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Anthony Braxton

For Four Orchestras

ANTHONY BRAXTON For Four Orchestras
Arista A3L 8900 (3-LP)

DEDICATED TO THE HISTORIAN-WRITER-EDUCATOR EILEEN SOUTHERN
[NOTE: graphic title replaced by "{82}" or "{Comp. 82}" below; all other text appears in the original.]

Composition {82} is the first completed work in a series of ten compositions that will involve the use of multiple-orchestralism and the dynamics of spacial activity. This work is scored for 160 musicians and has been designed to utilize both individual and collective sound-direction (in live performance). Each orchestra is positioned near the corners of the performing space, and the audience is seated in both the center and sides of the space (around and in between each orchestra). The resulting activity has been constructed to fully utilize every area of the room--which is to say, each section of the performing space will give the listener a very different aspect of the music. The science related to how this multiple use of space is utilized, will also open another chapter in multi-orchestra activity, and hopefully this work will be viewed as a positive contribution to transitional multi-orchestralism--as we move to the next cycle. The nature of how {Comp. 82} extends the dynamic possibilities of multi-orchestra activity has to do with its use of spaciality--involving both the nature of how information is transferred from orchestra to orchestra (where the listener of this record can hear the actual movement of activity change speakers) with the addition of 'trajectoral-activity' (where, in a live performance, the listener can experience the route of a given transfer). More
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Anthony Braxton

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so, this composition has also been constructed to include the actual change of performance direction as well. In other words 'information' in {Comp. 82} would also involve how the rotation of a given ensemble (as that ensemble is playing) changes the actual direction of the group making the music. This has been accomplished by having all of the performers (with the exception of the percussionist and the harpist) in rotating chairs--where even the direction of the music is calculated. Thus, the nature of spaciality in this composition would encompass an additional dynamic inclusion, for the spacial implications of environment would thus take on added dimensions. Because, in fact, to experience the realness of this composition is to experience a living and breathing universe. The methodology underlying this use of dimensionalism, would open up several new organizational approaches as well. Compositionally speaking, the solidification of this approach would help clarify the exact nature of how 'information' could be channeled for spacial activity--and this is especially true for acoustic instruments. The possibilities were: A. information moving from orchestra to orchestra (with special co-ordinates determining which points would initiate what) B. trios—duos—solos C. multiple information (the use of activity with involved different language factors taking place at once) D. solo activity. To that is added: E. the given direction of multiple information F. the spread (or directional change) of a given idea G. the double spread of activity (involving two or more orchestras changing into different directions) H. the individual spread of activity (having to do with the change of direction of isolated individuals rather than the ensemble). And this is only the beginning. For the circular implications of this methodological approach would also allow for 'trajectoral-coding' (the ability to project a sound to a particular time-space—co-ordinate) and this breakthrough would enable information to be channeled in exact 'sound-paths' (rather than only the basic area that is desired). The dynamics for this technique would thus give new insight to the question of spacial-location, and the implications of what this development would now pose for multi-orchestralism is enormous. The solidification of multiorchestralism—as a transformational projectional (creative) route—can now be viewed as a medium that utilizes the same sonic dynamics as activity on the physical universe level—as well as a medium that is functional with respect to how the laws of universal activity seemed to function—and finally as a medium that would have the dynamics to reshape (and participate in) the next challenge of alternative functionalism. Moreover, the realness of 'trajectoral-coding' would give new insight to the whole understanding of 'performance space,' in that the use of this technique would establish some basis for viewing the concert as something more than just a space to present the music. The use of this technique would move to outline the significance of both how a given section of the space is to be utilized with regards to its scientific treatment, as well as what that treatment might vibrationally (or spiritually) mean. In other words, the use of 'trajectoralcoding' would establish the performing space as an equal
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Anthony Braxton

