along with accessories for men such as the atamsukh (a long. turban (the style of tying the turban varied according to social status). Mughal ornamentation. while Hindu women do not.Aurangzeb also promoted the same lavish style on clothing. Motifs were outlined with gold thread coupled with µpietra-dura¶ effect of the precious stones. except husbands and close family members Purdah is practiced to protect the dignity of woman. The garment was designed exclusively for him. The Shalwar Kameez has a very significant place in the History of the Textiles and traces its roots back to the Evidence of Persian influence on Textiles and Clothing in India can be traced to the Kushan dynasty . By the seventeenth century. Muslims practice this particular form of purdah. The intrusions and wars of course left no marks of those garments.Unlike Muslim and Christian traditions veil has very recent history in Hindu culture and society. received fresh impetus. In the museums one finds only two surviving garments from his period. 2. in some parts of India.Ghoonghat or Ghunghat is a Hindi word which describes a type of veil or headscarf worn by Indian women to cover their head.. especially those for the garments.
with slits around the skirt and an asymmetrical hemline. . His reign encouraged a synthesis of Persian and Indian styles in everything from architecture to clothing. The court Garments of era were marked by intricate patterning of clothing and delicate handmade embellishments. During subsequent reigns of Shah Jahan and Aurangazeb the royal garments became more decorated with heavy embellishments of floral designs. Block printing and the art of Kalamkari (meaning pen work) were rejuvenated with Persian influences of Persian flower motifs and designs by the 17th century. Humayun introduced Persian elements in the court costumes. Interestingly. By the seventeenth century. The men dressed in a Tunic called Jamah and was worn with close fitting Pajama trousers called Izar and later known as Shalwar. crinkling. patterning and embroidery were developed and encouraged.The present day Shalwar Kameez in its various styles is an adaptation of the clothing of Mughal era. Akbar restyled the garment and developed it into a formal gown by removing slits. styles and shapes that later became an integral part of Indian Dress Design. Turban (the style of tying the turban varied according to social status).Textiles flourished remarkably under the Mughals.The precursor of the current Cummerband was another popular piece of clothing (called Kamarbandh meaning waistband) worn as girdle or waistcoat by both men and women to enhance the bust-line. This led to the flowering of classical forms. He himself took interest in the fashioning of Court Dresses and introduced the Chakdar Jamah to his court. The most popular Garments in his period were a long Coat called Chafan and a sheep-skin Overcoat called Postin worn with Pajama-like trousers. Babar who laid the foundation for the empire retained the costumes of his homeland. The Tunic was tightened at the waist by a belt of fabric with tassels called Patka. Patka. dying. Although it was in fashion in India since medieval times. Humayun's successor Akbar led the empire to its classic and most flourishing period in history. Motifs were outlined with gold thread coupled with µPietra-dura¶ effect of the precious stones. Chogha(cape) and Anghrakha remained the height of fashion along with accessories for men such as the Atamsukh (a long. Jutis (shoes) and Farji (kind of a coat) etc. His son. The Jamah which was knee long in the beginning. which is a cross over Tunic. Jamah. which were best suited to the hot climate of the region. The Mughal rule is considered a µgolden age¶ of textile crafts in the Sub-continent. rounding the hemline and increasing the fullness of the Skirt.. Various techniques of weaving. loose garment worn like an overcoat in winters). Akbar took the initiative of introducing local textiles. reached up to the ankles (referred to as Sarbgati meaning that which covers the entire body) in the later Mughal days. each emperor maintained his own contemporary style of dressing in court and otherwise. The women's Dress of the empire consisted of close fitting trousers paired with a bodice (a variation of Jamah called Angharakha or Qameez) that came down to the end of the Shalwar and worn with a half-sleeved embroidered open Jacket with a delicate transparent Shawl (called Paramnarm meaning extremely soft) draped like a sari.
1918-1929. The "College Man" and "The Flapper" became the new icons of all that was young and fashionable. Soft V-necklines. and short hair. along with the generation that spawned it. ever since. Hems which had risen from floor length to ankle length prior to the war. considered racy in 1912-14. rose to mid calf length by 1916. and in America voting for women was won in 1920. American culture in particular became very youth oriented. This is why clothing after the 1914-1918 War period is instantly recognizable as "Modern" to our eyes. and have stayed that high. Hobble skirts were instantly jettisoned in favor of slightly wider more practical skirts. but once it became acceptable to do so.. and practical for women working near the front lines. were rapidly accelerated by wartime conditions. gradually more and more women did in the following decades. The most lasting change happened to women's hemlines. Several trends that had roots in the decades prior to the war. Chanel. Poiret. The tendency for female office workers to wear feminized versions of men's suits and shirts (common since 1900) became virtually standard by this time.. not high button boots. which also influenced the shape of fashionable dress.. Vionnet. not just to men's only club functions. To a great extent people believed that those values were discredited. but the most noticeable change engendered by the war was a relaxation of the formal rules of attire which had bound men and women's dress since early in the Victorian era.Influence of change in costumes Dress from WWI to WWII. Not only did women's hemlines rise to mid-calf length.The First World War (1914-1918) had a pronounced effect on women's fashion in the Western world.1915-16. the dominant style for fabric decoration and interior design until WWII. but more exciting yet. Tail coats and frock coats began only to be worn on highly formal occasions.. Several avant-garde fashions.. and soft "lingerie" shirts with soft collars attached to them. Most women did not suddenly cut their hair. The few women who were soldiers (mostly in Russia and Serbia) were featured in pictoral magazines internationally with close cropped hair and tales of heroism. c. Fashion trends towards a more casual look continued in the 1920's. Young and daring women dumped the corset in favor of brasseries..UNIT 5. became normal daywear after 1915. Young men wore the more casual "Tuxedo" jacket to formal evening occasions. ladies wore these shorter styles with sexy heeled shoes and flesh toned silk stockings.. During the war. in breast flattening styles. a dye shortage. and fashion began to look towards teen and collegeage kids for it's inspiration. replaced corsets . Notable European designers like Erte. The Brassiere. were promoted as practical fashions for war work. and put into a variety of uniforms.After the War in 1918 the Suffragettes finally won the vote in the UK. Women in particular began dieting to mold their bodies into a slimmer. Short hair was considered a safety measure for certain factory workers. or higher.. decried before the war as sinful and ugly. Army officers wore Wristwatches instead of pocket watches. flatter teenage shape and dress waistlines dipped to hip length to minimize the appearance of adult curves. during a time of high boned necklines..Large numbers of women were recruited into military organizations on all sides. people questioned the values of the older generation that had led to the conflict. Zamora and Delaunay all worked in this style through the succeeding decades. and were eventually stylized into a form which came to be know as Art Deco. Orientalist fashions continued to be popular. to be almost fully replaced by the modern sack suit. and fabric shortages encouraged a cert ain utilitarian drabness in dress.Barbier. like women's trousers.Women's Suits. In the aftermath of the war.
and better armed.Sex too. Women's hemlines dipped back down to mid calf length for day wear. for sex without consequences than before the war.almost completely. The result was that returning soldiers and nurses were better informed. Rubber condoms (previously hard to find and illegal in most places) were sporadically issued to soldiers along with primitive sex education lessons. Men's suits became sharper edged. Waistlines moved back to the waist and adult female curves again became fashionable. an idea that would have seemed indescribably foreign. Women's Hairstyles got longer. Shorter hair styles necessitated hat shapes that held to the head without benefit of hatpins. and even painting them with colored enamels.As soon as the great Stock Market Crash of 1929 hit the US economy. African American tailors in Harlem even revived the long frock coat. decadent and erotic to the previous generation. particularly lipstick. increasingly fashionable. a style trend that continued through the 1940's. was worn out in California by Hispanics. with more shoulder padding. Early versions of "permanent wave" hair curling also spawned a new industry of "Beauty Shops" where women could meet in groups while having hair cut and curled. and full length for evening wear. Advances in the treatment of Syphilis also made extramarital sex less lethal than before. The influence of Hollywood Silent Pictures made makeup. Women's hats grew less substantial and more feminine and . re-cut and re-invented as the "Zoot suit". This modernized version had a colorful spin. During the war the government & military had set on campaigns to deter soldiers from contracting venereal disease. and fuller.Short skirts and college fashions reigned in a booming US economy that kept wildly spending and expanding on credit until the Great Stock market Crash of 1929 put a halt to the prosperity and the fun. and prepared to grow up and do penance in the 1930's . fashion took a more conservative turn. and light cottons in summer. Trojan brand condoms. and was a staple fabric for stockings and women's dresses by the end of the decade.. "White tie" full dress with a tailcoat popped back into men's evening fashion. and was popularly made of brighter suitings. Western women began growing their nails long. This style swept jazz and swing clubs in major cities. Rayon (acetate) invented by Briton Charles Frederick Cross in 1895 (and first manufactured in the US in 1910) began to be commonly available in the 1920's. and young unmarried people were more likely to engage in sex before marriage. In 1920. It is as if the world felt that the Great Depression was a judgment on the fast times and youth culture of the 1920's.Gout . became a non-taboo subject. looking less youthful and more masculine. Art .. and eventually by disaffected and musically daring teens of all races in the US and Europe. began to be made and sold to the civilian population. 1929-1939. 1928 Cloche hats. Women's hemlines got shorter until 1925-6 when they peaked at just below the knee. so the head hugging cloche was popular. Many married couples now regularly limited family size through birth control.Beaute 1926.. due to the increased popularity and availabil ity of permanent Marcel Waves.
and a new direction was long overdue. Often. stylishly elevated.. Ruffles. the Paris fashion houses had reopened. or rationing to curtail fabric use. For the duration (1939-1945). like hats.. both due to shortages.. Suit wearing increasingly was confined to work in offices. rhythmic evolution of fashion change" had been disrupted by the war.. shortages directly created the innovations: Men's suits bought before the war typically came with jacket. Women's clothing went through the greatest changes in this era. 1942.Most governments issued either construction guidelines. color and style. "The Little Black Dress" was a popular method suggested by style magazines: Having a simple. vest and two pairs of matching trousers. Aloha Shirts for casual wear came to the mainland with servicemen returning from the Pacific theatre. Men's clothing. and once again Paris resumed its position as the arbiter of high fashion. fashion veered between exiting innovations like this. which one varied each day and evening with sets of color-matched accessories.By 1947. yet even in Europe men and women managed ways to stay fashionable during the conflict. Platform shoes. teenagers became a force in fashion. fitted waist. short (knee length) black dress. In addition to dropping vests from suits. and "Make Do And Mend".. price controls and rationing created by war. was introduced at the World's Fair in New York. Men's suits were re-cut into women's suits. and were combined with Bias cut gowns (first made popular in the late 1920's by Madeleine Vionnet) to make clinging ultra feminine frocks. Square shoulders and short skirts were replaced by the soft femininity of Christian Dior's "New Look" silhouette.. going to church. and formal occasions Fashion in the years following World War II. the same year the first true artificial fiber. For the first time.War broke out in Europe in 1939. Nylon.. when out of uniform. A succession of style trends led by Christian Dior and Cristóbal Balenciaga defined the . banished from female fashion in the mid 1920's. returned with a vengeance. Bias cutting was promptly dropped as a waste of fabric. and stayed in fashion until 1949. Fashion that was not rationed.. wartime advice centered on sewing old clothes in to new ones.. is characterized by the resurgence of haute couture after the austerity of the war years.. During the war this dropped to just a jacket and one pair of trousers.impractical throughout the 1930's. and rounded shoulders. complete with the tailored details and shoulder padding previously found in the garments. and the shortages. grew creatively elaborate. was increasingly casual. both for war work and warmth. The "orderly. structural look in the later 1950s.Innovations in textile technology following the war resulted in new synthetic fabrics and easy-care fabric finishes that fitted the suburban lifestyle of the 1950s with its emphasis on casual sportswear for both men and women. which in turn gave way to an unfitted. and hairstyles. "The suit that bought a bond": Woman's suit made from an old man's suit. and due to large numbers of women engaging in work outside the home during the war. Shoulder pads quickly became stylish in all women's garments.. Women and girls were actively encouraged to wear pants. 1945±1960 in fashion. with its sweeping longer skirts.. not only suits. where it has stayed ever since. The return of fashion. 1939-1945 (WWII).. ties became wildly festive in pattern. Leather and rubber shortages caused shoe makers to experiment with wood and cork soled.
and rounded shoulder line Resisted at first.The New Look. which could retain heat-set pleats after washing. Christian Dior launched the first collection of the House of Dior. In the United Kingdom. establishing the notion of the teenage years as a separate stage of development. berets. Casual clothing and teenage style. In North America.changing silhouette of women's clothes through the 1950s. especially in America...greasers had a similar social position. the curved jacket peplum shaped over a high. curved shoulders. teenagers dressed similarly to their parents. where fashion magazines showed padded shoulders until 1950. rounded. The term "beatnik" was coined by Herb Caen of the San Francisco Chronicle in 1958. full-skirt. The signature shape was characterized by a below-mid-calf length. but now a rebellious and different youth style was being developed.. Bill adopted an unpretentious... anti-conformist youth gathering in New York at that time. Jack Kerouac introduced the phrase "Beat Generation" in 1948. polyester. the radical new silhouette soon became immensely popular. Television joined fashion magazines and movies in disseminating clothing styles. Young adults returning to college under the G. became immensely popular. generalizing from his social circle to characterize the underground. Photograph for Harper's Bazaar. the Teddy boys of the post-war period created the "first truly independent fashions for young people". Social changes went hand -in-hand with new economic realities.  Acrylic. influencing fashion and other designers for many years to come. 1954. London. Previously. The "softness" of the New Look was deceptive. triacetate and spandex were all introduced in the 1950s.I. Teens and college co-eds adopted skirts and sweaters as a virtual uniform. small waist. and continued to wear blue jeans with shirts and pullovers for general informal wear after leaving school. Indianapolis Museum of Art. 1951 Evening gown by Dior. pointed bust. encouraged by the marketing specialists of Madison Avenue.. On February 12. 1947. "Dripdry" nylon.Tailored suit features a long pencil skirt and a fitted jacket with peplum. and full skirt of Dior's clothes relied . Womenswear. black turtlenecks. and one result was that many young people who would have become wage -earners early in their teens before the war now remained at home and dependent upon their parents through high school and beyond.favouring an exaggerated version of the Edwardian-flavoured British fashion with skinny ties and narrow. and unadorned dark clothing provided another fashion alternative for youths of both sexes. and the American fashion industry began to target teenagers as a specialized market segment in the 1940s. The new collection went down in fashion history as the "New Look".. tight trousers worn short enough to show off garish socks.. silk taffeta. orlon and dacron. functional wardrobe.One result of the Post-World War II economic expansion was a flood of synthetic fabrics and easy-care processes. and the stereotypical "beat" look of sunglasses..
Tailored suits had fitted jackets with peplums. but these styles only slowly gained acceptance by the wider public. and following his lead chemise dresses without waist seams..or two-piece.Most of the maternity dresses were two pieces with loose tops and narrow skirts. Short shrugs and bolero jackets.. to below the knee. with full..In the 1950s..From the mid-1950s. some had loose bottoms like shorts with short skirts. but smaller hats soon predominated. By 1957.. were called pedal-pushers. Women who had worn trousers on war service refused to abandon these practical garments which suited the informal aspects of the post-war lifestyle. Swimsuits were one. Skirts were narrow or very full. narrow pencil skirt. were worn. Clothes for the space age. and remained so. and Dior showed an A-line dress in 1955. Shirtdresses.New York had become an American design center during the war. in the post-war period. and mid-thigh length Bermuda shorts appeared around 1954 and remained fashionable through the remainder of the decade. Pants cropped to mid-calf were houseboy pants. shorter pants. Sportswear. and hats were essential for all but the most casual occasions. Loose printed or knit tops were fashionable with pants or shorts. Hats and hairstyles. most suits featured lightly fitted jackets reaching just below the waist and shorter. narrower skirts.on an inner construction of new interlining materials to shape the silhouette. princess-line dress was called a skimmer. Evening gowns were often the same length as day dresses (called "ballerina length"). with jewel or low-cut necklines or Peter Pan collars. especially as fuller hairstyles like the short. Casual sportswear was an increasingly large component of women's wardrobes. In the 1950s. Maternity wear. Coco Chanel made a comeback in 1954 and an important look of the latter 1950s was the Chanel suit. "smarter than a day dress but not as formal as a dinner or evening dress"were worn for early-evening parties. as were halter-top sundresses. held out with petticoats.. frothy skirts. feminine look was prized and accessories such as gloves and pearls were popular. short or long. a tailored.. Even international designers such as Givenchy and Norman Hartnell created maternity wear clothing lines. pants became very narrow.Hair was worn short and curled with the New Look. A more fitted version was called a sheath dress. and teenagers adopted the ponytail. a new unfitted style of clothing appeared as an alternative to the tight waist and full skirt associated with the New Look. The baby boom of the 1940s to the 1950s also caused focus on maternity wear. Very short cropped hairstyles were fashionable in the early '50s. were popular. with a shirt-like bodice. especially for sportswear. By mid-decade hats were worn less frequently. either straight and unfitted or in a princess style with a slight A-line. often made to match low-cut dresses. Wide-brimmed saucer hats were shown with the earliest New Look suits. Stretch panels accommodated for the woman's growing figure. Cocktail dresses. with a braid-trimmed cardigan-style jacket and A-line skirt. The sleeveless. Throughout the post-war period. Bikinis appeared in Europe but were not worn in America in the 1950s. and were worn ankle-length. Balenciaga's clothes featured few seams and plain necklines... Day dresses had fitted bodices and full skirts. usually worn with a long. . became popular. Shorts were very short in the early '50s. Spanish designer Balenciaga had shown unfitted suits in Paris as early as 1951 and unfitted dresses from 1954.. Despite the new emphasis on maternity wear in the 1950s maternity wear fashions were still being photographed on non-pregnant women for advertisements.. curly poodle cut and later bouffant and beehive became fashionable.poodle skirts were a brief fad. "Beat" girls wore their hair long and straight. Casual skirts were narrow or very full.
