This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
John Howard Yoder, chapter I/B in Chapters in the History of Religiously Rooted NonViolence: A Series of Working Papers of the Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies.
Christians of the early centuries have left us several lists of the rules by which the life of the churches was to be governed, in such matters as calendar, the conditions for clergy status, and the requirements for membership (i.e., for admission to the status of catechumen, or for baptism). These texts have been studied mostly for what they tell us about worship patterns, or about the regulation of clergy status and episcopal orders.(1) Students of the history of Christian ethics have studied them less often, perhaps because their mode of moral discourse appears somewhat simple or blunt. Rulings about who should not be baptized are simply stated; they are not explained as being derived from theories about the warrants of moral discourse, which ethicists are more interested in.
Most of these texts say something about military service; it is these sections which interest us in the following overview. It is however for quite different reasons, having mostly to do with the history of worship and of church order, that they have been studied recently with growing care(2). Ethicists therefore owe thanks to the students of liturgy for the erudition invested in retrieving these texts.
These documents are usually anonymous, or occasionally eponymous (i.e. they are sometimes ascribed to some prominent churchman without there being any grounds for certainty as to his role in their redaction).(3) They come mostly from the churches of the East.(4) and have been best preserved in eastern languages.
English translations offered here are those already prepared by experts. I shall give little attention to variant translation. I shall present them in the order of their datings in the phyllogeny proposed in the Bradshaw review.(5)
1) The Didache or "Teaching of the Apostles" is agreed to be the oldest of these texts; some even consider it older than parts of the canonical New Testament. In terms of genre it belongs partly in our list.(6) Parts of the latter half of it, which describe the roles of prophet and bishop, and the Eucharistic celebration, seem to have served as models for the other texts cited here. The Didache however does not itself include passages on proscribed professions, nor listings of the conditions for baptism, like those in the other texts cited below. Its title therefore stands at the
"(11) 3) Apostolic Church Order(12) Attributed eponymously to Clement of Rome in some versions. .. or from those who measure deceitfully.(7) It deals broadly with discipline and reconciliation. Bradshaw dates it from the third century. And if there was one who makes an image or who divines. And if it was one who teaches children the work of this world. or from those who alter weights. yet if there is no other occupation by which he may life.head of our present list only because the following texts seem to have built upon it. like the Didache which it resembles but expands (ca. 2) Didascalia Apostolorum.. That list includes: ". let him leave off or be rejected.. those who are polluted with wars and have shed innocent blood without judgment. And if it was a priest of the gods or a guardian of the gods. or from any Roman officials. And let him who causes to go to idolatrous sacrifices leave off or be rejected.. It was obviously drawn on by many of the other fuller texts listed below. or from soldiers who conduct themselves in wickedness. he shall be excused.if there was a pander. or from murderers. let him leave off or be rejected. And if there is one who hunts or teaches hunting. belonging to the same genre. or from unjust tax-gatherers. or from spies of condemnation. There is not. or a driver of horses. and the following paragraphs are part of that extension. he shall be rejected. a list of proscribed professions connected with requirements for baptism. also belongs in the list only as part of the genre. One way people in morally questionable activities could seek to "cover" their status was to give gifts to the bishop for the poor. frequently offering listed of good and evil deeds.(9)" The office of bishop was a very important economic clearing house in Christian society. they will teach him that he should not. A soldier of the prince they shall not receive. 230?).painters of pictures. entitled [by the editors] "Gifts for the Poor from the Blameworthy. or from seers of spectacles. or from makers of idols. receiving gifts "for the altar" and distributing them to widows and orphans. or war. if he was commanded to kill he shall not do it. or for access to the Eucharist.(14) XXVII. or who teaches fighting. this text rewrites some of the Didache and then adds prescriptions concerning access to clergy office(13). as in the other texts described below. In the extant texts it runs on into the Apostolic Tradition (item 4 below). or from workers of gold and silver and bronze as thieves. The Didascalia calls on the bishops to refuse such gifts from twenty or thirty(10) kinds of donors. and if he does not leave off he shall be rejected.. or from tavern keepers who mingle wine with water. then it is good if he leave off. and if indeed they received him.(8) There is however such a list under another heading..