For Four Orchestras

factor in the 'experience' (not just in the sense of whether the space has a good sound for music or not, or if the space is visually pleasing) and as such, the total performance is not separate from what is being performed. For this reason, I found it necessary to move towards establishing an alternative approach to cataloging space as well. In other words, every section of the performing space is calculated with respect to its function spacially and a coding system has also been established (later to be superimposed on the space) as to the aesthetic and mystical significance of what a given utilization really implies. When complete, the realness of {Comp. 82} can be viewed with respect to what its performance will mean in a total (i.e. aesthetic—scientific—spiritual) sense. For at the heart of this work is only the desire to participate in creativity and have the participation be of positive value (and intention) and, while doing so, also 'mean somethin' as well. The 'spacial-coding' of {Comp. 82} can thus be viewed in this cycle with respect to 'various zones' of activity and is represented in Diagram A. The nature of how this coding has been utilized is as follows: I. Trajectoral activity with mass. J. Trajectoral activity with opposition. K. Trajectoral activity that is isolated (by itself). L. Trajectoral activity in each given zone (or sector). However, while {Comp. 82} is the first complete usage of this approach, it should not be viewed as totally representative of my use of multi-orchestralism. For all of the impositions in this series will be constructed from this same central pool of information, and each work will hopefully underline some basic projectional and vibrational aspect of that information. The use of 'source material' has to do with my construction of a central pool of 'sound-shape-relationships' as a focal point for developing a particular projectional thrust of creative activity. The basis of this approach has to do with my belief that certain types of sonic materials have multi-dimensional consequences—and that the mystical and vibrational information related to have given areas of shape and color could be utilized (for transformational creativity) is directly connected to the next understanding of process—that being, a kind of of information that moves to restore world 'meaning' and spirituality (as well as dynamics). For the last year and some, I have been constructing a language pool—having to do with isolating various uses of shape and color as a means to provide an alternative methodological basis for 'construction' (in this context 'construction' as related to vibrational 'postulation' or 'doing'). The progressional development of this information would move to clarify my own creative projectional route as well, and this area of research has become very important to my work. Yet, I have not meant to imply that my information—or even understanding—of this area is complete, because there is much more information to learn in the next cycle. The basic reason I have moved to create a pool of shape possibilities is to establish a series of works which utilize the dynamics of how principle information can be viewed—(hopefully with a transformational attitude— rather than looking at process as isolated function with no 'meta' purpose in a life giving context)—and while doing so, also help establish alternative basics for viewing functional creative possibilities. It is for this reason that I have come to view my activity as an exploration of color and shape, rather than 'something' that only expresses how I feel in a given moment. More so, the projectional realness of my activity can be viewed in the same context —that being; a conceptual, emotional, and methodological inquiry into the nature of how given areas of color and shape are utilized and how that utilization is related to the 'meta-reality' significance of creativity (what it really is) —as viewed through the collected information handed down through World culture (and also what this question could mean for transitional, 'earth,' in this time zone). Rather than function from the absolutism of 'system,' as it is viewed in this cycle, I have opted to move toward the subjective—affinity—interpretation of 'shape' and 'color' as a means to establish my viewpoint. It is because of this affinity position that I have established the pool resource that {Comp. 82} is drawn from, and the actual 'stuff' (the creativity) of this composition cannot be separated from what this position implies as well. To experience this piece is to participate in a given 'aspect' of what this information has yielded at this point. The total thrust of my work in multiple orchestralism will move to clarify what position {Comp. 82} actually has (with regards to the compositions particular dynamics) and, in doing so, also provide a broader context for viewing

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transitional multiple orchestra creativity. My involvement with this medium will especially become clear after the entire series of works from these co-ordinates are completed. For I view all of the pieces in this series as representing one creative statement. The other works from this series (that being series A) are:

CONSTRUCTION There are several different uses of time regulation in {Comp. 82} Because of this, each area of the music has been designed to accent a 'particular' use of principle. The time functions are: 1. Normal metric time (i.e. all orchestras functioning from the same pulse or time—co-ordinate). 2. Multiple metric time (i.e. two or more orchestras in different tempos). 3. Elastic time (i.e. a time co-ordinate that is always accelerating or retarding). 4. Rubato time (i.e. a co-ordinate that allows the conductor to 'draw out' a given section of activity). Plus the mixture of any of these co-ordinates in every combination. (The problem of what this 'addition' poses for conducting is solved by the use of television monitors—connecting with each conductor—so that sectional 'adjustments' can be regularly dealth with).

