Canada's Action Plan for Food Security

(1998)

Prime Minister's Message ..............................................................................................3 Minister's Message .........................................................................................................4 Executive Summary.......................................................................................................5 Part I: Understanding Food Security.........................................................................9 Defining Food Security.............................................................................................9 Parallels in Canadian and International Food Security.............................................9 Canadian Perspective on Food Security..................................................................11 Part II: Domestic Actions ..........................................................................................12 Commitment One: An Enabling Environment........................................................12 Commitment Two: Access to Food.........................................................................14 Commitment Three: Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Developme nt ..................21 Commitment Four: Trade and Food Security .........................................................24 Commitment Five: Emergenc y Prevention and Preparedness ................................26 Commitment Six: Promoting Investment ................................................................28 Part III: International Actions .................................................................................30 Commitment One: An Enabling Environment........................................................30 Commitment Two: Access to Food.........................................................................32 Commitment Three: Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development ..................34 Commitment Four: Trade and Food Security .........................................................38 Commitment Five: Emergenc y Prevention and Preparedness ................................40 Commitment Six: Promoting Investment ................................................................43 Commitment Seven: Implementation and Monitoring............................................45 Part IV: Conclusion...................................................................................................47 Implementation and Monitoring of Canada's Action Plan for Food Security.........47 Appendix I: Members of the Joint Consultative Group ...............................................49 Appendix II: Acronyms and Abbreviations .................................................................59

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Prime Minister's Message
We are blessed with a great country, endowed with immense natural resources, boundless human potential and a long tradition of helping others, both within our country and with our neighbours in the rest of the world. We work hard to improve our standard of living, pursuing broad-based, equitable economic growth, protecting human rights and freedoms, caring for our natural environment and striving to provide all Canadians with the opportunity to realize their dreams. Ensuring that all Canadians are food secure is an important element of that standard of living we all cherish. This Plan is a significant step forward in developing a national approach to address food insecurity in Canada and abroad. It builds on our longtime involvement in international efforts which began with our participation in the founding of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization at Quebec City in 1945. Since then, we have been an active member of the multilateral system, and we have worked with and supported a wide variety of other international organizations, thousands of community-based groups and Canadian voluntary organizations in a dedicated effort to end hunger at home and abroad. Canada's Action Plan for Food Security is a reflection of this experience. It is the result of extensive consultations with our partners in Canada and abroad, and I am most grateful for their contributions. Together with representatives from all levels of government in Canada, they have crafted a road map for the Canadian contribution to the World Food Summit target of reducing by half the number of undernourished people no later than the year 2015 and to eventual food security for all. Over 50 years ago, Canada pledged itself to a world that was free from hunger, free from want, with enough food for all. This Action Plan is a symbol of our dedication to that commitment, and to the people of the world. I invite all of our partners around the world to join us in ending hunger and achieving food security for all. The Right Honourable Jean Chrétien Prime Minister of Canada

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Canadian voluntary and community organizations have played an important role in this process. their health impaired. But there is hope. Canada shares this paradox. and as one of the world's largest donors of food aid.has galvanized the collective conscience of the world community. As a major exporter of food and rela ted products and expertise. and the people in developing countries. civil society organizations and institutions. The experience of the last five decades has taught us many things about the nature of food insecurity and many of those lessons have been incorporated into the Rome Declaration on World Food Security and the World Food Summit Plan of Action. provincial. Canada has made some very valuable contributions to world food security. There are vulnerable people in Canada who are unable to meet their food needs without compromising other basic needs. woman and child. This exceptional paradox . It is also based on the shared responsibility of all stakeholders involved in achieving food security: the federal. their potential blighted. we must recognize that we are not immune to the problem of food insecurity in our country. food prices have dropped and a greater proportion of the world's people have gained secure access to food. particularly the poorest and most vulnerable. the private sector. We would like to thank all those who have collaborated in this important initiative. Despite this progress. At the World Food Summit in Rome in November 1996.global food security alongside individual food insecurity . territorial and municipal governments. Production has risen. beginning with this Plan of Action for the Government of Canada. Canada's Action Plan for Food Security is based on those lessons. The Honourable Lyle Vanclief Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Minister responsible for Canada's follow-upto The World Food Summit The Honourable Diane Marleau Minister for International Cooperation and Minister responsible for La Francophonie 4 . Canada joined 186 other nations to endorse the Summit's goal . and ultimately.Minister’s Message Over 800 million human beings do not have enough to eat in a world that produces enough food to feed every man. the people in countries in transition. We are committed to ensuring Canada's follow-up to the World Food Summit. The world food situation has been improving steadily since the founding of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization over 50 years ago. We also wish to thank them for helping us all to keep in mind who this Pla n is for: the communities and people of Canada. At the same time. Canada's Action Plan for Food Security is the result of extensive consultations between and among these stakeholders and represents a multisectoral consensus.to reduce the number of undernourished people by half no later than the year 2015. the conundrum remains: far too many people are undernourished. their lives a daily struggle for survival. each and every individual.