Men's hair fashion favored the wet look.. Savile Row introduced the "New Edwardian Look".Elvis Presley's look ± especially his pompadour hairstyle ± was very influential in the mid-1950s. with pomade or other hair treatments... 1957. Savile Row. and an emphasis on bold. clothing rationing remained in place until 1949. This was the style commandeered by the Teddy Boys. . who added bright socks and a bootlace necktie. coiffed their hair into pompadours. leather jackets. Some young men wore tight trousers or jeans. natural shoulders. In 1950. the traditional home of bespoke or custom tailoring. shorter." The horrified tailors of Savile Row dropped the overtly Edwardian touches.. the woman could still feel comfortable. with sharper shoulders. Hats and hairstyles. usually in blue or grey chalkstripes. trousers became fuller.. Esquire introduced the "Bold Look".Immediately after the war. and an overall narrower cut. and were usually style with cuffs (turn-ups). Children's clothing began to be made to a higher quality. with wide shoulders. and single-breasted two-piece suits with narrower lines and less padding in the shoulders became fashionable everywhere. The front panel of this maternity undergarment was composed of a high degree of elasticity so in extreme stretched conditions. were worn for casual occasions. achieved by the use of products such as Brylcreem. often in madras plaid. Harper's Bazaar proclaimed the "Return of the Beau". worn with a curly-brimmed bowler hat and a long slender overcoat with velvet collar and cuffs... Jailhouse Rock. Many girls' and young women's dresses were styled after those of the older women.. and later plaids and checks of all types were worn. the maternity panty was patented which provided expansion in the vertical direction of the abdomen. Suits. broad lapels.Due to the baby boom. appeared in mid-decade and were worn with knee socks. Dark charcoal gray was the usual color.. called chinos. Knit shirts and sweaters of various kinds were popular throughout the period. In Britain. had been heavily damaged in the Blitz and was slow to recover. lighter fabrics. coordinated accessories. Sportswear. Bermuda shorts..On September 29. By the later 1950s. and some even adopted trends popular with teenagers. Young men often grew their hair out and. achieving a "dizzy combination of Edwardian dandy and American gangster. Tartan plaids were fashionable in the early 1950s. In America. there was a high demand for clothing for children. fitted jackets and narrower lapels. 1959. men's suits were broad-shouldered and often doublebreasted.. and white tee shirts. Demobilised soldiers were provided with a suit by the government.. Menswear.. many boys started wearing jeans to Elementary school. featuring a slightly flared jacket. As wartime restrictions on fabric eased.Sport coats generally followed the lines of suit coats. Children's wear. a new Continental style of suit appeared from the fashion houses of Italy. but the style of business suits continued to move away from the broad English drape cut. and the era of the gray flannel suit was born. Khaki-colored pants. as were corduroy jackets with leather buttons.
the British government had made it unlawful to participate in the practice of using excess buttons..In the year 1942.Pre-War And Post-War 1940s Fashion Trends.e. World War II Accessories. Even wedding clothing was quite drab during this decade. Additionally.. Additionally. what would be used for folds. Perhaps one could liken World War II fashion to that of a perpetual funeral. For instance. Sable. a group known as the Incorporated Society of Fashion Designers created over 30 different new utility clothing designs. Most outfits were of a solid color such as ivory (for women¶s wedding suits).. The styles of this time signified the darkness of this particular time in history. The colors of clothing during this time were of plain and solemn colors. Influence Of Wartime London Fashion Designers.. they learned how to make a woman¶s suit blazer (suit jacket) look eloquent event with three buttons. pleats. gathers. Seal or Beaver Quite a bit of mending was happening during the war to make clothes last as long as they could. turbans. and extra stitching (i. For the women.. A very popular suit that women wore during the war was named the ³siren suit´. or other dark colors. starting in 1942. Clothing was meant just to cover the body. It had huge . The jackets and skirts of these suits were more contoured to the shape of a woman¶s body. decorative trimmings. These suits were made from a tartan cloth. etc. Fashion Attitudes During Wartime.One of the most significant examples of wartime fashion are the uniforms worn by military members and their brides.) on clothing Most of the jewelry available in World War II was Costume Jewelry example of ladies costume jewelry from 1945 Practicality was of great essence during this time. after the act of civilians hiding in an air raid shelter to protect themselves. frivolous and glamorous style was out.A shift in dress happened from during WWII to after the war ended.Women during World War II typically wore head scarves.Before the war. Ladies fur coats were available and included Ladies Fur Coats they were made from Coney ( Rabbit ) and dyed to look like Mink. there was only a limited supply of wool during this time. The London clothing fashion design group made the most of the wartime limitations. artificial fibers such as viscose and rayon were used. clothing rations limited the types of materials available for making and/or obtaining clothes. Instead. and the kangaroo cloak.. The groom would usually wear his service uniform and the bride would wear something that today¶s time would consider a simple office skirt suit... navy. black. This particular group most likely was the one that made the most out of the simplistic clothing style trend of this time. These suits were more affordable by those who were more affluent. The only difference was that women¶s wedding suits were usually white or ivory-colored.. wedged-heal shoes (versus high heels). and it was designed for the busy men and women involved in fighting or working during this time. Safety for women while working in the factory was just as important as style during this time. the suits that this company made were not as broad -shoulders as others (but were still squared). and looked more feminine than other box -cut patterned women¶s suits of the time. The kangaroo cloak was a very signature piece of wartime clothing/accessory. For instance. These materials were derived from wood pulp..
Sportswear also became the American clothing icon after World War II was over.. An illicit item during the war was called the ³zoot suit´. Furthermore. and low crotches. and parachute nylon were some of the household materials that clothing was made of. Ankle socks were worn more often than pantyhose. coats out of warm blankets. Moreover. They did not come with pocket flaps or vests. The shoes that women wore during these times contained cork.. A large amount of casual evening and sports wear was made after the war as well.. Clogs were worn quite a bit during these times as well. especially the cork-soled ones. however. Post War Fashions: 1947-1949. and each of the narrow stripes has tiny hearts imprinted in them. Men¶s fashion in the U. the ³Make Do and Mend´ motto of these times included created shorts out of sheets (or pillow cases). we find many changes in France. island flowers. or flames. and their influence was felt through . It had broad shoulders and was very loose-fitting. and were made with fabric imprinted with patterns of ocean flora.S. which were rare. France or London. wide lapels. This Clair Mc Cardell dress has a V-necked bodice. after awhile for new ideas pertaining to sports fashion Dress And Costume During The French Revolution . The pant legs of these suits narrowed towards the ankles. American created its own new look during this time. This was an item that was usually worn in night clubs.With the rise of the people against the house of Bourbon.. parachute silk. These were first worn on California and Florida beaches.. One of her signature pieces is a cotton dress that is grey with brown and red stripes.S. Wartime Men¶s Clothing Fashions. broad shoulders. The military outfits of this time were very simply made. Industrial cloth. handbags were made from milk tops. was able to access the same kinds of fashions that were made available in Paris. This was fitting for people of an active lifestyle. It took quite some time before the U. In the last year of the 1940s decade another new fashion item had emerged. One of the major influences of U. after the war had changed as well. This was largely in part as a result of the shortage of leather. They sometimes wore Vnecked sweater vests or knitted waist coats for these occasions as well.S.. Europe turned to the U. over a shirt and tie (under a suit jacket). England. Both of these types of shoes were very comfortable to walk in.Men wore suits for special occasions made from rationed materials as well-sometimes until they had been worn out.. It consisted of an oversized jacket. One of the most dramatic new additions to male fashion introduced after 1947 was the Hawaiian and Carisa shirts.pockets for stuffing household items into while running for shelter after the siren would go off. In fact. fashion after the war was Clair Mc Cardell. and the trousers were neither made with pleats nor cuffs. The most memorable attribute of this historical dress is the way the stripes on either side of the dress meet and create a ³W´ shape around the waist as well as the bodice. The Esquire jacket had came out. Additionally.People anxiously awaited the day when newer types of clothing would be allowed to be distributed. and wedding dresses out of nightgowns. the sleeves are flared and the skirt is of and eight-gore style with soft folds.. Hand knitted winter gloves and scarves were also very popular during these times. women. Double-breasted suit jackets designed with center vents and peaked lapels also became more popular after the war.S.
had been the result. the Parisians made open display of their demands in the streets oftheir city and gave the signal for the fall of a whole social system by their attack on the Bastile.²The manner of living was also simplified. is not the first time . velvets. furniture. appeared on every costume. borrowed from the English. "all classes were mingling. Printed lists of prices were sent out by both of these shops.²Women were too busy or too poor to take the trouble to change fashions as often as had been the case in former years. so we find little or no change taking place between 1789 and 1793. Women's Dress. and many wealthy persons rigidly adopted the simple attire. the most popular of these being the mob-cap. the whole theory of it was based on the assumption of equality in dress. and instead of the huge piles that had been in vogue a short time before. or with red. In 1791 shops were established in Paris where ready-to-wear clothing might be purchased. and ribbons had disappeared. All furbelows. On 14th of July .²The style of hair-dressing also under went a change. the skirt hung plain and straight from the high waistline. who supplied the men. and for the first time in years the hair showed its natural color.One of the first acts of the General Assembly was the abolition by solemn decree of all distinction in dresses of the classes. the hoop or vertugadine having gone the way of the pannier. The best known of these were run by Quenin. The cotton materials were printed with the national trophies and revolutionary symbols. Titles were dropped by all of the upper class who survived the guillotine. invented by Beau Brummel for common wear. Straight lines had taken the place of panniers a few years before. or the national cockade. of course. Simplicity was the key-note in costume. the hair was worn low in front and hung in clusters of curls behind. Now women were looking for comfort as well as simplicity. a style borrowed from the English sailors. generally black. except an occasional ruffle at the edge of the skirt. but this unfortunately lasted but a short time. Head-dresses. This. 1790. the neck was low and still finished with the fichu. Materials. both in the names of materials and the articles of apparel. willingly or unwillingly. all this was to be done away with. The breeches lengthened until they reached the ankle. this was ornamented with the tricolored cockade or rosette.²The Revolution brought about the greatest change in the costume of the men. especially cotton. were in evidence. laces. 1789. overtrimmed hats of the time of Louis XVI. through love or fear. Teillard. ribbons. Extravagance in architecture. Gowns were made with bodices cut short in the waist and with sleeves to the elbow . ruffles. they being considered aristocratic and not suitable to the dress of a democratic citizen. Little or no trimming was used. to be followed by lace and muslin caps. Dark colors. and men and woman were addressedas citizen and citizeness. as Calthrop declares. and a period ofthe strictest simplicity was to follow. and had given up the stiff stays that were necessary when wearing the pointed waist and the pannier. now known as the "Charlotte Corday " . as it was exceedingly dangerous to be seen without it in the days when one government succeeded another in such rapid succession. or. Fashion still mirrored the events of the times. and dark colors and cheaper materials. were taking the place of the silks. and Mme.costume and mode of living at its height. and laces of the former reigns. with a deep lace ruffle around the face and neck. white. who catered to the wants of the women." ' The tricolor. and a masculine type of dress.many countries. and soon disappeared. Straw bonnets with high crowns and large flaring brims were used for a while. The other symbols of aristocracy. Men's Dress. and a bunch of tricol ored flowers placed at the left side above the heart showed the wearer's patriotism. and cloth and leather took the place of silk and velvet. Powder had gone with Costume of the period of the French Revolution. they were remnants of the huge. and blue stripes.
sometimes short. once the Elysee Bourbon. also buttoned and a trifle longer than the coat in front.²As a protest against the simple life that had been forced upon them during the first horrible years of the Revolution. and had a narrow tail at the back with the plaits pressed flat from the waist. and this showed in the adoption of classic dress. and could be attended only by those who had lost a relation by the guillotine. they closed in front with four or five large buttons. and were well-nigh transparent in texture. and shaved the back of their hair. and this style was soon known as "coiffure a la Titus. the long trouser was used for informal dress and went through many changes until it finally reached its present style. Julien. The name pantaloon was first used as a term of derision or ridicule. The cuff had gone and several small buttons closed the sleeve at the wrist. came up over the long. but France seems to have discarded it with the rest of her aristocratic paraphernalia. or pantaloons. Black felt hats.²High leather boots with close turn-over tops. "In the beginning these garments left the body free. One of the most aristocratic of these dance-halls was called the "Bal des Victimes". Women's Dress. the music was led by a negro." and as a result very little politeness or consideration was shown them by the men. and sometimes long and tied behind in a queue. a clown. and were generally buttoned above the ankle. Head-dresses. Foot-gear. it came from the character of Pantaloon. as they vied with each other in discarding garments and reducing the weight of those retained. women set aside all edicts for the regulation of "virtue and morality. They danced and danced. where it showed the white stock collar and small cravat of lace. and open air pavilions were much in evidence. This style might well be called undress. A waistcoat of fancy material. familiar t o the readers of Italian comedies of the seventeenth century. but they now became the forerunner of the modern plain dress for men . The collar was high. They were cut away in front at a rather high waistline." It was a time of great license. were worn. For many years after the introduction of pantaloons they fitted very snugly to the figure. The style of coats had not changed except in the material and color. tight pantaloons. when the men cut their hair short. the Parisians started a whirl of gaiety and pleasure as soon as the government became a trifle more stable. young and old. The Directory. At the Elysee National. generally made of a different colored leather. and the toes square. there had been a return to nature.that long trousers. were worn by all men. of high and low estate. followed its outlines. and hair in the natural color prevailed. Even the women took this up. and were worn by the early Asiatics and the Persians. They were considered a mark of the barbarian by the Romans.²In England the powdered wig was still worn. they drew their inspiration from nature and pagan mythology. to simulate the fashion that had been designed by Sampson. was open at the neck. to distinguish the victims of the Revolution. they . turned up in the front. and turned over squarely where it met the large revers. for while the kneebreeches returned for formal dress and are still worn in England for court dress. the heels were rather low. and ornamented with the tricolor cockade. A new style of hair-dressing originated here. as they were called. it was held at the Hotel Richelieu.²Women began to dress to charm.
000 francs.000 to 8." The skirt was scant and hung from a high waistline trailing at the back. with the short sleeves were worn long gloves of kid. Close straw bonnets with high square crowns were decorated with flowers and ribbons and tied under the chin. like the Corinthian chiton of the Greeks. Delsarte declared that he had seen more young girls die . the neck was low and round and the sleeves were small. reaching to the wrist. Lange. and one of blonde lace at 6.' Part of this expense was due to the low state of the currency. This style was finally supplanted by the "Titus" described before.500 francs. and lightweight cottons. and many died of pneumonia and other lung troubles. or soles were strapped to the foot by crossed ribbons. Laces were highly prized. Jewels were much sought after. T hey even went so far as to wear rings on their bare toes and bracelets on their ankles. painted gauze. and several women appeared in public with nothing but a chemise in order to win a wager.²Hair was being powdered.000 to 60. short puffs. The cost of these costumes was enormous. nearly a yard long. black. Some of the gowns had no sleeves and were caught together at the shoulders with cameo brooches. like great barrels. Head-dresses. and were valued at from 40. The under-clothing consisted in most cases of flesh-colored silk tights. including shoes and ornaments. violet. similar to the Greek himation.400 francs. from a velvet in green. "gowns of Indian calico cost 2. or they were thrown over the shoulder of the man when dancing. jewelry. or long and tight. A little later caps of all descriptions replaced the hats and bonnets." The trousseau of Marie Louise included a gown embroidered in silver and gold tinsel which cost 7. and when not split were draped on the left side to show the limb to the knee. or 6." The hair was curled and banded with ribbons or jewels. The materials used were sheer embroidered India muslin. and toques made of light-colored silks and satins were ornamented with white aigrettes.000 if embroidered and with a train.000 francs. a diamond crescent being a favorite ornament. was often as low as eight ounces. or of Small bonnets similar to an infant's cap. as paper money had taken the place of gold and was much lower in value. Mme. Often the skirt was slit to the waist on one side and showed the lower limb. and those belonging to Marie Antoinette were owned by Mlle. or other light-weight material was used. or cerise. the mistress of the Deputy Mandrin. Huge muffs. The physicians were loud in their demands for more clothing. Heelless slippers.aimed at concealing nothing.000 francs. one of pink tulle at 4. a la Grec. and flowers. Trains became so exaggerated "six yards for ordinary wear" and "fourteen yards for dress occasions" that they had to be wound around the figure several times and then held by the end. were carried. silk. Tallien had "thirty. The weight of a woman's costume. of every shade of light hair. Needless to say that the women of that time had very delicate constitutions. or Grecian sandals. and a craze for wigs of all sorts and colors had developed. and was made of lawn and trimmed with lace. like those of the men. The most popular of these fitted close to the head like an infant's first cap. Felt hats. were worn with white stockings. The most valuable of these laces finally came into the possession of the Empress Josephine. were trimmed with flame-colored ribbons. and followed the harmonious lines of Grecian beauty. with the seams covered with a flat galloon. For outer garments over these very thin gowns a scarf of cashmere. lace. and women spent ruinous sums on diamonds.
of nakedness and gauze during the reign of this style of dress than during the forty years before. St. gradually this was lengthened until it formed an overskirt which was open in the front. Women began to tire of the plain skirt. each of a different color." Fashion became less frivolous as the everyday life became more stable. The little Corsican general was making order out of chaos. and sometimes their coat-tails were so long that they had to pick them up as the lady did her train. although Uzanne asserts that they had very healthy appetites in private. Quentin. He describes the women as being "buxom. as Uzanne says. The coats fitted very snug at the waistline. which was necessary in order to prevent the chest attacks which were so prevalent. and endowed the nation with its civil rights. and clothed nearly all the women of France. masculine in their ways. and corsets were often worn to make their waists smaller. a padded silk cushion was first adjusted. broad in their talk. and opulent of charm. The dandies. many of these were brought into France from Egypt in 1792-1802. and the first noticeable change came when they added a short tunic to the Greek dress. and Tarare. and the styles for top-boots and even top-hats were borrowed from there. and one below the other. Women's Dress. and the silk industry in France.²The day of the diaphanous gown was over. and while the style of dress had not changed to any great extent. and. except in the size and style of the neck-cloth and the color and materials used in their clothing. the materials had. The Incroyables exaggerated the size of the revers and the collars of their coats. healthy.' It was the fashion for women to eat very little while in public. The government. Sequin. and that in turn was covered by a figured silk handkerchief which came up over the chin. was resumed. "in 1791. and many other industries were started. Velvets. The stocks were built out about the neck . This industry was introduced into France by Louis Ter naux. yellow. and mother -of-pearl was considered very chic. A jabot of lace filled in the opening of the vest. realizing that there was much revenue from the manufacture of cot-ton. and ate heartily. silks. or "Incroyables. Color and heavier texture were introduced through this means. often had three layers at the lower edge of the vest. Rome had the same influence during the Empire. "he brought the licentious freedom in which the population had run riot under control. this was concealed by a huge muslin cravat." Men's Dress. and dress assumed much of the gorgeousness that had been discarded a few years before.²Very little change took place in the costume of the men during the years of the Directory. and embroideries came into their own. Napoleon was as fond of pomp and show as Louis XIV had been. loud-voiced beings. which showed inside the neck of the coat. were made by a clever chemist and botanist. who imported goats from Thibet. giving a goitre-like appearance to the neck." of France. more precious an hundredfold than any rights political.²If all that was Greek dominated dress during the Directory. and silver flowers made by him took a prize at the Industrial Exposition of 1802. which had been practically ruined during the Reign of Terror. green. Artificial flowers. laces. set up factories at Rouen. which flourished under the First Empire. white being the favorite for the . England was still the criterion for men's fashions. this is especially true of the vest or waistcoat." These vests had high turn-over collars. then much in demand. The Empire. Cashmere shawls were the rage.
