A Beginners Guide to Motorcycle Wiring. 
 plus Trike and Car bits.

John Partridge. B.Sc. B.Ed. Plymouth England. Updated Sept 2005. version 4a.

Introduction.
This was originally a motorcycle wiring page. Because of the poor standards of trike wiring, trike wiring was added. As trikes often use car engines, the next step was natural, - to write a monograph on cars. Unemployed, I only have a ten meg site. The car wiring took up too much webspace and was deleted, so I've added a few paragraphs for basic custom car wiring to this monograph. In many ways, this also applies to boats, as I'm a plant and marine engineer by trade. My marine guide awaits sufficient requests. Wiring a motorcycle, trike or car is not expensive and only needs a little time and knowledge of the subject to get the basics right. Once the basics are right, the rest becomes fairly straightforward. The wiring of a car has been added where appropriate, as it is usually easier, apart from the engine management and computer systems. This is not a definitive work on all the various and somewhat dubious electronics or other strange components which contain a wire or two and used on vehicles. This beginners guide is also to act in a support role for the other builders guides. 
 This monograph includes what is needed for road legal requirements, with extras added for the normal adaptations and flourishes required for customs and unusual machines. This is based on first hand knowledge of building award winning and reliable custom bikes and trikes for over twenty years, plus many radical machines as well. 
 A storyline wiring guide for Harley owners is also on this website. 
 The subtle and far more delicate development of HPV cycle wiring is described in the composite HPV cycle monograph by the author. The advantage of doing the wiring oneself is that it is tailor made and can be easily modified. When things go wrong, the fault finding and repair can be done by the rider, on the side of the road, usually with minimal delay. 
 The aims of the monograph is to remove the mystery of motorcycle wiring, to enable the reader to rewire without specialist abilities. 
 Trike wiring is very similar, with differences described where needed. 
 Car wring for the more sensible customs is simply separating and adding the engine management systems, then doing the rest of the wiring using traditional methods described herein. The main aim is to design and make a wiring loom to a standard every bit as good as the best customs. This is done by initially keeping the process on the most basic level needed for the purpose. Only when the basic wiring is reliable, should the reader consider adding flourishes. If some of the explanations given seem really simple, please bear with this, as there are absolute beginners out there who need the simple explanations to make everything understandable. We were all beginners once. 
 It is assumed the reader has almost no knowledge of electrics. This is to make it

as simple as possible to wire a bike, trike or basic car. Therefore this monograph is not a complete technical manual, as to make such a tome would require many volumes, loads of theory and maths. This would simply confuse more than it would encourage, probably having most bike builders throwing it in the trash or through a window. This monograph is mainly for a total rewire, starting from scratch, as this is surprisingly much easier to understand and then build. The text was originally mainly for Japanese bikes, as they had effectively set the present standards for wiring vehicles, with sections on others where needed. The Italians are now set to overtake the Japanese - watch this space. 
 Trikes and custom cars often have lower specifications and needs. One thing needed to go with this text is the wiring diagram for your particular vehicle. Trikes rarely have such luxuries but motorcycles and cars have the workshop manual. I've drawn some generic wiring diagrams for the unlucky. 
 Without a wiring diagram, you will need to follow the text to find out what wires go where. Then note down on paper where they go, what they do and their colours. An A3 sketch pad and pencil is priceless. If your motorcycle or vehicle has no wiring at all, then choose the wiring diagram to match the engine rather than the bike. 
 Use the diagrams accompanying this monograph to get a close match if you can't get a wiring diagram. A selection of basic, generic diagrams are given at the end of the monograph. These are done at a large scale suitable for printing or as a starting point for using in a paint programme for modification as needed. They can be copied and pasted or imported into a paint programme size of 800 x 600 pixels in black and white, although the incredibly simple Harley one is in colour. This text is not one of chasing particular colours of wires, but to understand the basics of where the wires come from, where they go to, and what they do. - For example, a typical description of 'the alternator wire' means a wire connected to the alternator, not a specific colour of wire to be chased by someone who is not too sure, but a simple electrical connection of a wire. When you know the alternator, you will know the wire and what it does.

Contents.
SECTION 1. Intro and theory for those who have never done wiring before. Safety and working practice. 
 What your motorcycle needs - the basics. 
 The Basic Words and Theory. A Guide To The Wiring Diagram. 
 Wiring. 
 The Alternator And Charging Circuit. 
 Small bikes. 
 The Motorcycle Ignition circuit. 
 The Car Ignition circuit. 
 The Lighting Circuit. 
 The Auxiliary Circuit. Minimum Tools And Equipment Needed. SECTION 2. 
 Rewiring for those who know the basics. Before starting a rewire. 
 Items to bear in mind before making a wiring loom. 
 Choosing The Wire Size And Connectors. 
 Designing The Wiring Diagram. Some Tips On Custom Bike Rewiring. 
 Making, Checking and Fitting the Loom. 
 What size wires and fuses should be used ? 
 What Can Go Wrong. SECTION 3.
 Reference section. Wire sizes and safe current loads. 
 A typical shopping list 
 Checking and Repair of Switches And Other Components. 
 Winding your own components.


 Tools. SECTION 4.
 Bits and pieces. Fitting an after market electronic ignition. 
 Fitting an after market anti-theft device. 
 Simple anti theft ideas. 
 Why a bike can have 4 plugs but only 2 coils. 
 Customising. 
 Off road bikes. 
 Storing a bike. 
 Trikes. Typical bodges and why they fail. 
 Fixing an old loom. 
 Equipment Differences. A selection of basic wiring diagrams. Style. 
 Finally. __________________________________________

SECTION 1.
Intro and theory for those who have never done wiring before.

Safety and working practice.
Always have decent tools and know how to use them. Wear eye protection where appropriate. Do not use mains (120 or 240volt) operated equipment such as soldering irons or electric drills in the rain. If there are any suspect electrical tools, such as with broken wires, then repair or replace. The liquid in the battery is an acid which must be treated with care, do not get it on your skin or eyes, this acid can damage paint and rot clothing, and the gasses can be flammable. The low voltages of 6 volts and 12 volts used on motorcycle's won't harm you, but the High Tension from the spark plug lead will give you a shock which you will feel, but again should not harm you. At least you will know the coil is working. Skimping or doing a quick lash up to get to the big custom event is never recommended, so get the right pieces ordered early, then plan plenty of time for understanding and building the wiring. Forcing parts of your bike apart will do more damage than making a cup of tea, then thinking about the problem for ten minutes, only to realise an obvious mistake such as the screw or hidden component you had not noticed. Wiring a bike should be a positive experience, not a hassle. When beginning a total rewire, make life easier for yourself. Get some plastic bags to hold the parts, preventing them from rusting or getting lost. Keep all parts, no matter how bad, and run a clean, neat workspace. The worst case scenario is a totally burnt out wreck of a bike, with dubious heritage and a different engine to standard. Don't panic. 
 The electricity and sparks are generated by the engine and this is where you start. The rest of the wiring on the bike will follow naturally. It is quite common to use completely different components from other machines to make a perfectly reliable machine. Before removing the wiring, make a note of which side of the battery is connected directly to the frame or chassis. If it's on the positive side (+) then you have a fairly old or peculiar bike or car, and you will have to bear in mind that this book is directed at modern machines which have negative earth systems, (-) but are much the same in most other respects.

A means of making sparks at the correct time. Common sense will usually suffice. the dip beam dipping to the nearside (left in UK. oil pressure. but the only ones you may need to know are the minimum tail light reflector size and special cases such as motorcycles without head or tail lights during daylight use. Never give your vote to someone who wants . always try to live in the real world. A white light to illuminate the (rear) number plate. Only suffer enough bureaucracy to prevent you being considered a criminal. When creating a machine.).the law. Any new 'requirements' will hopefully not affect the electrics. Cars have two headlights and tail lights etc. The EC 'empire of paperwork' requirements are still country dependant. water temperature and neutral light. This will depend upon the country of use. It is assumed the normal items are required by the rider for road use. whereas some European super efficient bureaucrats and their mindless minions will require the right number on all the bulbs or indicator lenses and such like to prevent becoming a criminal. centrally aligned and such that the dip beam will not dazzle oncoming traffic. Indicators may not be mandatory. 5 watts. or use standard commercial items. but where fitted must be orange. often decided by the age of the machine. Check local and federal laws in your own area.What your vehicle needs . A means of generating electricity. A means of starting the engine. (Often done by the clear section of the tail light) A horn of 'strident and consistent note'. not one created by lawyers. Know your countries requirements to live in harmony with your local form of 'normality'. or right in the USA and mainland Europe.the basics. What your vehicle needs . Headlight with main and dip beams not less than 25 watts each. In some countries. The law is usually fairly open and depends on the age of the bike or registration date. but may well soon coagulate with type approval creating constraints on what can be changed or modified on a motorcycle or other vehicles. apart from moronic bureaucratic ideas such as having the correct number stamped on indicator lenses etc. as aftermarket components are now becoming legally acceptable in a form acceptable worldwide. Mr Plod will often only require reasonable and sensible requirements. A means of warning of possible problems. A red brake light. with bulbs of at least 18 watts. Your vote counts. The UK 'Constructions and Use Regulations' lays down requirements on road vehicles. It is hoped that legislation is for the betterment of all. 21 watts. and flash between 50 to 70 times per minute . Luckily wiring is not a great problem for most builders.about once a second. but most are common sense. A means of storing the energy generated. without restricting the aspirations of the innovative in society. A red tail light.

through a wire to a bulb then from the bulb to a lump of steel or aluminium (such as a bike frame . If it all makes a circuit then the electricity will flow around this loop and the bulb will glow. This could be a blown fuse.called the 'earth') then through another wire back into the battery at the . These are symbols which represent an earth connection. as used by a bolt to hold a wire to the frame. Short Circuit. to a 'load' such as a bulb. The bike frame simply becomes a 'big wire' carrying electricity back to the battery to complete the circuit. A common method of removing the need for extra wires from various parts of the bike returning back to the battery. Earth. so the bike will not cause interference with other equipment. The two other common earth symbols looks like a garden rake and the other is a representation of a metal tag washer. There are also regulations concerning radio interference. A circuit is simply a 'loop' of wires and any other parts which can carry electricity around it. An open circuit is when a circuit has a break in it. What the parts do and how they do it. On most modern machines this is connected to the negative side of the battery.negative end. (On older machines it may be to the positive side of the battery CHECK !) Open Circuit. a broken wire or simply a switch which is in the off position. and this usually means the frame or other part of the bike used as an earth. For example. Circuit.type approval or other stupid ways of excessively controlling the people. A short circuit is when a part of the wiring becomes damaged allowing the . The main culprits are the spark plugs which can be shielded with metal caps and a resistor in the plug or in the cap (but not both). preventing the electricity flowing around the circuit. The Basic Words and Theory. and then back again to the battery negative terminal. Usually from the battery positive terminal. their machines and their aspirations. Note the small slotted arrow heads where the wires touch the frame. electricity can run from a battery + positive end.

Copper wires when corroded often turn black. Example . 5 amps x 12 volts = 60 watts and so this basic headlamp circuit will need at least a 5 amp fuse to protect it. . A wire is a number of strands of copper metal to carry electricity.000 volts will find it easier. The thicker the wire. Amps is a measure of the amount of current flowing through a wire or electrical device.measured by multiplying volts x amps. 10.) Very thick wires used for the starter motor and earth are called cables. Volts is a measure of the ability of electricity to overcome resistance . so almost any fuse can be used in 6v. the more AMPS it can carry. . A fuse will spend it's whole useful life waiting to commit suicide to protect your expensive components. A fuse is small piece of metal designed to melt if the circuit it is protecting starts to use more electric current (in amps) than it is designed for. If your bike is 12v and has a 60 watt headlight bulb. AC or DC. Fuses are measured in amps and independent of voltage. 12 volts will have a problem pushing its way through your body. Watts. then it needs 5 amps of current.Usually protected from causing too much trouble by a fuse.similar to the pressure of water in a pipe. which will then cause the wire to get very warm and the battery to drain of power very quickly.covered in tin or solder for protection or to assist soldering. . Usually when a 'live' wire becomes bare and touches the frame. (No excuses offered for mentioning this very basic description. 110. Volts. 12v. Fuse. A watt is the measure of the power used .ouch! High volts and high current equals death. covered in plastic to prevent the copper making unwanted contact with other items. . Amps. similar to the number of gallons of water flowing in a pipe. Some copper wires are 'tinned' . usually a 7 amp fuse for the normal safety margin to prevent it blowing too easily. 24.electricity to go more directly to an unwanted place causing problems. so the electricity is allowed to flow freely between the positive and negative ends of the battery. Such as when the wire going to the bulb is broken and connects directly to the earth. Wire. 240 volt and most other voltage systems.

7 mm and is adjusted by bending the outer earth electrode. Here is an example of a basic lighting coil which will happily supply lighting for a head and tail light. to make the plugs spark at the right time . especially in two strokes. and the thicker external high tension (HT) which leads to the spark plug. so spark plugs are available in a variety of heat ranges so the plugs will not get too hot. Coils. They change the 12 volts (or 6v) up to about 10. For lighting use only. Coils have two types of external wires. These switch the coils on and off. They usually look like small canisters with a mounting bracket which connects to earth. and the printing on the insulator is often blue. Spark plugs can be cleaned.6 / 0. Such plugs should not be used with resistored plug caps. The engine gets hot. Spark plugs are simply ceramic insulators mounted in a convenient threaded metal housing. yet still be hot enough to burn off any dirt on the insulation. Generator coils. Condenser.000 volts to jump the plug gap to create a spark. holding a central wire in such a way that a spark can jump across a gap and thus encourage the fuel and air to burn. Contact Breakers. gapped and reused many times. A capacitor (usually known as a condenser) is connected across the points to reduce this pitting. usually about 0. If the lights blow. with no other consideration other than balancing the power of the lamps. 
 These live in the generator and produce electricity from magnetism. and a wire which connects to the contact breaker wire. Contact breakers are commonly known as POINTS. so as not to blow them at full engine revs. The gap must be the correct size.Spark Plugs. it can be used as unrefined AC current. The effect of the COILS cause a small spark across the POINTS causing them to pit. . LT for the normal 6v or 12v. which may then be recitifed and regulated to 12 volt DC. Any bike or car condenser will do in an emergency. Ignition coils are usually large black or grey round chunks with thick wires coming out. Please note: Some spark plugs have internal resistors and are usually marked with an 'R' in their type number.when the fuel and air are compressed and ready to burn. fit larger voltage or wattage lamps. A simple mechanical switch opened and closed by a cam mounted at the end of the crankshaft or camshaft. Ignition coils. This item produces AC current.

and a solenoid to switch the high current used. A starter motor needs a large amount of current to turn the engine over for starting and therefore needs a much thicker starter cable. the battery acid must be topped up with distilled water to just above the plates. the weights fly out. An alternator is a device for making AC electricity from a spinning magnetic field. Starter Motor. It contains lead plates and an acid which will strip paint and rot clothing.) This makes the sparks occur at better times for the different engine speeds. . some batteries are supplied with special nuts and bolts which are coated to reduce corrosion. At higher revs. making low speed running of the engine easier by retarding the ignition timing. Usually controlled by a smaller switch on the handlebars of bikes and trikes. or using electricity to generate this magnetic fields. in a' field coil'. such that as they pass the stator (static) coils. Can be done electronically on modern machines. A 12volt battery needs 13 to 14 volts to 'push' the current through it to charge the battery. Advancing the ignition is not often used on two strokes. As the engine revs increase.Advance / Retard Unit. the ignition timing is at 'fully advanced'. changing the timing.south alternating magnetic field in the iron plates of the coils. Alternator. thereby generating an alternating current of electricity in the copper coils of wire. A clear battery will allow the plates to be seen for damage and any settled bits at the bottom. Putting 12 volts across a 12 volt battery will cause nothing to happen. The starter solenoid is a heavy duty switch for the large current (measured in amps) used by the starter motor. Battery. they induce a changing north . or by the ignition switch on trikes and cars.south . The advance and retard unit is a set of weights which senses the engine speed. Cars have self contained alternators. When the liquid evaporates.north . Where required. The magnetic field can be made by permanent magnets. there are four or more magnets inside the rotor (it rotates). Starter Solenoid. typical of a small motorcycle. In the simple animation. (Making it happen a little later at low speeds. A battery is a chemical device to store electricity.

The regulator keeps the electrical circuit at a constant voltage of 13. and back along the green. In the simple animation. On small bikes. AC flows quickly back and forth along a wire. The regulator and rectifier are usually in one unit on modern machines. the current comes out in a single flow in the red. AC is alternating current. AC electricity is made in the alternator at about 30 to 40 volts. The red usualy goes to the battery and the green is usualy the earth. four or six diodes which allow electricity to flow one way. but by using the diodes. DC electrical energy can be stored in a battery and then used by the rest of the bike when needed. but usually manages to charge up the battery on bikes. Dynastart is a dynamo which can also act as a starter motor when its mounted on the end of the crankshaft. Regulator. . This stops bulbs from blowing and delicate electronics from damage. AC electricity is therefore changed into DC by the rectifier. Rectifier. and adjusted to the correct voltage level by the regulator. giving DC current. The rectifier uses diodes whic are a form of one-way valve for electricity.8 volts depending upon the machine. By careful design. and DC as straight electricity.AC and DC. but it needs a special regulator box with relays to keep the voltage constant and to isolate the dynamo from the battery when the engine stops. The diodes are acting like one way valves and this is how they are also checked. which needs DC electricity. the alternating current is controlled so all the energy flows one way.8 volts or 6. DC is direct current. where the main AC current is used to power AC lighting. AC is often comically referred to as wavy electricity. whereas DC flows in one direction in the wire. AC is not suitable for charging batteries. note that the alternating current in the yellow wires alternates in direction. for larger machines. Dynamo. (A standard 12 volt 36 watt lamp can use 3 amps of AC or DC current to light equsally well. A rectifier is a bank of one. with about 60 to 150 amps depending on the type of bike. A dynamo is an older version of an alternator which internally rectifies the electricity to DC. hence 'alternating'. just one diode can keep costs very low which only uses half the AC current.) The simplest is a single diode for charging a battery on a small bike. then four diodes are used and the animation shows how alternating AC current flow is changed to DC direct current flow at the red and green.

needing replacement. All connectors match as male and female pairs. Some systems can take care of problems caused by wear in the engine or can even sense and automatically shut down the fuel to a damaged cylinder or failed spark plug to prevent further damage. Spade connectors are flat. Can fail instantly. The best by far are those using separate sleeves with full crimping tabs (see later). 3. mechanical wear and vandalism.3mm and 9. Bullet connectors look like bullets and are in sizes of 3. acting like a single carb for a multi cylinder engine. It controls the ignition. so gives accurate timing of the sparks and removes the need for routine adjustment of points.Electronic Ignition. Sensible routing can reduce most problems.9mm diameter. and doesn't wear.8mm. under control of electronics and sensors which constantly read the state of the engine. Whether they are a good idea for the real world is a matter of conjecture. There are two main types of connectors available. temperature and throttle etc. Engine Management System.8mm. See alternative CDI replacement later. Can be separate fuel injectors for each cylinder. EMS use one or more computers to check many of the vehicles needs and modify them as changes occur. Multipin connectors can be made from spade or bullet types and packed into units so that they can only be fitted together one way. Engine management systems are not used on bikes yet. but at the expense of increasing complexity and many other disadvantages. Replaces points and advance units etc. Sizes vary including 2. Repair of individual components inside the main unit is unlikely. 6. cooling and often many other parts. Fuel Injection. All new bikes use these and there are direct replacements available for nearly all bikes. The other common type are pre-insulated and are instantly recognised by their .6mm and 3. but will be used in the near future. or a 'single point' injection. Connectors. fuel. Loom. 4.5mm wide.9mm are common on Japanese bikes. Prone to corrosion. as they offer some technical advantages over more basic systems.3mm the most common as used for coils and horn connectors. bound together in a single group or groups. A loom is a collection of wires. Fuel injection replaces carburettors and choke by spraying fuel into the engine in set amounts at set times. 6.


 It is for this reason that even the simplest component such as a brake switch will have a male and a female connector. Strip the plastic insulation back about 5mm. A switch which connects two contacts together and stays in place. such as the lighting wire going to the tail light as well as the headlight dip switch. and can be used for the dip switch to send the electricity to either the high or low beam. and is often known as a 'push to make' switch. The best type has sealant inside. Soldering is used where a wire needs to go to two places at once. then the bare end will not short out against the frame or engine. twist the copper inner wires together and solder them until the solder flows freely to make a good join. single throw ' switch (SPST). Heatshrink. usually red. so that the join will remain waterproof as well as protected electrically and physically. (SPDT) It can switch one wire (pole) either of two ways. connect them side by side and working off one lever. is a simple on/off type known as 'single pole. this is a 'double pole. double throw' switch. as used for the lights switch. then do it right first time. All connectors on the battery side must be shielded so that if one becomes loose and separates. Silicone or other sealant can be applied prior to using ordinary heatshrink to the same effect. This switch can 'throw' one way or the other. but annoying when you have to take it apart again and still remember where they go. (DPDT). yellow or blue. Why have connectors when it's simpler to just twist the wires together and tape over them? It's simple to do. . The centre position usually does nothing. This is a single pole double throw. The shielded connector should be the 'live' one. Imagine two SPDT switches. this is done by using the connector half which uses the full length insulating sleeve. The simplest is used for horn. This is plastic tubing which shrinks to a smaller diameter when heated. then clean off the flux and cover using either insulating tape or heatshrink sleeving. or wiring it for someone who will. with no further problems. Switch Types. brake light and starter. Some big Japanese manufacturers do not remove flux whereupon corrosion can occur early and some have been known to fail within three years of leaving the factory. which simply connects two wires together only when the button is pressed.coloured sleeves. If you are going to keep the bike. depending on size and not recommended as a first choice. The switch used for the indicators needs to connect the wire from the flasher unit to the left side contact for the left indicators or to the right contact for the right indicators.

