AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

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ANSVISA-75.05.01-2000 Control Valve Terminology ISBN: 1-55617-741-0

Copyright O 2000 by ISA-The Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society. All rights reserved. Not for resale. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permission of the Publisher.

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ANSVISA-75.05.01-2000

Preface
This preface, as well as all footnotes and annexes, is included for information purposes and is not part of ANSVISA-75.05.01-2000. The standards referenced within this document may contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute requirements of this document. At the time of publication, the editions indicated were valid. All standards are subject to revision, and parties to agreements based on this document are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the standards indicated within this document. Members of IEC and IS0 maintain registers of currently valid International Standards. ANSI maintain registers of currently valid U.S. National Standards. This document has been prepared as part of the service of ISA-The Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society, toward a goal of uniformity in the field of instrumentation. To be of real value, this document should not be static but should be subject to periodic review. Toward this end, the Society welcomes all comments and criticisms and asks that they be addressed to the Secretary, Standards and Practices Board; ISA; 67 Alexander Drive; P. O. Box 12277; Research Triangle Park, NC 27709; Telephone (919) 549-8411; Fax (919) 549-8288; E-mail: standards@isa.org. The ISA Standards and Practices Department is aware of the growing need for attention to the metric system of units in general, and the International System of Units (SI) in particular, in the preparation of instrumentation standards. The Department is further aware of the benefits to USA users of ISA standards of incorporating suitable references to the SI (and the metric system) in their business and professional dealings with other countries. Toward this end, this Department will endeavor to introduce SI-acceptable metric units in all new and revised standards, recommended practices, and technical reports to the greatest extent possible. Standard for Use of the International System of Units (SI): The Modern Metric System, published by the American Society for Testing & Materials as IEEE/ASTM SI 10-97, and future revisions, will be the reference guide for definitions, symbols, abbreviations, and conversion factors. It is the policy of ISA to encourage and welcome the participation of all concerned individuals and interests in the development of ISA standards, recommended practices, and technical reports. Participation in the ISA standards-making process by an individual in no way constitutes endorsement by the employer of that individual, of ISA, or of any of the standards, recommended practices, and technical reports that ISA develops. CAUTION - ISA ADHERES TO THE POLICY OF THE AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE WITH REGARD TO PATENTS. IF ISA IS INFORMED OF AN EXISTING PATENT THAT IS REQUIRED FOR USE OF THE STANDARD, IT WILL REQUIRE THE OWNER OF THE PATENT TO EITHER GRANT A ROYALTY-FREE LICENSE FOR USE OF THE PATENT BY USERS COMPLYING WITH THE STANDARD OR A LICENSE ON REASONABLE TERMS AND CONDITIONS THAT ARE FREE FROM UNFAIR DISCRIMINATION. EVEN IF ISA IS UNAWARE OF ANY PATENT COVERING THIS STANDARD, THE USER IS CAUTIONED THAT IMPLEMENTATION OF THE STANDARD MAY REQUIRE USE OF TECHNIQUES, PROCESSES, OR MATERIALS COVERED BY PATENT RIGHTS. ISA TAKES NO POSITION ON THE EXISTENCE OR VALIDITY OF ANY PATENT RIGHTS THAT MAY BE INVOLVED IN IMPLEMENTING THE STANDARD. ISA IS NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR IDENTIFYING ALL PATENTS THAT MAY REQUIRE A LICENSE BEFORE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE STANDARD OR FOR INVESTIGATING THE VALIDITY OR SCOPE OF ANY PATENTS BROUGHT TO ITS ATTENTION. THE USER SHOULD CAREFULLY INVESTIGATE RELEVANT PATENTS BEFORE USING THE STANDARD FOR THE USER’S INTENDED APPLICATION.

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THE STANDARD CANNOT ANTICIPATE ALL POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS OR ADDRESS ALL POSSIBLE SAFETY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH USE IN HAZARDOUS CONDITIONS.05: NAME COMPANY Norriseal Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group. COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation.05. Baumann H. THE USE OF THIS STANDARD MAY INVOLVE HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. Baumann H. OPERATIONS OR EQUIPMENT. Brett* R. Schoonover* L. ADDITIONALLY. Abromaitis H. Kovecses G. Weidman. F. Con-Tek Valves. Managing Director T. Boger G. J. Harthun C. Inc. Red Valve Company. Koloboff G. Richards K. Terhune The following people served as members of ISA Committee SP75: NAME D. Inc.ANSVISA-75. Systems. Stratton F. F. Union Carbide Corporation Flowserve-FCD Fluor Daniel. Abromaitis G. Sullivan R. Managing Director A. Inc. Chairman W. Chairman W. Reed. Borden COMPANY Union Carbide Corporation Parsons Energy & Chemicals Group Red Valve Company. Glavin F. Inc. Cain C. Fisher Controls International. Control Components. Barb H. Inc. Barb H. Backinger G.01-2000 -4- HOWEVER. Kraus & Company Retired H B Services Partners LLC Masoneilan Dresser Consultant * One vote per company. Weidman. Boger J. Inc. Consultant Consultant J. THE USER OF THIS STANDARD MUST EXERCISE SOUND PROFESSIONAL JUDGMENT CONCERNING ITS USE AND APPLICABILITY UNDER THE USER’S PARTICULAR CIRCUMSTANCES. Buchanan. Inc. Grinnell Corporation Consultant Consultant Yarway Company Richards Industries. Corson M. THE USER MUST ALSO CONSIDER THE APPLICABILITY OF ANY GOVERNMENTAL REGULATORY LIMITATIONS AND ESTABLISHED SAFETY AND HEALTH PRACTICES BEFORE IMPLEMENTING THIS STANDARD. The following people served as members of ISA Subcommittee SP75. Inc. Buchanan. ISA ASKS THAT ANYONE REVIEWING THIS STANDARD WHO IS AWARE OF ANY PATENTS THAT MAY IMPACT IMPLEMENTATION OF THE STANDARD NOTIFY THE ISA STANDARDS AND PRACTICES DEPARTMENT OF THE PATENT AND ITS OWNER. Consultant H B Services Partners LLC Masoneilan/Dresser Con-Tek Valves. Brodin D. Inc. and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services .