even if they receive the order to do so. Let them not utter an evil word. or a man who does that which is not proper to be mentioned.XXIX.. . or is a magistrate of a city who wears the purple. Let a Christian not become a soldier.. let him leave off or be rejected. Let him not take on himself the sin of blood. let him not take part in the mysteries. 5) The Canons of Hippolytus may be the earliest adaptation from the Apostolic Tradition. let them not put on crowns.(21) Anyone who has received the power to kill(22). Anyone who is raised to a prefect's authority or to the magistracy and who does not put on the justice of the gospel. A Christian must not become a soldier. . let him be cut off from the flock and let the bishop not pray with him. because they have despised God. The Arabic text is assumed to have been translated from the Coptic. shall be rejected.. An adulteress. let him be rejected. But if he has shed blood. or a soldier. by tears and groans. that attribution can only be eponymous(18) Of the magistrate and the soldier: let them not kill anyone. unless he is constrained by a chief who has a sword. even if they should receive the order to kill. and he who is clad in red. or a star-gazer or magician and the like. he shall not carry out the order. let him be cut off and not pray with the bishop. If he is unwilling. It is extant in Arabic. If he is ordered to do it.(17) Although this was regularly referred to unto a generation ago under the name of Hippolytus. nor shall he take the oath. unless he has been purified by a punishment.Either he who is a soldier among the believers and among the instructed. or a man without pity.. shall be rejected. let him cease or be rejected. And a catechumen or believer.(23) Let him not exercise his command with duplicity but with the fear of God. if they wish to be a soldier. derived in turn from a Greek text which may have been written as early as 340. He who has the power of the sword. because it is far from God. It appears to have been used in Egypt. and a magistrate with the sword or chief of praefects. Let those who have received a distinction not put a crown on their head.(19) Anyone who has authority(20) and does not do the justice of the gospel. let them not kill in any case. Catechumens or believers who want to become soldiers should be rejected. 4) Apostolic Tradition(15) A soldier under authority shall not kill a man(16).
let him be taught not to rob. let him be expelled. coming from the late fourth or the fifth century. Editors of such collections wanted to lose nothing. If one who acts thus wants to become a Christian. setting them side-by-side. and to be content with his allotted wages"(25) If he submit to those rules. but if he refuse them. If anyone be a solder or in authority. including the antimilitary provisions. not to desire the property of another. the wrestler. But if he has not ceased the previous behavior. Bradshaw(29) lists four such collections. there is no guilt. It happened often that ancient scribes or archivists would collect these documents. For he has despised God and. let him be received. forsaking the things of the Spirit.(31) Thus the lists of proscribed professions. and to be satisfied with the support(27) he is given. let him be baptized. they shall not be received at all. the horse driver. He who teaches children the wisdom of the world. in which earlier texts (practically identical with those above) are combined end-toend(30). let him cease to be soldier or in authority or let him be expelled. let him either drop the plan he has considered or be expelled. . occur twice in this collection. to accuse no one falsely. not to oppress. 7) The Testamentum Domini is thought by some to be the youngest independent text of the genre. let him be received and enter into the fellowship. the man of the theater. It is noteworthy how similar these lists are to the earlier versions. not to be proud.6) Apostolic Constitutions. believing and zealous. If a catechumen or a believer from among people desires to be soldier. not to kill. the painter.(24) If a soldier come. But if he desire to be baptized in the Lord. One of them is the 127 Canons of the Apostles. it is good that he should cease. let him cease that conduct and. the impious.(28) 8) Collections of lists. But if he has no other livelihood. one who consults idols or cares for them. Bradshaw(26) describes it as an expansion of the Apostolic Tradition (4 above). he has sought the things of the flesh and treated the faith with contempt. let him be rejected. let him be taught to "do no injustice. they therefore accepted duplication. One who is a courtisan or a fornicatress or a drunkard.