Part IV details Canada's approach to the implementation and monitoring of its Action Plan. It builds on a wide range of existing international commitments which affect food security. Poverty reduction. a short introductory section ent itled "Understanding Food Security". Gathering Strength: Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan. nor does it pretend to be conclusive. housing and urban development. 5 . and Part III outlines Canada's plan for actions in the international environment as a donor to developing countries and countries in transition. and as a trading nation. social justice and sustainable food systems are essential conditions. and then sets out the actions themselves within the broad context of current challenges. Each action is followed by a list of the main implementing organizations in parentheses. The Plan acknowledges the important role that civil society plays in contributing to food security and recognizes the achievements of the academic community and private sector in expanding production and improving access to food since the global effort to end hunger began in earnest some 50 years ago. The WFS Plan of Action contains seven commitments. It recognizes that food security implies access to adequate food and sufficient food supplies. including the Fisheries Act. this Plan presents the Canadian perspective on the complex issue of food security. To assist the reader in an initial understanding of how food security was perceived during these discussions. This Plan is the work of a Joint Consultative Group (JCG) composed of both government and civil society(1) representatives (see Appendix I for membership). It is not meant to be comprehensive. social and environmental programs and policies. including agreements on international trade and environmental issues. it became apparent to the JCG that it was dealing with a wide range of issues. education. During the drafting discussions. Lastly. social development. as a member of the multilateral community. and Canada's evolving economic.Executive Summary Canada's Action Plan for Food Security is Canada's response to the World Food Summit (WFS) commitment made by the international community to reduce by half the number of undernourished people no later than the year 2015. Part II outlines Canada's plan for actions in the domestic environment. many of which are complex and interconnected. it builds on commitments and actions which flow from current domestic programs such as Canada's own Nutrition for Health: An Agenda for Action. revisions to legislation. Information sharing. In addition. conventions on human rights (including women's and children's rights). partnerships and intersectoral cooperation play a key role in Canada's approach. it is simply a frame of reference for the actions which follow. which also form the backbone of this document. Part I. In the context of Canada's obligations related to the goal of the WFS. has been developed. The structure of this document is based on the WFS Plan of Action endorsed by 187 countries at the World Food Summit in Rome in 1996.

hospital programs. Priority 1: The right to food reiterates Canada's belief that this right is an important element in food security and underscores the need to better define the meaning of this right. it is a blueprint which sets out the highest priorities as identified by members of the JCG. It is open-ended and flexible. International actions are influenced by Canada's poverty reduction focus in its development assistance program. especially in traditional food sources in Canada's Far North. Beyond the promotion and protection of breastfeeding and other food security conditions. adaptable to changing conditions and responsive to evolving needs. which may constitute a safety or disease hazard. rather. education and primary health care.The Plan is a work in progress which forms a basis for further discussions on the specifics of implementation. In Canada. These priorities are outlined below. It is not an exhaustive inventory of existing programs or planned actions. based on the notion that a key condition for food security is access to sufficient resources to purchase or grow food. In addition. and all sector participation in national and international efforts to clarify the meaning of the right to food towards its full and progressive realization. particularly. Actions to ensure safe supplies and safe handling 6 . Breastfeeding is also highlighted as critical to infant health and nutrition worldwide. actions on micronutrient and vitamin supplementation of foods contribute to improved nutrition. Priority 3: Promotion of access to safe and nutritious food is seen as a critical component of food security. Priority 4: Food safety underlines the new threats to global food supply posed by the rapid increase and deep market penetration of new and exotic foods from a variety of trading partners. and health and education measures are important for the nutrition security of mothers and children. which are also a threat to safety. actions include maintaining or exceeding the 25% Official Development Assistance (ODA) target for investments in basic human needs such as food and nutrition. Priority 2: The reduction of poverty is an important element in the strategy for addressing food insecurity in both domestic and international actions. coordination mechanisms and related actions. by environmental contaminants. mainly at the household level. mother and child health care and other initiatives in support of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. but not only. The order in which they appear does not reflect an order of importance but rather follows the order of the seven commitments. including timing. commitment to this is furthered through actions to support working mothers. In developing countries. which can cause problems such as contamination from hazardous chemicals or disease-causing micro-organisms. lack of knowledge about preparation and storage of foods is identified as a threat. and emergencies or disasters. roles and responsibilities. caring practices. Actions include civil society support to the International Code of Conduct on the Human Right to Adequate Food. and the actions required to implement it. The Plan also reaffirms Canada's commitment to engaging citizens in policy making and program design in the area of poverty reduction. in developing countries.

community forestry. enhanced biotechnology assessment. Priority 6: Food production emphasizes the critical role of research. Priority 7: Emphasis on environmentally sustainable practices explores some of the most pressing challenges to food production. Actions within this priority involve enhancing trade in the food and agri. fishing. actions aimed at enhancing agricultural production include: supporting sustainable resource management. indigenous people have an important contribution to make in achieving the World Food Summit's goal. Priority 8: Fair trade outlines the potential impact of liberalized trade regimes on incomes and overall welfare. This priority makes a strong link between the sustainable management of productive resources and the production of sufficient quantities of safe and nutritious food for all.food sector. sustainable fisheries management. continuing to invest in and build research capacity and encouraging investment in rural areas. particularly for developing countries. conflict prevention.include enhanced public education. Priority 5: Traditional food acquisition methods of Aboriginal and coastal communities acknowledge the important role that hunting. where agrarian reform. For Canada. gathering. while achieving a better understanding of the impacts of liberalized trade on people vulnerable to food insecurity. bartering and trading play in the food security of many communities in Canada and abroad. strengthen access to food for these communities. rural development and investment in the productivity of the agriculture and agri. Actions within this priority strengthen emergency measures. It demonstrates the need to support local production. Priority 9: Acknowledgement of peace as a precursor to food security underlines the need for safe and secure access to means of production. Actions related to the reduction of environmental contaminants. and indicates the possibility that there may be adjustment costs in non-competitive sectors. especially arable land and harvestable waters. sustainable management of resources (including fisheries) and appropriate supplementation with high-quality commercial foods. By sharing their awareness of traditional foods and their knowledge of sustainable natural resource practices. particularly in developing countries. additional actions complement these agreements to enhance stewardship of natural resources in the areas of northern contaminants. participation of affected communities (including women producers) and fulfilment of basic human needs are essential to successful rural development programs. In Canada. sustainable population growth and respect and preservation of indigenous knowledge. better product labeling. 7 . Canada's actions in support of this priority are channeled through its support to a wide variety of commitments under current international agreements.food sectors. peacebuilding and disaster preparedness in Canada and abroad. Internationally. climate change and biodiversity. this covers specific challenges to developing countries in such areas as water resource management. biotechnology. improved monitoring methods and stronger multisectoral partnerships.