NAME M. Systems. Inc. Kersh C. CMES Inc. Consu Itant/Retired Shell Chemical Retired DeZurik Division Unit Bantrel. Ormanoski J. Valvcon Corporation Richards Industries Flowserve Corp. Sonderegger R. Fuller J. Flowserve Corporation Fluor Daniel Inc. and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services . Kellogg Company Cullen G. Leslie Controls. Zielinski D. Inc.-5S. Brett M. Inc. Fisher Controls Praxair.05. Copes-Vulcan. Langford. Tyco Flow Control Retired This published standard was approved for publication by the ISA Standards and Practices Board on 30 December 2000. Brodin F. Inc. Terhune ANSVISA-75. Ametek. Schoonover A. Libke R. Dumortier W. Bettis Corporation Control Components. Shea E. Jeanes J. Senior Flexonics. Cohen M. Skovgaard H. Inc. Boyle R. Jamison R. McEver H. Inc. Corson M. * One vote per company. Oz01 W. Inc. Lovett A.01-2000 Neles Automation Fisher Controls International. Coppler B. Feltronics Corp. Inc. Hatton J. Miller T. George A. Griffith B. Harthun B. Jones V. Glenn L. TXU Electric M. Iverson R. Inc. Maggioli COMPANY Fisher-Rosemount Systems. Frick Company Commonwealth Edison Utah State University Norriseal Con-Tek Valves. Cain C. Reed K. Louviere O. Molloy L. Guinon F. COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation. Inc. Rahmeyer J. Consultant Honeywell. McCauley R. DeZurik Valve Company Creole Engineering Sales Company Consultant/Retired Chagrin Valley Controls. Langford A. Holland A. Inc. Coughran A. Schneider Electric SA Southern Company Ivy Optiks Dow Chemical Co. W. Engels H. Bishop P. Inc. Inc.

Parsons Energy & Chemicals Group EPRI National Institute of Standards & Technology EG&G Defense Materials CANUS Corp. Eastman Kodak Co. Whetstone M. Rennie H. Wood COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation. Jr.05. Rockwell Automation Factory Mutual Research Corp. Rapley R. Inc. Weidman J. Weiss J. Systems. and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services . Reimer J. G. Yamatake Corp. Wiegle C. McFarland D.ANS 11SA-7 5. McAvinew A. Chagrin Valley Controls. Westinghouse Process Control Inc. Rapley Consulting Inc. Graeme Wood Consulting T.O 1-2 000 1 -6Bateman Engineering. Webb W. Widmeyer R. Sasajima R. Inc. Altran Corp. McCauley. Williams G.

..........-7- ANSMSA-75....................... and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services .......................................... 2 Purpose ........... ......... Systems..................................................... ............... 9 COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation..........................................................01-2000 Contents 1 Scope ...... ...................... ..........05. 3 Definitions ........................................

and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services . Systems.COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation.

and limit switches. 2 Purpose To provide a glossary of definitions commonly used in the control valve industry. 3 Definitions 3.4 Electrohydraulic actuator: a device that converts electrical energy to hydraulic pressure and into motion.7 Piston actuator: a fluid powered device in which the fluid acts upon a movable piston to provide motion to the actuator stem.) COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation.3. (See figure 1. 3.) 3. or electrically powered device which supplies force and motion to position a valve’s closure member at or between the open or closed position.3. 3. 3.2 Accessories: devices usually attached to the actuator for various control functions such as positioners. 3.5 Electromechanical actuator: a device that converts electrical energy into motion.3 Actuator: a pneumatic. 3. 3. 3. airsets. relays. solenoid valves.1 Accuracy: the degree of conformity of an indicated value to a recognized accepted standard value or ideal value.3.6 Hydraulic actuator: a fluid device which converts the energy of an incompressible fluid into motion.-9- ANSVISA-75. Systems. handwheel. (See figure 2.3.01-2000 1 Scope This standard contains terminology for control valves. and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services .2 Diaphragm actuator: a fluid powered device in which the fluid acts upon a flexible component. the diaphragm. the bellows.3.3. (See figure 2.) 3.1 Bellows actuator: a fluid powered device in which the fluid acts upon a flexible convoluted component. hydraulic.05.3 Double-acting actuator: a device in which power is supplied in either direction.3.