Car switches. rather then the older lever switches with their handles sticking out of the dashboard. On a small bike. The steering shaft lock is also included. This does not limit good design too much and can offer some interesting designs. with a little electronics and a distance timer for safety switch off. as the oil pressure should be able to switch off the warning light within a few seconds. The indicator switch is probably the hardest to get half decent. with a wire to the oil pressure switch which shorts the lamp to earth to complete the circuit. or high pressure for most other bikes. then a switch in the steering can be used for the off switch. For legal reasons. See also ignition switch repair later.Ignition Switch. with a small connection on the ignition switch operating the relay for the lights. The ignition switch takes electricity from the battery via a fuse and when switched on. Oil Level Switch. Car Ignition Switch. it is not acceptable to place switches on the dash which can impale the driver in a crash. Oil Pressure Switch. allows the electricity to be used by the rest of the car. but there are a few dash mounted types available. A simple switch mounted on a float. As the lights use a lot of power. usually for two stroke oil tanks. This is usually mounted on the engine and is either a low pressure unit for machines with roller crankshafts. The ignition switch takes electricity from the battery via a fuse and when switched on. these take their power via a relay direct from the battery. The latest cars have no ignition key. to warn of low oil level. Therefore rocker switches are now common. If a pair of push buttons are used. Simply test with the engine running. but a pass card or sensor which can be circumvented for more easily made custom vehicles. the ignition switch may also short the ignition wire from the points to the spark plug coil and short it to earth when in the off position. with tamper proof retaining bolts. Likewise for the starters position on the ignition switch which also operates a heavy duty relay (solenoid) for the starter motor. The usual methods is to have a wire from the ignition circuit to an insulated warning light. allows the electricity to be used by the rest of the motorcycle. so that the engine won't run. .

although some can be modified. Tail lights can have two bulbs for reliability. Do not touch the glass (quartz) of quartz halogen lamps as they are prone to damage. Headlights. so the lens will remain in place if one clip fails. the smaller for the tail light. The handlebar dip switch is only used to control the relay. then to the headlight. Always use at least three W clips. Relays can allow the handlebar dip switch a much simpler on/off switch. Where possible. The W clip method will have an alignment lug on the lens which must align in the shell so the lens is the right way up. preferably four. especially on motorways at night. and the higher wattage of the brake lights is only momentary.Relays. The lamp unit will vary according to manufacturer. the fog lights need only be used when in fog and the dip is . The normal handlebar dip switch will soon burn out trying to switch the large amount of current. The classic case is when needing a hi/lo switch to operate a powerful headlight. Usually 21 and 5 watt. Fog Lights. Relays come in many types. Headlight shells contain the lens unit in the correct alignment. double throw. as the tail light wattage is low. The normal dip switch is used to make the relay switch between the high and low beam circuits. Basic light in a red cover. The single bulb usually contains two filaments. which can leave the rider in a dangerous position. double pole. As fog lights will not work effectively with main beam. with or without fuses and other arrangements. so a relay is used. (pieces of tungsten wire which glow brightly. They can be cleaned with paper tissue and alcohol. This second switch can then operate a relay which will switch on the fog lights.) These filaments are different wattage's in a tail light. Fitting of a higher spec bulb may require the replacement of the whole lens unit for different or larger quartz halogen lamps. single pole single throw. Tail Lights. Many modern headlights are all plastic and little repair is possible. the wire to the dip lamp should also supply power to another switch. as it is difficult to see when a bulb fails. The high wattage for the brake light. Fog lights should be worked via a relay connected to the dip light. Use to best effect. The full power goes to the relay. Sometimes with a clear panel to illuminate the number or licence plate. minimising the amount of wiring required. due to the effects of fog. the relay can be mounted inside the headlight close to the headlight. UP is often marked on the lens. usually by W clips in a chrome rim. Relays are heavy duty power switches which can be operated remotely by ordinary switches. This can be a pair of dual wattage bulbs. or a pivot and an adjustable screw. When the dip light is switched on.

Same as fog lights. These liberties usually make for an easier to read drawing. There is a trend in the car market towards totally unreadable wiring diagrams. 
 The small squares where some wires cross. The diode symbol may represent a single diode. Wiper motors. The rest of the gaps can be filled in with a little time studying the drawing. but can be circumvented for external timed wiping.used. A Guide To The Wiring Diagram. often a soldered joint. The earth connection symbols can vary from a representation of a tag to bolt to the frame. 
 To understand a wiring diagram. For wiring diagrams. The lights. which is usually blue. A rotary switch or potentiometer is idea for dash board control. often based on a numbering system. This may be acceptable for . A wiring diagram is like a London underground map. Always fit the whole system as a complete unit as it came out of the donor car. Where the tail light assembly and the handlebar switch is removable from the loom. One concept can be represented many ways. All other wires cross independent of one another. so it works reliably. uses a single fuse and a modified C90 CDI unit to replace the more expensive original item. or a more complex electronic device such as a rectifier/regulator unit. Spot Lights. the description 'approximate' takes many liberties. ( a classic piece of design) as it is a schematic. Most wiring looms can be built to personal preference. all of which seem to be going everywhere. It does not follow standard practice. with a button beside for washing. Best mounted low. General points. to maximise visibility in poor conditions. but working on the main beam via a switch and relay. battery and switches are simple. Often mounted at headlight height for maximum visibility of the road. although it can mean any other method which manages to do the same. Always have a spotlight warning light. the two rectangles represent the multi-pin connector. If the rotary switch is on a rubber mount. 
 A single symbol can represent many different items. the main signposts must be recognised. These sometimes contain a dual speed system in the unit. This is a basic wiring diagram for one of the authors 125's. They work off the main beam switch so they do not dazzle in town where dip is used. That is to say it approximates to the layout of the actual item. The wiring diagram for the average vehicle is an awful confusion of many wires. a push to wash button can be used integrally. represents an electrical connection. which is usually orange. Always use a fog light warning light. to a line entering a solid surface or a spike into the ground.

The main colour usually shows which main circuit it belongs to. North American and Japanese. As all wiring diagrams are different. if you know the language. For British. Most colours are represented by single letters. the plastic insulation which covers the wire has a main colour and often a smaller tracer colour moulded into it. and the tracer showing which part of that circuit it is. Hidden in this mess is usually only four different circuits. The auxiliary circuit. such as light blue. the following guide is common to most modern motorcycles. It's usually in an anorak form of English. If yours is very different then tread carefully. take some tie to understand the layout. The builder of a custom machine may prefer to use colours which are easily understood. Typical alternator symbols are from left to right. BU). For most vehicles. BR. (e. Unfortunately. Wiring. a wiring diagram can be read easily. If a very complex wiring loom is needed. In this case. BK. Only the modern car wiring diagrams seem to be designed to be incomprehensible. the various other components can be discerned. Start with the battery and ignition switch and fuse box. to generate and store the electricity. black.g. more than one colour begins with B. delta wound. These are the charging circuit. . For example if the whole of the lighting circuit is white. star wound. but make stand-alone circuits. then simply break the wiring down into discrete chunks. two separate coils ( as on most small bikes) and a symbol of a sine wave. the LtBU is a common abbreviation also DkBN for Dark brown. then a white wire with a red tracer showing that this particular wire goes to the tail light (W/R) and a white with blue tracer to the main beam (W/BU). drawing each system on a separate sheet. independent and robust in their operation and reliability. brown and blue become double letters. The lighting circuit. To make life easier. then the wiring leading to and from them. as there is only certain things that can be done with wiring. From these. or make your own rules if you have no wiring diagram. but the differences are usually small. so read the table on the wiring diagram of your manual to tell which is which. Do not follow car practice and have many cross points to save a few wires. Where some colours are lighter. Always draw a wiring diagram schematically. 
 Although you may have a specific problem to overcome. as generated by an alternator. to start and run the engine. but is not remotely usable in the real world. For Italian and German machines. based on their local languages. Red (R). How to read a wiring diagram. these letters will be different. so it can be followed logically.manufacturers who simply describe and replace parts. The ignition circuit.


 This DC electricity can then be used to charge up the battery and supply the lights etc. The Alternator And Charging Circuit. Some bikes will have alternators similar to cars. Distinct circuits are often given standard colours eg: all earth wires are the same colour. to where it ends up. there may be nothing remotely similar to the wiring diagram. The actual components are usually resin covered lumps of copper wound over steel plates riveted together. but can make life easier if designing your own wiring. See later. 
 The AC electricity produced is changed to DC electricity (direct current) by a device called a rectifier which is then regulated to about 14 volts for a 12 V bike. The constantly changing North . if you more volts across the battery. If you put 12 volts across a 12v battery nothing will happen. The magnetic field can be made using permanent magnets or by using electricity in a 'field coil'. Clean off any excess magnetic debris or rust. If there are no permanent magnets. Find the alternator which is usually shown as circle with symbols representing coils of wire. an earth lead on a Kawasaki will be the same colour on another Kawasaki. but not necessarily the same colour on a Yamaha. eventually causing damage and bulbs to blow. (7 volts for a 6V bike). An alternator makes AC electricity (alternating current) by a spinning magnetic field which creates an electrical force in windings of copper wires. 
 The rotating flywheel will contain permanent magnets which will attract steel tools. 
 Larger bikes with traditional alternators will have three white or yellow wires coming from the corners of a triangle or 'Y' star of coils. 
 Check for any physical damage. either carefully deconstruct and rewind with identical varnished copper wire or have it rewound commercially or replace. Colours are standardised for each manufacturer. Too little voltage will not allow the battery to be charged. hence a red tracer. After a basic understanding of the components. then there will be a big bobbin of wire in the middle. Too much voltage will slowly cause the battery to heat up and dry out. and can be from just one winding the size of a thumb for a moped. then there will be enough difference in voltage to cause electricity to flow and charge the battery. as it is a 'schematic'.the tail light is red. Check your wiring diagram or use one from the selection at the end of the monograph. The wires coming out from this device are the main areas of concern. now to put them together. to a dozen smaller items on some big bikes. This is not standardised for most vehicles. this is the field . If damaged. These are often self contained units delivering 'ready to use' DC voltage and so the alternator sections below will be superfluous. these are often as a triangle or a wide 'Y'. 
 On most bikes. A guide to where electricity starts on the machine. All sizes and shapes available. The two or three yellow or white wires can be easily replaced. An 'S' shape on it's side can also denote alternating current. On a few rare machines there may also be a field coil with one side connected to earth. 
 The small steel arms wound with copper are the alternator windings.South magnetic field induces current flow in the copper windings and out comes alternating current. which are usually open to the air with cooling slots. When the engine is opened up. usually look for two or three white or yellow wires. the other wire going to the regulator.

and a red wire coming out. A very efficient design. This allows the regulator to keep the voltage correct. Holding the regulator or the remains of a regulator in your hand. the regulator will have an extra wire and this wire must be connected to the field coil. The regulator constantly regulates the voltage at approx 14 volts.coil. entering the alternator. If the lights are switched on. The rectifier is a simple bank of diodes which allow the alternating current to be rectified so it all comes out 'flowing in one direction' as DC direct current. or is earthed via a mounting bolt or its metal casing. Probably one white or yellow wire. plus an earth wire. Another wire will go to the diode to charge the battery. Any other wires will be the sense wire. Then the thick red wire. 
 The rectifier has the white or yellow wires going in. The regulator may also have a sense wire. there may be two separate long straight coils of windings inside the alternator. See later. 
 If the rectifier and regulator are separate. so make a sketch for your machine. the AC wires to the rectifier and regulator. If fitted. again easy to see. do not connect this wire on the main fuse side of the ignition switch. or if the original engine of this rectifier has a field coil the any left over wire is almost certainly the field coil wire. Where appropriate. keeping the output steady. If no field coil then it's probably a sense wire. supplying the 14volts DC ready to charge the battery and supply the rest of the bike. always make sure the finned metal body of the regulator is well earthed via its mounting bolts. It is generated as AC at around 30volts. An alternator with a field coil must use a regulator for the field coil type. then the rectifier output wire will go to the regulator. the two or three white or yellow wires are easily recognised. the alternator pumps out more electricity. There may be two wires. ready to be used. Draw the alternator. The other coil supplies the sparks and is part of a completely different circuit. This usually also contains the regulator. which is used to sense the voltage in the main loom. 
 The regulator may have an earth wire. the field coil is given more current and up goes the alternator output. 
 Do not forget the earth connections on the rectifier / regulator and the earth wire from the battery to the frame to complete their circuits. This is then changed to 14 volts DC and stored in the battery. usually where it joins the three fuses. The two or three yellow or white wires will go to the rectifier. which often goes directly to the light switch for direct lighting. If the alternator has a field coil. so the field coil is lessened. The earth wire. then to the battery. As the engine revs more. This sense wire should be connected to the output side of the ignition switch. Check by comparing the colours of the wire from the field coil to match any on the regulator unit. . The one with the thicker copper wires with fewer turns is the winding which generates the battery and lighting electricity. If in doubt. and going to the bobbin of wire in the centre of the alternator. This wire will usually be routed beside the three white or yellow wires. A sense wire is usually slightly smaller. if fitted will be the same size as the red wire. denoted by its colour. 
 The output from the rectifier/regulator will go to the battery. You now know where the electricity comes from. check with original wiring diagram for the specific bike. On a small bike.

which connects only a small part of the alternator coil to the wiring when not using the lights. the other with fewer turns of thicker wire. From the other side of the ignition switch. the wires will lead from the main fuse to the ignition switch and back again to the fuse box. a wire goes to the three ignition. from the battery to the main fuse. One with lots of turns of finer wire. Inside the basic flywheel rotor are usually two main coils. If the machine has a starter motor then the earth wire will be a thick cable and may connect directly to the engine crankcase. Most filament lights as used on motorcycles can use AC without any problems. to the ignition switch and the wire back to the three fuses must carry all the electricity for the bike. The main fuse is usually connected close to the battery. A wire on the positive side of the battery also goes to the main fuse. Most main fuses on larger bikes and most car-based trikes are about 30 amps. supplying the sparks. This set-up may have the charging adjusted by a separate switch. This alternator coil may have wires coming off it at different points. check first. then all the electrical items will stop working.The battery has an earth wire usually on the negative side and this goes to the frame. lighting and auxiliary circuit fuses. so that all subsequent wiring such as those leading to the ignition switch and all other wires are thereby fully protected. then you have a circuit which uses the full winding to power the lights directly. One coil is fairly . The positive side of the battery will use a thick cable to a heavy switch called the starter solenoid and from this to the starter motor. just the main fuse will do. the engine mounted alternator will probably have two separate coils. If so. 
 The ignition switch may also switch parking lights and other components. but is otherwise a simple on off switch. Small bikes. On small bikes. it is therefore a little larger than the rest of the wiring. simply replacing it with a cheap diode to convert the AC to DC to charge the battery. Older bikes may have a positive earth. although if something causes the main fuse to blow. This is called a balanced system and is a cheap way of removing the cost of a regulator unit. and the whole of the coil when the lights are on. being the 'alternator'. A wire from the main fuse goes to the ignition switch. usually with an integral steering lock to deter theft. These wires are slightly larger and capable of about 15 to 30 amps depending on the machine. lights fuse and auxiliary fuse are often in the same fuse box as the main fuse. For those wishing minimal wiring. Because the wires from the regulator to the battery. See later. 
 As the ignition fuse. plus a part of the winding to charge the battery.

Summary. or sometimes inside is a small. the output is such that it will usually do the job. The other coil is a smaller. thus draining the battery. This is acceptable for a low power machine. finger tip sized pulser coil. to the ignition switch and back to the fuse box. to connect to three other fuses. then fit lower wattage indicator bulbs (if the law permits) and don't stop with the brake light or indicators on all the time. the four poles at the ends of the coils means that the magnets in the rotors are four.large and supplies about fifteen to thirty volts AC to the rectifier for the battery and lights. At this stage the wiring diagram should show the AC from the alternator. which triggers the CDI at the correct time for the spark. The black and white picture shows another popular arrangement. simply use a lower wattage headlight bulb. but sometimes a little more electrical power is needed in such a small space. . 
 Another problem is if the battery cannot charge fast enough. Lying flat is the stator plate with the pale lighting and dark CDI generator coils.north alternating magnetic field in the iron plates of the coils. then south . There are four magnets inside the rotor. more finely wound coil to supply a hundred or so volts to the CDI unit. through the rectifier / regulator unit to charge the battery. while disconnecting the front brake light switch often suffices. then fit a larger wattage headlight bulb until the system is 'balanced'. so six poles can be use. Outside. they induce a changing north . If under powered with a dull glow. and the pulser is the black lump between the rotor and stator. Indicators and brake lights are usually the main culprits which quickly drain the battery on these minimalist systems. Again the pulser is outside. You will also notice that as a six pole stator. You can just make out the size and layout of the six magnets inside the rotor. while the generator is the obviously different one nearest the viewer. From these three fuses can be connected the appropriate circuits. such that as they pass the stator coils. Stored electrical energy is supplied from the battery to a main fuse. where the lighting coils are the five coarsely wound coils. Cars have stand-alone alternators with self contained control devices which deliver 'ready to use' DC electricity. This picture shows a C90 rotor with the pulser interrupter on the outer edge. the rotor should have six magnets. with six rotating magnets. thereby generating electricity in the copper coils of wire. 
 As can be seen. which caused the timing pulse at the right place. Now we are six. Connecting just the rear brake light switch. If overpowered and bulbs constantly blow. Although these systems are not perfectly balanced with a constant voltage.south. so the N-S-N-S field flows strongly through the iron cores.

especially if near the carburettors or the fuel tank. For Car Ignition Circuit. It is now possible to use these three fuses for each circuit. a circuit can be built to supply the sparks. and a wire on the lights shorts out. A fuse will commit suicide to protect the wiring. . Please note that small bikes are different. you don't want the lights to fail at the same time. Why not have just one main fuse and forget the rest? 
 Suppose you're driving along. melting wires or even sparks which cause fire. See below. including the engine. see how to repair or modify the ignition switch later. If in any doubt. The Ignition Circuit. any more than this and the wires may start to cook before the fuse. 
 By using a main fuse plus three others. If you are in a dangerous situation. The rest of the wires may be left unconnected. 
 Look at your ignition circuit in the manual or use the nearest diagram from the selection later in this monograph. as ignition switches differ greatly and get more complicated each year. Always carry spare fuses. This may also include the other engine components such as oil pressure switch and electric starter. see later. 
 To find out what else it does. To prevent anything dangerous happening. and all will not fail at once. then this is all you may need. From the fuse chosen for the ignition circuit. then it's time to find the fault in the circuit it is protecting. 
 If you are riding at night and the engine fuse blows.Why have fuses? Without fuses. 
 It may sometimes also connect the parking lights and other things. Why does the ignition switch have so many wires? 
 The ignition switch is nothing more than a complicated on/off switch.With only a main fuse. The main part of the ignition switch simply connects the battery to the rest of the vehicle. a fuse will protect it by committing suicide to protect your wiring and to let you know something's wrong before anything desperate happens. you will need the manual for that particular bike. but as long as it switches the battery to the rest of the bike when unlocked and doesn't when locked. Fuses come in varying shapes and ratings A 15amp fuse will often protect a circuit which normally carries about 10 amps and give a safety margin of 5 amps. there is far less chance of the main fuse blowing first. without further damage. For small bikes. see also small bike ignition circuits. If the new one blows. any short or other damage to the wiring can cause heat. 
 Find the coils. all the electrical circuits will stop. they are usually big black or grey lumps with thick wires to the . the last thing you want to happen is to loose all engine power. Why have a main fuse if you have three others? 
 The ignition switch must be protected as it takes all the electricity through it and will be unprotected without the main fuse. At this stage there is a supply of electricity from the main battery fuse via the ignition switch to the three fuses. when the fuse blows replace it with a new one of the same rating as they sometimes simply just get old and fail.