"civil society" refers to organizations and associations of people. both to develop appropriate responses and to monitor their effectiveness. grass-roots organizations.Priority 10: A monitoring system for food insecurity identifies the need for a comprehensive set of agreed-upon indicators to determine the nature. academic institutions. cooperatives. and business associations. This Plan provides for both government and civil society to work toward developing indicators for national and international systems and using them for monitoring purposes. extent and evolution of food insecurity. churches. Included are nongovernmental organizations. For the purpose of this document. trade unions. 8 . formed for social or political purposes that are not created or mandated by governments.

poverty or gender inequality can influence the distribution and allocation of food affecting individual food security even when the food supply is adequate. Whether people grow their own food or buy it. safe and nutritious food both in quantity and quality to meet their daily dietary requirements for a healthy and productive life. their food security is essentially a matter of their access to food. people are often forced to rely on social support programs. In 1996. have physical and economic access to sufficient. there are countries. households within villages. health. When these routes to access are blocked. inc luding a safe water supply.' Food security requires anavailable and reliable food supply at all times. education and training for the producer. while at the national level. social and political peace. orderly marketing and the stability of the food supply. and individuals within households that are not able to meet their food needs. health. At the community and household level. on a global basis. villages within regions. Parallels in Canadian and International Food Security Food security is multifaceted and is broader than being free from hunger. For food security to be translated into adequate nutrition. and so on. However. can seriously disrupt food production. education and other characteristics which increase employability and productivity. at all times.Part I: Understanding Food Security Defining Food Security Today. regions within countries. credit and agricultural inputs. A dependable source of income is determined by access to a wide range of factors such as: job or business opportunities. interruptions. Food insecurity can be manifested in many ways. At the global and regional levels. and they must have the capacity to provide appropriate caring practices for themselves and for the more vulnerable people in their family and their community. or the wherewithal to engage in barter or other acquisition methods. the food supply can be affected by variations in the macroeconomic environment and regional climatic phenomena. Production of food supplies for domestic consumption also depends on access to a mix of factors. such as natural disasters or civil strife. countries at the World Food Summit agreed that: 'Food security exists when all people. The route to that access may be a dependable source of income or it may be the ability to acquire food through production. Individuals and households must have access to sufficient. people must also have access to adequate health services and to a healthy and safe environment. such as land. the world produces enough food to feed everyone. safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. including: natural resources. It can be temporary or chronic and its severity can vary 9 . Food must also be culturally acceptable.

Despite immense differences in per capita incomes. standards of living. it becomes apparent that there are important parallels between Canada's domestic and international food security concerns. air and genetic resources . 10 . Each country must implement agricultural and rural development policies and encourage appropriate investment to support those communities and people in food producing areas. geographic location. multi-sectoral commitment and public support. whether they be food banks or emergency food aid.impacts on the availability of food for everyone. resource endowments and many other characteristics which separate countries . such as air and water pollution and climate change. "Band-aid" measures. gender. The notion of access to food as a basic human right is important for many people in the mobilization of political will. In every country. income. water. industrialized or in transition from a planned to a market economy .many of the same basic dynamics are at work to create food insecurity. Enduring solutions involve empowering the food. The impact of unsustainable natural resource and land use practices by all sectors can be compounded by cross-border and long-term environmental threats.the people with no voice .land. ethnic or national affiliation and a host of other factors. but efforts to improve their situations must be sustainable. It is the poorest and most vulnerable members of society . The question of access also revolves around issues of poverty and social justice. regardless of its wealth or level of poverty. All countries must make special efforts to reach these populations.insecure to help themselves. status. although strategies to resolve them may vary between countries and regions.who are the most likely to be food insecure and the most powerless to change their circumstances.whether they are developing. In examining Canada's Action Plan. only provide temporary relief. Degradation of the natural resource base .with age. people can be food insecure.

Canadian Perspective on Food Security 11 .

Part II: Domestic Actions Commitment One: An Enabling Environment 'We will ensure an enabling political. The efforts of civil society. are essential in ensuring public engagement on issues related to food security. These values have an important role to play in current restructuring and reform initiatives. such as those associated with Setting the Stage for the Next Century: The Federal Plan for Gender Equality. Civil society plays an important role in social. the federal government is performing a gender-based analysis of federal policies and legislation. social and economic environment designed to create the best conditions for the eradication of poverty and for durable peace. advocacy and participation in public policy formulation. together with information and awareness-raising programs by all levels of government. Through this Plan. which is most conducive to achieving sustainable food security for all. based on full and equal participation of women and men. and a strong and independent mass media facilitates free discussion of public issues. through public education. The national social safety net of income support.' World Food Summit Good Governance Canadians are fortunate to live in a country where peace. Careful economic stewardship provides the government with the necessary resources to support these programs while facilitating general economic growth. political and economic reform. essential social services and human resource development helps people to meet their basic needs and provides them with opportunities to improve their circumstances. including those which impact on food security. Mechanisms have been established to ensure protection of civil and human rights. 12 . Canada's traditional values of broad-based economic growth and social justice are essential underpinnings for food security. which will help remove barriers and take women's gender-based concerns into account in a wide range of areas. democracy and human rights are generally enjoyed and respected.