10 Vane actuator: a fluid powered device in which the fluid acts upon a pivoted member.01-2000 -10- FLUID . Systems.3.Single-acting diaphragm actuators 3.CONNECTION DIAPHWWGM CASES ACTUATOR SPRlN SPRING ADJUSTOR TRAVEL INDICATOR SCALE ACTUATOR STEM SPRING SEAT TMVEL IND[CATOR (A) FBuid-to-E&end stem DIAPHMGM PLATE DIAPHMGM CASES FLUID CONNECTION (SEAL ASSEMBLY) SPRING SEAT ACTUATOR SPRING YOKE - SPRING SEAT G ADJLISTOR CTUATOR STEM TMVEL INDICATOR TWVEL INDICATOR SCALE Figure 1 .ANSVISA-75. the vane.) 3. COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation. to provide rotary motion. e.. usually air.3. a spring diaphragm actuator or a spring return piston actuator. and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services .05.9 Single-acting actuator: a device in which the power supply acts in only one direction.8 Pneumatic actuator: a device that converts the energy of a compressible fluid. (See figures 1 and 2. 3. into motion.g.3.

Systems.6 Air set: a regulator that is used to control the supply pressure to the valve actuator and its auxiliaries.01-2000 Double Acting Double or Single Acting With spnng Fail Exmnded Double or Single Acting Witn Spring Fail Retracted Figure 2 . Rotary motion valves have shafts while linear motion valves generally have stems.7 Angle valve: a valve design in which one port is colinear with the valve stem or actuator.) COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation.Piston actuators 3. 3.05. and the other port is at a right angle to the valve stem. vane or diaphragm acted on by fluid pressure to generate actuator output force. 3.-11 - ANSl/lSA-75. and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services . 3. bellows. (See figure 3.4 Actuator stem or actuator shaft: the part that connects the actuator to the valve stem or shaft and transmits motion (force) from the actuator to the valve.5 Actuator effective area: the net area of piston.

10.10 Ball: a spherically shaped closure member 3. 3. flexible component that makes a hermetic seal between the stem and bonnet or body and allows stem motion. and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services . 3.ANSVISA-75.9 Back seat: a seating surface in the bonnet that mates with the closure member or valve stem in the extreme open position to provide pressure isolation of the stem seal.01-2000 -12- Figure 3 . convoluted.2 Segmented ball: a closure member that is a segment of a spherical surface which may have one edge contoured to yield a desired flow characteristic.11 Ball valve: a valve with a rotary motion closure member consisting of a full ball or a segmented ball 3.1 Full ball: a closure member that has a complete spherical surface with a flow passage through it. to account for the in-service process forces. opposite the gasket face. COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation. 3. 3. 3.8 Back face: the machined surface on the side of a through-bolted flange. that is provided for nut seating. Systems.05.13 Bench set: the shop calibration of the actuator spring range of a control valve.10.12 Bellows stem seal: a thin wall.Angle valve 3.

3. 3.6 Wafer body: a thin annular section butterfly body whose end surfaces are located and clamped between the piping flanges by bolts extending from flange to flange.14.3 Lugged body: a thin annular section body with lug protrusions on the outside diameter of the body.05.4 Pinch Body: a body containing a flexible elastomeric tubular member which can be mechanically squeezed. (See figure 8.14. Cage Guided (El) Split Body. using either through-bolting and/or tapped holes. the fluid flow passageway. (A) Globe Body.) 3. Stern Guided Figure 4 .14. 3. (See figure 4B.2 Globe body: a valve body distinguished by a globular shaped cavity around the port region.14 Body: the main pressure boundary of the valve that also provides the pipe connecting ends. Systems.01-2000 3. (See figure 4A. usually an elastomeric or polymeric material. wherein the closure member motion is linear and normal to the plane of the port.-13- ANSVISA-75.14.14.) 3. whose end surfaces mount between the pipeline flanges or may be attached to the end of a pipeline without any additional flange or retaining parts. and supports the valve trim.Guided valve bodies COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation.5 Split body: a valve body design in which the seat and gaskets are secured between two segments of a valve body. and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services .) 3.1 Encapsulated body: all surfaces of the body are covered by a continuous surface layer of a different material.14.

16 Bonnet: the portion of the valve that contains the packing box and stem seal and may guide the stem.20 Booster relay: a volume or pressure amplifying pneumatic relay that is used to reduce the time lag in pneumatic circuits by reproducing pneumatic signals with high volume and/or high pressure output. such as drain connections. It provides the principal opening to the body cavity for assembly of internal parts or it may be an integral part of the valve body.19 Bonnet.7 Weir-type body: a body having a raised contour contacted by a diaphragm to shut off fluid flow.21 Boss: a localized projection on a valve or actuator surface provided for various purposes. pressure-sealed. yoke connection or other attachments. 3.05.15 Body cavity: the internal chamber of the valve body. and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services . (See figure 5.01-2000 -14- Figure 5 .Diaphragm valve 3. auxiliary connections. or bolts through the bonnet flange. Typical bonnets are bolted.ANSVISA-75. COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation. 3. It may be deformed by bonnet bolting loading or energized by fluid pressure within the valve.18 Bonnet gasket: a deformable seal between the mating surfaces of the body and bonnet. It may consist of studs with nuts for a flanged bonnet joint. studs threaded into the bonnet neck of the body. 3. 3. threaded. 3. welded. or integral with the body.14. 3.17 Bonnet bolting: a means of fastening the bonnet to the body. Systems.) 3. It may also provide for the attachment of the actuator to the valve body. seal welded: a bonnet welded to a body to provide a zero leakage joint. Also referred as a Saunders Patent Diaphragm Valve.