.] If a soldier presents himself.an olympic runner.an actor.The notion that once Constantine had begun to support the churches... the astrologer.(32) The prince who is responsible for the sword. a player of cornemuse.. the list goes on. if he consents he shall be admitted. On professions and occupations Every man immersed in the world should abstain.. On him who puts on the purple: that the faithful who enter into the militia or become astrologers. who is clothed in purple. when persecution had stopped and the Empire had begun to favor and to administer the churches. namely: ... who teach young children.(33) LXII. . he shall be taught to avoid oppression and injustice and be content with his pay(34).. should resign.. the magician.a maker of idols. zither. and in this case he shall be admitted [to baptism]. manufacture idols.. because they have gone away from God.. diviners.(35) Summary impressions. The soldier of a sovereign shall not kill: if he is ordered to do so. but if he refuses. he shall be excluded... who attend spectacles. they shall be excluded. he shall be sent away.... a teacher of dance or entertainer. or of the fact that Caesar was seen as persecutor of the churches..]. and on the occupations which they must renounce. if not. XXVIII.. The prostitute. The above overview adds helpful depth and texture to the usually very superficial discussion of the topic of "Early Christians and the Military"(36): A) . [After listing those who keep courtisans..The notion that Christians' dislike for military service was primarily the result of the fact that such service was linked with pagan cult. Christian leaders promptly abandoned their doubts about military service as a vocation. who are gladiators or teach that profession or wrestling. or they will be excluded. with a view to the value of these materials as a resource in the history of Christian ethics.XXVII. flute.. The catechumen or the believer who have taken the occupation of soldier shall be excommunicated. the effeminate. a chariot driver. On new arrivals who wish to enter into the faith.. [The list goes on with the homosexual.. if not he shall be refused. the interpreters of augures. as part of a commitment an inclusive vision of the church(39) and developed the notion of "just war" which would be .] If someone is a priest of idols or a guardian of idols. if not.The critical attitude of Christian clergy(37) to military service survived long after the age of Constantine. he should cease or be excluded. or the prefect of a city.. he must refuse. etc. should cease..(38) This evidence corrects for the ordinary superficial understandings of historians. If a courtisan [. sorcerers.
The profession of the sculptor is dangerous because he may make idols. or abortion would provide the journalist or the historian only one angle on how the members of their churches are in fact behaving(44). C) . This may refer to someone who was already a soldier when converted. It may be described symbolically as wearing a crown. and to holding office.H. Teaching children to read is questionable because the teaching may use pagan authors. this did not result in Christians' flooding into the military professions. The prohibition of public pagan cult in 392 did not substantially change this. .The fact that these prohibitions are embedded amidst lists of other professions related to idolatry." yet without the shedding of blood being part of his duty. to the arts. to public spectacles.(42) This is however not to say that the principles stated in these "discipline" documents were universally applied or even universally known. B) . and A. Putting oneself under the Lordship of Caesar. and to prostitution. Only in 416 did Theodosius II limit service in the legions to Christians. Jones.(43) Modern readers can picture the relevance of this question by noting that documents produced in the USA in the 1980's and 1990's by clergy and church bureaucracies concerned with war. E) . This moral vision does not ask only about the shedding of blood as forbidden act. the moral insight of the time did not consider the status of soldier in peacetime as necessarily complicit with bloodshed.The adjustment of the Christian clergy to the "Constantinian shift" thus seems not to have been rapid nor complete. or to condoning any participation in bloodshed. Historians Ramsay MacMullen.Numerous of these regulations seem to presuppose the possibility that a man might have soldier status. or exercise some other kind of state "authority. or wearing purple. contraception. A.M. even a proChristian Caesar. is morally problematic on more grounds than merely the possibility of being ordered to commit homicide.The grounds for questioning army service seem not to be limited strictly to the forbidden act of shedding blood.(41) Yet this "pastoral" patience exercised by our authors with those who are already soldiers did not stretch (according to these texts) to authorizing voluntary enlistment. the warning applies to the status of soldier.Although the persecution of Christians ended with Constantine. Moral rejection is also partly a matter of cultural setting and group ethos. testifies to an holistic vision of "the rebellious world" within which moral discrimination functions. Nock agree that the army remained predominantly pagan until the end of the century. especially to voluntarily enlisting.regulated by definitions of the proper use of force. or a belt. D) . F) . This supports the thesis of Bainton(40) to the effect that since a large part of the activity of the army in peacetime was devoted to functions which we would describe not as war but as civil administration.