These were painted by the celebrated painters. By 1800 soap had become an article in general use in Paris. banded with fillets or broad ribbons. a short jacket. but kept flat to show the contour of the head. The waist was still very short. and these were kept in place by a net. with sleeves reaching to the wrist and made of colored silk or cashmere. . It is reported that Louis XIV never washed himself. Recamier. The Empire style is so familiar to all that it is unnecessary to go into many particulars. David. Sleeves were short puffs for ceremonial costumes. ladies even went so far as to take lessons in the art of draping and posing. The sleeves were wide and turned back at the hand. Often more than one gown was worn at a time. and no lady dared to appear in his presence wearing a gown more than once. and the coats had round.000 francs. made by Leroy and Mme. showing the feet. Napoleon and Josephine had started a crusade for cleanliness. these were trimmed with high-standing feathers or flowers. contained underclothing worth 25. Another form of cleanliness for which France is indebted to Napoleon was the frequent changing of underlinen. which she removed when the dancing began. Italian. For outer wear. and Oriental fashions. and the skirt had grown shorter. Vigee Lebrun. a few straw hats and turban-like toques were worn when Turkish fashions prevailed. as in everything else. The longer pelisse was also made in color and of heavier material. The neck was cut very low or very high.000 francs to be spent on her costume. Before this time the bath seems to have been considered as superfluous. This necessitated a much more bountiful supply than had been needed before. cost 650. and Queen Margaret only once a week." after Queen Elizabeth. a niece of Josephine. while Napoleon made one. almost hiding the face. and the trousseau of Mlle. and appeared in a ball-gown of embroidered white silk. it was held close to the head in flat curls. Vigee Lebrun. one over the other. Josephine made three changes a day. and much art was shown in the way these were draped . such as Mme. Tacher de la Pajerie.under-dress. The red velvet court train of Josephine and the cape-like robe of Napoleon were lined with ermine and embroidered all over with gold bees. Sir Thomas Lawrence. Hats had given place almost entirely to bonnets of the coal-scuttle type. the latter finished with a ruff made of lace and called a "Betsy. the spencer. the coronation robes of Napoleon and Josephine. and English followed in rather quick succession. Head-gear and Accessories. Mme. Turkish. and the Empress Josephine. The use of powder and rouge had almost disapp eared. a gift of the empress. Recamier attended a ball in a very splendid velvet dress. are shown in many of the portraits of the day. the brims rather straight and very deep. and long and tight for the street or at home. or simply lined with lighter-colored material. large sums of money were paid for these shawls. styles felt the influence of the countries where he had been. and covered with a veil. braids of hair were also used. Classic coiffures. Spanish. Raimbaud.²By 1806 the style of dressing the hair had become very conservative. Each of the ladies in attendance received 1. besides shawls. As Napoleon returned from his different campaigns. and Mme. The cost of these gowns was still very great . and either lined and trimmed with fur. although even then the French were not as clean as the English. was much liked. For outer covering shawls were in great demand. and then only her hands. cape -like collars. Mme. Napoleon was a dictator in fashion.000 francs. Gerard.
and a plain black silk stock wrapped twice about a standing linen collar. adopted the fashion of carrying bags. as the gems were mostly diamonds. but amethysts were held in high favor. finally these gave place to the short hair-cut. These were supposed to be a revival of the bag carried by the Greek women. England had adopted the top -hat. Dress was still showing the influence of political upheavals.²Although Napoleon made an effort to bring back the elaborate dress for men that had been given up at the time of the Revolution. and they were made of cardboard or lacquered tin in the shape of Etruscan vases. gave the wearer the least trouble and was not disarranged by the hat. with this costume were worn dark prunella boots. bracelets and anklets. Perhaps this was due to the fact the Empress Josephine spent most of her time with her dressmakers trying different effects.' They also wore small bonnets made of white silk striped with straw. were chosen to wear with the classical dress.' A change was also seen in the stock. this was called "au coup de vent". silks. of course. Uzanne states that between 1805 and 1814 Paris fashions were never the same for more than a week. Frenchmen were still using the cocked hat made familiar by the pictures of Napoleon. Pearls were not considered fashionable. Over-coats of fur or cloth had long. in 1806 it was cut short in the back. and they refused to go back to .Valuable jewels. dark-blue. and of course her word was law for a time at least. and embroideries. and high boots were still worn. they were short in the waist. and a small cashmere shawl with a vermilion border. such as cameos of ancient design. as during the one hundred days after Napoleon's return from Elba no Imperialist lady appeared without her bunch of violets. followed the lead of the emperor. This craze for jewels was at its height from 1806 t o 1809. having no pockets in their dresses. the pad and the silk handkerchief had gone. The ladies. full skirts. Fashions were changing rapidly in minute details. Perhaps the greatest change took place in the way of wearing the hair. the crown had grown much higher and broader at the top. The value of these collections was almost unbelievable. in 1809 it was curled and called "en cherube". bell -shaped. girdles and jewelled combs and earrings with three pendants all these and many more were worn. Breeches were long and tight. The dandies and exquisites. Rings on the hands and feet. when a reaction set in. At one ball in Paris the value of the jewels worn was estimated at about 20.000. called reticules. the lace cravat had become a frill attached to the front of the linen shirt. and very few jewels appeared at the court functions. Colors were used for the coats. had taken their place. and had long curled locks in front. dark-green. brown. The skirts of the ladies of the royalist party were decorated with eighteen tucks. Men had found that plain dress was much more comfortable and more suited to the affairs of everyday life than the elaborate velvets. and wine-colored broadcloth were favorites. and many from famous Italian collections found their way to France to grace the fair ladies of the Empire. and had two or three capes. he made little headway except in the matter of ceremonial dress and military uniforms. and tied in a small bow in the front. and were buttoned with two rows of buttons. cha ins so long that they might be wound around the neck five or six times and still almost reach the floor. .them.000 francs. Fashion papers were published every five days to keep pace with the changing styles. to show their loyalty to Louis XVIII. in order to have their small personal belongings with them.' Men's Costume. and the brim had become narrower and turned up at the side. it had developed from the sailor-hat. which hung over the forehead and eyes. that.
available in the world. Sarees of the original handlooms of Andhra Pradesh are complete with ethnicity and richness of texture. and likings. The Muslims in general wear pyjamas instead of dhotis and kurta and the Fez cap. Kalamkari sarees. It requires a weaving -pattern. Some Muslim women also put on Salwar Kameez Dupatta. are Saree and Blouse for women. prepared from fine cotton. the lifestyle. The pearl small-industries. and Dhoti and Kurta for men. veiled Muslim woman. not only. rural element is a component of Andhra Pradesh`s society. residing in this land. in Mangalgiri.. Costume of a place reflects upon the cultural traditions. The enthusiastic Nizams of Hyderabad inaugurated pearl trade.. manufactured in Gadwal of Andhra Pradesh. They earn their livelihood through harvesting. The cost of pearls varies according to radiance. but in India and other parts of the globe also. reaping and so on.UNIT 6. like wedding party. This fourth largest state of India. are an agricultural sector of the social fabric of Andhra Pradesh. The hallmark of these splendid sarees is that their borders are generally brocaded with gold plating. Costumes of Andhra Pradesh. in addition to their use of dresses that suit their climatic and geographical conditions. The Gadwal sarees. Now its chief production-sites are Puttapaka. Dharmavaram in Andhra Pradesh has world wide repute for the production and distribution of gorgeous silk sarees.. Lambadies are a familiar tribal group in Andhra Pradesh and are well-known for their .. The skill of draping the saree is in itself an expression of a woman`s creativity. kurti (tops).. This particular art form is prevalent in Machilipatnam of Andhra Pradesh. A proper know-how is indispensable in their creation. Among the Hindus and Christians men usually wear a Dhoti and Kurta. and social context.. Here it is normal to come across burqha-clad. working at the same company with today`s cosmopolitan girls. have become the order of the day and have become the popular costumes of Andhra Pradesh. What is unique is the saree`s cotton body. sowing. The folk. Pochampalli and Chautuppal villages of Andhra Pradesh.. craftsmen and jewelers are situated near the wellknown Charminar. The women of all communities together with Muslims wear Sarees and blouses.. displays the wide spectrum of varied population. These Dharmavaram sarees make for ornate costumes. are one of the most exclusive linen. It is evident that the costumes they would cater to would represent their life-pattern. hailing from Lambadi or Banjara or Sugalis. The half nomadic tribes.. The crowning glory of the costumes of Andhra Pradesh is the awesome Hyderabad`s pearls. Hyderabad. or festivals. wherein the yarn is arbitrarily dyed in zigzag or geometric structures. with their diverse cultural heritage. shape and size. the tastes and preferences and finally the impact of present modernity on the mindsets of its inhabitants. salwar-kameez. The myriad costumes of Andhra Pradesh. ceremonies. which though is not so common now.Costumes of different regions of India. with pure silk borders and pallu (the tail-end of the saree). appropriate for bridal wear. class. All these sarees are the most happening costumes of Andhra Pradesh. The Ikkat saree was first woven in the Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh. attest the place to be a potpourri of the ancient and the modern. Urbanity in its refined form rules in the epicenter of sophistication. attired in salwar-kameez and jeans-shirts. The Kalamkari fabric contains the paintings of mythological figures and events with vegetable colours. Andhra Pradesh is the insignia of the cultural convergence of South India. The last category of sarees and not the least is the Mangalgiri saree.
.Grown amidst the remote surroundings and forests of the islands of Andaman and Nicobar islands. shirts and so on. be it as their food. Furthermore. Costume-patterns of Andaman &Nicobar islands are on the tide of change . waistband. now drape themselves in the costume of the land. Accessories are a must for any woman. The Monpas also are no exception. but also the tourists who flock there. They bind this chemise round their waists with a lengthy and narrow strip of cloth. Therefore. They dress in wide skirts in many gay and loud shades of red. In general. They now have adopted modern clothes. pants. Major changes has entered the lifestyle and culture of the Car Nicobar islanders. It is interesting to see the sea-shell ornaments and natural products like leaves of trees. characteristic of tribe culture. the Hindus. dress and costumes. However. who no longer restrict themselves to the traditional costumes of coconut -leaf petticoats and other similar costumes. or in the making of their dresses or in other regular articles used by them. to use animal body-parts in their daily life.. Pajamas. It signifies their aesthetic taste and zeal for embellishment. forming the costume of a place. This eastern-most state on India`s northeast frontier is crowded with twenty six native tribes and several subtribes. The Monpas women wear a jacket. The Sentinelese tribe till today. with lot of mirrors and beads studded on them. to shield themselves from the cold.colourful costumes. Costumes of the different tribes of Arunachal Pradesh are endowed with fascinating vibrant colours and myriad patterns. the costumes of Andhra Pradesh cast such an enigmatic spell. un-invaded by civilization. The Monpas who live north of the Bomdila range. Costumes of Arunachal Pradesh. The Lambada men have taken on the regional dress but the women folk have to this day preserved their gorgeous colourful and heavy garments.. living on the islands. armband etc. They wear a skullcap made of felt with laces or tassels as adornments. though one tribe is diverse from the other in terms of distinct vernacular. However. Kurtas. pearls have always been a woman`s pride. The magnificent finesse of the costumes of Andhra Pradesh definitely highlights the deft craftsmanship of the different handlooms and textile-industries. who after years of no-dress culture. Costumes of Andaman & Nicobar Islands . observed in the venerated Tawangmonastery. reflect the cultural and ethnic way of life of the tribal people residing there. Indian ethnicity and tribal life finds its fullest expression in the serene hills and the sylvan surroundings of the picturesque Arunachal Pradesh. above a sleeveless chemise. skirt-blouse. adhere to Buddhism.. Besides. exhibit themselves in their traditional costumes of sari. The Shompen people cover themselves only from their waist. The Monpa females . the predominant community of the Jarwas. wears nothing. Thus the traditional costume of the Monpas of Arunachal Pradesh is shaped by Tibetan culture. go naked. Costumes of Andaman & Nicobar Islands are in harmony with the blue romance of the sea and the sylvan ambience. trousers. that not only the denizens of the state.. flaunt themselves in necklaces. Dhoti. orange and blue.. they also cover themselves with woolen coats and trousers. the aboriginal tribes of this virgin land. salwars . Sikhs and Christians. Same about the Onges. to appease their appetite for exotic garments and pearl-jewellery. the Arunachal people have a Mongoloid descent. It is typical of tribe lifestyle. crafted from shells and barks of trees. are spellbound with their aura. be she a tribal or a city-girl. residing in 3649 dispersed villages.
Buddhist community. red and white yarns. The Tangsa men wear green lungi. The women often tie their hair into a bun at the back. The Sherdukpen. that this peculiar costume-pattern evolved from the strategy of safeguarding. Added to this. dwelling in the Tirap district and Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh. known as Ading Akh.beautify them with silver rings. along with a linen blouse to top it. perfectly augments the beauty. inhabiting south of Bomdila in the Tengapanai valleys. endowed with a fascinating peacock-feather. pinned at the shoulder region. proficiently seamed in with matching yellow. The hallmark of their dress-code is the gurdam skull-caps smeared with yak`s hair. It is curious to note that Sherdukpen women are adept in weaving clothes with praiseworthy finesse. The women sect of Sherdukpen. keen. The tassels protruding from the gurdam over the face form a slope to glide away rain-water. The Hill Miris inhabiting the lower Kamla valley look attractive in their costume. acts as the upper garment. and five vertical lines. as their residential-zone is subject to torrential rain. Another popular dressitem is a cap. devised by the beautiful Aptani women. commonly decked with jade. a full-sleeved jacket with nice embroidery and waist cloth. middle-length people cater to the Burmese costumestyle. living in the West Kameng and East Kameng districts. is worn above the patent robe. dress themselves in a collarless and sleeveless garment. often. Big-sized silver earrings and resplendent necklaces. Their women wear attractive "crinoline of cane rings" which serves the purpose of a blouse but now it is not seen in the urban areas. A brass skewer. The ankle-long white cloak gives the Miji women an immaculate look. The tattoo done by the women involve broad blue stripes painted from the forehead down to the tip of the nose. stretching from the shoulders to the knees. Tattoo-drawing and the attaching of conspicuously big nose plugs called Yaping hullo are the major highlights of this group. These robust. earrings cut from bamboo-bits and appended with red beads or lovely turquoises. The hairstyle is also interesting. the Monpas. since old times. Tangsa women put in a very attractive looking woven petticoat. The Tangsa tribe. They tie the hair in a knot just above the forehead. They were. One will be awe -struck to learn that these tribal women know the art to extract bio-chemical cosmetics from pineresin. worn around the head by the wealthier Miji women. called mushaiks. And the final touch is given by an ornate red jacket. bear striking resemblance with their fellow. By custom. also. called Dilling on the head-top. The costume is normally kneelong. Miji women. is a Naga tribe. the . drawn under the lower lip in the chin. The usual apparel of Sherdukpen men folk is a sleeveless silk material. A strip of silver chains is occasionally. to appear unimpressive to the men of other tribes. with its two edges. is often passed through the Dilling. in a horizontal direction. The women arrange their tresses into a ball. The intricate design and colour-abundance of the costume of the Apatanis is indeed captivating. to ensure safety. It is said. exhibt simplicity as well as refinement in their costume. A sleeveless shirt.