(See figure 6 . Process Instrumentation Terminology. Systems.-15- ANSVISA-75. It may include a guide bushing and/ or serve to allow reversal of the valve action. COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation.Butterfly valve 3. and alignment. 3. 3.28 Capacity: the rate of flow through a valve usually stated in terms of Cv or Kv.27 Calibration cycle: the application of known values of the measured variable and the recording of corresponding values of the output readings.I-1979 (R1993).23 Bubble tight: a nonstandard term used to refer to control valve seat leakage. 3. guiding. 3. in a globe or angle body. over the range of the valve in both ascending and descending directions. it may provide the lower flow connection and its seat. In three-way valves. See ANSI/ISAS51.22 Bottom flange: a part that closes a valve body opening opposite the bonnet opening. ) Figure 6 . and facilitate assembly of other parts of the valve trim. balance. and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services . the second stage is the collapse or implosion of these cavities back into an all-liquid state as the fluid decelerates and static pressure is recovered. Refer to ANSVFCI 70-2 for specification of seat leakage classifications.01-2000 3. 3.29 Cavitation: a two-stage phenomenon of liquid flow. It may also provide stability.05.24 Bushing: a device which supports and/or guides moving parts such as valve stems or shafts. pivotally supported by its shaft. that surrounds the closure member and whose flow passages may provide flow characterization and/or a seating surface. The first stage is the formation of vapor bubbles within the liquid system due to static pressure of fluid falling below the fluid vapor pressure. 3.26 Cage: a part of a valve trim.25 Butterfly valve: a valve with a circular body and a rotary motion disk closure member.

36.36. 3. 3. 3.01-2000 -16- 3.” to provide desired flow characteristics. 3.36.30 Characterized cam: a component in a valve positioner used to relate the closure member position to the control signal.37 Cold working pressure: the maximum pressure rating of a valve or fitting coincident with ambient temperature.3 Eccentric rotary plug: closure member face of a rotary motion valve that is not concentric with the shaft centerline and moves into seat when closing.36 Closure member configurations: 3. 3. and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services .36.36. 3.31 Characterized trim: control valve trim that provides defined flow characteristics.35 Closure member: the movable part of the valve that is positioned in the flow path to modulate the rate of flow through the valve.1 Characterized: closure member with contoured surface.4 Eccentric spherical disk: the disk is a spherical segment in a rotary motion valve that is not concentric with the disk shaft and moves into the seat when closing. 3. such as equal percentage.05. Systems.32 Choked flow: a condition wherein the flow rate through a restriction does not increase when the downstream pressure is decreased at a fixed inlet pressure.34 Clearance flow: that flow below the minimum controllable flow with the closure member not seated.5 Linear: a closure member that moves in a line perpendicular to the seating plane.33 Class: a convenient round number used to designate allowable pressure/temperature ratings for valves and pipe fittings using arbritrary Class numbers from tables developed by ASME and IS0 for a variety of materials.6 Rotary: a closure member that is rotated into or away from a seat to modulate flow. usually stated in terms of Cv or Kv versus travel. 3. linear or quick opening. COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation. such as the “Vee Plug.36.36. 3. 3. 3.7 Tapered: closure member is tapered and may be lifted from seating surface before rotating to close or open. 3.ANSVISA-75. 3.2 Cylindrical: a cylindrical closure member with a flow passage through it (or a partial cylinder). generally in the range from -29’ C to +38’ C (-20’ F to +looo F).

51 Disk: a circular shaped closure member used to modify the flow rate with either linear or rotary motion COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation.” 3. 3.39 Control signal override device: a device that overrides the control signal to the valve actuator.49 Diaphragm valve: see ”Body: weir type body. 3. It is the slope of the installed flow characteristic curve. Control valve: the range through which a control valve’s input signal may be varied.40 Control valve: a power actuated device which modifies the fluid flow rate in a process control system. bypass valves. upon reversal of direction. and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services . e. See ”Snubber.-17- ANSVISA-75.” 3.05.01-2000 3. 3. 3..41 Control valve gain: the change in the flow rate as a function of the change in valve travel. etc. in a weir-type or sleeve (pinch) valve. Refer to ANSVFCI 70-2 for specification of leakage classifications.46 Data plate: a less preferred term. 3. without initiating an observable change in the position of the closure member. lock-up valves. 3.50 Direct acting valve: a valve that travels to the closed position when the signal increases. See ”Clearance flow. 3.” 3. Systems.48 Dead end shut off: a nonstandard term used to refer to control valve leakage.44 CWP: see “Cold working pressure”. 3. solenoid valves.g.47 Dead band.38 Compressor: the device.43 Cycling life: a number of cycles over which a device will operate without changing its performance beyond tolerance. that the valve stem forces against the backside of the diaphragm or sleeve to cause the diaphragm or sleeve to move and seal against the internal flow passageway of the valve body.” 3. See ”Nameplate. It consists of a valve connected to an actuator mechanism (including all related accessories) that is capable of changing the position of a closure member in the valve in response to a signal from the controlling system.42 Cracked flow: a nonstandard term.45 Dashpot: a less preferred term. 3.