although a weak one e silentio. On the other hand. believing that one can and should simply abstain from several major segments of cultural practice.e.(45) H) . i." naming and prohibiting certain activities without any general consequential reckoning about their social utility. There are references to military service. which usually have no discernible date or place of origin. as church leadership adjusted to the rapid growth of the churches after the end of persecution.The historians of ethics who have devoted their energy to debating whether these texts show that the early Christians were pacifist have not got around to thinking about finer questions like what it might mean that they mostly come from the Eastern part of Christendom. like those surveyed above.(47) who claim that the early Christian avoidance of military service had to do only with the connection between that service and idolatrous cult practices.These materials provide no support for the frequent claim of historians like Helgeland et al. I) . and that they were best preserved in other languages than Latin and Greek.The presence of this kind of disciplinary provisions in documents primarily concerned with other issues counts rather for than against the thesis that the critical posture toward the military was the recognized tradition from the past. but on recording the results of deliberation in specific synods and councils. and military professions in particular) were added to the disciplines during the fourth and fifth centuries. in meetings of bishops. and thus do not refer to military service. They differ from the above "disciplines. They are like the above in that the historian cannot tell just why such an action was taken at that time. That is a testimony. provisions on these subjects (proscribed professions in general. They had no vision of Christ transforming all of culture. these documents do show: I/a) that the moral reasoning of Christian leaders proceeded holistically (cf. J) . This makes it all the more significant that.G) . nor how it was . the very earliest texts in the "Discipline" genre do not list proscribed professions. Some of the rules listed above may well first have been formulated in such meetings." in that one can date the time and place of the document. I/b) that their style was what we call "legalistic.(46). and ethicists like Johnson who cite them. to the rarity of the question in the third century. though not many. D above). in the extant synod minutes.As the above listing of the documents indicates. Is it that in that part of the Christian world (and on or beyond the edges of the Empire) the proportionate number of Christians in the population was greater than in the West? That the churches were older? that people using other languages than those of the Empire felt more moral distance from the regime? Weak but parallel testimonies from other literature Another mode of church documentation through the centuries centered not on lists of rules.
The historian of ethics is similarly interested in the interlock of the normative and the descriptive. Alan Kreider of Oxford. Yet (in contrast to the search for the earliest liturgies. I am grateful for helpful further comment by Prof. called by grace. their intention and the character of their repentance must be tried. Other historians are skeptical as to whether there was one such text. cit. 80-110. and it is in the power of the bishop to treat them with greater lenity(50) B] Synod at Rome under Innocent I. Sources and Methods for the Study of Early Liturgy SPCK (London) and Oxford (New York) 1992. because of the loose morals associated with the life of a soldier(51). which could then be used as a guideline. Canon 10: Those who have filled a magisterial office may not -. by fear and with tears. after becoming Christians. 3. together with patience and good works. Bradshaw and by Prof. show by deeds that their conversion is real. and I am grateful to the scholars' progress over the last century. authorship. normative in some way. may perhaps take part among those who pray(49). those among them who. and transmission. shall remain three years among the audientes and ten years among the substrati. 18 (1989) pp. 2. and have gone so far as to give money and presents to be readmitted into military service. but they like the intellectual challenge of putting a puzzle together. but afterwards have returned like dogs to their vomit(48). An overview of some of the problems of how to take these texts is found in the chapter "Ancient Church Orders: A Continuing Enigma" in Bradshaw (op. 402. have served in war shall not be ordained. and have laid aside their belts. is Paul F. The Search for the Origins of Christian Worship. In fact. 662-670. and not merely in appearance. for liturgical renewal. The challenge put to churches by persons in questionable professions wanting baptism would naturally not have arisen widely ante pacem [before the end of persecution].respected and implemented. or perhaps two. Bradshaw. But in the case of these penitents. The definitive overview of the field. A] Ecumenical Council of Nicea 325: Canon 12: Those who. Canon 4: Those who. A denser summary is Bradshaw's article Kirchenordnungen in the Theologische RealEnzyklopädie Vol. or whether it should be normative. have shown the first zeal.become ecclesiastics without previously doing penance. the developmental slope goes the other way with the ethical question. covering all matters of dating. Bradshaw's . after having finished the time of their penance among the audientes.on account of the sins almost necessarily involved in it(52) -.(53) 1. Some of the archaeological thoroughness was driven by the hope of finding the one earliest and most authentic tradition.) pp.