This approach has received the support of other civil society and industry groups and may set the stage for discussion and creation of new partnerships Actions Undertake a major increase in efforts to educate Canadians about food security issues and to support initiatives geared toward enhanced involvement of citizens in achieving community food security. based on public education. Civil society-business partnerships The Ontario Ministry of Agriculture. Civil society feels that there is much that can be done in Canada to clarify its meaning and determine how to respect. to discuss ways to enhance food security in Ontario. This includes initiatives for improving community infrastructure on reserves. protect and fulfill that right. It is working with Aboriginal organizations and communities to develop effective. in order to engage all sectors of the population and ensure that the needs and priorities of all are represented. (All partners) Encourage dialogue on food security issues that will translate to policy reflection and change. This will help define the roles and responsibilities of governments. the concept and its implications are still being defined and Canada is part of that process. legitimate and accountable Aboriginal self-government and increase their participation in the design and delivery of programs affecting their lives and communities. (Federal government. civil society) Engage in domestic campaigns to promote the right to adequate food and the International Code of Conduct on the Human Right to Adequate Food. civil society organizations and individuals in implementing the right to food. Public education and awareness will play an important role in this process. Internationally. (All partners) The Right to Food The right to food was identified as an important element for food security at the World Food Summit. Actions Contribute to clarifying the content of the right to adequate food. research and development in health and safety issues and access to safe traditional foods. Social and Cultural Rights.Participation: an essential ingredient in attaining food security The Government of Canada is implementing Gathering Strength: Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan. sound research and open and participatory governance. (Civil society) 13 . Food and Rural Affairs has acted as an intermediary in helping to bring together the organizers of FoodShare Metro Toronto with representatives of the agriculture and food sectors in Ontario. as stated in the International Covenant on Economic. human rights bodies.

single mothers and their children. are unemployed. facilitating the effective use of limited resources and engaging all concerned. however. help vulnerable people fulfill their basic needs. by extension. Vulnerability to food insecurity exists when people find themselves without a secure or adequate income. While certain studies have identified a level of vulnerability.' World Food Summit Poverty and Food Insecurity The vast majority of Canadians are food secure. at all times. safe and nutritious foods. in the decision. In order to help the m. and. they do not provide an accurate and comprehensive national measure of food insecurity. or with acute or chronic illness. or have limited education. such as health care. This is especially true for the homeless or socially isolated who are more difficult to reach. Continuing to help Canadians in this regard means ensuring adequate social investments. particularly among the aged and people with physical or mental disabilities.Commitment Two: Access to Food 'We will implement policies aimed at eradicating poverty and inequality and improving physical and economic access by all. persons with disabilities. nutritionally adequate and safe food and its effective utilization. Canada's social programs.making process. are designed to provide income support. and provide a basic level of services. which are administered by all levels of government. This restructuring has direct implications for poverty reduction and social justice. governments must follow a balanced approach of social investments and prudent financial management. A key challenge is to ensure that all Canadians have access to essential services no matter where they live in Canada. poverty and dietary intake. for food security. recent immigrants and those who have not completed high school. there are still some people who are significantly poorer than others. especially the most vulnerable. such as shelter. as shown in a number of studies on food bank use. some groups of people may be more at risk to food insecurity than others. This can be compounded by difficulties in accessing appropriate social services. What is known is that poverty is one of several factors which impede access to sufficient. In recent years. to all Canadians. While growth has returned to the Canadian economy. governments' efforts to reduce their debts and improve their financial situations have obliged them to re-examine programs and better target vulnerable groups. Those groups most likely to be affected by low incomes in Canada include Aboriginal people. 14 . to sufficient. There are vulnerable people with low incomes who cannot meet their food requirements without compromising other basic needs.

they have no officially recognized status nor does Statistics Canada promote their use as poverty lines. according to the Canadian Association of Food Banks*. 1998 Food security in Quebec In order to address social inequality and poverty. Other services. and school-based breakfast and lunch programs. Financial support is given to each region to encourage the development of pilot projects. a research project evaluating the impact of these recent interventions in food security is also under way.9% in 1996. together with the regional boards. These actions and strategies go beyond emergency food assistance and contribute to the social development of a community. acceptable and reasonably priced food to the population of Quebec. Not all individuals and families below this statistical level are food insecure. Spring. and food banks and other community-based initiatives are now looking to the larger environment for answers. Food banks . Based on Low Income Cut-Offs (LICOs)*. nourishing. A recent study released in 1998 by the University of Toronto** investigated the food security and nutritional vulnerability of a subgroup of food bank users in Toronto. These services were also never intended to be long-term solutions. the "national poverty rate" was 17. the responsibility of persons and the promotion of a new solidarity that enables people to improve their living conditions. and food buying groups with farmers and others. * Although Statistics Canada's low income cut-offs are commonly referred to as official poverty lines. is planning to implement a set of strategies and actions that contribute to the accessibility of sufficient.In 1981. From 1989 to 1997.6% in 1989. despite general economic recovery.5% in 1995 to 20. Over 93% of respondents reported some degree 15 . the Ministry of Health and Social Services of Quebec.4% of this group fell below the NCW poverty line. by supporting the development of autonomy.4% in 1995 and from 13. such as collective kitchens. food cooperatives. the use of food banks in Canada doubled.an indicator of food insecurity The use of food banks in Canada has roughly doubled in the last decade. those most affected were single mothers under the age of 25. In addition. run mainly by civil society organizations.3% fell below the line. The percentage of Canadian children who slipped below the NCW poverty line increased from 20. occasionally with support from provincial/territorial or municipal governments. The hardest hit were singleparent families in women-headed households with children under the age of 18. include community kitchens and gardens. at all times and in full respect of their dignity. Incomes of the poorest 20% of Canadians dropped in the 1995-96 period. of which 91.6%. Canadian charities began setting up food banks as a temporary measure to help people deal with emergencies. Source: Poverty Profile 1996: A Report by the National Council of Welfare. rising from 17. The study found that the household incomes of 90% of the women participating in the study were less than 2/3 of Statistics Canada's Low-Income Cut-Offs (LICOs). the profile painted a picture of increasing poverty for some sections of the population. food-buying clubs. A recent study on poverty in Canada Canada's National Council of Welfare (NCW) released a poverty profile in the spring of 1998. women with children. The pressure on food banks to deliver other kinds of social services has also increased well beyond their capacity to deal with them. Within this group. 61. The NCW found that in 1996.