 If the pulser coils have dual wires. Alternatively the core of the pulser coils may be magnetic and a ferrous item passes to interrupt the magnetic field. the ignition switch will short out this circuit to earth when the ignition switch is off. then they may connect to the tacho. there may be only one small wire which is connected to the contact breaker and also splits to connect to the ignition coil and the ignition switch. On electronic ignition bikes there are simply pulser coils (sometimes known as pick-ups) instead of contact breakers.spark plugs. The only minor problem is to make the coils work correctly for cylinders 1&4 and 2&3 by simply swapping the pulser wires. but these will need the manufacturers correct wiring diagram to check. The 12 volts from the fuse will usually go to the kill switch. and one or two ordinary wires. On small bikes. Therefore only the correct wires for the pulsers must be decided and likewise the wires for the coils. so check the small plastic insulating washers and the spring mounting are correctly positioned. the wire from the coil will only short to earth when the points are closed. so do not suffer this problem. The condensers (capacitors) will connect between the earth via their mounting screw and to the points wire via the spring mounting nut which holds the small plastic insulating washers and points spring and wire in position. The other wires from the electronic ignition box will be a 12volt supply and an earth which are usually easy to identify. The wires from the pulser going to trigger the electronic ignition unit which shorts the coils to earth. then they may need their individual pairs of wires to be swapped to get their pulses the correct way around. 
 Cars often use a distributor and therefore only need one pulser. (via a simple kill switch if used). as both pulsers are built the same. a small current pulse is generated to trigger the ignition box at the correct time. or exhaust valve controller of two strokes. then to the ignition . As a magnet rotates past. 
 If there are other wires. it does not matter which pulser wire goes to which wire. On bikes with contact breakers there is a wire from each contact breaker to each coil. each coil should have one or two thick HT leads to the spark plugs. but with different times relative to the crankshaft. When all is assembled correctly. 
 On some small bikes. The other small wire will go to the points or to the electronic ignition unit. This wire must only connect to earth when the points are closed. See also two stroke CDI later. 
 There will be either one or two wires from each pulser coil. and the output for the coils will also be the same. the other end of the pulser coil connects to earth internally. spark plugs are often shown as two thick black arrow heads pointing to each other. One of these small wires will supply the 12volts from the ignition fuse. there will be matched coloured wires connecting to the coils. the problem is getting the right wires from the distributor to the correct spark plugs. On an engine with two pulsers. The pulser wires will connect to the same coloured wire from the electronic ignition box. or the ignition box wires to the coils or simply swap the park plug caps. On circuit diagrams. These pulser coils are simple coils of wire around an iron core. On most bikes. If just one wire. The wire connected to the contact breaker must be connected to the insulated moving contact spring. to prevent use. 
 Likewise on the electronic ignition box.

it should be on its own circuit. the ignition fuse also supplies power to the fuel pump. 
 The common type of solenoid fuel pumps use contact breakers inside which can sometimes fuse together and cause damage. the kill switch prevents all from being damaged by simply switching off the power to the coils and any electronic ignition box. this is very simple using a small internal wire. the start button can be supplied with 12volts from the kill stitch or from the auxiliary fuse. causing a spark. On some racing machines with a motor style fuel pump inside the fuel tank. supplied via the kill switch. On some unusual engines it is often necessary to crank the engine over a few times before running. always protect the coils and electronics. Many earlier contact breaker and pulser systems use mechanical flyweights on an advance retard mechanism to mechanically advance the sparks as the engine revs increase. If wishing to be able to crank the engine without sparks. The kill switch on larger bikes is a simple on/off switch which if used. Electric start. then this type can be controlled via the kill switch and possibly a tilt switch for safety should the machine crash. 
 If a fuel injection system is fitted. with other fuses being removed for safety. Starter switches differ. or at least the fuel pump should be controlled via a relay. In general use. Use the kill switch to prevent overheating of the components if the ignition switch is to be kept on. A thick wire known as a cable connects the battery to the starter motor via a solenoid switch which is a heavy duty relay. then the wire from the ignition fuse can go to both the start button and the kill switch. must connect 12v to the coils and to the electronic ignition unit only when in the 'run' position. As the starter is part of the engine. the kill switch will prevent the electric starter from working unless the engine is ready to run. invariably across the spark plug gap causing the spark. perhaps when testing other circuits. This should be used in conjunction with a system which prevents the starter motor from being used while the engine is running. Some take the wire from the solenoid to the handlebar . 
 During testing.coils and also to any electronic ignition box if fitted. as it only pumps when the pressure is low. This is done by creating and collapsing the magnetic field and very high voltage winding in the coil. then all. 
 The points will short out the 12 volts in the coil. If the fuel and ignition systems need more current than the kill switch can handle. therefore it is most prudent to fit yet another fuse. which must go somewhere. A standard solenoid type fuel pump may be supplied with power direct from the fuse or via the kill switch. It is best to test each circuit separately using only the fuses as needed. If fitted. As the kill and start switches are close together. just for the fuel pump and carry a spare set of fuel pump points if touring. Later electronic systems use an electronic advance. The starter solenoid is activated by the starter switch on the handlebars. As the electric start is part of the engine.

On electronic ignitions. Other systems are simply variations on a similar theme. a single wire goes from the ignition winding (many turns of copper) in the engine. then only the fuse will blow. If the wire should short to earth. to the points. (not the starter motor) side of the battery. a simple switch is connected in the starter circuit. preventing use unless the clutch lever is pulled in. but the starter motor will not work while riding. then the starter may work when you least expect it. charge up the battery. To prevent the starter working with the clutch out. check the 12 volts supply to each component and also the earth connections. more components will be added to the ignition circuit. To check for a spark. it may be necessary to kick start or use the electric starter. 
 The minimum electronic ignition circuit is a wire from the ignition switch which supplies the 12volts to the coils and electronic ignition. and finally to the coils and electronic ignition. often requiring new crankcases and a trip to hospital. 
 Some solenoids now include the main fuse. preventing the engine from running. shorting out the connections enough to power the starter motor. If in doubt about the many spurious or dubious components. The minimum contact breaker ignition circuit is a wire from the ignition switch to supply volts to the coils. 
 On small bikes. These are not complex. The kill switch can also supply 12volts for the starter switch to operate the starter relay. From this main fuse will be a wire leading to the ignition switch. 
 If the solenoid fails. back to the ignition fuse. such as a level sensor which will cut the ignition if the bike falls over. 
 The solenoid gives a loud click when it works. Summary. The ignition circuit starts from the battery. find out what each does and leave it out of the circuit if not required. just annoying when there is more to go wrong. the machine may be started by shorting a spanner across the two large cable studs on the solenoid. Then wires from the coils connect to the contact breakers and condensers. Therefore this side of the solenoid must connect to the positive. open the starter button switch to see if one side shorts to earth. . As ignition systems become increasingly complex. To find out which type you have. Test by connecting the small wires across the battery. 
 A kill switch has many advantages. That's all there is to it. as there may be a minimum cranking speed for some electronic ignition systems. just an ignition switch to make sure you can switch the whole bike off and a kill switch for just the ignition circuit to kill the engine. a flat strip of steel held by two screws. 
 The safer design has 12v going to the starter button switch then to the solenoid.starter switch and short it out through the handlebars to earth. 
 Usually such items are simple switches connected in the circuits to prevent accidents. which means you have the safer type. then lay the spark plugs on the cylinder head and turn the engine over. If no sparks. Check for sparks. If the wire should short out between the solenoid and the handlebars. From the ignition fuse a wire goes to the kill switch. also to the spark plug coil and to the ignition switch. simply flick the points open and shut. The ignition switch shorts this wire to earth when in the off position. On contact breaker systems. or whether you have two wires insulated from earth. but this sort is not recommended. then through the main fuse to the ignition switch. Wires from the pulsers trigger the electronics box which is connected to the coils.

The other small wire will go to the points or to the electronic ignition unit. See testing later. some not much bigger then your thumb by using much higher primary voltages from the electronics box. Usually one of each. Sniff for any burning. but V6s and larger may have more fun bits. to keep an open eye on the future. It is refreshing to see such a simple design which has worked so well for millions of people for billions of miles. This is the way many systems are going with electronics. and two pick ups on the crankshaft position. a circuit can be built to supply the sparks.On contact breakers. On most basic car systems the coil should have a thick HT lead to the distributor cap and then to the spark plugs. This may also include the other engine components such as oil pressure switch. The other pictures shows motorcycle set-ups. On engines with contact breakers there is a wire from each contact breaker to each coil. 
 Find the coil. This wire must only connect to earth when the points are closed. usually a big canister with a thick wire to the distributor cap. One of these small wires will supply the 12volts from the ignition fuse. The condensers (capacitors) will connect between the earth via their mounting screw and to the points wire via the spring mounting nut which holds the small plastic insulating washers and points spring and wire in position. For points. The wires from the pulser going to . The area of interest is that it can be used in a modern car without the need for a distributor. From the fuse chosen for the ignition circuit. When all is assembled correctly. the wire connected to the contact breaker must be connected to the insulated moving contact spring. they can now be placed in the spark plug cap. and each coil triggered from the electronics individually rather than via a distributor. then to the spark plugs. The Car Ignition Circuit. the coils can be mounted in the cylinder head trough between the cams and make a compact arrangement. (via a simple kill switch if used). spark plugs are often shown as two thick black arrow heads pointing to each other. On circuit diagrams. As coils are now very small. the wire from the coil will only short to earth when the points are closed. remove the ignition system fuse and prepare to build the lighting circuit. check for insulated points and spring. With this. On electronic ignition engines there are simply pulser coils (sometimes known as pick-ups) instead of contact breakers. so you should consider such methods as well as the simpler old set-ups. On electronic systems look for overheating black boxes and poor connections. It all is well. The car set up with distributor is simple and an example is shown. and one or two ordinary wires. so check the small plastic insulating washers and the spring mounting are correctly positioned.

it does not matter which pulser wire goes to which wire. Use the kill switch to prevent overheating of the components if the ignition switch is to be kept on. As a magnet rotates past. Many earlier contact breaker and pulser systems use mechanical flyweights on an advance retard mechanism to mechanically advance the sparks as the engine revs increase. a small current pulse is generated to trigger the ignition box at the correct time. the kill switch prevents all from being damaged by simply switching off the power to the coils. 
 During testing. On an engine with two pulsers. If just one wire. then to the ignition coils and also to any electronic ignition box if fitted. invariably across the spark plug gap causing the spark. but these will need the manufacturers correct wiring diagram to check. 
 Early electronic systems use an electronic advance. engine revs and amount of vacuum in the inlet manifold. the other end of the pulser coil connects to earth internally. This reads the amount of advance to be used according to variables including throttle position. and the output for the coils will also be the same. 
 If the pulser coils have dual wires. then they may need their individual pairs of wires to be swapped to get their pulses the correct way around. A standard solenoid type fuel pump may be supplied with power direct from the fuse or via the kill switch. Alternatively the core of the pulser coils may be magnetic and a ferrous item passes to interrupt the magnetic field. the ignition fuse also supplies power to the fuel pump. 
 There will be either one or two wires from each pulser coil. It is best to test each circuit separately using only the fuses as needed. or the ignition box wires to the coils or simply swap the park plug caps. must connect 12v to the coils and to the electronic ignition unit only when in the 'run' position. or exhaust valve controller of two strokes (snow mobile engines). as both pulsers are built the same. This is done by creating and collapsing the magnetic field and very high voltage winding in the coil. always protect the coils and electronics. as it only pumps when the pressure is low. On some fuel . which must go somewhere. For this reason they are often called a digital 3D map and can be changed for racing purposes. The only minor problem is to make the coils work correctly for cylinders by simply swapping the pulser wires. These pulser coils are simple coils of wire around an iron core. 
 If there are other wires. but with different times relative to the crankshaft. with other fuses being removed for safety. The 12 volts from the fuse will usually go to the kill switch. there will be matched coloured wires connecting to the coils. 
 Likewise on the electronic ignition box. The kill switch is a simple on/off switch which if used. Therefore only the correct wires for the pulsers must be decided and likewise the wires for the coils. then they may connect to the tacho. The pulser wires will connect to the same coloured wire from the electronic ignition box. perhaps when testing other circuits.trigger the electronic ignition unit which shorts the coils to earth. any electronic ignition box and the fuel pump. In general use. 
 The points will short out the 12 volts in the coil. If fitted. The other wires from the electronic ignition box will be a 12volt supply and an earth which are usually easy to identify. as they are burnt into a chip. A not too dissimilar arrangement is used when employing a digital fuel injection system. causing a spark.

injected racing machines with a motor style fuel pump inside the fuel tank, then this type can be controlled via the kill switch and possibly a tilt switch for safety should the machine crash. 
 If a fuel injection system is fitted, it should be on its own circuit, supplied via the kill switch. 
 If the fuel and ignition systems need more current than the kill switch can handle, then all, or at least the fuel pump should be controlled via a relay. 
 The common type of solenoid fuel pumps use contact breakers inside which can sometimes fuse together and cause damage, therefore it is most prudent to fit yet another fuse, just for the fuel pump and carry a spare set of fuel pump points.

The Lighting Circuit.
The lighting circuit fuse will supply 12v to the lights on/off switch. From this switch the wire will split three ways. To the hi/lo headlight switch, to the tail light and to the speedo lights. The hi/lo switch then connects the high and low connections on the headlight bulb. The wire to the high beam can include a wire to a high beam warning light which will also be on when the high beam is on. The absolute minimum set-up is a wire from the ignition switch to a dip beam and a tail light. Some ignition switches have the lights switch built into them. This is common on small bikes, where only a main fuse is used. In such circuits, simply use the lights output from the ignition switch to send power to the hi/lo switch and also the tail light and speedo lights. The high beam warning light is simply a small light connected to the main beam wire. 
 Speedo and tacho lights are simply small lights connected to the light switch. 
 The headlight flasher takes 12v from the auxiliary circuit. Not from the lights circuit, but usually from the horn button supply which is very close inside the handlebar switch unit. The headlight flasher can then be used without the lights being switched on, to the flash switch, and from here to the high beam. The headlight flasher switch is usually close to the Hi/Lo switch and may only be a very short wire inside the switch housing to connect to the high beam wire, also inside the handlebar switch housing. See auxiliary circuit. It is not a good idea to add too many items such as extra lights to the standard lighting circuit, as the ignition switch can only take a limited amount of current. Spot and fog lights should be separately fused on their own circuit from the battery. This way, the main lights are more likely to remain working when needed. Spot and fog lights can be triggered via relays by a connection to the main/dip switch without overloading the main lighting circuit.

The Auxiliary Circuit.
From the auxiliary fuse a number of wires split to supply the Horn, Brake lights, indicators, and other bits and pieces.

Oil warning light.
The most important is the oil pressure or oil level warning light, as this can save the engine from damage. The oil warning light can be part of the ignition circuit if preferred, so no excuses for showing it twice, as it can save an engine from damage, and can be on either circuit. This consists of a wire from the auxiliary fuse to the fully insulated warning light centre contact, then from the light to the oil pressure switch, which simply switches (shorts) the wiring to earth, causing the light to illuminate. The best light holder for this is a basic all-plastic item which has no metal parts other than the two small internal lamp connectors. These are very common and used in most dash boards of cars and bikes. On two strokes, similar applies, but the oil warning light is operated by a switch in the oil tank.

Horn.
Two ways of wiring a horn. Check the internal wiring of the horn switch. With a horn switch which does not short to earth, a wire from the fuse supplies the horn switch. This then switches power to the horn and then to earth. Where the horn switch shorts the power from the horn to the handlebars, one of the connectors on the horn gets 12v from the auxiliary fuse (look for a + sign on some horns). The other horn connector takes a wire to the horn switch which completes (shorts) the horn circuit to earth via the handlebars. Simple and effective. See also simpler alternatives for dirt bikes later.

Brake lights.
The auxiliary fuse supplies 12v to one connection of each brake switch, the other connection of the brake switch goes to the brake light in the tail unit.

Indicators.
The auxiliary fuse supplies 12v to the flasher unit which supplied intermittent pulses at about 60 times a minute. This intermittent supply of 12v goes to the middle contact in the handlebar indicator switch. From this switch the intermittent 12v is sent to the left or right indicator lights. For an indicator warning light, use a fully insulated lamp simply connected with one wire to the left indicator wire and the other wire to the right indicator wire. What happens is this: when one side lights up, the intermittent 12v flashes the indicators, and also supplies the warning lamp, the very small current used for the warning lamp is small enough to be earthed through the filaments of the other bulbs. No worries. 
 Read the info on the flasher unit to see what bulbs it is designed for. Usually 2 X 21W + 5W, which means two 21watt lamps plus a small 5watt indicator lamp.

Fuel gauge and sender.
In the fuel tank, a float moves a simple arm which rubs against a resistor. The resistor has volts at one end and the other end is to earth at 0 volts. Little current flows in the resistor, just enough to give a voltage across the wire, which gives zero volts at the earth end and max volts at the other. The current to the fuel sender resistor must be safely limited. Under no circumstances must full voltage be allowed to flow through this internal resistor. Remember the early jumbo jet crash when the fuel tank blew the plane apart. As the arm moves across the resistor according to fuel level, this sends a differing voltage to the fuel gauge. The fuel gauge simply deflects the needle according to the amount of voltage from the fuel level sender. The fuel gauge usually has 12volt connection, an earth and the sender connection. These should be marked according to the particular wiring of the original bike. Fuel senders can be modified for various fuel tanks by modifying or bending the float arm.

Water temperature gauge and sender.
Both must be used as a pair using the original wiring circuit of the machine from which they came. Water temp gauges are common on many machines. They are usually from 12 volt machines so can be used on other machines, as water temperature is common to all bikes and trikes. Water temp has a similar set-up to the fuel up except that the temperature sensor on the engine varies its resistance internally according to engine temperature. The gauges are otherwise very similar. A temperature operated switch may also be fitted into the hot bits of the cooling system to switch on the radiator cooling fan should it exceed a set temperature.

Parking light.
This may seem a trivial item but prone to a major booby trap. The parking light takes a wire from the main fuse, usually by connection to the wire from the main fuse. This is usually a small jump wire soldered on the base of the ignition switch. This 12 volts direct from the battery is then sent via a unique position on the ignition switch to the tail and a small light in the headlight, which is dangerous. Warning. If, in the parking position, the 12 volts is allowed from the battery to the parking light, and thus to the tail light, then the tail light is thereby connected to the lighting system! Therefore the lighting system is connected to the main fuse and the rest of the bike via the main fuse. The bike can be run. The solution is simple. A diode, which acts as a one-way valve for electricity is fitted into the wire from the light switch to the parking lights. This prevents the power from the parking light circuit from reaching the rest of the bike. Such a diode costs a few pennies, and capable of carrying 12v/5w = 3amps at 12 volts, so a 5amp or higher rated diode will live happily in the wiring loom. Make sure it is connected the correct way around. There are other items on machines, such as auto indicator switch offs, and

) . A external 12 volt charging socket will allow the car to be powered up to retain radio and computer data while replacing the battery. This technique can also work for many aftermarket alarms to protect side panels and seats etc.other fancy stuff. always use the waterproof version. See later. then you will need to power up the car from external means. reliable wiring loom which does the job is better than an overly complex loom. but with a digital interface. to bend back the tags holding the connectors in multipin housings. Where ordinary electrical switches are used. or a small knife. Most common tools are used. If the battery dies. as the crimp will be as good as the very best. to see if it works are required. A home made 12 volt bulb on two wires about one metre long with crocodile clips on the ends. so the fuse rating can be sensible. The meter should be able to check resistances up to 50k ohms for coils. If using or modifying or building alternative handlebar switches but the room for switches is too small. If fitting an internal light to a fitted top box or pannier. simply place them on a separate ancillary wiring loom. simply charge the battery from the socket. for checking circuits. with the tab bent to release the switch when the cover is removed. 10A current measurement is also useful to see how much current each item or circuit is actually drawing. but if a major fault has occurred. Great until it goes wrong. then this may simply not work. rectifiers etc. Wire strippers and cutters. Central locking. See drawing below for the type of crimp it gives. Cars think that central locking is a boon. but these are often more of a waste of time if building your own wiring loom. A hidden external 12volt charging socket which supplies directly to one door lock will help you get in ! If you cant get in. Multi meter to read 60 volts AC to check the alternator output. Home made thin spike or flattened wire about 1mm x 1mm x 100mm long. A diode may be needed. 
 Digital speedo and other ancillary items are simply a variation on the above themes. it is often better to use the manufacturers genuine replacement loom. then consider quick setting epoxy to glue a micro switch to the case. A straightened paperclip with flattened end does nicely. Minimum Tools And Equipment Needed. If fancy bits are required. pencil and eraser. or employ silicone sealant to waterproof the pivot and any other areas where water will seep in. This will allow many of the ultra small switches to be used which can often be carved or moulded into handlebar clamps. then use small switches to switch a relay. with the wires lengthened. Special crimpers for the connectors. As simple speedo light will suffice. Checking the wiring loom is simply fitting the appropriate fuses then checking each system by connecting each item in turn. If the original set-up is needed. Always check the earth connections are well made. 
 Otherwise. including the earths onto the frame so they will not corrode with time. and 20 volts DC to check the regulator and battery charging. or to copy the original. (It is well worth the money for a decent tool for the un-insulated connectors. Paper. Alloy coloured silicone sealant makes for easy starter or horn push miniature switches to be moulded directly on the handlebars. See testing later. A simple. you are not going to open the bonnet (hood).