"L'excommunication des militaires dans la discipline chrétienne" in Communio Viatorum 1960/1 pp. . p. 84. cit. has sometimes been assumed to have been used in the West. 401 and 402. 11. It is stated that "Kings" who are converted may have a prominent place in the cult (III/8/25 p. op. These ancient collections of rules occur in versions in numerous languages without its always being clear which was the original. or because some reformer wants to use it as leverage for change? Here I shall renounce the temptation to second-guess the texts in these ways. Usury is forbidden in III/8/14 on the authority of "the apostles(39)" and auguries and incantation in II/6 on the authority of James (33). 407 and 408 in Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium. cit. and the parallel citation of nearly equivalent passages. such as the theory that with time such texts get more diverse. Vols. 4. 41ff. also R. the one ascribed eponymously to Hippolytus of Rome. 5. I'll return at the end to wonder why such orders are best represented in other languages. note 14 below). imperative for credibility. 408 pp. "Enquêtes autour de la Prétendue "Tradition Apostolique" in Ecclesia Orans 9(1992) 7-36.term "enigma" refers to the historians' difficulty in locating these texts as to date and place. 1979. Hugh Connolly. Repetition is part of the point that needs to be made. 162-64 10. 163f. are themselves of dubious value for texts of this kind. The items are difficult to count since some of the words are ill-defined and some seem to repeat. the only full versions are in Syriac. Cf. The first half is a homily about "two ways. 92f). Does a text get modified because some scribe wants to make it fit current usage in his region. cit." 7. The historians' ordinary rules of thumb for hypothetical dating. A fuller. 9. perhaps translated ca 375 but the extant manuscripts are much younger than that. Those questions are not our present concern. The most recent refutation of the connection to any historical Hippolytus is Marcel Metzger. op. Chapter XVIII Vol. I apologize to the non-historians who read this text. Presumably written in Greek. the one most known to historians. largely concurrent review of all of these ancient texts and the questions of their dating and interrelationships is provided by Jean-Michel Hornus. 41). 175-176 in Scriptores Syri. or that they get more uniform. Text and translation by Arthur Vööbus The Didascalia Apostolorum in Syriac Vols. but there is no reference to military status. Different scholars have held it to be both the next oldest and the youngest of the seven major texts (Bradshaw op. 8. Didascalia Apostolorum Oxford 1929 (re-issued 1969). but only because of his name (cf. if they should find burdensome this relatively full annotation as to sources. cit. One. copies often are found in collections of collections. op. pp. 6.
