This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
) SEED EXTRACT AND SOLAR HEAT
A Research Proposal Presented to The Science Department Zamboanga del Norte National High School
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in Research I (English for Science and Technology with Basic Statistics)
by Maritoni Charity J. Gayapa and Alexa C. Tiu September, 2011
The Problem: It’s Rationale and Background
Introduction Water is the key to a person's survival because without water survival is simply not an option. However, water has to be purified in order to drink otherwise bacteria in the water can be harmful to your organs if drunk in normal consumption. This is highlighted especially in third world countries such as Ethiopia and Gambia where many people die due to impure water that contains lots of bacteria that cause infection and illness. In all countries there is a point at which water is considered pure and it must go through a thorough process in which the water is processed in a treatment plant until it is determined pure enough to drink (drinking water). Thus there are many plants and other natural purifying things just lying around and it wouldn’t even cost you money. Heat such solar radiation can kill bacteria in a period of time; it has been tested and proven to purify water in many parts of the world. On the other hand Moringa oleifera, which is the miracle plant, is very common to many parts of the tropics especially the Philippines, using the seeds of this plant has been tested and also proven to purify and kill bacteria living in water.
Both of these ways are proven and tested by researchers but not using these two as a combination. What are the changes of the water in terms of color. The researchers will conduct this study to determine if Malunggay seed extracts and heat is effective in purifying water. this study sought to answer the following sub-problems: 1. Statement of the Problem This study was aims to determine if Malunggay (Moringa oleifera Lin. 10% and 15%) is most effective in water Purification Hypotheses This study is anchored on the following hypothesis: H . Which concentration of Malunggay seed extract (5%. This study aims to determine whether Moringa seed extracts and Solar Heat can be used in water purification. Specifically. Malunggay seed extracts and Heat are effective on water purification. pH and number of the Coliform bacteria? 2.) Seed Extract and Solar Heat can be effective in water purification. .
because it doesn’t use any expensive chemicals and processes. Using this type of purification can lessen the cause of diarrhea and many other diseases caused by harmful bacteria in water. Second. in general. The purification process is very easy to do that even small children can do it right and it doesn’t use sophisticated and costly gadgets. it can also be a big help in the economy of our poor families and the nation. Malunggay is most commonly found in many parts of our country and it could be easily grown in everyone’s backyard and last for a number years. It is only done by using a very common natural ingredient taken from malunggay seeds.Significance of the Study This study can be used in many purposes. . First. it is very relevant in line with people’s health.
1 The Schema of the Study. of coliform bacteria • Figure 1. .Conceptual Framework Independent Variables Malunggay seed extract • 10% 15% Solar heat 5% Dependent Variables Quality of Water Color of water • Ph No.
Dipolog City. Moringa oleifera .to obtain something from a source. The collection of the Malunggay seed extract will be done using the crushing method. Definition of Key Terms 1. It is an exceptionally nutritious vegetable tree with a variety of potential uses. Etract. Turno. This study was made limited only to the use of the Malunggay extract and Heat for water purification.Scope and Delimitation of the Study The study is going to be conducted at the Lood’s Residence. for experimentation. and biological contaminants from contaminated water. The researchers will collect Malunggay seeds in the neighboring barangays and municipalities of Dipolog City. The extract will be brought to Lood’s residence. Dipolog City from the Last week of September to the second week of October 2011. materials. Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals. usually by separating it out from other material 3. The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. The water we will use is Well water which will be examined by the Agape Laboratory. which is the only genus in the family Moringaceae. Most water is purified .Malunggáy in Filipino. 2. is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Moringa.
of medical.for human consumption (drinking water) but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes. including meeting the requirements applications. pharmacology. chemical and industrial .
This law contains requirements for ensuring the safety of the nation's public drinking water supplies. and 143 . and ground water wells. Parts 141. Under SDWA. 142. and 40CFR143). United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) sets standards for drinking water quality and oversees the states. and water suppliers who implement those standards. lakes. localities. The law was amended in 1986 and 1996 and requires many actions to protect drinking water and its sources: rivers. The SDWA authorized the to promulgate regulations regarding water supply. The major regulations are in title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40CFR141. reservoirs.Chapter 2 Review of Literature and Studies Legal Basis A. SDWA was originally passed by Congress in 1974 to protect public health by regulating the nation's public drinking water supply. 40CFR142. Foreign The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) is the main federal law that ensures the quality of Americans' drinking water. This is the principal federal law concerning drinking water. springs.