If preferring to try a simple alternative.Soldering iron. If too expensive. a timing light is much cheaper but with equivalent lower performance. especially for dirt bikes. often in the street. but very cheap and can do the job for pennies if insulated well. needing to be used in darker light levels. 
 If rebuilding switches. snipe nosed pliers. and switchgear. and can be wired using HT leads directly in the spark plug HT circuit using parts from a broken plug cap. This can be brought close to the timing marks for easier vision. Flexible hair spray will generally protect most wiring and connectors. clear lacquer or clear nail varnish. then add tweezers and thin. . 
 Penetrating oil for easing tight nuts and bolts in alternators. This is a powerful lamp which flashes when the spark occurs. 
 A 'strobe' is needed for checking the advance curve and the sparks while the engine is running. A superior choice is the butane gas type which removes the need for mains connection.not exactly brilliant. Strobe. any sort will do. and allows the work to be done in situ. especially during long term storage. causing the internals of a running engine to look as if it is standing still. For protecting the wiring and connectors. A neon bulb is the small warning light on 240volt kettles and mains sockets which glows red . a cheap or surplus neon mains warning bulb will do. also silicone maintenance spray and grease.

as they both simply do the same thing. Ignition. 
 Rectifier / regulator unit. Rewiring for those who know the basics. 
 Other items such as radiator fan and temp switch can be checked while off the machine. but the internal components fare . 
 If the vehicle is burnt out or a wreck. 
 Switches can be chosen as required. and horn switches. containing lights on/off. then it may be best to get the engine running first. 
 Fuse box for four fuses plus spare fuses. 
 The circuit is conventional with negative earth. really neat and tidy job. 
 This may well require taking a few liberties by making a lash-up piece of wiring to check the components. 
 Standard handlebar switches. The electrics may be damaged. First of all and wherever possible. 
 An ignition switch. powered direct from a well charged battery. Once the engine runs. Do not forget the earth connections. Always make sure they are routed safely and neatly. such as the electronic ignition. 
 A headlight with dip and high beam. With a fuse for each circuit. This is particularly useful before spending money on the rest of the project. Likewise the pulser units and any other wires in need of repair. This will not need the alternator or charging circuits. 
 An electric starter with solenoid. starter. high/low beam. Leave plenty of length on the wires for fitting later. kill. then this should be an opportunity to do a new. Before starting a rewire. with just a few corroded stubs of wire coming from the crankcase. the rest may be worthy of a rebuild. Take this opportunity to see if the battery charges at 14 volts or if there are charging problems. tail light with brake light working off a rear brake switch. get the engine running before removing the old wiring. It you do your homework properly. This also helps to understand the wiring before removing the old bits. 
 Horn. 
 Two coils to 4 spark plugs from 2 sets of contact breakers or electronic ignition. The engine can be temporarily wired to run from a fully charged battery. This reduces the numbers of possible problems to be solved later. then also replace the thermostat which has probably burst. Just rig up power to the coils and points or electronic ignition and pulsers. Use boiling water to check the temp senders. then checked with a multimeter and possibly repaired or even modified. 
 I often rewire a bike from a burnt out wreck. to get just the sparks and starter motor working. The basic car and motorcycle wiring looms are essentially similar. Where the wires to the alternator are burnt flush. or coils. Charging. Lights and Auxiliary. Start by thoroughly cleaning all components. If a burnt-out wreck.SECTION 2. remove the alternator and use new wires soldered to the original connections to the alternator windings. or ignition switch work etc. 
 Indicators. 
 The electric starter motor can be operated direct using the remains of the starter cable or a pair of emergency car jump-starter cables. The following is mainly for a typical basic Japanese 4 cylinder rewire with: Four circuits.

The appropriate way of working out the size of wires needed is given in Section 3. as some engines are rubber mounted. and paint or corrosion between frame and engine can also cause problems. but alternators and starter motors always seem to remain usable. use wire capable of carrying around 8 Amps for most wiring except the following. then little can go wrong unless they become wet. From the high/low switch a white wire with a blue tracer to the high beam and maybe a white wire with yellow tracer for the low beam. 
 Keep it standardised where possible. two white wires with red tracer from this switch to the tail light and to the high/low switch. which is then connected to the battery via a suitably sized cable. then you could have a white wire to the light switch. Do not assume an engine earth is a good frame earth. Taking components apart and modifying is covered in section 3. 
 Wires from the alternator are usually yellow or white.surprisingly well. as this will tie up nicely with the unmodified components such as electronic ignition. Choose appropriate colours for the different main circuits. Whether you are using non-standard new. If in any doubt. then the following points should be considered. then testing will be needed. the internals must be checked to see how they are wired up internally. Items to bear in mind when designing the wiring. cleaned and inspected for long term reliability. Once the switches are understood. but should always be stripped. use the original or a special starter cable. even in the worst circumstances. If deciding on your own colour scheme. with different tracer colours to indicate the parts of the circuit. indicators etc. This simply mimics the colours used by the lights. if making the lighting circuit white. An earth will also be needed between the battery and the frame. The size of the wire depends upon the CURRENT in amps it needs to carry. See repair later. coils. make them simple to understand and mark them clearly on your wiring diagram. 
 Checking the parts. Black for Kawasaki etc. were working all properly before the rewire. corroded or broken. or used parts from the bike. 
 For example. or reading the original manual. If parts such as switches. taking it apart. This can be done as each stage of the wiring is reached. 
 Charging systems and the main supply to the ignition switch and fuses usually use red as their main colour. Where problems occur. The fuel flames usually consume the carburettor or injectors. The power to the starter motor usually returns via the crankcases. regulator etc. then add some extra for possible errors in cutting or bad fitting to make life easier. 
 Whatever colours you decide. Make a list of wires required by using the wiring diagram. drawing the wiring diagrams can begin. plus a similarly thick cable for the battery to engine earth connection. Testing with a multimeter. Three ways are possible. Choosing The Wire Size And Connectors. Decide upon the length needed and by measuring the bike. For the starter motor. It is common to order to the . (not the volts). and back to the other fuses in the fuse box. The wires capable of carrying about 20 Amps (possibly 30 amps on big bikes) from the battery to the ignition switch. 
 Earth is usually green for Honda.

A typical list is given in Section 3 to act as a guide. Use this opportunity to salvage any other components that are due to be dumped. This is then followed by an important . If the original connectors are damaged or lost. All the connectors that are 'live' when disconnected. This may take a couple of attempts to get a clean looking diagram. If never having done any wiring before. Unusual or special connectors can come from old or similar looms. So mark them on your wiring diagram and count how many are needed. you can often get some from a breaker. then pull it out. fuse box. broken speedo units to recycle the fuel gauge etc. then this may be simpler if each circuit is designed on separate pieces of paper. draw the battery. To decide which ones you need. switches and any other parts used in a similar position to those shown on the wiring diagram. the nearest equivalent will often supply most of the required connectors.nearest metre anyway. alternator. then simple line drawings to join them up correctly. 
 Keep standard connectors on the electronic ignition. or modify from the drawings given at the end of this monograph. but circuits such as indicators may not be needed. This is easily bent back enough for careful removal and re-use. must be prevented from making a short circuit. regulator/rectifier. then simply buy new metal connectors to fit inside them. fuse box. A few uncommon connectors are not available such as some oil pressure switch connectors. 
 Multipin connectors have metal inserts which are a little longer than the standard connector. lights. rectifier and regulator. Once it is decided that they are correct. moving the parts around to personal preference. by working through each circuit using the text described earlier. such as battery cables. The internal metal connectors of multipin block connectors can be replaced where needed. Use a straightened paper clip with a flattened end. They MUST have shielded sleeves or shielded multipin housings to protect them if accidentally disconnected. which contain an extra retaining tang to retain the contact in the plastic housing. Some bike breakers will be only too happy to send you out to the broken bike section with a few tools to scavenge a wiring loom for a few quid. It is best to try this on an old connector first as it can be fiddly. 
 If you decide to cut the wiring to a minimum then you can still use standard switches etc. use a small thin. alternator. Designing a Wiring Diagram. With the diagrams as a guide. so when they need replacing. new parts will fit without problems. If the exact bike is not available. using new pins which come in most shapes and sizes. they can then be put all together on one complete wiring diagram. so will have to be recycled or made to fit other connections. flattened piece of wire to push back the locking tab on the metal part inside the housing. A simple paint programme will allow cut and past to suit.

except the battery earth and starter which must be a little larger. as mentioned earlier. it has one major advantage. 
 Follow each wire in turn starting from the battery check if they end up in the correct place and colour. This also goes to the main wire from the battery to the main fuse. plus the thick earth from the crankcase to the battery earth. After a few attempts. 
 It will be instantly noticed that spacing is paramount to a neat wiring diagram. Mark in the colours as they are drawn. the way it is assembled and works will be double checked. Although drawing a wiring loom may seem a chore to many bike builders. Ignition circuit for the coils and spark plugs. draw a wire to the ignition switch. A selection of basic wiring drawings are available at the end of this text. and that you know what they do. Test by trying to pull wire off to ensure it's fitted securely. See parking lights above. There are many ways to hide the wiring. 
 The starter motor cables can be drawn in a little thicker to the solenoid and the starter motor. occasionally needing trial and error with a multimeter to find out which wire from the ignition switch will work parking lights. with any problems sorted well before hassles car raise their heads. Then draw in the lights circuit and then the auxiliary circuit. From the other side of the main fuse. including soldered joints and switches. You should now be able to draw a wiring diagram. From the ignition switch when in the 'on' position. Warning: a diode will be needed. Practice fitting each type of connector you will be using. the wires will soon take up a natural 'schematic' arrangement. make the parking lights on a completely separate circuit to all other wiring. Some Tips On Custom Rewiring. It enables the wiring to be sorted before the build. 
 Another major advantage is that you work out just exactly what it is you are doing. eventually leading to relative clarity. with the main fuse on the starter solenoid. Do not connect to other lights. If in doubt. 
 Then continue with the 12 volt wire from the regulator to the battery. It also leaves a permanent record for later when problems may occur. The diode is to prevent the power going via the parking light to the lights switch to the fuses. namely the wire colours. 
 The three fuses then supply current to their different circuits as mentioned earlier. Parking lights are usually connected through the ignition switch. Some bikes have the fuse box in the fairing. to the frame earth. Stay clear of parking lights unless absolutely necessary or consult the workshop manual. The earth wire is usually black or green. Start with the yellow or white wires from the alternator to the rectifier/regulator unit. before getting lost in a mess of loose wires and connectors. By drawing the loom. or follow a wiring diagram for your bike. back to join to the three other fuses. Decide where your wires are going so you can get the brackets and any access holes in the frame done before you do any final welding or paintwork on the vehicle. This will simply require a little repositioning of the items on the wiring diagram. The earth wires will be the same size as the wires supplying 12v to the component. and connect direct to the battery via a simple switch.item left off the diagrams. Usually red. but this will need a . See also field coils and sense wire above which may or may not be needed. then allowing the rest of the bike to work. so each circuit can be easily recognised. Join the parts up using the descriptions given earlier.

This will make the fairing or headlight pod easier to remove. Experience shows that it is very important to understand what wires you need. This eliminates the need for any separate lighting or starter switches. Make sure there are no rough edges in these holes. or a type that is cheap and easy to replace. This is then followed in some circumstances by needing small connectors. or as a kill switch allowing just one set of wires on the handlebars.good deal of thought to get right and still allow you to be able to take the loom and associated parts off the bike. HT leads can also be routed through the frame if room permits. so make sure that you weld or solder small strips of steel or. There are many ways to cut down on wiring. trike or car. Be careful when using an indicator switch as a kill switch on an enduro. Carefully choose the spark plug caps which will allow the best HT cable routing and style. as it's dry and easier to get to. it is more likely to stay on. See also off-road preparation later. often under the seat. If preferred on an enduro. Where the coils are fitted under the motorcycle seat out of view. inside the headlight. so they can go through the holes in the headlight and into the frame tubes. On some coils. and that they are staggered (not closely grouped) so they can be threaded through the narrow tubes more easily. use staggered bullet connectors on the wiring so they can easily pass through. use the indicator switch as a lighting switch. if access is reasonable. this means some firm rubber foam around the base and sides. under the dash is still the most sensible central wiring area. 
 If a fairing is used. then insert a strong bar and bend the hole to allow the wires to enter at a more suitable angle. A popular method on trikes and customs is to use an after-market car ignition switch which has positions for run. under the tank or near the steering head. as a short circuit here is no fun! Drill the smallest access holes necessary. and easy to get at. Some HT leads can be very cleverly disguised or hidden completely. The wires can be threaded through the handlebars or door pillars. or possibly through a large enough hole in the bottom yoke of a custom show machine. 
 For cars. 
 Always carry . but if your headlight is big enough. but make sure you use bullet connectors. it is possible to simply unscrew the HT lead from the coil and replace it with a longer one. so you can use the minimum number of wires. use the right for power so if accidentally knocked by your hand. 
 The tail light wiring is often found rubbing against the rear wheel. a well glued set of lugs or a tube inside to keep the tail light wires safe and hidden. then covering with glue sealant and heatshrink sleeving. If using a tube. A vent pipe to protect your paint from the acid should also be fitted. and starter and then placing it out of sight. then extend the high tension (HT) leads by inserting a strong piece of wire or a small nail with both ends sharpened into the end and adding an extension piece of HT lead. if using a plastic mudguard. then design the main loom so that it will go all the way into the headlight. The battery should be mounted in rubber to prevent wear against the metal frame. There are three main places to put the numerous connections from the main loom to the handlebars. then make the connection just inside the fairing. The loom can be routed underneath the bottom fork yoke straight into the headlight. 
 Most rear brake light switches deteriorate quickly so use good quality switch. run with lights. to reduce possible wear. How these wires are routed is personal preference.

If in doubt. This particular example ignition circuit needs at least 2 amps. Make sure they are the correct rating. Including a safety margin. not the wiring. but if headlight flasher is used = 115 watts. use domestic fuse wire across the old blown fuse. about 5W all adding up to a total of 5W + 5W + 5W = 15 Watts. As not all the items will be on all the time. but to allow a safety margin. then follow the original manufacturers recommended fuse rating. Do not use a larger fuse than this. use a 10 Amp fuse. To find the true value. will certainly eliminate any doubts. For cars. a 20 Amp fuse may do for initial testing and just to be on the safe side while . the current in amps will be 130 Watts/12 Volts = 10. Check it is in maximum load. 
 To find this fuse rating in amps. The circuit supplying the ignition will need to carry enough current for the coils. It must be allowed to blow. or aluminium foil.4 amps. The radiator fan can be run by removing the switch connectors and joining them temporarily. The main fuse will handle all the above which is 130 W + 15 W + 88W = 233W Amps = Watts / Volts . even though they are not on at the same time. use the multimeter set on the 10 amp rating to see how much current is used. Don't forget the windscreen wiper motor and any other items. Another way is to reduce the fuse rating until it blows. and the starter solenoid supply. and only use one strand of the fuse wire. The ignition circuit is usually quite small. so a 25 amp main fuse is used. to be generous.spare fuses. If desperate. the electronic ignition. the current in amps will be 15 Watts/12 Volts = 1. strip an old piece of wire to remove the copper strands. In emergency. the dip beam usually 55 Watts. possibly with the fuel pump and radiator fan working. So for a 12 volt system.9 amps. 5 Watts. So for the lighting circuit we need at least 10. Amps = Watts/Volts. but to allow a safety margin use a 5 Amp fuse. all adding up to a total of 60W + 55W + 5W + 5W + 5W = 130 Watts. The speedo and tacho lights 2 x 5 Watts=10 Watts. So for a 12 volt system. as it is the fuse you want to blow. The tail light. Brake light. If the headlight flasher is on this circuit. again make sure it is of the correct rating. needing only a 5 amp fuse. about 20 Watt. maybe 5W. fit increasingly smaller fuses and test until they blow. (if fitted on this circuit). then choose a fuse rating with a reasonable safety margin. so this is 233 Watts / 12 Volts = 19. 
 To find the Amps used by this example. When the machine is up and running. about 5 W. The auxiliaries circuit will be the horn. 21W and the indicators. This gives a 15amp fuse for general use. a multimeter set at least 10 amp reading and placed across the empty fuse holder. add an extra 12v/60W = 5amps. double the needs for the dual headlights and tail lights. What size wires and fuses should be used ? Each circuit will need to safely carry more than enough current for all the items on it's circuit. as they deteriorate with time. The fuse rating in amps is: Amps = Watts/Volts. Amps = Watts divided by Volts. Lights. Headlight probably 60 Watts. then use just enough to act as the fuse wire. use a 15 Amp fuse. (which are 21W + 21W + 5W = 47W) all adding up to a total of 88 Watts. so this is 88 Watts/12 Volts = 7. If fuel injection is used and/or a fuel pump. Probably a lot less.9 amps.3 amps.25 amps.

usually where it uses a connector inside the headlight shell. It is best to decide where your wires are going before you do any final welding or paintwork. If these wires are in a protective sleeve. so that flexing is more easily accommodated without undue bunching or kinking of the wires. For best results. 
 The same for ignition. or camping light to be supplied from the main fuse. These can be soldered to two wires to front and rear indicators. two or more wires connecting a single wire in the loom. A good quality multimeter which can measure the current up to about 10Amps will allow assessment of each individual component or the more unusual items if in doubt. be they gold plated or not. then you can get the brackets and any holes made early to make life easier. Making. Always check on the final placing of all the parts such as battery. In extreme cases. Checking and Fitting the Loom. Always try to use connectors similar to the original or of better quality. consider routing the wires . 
 Soldering the joins will mean stripping back the wire and twisting a number of separate wires together. it is useful to have the wires gently twisted inside the loom like a rope. The front indicator wire will have a double connector. such as the indicator wire going from the handlebar switch into the main loom. as simple maintenance spray with a waxy film is more likely to penetrate and prevent corrosion of the copper wiring inside the insulation. This should then be cleaned free of any flux and covered with tape or heat shrink. If your numbers differ widely then check again. Later this can be replaced with a 25 amp fuse. Gold plating is of dubious use in a harsh environment. This is particularly important on bikes such as enduros which have a large degree of movement and high levels of stress on these wires. The indicator lamp connection would be soldered to the front wire closer to the lamp. there will be one. should it blow. If any have suspect connectors then repair or replace. not on the connectors. then lubricate them with a little silicone grease to prevent undue wear of their plastic insulation. are often given a spare connection for later modifications. This is best done where the wires are naturally split to go their separate ways. or from another separate emergency fuse. such as the indictor switch to the front and rear indicators and the indicator light. Find out the wattage of your own components and follow the above example using your own numbers. To improve flexibility around the steering head. regulator etc. The crimping of connectors is mentioned elsewhere.testing. then allowing solder to flow between all the strands for a secure connection. to take the indicator and the indicator warning lamp connections. use heatshrink with an integral sealant which excludes any chance of moisture attacking the joint. then it will be necessary to solder wires together. ignition switch. Where one wire goes to several places. were much of the corrosion occurs. This is also done to the supply under the seat. then check the part works correctly. allowing an anti theft device. where the wire splits to feed the coils and electronic ignition and perhaps the fuel pump. Where the ends of the loom connect to various items. The ignition wire and auxiliary supply wires at the end of the loom where it enters the headlight.

and make sure any insulation sleeving is fitted before the crimping is done. showing just a part of the wire. Any wires that will go through braided nylon sleeving will probably have to be threaded through this before fitting the connectors. Separate looms make maintenance much easier. Check the way the loom follows the frame and adjust if needed. 
 As the wiring passing the steering head is a common area for vandalism. These should be left with their ends looped and tucked back into the loom. it can also be used to charge the battery with a battery charger at home. These usually all end up under the seat in the electrical box. This will help prevent it being cut through with a knife. and perhaps a separate loom for spot and fog lights. Always cut the wire a little longer to be on the safe side. Tailoring the wiring on the bike to match the original fittings will ensure compatibility with commercial replacements. so that almost anything can be fitted. in the headlight shell or under the tank. it is often useful for an external connection for a tent light. there may be the need to add some redundancy into the wiring loom. Always tuck a good length of spare wire back into the loom. Where this is fitted directly to the battery via a fuse. This should be a separate loom with its own fuse. Do not forget the earth connections. lay the wires along the frame as intended. main fuse. 
 Once all the wires are in place. or can be wound over the loom by hand deconstructing old throttle cable inners. as common on customs. Where necessary. it is very simple to add a few more full length wires to a loom. In some case. plus a separate loom for a fuel injection system. 'tailoring' the wires then fitting the connectors as you work through each circuit. which can be coaxed out later if needed. 
 For those who tour. then to route and clip them in position along the engine and frame towards the rectifier/regulator before fitting the plastic sleeving and finally the connectors with perfect placement. This also allows for a broken wire to be bypassed with an alternative emergency wire should a fault occur in the future. Do not connect the battery yet. Check that the wires will not be stretched when the steering is at full movement left or right. then always work the lengths back from the fitted handlebar switches. or unwound as required.near the headstock to run vertically for a short distance to minimise problems of flexing. or preferably steel shielding on larger cables. Separate looms are not common on commercial machines due to cost. 
 It is far easier to fit the reconditioned alternator with three new. to switch to component etc. individual circuit fuse. First fit the wires to the connectors for the standard switches and other electrical components such as rectifier/regulator etc. Where needed. 
 Where . Perhaps a basic loom. as a flexing loom is a problem loom. Ensuring the full length wires can be removed through the frame. similar to the Chinese finger trap over this area. long yellow wires to the bike. a set of looms can be built. 
 With everything placed where it belongs. then consider sliding a sleeve of wire netting. air pump or other items. work though each circuit from battery. lay them together neatly and tape them every few inches and wherever the loom splits into two or more directions. allowing it to be connected from under the side panel etc. Such sleeving is available as copper. such as the ability to add indicators to an enduro bike at a later date. before fitting the outer plastic sleeve. ignition switch. 
 If wiring direct to the switches with solder joints for minimal full length wiring. 
 Following the descriptions of each circuit as mentioned earlier. It is important to be able to place the wiring in clips or other restraints.

alternator and regulator etc. To check the loom. If a strobe is available. Test power goes to the electronic ignition connector in the same way. indicators etc. it is still possible to make last minute changes. Check the ignition switch in all positions. 
 Likewise check the lighting and auxiliary circuits in a similar manner. Checking The Wiring Before Use. or braided nylon sleeving to protect from any wear caused by flexing. it should light only when the ignition switch is on. the wires should be slightly twisted like a simple rope. Connect the bulb between the battery positive and the earth wires to check the earth connections to the frame. again using a simple bulb or multimeter. Check all the earth wires between points on the frame. 
 If problems occur. do not platt the wires. but disconnect all components and fuses. Give the switches many on and off cycles to check they work reliably. See later monographs or updates. should one need replacing. to the head and tail lights. if the bulb lights.the loom passes the steering head. when the kill switch is in the 'run' position then the kill switch works. then work towards the fault. the other croc clip to the main fuse holder. 
 When problems occur. Finally disconnect all connectors. to prevent the wires from kinking when flexed. As the wiring loom is not yet covered with tape. Connect up the kill switch and connect the croc clip between the coil connectors and earth. Then insert each fuse to check each circuit in turn. Unless for show. 
 The charging and ignition circuits can only be checked against the . Work your way through until any fault is found. When any part fails to work. but may fail quite quickly if dirt or corrosion has occurred during storage. assemble it all on the bike. Work though logically until sorted. 
 For carbon motorcycles with advanced wiring. Connect the bulb and croc clip to the return from the ignition switch to the three fuses. Around the steering head. remove the fuses to the other circuits. then the ignition timing can also be initially checked. If the bulb lights up then all is OK so far. then protect with grease. Check the bulb goes out when the kill switch is off. there are other options under study. it is best to either cover with a long length of split flexible tubing. Do not connect an expensive electronic ignition unit until the kills switch works correctly. check the earth return wires to frame and the battery are making good connections. Connect one croc clip to the negative side of the battery. then safely work on just the one circuit at a time. This can be done using the kick-starter or with jump leads onto the starter motor. Starting at the fully charged battery. then test the loom section by section until fully working. Earth wires must make a good electrical contact with the frame bolt or other fixing. connect the main fuse. as Platting makes it impossible to use an old wire to pull a new wire into place in the loom. Fit the electronic ignition components then the engine can be cranked over to check for sparks. as they may work after standing for a year. There is no need to connect the charging circuit until the engine is ready to run . Use a simple bulb with two wires and croc clips. to the electronic ignition unit. reconnecting each item as required. except the earth wires which should all be connected. remove paint if needed. then work back and forwards along the wire to the problem.