Senior women. In fact it is the rare tribal artistry and indigenous caliber that makes Arunachal Pradesh. even . already married. an aura of elegance.. namely.Aptani men. a poly-utility garment. going for make -up in their own unique manner was included in the heritage-laws of the Aptanis. on the saris cater to patterns in nature. such as architecture and stone-sculptures on the Madan Kamdev Temple in Assam. Adi. Therefore the costume of the plethora of tribes. This high quality textile of Assam. instantly gives glimpses of the galae. and so on. Monpa>. East Siang. Now-a-days. The men also like to apply tattoo or Tiippe on their chin. Almost twenty eight thousand families are engaged in silk -rearing in Assam. after every wash. staying in the Himalayan hills of Arunachal Pradesh. against the inherent golden color of the fabric. The Assam silk saris are perfectly suitable for parties.. They offer contrast creations of pinkish red or greenish blue and other innovative as well as traditional colors of red. But. wedding ceremonies and mirthful festivals. Embroideries also incorporate. The costume of each of the tribes. an ornament compiled of five to six brass plates. Muga silk. Assam silk saris Bridal wears are decked with gold and silver threads. i. which is tied around the loins. and Di bang Valley. stand on the high pedestals of fame and reputation. used by both the genders. The Adi tribe is a chief tribal community. A galae. The tattoo-sketch resembles the shape of a `T` under the lower lip. indulge in experimentation. In accordance with the geographical circumstances of the region. One can watch the silkworm in its cocoon stage. Upper Subansiri. men secure themselves with helmets made from cane.. green. bear and deer skin. comes down in loose hanging down in narrow form. blue. make a knot of their hair just above the forehead. Tangsa. The characteristic of the durable Muga silk is that it lasts for years and adds radiance to itself. The local name of this hairstyle is as Piiding and the bras rod used in the creation of this knot is known as Piiding Khotu. It endows on any woman. till the unfolding into worm`s generated silk-thread.. finely woven. in the temperate and sub-tropical regions within the districts of West Siang. Tattooing is a common feature among the older women.e.Muga or the golden silk fiber of Assam constitutes the lion`s share of the costumes of Assam. embellish themselves with yellow necklaces and coiled earrings.. serves as the material-base. illuminate the mind with their ever -glorious aesthetic appeal. thriving for ages in the hills and forests of Arunachal Pradesh are enchanting. who wears it. Aptani. to make the bride catch a marvelous get-up on her special occasion.. Muga artisans. for example the flora and the fauna. The topic of the costume of the Adi. So. yellow. and finally the conversion of the threads into the gorgeous saris at the handloom. Sherdukpen. acquainted and culture-related things. stuck under their petticoats. signify the unmarried status of a young girl. Upper Siang. It is interesting watching the silk-cultivation in Assam. the presence of beyop. The delicate designs. Costumes of Assam.
and silk-weavers in profession. called Chin which stretches from the waist down to the ankles. There exists a cloth belt encircling her waist. The Bodo tribal womenfolk acknowledge Mekhla as their prevalent costume. and is yet not a sari. One half of the Mekhla is worn as the skirt or petticoat or Lungi. Upwards. Ceremonies and merry occasions see the women. Again. blouses are worn. while the other half. Assamese women look marvelous in these fascinating costumes of Assam. At times of wedding. by wearing multicolored blouse. an upper -wrap called Riha. A Mekhla is hence a mix and match of Aanchal and Lungi. a Risha. yellow or white lining. the Mech tribe. called Rimsao. A Thai Phake woman uses a striped girdle. to complete the dress. below Chadar. the Chadar. The Chadar is worn in a special criss-cross pleated-form. this Chaddar acts as the customary veil to the bride. The . Very similar to the costume of the Bodo tribe. to make himself presentable at the place of his visit. wears. decorating themselves in more ornate Rijamphai. While venturing out. A Dimasa woman covers herself in a skirt-like attire. is akin to the sari`s Anchal. The Mekhla skirt bears a broad border and is thicker in texture. The costume of the Thai Phake tribe stands illuminat ed with respect to its attractive charm. tribal community. a turban woven from pure cotton or Endi. Young girls resort same upper-cloth structure. which resembles a sari.5 m. Along with the Chaddar. The men of the Bodo tribe. He also bears a white turban called Fa ho ho. topped by an embellished vest-like cloth. The Thai Phake women are inclined towards beautification of themselves. The distinction lies in the fact that a Mekhla is composed of two or three pieces of cloth. However. called Rijamphai. this happens to be the usual costume of the rustic people of Assam. He puts in a vest. The Mekhla is an awesome ensemble. It has a width of about 6 cm and a length of 1. They are indeed the producers of Endi. whereas a sari is a single piece of cloth. TheDimasa tribes are renowned for their expertise in silkculture and weaving-prowess. but the Anchal is lightweight for easier handling. While attending invitation or paying visit to far-flung places. He also attaches on his head. Jewellery is a fundamental aspect of costume of any place. Added to the Chaddar. They enhance their prettiness. down the front side. they flaunt themselves in dignified white shawl-like cloth called Chaddar. invested with black stripes and red. with the only difference being in size. the Thai Phake men. Chaddar. this is a loin cloth of deep green colour. used as the upper-garment for the skirt. called Chekhamchum. enriched with a plain bordered white shawl called Fa fek mai. made from Endi (a material made from conglomeration of silk and cotton). dresses themselves in Dhoti (an Indian loin cloth) and Chaddar. Dimasa men. called Fatong. locally named as Rikhaosa. Bodo tribe of Assam resides amidst the lush greenery of Assam. like the Bodo men. is adorned with spell-bound weavings. called Mekhla Chadar. integral to the weaving-ace Assamese. known as the as Rigu. he matches his Fatong. is the dressing style of another. The costume of the Thai Phake man is to some extent same. It is called Chairchin. It is called Fafek. with a shirt called Sho.for the traditional costume of Assam. adorns himself in a white shirt with long sleeves. He wears a chequered green loin cloth. In fact.
remarkable feature of Assamese jewellery is Khopo Phool, an earring which appears like an orchid. The outlook is like two small shoes paired together and crowned by a floral construct, which is again connected to a chain. Gaam Kharu is a large-sized silver bangle with shimmering gold polish. Another fashionable earring is Lokaporo, wherein two gold or ruby or mina or enamel -plated, bird figures are conjoined together, back to back. Assamese costume has cast an enchanting spell on not only India, but on foreign nations also, because of their mind-blowing perfection. Costume of Bihar..... the land that has inculcated traditional old values to the core, is noted for its hand woven textiles in the field of costume. Particularly, the rustic crowd of Bihar adheres to the traditional pattern of dresses and jewellery. Though most of the populati on of the state still remains in rural areas the costumes worn by them are still traditional. The clothes for the people of different religions are a bit divergent. The senior male citizens of Bihar, irrespective of Hindu or Muslim, favour tradition, when it comes to costumes. If a Hindu elderly person prefers Dhoti (an Indian loin cloth), a Muslim person might dress himself in Lungi (a type of petticoat for men) or Pyjama (loose trousers). As an upper garment, men usually go for Kurta (loose, normally cotton, Indian, T-shirts), and shirts. However, the men resort to attractive apparels for ceremonies, festivals and social gatherings. Kurtas, Churidar, Pyjamas and Sherwani are the ideal costumes, chosen for such special occasions, where accurate attitude owes a lot to an impressive dressing style. The Muslims, Sikhs, and Christian males are habituated in luxuriating in the fragrance of perfumes and "attar" on an every day basis. It is interesting to note that men of Bihar inhabit a penchant for ornaments. They decorate themselves with bala or bali (bangles) in Shahabads, Kanausi in Patna and Gaya. Again Gowalas (the milkmen) flaunt themselves in Kundals (earrings). However, malas or bead necklaces are on the rise these days, than, the other ornaments. The costume of the women folk of Bihar is chosen carefully in keeping with tradition. As per tradition, married women, smear the hair- parting zone with powder of Sindoor or vermillion. Tikli, a forehead-adorning little ornament is added to the hair-partitioning area. On the forehead, a Bihari married woman, be she an urban or a rural one, usually applies bindi. A lot of Bihari women, love applying Kajal i.e. eye-pencil, or antimony eye-make-up called Surma, to improve the appeal of their eyes. They also indulge in flattering their senses with soothing aromatic oils that leave them perfumed, and refreshed, in the mind and body. Tattoo-paintings are broadly prevalent among Bihari women. They give detailed attention to their hands, and beautify them with Mehendi-designs (a kind of tattooing, done with colors fetched from herbal product like, amla or shikakai). Ornaments with elaborate designs and extravagant look, such as Chandrahar, Tilri, Panchlari, Satlari, and Sikri are the common accessories, accompanying a woman in Bihar. Indeed, the plethora of accessories, replicate upon the craze for jewellery and ornaments. Women`s passions for
jewellery are not restricted to necklaces only. They buy and wear myriad ornaments for arms, wrists and fingers. The most popular are bangles, rings, for hands and the anklets (worn around ankles). Beauty-consciousness is an inherent characteristic of feminine nature. And in this respect, even the tribal women of Bihar, are not lagging behind. Even the men participate in these regular grooming-sessions. Tribal people, inclusive of both men and women, wrap a thin strip of cloth round the waist. By rule, they maintain two pieces, of cloth, one for home-use and the other for going out. Their men are accustomed to wearing Dhotis, whereas women attire themselves in sarees. Drawing tattoo on the forehead, arms and legs is very much in vogue among tribal population. This is especially in harmony with their belief in magic. To sum up, simplicity is the mantra which provides an aura of elegance to the costume of this tribal elegance of Bihar. The costumes of Bihar, thus exhibit the richness, refinement and immeasurable worth of a heritage that remains ever-glorious, even in the face of changing times. Costumes of Chandihgarh.... the capital city of both Punjab and Haryana , has ranked as one of the highest income-generating state-economy of India. This superb city, forging ahead on the advancing wave of improvement is bound to flourish in all possible aspects of life. The city populated with Hindus, including the Punjab is, Sikhs, Muslims and Christianity, certainly projects forth a potpourri culture respecting traditional norms but welcoming innovations as well. This amalgamation of tradition with modern newness is reflected in the costume-types of Chandigarh in India. The urban ambience of Chandigarh, requires men to go for formal office costumes. The longsleeved shirt, with tie, coat and formal trousers make up a total office-suit for men, is very much in vogue. At times formal trousers are topped off by sober T-shirts, that contributes to the dignified appearance of Multi-national executives, servicemen, businessmen, during office-work, conferences, meetings and important deals. In the winter months, men assume a stylish look with handsome jackets, or woolen garments, which wards off the biting cold of North India as well. As casuals, jeans and other branded or quality cotton fabric , rule the list of men`s favourite costumes. The traditional bridergroom`s costume of Chandigarh, is the resplendent and sophisticat ed Sherwani, an attire suiting the inherent attribute of manliness. Sherwanis , invested with Western-eastern fusion, has the best outlook, and is in keeping with the contemporary air and traditional choices. A Sherwani is a body-fitting, long coat-like garment, with ornate buttons, installed in the front side, which are buttoned up , while wearing. A Sherwani has a Nehru collar (collars worn by the first Indian Prime Minister, Jahawarlal Nehru, the trendsetter). This coatlike knee-length upper garment is perfectly matched with a bodyhugging Churidar-trousers. The tall and sturdy Chandigarh grooms look regal in Sherwanis. Sherwanis usually, come in light shades like, off-white, or beige. The grooms` Sherwanis are decorated with mind-blowing Zardozi (a kind of gorgeous Persian embroidery, decked with stones, gold and
silver thread, and present with copper wire,with gold sheen, or gold coloured thread) and embroidery designs. They can be fashioned in different forms, for example the Peshawri or the Baloochi. Indian embellished shoes, for instance, Nagra, Khussa, Mojri in general , gives a finishing touch to this elegant groom costume, Sherwani. The urbanized women of Chandigarh have laid their hands on both Indian and Western outfit. Their costume ranges from salwar-kameez, sari, kurtis, jeans, shirts, T-shirts, formal trousers, chic capris, to be very precise all the popular variety. The casual versions of these entire can serve as workplace costume, and costume for daily wear and tear. Salwar-kameez, which glorifies the innate beauty of the Indian woman, is the forever priority for the Chandigarh women. The plethora of diversity in salwar-kameez involves, suit with mirror and Kundan embroidery, Persian embroidery, Aari and Resham work , Cut-work salwarkameez, golden filigree salwars-suits, vegetable dye kurta churidar, Phirozi salwars, handloom jacquard salwar suit, camric cotton salwar suit, chikan suit (cotton fabric with self-design) . Added to these, Zardozi salwar-kameez, Phulkari -work kameez and other ornamented salwar-suits. Sleeves of kameez can be of short, bell and umbrella shaped . The textile-manufacturers of salwar-Kameez play with different hues, starting from the bright shades like red, maroon, mustard, yellow, green , navy blue, black to the pastel and light colours, like baby pink, pink, sky-blue, saffron, peach, crème, beige, white and so on. The traditional bridal costume for the beautiful maidens of Chandigarh is the marvelous Lehenga-cholidupatta. Traditional wedding Lehenga-choli or Ghagra-choli and designer wedding Lehenga-cholis created out of a splendid synthesis of traditional costume-pattern and modern designs, cut, mix and shot colour shades , etc., happen to be the bridal love. A today`s Lehenga can be a mantle of vibrant marron, finely toned with beige contrast, and golden Zardozi, harmonised with butawork. The colours may vary from maroon, red, to the sunet yellow, to the pink, blues and pesta. The beautiful , long -flowing get-up of Lehengas, with a flare towards the bottom, make the bride appear like a pretty princess.The bride endowed with lustrous make-up and luminous Lehenga , also dons an equally adorned blouse , called Choli. The dazzling Dupatta, the decorated and matching piece of cloth , either covers the upper front portion of the bride, as it passes round her neck , to the back of the head or is suspended from the back of her head, being pinned into her braided hair. The brilliance of accessories is a must for bridal costume. Kundan and gold jewelry wonder , studded with ruby,emeralds, turquoise, coral , entails elaborate necklaces, chokers, malas (necklaces as garlands), haars or kanthas (a kind of necklace); bajubandhs (armbands) for brides, payals (anklets) and mangtikas (headdress-ornament) and finally the Zaridar, threadembroidered sandals furnish the bride with an awedsome splendor. Now a days, the semiprecious jewelry, of breathtaking beauty, are simultaneously present with gold ornaments, in the bridal costume, of some brides. They augment the shimmer on the whole.
career. Above 62%of the population in Dadra and Nagar Haveli is tribal. etc. Delhi is a fashionable city and it is showcased in Delhi`s costumes.. business. in the choice and setting of the costume-trends.. enveloping the front porti on of the body. situated on the west of the western Ghats. The traditional costumes of Delhi are churidar orsalwar kameez dupatta for women. stretching upto the knees. has a simple as well as aesthetic complexion.It is evident. the largest tribal community. that the costumes of Chandigarh. languages. is a dark blue saree. Dhodia men. a waist coat or shirt. have a unique pattern. tastes and preferences. reaching down till the knee and another piece of cloth called Padar. People from diverse states have come and settled in Delhi for education. An additional adornment catered by the Kokna men and women is a tattoo-painting.is replete with the ethnic culture of tribes. topped off by a shirt or a waistcoat. and the national capital of the country. etc. and with the aanchal . on the forehead and on other parts of the body. metal bangles on wrists and dainty metal Kadas (a kind of anklet) round the ankles. It is wonderful to watch that the costumes of Dadar and Nagar Haveli . either knee-long or toe-long. on the other hand. The traditional costume of the Dodhia women.. Kokna and Varli. Beads necklaces of resplendent hues. Women love to deck themselves in silver and white ornaments. treasures a rich cultural heritage of splendid diversity and secular democracy that the country stands for. cover themselves in a white knee-length Dhoti . dressing style. Delhi. founded on the truth of intermingling of cultures. and kurtas and pyjamas for men.. The main tribes include Dodhia.. and along with them. like the Varli to act as the headdress.. The Varli women.. The Dhodia men are inclined towards wearing ornaments. and a headgear i. The sturdy Kokna men.. The costume of the men of Varlis origin . The air of Delhi is abuzz with the mantra of variety and ethnicity. to arrive at the best. A turban furnishes a Kokna man with dignity.. a waist-long coat. a turban . coming down till the knees. The costume of the Koknas. encircling the waist. Kokna women flaunt themselves in sarees of myriad colours. The cosmopolitan Delhi denizens have reflected this tradition of an all-accommodative mindset. they have also brought their culture. here youth and adolescents are very fashion conscious. bear the signature of tradition and modern designs at the same time.e. comprises of a loincloth . the microcosmic India. A living example is the admired . wrap themselves round the waist in Lugden (a one yard sari). don themselves in Dhoti. They. Costumes of Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Costumes of Delhi. a cap of white or coloured shades . such as earrings and silver chains. augment the natural beauty of the woman folk. is much akin to that of the other tribes.
ghagra lehenga choli. However. can very much be invested with design. skirts. Ghagra is an oriental ankle-length skirt. Along with the ethnic costume of sari. The young generation. and choli is the upper blouse. Exclusive silk materials. The same applies for Ghagra-choli and salwar-kameez. topped off by a long shirt or tunic like dress. or Turko-Mongol costume. Dhoti. happening to be the daily costume. mirror-work. blouses. to obtain a gorgeous appearance. cut-work. hugely popular among girls. shirts. and introduced by the Muslim rule in India. on ceremonial occasions. ari work. crepe. Kurta. crafted by the deft craftsmen of the neighbouring Jaipur and Rajasthan. however. which refers to a dress of baggy trousers. but also assert the Indianness of their identity. In fact this conjunction of the old and the new is the mark of excellence of the costumes of Delhi. The distinct charm of today`s Ghagra Lehenga Choli of Delhi is the modern designs. which get well-communicated through this costume-type. His costume was helpful in emphasising his role as the national leader to the country. diamond or authentic gem-studded ornaments. men try out ornate Sherwanichuridars. varying in sizes and shapes. work as the perfect base for shimmering Zardozi. worn by men. including fascinating Kundan work. chiffon and other types of fabric possessing a rich texture. or Kurta-pajamas. Salwar-suits with sequined embroidery or semiprecious stones` embroidery.female costume of Delhi. Western jeans tops. a Persian form of embroidery. They are increasingly becoming a woman`s passion in Delhi. frequently turning out to be a designers or a . T-shirts. the first Prime Minister of India. A very noteworthy attribute of today`s costumes of Delhi is that. was imported into the Indian horizon. the men of Delhi are not lagging behind. tissue cloth. covering the front upper portion. Jawaharlal Nehru. These costumes are not only wear -friendly in the course of daily busy schedule of modern-life. hand paints. jeans. exhibited himself in Sherwani with Nehru collars (collarstyle. For instance. and even on skirts and blouses. and cut of a traditional attire. They are not only keen to preserve the culture they belong to. with the adv ent of the TurkoIranian dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. modern innovations have started impressing their signatures on the traditional element of the costumes of Delhi. This costume of Salwar-Kameez. usually dress themselves in formal shirts. or simple but elegant cut. Women of Delhi are well-aware of fashion-updates. is not inherent to India. But a modern-day Delhi sari. even workplace dress for men. all alluring on excellent fabric is the characteristic of salwar-kameez in Delhi these days. The dress-designers namely Ritu Kumar. crowd a fashionable and modern-day woman`s wardrobe. Tshirts and the other modern-day chic male garment. prints. shades and get-up. or salwar kameez. but also enrich a woman`s aura of style and smartness. Neeta Lulla and Sabyasachi Mukherjee are weaving magic with their embroidery splendour. silver. trousers. The pattern of this Turko -Persian. or salwar-kameez or churidar-kameez (churidar is a body-hugging trouser). Zardozi can be on sari. georgette. as well as their values. and a cl oth -piece called dupatta.Kameez. and so on. including Zardozi. popularised by him) and Nehru cap. kurta-pajama. colours. at present compete with the original gold. done with gold or silver thread. or Kurta-Pajamas. Salwar . Dhoti-Kurtas. Kurta-Salwar. namely. Resplendent semi-precious jewelry. narrowed down towards the bottom. Sherwani-salwar. The senior and the venerated generation cater to the ethnic costume of India. sari is the traditional Indian costume for women. When it comes to making themselves presentable in proper costume. and sherwanis.
is symbolic of manliness in Rajput society. theDhoti-clad Brahmin priests roam around in Kurta. but previously the Rajputs adhered to the Purdah or veil system for their women.. and with a hand towel. By heritage. The difference in style and the quality of Kurtas. saris and gowns woven by indigenous weavers. Over all.boutique`s collection. Their wives and daughters used to venture out within the enclosed confines of curtained palanquins. allured by the availability of the recent inthings as well dignified traditional dress there. carried under the arm. Costumes of Himachal Pradesh.. These shawls are famous for their elegance and smooth textures. Hand-woven excellence is the hallmark of the costumes of Himachal Pradesh. They cater to long pyjamas. related to the costumes of Delhi. Now a days. Costumes of Delhi make the style statement and are a yardstick for the clothing industry nationwide. Pagri. Men sometimes adorn themselves in ornaments like bangles. a long coat. a loincloth and a cap. as well as fascinating patterns. Kinnars. Western influence is visible on the costumes of the younger generation of Himachal Pradesh these days.. a starch-stiffened turban with a unique mould. the Rajputs. The utility shoes made from grass. along with stylish wrist-watches. is usually worn with Sherwanis. Nevertheless. such as festival. Peculiarities in kinds of feminine ornaments are well demonstrated by the bangles and rings produced from horsehair. go for kurta. are assets for any costume-lover. comprise an awesome diversity owing to the plethora of culture and religion. Pangawals and Lahaulis.. turban. choli (blouses or tops with intricate embroidery) and rahide (nice crimson headscarves decked with golden fringes). His attire is thus in keeping with the cold atmosphere. the costumes of Delhi have manifold facets of cultural and ethnic identities despite its primarily global look. though not so much in vogue. be it the Hindu Brahmins. an astrological yearbook.. waistcoat. ghaghri(Indian long skirts). on special occasions. The costume of the women hailing from the Brahmin and the Rajput clans are quite traditional. for important consultation. The soothing suppleness of the . and the tribal people like Gaddis. and shoes with pointed edges. to effect a royal outlook. Traditional shoes. Gujjars. coat. serve as the insignia of Himachal handlooms. salwars. Nagra shoes. to augment their manliness. The native women are famous in weaving headscarves. These women normally dress themselves in kurtas (shirt-like oriental blouse).e. i. The expanding range and plethora of patterns. are perfect for keeping the feet warm. The boasted thick moustaches and a dignified frown in the forehead-region. These weave-ace people are the dexterous creators of exclusive shawls. The Rajputs wear body-hugging churidar pyjamas. placed upon the shoulders and with a valuable copy of Panchang.The farmers and worker classes required to toil. like. Again the costumes of each community are different. like marriage ceremonies or special occasions. have made Delhi a dream-destination of the costume-lovers. for attending ceremonies. and curiously enough with his priestly profession that involves astrological predictions too. wristbands.