17ff. the variations in translation are not significant.12. This paragraph is surrounded by listings of other forbidden professions (artists who make idols. cit. personal letter. 13. Fascicule 2. 26). This collection is the equivalent of the 127 Canons below #8. 170235) whose martyrdom is celebrated 13 August.15). 1959. 1984. Also by Botte. Cerf. Pontifical Institute of Oriental Studies.J. Paul Bradshaw. La Tradition Apostolique second ed. Bradshaw (ed) The Canons of Hippolytus Bramcote. Patrologia Orientalis. pp. Text in Paul Bradshaw (ed. Grove. also G. pp. There are also traditional attributions to another Hippolytus considered a contemporary of Clement of Rome (early second century. and LXII pp 281ff. and a presbyter by that name whose martyrdom after 253 is celebrated 22 August. note 7).g. Tradition Apostolique sur les Charismes et Diataxeis des Saints Apôtres." as if it referred to some other kind of killing than what soldiers do. Canons 13-14 pp. note 2 concerning eponymous attributions. Les Canons d'Hippolyte Paris. and there is a statue by that name in Rome (Bradshaw Search . I in the series Origines Chrétiennes. Helgeland) makes any claim to offer linguistic or other grounds for that odd rendering. Paris. Therefore to debate its rendering is moot. 1987. London 1937. Cited here in Horner's rendering from the Ethiopic and Arabic: G. Bramcote. 1968. AT may figure independently beside the Didache at the head of the family tree of the following texts. 15. 14. sometimes called "antipope"). French translation from the arabic in René-Georges Coquin. 367-69. 1963. Tome XXXI. second ed. 18f. Grove. second-hand at best. Hippolytus. With the exception just noted (N. and other editors who follow Dix without saying so. actors. This is Bradshaw's label. Firmin-Didot. There was a bishop by that name (ca. 1987 pp. The Treatise on the Apostolic Tradition of St. Aschendorf. 84. 150ff Quite similar provisions come again in articles LXIII and LXIV pp. p. Yet the Latin is in any case already a translation.) The Canons of Hippolytus translated by Caroli Bebawi. Others translate diataxeis as "Statutes" or "Constitutions". Bernard Botte OSB (ed) La Tradition Apostolique de Saint Hippolyte Münster. Horner. The Statues of the Apostles or Canones Ecclesiastici London 1904. Horner op. According to the genealogy suggested by Bradshaw p. Cf. The Dix translation (1937 p. Neither Dix nor any of those who follow him (e. the arabic texts are equivalent in articles XXVII and XXVIII pp249ff. 16. Cf. 37. Botte (numerous cases cited in Metzger op. 206ff. 1966. magi. A more recent English translation by Carol Bebawi is part of Paul F. analyses in detail the relationship of our items 3 and 4. vol. 17. Gregory Dix. astrologers). chariot racers. Jean Magne. I already noted that there is no clear reason to trust the legendary attribution to Hippolytus which was retained in the titles above (s. 18. Jean Michel Hannsens SJ provides the fullest study of documents and sources: La Liturgie d'Hippolyte No 155 in Orientalia Christiana Analecta Rome. Hippolyte de Rome. translate the word occidere here as "execute. 17f) finds the Latin flawed. Cuming Hippolytus: A text for Students Nottingham 1976. Nor do they provide any ethical argument about how the different English verb would have a different moral meaning (as if "executing" would be less acceptable than killing in battle). cit.