With the basics on the bike. the bits work wrongly. around 20 to 40 volts AC between each of the three yellow or white wires. If a totally different electronic ignition box is used. It is possible to get parts mixed up and put a six magnet rotor on a four pole stator or vice versa. requiring . use the kill switch to prevent damage to the coils and electronic ignition box. such as the crankcase. bits smell or even melt and fuses blow.5 Volts. On 6volt systems. then the charging circuit is OK.5 volts while running. Check the coils to cylinders 1&4 and 2&3 are connected correctly. make sure the HT leads from the distributor go the correct spark plugs. disconnect all other fuses and only connect the ignition circuit. or fuel pump supplying the injectors. then the charging circuit is not working. if the battery voltage rises to around 13. The alternator. check again that all the parts work. the battery voltage should rise to 7. 
 If you have points then you can check for a spark at the plugs simply by opening and closing the points manually or with a screwdriver across the open points. then check the ignition timing with a strobe. simply swap the plug leads. If the battery voltage while running is less than 13 volts then suspect the alternator or the connections or regulator/rectifier unit. it should read 12 Volts. too much electricity. or low voltage wires to the coils. What Can Go Wrong. 
 Once the sparks work. 
 The charging circuit can now be connected. If confident. then switch on the ignition switch and put the kill switch to run. If AC is present. See sect 3. plus fuel in the float bowls. so always keep the rotor and stator as matched pairs unless you can feel the magnets and count up to six. No electricity.5 to 14. and watching for a spark. Check the ignition timing with a strobe. Adjust the ignition timing so the points just open at the F mark. On many motorcycles. rectifier / regulator and any field coil or sensor wires. double check that the are correct according to the diagram and that you know how they work. suspect the rectifier/regulator unit. If the battery voltage while running is over 16 volts then suspect the regulator. the spark may be weak.wiring diagram at this stage. First is the engine does not run. Then check the electronic ignition for excessive heat. as the pulser coils may be wired back to front. Checking The Whole System Under Working Conditions. On smaller bikes with just one alternator wire to the diode leading to the battery. Check with the meter set on the 25volts AC range. Check the connections and that the alternator white or yellow wires supply AC by connecting the multimeter across any two white or yellow wires and starting the engine again. use a finger and also sniff for burning smells. Connect a volt meter set to read about 20 volts across the battery. although when using a less than fully charged battery for starting. If it stays at 12 Volts or lower after a short while. On cars. check for AC between this wire and earth. 
 If the engine turns over you can check for a spark at the plugs. Start the engine.

All too often a broken or corroded wire. If components blow without the engine running then they must be the wrong voltage such as 6v bulbs on a 12v system.the pulser wires to be swapped to give a N-S instead of a S-N magnetic pulse. Be aware for burning smells and hit the kill switch. Check this using the bulb with crocodile clips. Too much electricity with the engine running will be due to the excessive voltage caused by a damaged. When charging correctly. 
 If problems are time dependant such as failing after a few minutes. Start from the battery. no electricity. On rebuilt looms. 
 All earth connections should make electrical contact. For cheap testing fuses. waterproof the connections fully. overheating or tired electronics. check the battery charging again. jammed in position by a blown fuse. saving a lot of cost if problems persist. A few strands will often do. Run the engine and turn the handlebars fully. then reconnect the circuits one by one and then test as if riding. it is best to strip some spare wire then use an appropriate number of strands to mimic the fuse until all is well. or if the loom is old. corroded or poorly made connectors. In some cases. working through the circuit until the test bulb doesn't glow. If it's a dirt bike. double check if the fuse has a larger rating in amps than it should have. or only when the handlebars are turned one way. bounce up and down on the seat to see if any parts underneath rub or any other problems occur. This can happen even in bikes only a few years old. over a bump in the road etc. so the use of an easy to follow colour scheme is important. Wiring problems are mainly due to the wrong connection of wires. scrape off for a good electrical contact. or intermittent. or have delicate internals such as electronic ignition units which have been wrongly connected. The problems can be divided into various types. This will still do the job. poor contacts. 
 Fuses will prevent most problems from getting worse. 
 Refill the float bowls and try again. Unfortunately this can lead to the cost of using too many fuses. or possibly partially connected or unconnected regulator. a corroded switch or connector. such as rain. take careful note of what the bike is doing when it occurs. From this information you will have to decide what is causing the problem and then try to reproduce it by moving/shaking/stretching the wiring while looking for the fault to appear. or a bad earth on the mounting bolt. No electricity is due to either an open circuit where the circuit to the battery or to the earth is broken. then suspect any soldered joins inside the loom where poor soldering can cause the wires to part. then hose the bike . especially if an old loom has been poorly repaired. the fault is between this and the last connection. If fresh paint is applied. so check for correct connections to the unit and to the alternator. so when they happen. where parts fail only occasionally. and can be placed across the fuse fitting. Intermittent faults are difficult to find. look out for loose or corroded connections. Some regulators may have a sense wire (see above and later) connected to the auxiliary or ignition circuit and if it is not connected. one clip to earth and the other clip connected to the circuit at each join in the circuit. and use a little grease to protect from rust. then suspect worn points or condenser. then it cannot tell the voltage on the bike and so cannot regulate it. When running. too much electricity where bulbs blow or parts get hot or melt. where parts don't work.

The second number is the diameter of each strand. the third number is the total cross sectional area of the copper strands in mm squared. High tension leads (HT) for the coils to the spark-plugs.30 . Approximate numbers will do. the loom can be taped up fully. 
 These cables have to carry a great deal of current when the starter is used. for the main battery and ignition switch to fuses and if you are using a lot of extra electrical parts such as fog lights etc. the end of the tag can be heated in a flame while solder is introduced to make a good electrical join. 0.0mm sq . Strongly crimp or solder the large terminals to the ends. you are fully rewiring a five litre fuel . then spray the connected items with hair lacquer. These cables often have many fine wires. 
 The following gives details of the normal wires used in vehicles and the safe loads they can carry in amps. making them more flexible. 8. 7. tinted or clear silicone speaker cables can be used for smaller electric start machines. as these can get hot if they are not making a good electrical connection. and water getting into any soldered joins deep in the loom.65mm sq . 2. and finally the current it can safely carry in amps. 
 The first number is the number of strands of copper in the centre. If all is well.5mm sq . Then dry the loom fully and again waterproof the connections fully before taping up. 5.30 . For normal use on motorcycles you need only use four sizes of wire. wipe any excess off.5 mm sq . the main loom around steering head.7 amp wire for the rest.30 . 8. 
 Commonly used wires are: 9 / 0. carry a set of spares and tools.30 . SECTION 3. 17 amp wires or larger. For a better fit.00mm sq . When riding for the first few hundred miles.with water while running. 27.30 . 4. which will do for most bikes. 
 Main areas of long term concern are the tail light wire rubbing against the tyre. 
 For a little flair. 50 Amps 
 120/ 0. Do not be afraid to gently hammer the clamp over the copper strands to make a good solid connection. 3. Finally tuck in any ill fitting wires and tape up the centre section. then seal the connectors with silicone sealant or bathroom sealant where the wires enter the connector. and so they need to be particularly thick. Start at the ends nearest the connectors and tape over any plastic sleeving so that it wraps tight about the wiring. If you have to make your own. to reduce possible corrosion and failure at a later date. Spray silicone spray into each connector.5 Amps 
 44 / 0. They should be made up with the appropriately larger size of terminal at each end to fit the bolts which secure them.00mm sq .75 Amps 
 28 / 0.30 .5 Amps 
 65 / 0.30 . Wire sizes for safe current loads. depending upon the bike. Also 8.00mm sq . but must be protected from heat or friction. 35 Amps 
 97 / 0. a special starter cable. 
 If (like a recent project). Reference section. Tape up the loom so water cannot get inside. 1.75 Amps 
 14 / 0. then get cable similar to the original. 17. 60 Amps Starter and Earth cables.

.... The following wires are 28 / 0..... The following wires can be reduced to 14 / 0.....5 Amps 
 3 metre Yellow ....injected V12 trike.. 
 Other wires as required such a water temp gauge....... ...30 ....... This is only an example and all numbers are approximate........... indicator switch to left indicator lamps.. using Red to supply the main current.fuse to flasher then to indicator switch............ rectifier/regulator to battery..... lights sw to high/low sw. These are merely the authors preferences........ the following makes for a reasonable wiring loom.. 
 1 metre Red with black tracer.... oil warning light.... 5.... choose your own wiring loom colours.. (usually associated with the indicators) and Black for the earths. 0..75 Amps if preferred. 
 4 metre Black..... indicator switch to right indicator lamps.............................. White for the lighting circuit.. lights sw to tail light...... or if a special or custom......30 .. fuse to switch to horn.5 Amps 
 1 metre Red ... Colours given only as an example..........fuse to lights sw.... then consider using high spec welding cables for the starter motor and earth connections. 1. starter button to starter solenoid..... 
 1 metre White with blue tracer....... 
 1 metre Orange .... 
 1 metre Red with white tracer . and everyone will have differing associations with colours. 17.......................... 3 metre Orange with black tracer . 
 1 metre White ....... Orange for the auxiliary circuit.........00mm 2 . lights sw to speedo 
 2 metre White with red tracer . 8....... 
 1 metre Blue..... ignition switch to the three other fuses....... Always follow the original manufacturers colours if possible........ Blue for the ignition circuit.....75 Amps if preferred.. 
 1 metre White with green tracer...........30 .30 ..... neutral light........ (big blue spark at the plugs). kill sw to coils and electronic ignition unit 2 metre Orange with red tracer............................. The following wires can be reduced to 9 / 0...............00mm 2 ........... If in doubt........ 27..65mm 2 ............... Alternator to rectifier/regulator..... 
 1 metre Red . fuse to brake sw to brake light.......... battery to main fuse....... radiator fan etc.... fuse to kill switch 
 2 metre Blue with white tracer.. 
 2 metre Orange with white tracer... 
 2 metre Orange with red tracer .... main fuse to ignition switch.. earth connections to frame. Placing the battery close to the starter will also help.00mm 2 ................... The following is a typical shopping list for a Japanese four cylinder bike wiring loom.... 2... 2 metre orange with blue tracer ..... 1 metre Red ...... 3 metre Orange with white tracer . 3. The following wires are 44 / 0....

4mm holes. 50 x Male blades 6.) This is not a perfect shopping list for all machines. 
 40 x Bullets 3. 6. 
 5 x 10 amp fuses. ( 4 metres on customs with coils mounted under the seat. Quadruple female connectors also available if required.Connectors. 
 4 rolls electrical insulating tape. 
 1 Crimping tool for insulated (or uninsulated) connectors. 
 5 x 5 amp fuses. 4 starter cable ends with 6. 
 (It is simpler to buy just the triple connection sockets instead of double connection.9 mm insulation. The wire colours and types of connectors are the main areas of difference and will depend upon the machine. 
 50 x Bullets 3. 40 x Bullet sockets 3. These can be new. 
 5 x 7. 
 25 x Female blades 6.3 mm. (female). .3 mm insulation. insulation.3 mm.9 mm insulation. 
 A set of circuit breakers may be preferred. 25 x Male blades 6. Original or replacement fuse box. It may be cheaper to buy a box of assorted fuses.4 mm diameter holes. as this gives more adaptability to the loom at a later date. 
 Selection of heat shrink tubing. (female). but it is common for many first attempts at making a wiring loom to get through a rather large number of fuses. 
 It may be preferable to replicate the original wiring colours as used by the manufacturer of the bike.71mm.) 
 5 x 30 amp fuses. 10 x Double Bullet sockets 3.3 mm. 
 2 metres copper cored HT lead.) A selection of multipin housings also required if not re-using original bike connector housings. 
 2 metre Starter cable black 37 / 0. 
 10 x Double Bullet sockets 3. 
 Butane soldering iron and solder. 5 x Triple Bullet sockets 3. 
 25 x Male blades 6.9 mm. 
 5 x Triple Bullet sockets 3.9 mm.9 mm. 25 x Double crimp ring terminals. 
 50 x Female blades with latch for mouldings 6. 
 5 x 20 amp fuses. 25 x Female blades 6. 6 mm dia .(female). 
 30 x Bullet sockets 3.3 mm insulation. 
 1 metre of Heatshrink tubing.5 amp fuses. or recycled using just the new internal connectors. but is typical of what is normally required. (Mains or 12v soldering iron will also suffice.9 mm insulation.9 mm (male).3 mm. 
 5 x 25 amp fuses.9 mm. with latch (locking tabs) for multi-pin mouldings. 
 5 x 15 amp fuses.
 1 metre of Braided sleeving or split corrugated plastic tubing 12 mm dia for steering head area protection. and are now available to fit into standard blade fuse holders. 
 This may seem a lot of fuses.


 The internal connections are often more easily understood when disassembling switches. a small commercial electrical . Anodising can be done in many colours. Most other switches are much more simple. especially on older switches. some parts are easy to break. If the switch is complex. Three ways are possible to understand the internal workings. replace or apply silicone grease to prevent further corrosion. If the switch is beyond hope. Particularly useful where many wires may are fitted. 
 It is preferable to clean the brass inserts base strips after the wires are soldered in place. so you can see what you are doing. A nut and possibly a spacer can then be used to secure the switch onto the handlebars. taking it apart. or reading the original manual. disassemble the switch inside a large clear poly bag. look for corrosion and cracks. Always make sure any contacts such as the starter and horn concentric springs are properly seated for a good electrical contact. Go carefully. The simplest is the plastic indicator button being replaced with a sculpted alloy item to match the styling of the rest of the machine. or ultra light weight direct wiring. Using a multimeter. When rewiring the switches and other components. such as reducing premature wear or corrosion. It is also preferable and highly recommended to do so. The block diagrams found on many user handbooks supplied with the machine are ideal to show the many connections of the ignition switch in it's various positions. secured by epoxy resin or stud lock. or for direct wiring connections under the seat. take them apart carefully. buy a few scrap switches and practice first. If in doubt. Where the handlebar switch outer casing securing threads have stripped. Levers or knobs not held by screws may be carefully eased off using a flat blade screwdriver under the plastic stalk. For all switches. Look out for springs and small balls disappearing. 
 The plastic parts of switches are delicate and can break. New or custom components can be made with a little effort.Checking The Internal Wiring Of Switches And Components. This gives a smooth finish by rubbing gently using fine wet and dry paper on a flat surface. Alloy can be easily anodised in a plastic cup. On rusty items. This will often require a narrow socket or fitting a spacer tube between the nut and the housing. it is often very important to find out how they are wired inside. 
 If in doubt. then simply remove all extraneous wiring and simply solder in just enough to do the job. it is possible to fit a length of stud bar deeper into the stripped thread. 
 Always check the springs and balls. if only to check the condition of the internals. As all switches contain small parts. If in doubt. See other monographs. Another good reason for delving into switches is to rebuild or modify them to suit personal preferences. apply penetrating oil on screws prior to stripping switches. and should anything spring out. and should be simply looked at while stripped. it will not get lost. using battery acid and a battery charger.

If necessary. and must be fitted correctly. then this is the best time. ALWAYS mark how they fit together first by making a scratch across the adjoining parts. be very careful to keep the parts positioned the way they came apart. so check during disassembly. It is common for most ignition switches to allow two or three . Make sure they don't leave the ignition on when the key is removed. Unless an extreme custom. then this is the best time to remove the base containing the electrical contacts. But always make a note of which wire goes where and what they do. if the internals are otherwise identical. so always use very fine screwdrivers or use three flattened paperclips. The base of the unit which contains the switch part. Use the note pad. never try to put all the current through a single contact. Where springs or other components are corroded. the best solution is to keep the ignition switch and other items as standard as possible so that replacement is easy. The best choice is the type of ignition switch which has a switch unit retained by screws to the lock section. this is a good time to de-solder the original wires and fit new wires. If modifying the way the wiring is connected. This will ensure all other new connections will act correctly when refitting with new wires. the modified base and it's custom wiring can often be simply be fitted or copied to the replacement. All ignition switch wires that end in soldered joints can be desoldered. It may be preferred to leave the free ends of the wires so they can be trimmed and fitted to connectors when later 'tailoring' the loom to the frame. Clean the contact face with fine wet and dry on a flat surface after the soldering. can be carefully opened by either bending back the metal tabs. with a little fitting and trimming work. Remove corrosion from the rotary base by rubbing on wet and dry paper on a flat surface. The ignition switches of bikes and cars are almost always a rotary plate on a disc with contacts placed around it. When modifying an ignition switch. Ignition switch repair.switch can often be fitted in the same space. supplying the current from the main fuse before rewiring. then just slightly lubricate surfaces lightly with maintenance spray or otherwise leave them dry. Clean using fine wet and dry paper on a flat surface. Before the base is removed. If cracked. until all corrosion is removed. allowing total redesign of the way it is used. Some of the internal spring-loaded contacts have three pimples. Use a multimeter set to ohms resistance to check in each switch position. the thicker (usually red) wire connection. and in which key positions they are connected. which positions they are not connected. This is tricky and may cause the casing to crack. When a replacement switch is needed. If there is any corrosion. then wrapping with tape or gluing may effect a reasonable repair. and just as important. as some distortion can occur with the heat. always mark them. Also mark with a scratch. it may be possible to salvage from a similar discarded component. This will allow a custom or modified switch unit to be easily fitted to a replacement key lock after vandalism or if the keys are lost. or sliding very small screwdriver blades between the sides and the base. Desolder the wires and decide which connections to use.

traditional glass tube fuses in either imperial or metric fitting sizes. Use a decent fuse box from a motorcycle. The lights switch. This is a double pole. 
 WARNING. Fuses: There are continental type fuses. single throw switch. Fit the key and slide a very thin screwdriver or flattened piece of wire between the tumblers and barrel to remove the barrel. electronically coded key overkill. 
 With three scrap switches. If the ignition switch is a modern type with super expensive. they are available from breakers or as new spares. 
 This is usually a one or two way switch. This leads to much greater long term reliability. the second position includes the speedo and the main / dip switch as well. As many custom builders have a reputation for poor wiring. Keep the parts from other switches. and trip fuses. One side works the lights on / off. The tumblers in the lock can be removed on some types and is not as much trouble as one may think. it should be possible to disassemble and repair them enough to be a reasonable expert before attacking the proper ignition switch and key tumbler mechanism. 
 Note: On many of the larger Suzuki's (1980's) there is also a second switch working off the lights switch. it may be better to simply leave the key in the lock so that the ignition system works the engine management system then poly bag it to keep it dry and tape it up somewhere convenient and hidden. which are rather tacky. leading to premature failure. if two way then the first position is for the tail and parking lights. perhaps after vandalism causing damage to an otherwise good switch. and must be connected . then simply consider replacing it with a practical replacement. If the switch also codes to the engine management system. try to spread the power through as many contacts as possible. Check internal connections.main supply contacts. Consider trying. The main wire from the main fuse can be split at the base if the ignition switch to supply two or three contacts which can then supply the ignition. to rebuild the unit to match any key which will fit the profile grooves inside the barrel. Putting all the power through a single contact will soon cause wear. or resettable thermal fuses. the other part of the switch connects one of the three white wires from the alternator to the regulator. wear leads to corrosion and corrosion creates a resistance which causes heat. Remove the easier parts then tease back the circlip or brass pin which keeps the barrel in place. Do not use graphite on the electrical parts. blade fuses. which will reduce the number of blown fuses from poor wiring until the fault is found. 
 Rebuild in a reverse manner and use graphite powder to lubricate the non electrical parts. Main fuses now also supplied as screw-in metal strips on motorcycles. so the wear on the internal contacts can be spread more easily. consider self resetting. 
 In the worst possible scenario. then simply use a second. depending upon the internal configuration. then a delicate approach should be employed and a specialist employed who can directly override or circumvent the coding. standard ignition switch for the other bike or car electrics. These are common in Harleys. or a rub of a pencil lead will do. auxiliary and the lights. The fuse box. and are often much better than the types for cars. Use an old switch first for practice. 
 Although not always possible. and as a fusable link in the battery wiring for cars.