health and sanitation authorities and the general public and all other concerned by standards cover requirements for the acceptable values of the determined parameters in measuring water quality. and secondary contaminants. chemical and radiological compositions of the water.Series 1994) .com) B. implementation by states.( DENR ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER NO. State implementation allows states to be the primary regulators of the water supplies (rather than USEPA) provided they meet certain requirements. Developers and Operators of Water Supply Systems both Government and Private entities. otherwise known as the Code on Sanitation of the Philippines is designed to guide the Waterworks Officials. 26-A. These parameters include microbiological. The standard also delineates values established in conforming with the medical and health implication of the parameters as opposed to values established purely to satisfy aesthetic requirements.regulate primary contaminants. physical. Local Philippine Standards for Drinking Water 1993 (PNSDW 1993) under the provision of Chapter II Section 9 of PD 856. Secondary contaminants generally cause aesthetic problems and are not directly harmful. Primary contaminants are those with health impacts. (Wikipedia.
Foreign Studies Within the pods are possibly the best part of the tree. making it a marketable commodity (Folkard and Sutherland. This includes the use of water for domestic purposes like drinking and potable water and also water treatment. According to Meitzner and Price (Amaranth to Zai Holes: Ideas for Growing Food Under Difficult Conditions. 1996).. but with a major advantage.Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 states that the State shall pursue a policy of economic growth in a manner consistent with the protection. Because it can be produced locally. brackish and marine waters. but the presscake remaining after oil extraction has been shown to retain the active ingredients for coagulation. 1996). preservation and revival of the quality of our fresh. Moringa oleifera has been compared to alum in its effectiveness at removing suspended solids from turbid water. To achieve this end. Related Studies C. the framework for sustainable development shall be pursued. "using moringa rather than alum .the seeds! Not only can they be pressed for a high grade oil.. comparable to olive oil. ECHO.
and studies and projects are taking place examining this potential. clay. The process of treating the water with moringa seeds would take at least one to two hours. Not only were the tests successful in removing as much solid material as alum. Geoff Folkard and John Sutherland from the University of Leicester.would save foreign exchange and generate farm and employment income. 1996). D. Moringa is generally accepted as a coagulant due to positively charged. have worked on substituting moringa seeds for alum to remove solids in water for drinking. . Local Studies Sia (2008) reported that moringa seeds treat water on two levels. toxins. Africa. watersoluble proteins which bind with negatively charged particles (silt. two researchers. bacteria. Drs. The antimicrobial aspects of moringa continue to be researched.) allowing the resulting ‘flocs’ to settle to the bottom or be removed by filtration. At the Thyolo Water Treatment Works in Malawi." The potential for moringa to create a new market for a community is there. England. etc. acting both as a coagulant and an antimicrobial agent. but the seeds used were "purchased from enthusiastic villagers in Nsanje Region in Malawi" (Folkard and Sutherland.
In general.html. Moringa joins with the solids in the water and then they both sink to the bottom. This kind of treatment removes 90-99% of bacteria in water. Using this method of purification will replace the use of chemicals such as aluminum sulphate. people will no longer be depending on expensive means of purification. one seed kernel will treat one liter of water.As reported by Helen Flores from The Philippine Star. Related Literature Moringa Oleifera.org/moringa_water_purification. They say that by using Moringa seeds. This simple method does not only remove water pollution. Very different . And it can also be used as a quick and very simple method for cleaning dirty water in rivers.miracletrees. which they say are dangerous to people and especially the environment. seed kernels or dried presscake can be stored for long periods but moringa solutions for treating water should be prepared fresh each time. but also removes harmful bacteria. They also indicated on how it works. and mostly these chemicals are very expensive. Solutions of moringa seeds for water treatment may be prepared from seed kernels or from the solid residue left over after oil extraction. According to the study that was made by researchers on http://www. they say that crushed Moringa seeds purify water to be used widely around a certain are and it can lower the bacterial concentration in water so that it will be safe to drink. Reports said moringa seeds.
