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CHAPTER 01 1. Discuss the agency problem.
Managers are the agents of the shareholders, and should act on their behalf to maximize shareholder wealth (the value of the stock). A conflict (the agency conflict) arises when managers take self-interested actions to the detriment of shareholders. The roles of the board of directors selected by the shareholders are to oversee management and to minimize agency problems. However, often these boards are figureheads, and individual shareholders do not own large enough blocks of the shares to override management actions. One potential resolution of an agency problem occurs when inefficient management actions cause the price of the stock to be depressed. The firm may then become a takeover target. If the acquisition is successful, managers may be replaced and potentially, stockholders benefit. 2. Discuss the similarities and differences between real and financial assets.
Real assets represent the productive capacity of the firm, and appear as assets on the firm's balance sheet. Financial assets are claims against the firm, and thus appear as liabilities on the firm's balance sheet. On the other hand, financial assets are listed on the asset side of the balance sheet of the individuals who own them. Thus, when financial statements are aggregated across the economy, the financial assets cancel out, leaving only the real assets, which directly contribute to the productive capacity of the economy. Financial assets contribute indirectly only. 3. Discuss the following ongoing trends as they relate to the field of investments: globalization, financial engineering, securitization, and computer networks. Globalization offers a wider array of investment choices than what would be available to investors who could only choose domestic securities. As efficient communication technology has become available, globalization of markets has been significantly enhanced. There are many mechanisms by which one country's investors can hold foreign companies' securities. Some examples are ADRs, WEBS, and direct purchase of foreign securities. Securitization refers to aggregating underlying financial assets, such as mortgages, into pools and then offering a security that represents a claim on these underlying assets. Examples are GNMAs. Securitization allows investors to hold partial ownership in financial assets that would otherwise be beyond their reach (e.g., mortgages). Financial engineering involves bundling or unbundling. Bundling involves combining separate securities together into one composite security. Examples are combining primitive and derivative securities, and combining three primitive securities such as common stock, preferred stock, and bonds. Unbundling is the opposite - two or more security classes are created by separating a composite 1
CHAPTER 02 Use the following to answer questions 1 to 3: Consider the following three stocks: 1. The price-weighted index constructed with the three stocks is A) 30 B) 40 C) 50 D) 60 E) 70 Answer: B Difficulty: Easy Rationale: ($40 + $70 + $10)/3 = $40. 2. Each of these major breakthroughs has significant implications for investments. An investor purchases one municipal and one corporate bond that pay rates of return of 8% and 10%. The value-weighted index constructed with the three stocks using a divisor of 100 is A) 1. his or 2 . What would the index be if stock B is split 2 for 1 and stock C 4 for 1? A) 265 B) 430 C) 355 D) 490 E) 1000 Answer: D Difficulty: Moderate Rationale: Value-weighted indexes are not affected by stock splits.security into parts. respectively. Assume at these prices the value-weighted index constructed with the three stocks is 490. If the investor is in the 20% marginal tax bracket. 3. 4. online information dissemination and automated trade crossing.2 B) 1200 C) 490 D) 4900 E) 49 Answer: C Difficulty: Moderate Rationale: The sum of the value of the three stocks divided by 100 is 490: [($40 x 200) + ($70 x 500) + ($10 x 600)] /100 = 490. Computer networks have permitted online trading.