This can be replaced by a small simple push switch from electrical retailers. then make sure that the other side of the switch will make a good earth contact on the handlebars. 
 The horn switch simply connects the wire from the horn to earth or connects the wire from the fuse to the horn. Replacement springs can be made from modifying springs from similar switches. Indicators. Where a complex set of connections is involved.to the alternator/rectifier wires according to the manual. using a separate box of electronics. A little thought in the handlebar switches can reduce the wire count significantly. 
 This is a simple push to make switch. which can be difficult to remove. The indicator switch unit often collects dirt and moisture. The indicators switch may contain extra contacts which switches them off after a set distance. making some motorcycle components look positively overbuilt. On some modern cheaper items. Check the action. but a full strip can enable a neat job. or if the spring rusts and collapses. Corrosion is the main culprit. For internal convenience of wiring. then great care must be taken to pull this item off evenly without damage. The indicators switch is just a simple three position switch. This can be done by simple desoldering. This is usually a fiddly job to get neat solder joins to the switch. The high/low beam switch. Check for corrosion and dirt and solder new wires if needed. Car switches are usually built down to a price. and that the central 'off' position is easily found. The starter button and horn button. and the only problem is if the contacts get corroded or dirty. requiring reasonable drainage. just the basic part of the switch can be used and the rest ignored or removed. The plastic and stamped metal inserts need a lot of careful disassembly and is often a puzzle to find the safe way to . Where possible. which then connects to the high beam connection. Likewise for car dash and other switch wiring. simple wires inside the handlebar housing. Usually accomplished by two short. often measured by a number of pulses from the speedo from a reed switch near the speedo magnet. it is common to fit a wire from the auxiliary fuse to the headlight flasher switch. This is a simple two way switch taking power from the lights on switch to the hi/lo beam. solved by cleaning. leaving a poor electrical and physical connection. the wiper face can be smoothed with wet and dry on a fat surface after soldering. as this keeps the rather basic charging levels correct. the connections are simple push-fit wires. If there is only one wire to the switch. Where the switch has a push fit lever onto a plastic stalk. paint and then a little protective silicone grease. This may require cleaning and lightly greasing the detent section of the switch. It is usually a short extra internal wire in the switch housing from the auxiliary fuse supply from the horn button.

When the plastic lugs have broken off. When replacing wiring to the switch components. If no stud bar. also using machinery adhesive to make the most of what thread is left. they can be carved from nylon block or other plastic. The motorcycle solienoid is either works or is replaced or repaired. then check that this is in good condition. The starter solenoid. the solenoid can be dissembled. simply connect the small wire to the positive side of the battery. For cars. Most repairable faults are corrosion on the copper main contacts which can be cleaned or reversed. Where there is not enough room for a nut. there is nothing to loose. A total solenoid rebuild may require de-soldering the wires that hold the cover for the solenoid coil. . prefer to use non permanent methods of repair. use a stud bar. If it's to be scrapped then have a go. the use a spacer and a nut. use springs from similar switches or from other sources such as retractable pens. The authors screen washer button uses a home made spring from a paperclip. then they can be repaired or rebuilt in epoxy resin or 'plastic metal'. but if an irreplaceable classic component. to prevent damage from being caught when the casing is in place. Where the wires exit. and if still beyond hope. Other contacts can be cleaned with fine or worn 'wet and dry' abrasive paper. Nuts can then be used to retain the housing. to the negative side. simply cut down a long threaded screw or bolt. if the unit makes a good solid click. Typical problems with switches. it is possible to make new items or modify similar items. Corrosion. If the type has the main fuse on the side. This requires basic cleaning. 
 Once apart. but a reconditioned or replacement is often far cheaper than imagined. cleaned and repaired. such as adhesive tape rather then glue. by using the original internal retaining plates. then a new switch may be needed. Where there is a stripped threads in the metal housing. then it should be OK. Springs get rusty and fall apart. use just a small blob of solder with a short exposed inner wire to be soldered onto the switch. they must be retained from being pulled out. This can be screwed fully into the stripped thread hole. 
 Where springs have corroded or broken. Always be extremely careful to tease apart any delicate or old plastic component. which is a long threaded item. These are often the hardest to repair. using small modellers drills. Most solenoids can be used on bikes of a similar size. which is easier to repair.disassemble. Small bikes may use a heavy relay in a rectangular box. In such cases. needle files and a sharp scalpel. It will be necessary to carefully fit the wires inside the housing. and that the special type of spare fuse is available. Broken lugs or levers. To check. carefully clean all the contacts and lubricate lightly with silicone grease where appropriate. or other small mechanical componentry. In extreme cases. and the earth wire or casing.

the old one can often be rebuilt or modified to take more power using fewer turns of thicker wire in the windings. with little or no dirt between these strips. This is not recommended unless the battery is up to the challenge. then very carefully clean a shallow groove between each copper strip using a tooth pick or a thin piece of hard plastic. fuel tank or even in the headlight shell. This is done to allow easier and more reliable fitting and cleaner lines. The rectifier / regulator. If the machine has high compression pistons with hairy cams. Long wires allows simpler fitting with connections only needed under the seat. then lightly lubricate bearings. Also check if the brush springs have become weak through overheating. This will push the brushes a little more firmly onto the commutator to 'dump' more current for a higher torque which may help. The bulb holder can be rebuilt with long wires if needed. If the starter motor struggles. If soldered directly. Most three-core domestic flexible cable does the job perfectly. Direct wiring from the tail light to the headlight shell is ideal for dirt bikes if just the front brake light switch is used. . The tail light. if there are none then scratch some so that the casings will align correctly when reassembled.Starter motor. the springs on the brushes may be made slightly stronger. Look for burning or melting of the insulation. and that the owner expects more wear on the commutator and that the starter motor is not run for too long. the motor may not be strong enough to crank the engine easily. a long length of domestic three core wire the tail light can be connected directly under the seat. Clean gently and thoroughly. Sniff. allowing the tail light to connect almost direct to the right hand switch unit which usually contains both the brake switch and lights switch. just to clean the surface of major imperfections. This may be due to a poor battery or an ordinary starter motor which is not quite up to the job. Make sure it remains perfectly circular. Wear is normally only on the graphite brushes and the ring of copper strips of the commutator. The starter motor should have alignment lines on the outer casings. The commutator can be very carefully smoothed down using a strip of fine wet and dry paper. The earth can be soldered to the bulb holder casing. If there is dirt. If the starter motor is replaced with a higher spec item. If the bulb holder is pushed into a rubber mounting. Replacements are usually available. or to a suitable mounting bolt to give a good earth connection. allowing it to cool for a while between attempts to start. Use contact adhesive to reduce corrosion. solder to the housing or simply wrap a few turns of the earth wire around the housing before inserting the mounting. by soldering wires directly to the central contacts where the bulb fits. Do not attempt to remove metal. The graphite brushes which rub against the commutator must be checked for wear as they may become too short. Use the absolute minimum cleaning required.

then use a good general purpose glue to make an oil tight seal. If the wires go through a plastic grommet in the casing.5 volts (or about 7. but with three wires you have to make three checks each way. If fitted. Some earlier alternators may have carbon brushes rubbing against a copper track.2 volts ). Some machines used a smaller black wire for this purpose. then there will be another wire to this as well as the two or three yellow or white from the rectifier. Unless specific details are available from the correct manual for the bike. these rectifiers can be replaced with modern equivalents. Connect the multimeter probes across any two yellow or white wires which should show a reading when the probes are connected one way. If it has two yellow wires then can only make one check each way. hence the name).If the regulator/rectifier is in one unit.5 to 14. If it does not keep the voltage correct. check the track. and no reading the other way. but not between main fuse and ignition switch. see also lights switch.5 volts on a 6volt system). If hard to find. (12volts or 6volts) and then check with the engine running. To check the field coil simply connect the multimeter probes to the wire to the field coil and the engine cases. The field coil looks like a big bobbin of copper wires in the centre of the alternator. if there is continuity in the circuit with a little resistance. then the regulator unit may only be checked when the engine is running. so that it can keep the voltage constant. the voltage should rise to around 13. Then put on the lights and check the voltage does not drop below 13 volts. Buy a few more metal tags which fit under the casing screws to keep these wires safely retained. then check these connections before condemning the item. then find the soldered joint where the wires join the enamelled copper wires wound inside the unit. as they sometimes rub against the exhaust causing wear and failure. To check the continuity of the diodes. 
 On a few regulators a special wire may also go to the main loom to 'sense' the voltage in the loom.8 volts (or 7. The regulator may be in an aluminium finned case and keeps the voltage at 13. use a multimeter set to ohms resistance. then check for good connections or consider replacement. Check by reading the battery voltage before running the engine. and the alternator runs in the engine oil. If a small bike. The carbon brushes may have worn below the recommended limits. brushes and all wiring for damage. 
 Check the connections and wiring from the alternator. a field coil can be checked by removing the alternator cover. and it should be connected somewhere between ignition switch and fuses. Such set-ups may often use one of many devious methods for getting the most from a small . If the unit has a field coil or a sensor wire. (For early four cylinder Suzuki's. then the field coil should be OK. then check for corrosion of the yellow or white wires which connect to the alternator and an earth and the large red to the battery. If the alternator has a field coil. when the engine runs. and replace one at a time making sure any insulating sleeves or metal tabs are replaced as found. follow the original wiring for the bike which may use a specially wired alternator/generator and a specially wired ignition switch.) On old machines the rectifier may be a set of plates with little round diodes on them. 
 If replacing the wires from the alternator. If it has permanent magnets on the rotating part (which strongly attract steel or iron tools) then you don't have a field coil (a field coil is needed to make this magnetic field.

If problems occur. and the windings may be in need of a little careful attention. plus a secondary quick replace backup unit. scooters and motocross. then try cutting away some of the plastic around the remains of the pin and then solder a good piece of solder to the stub.electrical system. or in need of repair. and for most other similar bikes including mopeds. with subtle. This is regularly employed on an NS125 and Yam RD/TZR engines. a clear version will allows visual examination over the following years. Unless you have specific details from the correct manual for your bike. then a Honda C90 CDI unit will work quite happily on many machines. Keep all the wiring as standard wherever possible and never rebuild any wiring without making notes of where each wire goes and what it does before repairing it. the windings can be teased straight and lacquered for re-insulation. then simply count the number of turns when unwinding. then it should be wound back to decent wire and reconnected. If this is followed. Fit the multipin connector on these wires soldered to each connection so that can then fit the wiring loom as usual. If the copper winding has lost more than a third of it's thickness. The drawing opposite shows a basic set-up. or replacement of the multi pin connector is all that should be needed. then buy new lacquered copper wire of the same size and neatly rewind. then the electronic ignition can only be checked when the engine is running. If using silicone sealant. The final few turns can be retained using a wrap of epoxied cotton cloth. If a mechanical advance and retard is used on the bike. by using a strobe when running. the outer casing may be trashed. Then solder a replacement wire to the visible part. Look for corrosion or damage. A similar epoxy or silicone bathroom sealant approach should be taken for ISDE and similar heavy abuse systems. leaving only a small piece visible. Likewise many other systems. but can manage to work. and check any electronic advance if fitted. Loosing a few percent of the winding is not nice. Even the computer unit of a fuel injected V12 trike can be rewired without hassle if taken carefully. yet often simple methods. Car type alternators can be easily disassembled and new bearings. An otherwise good electronic ignition or regulator/rectifier unit may succumb to corrosion and the little flat blades on the unit may break off. If this happens. A points system can be upgraded using the pulser unit in place of the points. rectifier pack and brushes cleaned or replaced as required. shortening of the wires. If lightly grazed. Check the quality of the spark. Electronic ignition. Where the machine has slid down the road. the electronic ignition does not need an advance and if connected appropriately. It is worth sealing the repaired connections to the unit with epoxy resin to prevent further corrosion and to give some protection from the wires breaking away should the soldered joins be marginal. then almost any CDI will work. with the advance retard cam shaped to a square edge with a small . For most two strokes. then simple replacement or lengthening.

Electronic ignition pulsers (pickups) which pick up the crank position. Excessive spring modification will probably damage or modify the advance curve. so may not work on some machines. For those refining their timing. As the cam passes by. but not sloppy in action. Many camshafts can be extended.airgap between this and the pulser unit. 
 See also authors website with 'A simple alternative electronic ignition for motorcycles'. If a special machine is being built. causing the central cam to rotate slightly. such as removing the alternator and its pick ups to take a different power take off. need a small air gap between the pulser and the crank or flywheel marker. The springs may become loose or worn. Half a millimetre approximate gap if no data available. Some cams are magnetic. by tapping a threaded hole into the camshaft to run true. iron dust may be picked up and cause problems. and this should be disconnected when setting the timing by strobe. perhaps to be able to change the advance curves then a standard unit can be fitted to the end of the camshaft. then a similar pickup set-up can be mounted elsewhere. This consists of two weights which are retained by springs. There is no real magic. Alternatively where a mechanical advance retard unit is required. The simple vacuum linkage needs only to be easily moved under the vacuum from the inlet manifold. weights and end stops to modify the advance curve of a modified machine. by employing a unit from a camshaft driven design of unit. plus the alignment pin hole. bodge or re-engineer an already failed ignition system. clean then lightly grease before rebuilding. Light friction springs are used to hold the rotating base unit so it can turn. Cars also have a vacuum unit which adjusts the timing at low revs. Little is lost in trying to fix. Lightly grease the base plate to prevent rust. The advance/retard unit. so only tighten up any slack in the springs just enough to remove any slack. the weights move outwards. Adjust springs. fitting the unit and carving the head and rocker cover to fit a standard oil seal which tan take a little mis-alignment in the casing. The only problem with a recent TZR was needing to reverse the pulser wires to get the correct ignition timing and an alternative exhaust valve controller. using a strobe. under control of the weights and revs. strip. 
 All systems supply the same spark across a spark plug. When the unit spins. Then the pickup housing can be carved to fit as required. The spindle may become stiff. the magnetic field in the pulser is interrupted and may often work the 'bodged' CDI system using easily available scrap components from common machines. so mark the parts. the airgap can be slightly adjusted. As this is often magnetised. Always clean and make the airgap as intended by the manufacturer. often requiring a machined spacer extension . describing how to use the above Honda C90 CDI unit on a typical two stroke. Do not use a grease which will harden with exposure to heat. This should be checked with the engine running. or need to epoxy a small shaped magnet.

which are usually two lines 'II'. The points can be dressed to a smooth slight dome shape. then advance the cam fully to check the fully advance marks. as tightening can upset the adjustment. Where it is possible to rotate the cam without scratching it. If not then adjust the position of the plate holding the points until the bulb is just lighting. as they are very cheap. as they may strip the backing plate. For those with good eyes. Turn the engine over slowly again and double check. The only wear is damaged screws. Connect one croc clip to the points spring. (Recommended on early 860/900cc Ducati V twins. then double check. and neat internal wiring to prevent the wires from failing or rubbing against other components. and then using a nut and washer on the front. The first adjustment to make is the gap between the contacts and is set when the contacts are at their widest. The condenser either works or does not. and the other croc clip to earth. If this happens. then soldering it in position and dressing down the head so it does not foul the advance unit. The gap is usually 0. using the advance/retard unit. the rider can adjust timing. Works surprisingly well. All modern points backing plates have a screwdriver slot to allow easy adjustment. or with a bulb and crocodile clips. On some systems. dwell. curve. the condenser should be replaced. but not enough to allow the points to slip.6 mm or check your manual. steps and such like using real time adjustments with buttons and read outs.on the central bolt so the housing can be fitted easily. With the ignition off. and pitting of the points. Never over tighten the screws. The second adjustment is the position of the points around the crankshaft. Tighten fully after adjustment. The Points. These are switches which are activated by the position and speed of the crankshaft. . Slacken just enough to adjust the points. the points can be seen to just open by rocking the crankshaft by hand. This is best checked accurately either using a 'strobe' light with the engine running. At this point the bulb should just be at the point where it is just about lights. Most of the small screws are often damaged. This has been superseded by electronic systems. If problems persist or excessive pitting of the points occurs. The condenser can only be checked visually for damage. so always use a good screwdriver and replace the screws when worn. a temporary repair can be done by threading a screw from the rear. Ignition coils.) 
 Such primitive devices allow the builder to modify the advance curves in many ways and make tuning much easier. Check for neat and tidy wiring leading to the points. which can be done many times. but is better done with rotary pots while riding or on the dyno until ready for 'hardwiring'. then holding this position to compare with the timing marks. turn the engine slowly in the direction it normally rotates until the 'F' mark on the advance/retard unit lines up with the mark on the engine casing. which controls when they open.