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Anthony Braxton

For Four Orchestras

ADDITIONAL BACKGROUND {Comp. 82} was formulated in the fall of 1974 after Nickie and I returned to make our home in America. This project was especially important to me, for the challenge of multiple Orchestra Activity has been on my mind ever since I can remember. I can still recall the excitement I felt when my family would tell me stories about famous 'big band' battles (some of which took place in my own neighborhood) where two or more ensembles would participate in making the music at the same time. It was also in this period that I developed an interest in researching the Kansas City era of the twenties and thirties involving the competition of creative improvisational ensembles and what this implied for multi-orchestralism. The realness of multiple orchestra activity would also affect my interest in parade and drum corp music in that all three musical situations involve large spacial arenas with multiple activity rather than the traditionally confined and centered classical orchestral situation. Musiciancomposers like Scott Joplin and John Philip Sousa were among the many talented people who helped reshape what this dynamic projection (medium) would mean in transitional America. We can only imagine what the vibrational atmosphere must have been like in places like Sedalia, Missouri during that time zone, for it is clear that the use of multi-orchestralism was widespread. There has always been something special about the reality of different ensembles making music in the same physical universe space that has excited my imagination. It is as if the whole of the universe were swallowed up—leaving us in a sea of music and color. The stories I read and the parade events I experienced in the early period of my life, made a lasting impression on my understanding of multi-orchestralism (and this was only the beginning). In the middle sixties I discovered many new areas of multi-orchestralism and it was also in this period that I began to learn about the dynamic spectrum of the medium—as manifested in world creativity. One of the first compositions that would affect me was the fourth symphony of Charles Ives which, although involving only one orchestra, achieved a multi-orchestral breakthrough anyway. After Ives, I began to discover some of the activity reshaping the past Webern school in the late fifties and sixties. The work of Karlheinz Stockhausen would have a profound impact on me in this regard, and his 'Gruppen' for three orchestras and 'Carrie' for four orchestras were among the works that opened new possibilities for this context. Add to this the works of Yennis Xenakis (i.e. Polytope for four Orchestras) and the activity Sun Ra opened up in the late fifties and sixties—involving the spacial implications of multi-orchestralism as well as the environmental potential of what that development posed (i.e. the outside concert in Central Park or his use of movement in performance) and suddenly the significance of multi-orchestralism began to reveal new dimensions and challenges. Moreover, the breadth of this activity would help clarify the significance of multi-orchestralism in this time zone—both in a conceptual and functional sense (and while doing so, contribute many valuable and exciting paths for the creative musician to extend from as well) —and in a dynamic and relevant sense—having to do with the need to utilize the projectional spectrum of creative routes (i.e. mediums) as a means to sustain (and in some cases establish) 'culture.' The work that took place in the sixties by these musicians—and many others as well—would do this and more. For the projectional path of creativity in the next cycle is directly related to the dynamics that permeated the understanding and move towards multi-sensoral activity as it solidified in the fifties and sixties. Yet I do not mean to promote the activity that took place in this time zone at the expense of the composite offerings which have been handed to us from world culture, because this would be a serious distortion. To really view the realness of multi-orchestralism is to see the medium with respect to the composite solidification of world creativity. For the dynamics of multiple orchestralism transcend the narrow interpretation given to it in this time zone and must instead be viewed as an integral projectional factor that is manifested in every culture. This medium can be experienced all over the planet—from African and Indian cultures as well as western culture (which is to say, in every culture group there is a projection [form or medium] that corresponds to what we, in this culture, would refer to as multiple orchestral activity). To view the spectrum of earth creativity is to become aware of how the dynamics of a given region are manifested through its particular use of given creative projections (styles or mediums) and the realness of what this use signifies is relevant to the collected information reshaping multiple orchestral developments. For, however the surface differences between various culture groups are perceived, we must not lose sight of the universality that underlies (and binds) what a given projection