vitamin A. Systems are in place to ensure that policies governing food production. preparation and labeling promote the availability of safe foods that can support healthy eating to maintain and improve the health of Canadians. Canadian Association of Food Banks ** funded by Health Canada through the National Health Research and Development Program Actions Include the participation of civil society in the current evolution of Canada's social security system. help prevent and reduce the depth of child poverty and promote attachment to the work force through the National Child Benefit System. a significant proportion of the women appeared to have very low dietary intakes of iron. programs and services to families. This situation has potentially serious consequences for Inuit communities. High levels of contaminants are threatening the safety of some traditional Aboriginal food sources. Systems are in place to assess the safety of food produced by new technologies. composition (including addition of vitamins and minerals). Further. Public apprehensions about the use of 16 . provincial and territorial departments responsible for social services) Increase opportunities for labour force participation of persons with disabilities and Aboriginal people. Emerging food-borne pathogens have also become concerns and require vigilance. the safety of food imports requires monitoring. particularly in the Arctic region. the food supply provides safe and nutritious food at both the retail and food service levels. however. (All partners) Access to Safe and Nutritious Food In Canada. (HRDC) Through all provinces and territories. folate. an initiative that involves improved income benefits. New technologies in food production and processing. (All levels of government) In partnership with the provinces and territories. (HRDC. ma gnesium. * Hunger Count 1997. In addition to their own hunger. Globalization of trade and new technologies have given consumers more choices for their food baskets and has introduced them to new and exotic foods. such as biotechnology. protein or zinc.of food insecurity over the past year. increase the employability of young people through targeted scholarships and job creation programs. despite their efforts to supplement their food supplies by occasional use of food banks or to increase their disposable income by discontinuing telephone services or delaying bill payments. have health and safety implications and undergo continuous evaluation. more than 25% of the women also reported that their children had gone hungry during the previous month.

biotechnology in food production, including issues of product safety, quality and choice, need to be addressed through a variety of approaches, including active dialogue with consumers. Actions Maintain high standards of food safety and nutrition, taking into consideration new technologies of food processing and production such as biotechnology and genetic engineering. (HC, CFIA) Support food safety education initiatives through multi-sectoral partnerships, such as the Canadian Partnership for Consumer Food Safety Education. (HC, CFIA, private sector, civil society, including consumer organizations) Conduct appropriate surveillance programs to assess the need for new standards or risk management activities. (HC) Ensure the safety of domestic foods and imports and invest in the development of new methodologies, both to detect and monitor food-borne pathogens and chemical contaminants and to reduce contamination of foods during production or processing. (HC, CFIA) Review the findings of the Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report (CACAR) in relation to threats to Inuit traditional food sources and find ways to implement the recommendations. (Aboriginal communities and organizations, federal, provincial and territorial governments, the academic community and the private sector, i.e., natural resource industries). Reinforcing Healthy Eating Practices The Canadian food supply can provide foods with nutritional characteristics that support healthy eating. An environment also needs to be created to enable Canadians - whether in households, institutions, or private sector venues, such as stores and restaurants - to make informed choices for healthy eating. A key strategy in Canada's national nutrition plan (see box) to strengthen healthy eating practices involves: community-based services that include nutrition; schools that provide age-appropriate nutrition education; programs that emphasize practical skill development in reinforcing positive food choices; media and advertising which disseminate consistent, accurate messages; and food that is labeled to facilitate knowledgeable choice. One of the key actions identified in Canada's nutrition plan is the promotion and protection of breastfeeding. Additional measures need to be taken to support the right of women to breastfeed and the right of infants to be breastfed. For the majority of infants, breastfeeding is the most important guarantee of food security. It ensures a safe, secure and nutritionally complete food source. Active support from all sectors of society will increase breastfeeding initiation and duration rates, will lead to more public institutions

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being recognized as baby- friendly and will improve the food security, nutrition, health and development of our infants. Currently in Canada, governments and other partners are working to implement the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (see page 33 for details) with a focus on education and he alth promotion.
Nutrition for Health: An Agenda for Action (1996) Canada's nutrition plan identifies four strategies to promote health: reinforcing healthy eating practices, supporting nutritionally vulnerable populations, enhancing the availability of foods that support healthy eating, and supporting nutrition research. Some of its key actions relevant to food security include working with social policy decision makers to address the needs of vulnerable people, developing a data base to better define the vulnerable populations and to better understand their food and nutrition issues, monitoring the cost of a nutritious food basket and using this information in the development of education programs and income support initiatives, and collaborating intersectorally to ensure food safety.

Actions
Implement actions in Nutrition for Health: An Agenda for Action (1996), including: • work to include and maintain nutrition services as part of comprehensive health services in both existing and evolving community-based and home-care settings; improve the usefulness of nutrition labeling, increase its availability and broaden public education on its use; work with the food services sector and publicly funded organizations such as schools, hospitals and government agencies to promote the increased availability of foods that support healthy eating. (All levels of government, civil society, private sector) Breastfeeding Initiatives Through the Baby-Friendly Initiative, hospitals and maternity services adopt practices which protect breastfeeding, educate pregnant and lactating women about the benefits of breastfeeding, train health staff to protect and support the practice, and refer mothers to support groups as part of normal hospital routine. The Government of New Brunswick has embarked on a major program promoting breastfeeding in the public education system and strongly emphasizes it in the curriculum for all health professionals and health-related organizations. These and other supportive practices are promoted by the Breastfeeding Committee for Canada (BCC), a broad coalition of representatives of national health and professional associations, individuals and experts. The BCC aims to establish breastfeeding as the cultural norm for infant feeding in Canada.