8. A ballast resistor is a resistor of the same resistance value in ohms as the coil. some not much bigger then your thumb by using much higher primary voltages from the electronics box. On coils with dual HT wires. If there is no connection then get a new coil or suspect the HT wires. If these connect internally then it is OK. but they are cheap replace. Use CDI coils on CDI systems. it may be possible to fit 6volt coils working through a ballast resistor of the same ohm resistance as the coil. by putting multimeter probes into the ends of the thick HT wires. they can now be placed in the spark plug cap. If OK. only the mountings will change. but when starting. check that it is not the HT lead is not damaged. If the machine's coil has two spark plug HT wires then check they are connected internally. For both types. then connect the multimeter across the HT wire and the earth. so it drops the voltage by half. around 8 K ohm if so. cheaper machines and also available from most electronic component suppliers. there should be no electrical connection between the HT wire and the coils earth bracket. This allows the coil to run normally as a 6volt coil during constant use. one which had good seal over the connectors and a rubber concertina boot over the operating arm. The resistance for this will be much less than for the HT wire. most coils are unmarked or marked CDI. . you will be pleasantly surprised. This overcomes the heavy voltage drop when the starter motor is used. For dirt bikes. Most coils will do the job. keep the rear brake light switch mounted high and tucked away from rocks and water. These can be rebuilt. If buying second hand. mainly due to being in the path of road dirt from the rear wheel. then all is OK. around 8 K ohm then it is OK. connect the multimeter across the small wires. (8K means eight kilo-ohms. The picture shows that coils are now very small. whereas ordinary systems have to make do with 6 or 12 volts. by testing again with a pin pushed into the HT lead closer to the coil. Ask for a 10 watt. 
 CDI coils usually have more voltage supplied to them. if the resistance is high. then cut back the HT lead and simply extend the remains of the HT wire as mentioned earlier. The brake light switch is a simple push or pull to make switch. On high compression electric start engines. 8k ohm resistor. Therefore always design with a good waterproof switch. If the HT wire is moulded in the coil. Rear brake light switches tend to suffer more than any other item. Try a selection. and each coil triggered from the electronics individually rather than via a distributor. Replacement coils should be chosen according to the system. the power to the starter solenoid can also supply a full 12 volts to the coil for a short. which is usually the metal bar running through the coil. These are often found as small ceramic devices on some of the older. if there is a high resistance. or the small wire and the earth. Brake light switch. where the battery struggles.The coils can be simply be checked using a multimeter. around 1 ohm.) If the coil has only one thick HT wire. and use unmarked on ordinary systems.000 ohms. stronger burst of energy.

which is earthed. 
 The coil is now wound with the same number of turns. 
 Therefore buying or finding a similar stator coil for modification may be necessary. Don't knock it. bolt or rivet them to make one wider item. Most other dirt bikes have large. Adjust this screw while using the horn. When building dirt bikes. some minimalist bikes do not need DC electricity for lights horn etc. such as mopeds or ultra light dirt bikes. less is definitely more. The few that cannot be easily modified are those with small rotors. 
 For desert use.Some touring bikes have a brake or clutch switch wired into the starter button circuit. so the engine can only be started with the clutch or brake lever pulled in. If an internal rotor. the iron core should be as fat as the outer copper winding will allow. the iron core of the coil is common to many machines and a second hand or scrap items will suffice. Whatever design. The horn sound will vary according to engine revs. either from the auxiliary fuse to the horn. a second coil is fitted for making the lighting power if none exists. but for lighting. Again. Horn. it should be reasonably fat. All to often a dirt bike has no lights. but these are not always capable of reasonable output for lighting. so it may be useful to use two iron cores and glue. The only problem is corrosion of the contacts inside. Preferably use an original type of AC horn as found on very cheap mopeds as they squawk much louder. such as a standard bike such as a C90. then to the handlebar switch which shorts the wire to earth. then from the switch to the horn. the points inside the horn can be removed and wired direct. Dirt bike generators. and if finding suitable lacquered copper wire is difficult. and the adjustment of the screw controlling the contacts. In most cases. making the horn work on the AC current direct from the alternator. and definitely not the size of the original CDI generator coil. but hardly worth the effort. then it is possible to fit a second external coil for lighting. 
 The copper wire is . Super light and totally bomb proof. such as two stoke motocrossers. Two types of wiring. then simply use a C90 for donor wire. external rotors which encompass the internal stators and these can be more easily modified. Can be easily circumvented. This is common and may be solved if the basic design can be easily modified. Or a wire from the fuse to the switch. the second coil will be a symmetrical match of the standard coil. I have to trace around the original and make up a dozen or more steel blanks to build up the iron core on which to wind the lighting coil. In the worst case. Absolutely wild lateral thinking has been used to supply the power to the brake lights on some designs. comparable to other lighting coils from road bikes. I often do. On machines with minimal electric's. The horn can be rebuilt by uncrimping the outer join. 
 I often try to fit standard lighting coil from scrap bikes as it saves so much hassle.

intermediate and also low to the ground for all conditions. then I may solder an extra length to the basic lacquered copper wire.so use them. but this is personal preference and depends upon usage and terrain (forest. so as not to damage the lacquer insulation. although the latest items can make up a bank of 40 for reasonable lights. so they take less damage and don't have to peer over the front mudguard. although some old nail varnish will touch up any damaged areas. If a fat core. either side and low on the forks. to give a wider range of lighting. 
 I use a cloth glove for the purpose. then either modify the lights to 6 volts. It can also be done wholesale. They can also be mounted high and low. I fitted a Honda 90 flywheel and backing plate with spark coil and lighting coil onto a Suzuki PE175 crank flange using bolts as rivets. especially of riding dirt at night and needing to distinguish the dips and rises ahead. urban etc. then timed it correctly using C90 cdi components. a C90 spark is . or to mount the LED's in banks of four to take the regulated 12 volts. if mounted well. swamp. including the horrors lurking in inner city street gutters. or rewind using appropriately more turns to the copper wire. which a single beam is less capable of. desert.)
 Only the filament lamp headlight is a weak area and this should be rubber mounted. the voltage will be above that needed. I prefer to lay out the wire in the garden as its unwound. then many LED's will make life very reliable. Ideally mix wide and narrow angle white LED's to create the spread pattern desired. Usually there is a solder tag for this purpose. Total neatness. and anything about 20 to 35 volts AC depending upon revs is perfectly acceptable. 
 Put a little piece of lacquered (or nail varnished) cardboard or cloth over the iron core to prevent the copper wire from being damaged. by scrapping all the motocross bits if the crankshaft taper fits other rotors. working back and forth along the iron core. 
 Just before the last set of turns. so a voltage regulator is needed. your machine fails to produce such voltages. As they need little power. 
 I prefer LED's for both tail light. Any damaged or missing lacquer can be touched up with nail varnish. 
 The wire is eventually wound onto the motocrosser iron core. Yes. use some cloth to cover the copper wire securely. If for any reason.carefully unwound. or to buy some new wire. 
 The tail end of the winding is led away. I prefer two smaller headlights. 
 Start by earthing the first end with a soldered connection to the iron core which also connects to the crankcases for a good earth.) The red LED tail lights and even indicators are a viable and effective option.) Modifying motocross or trials machines for road use is common. Otherwise. as this allows you to apply a little snug neatness to the copper without damaging your hands. 
 Wind carefully and very neatly. even on 450 motocrosser's and they take all the hammering possible. LED's are cheap . The age of the white LED for headlights is still far away. Years ago. (Silicone sealant and a sense of humour can make a riot of fairground lights across the butt end of any motorcoesser. sleeved and secured around the stator plate and then soldered to a flexible yellow wire leading to the recitier/reguator unit. (My recumbent push bikes have LED's mounted high. They work at about 3 volts. and will allow the tail of the wire to be pulled into place. fit a strip if cloth along the coil so that it is retained by the final winding. In most cases. brake light and indicators.

Using a multimeter. In the worst case. No repair is possible. if it is around 12 volts ( or 6 volts) then it should be OK. The battery has a limited life span. Gel filled. then start saving for a new battery. Battery. If the battery casing is transparent. Ask any flier of . Most lead acid/gel batts will do and are fairly robust. so the NiMh charge up fast to about 75 percent capacity. usually around three years for a cheap one. Each cell makes two volts. then use LED'd and a 6v 20 watt headlight lamp. with the attendant need to charge them up monthly if the bike is not used regularly. This modification started first time and the PE was still working after many years of thrashing.just as good as any other spark. On motocrossers using electric start such as CRF450's. I prefer a bank of NiMh batts. if it gives 10 volts (or 4 volts for a 6 volt battery) then a cell has failed and the battery needs replacing. Fitting them low down near the starter makes for better handling and shorter cables. Check the liquid level regularly and top up with distilled water if needed. which also gives a little extra flywheel effect for a little more grunt out of the muddier bomb holes. Using NiMh nickel metal hydride units is possible. A few welds to the original Suzuki crank mounting taper flange would probably make it even more reliable. The vent pipe must be kept clear to stop any pressure building up and to stop any corrosive fumes or liquid spoiling the paintwork. then gradually drop down to a trickle charge on long enduros. and up to six years if very lucky for a top quality battery. On motocross with minimal flywheel. then it is badly sulphated and you need to get a new battery. An external battery start is possible. if you can't bump start the beast when totally knackered. then the battery is a bit of a liability. check the voltage across the battery when the engine is not running. make sure it is rubber mounted. with just a token on board battery for emergency use. then use enough water to cover the top of the plates inside by about 5mm. If they are white. similar to the ignition generation coil. If all else fails. the simplest is to profile a similar coil to that used for the ignition spark coil. Even a modern Lipo is possible. If there is no mark. especially as some have no kick starter. but expensive. Prevention against vibration is recommended to stop damage to the casing and to the lead plates inside. then simply wind what you can over the existing single coil for the CDI generator. but prevention of corrosion of the terminals by cleaning is recommended. recycling at the local dump. Whereas NiMh do need more careful charging. then you can see if the plates are in poor condition. and fit this inside the flywheel. 
 Make sure the positioning of the pulser is correct before final fitting. use the C90/PE modification as mentioned above. to the mark on the side of the battery. or sealed batteries have only one option when they fail. If there is a lot of sediment at the bottom. but can get heavy. then this coil is mounted external. There are many ways to give trials and motocross lights. so it is important to fit a voltage sensor and temperature sensor in the battery pack.

Fuel pumps as used inside the fuel tanks of racing machines are dangerous to repair. not forgetting to add a temporary earth wire to the sensor body. . they are available in a choice of two pressures. it should be able to switch 12volts from the ignition or auxiliary circuit to power the cooling fan. The solenoid is operated via a set of points which occasionally corrode or weld. If far from nowhere.model electric planes on just how fast as NiMh can be cooked. One about three psi. one to feed power from the battery. Connect the switch to a multimeter and when placed in boiling water. The fuel often flows through the motor itself. every minute or so. Fuel pump. Or to warn you to carefully clean out the crud building up in the radiator. 12volts and a third wire to the temperature sensor. 
 See also my battery monograph. The low pressure type is for a pump mounted near the carb. then open up the fuel pump. so check for genuine spare parts. A higher pressure version for fuel injection systems. place 12volts across the gauge and the third wire to the sensor. but there is little difficulty in connecting the radiator fan motor to the temperature switch positioned in the coolant system. 
 For extended road use (and 24 hour endurance races) then get the charging circuit pretty damn close match the battery capacity. The pump usually only needs a short half second pulse. Replace or exchange with genuine components. To check. It is possible to fit quick replaceable units from electric drills if needed for charging the drill from the bike or to start the bike. and undue friction may cause problems. an earth. They are often rebuildable. Watercooling. External pumps for carburettor systems usually work with a large solenoid to pump a rubber diaphragm with simple inlet and exit flaps. the other about six psi. The high pressure pump is used when mounted near the rear fuel tank of a front engined car. rather than replace the whole device. If the fuel pump fails.carry that push bike pump for puncture repairs. it may be possible to lift a fuel tank and use gravity to supply the carburettor until out of danger or a replacement is found. Never rely upon an electric tyre pump in the middle of nowhere . The basic external type is used for carburettors. the gauge should move accordingly. Many machines are water-cooled. I have seen 2200 mAh NiMh's charged / cooked in 15 minutes ! But they don't last more than a year or so and must be kept cool. When heated slowly by placing in a cup of hot water. allowing the rider to switch the pump manually with the bare end of the wire to earth every so often. such as on trikes. The temperature gauge usually has three connections. When using car fuel pumps. connect two wires across the damaged points. which is usually mounted on the cylinder head. the other with a bared end and taped to the handlebars.

air and engine temp sensors. As the fuel lines forward of the fuel pump are at high pressure. A fuel filter must always be used.
 Connect the fuel pump on the ignition circuit so it won't pump when parked. with flexible ends at fuel tank and at the engine. protect the injectors with the genuine rubber boots and fully spray to prevent corrosion of the wiring and connections. such as if a car distributor or other item needs alignment. so they work well. Again ensure all wiring is well protected with rust preventing maintenance spray. nothing replaced and nothing added. Fuel injection imposes a computer or similar. use steel fuel lines which run through the chassis area. make sure all pipes are protected and rubber mounted to prevent rubbing and wearing on the frame. If in doubt. but must retain their original purpose and general orientations. Fuel injection. You will need to keep the airflow sensor and the whole air filter system. Use standard chips in any engine management computer until everything else is fettled. and usually the type for a pressurised system. If in doubt. Most wiring can be replaced. all pulsed signal wires to the electronics unit such as timing pickup should be shielded. Use a separate fuse. and preferably the minimum amount of connections. so keep this dry and mounted in soft foam. Done properly. As most fuel injection systems use pressure or volume sensors in the air inlet plumbing. so allow cooling air flow if it shows any signs of getting warm. Always test spare components in situ with a few hours of riding. Spare contacts are normally available for decent electric fuel pumps. Always keep away from exhausts. a few dabs of paint will often help correct alignment during replacement. Constant voltage signals such as air flow or air temperature can be simply wired. ensuring the spark plug leads go to the correct spark plug. Compact computers can get hot. 
 As fuel pumps are not always close to the engine. the rider should be able to swap the pipes and electrical connector over with minimal hassle. then clean. or make a safe box for it with the other electrics such as relays and fuses. Check after a few minutes running and after half an hours running. Always fit and use as the manufacturer intended. The parts may be able to be repositioned. because pump contacts occasionally weld themselves together. Nothing removed. or problems occur. and a host of other sensors. The engine flexible pipe should be quite long to prevent excessive bending if an engine moves about on its rubber mounts. Heat resistant or silicone wires can be considered if well supported. for a quick swap. then strip the old filter to assess the state of the fuel tank. use maintenance spray and seal against corrosion. especially on temperature sensors and . but go carefully and copy all colours. You WILL need the manufacturers circuit diagram. especially on some trikes. the fuel injectors are open to the weather. On trikes this can be very important. Wiring to injectors should be single lengths. As fuel injection is expensive. always start by using the wiring and plumbing exactly as the manufacturer intended. as unnecessary connections can cause resistance problems. usually under the rear shell. especially if fitted close to the original. use a new fuel filter. always overspecify the wire. although a spare fuel pump from a scrap yard is much cheaper. Make sure of good. Where covers are not used.

Take careful note when unwinding. with the number of turns accurate to about five percent or less. When close to the end windings. it is better to buy a second hand item from a scrap dealer. make up some form of winding mechanism. 
 Start by noting the positions and colours of the wires and noting down details as the wire is unwound. Physical comparison often does well for small bike components. epoxy resin or similar. so the wire can be wound continuously and evenly. Some windings are simple. where resistance problems may cause 'age creep' of the various settings. This allows a lot of 'mix and matching'. such as a recent Ferrari ignition sensor which failed and was easily rewound for a tenth the cost. 
 Solder any start terminal which is often an earth tag at one end and an insulated fly lead at the other.sensors based on rotating potentiometers. Other windings can be more complex. such as a minimalist wooden lathe arrangement using a rechargeable drill. and occasionally a few larger bikes too. then buy some lacquered copper wire of the same size and try rewinding first. If it is to be replaced. it may be necessary to wrap in a fold of cloth to retain the final windings in position. These should be copied from the original. Where a CDI ignition generator coil is to be rewound. and soldered where needed during the winding. Winding your own components. This cloth should then be lacquered with simple lacquer such as nail varnish. 
 Some small bike coils have intermediate 'taps' which are extra wires soldered part way along the winding. Simple alternator coils and other wound components can be rewound by hand. then lacquering or using epoxy resin. it is the number of turns which is important. such as the pot on the side of the carb butterfly. 
 Overall restraints is by wrapping with cloth over the whole of the winding. or re-lacquer if partially rebuilding using old components. undamaging pressure on the lacquered wire while winding. Wind carefully in the same direction and manner as the original. with any insulation if fitted. scribe a fine aligning mark first. Likewise car components. by the way they are constructed on many steel. Use soft cloth gloves to allow smooth. especially the number of turns and also the direction that the wire is wound onto the iron core. such as the lighting coil on a small bike. 
 When winding such coils with many turns. If intending to try. especially noting the number of turns. The classic case is after sliding down the road. 
 Carefully unwind the old copper wire and lay out carefully as it unwinds. Measure the wire diameter without the lacquer and buy similar lacquered wire. especially if your leg is in plaster and you have plenty of time. Always use a bright marker on one side. radially aligned pillars. set at a sensible speed. They usually include lacquered cloth insulation tubes which should be reused or replaced with wraps of cotton and then lacquered to prevent electrical contact between the wire in the winding. to make the . If it must be adjusted. or the number of intermediate 'taps' or simply the number of turns. It is sometimes easier just to replace the winding with a second hand component. where the alternator internals suffer their own version of gravel rash. As many Japanese and Italian manufacturers use similar national suppliers of electrical components. there is a surprising amount of common compatibility. Never play around with a fuel injection or other sender.


 It may be found that the ordinary wires are badly corroded and when the insulation is stripped back. 
 Likewise a 6 volt lighting coil can be rewound to supply 12volts simply by halving the cross section of the wire and doubling the number of turns. Strip a wire to expose 5mm of bare wire. One crimp makes the electrical contact and the other makes the plastic covering secure. But as the wire was doubled. This was then rewound as a pair of wires and used in 6volt mode. with an earth tag fitted half way along the wire. to maintain a good. neat winding. causing only half the voltage. A straightened paperclip with one end flattened will do nicely.counting as easy as possible. after which it is possible to crimp fit new connectors. then the plastic insulation crimped by the end lugs. while allowing the fingers to lightly tension the wire as it is wound. then use a good flux to remove the corrosion. To remove the connector from the wire for re-use with new wire. this is also partially covered elsewhere in this monograph. use a small flat blade such as a watchmakers screwdriver to bend back the retaining tab on the connector. A wooden dowel. 
 A recent CDI custom special of the authors needed to retain the '12volt' cdi system. The supply bobbin of wire should be allowed to unravel easily and cotton gloves will prevent scratching. but at 6 volts rather than 12 volts. 
 If a winder is not possible. The advantage of rewinding such generator coils oneself is that liberties can be taken with the design. the outer crimp can be gently removed and the copper core crimp must be cut and filed to allow the new wire to be soldered in position. use new wire wherever possible. but preferred a 6v lighting system to keep weight to an absolute minimum. Small wire cutters can carefully ease back the tags to allow the connector to be re-used. There is nothing worse than a poor connection. by using small NiMh batteries in the frame tube to power just the indicators and horn. try pulling the connector off the wire. If doing this regularly. the copper wire is black. Note the type of crimper used will depend upon . After soldering make sure that all traces of the flux are removed otherwise it will corrode the wire. Place the wire so that the bare wire is crimped by the inner lugs first. Crimping. Refitting old multi-pin connectors. 
 If a connector is badly damaged or corroded then the only solution is to replace the connectors. In this case replace the wire. If done properly it should need pliers to remove. The lighting battery generator coil was carefully unwound and the wire folded half way. then fit a lug which switches a microswitch on every turn. 
 Crimping a decent terminal to the wire is important. Then type in +1 and the counting will be very easy. Once done. 
 To remove the connectors from the plastic. or strip back further until the wire is clean. with a small wooden box arrangement to hold one end of the coil onto a rechargeable drill may suffice. then position the coil so your arm does as little work as possible. and remove by pushing the connector or pulling the wire. To simply prevent corrosion recurring. then wire this to the + connections of a cheap calculator. allowing the same wattage lights etc. the output of the 6volt wires was therefore double. The reason why this was possible is that only half the number of turns was available on each wire. 
 If attempting to solder to poor wires.


 Wherever possible use uninsulated connectors. This shaft will probably need a slot or hole to align the advance retard unit and a pair of retaining screws.no comment. Fitting your own Advance and retard units. If the camshaft and A/R unit do not fit too well. the tap a thread into the camshaft. or if a V4. 
 If a four cylinder. strippers. The end of the camshaft shold make a perfect abutment to the advance and retatrd shaft. If wanting to make your own advance and retard unit. so remove any end plug. F. by drilling or welding a shaft or stud into the end of the camshaft. and pack some cloth around the camshaft oil area. Use a drill and start the bike engine. The usual tools are pliers. clean up the swarf. then drill a perfectly concentric hole in the end of the camshaft. similar to those used by the Japanese. Do NOT Do This: If you have a four stoke engine and manage to wind a higher voltage CDI charging coil in the flywheel generator and can get a spark from it using the other components. perhaps for an older bike. Place a standard oil seal around the shaft and build up the casing to take the seal with 'epoxy metal in a tube'. 
 Rotate the engine to the static firing mark. Rotate the engine on the electric start and make sure the new shaft is perfectly concentric. Other connectors . as to criticise is impolite. such that the bolt can support the A/R unit. then you'll be adding a second pulser coil 180 degrees apart. then you may need an advance and retard unit. There is often manufacturers marks for this. heatshrink. Most camshafts will need drilling centrally. Tools. crimpers. With the seal and extended shaft. fit the CDI pulser and advance unit from an eighties bike such as an XL125. extend the camshaft. then it may be sutabel to extend the camshaft by fitting a bolt in the thread. 
 Check the spark advances as required. Then build up the camshaft area with 'epoxy metal in a tube' to make a simple cover and to hold the pulser in position beside the rotating advance retard unit. or modify so it runs true.the type of connector. Either method must ensure the A/R unit will run perfectly concentric with the camshaft. and use their separate plastic sleeves or multipin holder. 
 If the connector is not the correct size. it is often possible to double up the inner wire to make an adequate crimp fit. then align the advance unit and the pulser so they line up. or be prepared to bend the centrifugal weight end stops to get perfect advance position. held by a bolt into the camshaft. Bulb . then at 90 degrees or whatever is needed for your machine. (perhaps sticking a old fridge magnet to the flywheel to get the pulser to work) while cranking over and checking for a spark. and extending it out though an oil seal. wire snips. Stop the engine. This is availbe from most car and DIY shops. then adjust the springs to get the best advance curve.