59 End connection: the configuration provided to make a connection with the pipe. May be butt weld (BWE).2 Split clamp: valve end connections of various proprietary designs using split clamps to apply gasket or mating surface loading. the mechanical and seismic vibration transmitted through the piping or heat radiated toward the actuator from the valve body.55 Drip tight: a nonstandard term used to refer to control valve leakage.01-2000 -18- 3. or socket weld (SWE).ANSVISA-75. 3. 3. 3. and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services . 3.54 Drift: an undesired change in the output/input relationship over a period of time.61 Environment: ambient conditions (including temperature. Also. See "Face-to-face dimension.53 Downstream seating: seating assisted by pressure differential across the closure member in the closed position. pressure. 3.59. 3. humidity.4 Welded: valve end connections which have been prepared for welding to the line pipe or other fittings. moving the closure member slightly downstream into tighter contact with the seat ring seal that is supported by the body.1 Flanged: valve end connections incorporating flanges that mate with corresponding flanges on the piping. radioactivity and corrosiveness of the atmosphere) surrounding the valve and actuator. either male or female. 3." 3. Refer to ANSVFCI 70-2 for specification of leakage classifications.60 End-to-end dimension: a nonstandard control valve term.3 Threaded: valve end connections incorporating threads.57 Dual sealing valve: a valve that uses a resilient seating material for the primary seal and a metal-to-metal seat for a secondary seal. 3.05.58 Dynamic unbalance: the net force/torque produced on the valve stemkhaft by fluid pressure acting on the closure member and stemkhaft at stated travel and flowing conditions. 3.56 Drop tight: a nonstandard term used to refer to control valve leakage. 3.52 Disk valve: a valve with a closure member consisting of a disk that moves with a rotary or linear motion against a stationary disk. COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation.59. each disk having flow passages through it. Refer to ANSVFCI 70-2 for specification of leakage classifications.59. 3.59. Systems. 3.

62 Erosion-resistant trim: valve trim that has been designed with special surface materials or geometry to resist the erosive effects of the fluid flow.3 Fail-open: a condition wherein the valve closure member moves to an open position when the actuating energy source fails.68.05.66 Failure mode: the position to which the valve closure member moves when the actuating energy source fails. for equal increments of rated travel. with a set of bolts. 3.66.”) 3. which upon loss of actuating energy supply.1 Fail-closed: a condition wherein the valve closure member moves to a closed position when the actuating energy source fails. 3. fully open or remain in the last position.64 Face-to-face dimension: the dimension from the face of the inlet opening to the face of the outlet opening of a valve. COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation. 3.2 Fail-in-place: a condition wherein the valve closure member stays in its last position when the actuating energy source fails.68 Flow characteristic: an indefinite term.2 Inherent flow characteristic: the relationship between the flow rate and the closure member travel as it is moved from the closed position to rated travel with constant pressure drop across the valve. and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services . Fail-safe action may involve the use of auxiliary controls connected to the actuator. 3.63 Extension bonnet: a bonnet with a packing box that is extended above the usual height so to maintain the temperature of the packing within its operating limits. or studs.66.66. will cause a valve closure member to be fully closed. 3.66. whichever position is defined as necessary to protect the process.68.01-2000 3. 3.-19- ANSVISA-75..67 Flangeless control valve: a valve without integral line flanges. 3. generally extending through the companion flanges. Systems. will ideally give equal percentage changes of the flow coefficient (C. which is installed by bolting between companion flanges.65 Flange facing: the finish on the end connection that mates with gasket surfaces. 3. 3. 3.4 Fail-safe: a characteristic of a particular valve and its actuator. 3. (See below ”Inherent flow” and ” Installed flow. or K) .1 Equal percentage characteristic: an inherent flow characteristic which.

3. bonnet. Systems. This is the summation of hysteresis and dead band. (See figure 4a.70 Globe valve: a valve with a linear motion closure member whose seal is perpendicular to the stem motion.05.76 Hysteresis: the maximum difference in output value for any single input value during a calibration cycle.75 Hard plating: a thin metal deposit. particularly at high temperatures.68.6 Quick opening characteristic: an inherent flow characteristic in which a maximum flow coefficient is achieved with minimal closure member travel. one or more ports and a body distinguished by a globular shaped cavity around the port region. 3. to stroke a valve or to limit its travel. 3. COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation. excluding errors due to dead band. for a given valve travel.71 Guides. & K.68. 3. or K) . to stroke a valve or to limit its travel.) 3. 3.69 Flow coefficient (C.5 Modified parabolic characteristic: an inherent flow characteristic which provides equal percent characteristic at low closure member travel and approximately a linear characteristic for upper portions of closure member travel.73 Handwheel: a mechanical manual override device. Therefore.72 Hand jack: a manual hydraulic or mechanical override device. 3. 3. 3.77 Hysteresis plus dead band: the maximum difference for the same input between the upscale and downscale output values during a full range traverse in each direction. using a rotary wheel. 3.I-1979 ( R I 993).68. or K versus rated travel. used to provide a surface coating.. and/or bottom flange.4 Linear characteristic: an inherent flow characteristic that can be represented by a straight line on a rectangular plot of flow coefficient (C. increments of flow coefficient (C.68. using a lever. The guide is held rigidly in the body. 3. sometimes electroplated. and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services .): a constant related to the geometry of a valve.ANSVISA-75. Process Instrumentation Terminology. This difference is sometimes called hysteretic error. closure member: the means by which the closure member is aligned with the seat and held stable throughout its travel. Hard plating is many orders of magnitude thinner than hard facing. that establishes flow capacity.74 Hard facing: a material applied to valve internals to resist fluid erosion and/or to reduce the chance of galling between moving parts.01-2000 -20- 3.3 Installed flow characteristic: the relationship between the flow rate and the closure member travel as it is moved from the closed position to rated travel as the pressure drop across the valve is influenced by the varying process conditions. See ANSI/ISA-S51 . equal increments of travel provide equal ) . 3.