By using solar radiation to kill bacteria and microorganisms. The radiation will kill the microorganisms after 5-6 hours in the sun. Water is placed in a transparent plastic bottle. Using a jar for experimenting will be a bid help in working out the correct amount needed. which is oxygenated by shaking.water sources will need different amounts of Moringa seeds. clean drinking water is lacking in many parts of the world and many persons die because of this. According to SODIS (Solar Disinfection). which raises the temperature and gives an extended dose of solar radiation. It is placed on tile or metal for six hours in full sun. then fill the plastic with water and fill with clear water and place above roofs. This can be done with clear plastic bottles made of clear plastic. it would reduce the amount of people dead and prevent diseases in a very useful and cheap way. because impurities on such waters will not be the same. killing any microbes that may be present. The combination of the two provides a simple method of disinfection for tropical developing countries. is the process of . it would be recommended to paint half of the bottle black and the black part will face the ground or the surface of the roof. followed by topping-up. Heat. Water purification. It is estimated that two million people die every year because of water related diseases. The method will be faster if the temperature is higher. provided by the Sun. or drinking water treatment. This method only works in clear water not pond or river water Microbes are destroyed through temperature and UVA radiation.
removing contaminants from surface water or groundwater to make it safe and palatable for human consumption. (Wikipedia. Most water is purified for human consumption (drinking water) but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes. including meeting the requirements of medical. depending on the raw water source. In general the methods used include physical processes such as filtration and sedimentation. and biological contaminants from contaminated water. chemical processes such as flocculation and chlorination and the use of electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light. pharmacology. chemical and industrial applications. A wide variety of technologies may be used. standards to be met.com) . materials. (microbiologyreader. biological processes such as slow sand filters or activated sludge. and available finances. It’s goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Different sources of raw water demand different treatment methods to render it ft for human consumption.com) It is the process of removing undesirable chemicals. contaminants present. Sources of Drinking Water Water to be used in public or private water supplies can be drawn from a variety of sources.
The researchers will prepare and use a total of twelve (12) sterilized plastic bottles. . Dapitan City and the municipality of Katipunan. The Researchers will get a one (1) Liter sample from each well. The shelling of the malunggay pods will be done manually by the researchers. and T3) and the Control. Using a cheesecloth. B. The extract will be put in a sterilized glass jar and it is ready for use. namely: Dipolog City. T2.Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY A. the pounded Malunggay seeds will be pressed to extract it’s juice. Collection and Preparation of Water The researchers will collect water samples from three (3) different wells found in separate locations. The extract will be obtained by pounding the seeds on a Mortar and Pestle. The set of four bottles will contain the three (3) Treatments (T1. There will be a set of four (4) bottles for each sample and each bottle will contain 100mL. Collection and Preparation of Malunggay Seed Extract The researchers will collect/purchase two (2) kilograms of fresh malunggay seeds in pods.
The Laboratory results will be the source of data for interpretation and analysis. The Treatments to be used are the different concentrations of malunggay extracts mixed with 100 ml. The Control will be just be left unexposed to the heat of the sun.Coli presence.ups. The set-ups with malunggay extracts will be equally exposed under the Heat of the sun for 4 hours. The set-ups will have the three different Treatments plus the Control. samples in plastic bottles at the Following rates: 0 % for the control. After four (4) hours of sun exposure.C. respectively. D. 5%. 10%. and 15%. Preparations of Treatments Each well water samples will have a set of four (4) corresponding set. Color. all the 12 bottles containing the water samples will be brought to Agape Laboratory for analysis to find out their pH. and E. Statistical Treatment .
three (3) of the set ups will have treatments T1. Katipunan One (1) Liter water T1 samples fromT2 three (3) different wells found 5% 10% Dipolog City. Each water sample will have four (4) set-ups each containing 100mL Pounded Malunggay of it’s respective water.Coli Manual shelling of the malunggay Pounding the seeds using a Mortar and Pestle Preperation of twelve (12) sterilized plastic bottles. and E.Coli pH Colo E. T2. seeds will be pressed to The Control group is extract it’s juice using a going to be brought to cheesecloth Agape Lab for analysis.Coli presence . T2= 10% and T3= 15% Control= 0% All 12 bottles containing the water samples will be brought to Agape Laboratory for analysis to find out their pH. Color. Dapitan Sample 3. Dapitan pH Colo E. TREATMENTS T3 15% Colo r E.Collect/Purchase two VARIABLES Control (2) kilograms of fresh malunggay seeds in pH Colo E.Coli pH pods r 1. Dipolog Sample 2. and T3 and a Control with different malunggay extract concentration: T1= 5%.Coli City and the r r municipality of Katipunan.
175/Article.aspx?articleid=522456 .184. 2009 12:00 AM http://208.76.four (4) hours of sun exposure Bibliography Low-cost water purifying system uses malunggay seeds By Helen Flores (The Philippine Star) Updated November 12.
A Sschedule of Activities .APPENDIX.
APPENDIX-B Proposed Budget .