either mains. Choosing an after market alarm is fairly easy. and does it have loads of other useful (and not so useful items) which can push up the cost. silicone grease. A multimeter is simple to use. The actual fitting can only be assessed when buying. Will it fit your bike. If working away from a workshop or electricity. set to read ohms. failure is usually early on or not for many years. Is it a complete set-up with cable for securing to a lamp post. then one of the butane gas soldering irons is ideal for rewiring bikes and trikes. especially if you are the one who will fit it. fine grade wet and dry abrasive paper and a few clean rags. and the installation instructions must be well read. On the 10 amp range. the meter can check the continuity of wires and switches and the resistance of ignition coils. does it protect the bike the way you want? is it just an anti tamper device. Also needed is some cleaner such as methylated spirit. When choosing to fit an after market electronic ignition then check with others who have used the same type for reliability before buying. If you are going long distances within months of fitting one. then a pair of cheap. SECTION 4. Fitting an after market electronic ignition. although this is not an absolute necessity. Bits and pieces. Is it self protecting?. and where will it fit?. such as the voltage across the battery. Does it reset after 30 seconds or so. For joy- . The meter should also measure resistance up to around 10 Kilo Ohms. but the following must be kept in mind. Most will measure to about 250 volts so you can check household electrics as well. which sets off an alarm when moved. On the resistance setting. alternator windings and rectifier.and croc clips. 
 To check voltage. so the fuse rating will be sensible. then read off the voltage on the scale. as no one wants to get up in the middle of the night to re-set an alarm. as like all electronic equipment. Fitting an after market anti-theft device. take the old contact breaker parts with you. A multimeter is not essential. Soldering iron. Bikes do not need expensive multi meters. how big is it. Will the machine be likely to be stolen by joy-riders or for spares. 12v or gas. choose one which can also measure up to 10 amps. check it is for your model and does not need any extras. select the voltage range and connect the black lead to the earth and the red lead to the part you wish to check for voltage. If possible. Read the instructions first. fine forceps or strong tweezers are priceless. 
 The bulb on two croc clips is less sophisticated. but will still tell you if electricity is flowing or not. If rebuilding switches. each components can be checked for the current it needs. screwdrivers. so buy a basic multimeter which is able to measure up to about 40 volts AC and DC. but even a cheap one can be used to check the charging voltage of the regulator when the engine is running.

but when the inevitable wire must be seen. Although taken for granted. The best way to protect side panels is to physically constrain them by a method only accessible from under the seat. If you do not know which HT leads go where. this is done for good balance of the engine. on the exhaust stroke. triggered through a single contact breaker. For parts collectors. and the other when the spark does no harm. or if they are already cut to set lengths. the mercury switch is used in a separate circuit using the battery. then swap the small wire connections to the coils from the points (or electronic ignition). horns. and the cylinder head as an earth. Preferably the wiring is never seen. such as an R clip through a hole drilled in the side panel mounting lug. with an extension rod if needed. Another option is a mercury switch which can set off the horn when the bike is lifted upright off it's sidestand. This is the only 'circuit' on the bike designed with gaps in it. allowing them to work either way. If many extras are integrated in the machine such as auxiliary lights. then try one coil's leads to cylinders 1&4 and the other to 2&3. In an emergency. Why a bike can have 4 plugs but only 2 coils. The use of two coils is dependant upon the fact that the typical four cylinder bike has pistons 1&4 and pistons 2&3 at the same position at the same time. most micro switches have on and off positions. and smooth power output. if this does not work then swap either the HT leads. at least you will retain your bike. one when the spark is needed at just before TDC (top dead centre) on the compression stroke. it should be impeccably positioned and have style. It allows a single coil to spark two plugs at the same time. this is an elegant solution to using four coils when two will do. The simplest is a hidden kill switch connected between the kill switch and the coils. The coil has two HT leads.riders. A cheap mercury switch is position sensitive and need to be fitted in an adjustable clip to set them at just the right angle. Absolute neatness is paramount. Customising. two separate coils can be used. a hidden switch (or the parking light circuit if available on the ignition switch) and a horn. Never allow connectors or components to be seen unless absolutely necessary. simple datatagging or micro-dots may be more effective in some circumstances. so that the only gaps are the plug gaps. it necessary to disable the machine. . 
 When protecting side panels with electrical connections to the alarm. Even if the battery runs flat with a simple design. both connected together internally via many thousands of turns of fine wire to create the high voltage. Simple anti theft ideas. This is an open book. to form a circuit with the spark plugs.

The type fitted to motorcycles are usually wired as fitted to standard machines. with a secondary back up supply when the ignition is off. plus a few other wires for switching between mph/kph etc.. as found on most cycle computers. high beam and other lights. then the easiest is a cycle computer. It can also be used on the front sprocket sensor of later machines. If a basic digital display is needed. 
 These digital designs allow very simple integration of the design to most machines. Motorcycle versions are also available with three digits for speeds over 99 mph. Place the tyre valve at the bottom. so the main loom is not compromised. as over-revving can be dangerous. The other connections are usually 12volts and earth. I often use digital speedos from common motorcyles for my own use and even use then as patt of my head up displays. 
 If the reed switch type is used. Running wires through frames. 
 The larger digital units from motorcycles and cars are usually operated from a reed switch from the speedo cable to the odometer. oil warning. It is mounted in an outer plastic unit with ancillary orange indicators lights. then always build a separate wiring loom. (This example happily runs off 6 volts. If making your own using LED bargraph display drivers. The LED design shown opposite is for most motorcycles and has the central digital speed. so presumably uses 5 volt electronics with an internal voltage limiter. but usually only allow 99 MPH. When things go wrong. approximate readout to be possible.calculated. or via a pulser from the engine sprocket.and lots of extras. but the gearing will have to be re . neutral. handlebars and under mudguards is mentioned earlier. 
 These computers allow the effective wheel circumference to be inputted accurately. elapsed time. Digital tachos should be used as the manufacturer intended. 
 This design uses simple inputs: 
 It runs from 12 volts for use with the ignition on. average speed etc. and applying a magnet will allow a simple. as the speedo and tacho are adjustable for wheel diameter and maximum engine revs. Digital speedo etc. This can then be refined in the circuitry. . Adjustment for differing wheel sizes is usually dependant upon adjusting or changing parts on the printed circuit. a well designed wiring loom will allow the extras to be disconnected or even removed to leave just the basic working loom to get the machine home. but can sometimes be modified for other machines. 
 If using the gearbox sprocket or the speedo cable was geared 1:3 then 3 magnets may suffice. then simply re-routing this onto the wheel. 
 The tacho uses a simple pulse wire to the coil inlet or wrapped around the HT lead. 
 The cheap cycle computers are suitable for motorcycles. then roll the bike wheel one full turn and measure the actual distance along the ground for true actual road speeds. fuel bar graph and the usual modes of time. a curved tachometer bargraph. but that's another story.) 
 The speedo uses the simple reed switch and magnet on the front wheel. 
 The fuel gauge uses the standard (Japanese) style fuel level input.


 The problem of water can be overcome by the liberal use of silicone sealant. If the connector is to be disconnected regularly. out of the way. Tail light wires must be well out of the way of rocks from the rear wheel. 
 The kill switch should be the best quality you can find. Always have the kill switch on the handlebars. and poorly positioned trees will cause problems for the wiring. On enduros. Where regulations permit. 
 If using an ignition switch. or recessed with a bent or flat. damage from drops. Only applicable if the unit contains volatile information which would otherwise be lost when power is switched off. or by packing delicate items in foam rubber. above. then this can be connected to the speedo lights for night use. round and compact head to the key. it has chance to flex rather than break. the perils of water. Off road bikes have many problems. as these give superb racing warning. then this may be fitted in the air filter box with other electrical items if there is room. regarding a one-piece three core cable to the . 
 Route all wires away from splashes and damage from rocks and earth thrown up by the wheels. If a 12 volt micro light. Most LED or LCD power supplies can be catered for by a small Nicad battery. such as wheel diameters or an odometer. and clear of the exhaust. usually routed above the rear mudguard. while keeping many of the wires together in one place while still allowing some cooling airflow for the regulator. delicate electronics and batteries.then always shave the red LEDS at the over rev section to be flashing LEDS. easily reached from either side when pinned down under the bike. 
 Vibration can damage the bulbs. and a back light can be employed by deconstructing the case and using simple LEDs shining sideways into the side of the LCD display. Off road bikes. but are possible on some motorcycles such as the JP7. Ask in model shops for 5 volt or 12 volt 'grain of wheat' lamps. Use clear sealant. which project analogue and digital information into the line of sight in the windscreen are not covered here. See also Dirt bike Generators. try to fit the tail light on flexible rubber so that if it is hit in a fall. See also tail lights as mentioned earlier. Best to position the ignition switch to point forwards. as this is always a weak point in the circuit. which can be applied to clean surfaces around any suspect entry points to the engine and airbox. as it shows up corrosion which would otherwise be unseen. as this gives easy access and good waterproofing. so all must be well insulated from the vibration either by using a rubber mountings. Digital clocks can be bought almost anywhere. allowing the leg to slide past without switching off the ignition. charged via a small 6v voltage regulator and resistor from the main bike battery. of which vibration. not dissimilar to F12 cars. as used on fighter aircraft. then use a rust preventive waxy coating before the silicone covering. 
 Head-up displays. use a bank of many LED's which are more resistant to vibration and damage. and from melting from the exhaust. and make sure the wire is well out of harms way.

and rust also attacks the switches and lamp holders. 
 A lot of electronics can be safely positioned in the airbox. Using a spare dummy male connector which is sealed and secured to the frame will reduce many problems of water ingress and flexing around. Storing a bike. A cloth stuffed in the ends of the exhausts and airbox entry will reduce rusting. 
 For quick-disconnect lighting etc. 
 If the headlight sticks out then it is more likely to be damaged by trees or falls. Spray all cables. The spark plug can be removed and a little two stoke oil poured in the cylinders. Either spray with lacquer such as hair lacquer over all connectors. When returning to use after a few years.headlight. Try to position the connectors out of the way. but carbon and aramid are much lighter and slightly flexible if designed well. Run the engine until it gets warm. preferably after a long run. fit backup coils. 
 See also horns for alternatives to complex wiring. then the engine rotated a few turns and the plugs lightly replaced. there is much less chance of the bike corroding and the battery can be topped up with an occasional charge to reduce deterioration. Keeping dry is the best remedy. If the battery is ignored for more than a year. or at least dangling downwards. and where possible. rags etc. Always make the connectors safe. then boot polish the rubber tyres so they do not succumb to corrosion. Choose the type which is slightly flexible. there should be no problems. there is no chance of the wires or connectors shorting out to the frame. dry days. then there is the problem of the connectors getting dirt in them when separated. Drain the carburettor and leave the drain screw loose should the fuel tap leak. If for very long-term storage. as mentioned in section one. simply cover the airfilter element with a poly bag and replace. or block the wheels off the ground. usually via rain. or leave them with extra length so that they can be tucked away securely out of harms way. add a note to remove the plugs. Not much else can go wrong with the wiring. poly bags. minimising water penetration. so mount a small headlight in close as far as possible to the forks. If storing outside. . preferably after a couple of really hot. Likewise any other rubber component. Then turn the engine over with a little petrol in the barrels. Then clean and replace the spark plugs. Release all drum brakes and turn the wheels occasionally. so the handlebars and forks to take most knocks. or preferably completely removing the battery. Lacquer also protects other bike components too. it is probably worth replacing. or with silicone maintenance spray. although long term corrosion usually attacks the copper cores inside the wires. filling up the float bowls again. 
 Always keep the ignition circuit separate from the other circuits such as lights. If fancy airducting. Always disconnect the battery. A wire frame protection is useful. electronics etc. ensuring that when disconnected. Place the bike on the centre stand. This way. connectors and switches. Then re-tighten the carburettor drain screws. either by removing the fuse. Also recharge and replace the battery. If all's well. then lightly grease or lacquer any steel wheel rims and all wire spokes. unless discharged and recharged every few months. to clear out the cobwebs.

When building a frame. 
 Before rewiring. 
 Steer clear of using the 'chocolate box' multi screw connector. The biggest bodge on many custom bikes and trikes is the wiring. This seems traditional. you will find in almost all cases that the wires can be followed back to a soldered join. tight screw. so before routing a wire. but if some precautions are taken then the way will be easier. Everyone has their own way of working. A big 'bodge'. 
 The worst set of problems is when you get access to the bits and pieces inside. check what way the various parts are internally wired. as a decent wiring loom will enhance any bike or custom. always cut small strips of steel which can be welded to the frame to retain the wiring loom. The infamous electrical tape covering two bare ends of wire twisted together will get you out of a fix. causing screws to seize. By repairing one wire at a time. then many switches can be recycled fully. is not bothering to make a wiring diagram at the time. 
 Always use colour coded wires which are so easy to reconnect correctly. The lack of planning of a rewire can cause more problems than you can imagine especially after a few years when something goes wrong. mismatched switches and other grief. This section can only be a guide to preventing some of the major problems which are often encountered when rewiring a bike. 
 A poorly mounted tail light wire rubbing against the rear wheel. and generally set traps for the unwary. so it does not cut through the loom. or retained for parts. but it is hoped this monograph may help to undermine this tradition. connectors to corrode or even break.and peace of mind. Other hassles. 
 The sheared bolt. finding the wires from the switches or alternator are mangled. when hidden inside the rear mudguard is obvious but still very common. So do not skimp on buying the small. This is especially important where electrical tape wound around a frame to hold the loom will spoil the look of the machine. 
 All bodges are just doing the job just enough to work. corrosion. 
 The poor routing in wrong places such as the alternator wires resting on the exhaust after the electrical tape has been warmed by the exhaust and given way. So think things through. giving pride . . understand the problem and it's solution. 
 The main areas of concern may not be the actual wiring. If this is so. 
 The main problem is again. Do the job well and take some pride in the work. Then slide a little plastic sleeve over the metal tag after spraying and artwork. then fix the problem as well as is practically possible. This often ends in failure when you least need it. think it through. insignificant metal tabs that hold the wiring to the engine and frame. broken. But it will soon corrode when water gets in and be easily separated when pulled. badly corroded and must be replaced. so use penetrating oil for a few days on difficult screws before removing and getting the correct screwdrivers to fit.Typical bodges and why they fail. but the hassles of getting to the wires.

the best way of finding them is to thoroughly check each circuit one at a time. Check both original and 'pattern' prices. Wiring looms. Also flex the wires. replace it. inspect it on the bike. Once the problem circuit is found. it may still be bad. Some flexing connectors can work the connectors lose. or the worn insulation rubbing on the frame. one which works with many makes of bikes. or reading the 'shape' or the lettering on the part. like all bike parts are subject to wear and damage. If in any doubt about any wire. Sometimes this will not work. especially in the steering head area for wear and in the tail light areas for corrosion. An up-market motorcycle dealers shop is of little use. Poorly built wiring. Most electrical faults are not electrical. The whole wiring loom if vandalised and cut at the steering head area is a cause for grief. one at a time. Not surprisingly. 
 The author has worked in many bike shops. is before the rewire. and in all conditions. but physical. The loom may also have been repaired with wires of indiscriminate quality or colour. From this mess can be teased a fair number of clues including the manufacturer of the component. to pull the new into place. deciding just where the problem lies is done by trying to get the fault to appear again by pulling. Fixing an old loom can be fraught with problems of corrosion and wear. finding out why the problems happened. The worst problems of old looms include intermittent faults from corrosion. whereas a pragmatic shop with an honest and genuine turnover of all makes of bikes has a knowledge base far in excess of most others. Take the opportunity to check the present wiring for faults. When the loom looks good. as this is the most common. plus solder and heat shrink. Take it to a competent bike shop and they will often tell you its origin and replacement price. constant moving around the steering head is no fun either. remove it and remove the outer wrap. it may still work electrically. The best opportunity for an easier life. often by wire colours. twisting or similar of the wiring. but can be patched together with time and patience. requiring a complete reassessment of the way the loom is applied to the bike. Work though each wire with a meter. Switches and wires may have been modified or circumvented. Always start by looking for physical damage. 
 To check an old wiring loom. 
 Corrosion can find it's way very deep into the plastic insulation of a wire. requiring full replacement. then if in a poor condition. especially where one wire is connected to two or more others by a join inside the loom. so you will have to take each wire. and recommends a competent shop.Fixing an old loom. Where a component is physically damaged. Many builders are daunted and often shy away from the common mess of multi bodged wiring on neglected machines. the awful corroded contact. The most common faults include wear from corrosion causing the dreaded black copper wire. making it useless. Sometimes it's last act can be to wrap the inner wires to a new length of wire. which then make poor connections which will get . Tracing such faults can be very difficult. flexing each and every join and connector for failure. and sudden stopping or blowing of fuses from short circuits due to wear of the insulation.

and this is the one to adjust. pattern or generic components can replace expensive original equipment manufacture (OEM) items. some makes use different ways of doing the same job. and must be connected to the alternator/rectifier wires according to the manual. consider using a modern rectifier/regualtor unit to control the output of the alternator. the other part of the switch connects one of the three white wires from the alternator to the regulator. . It simply disconnects one of the three alternator AC wires when the lights are not used. single throw light switch. Many of the larger Suzuki's (1980's) used a double pole. they almost always do the same job. To check the regulator. Equipment Differences. thus no heat and therefore no damage. Ignition coils are common for most machines. modified or replaced by an equivalent device.8 volts. if it does the job. 
 Never be afraid to fit an equivalent component from another machine. This is a small brass bolt device with a central blade connector which connects to the battery side of the rectifier and dissipates any excess electricity over 13. with no resistance. If fitting two. then circumvent the problems by only looking at the basic needs of the machine and consider such gizmos as redundant. Alternatively. One side works the lights on / off. watch the small contacts as the engine speed is increased. Each and every male and female connector can be easily and quickly tested with a new matching connector. to keep the rather basic charging levels correct. 
 Although the basic ideas used to wire a bike are the same for all bikes. to help balance the charging system.8 volts by a device called a zenner diode. it is far easier to make a new loom than to fully repair a badly damaged or old loom. 
 Although there is a vast array of electrical components for motorcycles. When reasonably competent. they must be matched pairs. When confused by far too many electrical gizmos such as self cancelling indicator units. This is to ensure they make a good.warm and eventually melt or corrode the connection. Likewise. to get the voltage right. A little time will allow the builder or modifier to see how it works and how it can be repaired. to handle larger generators. Measure the voltage when the engine is running at various speeds with the lights off and on. firm physical contact which will then make a good electrical contact. and adjust the metal tabs above and below the contacts. Very early bikes use dynamos which use a special regulator box to keep the voltage correct and to prevent any current from the battery going back through the dynamo. A rectifier for a common machine will often be recycled for a similar machine. Only alternators needing a rectifier/regualtor unit with a field coil control will need original replacements. With earlier British machines the alternator output may be kept at 13. one of the contacts will move rapidly to keep the voltage constant. A manual is highly recommended for the machine as they can differ between makes. This set-up is often similar on some early Japanese four cylinder machines and for dynastarts as used on early electric start Yam 200cc two stroke trail and road bikes. One of the other contacts is to ensure the dynamo is disconnected when the engine is not running.

The main clues from the bike are the internal wiring of the alternator. 17 a typical basic motor boat . The following are basic wiring diagrams for printing as a starting point. then see also the 'A Builders guide to alternative electronic ignition'. such as motocross and mopeds and small scooters. or Copy and paste. 8 a twin cylinder with electronic ignition and two ignition coils. 15 a car with points ignition and basic lighting. 
 4 a single cylinder with electronic ignition and battery lighting. the number of wires on the rectifier/regualtor. 
 10 a four cylinder with electronic ignition and two plugs per coil. For many small bikes without advance and retard on electronic ignition units. available via the authors website. Print direct. 5 a twin cylinder with points ignition and two plugs per coil. then go from there. . These give the basics for most common bikes. The following selection of basic drawings are given. No indicators. or import them into any simple paint package so you can modify them. 3 a single cylinder with electronic ignition and direct lighting. The main items to look for are the type of alternator. If no wiring diagram available. as all motorcycle manufacturers differ. Also study the components available for the electronic ignition if fitted. 
 16 a car with simple electronic ignition and basic lighting. 2 a single cylinder with points ignition and battery lighting. They are 800 x 600 pixels. 6 a twin cylinder with points ignition and two ignition coils. 
 12 a trike with car engine and points. 14 A very basic Harley wiring diagram. 7 a twin cylinder with electronic ignition and two plugs per coil. 11 a trike with four cylinder motorcycle engine. and the type of points or electronic ignition used. It is always preferable to use the original manufacturers wiring diagram for the engine used. 1 a single cylinder with points ignition and direct lighting. 9 a four cylinder with points ignition and two plugs per coil. choose the nearest for your bike from the above diagrams.Simple Generic Circuit Diagrams. They do not include the colour codes .

but a learning curve should be expected before total creative freedom can be expected to bear fruit. Whatever is done. as it gives time to think things through. The heavy stuff has been left out. it is usually easier to do a full rewire than to repair a badly corroded or damaged original loom. Always improve skills as seen fit. carefully. well paced steps leading towards the ultimate custom machine. From a simple eight wire circuit for a trials machine. That's about it. but this will do for now. More will be probably be added via the website updates as time passes. It is very important not to rush a wiring loom. A cuppa tea is often the most important item. as these are easier to fault find. then go slowly and replace each wire one at a time. Building a mental library of knowledge and skills will eventually express itself with flourish throughout the evolution of a project. Whatever learning is achieved. designs and techniques. .Finally. Learning does not mean following others like a sheep. to full blown systems using an aircraft engine. Keeping eyes and mind open will allow the builder to glean all possible advantages towards a better machine. to touring bikes with hi-fi and Christmas tree lighting. especially the advanced projects being developed for the JP series. it is often of use in creating your own skills. approaches. and to easily check each circuit one at a time. or a fuel injected V12 trikealmost anything is possible. The main things to keep in mind are always carefully check the original wiring first. and keep to original manufacturers colours where possible. innovation is the definitive approach to design. For a standard bike. though careful. If complex systems such as fuel injection are daunting. Always use separate circuits wherever possible.

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