Among the favorite types of shawls. The Pashmina belts and `kamarbands" are common too. To be very precise. abundance of resplendent dyed and printed fabrics and costumes in Himachal Pradesh. The wool products are knitted from Byangi wool. The embroidered caps of the Kulu. The special Kashmiri embroidery work. The Muslim men wear lace -free shoes known as Gurgabis. Intricate work is done on both sides of these shawls. Sirmair. doll and elephant figures constructed of rags are all native productions. And the resultant is that we come across. ThePashmina shawls are made from traditional woollen textiles which are obtained from mountain goat. The Farahada and the Chhiba group people are the experts in this business. It has been historically seen that the early Aryan descendants who lived in this region. In these mountainous regions. skillfully shrouded by the pheran. the Romans and the Persians. quilts. these shawls find their demand worldwide. It functions as an internal heating system in order to keep the wearer warm during the extreme cold winters. Most of the garments are made of wool. Manufactured from the hair of Pashmina goat. the traditional `pheran` is the most popular form of dressing among both men and women. Costumes worn by Kashmiri men The pheran is the most commonly worn garment among men. Exquisite patchwork. embroidered with marvelous embroidery. interacted with various prosperous civilizations like the famous Greeks. Lahaul. Kinnaur and Lahaul are all brands of skilled craft by themselves. reflect the richness of the culture and landscape of the region. Dyeing and printing of fabrics makes for a traditional craft in the region. Such influences of its cultural ethos and tradition coupled with the climatic factors find a reflection in the attires of its people. Wool weaving acts as a major vocation in Himachal. The kangri is usually placed in the front. The pheran has a lot of beautiful embroidery work done on it and is decorated with floral motifs and designs. are th e leading. The `pathani` suit. Skull caps are extremely prevalent.renowned Pashmina shawl is the specialty of the handlooms of Himachal Pradesh. celebrate the ages-old Pahadi designs. also referred to as `Khan-dress`. camel hair and cashmere are the main elements that are used in the making of coats and fleece for men. . The dwellers of Lahaul-Spiti and Kinnaur are deft in this task who weaves ornate draperies for special occasions. Turbans are common among Muslim men. It is then placed within a container made of natural fibre. Embroidered blouses and caps gives a glimpse of the commendable taste of the Himachal inhabitants. Kasida. The pheran is a loosely fitted woollen garment which makes use of the `kangri`. Costumes of Jammu and Kashmir... is a popular garb among the men. The striking shawls originating from Kulu. the splendid costumes of Himachal Pradesh owe a lot to the impressive craftsmanship of the prolific weaving-talents and the outstanding handlooms of the state.. Brocade. Thapada is also a broad shawl. Hindu men usually wear churidars while the Muslim men are dressed in salwars beneath the formidable pherans. which serve as vital constituents of the gorgeous attire for the bride. silk with intricate embroideries and cotton. especially in Srinagar.. The fancy needlework available on these shawls has its source in the Kangra and Chamba schools of paintings. `Dhobroo` and `Pattu`. is done in such a manner that the patterns appear in a uniform manner on both sides of the fabric. The kangri is an earthen vessel which is filled with flaming coal. especially among the peasants and the `karakuli` or fur skull caps along with the Pashmina shawls worn by men often symbolize royal lineage.
The pheran is accompanied by red headgears known as the `kasaba`. talismans and gems. The pheran worn by women usually has zari embroidery on the hem line. around pockets and mostly on the collar area. Elaborate zari embroideries or floral patterns around the neck and the pockets are a prominent feature of a Muslim woman`s pheran. the pherans are wrapped tightly by a piece of creased cloth called `lhungi`. The `abaya` is also commonly worn by them. The Dogra womenfolk are found attired in fitted pajamas and tunics accessorized with a suitable headdress. bracelets and heavily bejeweled chains. comprising two robes placed atop the other. The elaborate headgears are replaced by exquisitely ornate skull caps embellished with threads of gold. Costumes worn by ethnic groups of Kashmir The Jammu and Kashmir landscape is dotted with various ethnic groups. the costumes vary to some extent. stitched to a suspended cap and it narrows down at the back. The Hindu women wear a headdress called the `taranga`. These dejharoos comprise two decorative gold pendants which are suspended through gold chains or silk threads. It is worn by the Muslim women as a part of their regular attire. The taranga is an integral part of the wedding attire among Hindus. anklets and bangles are widely used apart from the use of ornamentation in clothing. stretching up to their feet with narrowed down sleeves. Brocade patterns adorn their long sleeves. Accessories worn by Kashmiri women The intricate patterns of a woman`s costumes in Jammu and Kashmir are further enhanced by the use of various accessories. there are the `poots` and the pheran. For unmarried Muslim women. The Dogras are tribes residing amidst the hilly topography of Jammu. A pin-scarf suspended from the kasaba descends towards the shoulder. The use of kamarbands and turban are prominent among the Dogra elders. `Dejharoos` or golden pendants are worn by the Hindu women. The pherans worn by the Muslim women are traditionally characterized by their broad sleeves and reach up to the knees. However. Similar fitted pajamas and kurtas of considerable length constitute the costume of the Dogra men. the Hindus of Jammu and Kashmir wear their pherans long. Earrings. towards the heels. It is symbolic of a woman`s married status among the Kashmiri Pandits.Costumes worn by Kashmiri women The pheran is the prominent attire for Kashmiri women as well. Often. Silver jewellery is popular among the Muslim women and they adorn themselves with neckpieces. Traditionally. . The kasaba is stitched in the form of a turban and is pinned together by ornaments and silver brooches.
Side by side with the tribals. despite these influences. can hardly ignore the dazzle of the ethnic as well as awesome Tussar silk sarees. unique in appearance .The Gujjars. The members of this tribe are mostly shepherds. the perak is handed down to her eldest child. for instance the Paharis and the Santhals follow a dress-code. are the second-largest group of ethnic tribes inhabiting in Kashmir. The rearing of the source. or costume-crazy women. `Kuntops` are woolen gowns worn by women. Women cover themselves in sarees and blouses. the people of Jammu and Kashmir have adopted the dressing style and habits of the west as well as those of other regional Indian cultures. It extends to about 2 metres in length and 20 cm in breadth. live the non-tribal people. as natural protein fibres round its cocoon. meaning land of woods. This is noticed primarily among the men have appropriated the western attire to a great extent. pajama and sherwani. Tribal females traditional attire is the Panchi and Parhan .. The men wear `Goucha`. called Bhagwan. has been previously the southern portion of Bihar. Men while featuring in ceremonies. pajama. Men however maintain their decency with only one piece of cloth . The silk is produced by the mature silkworm.. indispensable in the weaving of silk threads into wonderful Tussar silk sarees. a woollen robe made of sheep skin fixed at the neck. The sari is more popular among the Hindu women after the 1930 s Reform Movement.. happens to be the habitat of ages -old tribal population . silk-worms is the task of the deft tribal labourers. the lower garment is topped off by the upper Parhan. Vananchal . The costumes of the inhabitants of the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir deserve special mention because of their extraordinary variety. the traditional pheran continues to remain the symbol of the culture and couture of Jammu and Kashmir. The Skerag serves as an enclosure for the Ladakhi men to carry their bare essentials. only in November 2000. The Gujjar women are dressed in loose sleeved tunics coupled with baggy salwars. manufactured in Jharkhand. footwear made of Yak skin and wool is known as `Papu`. Tussar silk is cultivated in the Kharsawa district of Kuchai area of Jharkhand.. akin to the ones worn by the women in Turkish villages. kurta & shirts . The major tribes of Santhal Pargana . These people envelop themselves in the traditional costume of Jharkhand. They cover their head by an elaborate headgear. bearing the popular sobriquet. It is accompanied by a `bok`. Women. It is wound at the waist by a bright sash called `Skerag`. In Ladakh. However. This state. Men in Ladakh wear velvet multihued caps while the women adorn turquoise colored hats named `Perak`. also residents of Jammu. and almost the whole of India. Parhan. a brightly decorated shawl that can aid in carrying packages and even children. belonging to well-off families. upon a woman`s demise. Costumes of Jharkhand. According to tradition. adorn themselves in better quality and attractivelooking kurta. dhoti. which got its political dimension as a state. It has been seen that over the years. .
The twinkling lights played mischievously over the gold and thread embroidery while the sequins and badla work sparkled continuously. A woman in an abha. the increasing demand for Tussar silk can be met. Most men in Kutch wear loose trousers. zari . Dazzling with vibrant colours. The people also use perfumes oil. Jharkhand and enjoy the lovely costumes. Recently. that if someone wants to view the sophistication and the magnificence of native -talents in India. i. they can present forth. beautify themselves with the help of this ethnic and artistic costumes of Jharkhand. Typical Kutchi costume is incomplete without `Abha` or `Kanjari`. Normally men prefer white clothes except the Muslims who prefer colored clothes. People of Jharkhand harbour a love for perfumes and their aromas. respecting ethnicity. The tribe-centric culture of Jharkhand .e. and tribal festivals. The mirror work and embroidery work forms an integral part of Kutchi Handicrafts irrespective of the community or ethnic group to which they belong. In the village of Kutch. has exhibited its preference for plain but elegant accessories. flooded with striking mirror work and stunning jewellery it`s one of the most alluring customs in India. various nuances of tribal life. has entered the world of high fashion. in general. a district in Gujarat. silver and beads ornaments are indeed aesthetic and hence. Gold. the Garacia Jat women wear only red or black chunis while Rabari women wear black open blouses or cholis with odhnis to cover head. In ancient times the women wore the abha embellished with beautiful tie-dye designs. In fact the various communities can be identified by the pattern of handicrafts and dress or costumes they were. In the rural areas women wear Chaniya choli during the whole year.. this beautiful garment has become a rage with the fashion conscious women. and often with traditional paintings or print. Costumes of Kutch. Successfully adapted to modern styles by Anjali Mangaldas. The local women. a plain or silk-bordered cloth. It is a veritable truth.Indeed. The silk sarees. are endowed with a lustrous texture.. and a short coat. the women looked beautiful in their fabulous Abhas as they swayed to the music. demonstrating tribal dances. only due to the prowess of these silk-weavers and silk-farmers. the newly launched Anjana and Swarnarekha silks of Jharkhand are ruling the market. Chaniya choli`s are of many designs and fashion. `Abha` is the name of the typical choli worn by women folk and `Kanjari` is a long blouse beautifully embroidered and with mirror work. This garment from Kutch. has a history that is as colourful and exciting as the garment. the traditional costume of the region of Kutch.Exquisitely stylized and intricately embroidered. Memon and Korja Muslim communities of Kutch is a sight to behold. Abhas. eyecaptivating. a long-sleeved under-jacket. For instance. the traditional costume of the Khatri. then that individual must make a visit to the tribal heaven of India. People of higher status of the society use the modern European dresses. however the workmanship differs. So they have the habit of applying perfumes. Fashion-conscious women are flaunting themselves in this new innovation. the kutchi attire is simply eye-catching.
but also women tie a silver thread round the waist. and the Amini cluster of islands. stitched together. The trousers are worn from the waist and are supported with a cord. A colored embroidered tapelines along the sides as and around the ankles. is basically a kalidar kurta without a slit on the sides. often made of silk fabric. This Kachi. The jacket. but unstitched unlike that of men. However. the Thakrufans. pink or green hues. Manikfan men dress themselves in the customary lungis and shirts costume. they flaunt themselves in cotton or silk drapery. The shades of Kachis are generally black or white with black borders. The color-smeared scarf . commonly come up in red body with contrasting black borders. men do not covers themselves upwards the waist. integrating minuscule mirror discs into its elaborate and distinct pattern. Kachis are. as their daily costume. The abha has been a collectors item since the last four generations. with its edges . This cloth is passed around the shoulders. The tribal men. . other than Minicoy.. The abha has been a collectors item since the last four generations. invested with impressive embroidery. for their inherent sense of artistry. This acts as a girdle for a senior person. similar to the pattern of jeans. is tucked into the waistband of silver thread. It is topped off by a full-sleeves close-fitting jacket around the waist. The word abha-has been derived from aba a word commonly used in the Middle Eastern countries which means a top garment or a mantle. The genuine abhas could be date back nearly a century. exhibit themselves in shirts. done with glass or gilt bits. a rectangular piece of cloth.. The abha based on an age-old traditional classical cut and style. The trousers are available in black. The Manikfan class has an air of elegance about them. enveloping a woman from the waist. Normally. shimmering in the golden radiance of sunlight makes Lakshadweep a dream-destination. known as Thattam. The various stratas of this community namely. don themselves in white or coloured lungi . The scenic landscape is hence in tune with the resplendent costumes. of this coastal land. for daily wear and tear. However. There is a discrete charm about the costume of the Minicoy population. who pulls the lungi through the string to hold it firmly round his waist. the men of the remaining classes have embraced trousers. contains fine embroidery. The younger generation. The abundance of colours enriches the traditional costumes of Lakshadweep. The plain . The best have even been part of collections auctioned in the west by Christys and Sothebys Research scholars have not yet been able to pinpoint the historical period or influence on these costumes. in ceremonial participation. the Thakrus and the Raveri project their own traditional dress. the silk Kachis . Not only men. white. . serves as a wonderful headdress. the Manikfans. with a lose flair and it hangs lower than a normal kurta. reflected in their customes too. on the front side. all of which are marvels to watch at.thread embroidery that was very minute and intricate embroidery in coloured silk or cotton thread in a combination of a variety of stitches. deserve praise. blue. coming as a rectangular piece of cloth. but colorful costumes of Lakshadweep. The traditional costume of women comprises of Kachi. Costumes of Lakshadweep. Unfortunately modernity has compelled these lovely costumes into museums or wooden boxes in far off villages. However. The blue sea lashing against the beaches of Lakshadweep..
white in color and expanding from the face down to the chin. It is a strip of black cloth. Ornaments are in vogue among the islander women. urukku. with an width of one inch . Waistband associates the trousers.The custom is a little different for the Thakrus and Thakrufans . that they can demonstrate themselves in the lustrous gold ornaments. because. can lay their hands on silver ornaments only. A waistornament called aranchan. Alikkath are small rings embellishing the ear. There exist some prohibitions regarding the use of jewelry. The intricacy of design. The headgear emerges is a stripy red or black cloth. women of other classes . women use a veil-like covering. ear-rings. This cloth has an opening only at the neck. The two types . who have undertaken sea-expeditions. The Minicoy women are economical about their ornaments choices. after becoming mature adults. are bestowed with greater detail . possessing a lock. Raveri men achieve ownership of wearing these clothes. and the good choice . and the adippu. stretching from shoulder to ankle. functioning as a bracelet. are the popular jewelry items. The waistband is a strip of white cloth. The plenty of ornaments. The vala is an ordinary bangle has a glamorous kodakam . The number of protrusions. The younger generation has exhibited a liking for trousers and shirts to their costumes. is a string of black beads. The Urukku is however. the female belonging to Manikfan class. It is the privilege of the Manikka women . for the wrists. None is entitled to wear such trousers. The waist -belt could be of gold or of silver. the necklace. The costume of the Minicoy women is an under-garment. all women wear a modram. are the kannadi aracha. The upper part of the women`s body is left without clothes. The costume for the ceremonial occasions. koodu and alikkath. called libus. marked with black stripes. except those courageous males. apart from the Minicoy women. and a necklace. is maintained in accordance to the class-status of the various classes. In general. The design of koodu . are decked with floral patterns. At times. beautifying a bride for the most special important occasion of her life. The scenario is again different for the Raveri class. is a remarkable item. with embroidery decorating that part. be it four or two. classified . with blue or green colors. worn around the chain. along with a long cloak. The libus is usually seen as a brick-crimson cloth. The practice of wearing a headdress prevails among these women. It has a pyramidal structure. bangles called vala or kodakam. a fingerring . an eardrop is special. interspersed with gold.