3.91 Liquid pressure recovery factor (F.83 Lantern ring: a rigid spacer assembled in the packing box with packing normally above and below it and designed to allow lubrication of the packing or access for a leak-off connection." In a vacuum-jacketed valve. 3. 3.79 In-line valve: a valve having a closure member that moves to seat axially in the direction of the flow path.85 Leakage class: classifications established by ANSVFCI 70-2 to categorize seat leakage allowances for different needs of seat tightness. In-line valves are normally operated by a fluid energy source but may be operated mechanically." 3.01-2000 3.78 Identification plate: a less preferred term.80 Integral seat: a flow control orifice and seat that is an integral part of the body. and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services . It is used to predict choked COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation. Also refers to valves that are enclosed in split metal jackets having internal heat passageways or electric heaters. 3.87 Lift: a nonstandard term.84 Lapping: a process of mating contact surfaces by grinding and/or polishing.81 Integral stemlshaft: a design in which the stemkhaft is an integral part of the closure member.05. 3. 3. 3.88 Limit switch: a nonstandard term.82 Jacketed valve: a valve body cast with a double wall or provided with a double wall by welding material around the body so as to form a passage for a heating or cooling medium. See "Nameplate." 3. a vacuum is created in the space between the body and secondary outer wall to reduce the transfer of heat by convection from the atmosphere to the internal process fluid. 3.) : the square root of the ratio of the actual pressure differential across the valve to the pressure differential to the vena contracta under nonvaporizing conditions without attached fittings. 3. Also referred to as "steam jacketed" or "vacuum jacketed.-21 - ANSVISA-75. See "Position switch." 3.86 Leak-off gland: a packing box with packing above and below the lantern ring so as to provide a collection point for fluid leaking past the primary seal (lower packing). 3. usually cryogenic.90 Lined valve body: a valve body in which a coating or liner has been applied to internal surfaces for corrosion/erosion protection or for flow shutoff. Systems.89 Linearity: the closeness to which a curve relating to two variables approximates a straight line. See "Travel.

3. 3.97 Modulation: the action of a control valve to regulate fluid flow by varying the position of the closure member.02-1996.98 Mounting position: the location and orientation of an actuator or auxiliary component relative to the control valve. See ISA-S75. 3.96 Mechanical limit stop: a mechanical device to limit the valve stem travel. and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services .01-2000 -22- flow of liquids. This can apply to the control valve itself relative to the piping. COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation. 3. Flow Equations for Sizing Control Valves and ANSl/lSA-S75. 3.95 Manual override: see "Hand Jack" and/or "Handwheel. Systems. Control Valve Capacity Test Procedures.Live loaded packing 3. s GLAND STUD GLAND FOLLOWER STUFFING BOX PACKING Figure 7 .05.93 Lubricator isolating valve: a manually operated valve used to isolate the packing lubricator assembly from the packing box." 3.94 Lubricator packing box: a packing arrangement consisting of a lantern ring with packing rings above and below with provision to lubricate the packing.01-1985 (R1995). wear or consolidation of packing or gaskets.92 Live loading: a type of sealing system which incorporates a spring element capable of providing a sufficient load over a range of motion to compensate for thermal expansion.) BELLEVILLE MQKE STEM SPRINGS 9.ANSl/lSA-75. (See figure 7.

purged: a packing arrangement consisting of a lantern ring inside the packing rings to permit introduction of a purge fluid. 3. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) uses the term "nominal pressure" the same way that ANSI uses the term "class" in identifying piping component pressure rating.'' 3. It is a convenient round number for reference purposes and is only loosely related to manufacturing dimensions.108 Packing box. 3. 3.106 Packing: a sealing system consisting of deformable material contained in a packing box which usually has an adjustable compression means to obtain or maintain an effective seal.101 Needle valve: a type of valve having a needle style plug.109 Packing flange: a device that transfers the deforming mechanical load to the packing follower.107 Packing box: the chamber. A packing flange is fastened by studs.104 Normally closed valve: see "Fail-close. IS0 uses initials DN as an abbreviation for the term with the letters DN followed by a numerical value designating size. All equipment of the same nominal size and nominal pressure rating shall have the same mating dimensions appropriate to the type of end connections.102 Nominal size: a numerical designation of size which is common to all components in a piping system other than components designated by outside diameters or by thread size.105 Normally open valve: see "Fail-open.110 Packing follower: a part which transfers the deforming mechanical load to the packing from the packing flange or nut. 3.99 Multiple orifice: a style of valve trim where the flow passes through a multiple of orifices in parallel or in series.-23- ANSVISA-75. 3. and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services .103 Nominal pressure: a numerical designation relating to pressure that is a convenient round number for reference purposes. Systems. 3. COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation. in the bonnet.100 Nameplate: a plate attached to a control valve bearing the name of the manufacturer and a listing of valve specifications. IS0 uses the initials PN as an abbreviation for the term with the letters PN followed by a numerical value designating pressure rating.01-2000 3. 3. 3.'' 3. All equipment of the same nominal diameter and nominal pressure rating shall have the same mating dimensions appropriate to the type of end connections. surrounding the stem and containing packing and other stem sealing and guiding parts. 3.05.