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really means (in both its dynamic and vibrational sense). In that light, a particular conceptual treatment can be viewed with respect to the insight it sheds on the reality of its given creative thrust—what it means in itself (or what it has historically meant—and why) or what it could mean for transformation of the present time cycle— rather than viewing an isolated projection as being 'more' or 'less' advanced when compared or analyzed (which is how this culture tends to view initiations—creative or not). The progressional expansion of multi-orchestral activity has also affected the changing developments reshaping technology—with regards to creativity—in this time-zone. For the advent of electronic technology has opened up many new creative projectional routes for exploration. In actual terms, this new technology would have a great impact in both the area of acoustics and timbre, and all of these developments would have a deep affect on the dynamic expansion of creative orchestra techniques. But the solidification of multi-orchestralism cannot be viewed as an outgrowth of electronic technology because, in fact, the medium had long preceded electronic music. If anything, the reality of multi-orchestral activity forecasted the need for electronic technology because of the dynamic spacial and directional possibilities inherent in the medium. The developments that reshaped electronic technology can be viewed as a dynamic tool for gaining an aspect of multi-orchestralism, and the emergence of instruments like the synthesizer would greatly enhance what possibilities the creative composer could draw from. Yet, the reality of Multiple Orchestra activity can be viewed as necessarily separate from many of these developments, and the progressional spread of this medium can still be looked at in terms of its own unique functional reality—that being, a medium utilizing acoustic instruments (or electronic, since it really makes no difference) with the possibility of multi-dimensional sound and visual effects. This is then a medium designed to draw on the natural and scientifically structured—possibilities of spacial and directional sound—activity. The creative challenge of multi-orchestralism still remains one of the most challenging areas of participation, and I have no doubt that the next cycle will see more activity of this sort. For the basics, underlying the reality of this medium, can be viewed as the fullest use of the pure sound arena—in an extended context—that I know of. This is because in multi-orchestralism we are commenting on a living and breathing creative environment—one which could also incorporate whatever aspect of technology is desired (and such is not stagnant). The dynamics of this projectional route will continue to be of relevance for the next cycle as well. The actual composing of {Comp. 82} took place in July of 1977, lasting until the middle of May, 1978 (with sequence corrections up until August). The piece is scored for 160 musicians and each orchestra is made up with the same individual components. The make-up of each orchestra is as follows: two flues (one doubling on piccolo), oboe, English horn, two clarinets (one doubling on soprano clarinet), bass clarinet, bassoon, two trumpets, two trombones, bass trombone, tuba, harp, five first violins, five second violins, five violas, four cellos, three basses, and three percussion. The original floor plan of the composition was not able to be used for this recording as the space requirement it necessitated exceeded what was possible for us, so an alternate seating arrangement was utilized. The actual recording of {Comp. 82} took place in May, '78, on the campus of Oberlin College and involved four intensive sessions in two days. For this reason, the composition was recorded in sequence-patches, rather than in sectional areas. The total material would also exceed two hours and a half and as such, I have taken out about thirty minutes of the music in order to preserve the sound quality of this record. There have also been other adjustments as well, for the problem of time and economics in a project like this has to be taken into account—but what is documented here is an excellent version of the 'essence' of the piece. The placement of activity in this project has been designed to totally utilize the spacial dynamics of the quadraphonic technology—each orchestra will be heard coming from a separate speaker, and the mixture of events in a given section should give the sense of sound movement through space—and this will also be apparent (though to a somewhat lesser extent) to stereo record players as well. Each section of the music will accent some particular aspect of spacial activity—and do so in accordance to the overall conceptual and musical plan of the total schematic of the work. As such, the spectrum of events in this composition will touch on the dynamics of multiorchestralism as it applies to the moving of mass sound figurations from point to point—the use of intensity as a timberal and dynamic transitional factor—the use of mass sound block (or walls) as a language point and conceptual area—the use of space as the 'working' operation basics for establishing the nature of how given