and that of Madhya Pradesh. The tribal women of this state augment their beauty in silver or Kathir ornaments. It is interesting to watch that the air of Western dress-pattern has already started blowing in the towns and Kasbas of Madhya Pradesh. to retain a decent and sober look. colourful costumes.. The delicate Chanderi sarees and Maheshwari sarees produced in Madhya Pradesh are hand-woven. with a medium coarse quality. called langot. cover themselves in ghaghri. The myriad colours of this traditional costume of the men of Madhya Pradesh. enriched with fascinating prints. Furthermore. Description: Costumes of Madhya Pradesh show multiplicity in various aspects. The majority of the people of Madhya Pradesh attest Dhoti as their traditional costume. Costumes of Madhya Pradesh comprise handicrafts and diverse textile techniques which have given rise to a rich array of costumes of Madhya Pradesh. for presenting themselves in public wear short-sized Dhotis. Their treasure-chest incorporates Kadas (bracelets) and Kangni (bangles) on hand and Hansli and Haar (necklace). which are a necessity and no more a luxury. made by the village-cobbler.. is the headgear. The fabric is painted with molten wax and is dyed with cold dyes to create a cloth variety called Batik. whereas. In fact. The villagers of Madhya Pradesh wear raw-leather shoes. modern dresses form an integral part of the daily costume in Madhya Pradesh. is no exception to this rule. Their costumes in such wonderful moments are resplendent. gives the men a radiant and dignified appearance. Handicrafts and different textile techniques have given rise to a rich diversity of costumes of Madhya Pradesh. Costumes of Madhya Pradesh. The children. rampant in weekly markets are the daily costume. The womenfolk of Madhya Pradesh dress themselves in Lehenga (long Indian skirt) and Choli (Indian blouse). specifically in Bundelkhandand Malwa. girls. Contrast patterns on Batik cloth are quite wellknown. is a part of the men`s attire. very similar to the student`s costume of other states. but in the remote ambience of the forests they feel cozy in minimal garment..of colours and quality of fabric of the costumes of Lakshadweep. Boys visit school in short-pants and shirts. a white or black jacket called Bandi or Mirzai. or the school-going group of Madhya Pradesh. Bandhani (locally called Bandhej) cloth is produced on a huge scale in Maundsar. Safa. and they are quite renowned all over India. a kind of turban. are the favourite shades for this feminine costume. or in Western frock. Mill-manufactured clothes are in vogue in urban areas. Ornaments are a natural accompaniment to Indian costumes. call for recognition and praises of their taste and preferences. Special occasions and delightful festivals witness people roaming around in utmost revelry. Aluminium . Tribal people. Immaculate white garments are celebrated as the foremost priority. Indore and Ujjain. a kind of Indian skirt. have uniforms. It is definite that a costume is incomplete without shoes. which is the common feature of Madhya Pradesh`s costume. Red and black. Ready-made dresses.Another additional strip of cloth called Orni or Lugra is draped around the head and shoulders. These shoes are tough and lasting in order to endure the immense toil of he primarily agricultural rustic people of Madhya Pradesh.
They use choli with the sarees and often polkas and blouses. sil k tops the priority list. owes its origin to adept textile-designing. Tattoo painting is an important constituent of the costume-pattern of Madhya Pradesh. self-name or picture of a god. who are by profession potter. Semi-precious or today`s imitation jewelry are quite popular among the young generation of girls. Young girls. engage in a lot of captivating tattooing. The accessories of the refined and educated elite women have a different charm. tode and patlya. The Paithani saree. i. Zele on the forehead. The fabric of Nauvari Saree is usually cotton. Maharashtra. at emergency period of wars. Costume of Maharashtra. one of the largest and most populous states of India. comprises a nine yard sari as the traditional costume for the women. one must praise the intermingling of tribal as well as non-tribal cultures in Madhya Pradesh. Kahar and Kumhar. The Nauvari saree has a historical background. Some of the necklaces they wear include bangdya. This saree bears a resemblance to male trousers. To conclude. as well as weather conditions. Charan. Meghwal. an ox. demonstrates an array of costumes. The Brahmin ladies of Maharashtra wear sarees in a particular pattern where the pleats are located at or near the back and these are tucked in waist and the decked part of the saree is left open on the shoulder part.or silver bracelets decorate the wrist and armbands. nath or nose ring decorated with pearl or vibrant coloured stones. This specific style of draping does not require a petticoat or a slip beneath it. Particularly. Their necks are adorned with sleek silver or golden chain. The traditional costume of women in Maharashtra is a nine-yard long saree. gives the tribal woman a gorgeous look. silver Kandora on the waist-line. hanker for silver or aluminum made Pyjeb to embellish their feet. and dhoti and shirt as the traditional costume of the men folk. Among the most favoured jewelleries are the haar. the tribes. During the Maratha rule. To facilitate easy movement. Bhilala.. which has given the costumes of this region. and for special occasions. Paithani sarees happen to be the treasured creation of Maharashtra`s textile-industry. but they have the affordability to indulge in the delight of gold. subjects from the wide range of the flora and the fauna encircling them. In tribal-crowded zones like Bhil. called Nauvari. Banjara.. the women of these tribal sects prefer drawing on their arms tattoos of flower. Silk is woven to constitute the body of the royal Paithani silks. Most of the designs of the jewelleries are of Peshwa and Maratha style. the Maharashtrian women then introduced the Nauvari Saree. the upper-arm.. attractive pendant or locket. invested with an 18 inch to 25 inch pallu. pure Jari- . They go for similar types of ornaments. payal (anklet) and Bichhudi on the toes. fundamental to the social system of Madhya Pradesh. The Maharashtrian women prefer to deck themselves in beautiful jewelleries.e. bearing often. And into this rich silk texture. women were entrusted with the grave responsibility of helping their male partners. Kolhapuri Saaj. suiting the purpose of any occasion. an element of ethnicity and discreteness. Bali or little ear-studs.
Philosamia ricini that feeds mainly on castor leaves. and other kinds of resplendent men`s attire. and especially in its cosmopolitan capital. the silkworms. Indeed. for the whole of India. are interwoven. Mumbai.made of gold and silver threads. It is woven from mulberry silk cultivated in the local region. It may be worn along with a shirt or kurta. They shift from wearing jeans. Fashion experiences its high.Khasi and the Jaintias. and Dhoti is often substituted with trousers. The sarees have received their name after the place of its origin. The urban Mumbai men on the other hand. every family earns their livelihood through weaving. all possible types of casual wears. Pune. and jeans-trousers. kurta-pajamas. sherwanis. exotic Sarees and so on. produce rich protein fiber and accordingly spin round the open-ended cocoon. The Paithani sarees are thus essentially linked to the culture and society of Maharashtra. salwarkameez. the beautiful state of Meghalaya houses these three famous hill tribes of India. the silkworm. Women put in Kurta-Pajamas. Endi silk is the product of the domesticated silkworm. Nasik and Malegaon in Maharashtra. The other weaving-sites of this exclusive item are Yeola. the traditional costume for women. to give the Saree the ornamented get-up. in the posh cities of Maharashtra. The men of Maharashtra uphold Dhoti as their cultural heritage. It is interesting to note that the Garos are the most skilled weavers of the region. Probably. They also wear `bandi` over the shirt and turban called `pheta` and `pagadi`. It is from this fibre that the coveted silk is generated. and the abode of Bollywood. Indeed. Sonidan is the hub of Endi or Errandi silk-production in Meghalaya. establishing their sway. . Paithan in Maharashtra. It has also focused on the traditional and regional textile-accomplishments like Paithani as the `in-thing` now. flaunt themselves with the halo of grooming. Time and the effect of globalisation have brought a drastic change in the costumes of each and every state and Maharashtra as well. branded shirts. The festive occasions of the Maharashtrians allow themselves to indulge in the festive mood and during this time most of the men wear Churidar. The crowning glory of the costume of Meghalaya is the Endi silk shawl. the tradition has not faded its glitter. with fashion-designing institutes and business units. rank among their favorites. trousers. Ackan or Survar. Pyjama. is the trendsetter for costumes. The bright Paithani sarees are very popular as the bridal costume in Maharashtra. feeding on castor leaves. hence has achieved a splendid synthesis of the old and the new patterns in costume. Nestled in the peaceful hills of the north-eastern part of India. These nature`s artists. Costumes in the state of Meghalaya show the ethnicity of the tribes namely the Garos. Mumbai the glam-epicenter of India. thus the traditional dresses have not lost the glory of their past. In the urban areas of Maharashtra. ornate Dhotis. costumes display themselves in their variety best. On occasions. skirt-blouse. T-shirts. Though the modernisation has a great impact in the society. The state of Maharashtra. The hill communities rear Philosamia ricini. called Jainsen. is an unstitched garment wrapped around to cover the body. baggy trousers.
They adorn themselves with earrings and other ornaments of gold and silver. The elegance and grace inherent to the ethnic costumes of Meghalaya complements the scenic beauty of the picturesque landscape of Meghalaya. and wears a Lungi like mantle of unstitched cloth called Dakmanda. emit a discrete aura. The costume of the male members of the Jaintia tribe bears similarities with that of the Khasi men. However. flaunt themselves in a pure gold pendant kown as Kynjri Ksiar. The silk-weavers use the Endi silk threads to weave splendid shawls. as the Kashis are not so much attached with weaving today. is added to this attire. men display themselves in traditional garments only on social festivals and ceremonies. In the remote areas of Garo hill villages. Jainkup is not so much in vogue among the younger generation. by fastening it round the waist. in keeping with the air of the ambience they are residing in. She also ties round her shoulders an Assam Muga silk cloth.Sericulture is a popular small-scale industry of Meghalaya. the element of tradition is much alive in the costume of the Khasi women. a silver circlet worn round the head as a forehead -decoration. to keep the flame of tradition. Above these garments. Western concept of dressing has entered the realms of costume-design in Meghalaya. have the affordability to deck themselves in ornaments of pure gold and silver. beige and gold. The Dakmanda is an example of hand-woven cotton fabric. A Jaintia woman envelops her h ead with a cloth-piece with checks called "Kyrshah". she ties the edges of tap-moh khlieh. to serve somewhat like an apron. to present themselves in gaudy. Dressing without the embellishments of ornaments. But the Garo women go for a longer version of cotton attire in the crowded zones. but assets to boast of. Its specialty is the six to ten inch broad borders embellished with attractive motifs or floral patterns. It is a custom to dress in head ornaments. Ka Jainsem Dhara. akin to Dhoti. is used by the senior women. so as to assume a radiant appearance. owing to the costume they wear. resplendent costumes. During occasions. She covers herself from the shoulders to the ankles. However. the costume of the Jaintia women in Meghalaya is a little different from the other groups. It entails a Jainsen. The Khasi sect comprising fifty percent of the total population in India. Khasi women. like. . brown. a cotton shawl. white. Both the Khasis and the Jayantis. These shawls are invested with natural soothing shades of crÅ me. but also of any fashionaddict of India. in the recent times. a long piece of Assam Muga silk. concealing till the ankles. at the times of harvest-work in the field. A Garo woman dons a blouse. along with a sarong called Thoh Khyrwang wrapped round her waist. while the men put in a loincloth. Another strip of woolen cloth called Jainkup. The weaver-ace Garos cater to different forms of costume. They are favorites of not only the local tribal. that are not only warmth-retentive or supple. round her neck or pins at the shoulders. which is topped off by a blouse. a short cloth round the waist. However. completed by a jacket and headgear or turban. flowing down to the ankles. There exists a practice among Jaintia men and women. But the base material for these costumes is mill-manufactured. the women drape eking. with a velvet blouse. is lusterless for Jaintia women. made by local jewelry-smiths. The traditional costume of the Khasi man in Megha laya is unstitched lower apparel. on festive and happy occasions. glowing.
The shades in the cloth are black and white. namely `Chapchar Kut`. one on top of the other. a Lusei man contrives a piece of cloth as a turban or Pagri . `Mim Kut` and `Pawl Kut`.. is usually worn. White and red bands. to cov er the chest. the gorgeous attire of Mizo girls is a must during weddings and festivals such as `Chapchar Kut` and `Pawl Kut`. Usually. the costume is different. The entire costume of the Lusei men is made of cotton . as it is the costume for revelry and merry-making. The vibrant color and the outstanding designs are the reasons behind this marvelous costume. During the hot months. The fundamental patterns speak volumes for the prevalence of the ethnic heritage. This are usually worn along with `Puanchei` and while performing the various dances of the Mizos In earlier times. worn round the waist and tightly held by a girdle or belt of brass wire. along with a white coat. situated on the Northeastern corner of India. but sometimes men want to wear other shades. Puanchei . the costumes come in white colour. which is of the same pattern. at times to avoid the blazing sun. worn by all women.Costumes of Mizoram. stretches itself upto the knees. Moreover. typical of the costumes of the North East. bear conspicuous resemblance with that of the other hill-states of the Northeast. wrapped in the same way as the men`s. Kawrchei is akin to Ngotekherh .. The Lusei men believe in simplicity. They are made from cotton and the colors are made by a thing called `Ting`.. The black portion of the textile is constructed from some kind of synthetic fur.e. Ngotekherh is a cotton and hand-woven festive-attire apt for kuts. people tie these clothes around the waist to feel comfortable. some additional attires are worn. festivals. comes down from the throat enveloping till the thighs. i. a blouse. They drape themselves in an almost . This petticoat is topped off by short white jacket and a cloth. living for years in the Equality-championed hill societies The hot favorite costume of a Mizoram woman is Puan .. invested with designs adorn the sleeves of these coats. In cold season. . They too are hand-woven and cotton material. with the remaining end concealing the left shoulder. these were all hand woven but nowadays these are mostly machine made. The traditional costume of the Lusei women is the dark blue cotton petticoat. It reaches the left shoulder to the back and then passes under the right arm. 7 feet long and 5 wide cloth-piece. for example. It is a fabulous blouse for Mizo girls. is the home of the Mongoloid relatives. blue colour bestowed with stripes. Only during festive occasions. cultivated in the region itself. The beautiful and serene Mizoram. Along with this. This is uniform. when it comes to deciding their traditional costume. There is hardly any difference existing in the costumes of the ordinary Lusei and the head of the community.
The use of colours. This shawl contains alternate red. Puon Laisen is a red cloth with two black stripes at the middle. `Chhawnghnawh Day` and `Chapchar Kut`. Thangou Puon. The handwoven Hmaram . This headdress is composed of a coronal. through a hookah-type pipe . A valorous Lusei. a gun in one hand an weapon called dao on the other. casts light on the artistic prowess of the people of Mizoram. yellow and black stripes to bring the striking effect of contrast. the resplendent item in the Lusei girl`s costume is the headgear. For instance. meaning famous cloth in Hmars vocabulary. Against the dark base colour of this particular shawl. They are put in on the occasions such as `Chawn Day`. post marriage. wears a particular cloth to signify his status. their national cloth to attend commiseration. ranks as the most significant costume of Paiteis community. also called Kawkpui zikzial are very much in vogue among the children and girls.However. who had been conferred upon the honorable title of the Thanhchhuah. is the shawl flaunted by the rich men or the sons and daughters of affluent fathers. On the median band are painted black with a pattern in black mithun figures. red and white bands. The little but praiseworthy costumes of Paiteis are captivating. endowed with porcupine quills. one must mention the Thangsuo Puon. formal meetings and observance of National Dayand so on. fortified with a bear or tiger hide over one shoulder. In the Lusei society. is a must for every girl. cuttings and finally the style of dressing. worn during dances. the producer of maximum quantity of crop can wear the Thangou Puon. a quilt woven cloth. and upper edges of these quills are added green wing feathers of the common parrot. red or green stripes. The warrior`s costume in Lusei society entail a cloth passed round the waist. Again. This the prized possession of the victorious and the destroyer of optimum number of foes in war. a knapsack. while the human head attests accomplishment in head-hunting and other tasks like wielding spear and dao. by wearing t hem. the ornate warrior-celebrating shawl. The Hmars tribes are weaving-experts . The cloth is gifted with several designs like Sakat Zang Zie. Puon Pie. sometimes relish in the pride of their husband`s might. there is a central white band with two horizontal black. carrying at their tips tussocks of wing covers of green beetles. called Tsungkotepsu is a characteristic of the Aos clan. known as "chhawndawl" and "arke -ziak". built from brass and colored cane. dyed red in colour. Aomelep su made from dog`s hair. deft in creating multiple patterns . Among them. where men and women are considered equal. It matches with the gravity of the situation etc.which is 9 inches in height. signifying affluence of the owner. Rongsu shawl is wearable only by those . and even their wives. It appears with black lines along with white. etc. yellow. and the depictions of elephant and tiger speaks of the courage of the concerned man. Zakuolaisen this is a blouse piece with crimson stripes used mainly by the unmarried girls. Only. Paite is project themselves in the Puon Dum. while the one who has wiped off people in war have special headdress. women indulge in smoking like men. The costume of the Riang group of Mizoram is similar to that of the other tribes. Those valiant Hmar warriors wear them. brightening the outlook. a brave warrior who has slaughtered rivals in inter-tribal tussle or in war is allowed to claim ownership of this costume. designs. associated with costumes. while coming down to settle in her husband`s abode. Costumes of Nagaland mainly comprise shawls which are an extensively used item of the state. Disul.