(1-t) = 0.her after tax rates of return on the municipal and corporate bonds would be ________ and ______. or 8%.20%. A) 8% and 10% B) 8% and 8% C) 6.12%.08(1 .4% and 10% E) 10% and 10% Answer: B Difficulty: Moderate Rationale: rc = 0. what would your tax bracket need to be? A) 33% B) 72% C) 15% D) 28% E) Cannot tell from the information given Answer: D Difficulty: Moderate Rationale: . D) 4.93%/7.72.29% 6.82%.67).17%) = 17. rm = 0.75%.0. E) none of the above. A 5. In order for you to be indifferent between the after tax returns on a corporate bond paying 8. Answer: B Difficulty: Moderate Rationale: 0.10(1 .0612 = . At what marginal tax rate would the investor be indifferent between investing in the corporate and investing in the muni? A) 15. t = . respectively.2%.4% Answer: D Difficulty: Moderate Rationale: tm = 1-(5. this bond would offer an equivalent taxable yield of: A) 8. 3 .3% E) 12.4% and 8% D) 6.93% before-tax yield. For a taxpayer in the 33% marginal tax bracket.5% D) 17.20) = 0.75%.17% before-tax yield and a municipal bond with a 5.072 = rm (1-t).28 Suppose an investor is considering a corporate bond with a 7. 5.085(1-t).4% B) 23.08.0) = 8%. 0. rm = 0. B) 10.072 = rm / (0.7% C) 39.1075 = 10.5% 20-year municipal bond is currently priced to yield 7. 7.40%.5% and a tax-exempt municipal bond paying 6. C) 11.
84%. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of common stock ownership. The index value is (36+81+98)/2. C) a geometric index.67%)/3 = -2.67. the investor 4 . The total market value at time 1 is $72*200 + $81*500 + $98*300 = $84. calculate the first-period rates of return (from t=0 to t=1) on A) a market-value-weighted index.Use the following to answer questions 8 to 9: 8.0286)(1-. The divisor must change to reflect the stock split.300/$88.000 1 = -4.00% 9. Answer: A Difficulty: Difficult Rationale: A.86%.3333 -1 = -2. the value of the index should remain 83. The return on an equally weighted index of the three stocks is (2.46%.9529)(0. Based on the information given. The advantages of common stock ownership are: The stockholder is allowed to participate in earnings. these benefits are passed on to the shareholder in the form of dividends and/or increased market price of the stock (with fixed income investments. C.67/86. Assume that Stock A had a 2-1 split during this period. B.67.86%-4. The return on the index is 83. such as bonds and preferred stock. The return on Stock A for the first period is $72/$70-1 = 2.000. The price-weighted index at time 1 is (72+81+98)/3 = 83. Because nothing else fundamentally changed.67%. for a price-weighted index of the three stocks calculate: A) the rate of return for the first period (t=0 to t=1).71%-6. The return on Stock B for the first period is $81/$85-1 = -4. So the new divisor is (36+81+98)/83.57 = 83. that is. The return on Stock C for the first period is $98/$105-1 = -6.67 = 2. B) the value of the divisor in the second period (t=2).300. The rate of return for the second period is 83. B) an equally-weighted index.0286) (0. if the firm is doing well.20%. The total market value at time 0 is $70*200 + $85*500 + $105*300 = $88.0471)(1-. Based on the information given for the three stocks. relative to other investment alternatives.92% 10. The geometric average return is [(1+. B.57.67-1 = 0. The return is $84.9333)]0. C) the rate of return for the second period (t=1 to t=2).67/83.71%. The price-weighted index at time 0 is (70+85+105)/3 = 86. Answer: A Difficulty: Difficult Rationale: A.67. C.67.67 1 = -3.0667)](1/3)-1 = [(1.
5 . if preferred dividends are skipped. the claims of the common shareholder are residual. giving the shareholder voting rights. unlike a sole proprietorship or partnership. regardless of the earnings of the firm). The disadvantages of common stock ownership are: The cash flow from dividends (if any) and the appreciation of the stock are uncertain. the shareholder is liable only for the amount of the shareholder's investment in the stock. only after all other creditors' and investors' claims have been met will the claims of the common shareholder be honoured. Thus. That is. in addition. the preferred shareholders must receive dividends prior to common shareholders. and finally. these dividends are cumulative and skipped preferred dividends must be paid before common dividends are paid.receives a fixed payment. the claims of the bondholders and other creditors come before the benefits of the common shareholders. the firm makes no commitment to the common shareholder regarding future income resulting from common stock ownership. that is. in addition. common stock investment represents ownership in the firm. the common stockholder has limited liability.
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