Implement the International Code of Marketing of Breast- milk Substitutes. (All levels of government, private sector, civil society and coalitions, e.g., the BCC) Support the implementation of the WHO/UNICEF Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI)/Baby-Friend ly Initiative (BFI) in Canada, toward creating a global breastfeedingfriendly environment. (All levels of government, private sector, civil society and coalitions, e.g., the BCC) Work toward employment conditions for women that are supportive of breastfeeding. (All levels of government, private sector, civil society and coalitions, e.g., the BCC)

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Traditional Food Acquisition by Aboriginal Communities Many Aboriginal people in Canada, particularly in remote communities, experience all or most aspects of food insecurity due to low incomes, safety risks due to pollutants in the traditional food supply, quality problems associated with inappropriate shipping, handling and home preparation of commercial foods, and disruptions to access caused by interruptions in shipping or changes in animal migratory patterns. The cost of commercial food is high, as is the cost of supplies for fishing and hunting. The transition from a hunter- gatherer society to a cash-based society presents unique challenges to Aboriginal communities. More and more Aboriginal people are turning to commercial foods, which are more expensive and not always as nutrient-dense as traditional foods. A greater understanding of a range of issues - the role of commercial versus traditional foods, acquisition practices (which may include hunting, fishing and gathering, trade, barter and sharing), the contribution of traditional foods to health, and measures required to ensure the sustainable, safe use of food resources - is necessary for the food security and ultimately to the underlying values of many Aboriginal communities. The challenge in achieving food security is to wisely manage this changing food system in such a way as to reap the benefits from the best of both the traditional and the commercial food systems. Actions Explore ways to share information regarding access issues for traditional and commercial food supplies, to identify gaps in information needed by key partners and to make linkages with work under way. (Aboriginal communities and organizations, federal, provincial and territorial governments, academic community, private sector, e.g. natural resource industries) Work together to build the dimension of food security and traditional food access into existing policies and activities that affect traditional food acquisition; for example, the promotion of food security in sustainable development activities and health promotion. (DIAND and its partners) Fulfill commitments that are related to the safety and acquisition of traditional foods identified in current federal initiatives, such as Gathering Strength: Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan and the Sustainable Development Strategies of the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development and Health Canada. (DIAND, HC and their partners) Continue to encourage Aboriginal participation in the fishery sector through the Allocation Transfer Program (ATP), a component of the Aboriginal Fisheries Strategy (AFS), which facilitates the voluntary retirement of commercial licences and issues new ones to eligible Aboriginal groups and organizations in a manner that does not add to the existing effort on the resource. (DFO).

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(Federal. It also looks at those at risk of such conditions and the consequences for them. distribution and evolution of food insecurity are extremely varied and there is no broad consensus around them. provincial and territorial governments. Applied Research Branch. extent. It is therefore difficult to gain the necessary support for clear actions. will also be collected. including indicators of nutritional status.Monitoring System for Food Insecurity In Canada. provide ongoing monitoring. For example. There is a need for a common understanding of the issues and an agreed-upon set of indicators for food insecurity. the department of Human Resources Development Canada has devised a model that examines the relationships among conditions of food insecurity. They would also enhance pub lic awareness of the issue. nutrition insecurity and food poverty. and ensure resulting information is published regularly. and to determine periodicity and coping strategies. civil society) Establish a baseline of information on food insecurity indicators. Many individual indicators now exist but they measure different facets of the problem rather than giving a comprehensive national picture. Source: Lack of Food Security in Canada. Causes and consequences of food insecurity in Canada: One organization's exploration There are a number of studies under way which contribute to understanding food insecurity in Canada. The survey will stud y the severity and duration of concern that households experience worrying about lack of food. estimates of the nature. This is an excellent example of an area where intersectoral cooperation can result in a recognized and valid tool that is generally accepted and can be used to monitor the situation. and contributes to international monitoring efforts. Results are expected in the year 2000. Actions Agree upon a set of domestic food insecurity indicators that can be used to assess the extent and distribution of food insecurity across the country. The results of such monitoring and their regular publication would provide solid information to guide food security actions in both policy and programming. compromising quality and eating insufficient quantity. (Federal. Human Resources Development Canada. Information to determine the causes of food insecurity. civil society) 20 . provincial and territorial governments. incorporated into future policy and programming.

One of the key challenges in maintaining and increasing agricultural production in Canada is to develop new technologies which protect the resource base and enhance long-term competitiveness through value-added production. including academics. and combat pests. In part. It now uses the information to promote and support policy development to increase access to healthy foods. drought and desertification. voluntary and community-based organizations. forestry and rural development policies and practices in high and low potential areas. The current focus in research includes protecting environmental health. cooperatives. with recognized expertise in areas such as sustainable farming practices. For example.food industry. acceptable and sufficient in quantity? This question is being examined by a number of provinces and territories across the country. Industry rationalization and technological innovation in the food production and processing sectors have increased productivity. In another example. regional and global levels. considering the multifunctional character of agriculture. this is due to Canada's resource base: abundant supplies of freshwater.The nutritious food basket What does it cost to feed a family with food that is nutritious. national. Canadians are world leaders in agricultural research and development. fisheries. agriculture. 21 . which have traditionally played a critical role in Canada's economic prosperity. The nutritious food basket concept provides a useful indicator that can go a long way toward monitoring of food insecurity conditions in communities across the country. Like other sectors in the economy. arable land. the agriculture and agri. the agri. and its quality is very high. minerals and sources of energy. it is available at affordable prices in most parts of the country. which are essential to adequate and reliable food supplies at the household.' World Food Summit As one of the world's major food producers and exporters. In part. marine resources. the government of Ontario's Ministry of Health revised its mandatory program guidelines for public health in 1997 to include annual monitoring of this expense. forests. stable and abundant. Research and development is a multi-stakeholder activity involving government and civil society. The food supply is safe. biotechnology and sustainable forest management. the federal government has recently developed Alternative Northern Food Baskets that are useful in monitoring food costs in northern Aboriginal communities. it is due to Canada's productive and efficient agriculture and agri. albeit with newer and larger plants with fewer employees. and contributing to the safety of food. Canada has a well-organized food and agricultural system. identifying foreign pest threats.food sectors. Commitment Three: Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development 'We will pursue participatory and sustainable food.food sector has undergone major changes over the last decade. controlling domestic crop problems.