The Angamis. The soldier who annexes the right . The third genna allows a man to put in the Ethasu. though Rongkhim ranks first. This is a daily-purpose shawl. wearable by a venerated warrior only. alienated by red and pink borders also decorate the body of the shawl. of skirts and belts. Liangmais and Rongmei exhibit themselves in costumes. Rongkhim is a fantastic shawl. the strip broadens accordingly. The women of the remaining groups go for diversity. The casual costume of a dress of Angami women includes a petticoat called neikhro. the Ngami su or fish tail skirt.who have a glorious heritage of Mithun sacrifice. intricately embroidered red border and three white central bands. a major Naga tribe. meant for wear and tear. A daily costume. decorated with embroidered cowries in three or four lines. The skirts come up in an inexplicable variety. Thus a man who has given the first genna wears the phangrhup. is the black shawl called ratapfe. considerably same with that of the Angamis. which is indicative of social prestige. demonstrate themselves in clothes with white. The phichu-pfe is the priest`s costume. a mixed group of Zemis. Men wear black kilt. lines and hues. Black bands of different sizes on the border. Kechinger Rongkhim is too a warrior-respecting shawl. Multifarious patterns. endowed with red and yellow-black stripes. The Ze-liangs-rong. The cowries are bestowed with distinct importance. The costume of the Zemei women is restricted to white-coloured clothes and skirts with very narrow black and red border. the successful man resorts to stone-dragging which permits him to wear Lungpensu. They differ from village to village and also from clan to clan. and men`s girdles. a white skirt called pfemhou. Shawls of Lothas are graded by the number of gennas or festivals arranged by the wearer. There is a wide spectrum of shawls woven by the Yimchunger Nagas. The cotton cultivated by them is the source for the material of the white or beige shawls and the skirts that they use. and finally the Yongzujangau or cucumber seed skirt. required during dances characterise the occasion-costume of the Rongmei. with respect to mettle. The popular types of the Ao skirts involve Azu jangnup su. The commonest costume is a white cloth. There is only one cloth in the wardrobe of the Angamis. is draped round the waist and the surface outer edge is implanted for the grip. red and black bands called Loramhoushu and black background with red and yellow bands. beautified with a narrow red line in the middle. Women in general are clad in plain blue cloth and a white cloth with black marginal bands of changing breadth. Women often wear men`s garment. With the fulfillment of the mission. With the performance of the second genna. called lohe. woven in red on a black base. The favourite dancing skirt is black with a broad. a sleeveless top called vatchi. which is one and a quarter meter long and about two thirds of the meter. and at present with green. This latter one is a dark blue cloth with five stripes of light blue and with thin marginal stripes on either side. committed by the forefathers and also by the individual himself. The costume of the Ao women is a skirt. The western Angami villages have their unique style of costume-design. contrasted with six black bands of varying measurements at both ends.
jewellery and even the footwear establish the identity. The exotic shawl tsungrem khim is an asset for the Yimchunger Naga women. Turbans of Rajasthan.. religion.. the men from rich families wear designs and colours which are suited to the occasion. Interesting costumes and jewellery of these desert people are not mere ornaments for them. The beautifully designed and vibrantly coloured clothes lend cheerfulness to the dull-coloured monotone of the sands and hills. that at the time of her death.hand of the killed enemy is acknowledged to win the right to wear this particular shawl. Pagari There is a proverb in Rajasthan which goes so. also known as pagaris. In Rajasthan about 1000 different types of pagaris can be found. A common pagari is usually 82 feet long and 8 inches wide. It is an awesome fusion of wide black and red bands. Whereas the common man in Rajasthan wears a turban of one colour only. The people of Udaipur are accustomed to wearing a flat pagari. her corpse would be enveloped in this specific shawl. dedicated to the blue-blooded Konyak chiefs or Ang and the elderly women of the village is called meyni.` The turban is significant of many important things. . angarkha. It is the custom. The hallmark of the Konyaks is nye-myon the shawl worn by the senior villagers in important conferences and meetings. during wedding is gifted with a Shatni shawl by her parents. sizes and colours. come in many different shapes. woven alternately. and the economic and social status of the population of Rajasthan. The style of the turban. Everything from head-to-toe including the turbans. while pagaris of the people of Jaipur are angular. that an affluent man`s daughter. `a raga in music. affordable by the wealthy Konyak woman. colourful and elegant. The clothes worn by the people of Rajasthani people have been designed keeping in mind the climate and conditions in which they live. Costumes of Rajasthan. It is a black cloth. Well-off Konyaks decorate themselves in a splendid cloth called nyauni. are extremely bright. Resplendently coloured shawl. its colour and the way in which it is wound is of special significance to the people of Rajasthan as it is symbolic of the caste and region to which a person belongs. motifs. dhoti. Cummerbund or patka (waistband) form an integral part of a Rajasthani male`s attire. clothes. there are specific turbans for specific occasions as well. It appears as red bands and red lines. A `safa` is shorter and broader. taste in food and knots in a pagari are rare accomplishments. The safa from worn by the men of Jodhpur has the distinction of having slightly curved bands. Costume worn by Rajasthani Men The pagari (turban). A shawl. possessing narrow grey bands at two margins. The plethora of designs. Moreover. pyjamas. patterns and vibrant shades make the world of Naga costumes a rainbow world. Nikola is a white shawl which functions as a woman`s attire. known as Shatni is a luxury item.. as there is the peculiar law among the Konyaks. This particular shawl is maintained with care.
The ghagras which are most popular among Rajasthani women are those which are cotton ones which are coloured or printed with mothra.Angarkha Angarkha. sometimes. though one can still see Brahmins who wear traditional dupattas on their shoulders. Much like the pagaris of the men folk. dyes and sewing techniques have enhanced this transformation of Rajasthani costumes. people can be seen wearing printed angarkhas or those which have been subject to the popular tie and dye method. The skirt is usually not folded at the lower end like normal skirts but a broad. the traditional costume of the Rajasthani women is almost in a state of transition. Today. type of costume and occasion. Both Hindu and Muslims women wear `odhnis`. The two principal kinds of angarkhas which are common to Rajasthan are kamari angarkha and the long angarkha. It is a piece of cloth which is about10 feet long and 5 feet wide. Dhotis or pyjamas Dhotis or pyjamas are used to cover the lower part of the body. The Rajasthani man is often seen to dress in the urban garb of trousers and a shirt. durable and require little maintenance. Synthetic fabrics that are easily available. Costume worn by Rajasthani Women The Rajasthani female`s attire includes Ghaghra (long skirt). However it is no longer in use and has become out of date. is a garment which is mostly made of cotton. or. It has a narrow waist which increases in width and flares towards the base. The latter is longer and goes beyond the knees. An `odhni` with a yellow background and a ce ntral lotus motif in red called a `pila` is a traditional gift of parent to their daughter on the birth of a son.5 metres by 1 metre. Most of the Rajasthani women wear the ghagra which is a long skirt that reaches up to the ankle. chunari and laharia prints. One corner of the Odhni is tucked in the skirt whi le the other end is taken over the head and right shoulder. designs and accessories. Patka Patka was a garment worn by people of upper classes and royal families. kurti or choli (tops and blouses respectively) and odhna. The colours and motifs which are found on the Odhnis are particular to caste. Also mechanisation in the manufacture of textiles. coloured fabric known as `sinjaf` is sewn below to make it stronger. have been slowly replacing cotton as the favoured choice of the consumer. This transition of Rajasthani costumes now . It was traditionally kept on the shoulders or worn around the waist to tuck in the weapons during medieaval times. However on special occasions people also wear silk dhotis with a border of zari. It is a cotton cloth which measures about 1. jewellery. The width and the number of pleats in the `Ghaghra`. The ghagra comes in many colours and styles. in an attractive combination of both urban and traditional garments teamed together. When there occasions of celebration and festivities in the region. The former type styled like a frock and reaches till the waist. The women are opting for new fabrics. They provide comfort and utility. The Odhni is a specialty of Rajasthani costume. are said to symbolise the wealth of a person. the traditional style of dressing has also undergone a change. while preserving the cultural identity as well. which can be loosely translated as body protector. With changing times. The dhoti is a piece of cloth which measures 4m by 1m and requires quite a bit of practice to be worn properly. Ateh commonly worn dhotis are white in colour.
the cap. in the cities and urbanised sectors of the state. through their work or otherwise. a clothbelt and Shambo. Yenthatse. The magnificent ornaments exhibited by the Lepcha women. and long-lasting. called. Costumes of Sikkim. Kera. maintaining the spirit of Rajasthani dress.. However. Yenthatse. and at the waist region with a silk or cotton belt.becomes more apparent among the affluent. the Lepchas. and so on. A Bhutia woman`s general costume consists of Kho or . Lyak a necklace. The hereditary costume of Lepcha women is Dumvum or Dumdyam. draped like a saree. The traditional costume of Bhutia males comprises Kho. earrings.. stretching only to the calves. Gyar. a belt and Taro. reflect the social and cultural lifestyle of the major communities namely Lepchas. It is a loose mantle which is tied at the neck on one side.. also known as Bakhu. that took care of the da ily wear and formal costumes of the king. cinema. However. The Bhutia community. Richly brocaded material from Banaras and Gujarat. The original inhabitants of Sikkim. have gained exposure to a range of other external influences. the influence of television. traditional garments are still extensively worn in Rajasthan even today and the change has merged harmoniously with tradition. called Namchok. the cap. embroidered and woven Kashmiri shawls and delicate cottons from Chanderi and Dhaka were procured at great cost to make the various outfits of the Kings and nobility of Rajasthan. Bhutias and Nepalis. Tago a loose-fitting comfortable blouse. Costumes of Royalty in Rajasthan Royal costumes in Rajasthan reflect the regal taste of the state. hailing from the adjacent country of Tibet. a kind of smooth and cosy ankle-long dress. shirt. The rich and luxurious dresses that were created for the royalty were made under the careful attention of special departments that were in charge of royal costume. The Rajput kings were quite close to the Mughal court. The `Ranghkhana` and the `Chhapakhana` were departments that took care of dyeing and printing the fabrics respectively. Nyamrek. newspapers and most importantly migration and urbanization have contributed to the modifications in traditional costume. furnished with resplendent colours. There were two special sections. Added to this basic garment. Cosequently they dressed up in their most colourful and formal best. namely the `toshakhanand` and the `kapaddwadra`. The popular culture that prevails in Rajasthan. a Lepcha shirt and Shambo. Bengalis. a Bhutia man dons Jya Jya. The changes ushered in by modernisation were felt even in the changing costumes of the Rajasthani people.. the educated and those who. a cap. the shirt. magazines. a waist coat. Biharis. The `siwankhana` ensured faultless and clear tailoring. has over years become rooted in the culture and social norms of Sikkim. a bracelet. South Indians and Punjabis. The traditional costume of the Lepcha male is Thokro-Dum which involves a white pajama. The texture of the male dress is rough. flaunt themselves in costumes. suitable for the hardy toil in the field and forest. have settled to conduct business and serve in government services. entail. Marwaris.
. substantial.for the most part comprise the traditional wears. T-shirts. attired mainly by married women. Kantha.e. the necklace. again a necklace. Tilhari. Nepali. is fastened from four sides and hence is called Chaubandi Cholo. suspended from the head to the waist. The women of this state are decked with these traditional sarees that mark them from rest of the communities. a Churidar Pajama. an earring. the signifier of marital status is a symbol of married Bhutia females. Being the abode of South Indian silk sarees with rich zari work. and Joko. Bengali or Punjabi communities cater to their traditional costumes of salwar-kameez dupatta. Shambo and Shabchu. The Nepalese men dress themselves in Shurval. Chandrahar. topped off by a shirt. The traditional costume of the Nepali women of Sikkim is endowed with fabulous hues. a necklace. It is associated with Aaskot.. The dressing gets the right finish with a long loose blouse. like jeans. gorgeous in vibrant shades. Gadwari. is utilised as adornment during dance performances. Pangden. Hanju. 24 carats. Diu. their love for beauty and inventive finesse. The ageless charm of these sarees is the identity of the people of Tamil Nadu. Another variety in blouse is the Tharo Cholo. and have most of their ornaments crafted from pure gold. Khao. The ornaments that give a gaudy appearance to the Nepalese women are Sir-Bandi or tiara. the earring. Costumes of Sikkim.. i. a different pattern of the cap. has sustained the ethnicity of their own culture in their costume. called Patuki. wrist coat and their belt. the saree. a bracelet.. The distinctness amongst the four corners within the country makes this very factor even more interesting when admired. Costumes of Tamil Nadu . the Gold bangle. saree.. anything which suits their taste and preferences. Dungri. Tik-mala. i. the shoe. Pachauri. Kushen. a nose-ring. silver anklet .e. The ornaments enhancing the appearance of the Bhutia women are Yencho. a green bead with an elongated gold pendant. the stripy apron. Pharia. Bihari. a jacket. Chepti son. Naugeri. another predominant group of Sikkim. The upper portion of the body is daintily enveloped with a piece of cloth with wonderful prints. known as Daura. The dance costume of the Nepali women is amazing. Bhutia people are obsessed with the pure form of gold. a jeweled head-ornament. the ring. a nose-pin. woolen textiles. a silky full-sleeve loose blouse. the costumes reflect the traditions of India and Tamil Nadu itself. and even to Western outfit. The other Marwari. definitely augments the grace of the Nepali women. Bulaki. It is called Hembari. a silver Chura.Bakhu. Charanihari. an ear ring. a pearl-necklace. a thick.. the pearl ornament. trousers. reflects in the resplendence of the dress and ornaments of the people. and Kalli. The South Indian costumes possess a certain aura within . Phiru. India has always been looked at as a land of enigmatic resources and many have staked their lives just to acquire it and call those their own. a colourful piece of cloth.
. micro silk. the lower part of the calf exposed. Costumes of Tripura. the sheer six yards of pure excellence is one such costume that ladies of all ages prefer to don for each special festivity. resembling a sarong. jeans and trousers. A dhoti is a rather longer lungi. Costumes of Tamil Nadu dominate with traditionalism speaking out every time for both the sexes. A Saree from Tamil Nadu possesses an everlasting charm due to it not being cut or tailored for a particular size. as is attested in the diligent traditional costumes. Sarees are available in the state in a wide variety of fabrics. To combat the blazing heat of the sun and to continue working in the open heat. which they diligently preserve. Men are generally encountered dressed in lungi. i. Western influence is prominently visible on the young boys of today`s Manipur. and for regular work. Sarees have a special place in the costumes of Tamil Nadu.` Saree. is the land of skilled weavers.their dress materials. chiffon. The plain dressing style is apt for the hilly climate. Costumes of Tamil Nadu are although not just restricted to the fairer sex only. and are an indispensable part of the state`s heritage. short blouses and a davani (shawl) successfully completed this dressing style. The traditional and tremendously popular lungi originated in the South and it is purely a short length of material worn around the thighs. such as the Khakloo.. the extra piece of pallu established thereby wrapped around her waist. gifted with proper know-how . There is a striking resemblance in the traditional costume of the Khakloo and the other fellow tribes. silk.. but nowadays men wear an angavastra over a shirt. called Kubai . but with an additional length of material hauled up within the legs. crepe silk. This traditional pleated dress however has been replaced by salwar kurtas. together with a shirt and Angavastra. sarees are available in a variety of materials like cotton. The daily work-costume of a full-grown male is a towel-like sheet of loin cloth. georgette. The infants are hardly given clothes except when it becomes essential in the winter and rainy season. topped off by a self-woven shirt. Saree is the traditional dress of Indian women and Tamil Nadu women as well. the men resort to a pagri . ranging from silks. etc. The lungi is a rectangular cloth. What is remarkable about this draping fashion is that a woman wears the most dazzling of Kanchipuram saree in the most informal manner. In earlier times it was donned instead of an upper garment. colour and texture of a saree cloth vary and it might be manufactured from cotton. The Angavastra is an elongated piece of cloth wrapped around the shoulders. a turban.The women of the local tribes. whereas. organza. the Halam. called Rikutu Gamcha . the Lushei and the Kuki-Chin tribe . The children put on a loincloth. excel in the art of weaving. In Tamil Nadu. men wear `lungi`together with a shirt and `Angavastra.e. chiffons to georgettes and crepes. draped around the waist and pleated in front at the groin. with women dressing up intricately for any festive occasion and men also are looking towards the similar direction. cottons. men also occupy a considerable position. In Tamil Nadu women don the ubiquitous Indian saree and blouse. The traditional Tamil woman chooses to drape her heavy Kanchipuram saree around herself. with zari work predominating amongst women and white dhoti amongst men. The style. silk or one of the various man-made materials. Pattola silk. the frontier hilly state of the North-East. Till a few years ago. Costumes of Tamil Nadu absolutely falls within this genre. normally manufactured from cotton. Full-length skirt. because they . the half saree or Pavada besides serving as the traditional dress was also the most admired costume of young girls in Tamil Nadu.
The Rinai-like cloth. an oriental long skirt. the upper edges of these quills are studded with the green feathers of the parrot`s wings. This cloth. many Punjabis. The Garhwals residing in the Garhwal hills of Uttaranchal follow a costume-pattern suitable to the climatic conditions of the place they belong to. Bengalis. the wearing of Risa during wedding is mandatory.. which falls down to the knees. such as Thangang. the female costume. wrapped around the waist. However. Saipi -khup. covers themselves in a loingarment. known as Rinai. a dignified headgear. the simplicity yet attractiveness of the traditional costume of Tripura . specifically during dance-performance. Women folk also are found to use some kind of headdresses while at work outside. still among few clans. with tussocks of contrasting red wool. and conceals the entire chest-region of the body. imitated from the patterns. The earlier costumes of the Kuki-Chin women had deigns. Children.. happen to be the traditional costume of the ethnic groups. a cloth covering the head and the front portion. garments suitably shield them. and Khamtang. these clothes were previously the prerogative of the women of the aristocrat background. Every woman wear a dark blue cotton fabric . usually fastened to the waist. Costumes of Uttarakhand. further embellished with porcupine quills . from neighbouring Tibet. and even Nepalis. decorated at their tips . This upper-attire passes under the arms . The . the Garhwalis and the Kumaonis. reflect the culture and lifestyle of the ethnic communities.prefer wearing shirts and pants. the Garhwalis and the Kumaoni. have settled in the state. Risas are often invested with beautiful embroideries. is attributed to the artistic fervor and weaving-talent of the natives. topped off by a Choli. The graceful Uttarakhand is adjacent to the neighbouring states of Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh. is associated with an upper-attire. like those from the chief`s family and other noble-blood. to serve as a skirt or petticoat. an Indian blouse and an Orni. This long as well as broad cloth is draped around the waist and reaches the knee. although in winter and monsoon season. Ponmongvom. In the mirthful times of revelry. seen on the hide of snakes . Side by side. They bore several names. Now-a-days. is held firmly by a corset of brass wire or string. Ghagri. However. Wool fetched from goat or sheep is used to manufacture warm costumes. gets an extra item. made of brass and coloured cane.. a short white jacket and a cloth to invest in their appearance the sobriety.. the younger generation of girls prioritize blouses over Risa. Moreover. envelop themselves in a greater size of clothpiece . namely. and at large the Tripuri women. The Khakloo. Indeed. She dons herself in a shorter piece of cloth called Risa. The infants are normally kept undressed. The neck areas of women are adorned with plethora of beads and coin strands. This headdress is a coronal. The element of finery is dim in the costume of the women of the Lushei tribe. so as to ward off the biting cold in winter season. as being more management-friendly.
endowed with gold and silver tatting. drape themselves in mantle-like clothing. But women also go for sarees. Pichora is a Kumaoni veil or Rangwali. The men love to present themselves with headgear. mainly sleeveless in form.traditional bridal costume of the Kumaoni is Ghaghra-Pichora. Kurta -Pajamas are another good alternative for men of Uttarakhand. Muslin textiles. when it comes to considering the costumes of Uttarakhand. Chareu. Some of the ethnic groups. used as the lower-garment. Ethnicity and tradition has very well been maneuvered to be at par with convenience. The hallmarks of Kumaoni woman are sindoor smeared on the forehead. The Uttaranchal man dons himself in Kurta. and in silver. symbolic of the holy bond of marriage. called Sarong. signifying warmth and cordiality and red. or turban. a kind of necklace. They come in auspicious hues of yellow. . akin to Ghaghra LehengaCholi . specially muslin veils or Rangwalis are assets of Uttaranchal costume designing. by the less affluent. Further. called Nath. girdled by a waistband and completed with a top-blouse. a part of their traditional costume. Both women and men wear sweaters or woolen jackets in winter. preferred in gold by the rich. or the Lungi. or poor. A luxury ornament item is Hansuli. The traditional male costume of Uttaranchal is the loin-cloth Dhoti. is a holy accessory for Garhwali married woman. and an enormous gold ring. a black beaded necklace is worn by the married woman. to serve as the upper-attire.
