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To carry the distributed and concentrated loads prescribed by the airwortheness requirement
Loads on wing members
• shear carried by the wing spars, the bending moment by the wing covers (skin, spar caps and stringers) and torsion by the wing skin only • The lower cover is loaded primarily in tension therefore it requires careful material in order to assure fairy high tensile strength to density ratio combined with good fracture toughness and fatigue life. life • The upper cover is loaded primarily in compression therefore it should be designed in order to be stabilized or prevented from buckling. • Ribs carry the shear (and bending moment ) caused by the load distributed chordwise
bulkheads.(needs multiple brake operation) • Angle of 90°in jigs. and spar web are important to the workman. .Rib arrangement in swept wing • Lighter structure • Easy to produce Aerodynamical accurate shape Manufacturing problems that exist with the sweptback wing: • Bending the spar caps is difficult • The skin gages required are extremely thick.
Single main beam for high swept wing .Wing root triangle A triangular section A is indeterminate.
from root to tip. 8.Desirable preliminary studies 1. 3. . Rib spacing determined from panel size considerations. to scale. landing gear attachments and fuel-tank supports. Reinforces ribs are also used for engine-mount. Adding other detail like the wheel well for the retraction of the landing gear. to satisfy aspect ratio. auxiliary spar is needed to support flaps. area & sweepback 2. 7. Sometimes 6. Locate the front spar at the constant percentage of the chord (12-17%). 4. Ribs are located at each aileron and flap hinge. Locate the rear spar similarly of the chord (60%) to accommodate a 30% aileron. Sometimes redesigning. If flaps chord less then aileron. Spar cap width and control system gap need about 10% of the chord 5. Draw platform of wing with necessary dimensions. Determine the mean geometric chord and check if the CG lies in plane perpendicular to CG chord at the mean aerodynamic center. Spanwise stringers are located parallel to each other or at constant percentage of the wing chord.
Wing bending Classification of wing structure according to the disposition of the bending material: • All bending material is concentrated in the spar caps. . • Skin can be in a wave state having large amplitude which disturbs the airflow over the wing. • The bending material is distributed around the periphery of the profile • Skin is primarily bending material Concentrated spar cap type Advantages • Simplicity of construction • It can be so design that spar buckling occurs near the ultimate stress of the material (higher allowable stress) Disadvantages • Skin buckling at a very low load.(more drag) • Fatigue failure due to the local bending stress in buckled sheet.
Wing bending 2 Distributed bending material type • High number of stiffeners or multiple spar • Different number of stiffeners in lower and upper surface (because the negativ and positive load factors are different) Skin is the only bending material The skin outside the wingbox cannot take part in bendig .
. Each spanwise splice between panels is a tearstopper which tends to stop the failed panel to continuously crack to the next panels.15 dynamic factor after a structural failure (fail safe) There are five panels on the wing lower surface as shown in figure. The carefully designed rivet pattern and shear strength provide the fail safe philosophy.Safety considerations by the lower surface Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR): fail safe or safe life This structure shall be able to carry 80% of limit load times 1.
inertia) and by wing bending crushing loads.Considerations by compression panel • Direct compression induced by bending of the entire section (+HAA +LAA) • Shear flows – Maximum panel shear flows caused by wing box torsion loads. • Excentricity: stringer should end on ribs to avoid change in cover centroid . • Local bending effects caused by surface aerodynamic pressure load. • Max shear flow with corresponding local compression load to optimize the least weight structure. • Local bending effects caused by wing tank fuel(pressure.
Skin-Stringer panels .
. • can thickened around holes • can produce rib lands as shown in fig. Advantages • the skin can be tapered spanwise and chordwise.Skin-Stringer panels 2 The machined (integral) skins combining with machined stringers are the most efficient structures to save weight.
integrally stiffened panels • k=1.4 assuming equal buckling stress in skin and stiffeners • k=1.7 in case of unflanged.05) In practical design the total weight fraction of skin is higher because of fatigue .5 for Z section stiffeners (thickness ratio = 1.Skin-stringer area ratio Optimum distribution of area between skin and stiffener for minimum weight exist: • k=1.
Integrally stiffened panels A weight reduction of 10-15% can be realized compared to the assembled structure .
Integrally stiffened panels 2 Advantages • Reduction of sealing material for pressurized fuel tank structure. • Improved aerodynamics through smoother exterior surfaces • Light weight structure The lightest cover panel design can be obtain with an integrally stiffened cover structure supported by sheet metal ribs with a preference for a large spacing. . • Increase joint efficiencies under tension loads. • Higher allowable stiffeners compression loads by elimination of attachments flanges.
crack) Prefer double or stagger row of fasteners! .Cover panel splice design Avoid complex extrusion forms (residual stress.
Stringer run-out Avoid Prefer .
5 g .0 – 1.Typical spar constructions Non-buckling type: web never buckles Buckling type: buckling criteria 1.
Spar model for calculation .
Spar caps The beam (spar) cap should be design for strength/weight efficiency. . With cap additional stringer and skins are used also to provide bending resistance. The cap sections for large cantilever beams which are frequently used in wing design should be of such a shape as to permit efficient tapering or reducing of the section as the beam extends outboard.
which is stiffened by vertical stiffeners riveted to the web. .Spar web These cap sections are almost always used with a beam web composed of flat sheet.
Integrally stiffened spar The cost is far less than the cost of a builtup assembly of individual caps. . web and stiffeners riveted together.
Machine pads or add doublers to the web around spar web cutout to reduce local stresses .General rules of spar design 1.
General rules of spar design 2. and also between spar caps and wing box skin. . To use double rows (or stagger rows) of fasteners between spar caps and webs.
. Spar web splice doublers should be designed such it is strong enough to carry not only the vertical shear force but also the spar axial force at the spar cap where the tapered doubler along spanwise is recommended.General rules of spar design 3.
web as well as skin should be made thicker to reduce local principle stresses. at these locations. The tension fitting is required wherever appreciable concentrated loads exit. etc. .General rules of spar design 4. the local material thicknesses of spar cap. aileron and flap track fitting. such as engine pylon. main landing gear support.
. Do not allow any fixed leading or trailing edge panel to be directly riveted to the spar cap to avoid potential fatigue cracks.General rules of spar design 5.
the spar cap horizontal flange and local wing skin can be easily spliced by double shear splice plates. An additional tension fitting should be provided to take care of the remaining part such as spar cap vertical flange. . In the area of the wing sweepback break.General rules of spar design 6.
Clips. hydraulic tubes. etc. ducts. provided for the support of wires. should be fastened to spar vertical stiffener only. . control rods.General rules of spar design 7.
In addition. the fasteners going through the spar cap and stiffeners should be at least two fasteners with diameter of one size bigger than adjacent attachments. Fasteners spacing along vertical stiffeners should not be too close to make the local web net area shear critical. .General rules of spar design 8.
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