owners who register their land will receive a deferral of property taxes. In a similar vein. The Act's purpose is to protect agricultural operations and land now in use or deemed suitable for future agricultural production. conservation of biodiversity. fisheries comanagement arrangements are being extended to enhance access to nearby land and resource opportunities. For First Nations communities. As an incentive. pollution prevention. responsible fishing. improvement of surface and groundwater quality. For example. As a signatory to a wide range of international agreements on environmental matters. farmers are part of the land-use planning process. A system of public notification of protected land will be established using the Internet. the Model Forest Program enhances opportunities for Aboriginal people to demonstrate approaches to sustainable forest management that are based on Aboriginal values.food sector. Canada has ongoing programming at all levels of government in agriculture. Economic self-sufficiency for First Nations is also being supported through the First Nations Forestry Program. water quantity management. Joint Stewardship: managing Canada's natural wealth Environmental sustainability and self-reliance for Canada's domestic fishing fleet are being pursued through a policy and management shift toward comanagement between government fisheries managers and fisheries stakeholders. mitigation of and adaptation to climate change. The agriculture and agri. Canada is working toward a better understanding of the impact of climate change on food production to develop mitigation and adaptation measures for food producers. The Act's long-term goal is to retain agricultural land for future generations. 22 . beliefs and traditions. forestry. co-management and sustainability. climate change and many other areas. Work is also under way to explore the possibilities of treating forests as a means of carbon sequestration and storage. Provisions for protection of the land include the preparation of regulations specifying permitted land uses on such properties and restricting encroachment by non-agricultural uses on adjacent land. conservation of genetic resources. continuing environmental challenges must be addressed if the resource base is to maintain its long-term viability and to achieve the goal of sustainable food production. but also to increase the capacity of agricultural soils to store carbon dioxide. oceans management. Protecting the land in New Brunswick The Government of New Brunswick has created an Agricultural Land Protection and Development Act in response to concerns by New Brunswick farmers. and management of pollution and waste. risk reduction. including commercial fishing.In addition. marine and coastal management. Among these challenges are: conservation of soil resources. sustainable management of wildlife habitat. must also respond to the challenge of Canada's commitments under the Kyoto Protocol to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This involves training for fish harvesters toward conservation harvesting. Farmers will continue to play a role in land use issues. Current efforts to identify and apply methods to not only reduce agricultural GHG emissions. are being accelerated. fishing. energy efficiency. like all parts of Canadian society. assurance of air quality. combating desertification. under the Act.

(Federal. and in this context implement the Global Plan of Action on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Actions Participate in the FAO Global System for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. which was developed by stakeholders from industry. by bringing fishing fleets into balance with existing resources through fisheries management measures (such as individual quotas). sound chemical management measures using the precautionary approach combined with pollution prevention. (Federal government departments. non-regulatory initiative called Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). (AAFC) Implement the Canadian Biodiversity Strategy which includes strategic directions aimed at the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity in agricultural areas and which other partners are using as a guide for action. health professional associations and government. HC) 23 . civil society) Take all appropriate actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. etc. civil society) Implement effective. (EC. legislative/administrative controls supported by research and development. (All partners) Ensure stable sustainable fisheries. assess and manage toxic substances. screen. DFAIT. NRCan. Multisectoral cooperation is important in this effort. buy-backs. An example of this cooperation is the voluntary. civil society) Implement the Canadian Fisheries Adjustment and Restructuring Program (CFAR) which will reduce ground fish harvesting capacity.Another key challenge in maintaining production is to ensure the safety of our natural resources. in cooperation with fish harvesters' organizations. provincial and territorial governments. (DFO. (DFO) Implement the new Strategies for Environmentally Sustainable Development as required by the revisions to the Auditor General's Act. The federal government aims for the virtual elimination of the most dangerous toxic substances from the environment and the development of more efficient processes to identify. HC/PMRA) Implement the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/FAO Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade through adoption or amendment of national legislative measures (EC. stock enhancement measures. thereby enhancing resource sustainability and will assist participants in adjusting into other economic sectors.

gearing production to demand. (AAFC. Without appropriate measures. (All partners) Commitment Four: Trade and Food Security 'We will strive to ens ure that food. provincial governments. can decrease incomes for certain segments of the population. (DFO. Aboriginal peoples. DFO. and report on the implementation of criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management. agricultural trade and overall trade policies are conducive to fostering food security for all through a fair and market-oriented world trade system. develop. including the enhanced application of integrated pest management. (Civil society) Continue developing a Freshwater Strategy for human and environmental health. civil society) Increase use of suitably assessed marine biotechnology. introduce and facilitate adoption of sustainable new crop protection and production systems. civil society) Research. develop and facilitate adoption of sustainable new animal protection and production systems. the transition to freer trade. provincial and territorial governments. Canada's blueprint for sustainable forest stewardship into the new millennium. and new stress-resistant and pest-resistant crop varieties. including technologies and practices for improved management of production by-products. 24 . coupled with the impact of other economic variables. increasing incomes and employment for many and offering consumers a broader choice of foods. (Federal. HC. national stakeholders) Research. (DFO and its partners) Promote and coordinate a World Fisheries Day in Canada. Positive contributions of fair trade to food security include stimulating investment. (NRCan) Develop a Canadian Code of Conduct for Responsible Fishing Operations in response to the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. to improve and safeguard fish and seaweed farming and to protect ecosystems. However. CFIA. such as fish vaccines and diagnostic tests.Implement the National Forest Strategy (1998-2003). food security for some Canadians may be compromised. civil society) Pursue pollution prevention by encouraging environmental and economic efficiencies through waste reduction and measures to avoid the creation of pollutants as early in an activity as possible. (AAFC.' World Food Summit Canada views fair trade as a key component of food security. HC/PMRA.