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events would be set up (or programmed)—and the rotation of the orchestra itself (which orchestra is to be used and the system surrounding how given information is to be transmitted through what given spacial path). {Comp. 82} utilizes all of these operatives and more, for the realness of multiple orchestra activity directly sheds light on the cross vibrational activity that takes place in everyday living (that being the realness of creative —and 'real'—invention and how it is related to the very fabric of existence on this plane). For at the heart of my series of work in multi-orchestralism is the attempt to create a music that can dynamically accentuate (and celebrate) the multi-complexual—and not complexual—realness of life on this planet, as a means to be better prepared to deal with this sector in space, as a factor that might hopefully be positively related to what this preparation could vibrationally and spiritually reveal about 'living.' Anthony Braxton August, 1978 First Recording

Produced by Michael Cuscuna Executive Producer: Steve Backer Recorded at Hall Auditorium, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio on May 18 and 19, 1978. Recording facilities by Stokes Sound, Hudson, Ohio. Recording engineer: Arthur Stokes Technical director: Tom Bethal Mixed at Soundmixers, New York City Remix engineer: William Wittman Editing engineer: John Pace Special thanks to Wendall Logan for his help in this project and to Dean Bowe and the music department of Oberlin College. Thank you: Steve Backer, Michael Cuscuna, Marilyn Crispell, Steven Charney, Julie Haines, Lise Brown, Kathy Compton, Susie Cartwright, George Cartwright, Tom Collins, Miles Gassaway, Steve Smith, Joe Giardullo, Larry Chernicoff, Sylvain Groux, Steve Meltzer, Ronnie Solomon, Marianne Boggs, Mimi Bluestone, Laura Nixon, Steven Katz, Bill Jamieson, Heli Vuorio, Seppo Vuorio, Linda Zerella, Raoul Vezina, Rusell Berke, Michael Garden, Michael Butler. I would also like to express my appreciation to Murray Gross for his help in making this project possible. Nickie and I would like to thank Fred Ponzini of the Xerox Corp. in White Plains, New York. Part of the funding for this project was donated by the National Endowment for the Arts. Finally I would like to thank my wife Nickie for the help she has given me in this project (and all of my other projects as well). Without her help, this work could not have happened on any level. Compatible Quad/Stereo CD-4 discreet Published by Synthesis Music, BMI Orchestra Photography: Barbara Mayfield Diagrams rendered by Jan McKendree & Joseph Ramer, Inc. ARISTA RECORDS, INC. 6 West 57th Street, New York, NY 10019. A subsidiary of Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc.

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All of the multi-orchestral compositions in series A & B will be drawn from a pool of master co-ordinates (i.e. time and density sound formations) as a means to establish a particular investigatory approach. This pool of information will provide both the systemic and meta-systemic framework underlying compositional treatment (dynamics) and conceptual intent. Functionally, these master co-ordinates can be viewed in the contact of 'skeletal structures.' (or in this case) 'source-material'—and this material will provide a continuity from which one can better experience the whole of my work in multi-orchestralism (as it pertains to series A & B). Each composition in this series will accentuate the dynamics of treatment—'how given structures (with universal properties) can be utilized for different areas of the music'—and yet not be the same. For the basis underlying information in series A & B has to do with the collision of directional 'mass' activity from point to point (or orchestra to orchestra). All of the material in these master co-ordinates are in color, and each situation has been created with the understanding that alternative (and later transformational) philosophical and spiritual degrees would be transposed on each master shape—as that shape meets the requirement for its particular cosmic 'law' (relating to the question of information sorting and designation). Each color can then be viewed with respect to both its musical (or note) equivalent, as well as its astrological and numerological equivalent. Moreover, the use of this technique would also involve its directional assignment—that being, each color would signify a given area of the performing space (for the musician to project the music to) while at the same time also provide the actual notated music (for execution). There are at present two thousand complete master co-ordinates for this series.

KENNETH MOORE is a member of the orchestral conducting staff of Oberlin Conservatory. Without his help this project could not have taken place. I consider it an honor to have had the opportunity to meet and work with Mr. Moore and I hope that this project is only the first of many. I would really like to 'especially' thank Mr. Moore for his help, and wish him continued success. GENE YOUNG received his Bachelor's of Music from Oberlin College in 1960 and later studied under the direction of Eric Leinsdorf at the Mozarteum Akademie in Salzburg, Austria. Mr. Young as played trumpet with such orchestras as the New Orleans Philharmonic, the American Shakespeare Theater Orchestra and the Mobile Symphony and has been conductor of the Oberlin and of the New Direction Series at Oberlin College as well as appearing as guest conductor with the Hudson Valley Philharmonic. Mr. Young presently holds the position of Associate Professor of Trumpet and Wind Ensemble at Oberlin Conservatory of Music in Ohio. ROBERT BAUSTIAN, born in Iowa, received his Bachelor's and Master's Degrees from the Eastman School of Music at Rochester, New York. In Zurich, Switzerland he continued advanced studies joining the staff of the Zurich opera and later joined the Hessian State Opera in Wiesbaden, Germany as Second Conductor becoming the first American conductor on permanent staff of any European opera house. Mr. Baustian has appeared as guest conductor throughout Europe as well as in the U.S. with such orchestras as the Kansas City, Akron and Atlanta Symphony Orchestras. He has also been musical administrator and conductor of the well-known Santa Fe Opera for all of its 21 seasons. At present, Mr. Baustian conducts various orchestras and operas and also teaches conducting at the Oberlin College Conservatory of Music in Ohio. MURRAY GROSS was born in 1955 in Buffalo, New York. After attending the Interlochen Arts Academy, he studied at the New England Conservatory and the Oberlin Conservatory where he received a Master of Music degree in conducting. He has studied with Robert Baustian and with Charles Bruck at the Pierre Monteux Domaine School. Along with conducting, Gross is active as a pianist and composer. His works have been performed all over the United States and have won numerous prizes including a Broadcast Music Inc. award. He has studied composition with Donald Martino, Richard Hoffmann, and Mario Davidovsky. Murray Gross is presently studying in Munich on a German Exchange Grant.