literally: "with the food he is supplied. Brill. following the artifice of ascribing each sentence to a different apostle. others see it as exercizing the power of office. The implicit citation from Luke 3:14 would have been obvious to any reader in the fourth century. Brent op. 91). Some manuscripts ascribe the entire document to Clement. . 8. and also questionable social situations (like being the slave of an unbeliever). p. "the least of the apostles" and "the teacher of the Gentiles. note 24 above. Some take this reference to "authority" as meaning being under orders. Edinburgh. Clark. 283-340. since the next paragraph deals with office-bearers. Does "not praying with the bishop" label a different restriction than those relating to baptism or to access to the Eucharist? Is the underlying notion that the bishop bears a moral aura which he is responsible to protect from impurity? 22." Volume XVII in the Ante-Nicene Christian Library. cf. apparently with Bradshaw's agreement. Cf. Some historians take the names of both Clement and Hippolytus as ciphers for competing pastoral or church-political biases (cf. Grant Sperry-White The Testamendum Domini: A Text for Students A/GLS 19. cit. The name has no value as to actual personal authorship or (perhaps more important) as to any historical connection with the church at Rome. Allen Brent.10. 27. 1991. 1995).p. 1870 par. Yet the next sentence recognizes that the distinction is ambivalent. That wearing or putting on a laurel crown is a symbol of soldier status was visible much earlier when Tertullian's tract against military service was entitled de Corona." cf. James Donaldson (ed) "The Apostolical Constitutions. Some versions. The attribution is probably as legendary as that to Hippolytus (above note 14). 19. 95f. 21. 459:"Hippolytus" and "Clement" as ciphers for traditions")." 25. attribute this particular chapter 8. cit. whose Christian duty is to refuse to obey when ordered to kill. A still fuller review of authorship questions is in Jean Michel Hanssens La Liturgie d'Hippolyte Rome 1959 Orientalia Christiana Analecta No. Bebawi translates "wailing. This text is embedded amidst a long list of other questionable professions. The former would seem more likely. 23.32. who has studied the theme most carefully (Hippolytus and the Roman Church in the Third Century Leyden. sees the attribution to the earliest Hippolytus as a cipher for one strand or school of tradition. bishop of Rome. 155 (1959) pp. p. 245. 20. 26." Obviously some public and dramatic ritual of penitence is intended." Greek says "with his salary. and (b) a person qualified to give orders. note 27 below. op. 24.32 to the Apostle Paul. We note that the text is careful to speak separately to both of the two typical cases: (a) a person under orders.
The preceding canon had to do with those who seek baptism. In Search p. . Robert Beylot (ed) Testamentum Domini Ethiopien Louvain. than to these disciplines. cit. pp. 214f. this one concerns those already baptized who enter the questionable occupations. Items 1-20 resemble the Apostolic Church Order (3 above) thought to go back to the Didache. is offered in Harvey Dyck (ed) The Pacifist Impulse in Religious History U.28. 72-127 again are a parallel set. Grove. 97 cites it under the title Alexandrine Sinodus. 21-47 are like the AT mythically associated with Hippolytus (4 above). self-published. Most of these discussions attend more to the writings of individual "church fathers. Les 127 Canons des Apôtres. 1984. but without concentrating on these "discipline" texts. going back to a different basic Greek text which once had been divided into 84 or 85 canons. 1960." Religious Studies Review 18/2 April 1992. David Scholer "Early Christian Attitudes to War and Military Serive: A Selective Bibliography" Theological Students Fellowship Bulletin SeptemberOctober 1984. par. par. but selects for reproduction only materials of liturgical interest. 1996." beginning with Tertullian and Origen. A. Clark. Yet as the text goes on the difference does not remain clear. 1971. 1991. 32. Also in James Cooper and J. 23f. The Testament of our Lord. 645ff. deals helpfully with the background of the document. von Campenhausen. 44 ("De la manière de recevoir le saint baptême") pp. My own review of the challenges of interpreting the early Christian record. Edinburgh 1902. Peters. 37. 35. pp. Nottingham. 29. There is no way to know how widely the positions stated in these documents were supported by the laity. This was already the case in item 3. Périer pp. 97 30. (1977) 227-232. David Hunter "A Decade of Research on Early Christians and Military Service.. Toronto. In other milieux cf: Karol Gábris "The Question of Militarism in the Time of the Apostolic Fathers" Communio Viatorum XX. Bradshaw p. above note 20. Maclean. .. and therefore omits this passage. 595ff. "Der Kriegsdienst der Christen in der Kirche des Altertums. 48-71 are the same material again but organized differently. 2." in Tradition des Lebens Tübingen. 94ff. Cf. Patrologia Orientalis VII/4/39 Tornhout.. 31. 33. cf. pp 87ff.(eds). of Toronto Press. above. 34. Editions Brepols. The Military Question in the Early Church: A Selected Bibliography.. Mohr. Hans Fr.2 pp. Grant Sperry-White The Testamentum Domini: A Test for Students. 36. Translated here from Jean Périer and Augustin Périer. Périer op. the standard literature reviews: Peter Brock. 1988.