In West Bengal. though. the saree is wrapped around the waist and the remaining portion is swathed over the shoulder. The dhoti is tied at the waist and wrapped around like a loin cloth passing in between the legs. mirror the state`s multi-ethnic way of life. In the olden days. The exquisite beauty of a saree is further enhanced when it is accessorised suitably with a blouse. Over the years. However. such conventions have subsided slowly with the passage of time. sarees are characteristic of the refined Bengali woman of today. women had to cover their heads with the ends of their saree or "pallu" as a mark of respect for the family elders. The graceful icon of elegance that symbolises the quintessential Bengali woman is the saree. the dhoti is worn by the men as regular attire. While western attire has overtaken the dhoti`s popularity as regular wear. the apparels of West Bengal display fine works of creativity and sophistication. In . worn atop. For the men in West Bengal. "Salwars" are loosely fitted trousers worn with a "kameez" or long tunic. the combination of dhoti and panjabi is an irreplaceable ingredient during traditional festivals and occasions like the Durga Puja and wedding ceremonies. The "lungi" is another variation of the dhotis worn by men in West Bengal. the traditional dhoti and panjabi have lost much of their appeal and the `pyajamas` are in vogue. These sarees have been named chiefly after their weaving techniques. At present. Previously. reaching close to the knees and are available in a wide variety of colours. Ornamented with glittering stones and detailed thread work. Sarees are worn over petticoats or long skirts tied at the waist with cords which help in keeping the saree tightly fastened about the waist. designs and motifs to the assimilation of western attires and styles within the Bengalis` cultural domain. It is also wound around the waist and is often plaid.. The panjabis are loosely fitted garments. also made of silk or cotton. sarees are primarily woven in cotton and silk. Dhotis are lengthy pieces of fabric spun in cotton or silk worn by the Hindus. It is suitably matched by a panjabi. the Bengali women usually resort to the traditional Banarasi sarees in shades of red coupled with a golden veil to cover their heads. The salwar kameez dupatta is nowadays in the same way popular among the Bengali women as the sarees. From the use of traditional fabrics.. During wedding ceremonies however. Indian sarees can be draped in various ways. In Bengal.Costumes of West Bengal. In the rural areas.. blouses are available in multitudes of fashionable patterns which when teamed with a saree does wonders to the attire. The traditional weavers or "tantis" of West Bengal are reputed worldwide because of the quality of fabric spun and their elaborate thread work. They are worn with immense dignity and perfection particularly during Social occasions and festivals. the traditional garment is the "dhoti" and the "panjabi". dhotis were prevalent only in white though at present coloured dhotis are also in vogue.
These quilts were to serve as covers during the winter. the rural community of Shantipur is well-known for the better quality of "Shantipuri Jamdani" sarees that display delicate thread work. West Bengal is well -known for its delicate and fine thread work known as "kantha". Bankura andHooghly.the various districts of West Bengal like Murshidabad. Body art or tattoos are quite popular among them as well as the Mahli tribesmen of West Bengal. The town of Baluchar located in Murshidabad is famed for the incredible threadwork on silk called "Baluchari". Silver and gold along with alloys of zinc and precious stones are mostly used for jewellery production. which are variants of the Baluchari and are woven in silk. These motifs are woven with silver zari and often display tales from the Indian Puranas. In the district of Nadia. However. The men of the Magh tribe. Nadia. This is accompanied by the "prakha angyi" which is a fitted coat wrapped over the shirt. the cultivation of mulberry was common in almost every corner of Bengal. for instance. Birbhum. cover their heads with a special form of headgear commonly referred to as "goungpoung" during the festive season. Jamdani sarees of West Bengal are extremely popular. Bengal silk is famous for its sophisticated quality and texture. The Baluchari sarees are noted for their elaborate designing in the pallu and borders with prominent motifs of a specific kind known as "kalka". West Bengal is also home to plenty of tribes who display enormous variety with reference to their costumes. The costumes of West Bengal are suitably accessorised by delicately designed jewellery which is indigenous to its rich culture. Apart from these traditional handlooms. Malda. often referred to as "maatha" or "beluaari paar". Initially. However. . This variant of Jamdani is affordably priced and hence used commonly by the women in West Bengal. They are available in a variety of colours and are favoured by the modern Bengali woman because of its light texture. it referred to the needlework done on coloured patchwork coverlets put together from redundant apparels. Another variation of the Jamdani saree is the "Dhaniakhali Jamdani". The kalka motif can be observed in the "Garad" and "Korial" sarees as well. Some of the most prevalent motifs used in these sarees are lamp and lotus imageries. different varieties of sarees are woven with supreme efficiency and dedication. The Tangail sarees are characterised by their use of diverse colour patterns which produce a novel effect called "meenakari". While traditional designs are still in vogue. Earlier. Murshidabad and Malda. now the kantha stitch has been incorporated for use on designing clothing garments like sarees and has gained immense popularity. The kantha embroidery is a supreme work of art and requires utmost concentration and meticulousness. It is interesting to note that the Dhaniakhali Jamdani gained popularity due to their utilisation in dhotis for men. at present it is concentrated mostly in the districts of Birbhum. It is available in brighter shades and is characterised by extended wide borders. The districts of West Bengal are also home to the very prevalent "Tangail" sarees.
Gold chokers decorated with gems and diamonds are commonly worn by the women of West Bengal in social ceremonies. Arani Silks. These saris not only decorate women in the state. its reasonable costs make it more affordable for the ordinary people and. Karnataka silk has a wide spectrum. a shift towards western trends has been noticed. This is the "tikli". These sarees are less expensive than the queen of silks. women adorn their foreheads with a thin string of small gold chain often strewn with pearls and precious stones. Kora Silks. mind-blowing colours. and Raw Silk saris can satisfy the aesthetically aware population of Karnataka. Yet. The women also embellish themselves with a variety of bangles and bracelets like the "mantasha" and also the "ratanchur".. exclusive Designer Mysore Silk Sarees. attribute to the profound popularity of the sari as the favorite costume. Indeed. The Kornadu sarees are fascinating in their fusion-display of cotton and silk. Sarees with this impressive variety is thus the traditional costume of Karnataka. such cross-cultural influences have by no means demeaned the worth of the traditional attires. make the saree assume an enchanting look. mostly. The marvelous shine. . namely. The Jari adds the element of shimmer in the yarn. A supreme example here would be the "dokra" artworks. The silk yarn is dyed to bring the desired colour and afterwards Jari is interleaved into the yarn. The magnificent mantle. dazzle the eye with the rich texture. of Kanchipuram in Karnataka. Valkalams.. deserve mention. Among the other popular items. sleek chiffons. The technique of Kanchipuram-making calls for Sarees the conjunction of three threads to concertedly make the silk thread used for weaving. the lustrous zari and the rich silk. Bengaluru and Mysore are the epicenters of silk-industries in South India. smooth silks. Costumes of Karnataka. and fabulous designs.recent trends dictate a preference towards lighter accessories. The saris are woven in a blue cotton yarn together with a silk yarn in other multiple shades. different civilisations have left their mark upon the culture of West Bengal which finds its manifestation in the varied costumes and accessories of the people of the State. consist of regal silk sarees. This gives the sari a durable quality. which happen to be the traditional costumes of this place. and gorgeous brocades. The Mysore crepe silk. The motifs in the sarees are varied and the body of the sari either bestowed with checks or stripes. Karnataka is the silk hub of the country. The Kanjeevaram or Kanchipurram silks. intertwined with a thin silver wire and then gilded with pure gold. It has abundant variety. is apt as costume for office or workplace. Therefore. they are searching for. but also establish its sway in other parts of the country and in foreign nations. Crepe Silk Sarees. Over the years.. Hence. The tribal jewellery of West Bengal has also achieved immense popularity because of its exclusivity. Kanchipuram silks. Chiffon Sarees. The Kanchipuram Silk Saree is a hand-woven creation. Patola Sarees. With the progress of the passage of time. These sarees are used as daily comfort wears. the outstanding Kanchipuram sarees usually turn out to be the bridal costume of Karnataka. Mysore silk. the super quality thread and the interweaving of gold threads in exclusive creations. still give them the elegance. In weddings. Pure Jari is a silk thread.
without having the privilege of many options. which isDhoti-like apparel. The women of Kerala wear mundu in this way except for the women of Christian origin. women take on a special type of blouse. The magic wand of technology has cast its spell on Karnataka. suitable for working environs. The colour of the blouse is decided by the marital status and age of the women. from the right hips to the left shoulder looking like a sari. covering the navel. by a fashionconscious Karnataka lady. The traditional form of dress worn by the Keralites is Mundu and Neriyathu (a piece of white cloth having borders of golden zari symbolising royalty) for both men and women. The people from `God`s own country`. When it comes to considering the office costume of Karnataka men. For them. However. This state has established an ideal example of blending present priorities with tradition. and easier maintenance. on special occasions. This costume is worn every day and in the festive seasons people wear the same but with an ornamental `kara` or a border which is either copper coated. golden or artificial colored with temple or peacock design. This is worn in a diagonal way. or even Western jeans and trousers. The women also wear `sari` (a five to six meter long cloth which is embroidered with golden border) and jacket.. These saris are dyed in spectacular colours after the completion of the weaving. Karnataka presents before the world its harmonisation of modernity and tradition. The principal dress which the people of Kerala wear is largely traditional in nature.. But surprisingly enough. as their everyday costume. It is used for regular wear and tear and also as traditional costume. Today`s girls might wear Mysore crepe salwars. but is on the rise with the passage of time. Over the `mundu`. while going to office. The `neriyathu` is the name of the upper garment which is put over the blouse having one of its ends inserted in the mundu and the other long end worn over the front torso. The `mundu` is worn around the hips and beneath t he navel. When Bangalore reigns as the Silicon Valley of India. women belonging to different age groups wear it and participate in the folk . especially those of women. both men and women. The cloth is creamy or white in colour and possesses a coloured strip called border or `kara`.. It is supple opaque crepe silk complemented with Jari margins. Mysore Peta is the traditional headdress for Karnataka. Costumes of Kerala. or Karnataka handloom`s cotton salwar or saree. Recent technological improvement rather has set the textile industry of Karnataka on a boom. the `mundu` is folded up in multiple folds and this part is hung at the back. the demand for the traditional costume of Karnataka. only the rustic men of Karnataka stick to Panche. The Ilkal and the Mokalmuru sarees stand as the ethnic motif of Karnataka. to achieve the best of costumes. evidence the innate simplicity of the lifestyle of the Malayali people. are mostly seen dressed in offwhite and white attires. Costume Worn By Women of Kerala The traditional garment worn by the women of Kerala is the `mundum neriyathum. is very comfortable to wear in the summer season. has not declined. they wear formal shirts. men might dress themselves in ornate versions of their traditional costume. This hand-woven cloth made of cotton. the Panche..` The conventional piece is the `mundu` which is the lower garment and it consists of two cloth pieces. Unmarried young Keralite girls take on green blouse whereas the married ones wear red blouse. or T-shirts or trousers. it is evident that women and men will also adhere to the formal office wear.more because of its light-weight. Both the `neriyathu` and `mundu` is stiffened and then worn with a blouse matching the border or Kara`s colour. In recent times. At the time of the celebration of the famous festival of Onam.
The Muslim style of wearing mundu is somewhat dissimilar to that of the Christian and Hindu Keralites. The `mundum neriyathum` was the traditional costume of the people of Kerala. to stride more freely. but their wealthier compatriots make simplicity a cult. The people of this state have accepted the northern mode of dressing with men wearing trousers and tea-shirts which is a comfortable item for travel and their female counterparts have accepted the churidhar of north Indian style. which is tucked at the waist and reaches to the ankle. it has become an old fashion and is mostly worn by the old women of the state. Costume Worn By Men of Kerala The men are more conservative than the women. giving its wearer a peculiar mincing walk. Many men wear no garment above the waist. The western type of dressing is also well-known among the generation of the young. The poor people of Kerala live simply from necessity. The traditional wear of the Hindu men residing in the state of Kerala is Kasavu Mundu. but those who belong to the higher castes at least drape a towel like cloth over the shoulders. The Keralite Muslims wear the same but they just wear an additional cap over their head. Nowadays. except for the small westernized minority who have gone over to bush shirt and cotton slacks. Nowadays. This garb is worn by men of all religions and all classes. these men take on a shirt and mundu as well as a neriyathu over their shoulder and apply a paste of sandal on their chest and brows which provides them a much dignified appearance and a royal look. they are mostly seen attired in sari and blouse. This attire is a piece of cloth made of cotton. he kilts it to the knees. This dress is very much popular in the rural or remote areas. like the mundu. and if they consider themselves modern they wear shirts which. the dress codes of the Keralites have changed considerably. it is being taken over by the `set-sari` which has become the dress of the Keralite women as a quasi `mundum neriyathum` and today as the `Kerala sari`. so that among Malayalis one rarely sees the ostentation which in northern India is almost regarded as a duty of the rich. take on a long dark black or blue garment along with purdah and also cover up their abundant and long hair with beautiful kerchief. But today. Their main garment is the long cloth called mundu. The local traditions set a value on eating sparingly and doing without elaborate furniture. but one does not wear silk. Daily wear of the people of Kerala The daily use garments for the people of Kerala are saris and churidar or salwar-kameez for women and for men. With continuous change in designing and fashion. unless. one may wear fine rather than coarse cotton. In keeping with the old tradition of Kerala they wear white. The women belonging to the Muslim community in Kerala. more particularly in the northern and central regions of Kerala. are always washed to a dazzling whiteness. . The traditional form of dressing is reserved for special occassions and the women and men of today`s Kerala are seen wearing a range of dresses. Lungy or Kaily acts as an informal dress for Keralite men.dance known as `Kaikotti Kali Dance`. trousers and shirts. But while moving out of their house. which was once universal for both sexes. three to four meter long having a silk border.
Salwar kameez`s and duppattas come in a variety of colors and designs. The costumes are a mix of colour. Some of the boys and even the brown up men can be seen wearing loose pants or slacks with a collared shirt or t-shirt. This was traditionally the dress worn in Punjab.. These shawls are worn over a tight -fitting choli and ghagra. The women can also be seen wearing shawls adorned with the beautiful phulkari shawls. are indicative of the bright and vibrant culture and lifestyle of the people. Trousers. toe-rings. A duppatta is a piece of colorful cloth that women wear around their necks. comfortable and convenient dress worn by the women of Punjab is the churidar kurta. a steel bangle. (pants) or bottom piece. Sikh women and men are seen wearing the kada. Costume worn by Punjabi Women A popular.. During winters they can be seen wearing bright colourful sweaters.. comfort and beauty. It is a kind of flower work embroidery done most often on shawls. which is a kind of sarong. at all times. bangles. After adolescence. Punjabi girls and women wear salwar kameez`s with bright colored duppattas. The shawl is completely covered in thick silk embroidery and folk motifs done in jewel-tones on an ochre background. It may be noted here that the state of Punjab is well known for the use of phulkari in its costumes. Punjabi girls and women also wear salwar kameez`s with bright colored duppattas. particularly among the younger generations. nose-pins. and almost certainly after marriage. women are expected to wear traditional Indian clothing. Skirt and other form of western outfits are worn by the women of Punjab today.the kameez. with much of the ground cloth exposed. or shirt or top piece. Jeans. Some men also wear the kurta with the loongi or tehmat. In earlier days. Phulkari forms the traditional costume of rural women of this region. Usually the border and field of the shawl were not so densely embroidered. but is now worn almost everywhere. baggy pants which are tied at the waist. Phulkaris were made for everyday wear. . so that the base cloth was not visible at all. earrings. The kurta is a kind of loose shirt which is long and straight-cut. The Sikhs among the Punjabis can be distinctly identified by their attire as they are obliged by religion to wear turbans known as `puggs`. anklets and ornaments to pin up the hair with. However it may be mentioned here that this trend is rapidly changing and women can be seen wearing a variety of western wear. Jackets. Accessories worn by Punjabi Women Punjabi women can be seen bedecked in gold. a special kind of phulkari known as "bagh" (garden) was made in which the whole of the ground was covered with embroidery. rings.Costumes of Punjab. Costume worn by Punjabi Men The traditional costume of the men of Punjab comprises a kurta pyjama. They adorn themselves with necklaces. For ceremonial purposes. The pyjamas are loose. A salwar kameez has two pieces of clothes. and the salwar.
For the purposes of formal wear. They are extremely comfortable and also look very elegant. . The modern urban Punjabi men have also adopted the western style of dressing and are equally at ease in a pair of jeans and t-shirt as they are in the loongi and kurta. called juttis are extremely popular with men in both the rural and urban areas.Traditional Punjabi shoes. Punjabi men can be seen wearing shirts and trousers. Thus the costumes of Punjab can be best seen in all their beauty and resplendent colours in the state of Punjab. especially in the rural areas.