115 Pinch or clamp valve: a valve consisting of a flexible elastomeric tubular member where flow control and shutoff is accomplished by mechanically squeezing the flexible member. 3. (See figure 8.116 Piston ring seal: a seal ring installed in a groove on a piston or closure member circumference to minimize the clearance flow between the piston outer diameter and the cylinder bore.05.01-2000 -24- 3. Systems. 3.113 Packing lubricator assembly: a device for injection of lubricant/sealer into a lubricator packing box. 3.” 3.111 Packing gland: a nonstandard term.114 Packing nut: a packing nut is threaded into the packing box transmitting the deforming mechanical load to the packing. See ”Packing follower.112 Packing leakage: the quantity of process fluid that escapes through the valve packing.) Figure 8 . and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services .ANSVISA-75.117 Plug: a term frequently used to refer to the closure member. 3.Pinch valve 3. COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation.

118 Plug configurations: see ”Closure member configurations. bonnet and/or bottom flange to guide the plug’s post. and automatically adjusts its output to the actuator in order to maintain a desired position of the closure member in proportion to the input signal.119 Plug valve: a rotary motion valve with a closure member that may be cylindrical or conical 3. or K to the smallest controllable flow coefficient (C. or K of the valve at rated travel. or a skirt. and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services . and (2) the opening of a valve’s inlet or outlet passageways.127 Precision: a nonstandard term.121 Port guiding: a valve closure member with wings.122. 3.122.” 3. 3. suited to a double-acting actuator 3.130 Rated flow coefficient: the flow coefficient (C.123 Position indicator: see ”Travel indicator.125 Position transmitter: the position transmitter is a device that is mechanically connected to the valve stem or shaft and generates and transmits a pneumatic or electrical signal representing the valve position. hydraulic or electrical device which relates to the valve stem to detect a single. 3. which is mechanically connected to a moving part of a final control element or its actuator.-25- ANSVISA-75. COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation.129 Rangeability: the ratio of the largest flow coefficient (C. 3. 3.120 Port: (1) The flow control orifice of a control valve. Systems.1 Double acting: a positioner with two outputs. suited to a spring-opposed actuator.01-2000 3. 3.” 3. 3.126 Post guiding: a design using guide bushing or bushings fitted into the body. 3.128 Pressure energized seal: a seal energized by differential pressure. See ”Repeatability. ) .05.122 Positioner: a position controller.124 Position switch: a position switch is a pneumatic. within which the deviation from the specified flow characteristic does not exceed the stated limits.2 Single acting: a positioner with one output.” 3. fitting into the seat ring bore. ) . preset valve stem position. or K ) . 3.

approaching from the same direction. It does not include hysteresis. 3. 3. drift and repeatability. dead band.136 Resolution: the least interval between two adjacent discrete details which can be distinguished one from the other.” 3.139 Seating surface: the line of contact between the closure member and its mating surface which establishes valve shutoff.137 Reverse acting valve: a valve that travels to the open position when the signal increases.134 Repeatability: the closeness of agreement among a number of consecutive measurements of the output for the same value of input under the same operating conditions. or K ) .143 Seat ring: a part of the valve body assembly that provides a seating surface for the closure member and may provide part of the flow control orifice. It includes hysteresis. 3. 3. 3.01-2000 -26- 3. 3. 3. 3. Refer to ANSVFCI 70-2 for specification of leakage classifications.144 Seat. Systems. approaching from both directions.132 Relative flow coefficient: the ratio of the flow coefficient (C. 3. 3.05. spring-loaded: a seat utilizing a spring that exerts a force at the point of closure member contact to improve the sealing characteristics. 3.135 Reproducibility: the closeness of agreement among repeated measurements of the output for the same value of input made under the same operating conditions over a period of time. for full range traverses.140 Seat angle: the angle between the axis of the seat orifice and the seating surface.145 Sensitivity: the ratio of the change in output magnitude to the change of the input which causes it.ANSVISA-75. COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation.142 Seat load: the net contact force between the closure member and seat.131 Rated travel: the amount of movement of the valve closure member from the closed position to the rated position. and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services . at given travel to the rated flow coefficient (C.138 Screwed ends: a nonstandard term. 3. 3. threaded.141 Seat leakage: the quantity of fluid passing through a valve when the valve is in the fully closed position with a pressure differential across the trim. after steady-state has been reached.133 Relative travel: the ratio of travel at a given travel to the rated travel.). or K. See “End connections.