41. It is significant historically that texts continue to be transcribed even when they have ceased to be implemented (Bradshaw p 75). Revue de Théologie et de Philosophie 2 (1914) 345-365. and of course their reference to the rest of "Hippolytus' extant work" is beside the point. or projecting a lost ideal in the hope of restoring it. 45. Cf. In the American experience it would appear that the number of communicant Roman Catholics who commit contraception is comparable to that of the population at large. was a person for whom the line between acceptable and unacceptable service had this shape. later bishop of Tours and saint. "Authoritative-sounding statements are not always genuinely authoritative. .. the Early Experience Philadelphia. assumes. above (note 1) the historians' reminder that we do not know whether those who compiled and redacted these lists thought that they were describing actual usages. or the public.." Logically the opposite must be the case. B. Bradshaw Search. from believing that there is a normative position on the subject. or even the members who ignore the rules. 1985. Patout Burns. an obvious indication of the apparently small importance he gave it (p37).38. The basic notion that anyone might be refused membership in a "catholic" or "inclusive" church is a holdover from the pre-Constantinian experience which the standard account cited here does not take account of. 39. Bradshaw Search pp. note 36 above. cf. whichever theory of the redactors' intent might be more correct. Botte (1984 op. 67ff. the fact that in texts whose primary concern is with matters of church order and worship forms this kind of attention to questionable occupations is added (cf. 43. 42. 28f) accentuates that conversion is not described as a mere formality. sometimes linked to the verbal distinction between militare and bellare. Robert J. John Helgeland. This is the kind of case Bainton loc.it is the only place in all of Hippolytus' extant work where he mentions the topic of military service. Cf. above note 14 p. p. 79f. cit. Fortress. on how texts which sound authoritative probably were not. 65 helpfully warns against the assumption that the Constantinian turn was foundational. cf. More than once we have noted echoes of Luk 3:14. 44. write " . Christians and the Military. Martin. The reader of this collection will by now be quite aware how wrong is the editors' statement that such provisions are rare. "The church is far from practicing compelle intrare. 46. Cf." 40. That does not keep the bishops. we saw above that they were not in the earliest "Orders") and is retained for generations is a testimony to its abiding importance in the minds of redactors. Daly and J. previous note. cit.. 67." Bradshaw The Search p. Roland Bainton Christian Attitudes toward War and Peace Nashville Abingdon 1961 pp. H below. The persistence of an antimilitary bias in these texts well after the age of Constantine is significant. The same point is in Henri Secretan "Le Christianisme des Premiers Siècles et le Service Militaire".
perfidy. This phrase is cited from Proverbs 26:11 when it characterized "a stupid man repeating his folly. The categories of audientes (listeners). entangled themselves in these all over again. This explanatory phase seems to be from editor Hefele. 51. 3-47.. Cf. 2 p. in the last years before Constantine defeated him. note 36 above for the standard literature reviews. Hefele History of the Councils Second ed. 52. \ . substrati." In 2 Pe. yet . Cf. There is of course no indication of which sins are meant: whether killing. 50. James Turner Johnson The Quest for Peace Princeton 1987 pp.. 1 Edinburgh 1872 p. and "those who pray" were different status desugnations on the way (which in the churches of the fourth century was long) to admission (or restoration) to full fellowship. 53. Vol. Hefele assumes. 47. or why he would have wanted to buy his way back into the army." 49.. That does not explain either why the "first zeal" of a convert would have led him to "throw down his belt".. 22 the same phrase is applied to persons who "had once escaped the world's defilements through the knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. 48. gluttony. fornication. 2 (1876). without argument or explanation.. idolatry. Note that in this case the issue is not church membership but office. Also in Giuseppe Alberigo Les Conciles Oecuméniques Paris 1994 vol. Again the words seem to be from the editor.. the eastern Emperor. 417. Source Hefele History of the Councils Vol.47. that the phenomenon of Christians having renounced military service and trying to get in is somehow related to a specific anti-Christian measure taken by Licinius. bribery.
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