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For Four Orchestras

ORCHESTRA I violin I Francine Swartzentruber Shelley Fowle Lilyn Graves Lorraine Adel Robert Scarrow Marriane Smith Marcus Woo Amorie Robinson Jennifer Steiner Kathy Blackwell Naomi Barlow James Thomas Sarah Bloom Rachel Yurman Steven Harrison Elizabeth Warren Suzanne Wijsman Elizabeth Knowles Mark Shapire Suzanne Tarshis Leon Dorsey Celeste Johnson (+pic) Joel Karr (afl) Michael Zakim John Guest (+Eb-cl) Mark Gallagher (bcl) Pamela Hill Cameron McClusky (enhn) Allen Smith John Bourque David Driesen Robert Asmussen Richard Ruotolo Mark Kaiser Barry Jenson Cynthia Mowery John Gardner Andrew Collier Stephen Pascher

ORCHESTRA II Barry Sargent Zabeth Oechlin Edward Shlasko Steven Schuch Audrey Hale Lori Fay Andra Marx Alison Feuerwerker Ellen Ziontz Lauri Gutman Amy Leventhal Jeffery Durachta Kathleen Elliott Helen McDermott Tom Rosenberg Steven Drake Dawn Wilder Sarah Binford Michael Talbert Robert Adair Mikkel Jordahl Leonard Garrison (+pic) Wendy Tarnoff (afl) David Hostetler Marty Rossip (+Eb-cl) Cynthia Douglass (bcl) Carolyn Hove Giselle Lautenbach (?enhn) Ann Kosanovic Alan Campbell Thomas Gotwals David Fogg Ann Mondragon David Stocklosa Brian Bailey Naomi Markus David Wiles John Kennedy Philip Seeman

ORCHESTRA III Karin von Gierke Stanislav Branovicki Susan Demetris Monique Reid Judith Bixler Sally Becker Elizabeth Welch Susan Brenneis Julie Badger Jane Moon Nanci Severence David Rogers Dee Ortel Beth Thorne Carol Elliott Aaron Henderson Mattew Wexler Michele McTeague Jeffrey Hill Matthew McCauley Jeffrey Soule Betsy Adler (+pic) Adam Kuenzel (afl) Bela Schwartz David Bell (+Eb-cl) David Ballon (bcl) James Hois Bernard Gabis (enhn) Deanna Kory Dave Rinaldi Chris Kerrebrock Bradley Cornell Kadie Nichols Mark Adams Steven Box Nancy Lendrim Galen Work Gregg Linde Victor Thomas

ORCHESTRA IV Peter Jaffe Diane Cooper David Wilson Pamela Stuckey Mary Bolling Shannon Simonson Lynda Mapes Margaret Morgan Johnathan Dunn Jennifer Doctor Norin Saxe Theodore Chemey Alex Guroff Igor Polisitsky Kathy Kelly Daniel Kazez Carole Stipleman Steven Wise Arthur Kell David Seckinger Daniel Savage Virginia Elliott (+pic) Carol Goodwillow (afl) James Colbert Marta Schworm (+Eb-cl) Carol Robinson (bcl) Michael Harrison Claudia Patton (enhn) Mark Gross James Kirchenbauer William Camp Brian Campbell Eileen Jones Erik Johnson John Lomonaco Susan Kelly Andre Whatley Charles Wood Derek Davidson

violin II

viola

cello

bass

flute clarinet

oboe bassoon trumpet trombone

tuba harp percussion

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Anthony Braxton

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Republished with the permission of Anthony Braxton, in October 2008 by Jason Guthartz. Original recordings included with The Complete Arista Recordings of Anthony Braxton (Mosaic Records, 8-CD).

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