150 Snubber: a device that is used to damp the motion of the valve stem.158 Stem guide: a guide bushing closely fitted to the valve stem and aligned with the seat. 3.155 Stem anti-rotation device: a mechanical means of preventing rotation of the linear actuator stem and/or valve stem. used outside the bonnet to protect the valve stem from the surrounding atmosphere. 3.153 Static unbalance: the net force produced on the valve stem by the fluid pressure acting on the closure member and stem with the fluid at rest and with stated pressure conditions. 3.147 Shaft bearings: devices used in rotary valves to support the shaft and guide the closure member through its travel.01-2000 3.146 Shaft: the mechanical member used to support and move a rotary closure member. 3. 3.151 Spot face: a machined annular surface around a bolt hole on the side of a through bolted flange. May be plain or reinforced. 3." COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation. and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services .152 Spring rate: the force change per unit change in length of a spring. 3.154 Steam-jacketed valve: see "Jacketed valve. 3.05. opposite the gasket face. 3.156 Stem boot: a protective device similar to a flexible bellows. 3.-27- ANSVISA-75.148 Sliding disk: a flat or wedge-shaped sliding closure member that modifies flow rate with linear motion across the flow path. Systems. that is provided for nut seating. 3.157 Stem connector: the device that connects the actuator stem to the valve stem.160 Stem seals: see "Bellows stem seal" and "Packing.149 Slip-in liner: an annular shaped liner that makes a slight interference fit with a butterfly body bore and which may be readily forced into position through the body end. 3." 3.159 Stem rotation: a phenomenon that occurs in linear motion valves when the hydraulic forces from the process fluid cause the closure member to rotate about the stem axis. 3.

3.164 Three-way valve: a valve with three end connections.” 3. COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation.” 3.163 Stroke time: a nonstandard term.05.Three way valves 3. see ”Travel.ANSVISA-75.167 Transducer: a device that is actuated by power from one system and transmits power in another form to a second system.) Figure 9 .” 3.161 Stroke: a nonstandard term. (See figure 9. see ”Travel time.” 3. see ”Travel cycle. Systems. such as a pressure transducer that sends a signal proportional to the measured pressure. used for combining or diverting flow.165 Throttling: see ”Modulating.01-2000 -28- 3.” 3. and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services .162 Stroke cycle: a nonstandard term.168 Travel: the movement of the closure member from the closed position to an intermediate or rated full open position.166 Topworks: a nonstandard term for ”Actuator.

3.-29- ANSVISA-75.169 Travel cycle: travel of the closure member from its closed position to the rated travel opening and its return to the closed position. 3. moving the seat into tighter contact with the closure member. 3.175 Upstream seating: seating assisted by pressure differential across the seat in the closed position.172.01-2000 3. one or more ports between end openings and a movable closure member which opens. consisting of a fluid retaining assembly. or closes the port(s).172 Trim: the internal components of a valve that modulate the flow of the controlled fluid. 3.172. or degrees of rotation.176 Vacuum-jacketed valve: see "Jacketed valve.4 Reduced trim: control valve trim that has a flow area smaller than the full flow area for that valve. 3. 3.05. 3." 3. 3.2 Anti-noise trim: a control valve trim style that by its geometry reduces the noise generated by fluid flowing through the valve." 3. Systems. plastic or other readily deformable material used either in the closure member component or seat ring to provide tight shutoff with minimal actuator forces.173 Trunnion: shaft extension(s) on a rotary closure member used to locate and support it with bearings within the valve body.172. COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation. 3. percent of travel. and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services . restricts.5 Soft-seated trim: valve trim with an elastomeric.170 Travel indicator: a pointer and scale used to externally show the position of the closure member.3 Balanced trim: control valve trim designed to minimize the net static and dynamic fluid flow forces.1 Anti-cavitation trim: a control valve trim style that by its geometry reduces or eliminates the tendency of the controlled liquid to cavitate. from fluid pressure. 3. acting on the trim.172.171 Travel time: the time required for one-half a travel cycle.177 Valve: a device used for the control of fluid flow.172. 3. typically in terms of units of opening.1 74 Turndown: see "Rangeability.

the vena contracta normally occurs just downstream of the actual physical restriction. In a control valve. COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation. and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services .180 Vena contracta: the portion of a flow stream where fluid velocity is at its maximum and fluid static pressure and the crosssectional area are at their minimum. Systems.181 Yoke: the structure that rigidly connects the actuator power unit to the valve.05." 3. in a linear motion valve.30 - 3.01-2000 . 3.179 Valve stem: the mechanical member.178 Valve plug: see "Closure member. that connects the actuator stem with the closure member. 3.ANSVISA-75.

COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation. Systems. and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services .

ISA is an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) accredited organization. and technical reports is one of ISA's primary goals.Developing and promulgating technically sound consensus standards. and Automation Society Licensed by Information Handling Services . Box 12277 Research Triangle Park. chairmen. please write: ISA Attn: Standards Department 67 Alexander Drive P. To obtain additional information on the Society's standards program. ISA administers United States Technical Advisory Groups (USTAGs) and provides secretariat support for International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) committees that develop process measurement and control standards. and reviewers. the Standards and Practices Department relies on the technical expertise and efforts of volunteer committee members. recommended practices. To achieve this goal. NC 27709 ISBN 1-55617-741-0 COPYRIGHT The Instrumentation.O. Systems.

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