25 . market development and investment. Canadian industry is supported through the provision of market intelligence and investment incentives. Mexico and Japan on wheat. the European Union. • the implications of interprovincial trade liberalization for the dairy industry. trade agreements and food security. and • the impacts of global tariff reductions on the Canadian agri-food sector and in the functioning of world markets. fair and predictable rules governing trade and investment which do not harm the environment or threaten the food supply at home or abroad. DFAIT) Harmonize domestic with international food inspection and safety standards in a manner that maintains public health protection and facilitates trade. Canada seeks to provide leadership in developing and upholding open. Among the issues under study are: • the impact of interprovincial trade barriers on the competitiveness and efficiency of the agri-food industry. The three aspects of its strategy are market access. development of rural communities and promotion of harmonized standards. (AAFC. The Canadian government works with industry and other partners to improve and secure market access to enable them to capture opportunities for trade in domestic and export markets. the United States. comparing costs. (AAFC. by region. CFIA. • the trade effects of recent domestic policy changes in Canada. particularly rural business development. Actions Engage in factual and balanced discussions with civil society to review the relationship between trade. income and community growth. (AAFC). Civil society plays an important role in the issue of sustainable resource use by raising public and industry awareness of socially and ecologically responsible trade. Assessing the impact of trade liberalization AAFC is carrying out a wide range of studies on the impact of trade liberalization on Canadian agriculture and agri-food industries. employment. DFAIT. in terms of distortions to international prices and export volumes.As a major trading nation. Canada remains committed to more liberalized trade and continues to encourage the competitiveness of Canadian goods and services. and examine methods of accounting for the full range of environmental benefits and costs of agricultural production. coarse grains and oilseeds. • the impact of domestic and agri-food trade policies on Canada's rural areas. HC) Identify methodologies for valuation of agricultural resources in a national accounting framework.

26 . mainly from diseasecausing micro-organisms. information sharing and coordination. to other levels if necessary. responses proceed from the level closest to the people affected. including enabling legislation. if governments are needed. Another emergency-related threat is potential contamination. There is also a need to consider how natural hazards affect food security in the short term and in the longer term both with respect to food production and access to traditional food sources.trained human resources.Commitment Five: Emergency Prevention and Preparedness 'We will endeavour to prevent and be prepared for natural disasters and man-made emergencies and to meet transitory and emergency food requirements in ways that encourage recovery. This collaboration makes appropriate scientific expertise available for a wide range of policy and program consultations and adaptation activities. Primary responses to disasters occur at the individual/household/ producer and community levels. Then. droughts and hail storms.' World Food Summit Canada has a well-developed system of emergency preparedness. A key challenge for a country as large and as thinly populated as Canada is the need to maintain effective communication. rehabilitation. It also carries out research in such areas as climate variability and large-scale climate drivers in collaboration with international partners. where people are most affected. but also from hazardous chemicals. development and a capacity to satisfy future needs. Environment Canada contributes to minimizing their impact by providing timely and accurate weather and environmental predictions and warnings. The most common emergency-related threats to the food supply in Canada are weather disasters such as floods. either from spills. extensive coordination facilities and well. fires or explosions. or from cross-contamination in food production or processing.

Actions Update systems to manage natural or man-made food-related emergencies. (HC/PMRA. (EC. CFIA) Ensure a regulatory system is in place so that products of biotechnology. food storage and cooking. The Canadian army provided assistance to hydro crews. This posed an immediate threat to the agriculture sector. At the same time. feed and other foodstuffs. and to store seeds. provincial and municipal governments. at home. Multi-level inter-sectoral coordination and goodwill galvanized the relief efforts. Managing threats to the food supply When outbreaks of food contamination occur. rescued abandoned and isolated people and helped ship essential supplies and equipment. CFIA) Extend and update the current system to address microbial threats to the food supply. The Environmental Health Program and the Food Program in Health Canada work together to prepare plans and procedures in support of the CFIA. but this is Canada!" This quote from an Ontario man sums up Canada's response to the great ice storm of January. in restaurants and in food stores. Many private businesses pitched in too. 1998. do not pose a risk to human health or the environment. which cut power to communities across Eastern Ontario. and the Food Program works with the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control (Health Canada) on food-borne outbreaks. provided food supplies and equipment. was impossible. El Ni–o. HC/PMRA. and made sure that everyone was taken care of. set up shelters. This enables the CFIA to issue warnings or recalls as the situation demands."Nice try. both living and non-living. process. ship and store perishable products such as milk and meat. 27 . to harvest. CFIA). partnered with community organizations and countless volunteers. the news media made heroic efforts to not only report on the situation as a news story but also to provide information and contacts for people needing help and to encourage emergency preparedness for the future. For the community at large. Federal. the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) coordinates Canada's emergency response. Southern Quebec and parts of Atlantic Canada. which is heavily dependent on electricity to keep animals warm. (HC/PMRA. providing needed goods and services for the lowest rates they could manage.

capital.food industry for both domestic and foreign investors. such as communications networks. such as education and training. developing local business opportunities. in high and lowpotential areas. agriculture. and rural development. fisheries and forestry systems. The challenge is to provide rural employment opportunities for them that will enable them to remain in. especially in new technologies. productivity improvements. Canada's investment strategy in the agri. Many of these communities are facing similar concerns: young Canadians are migrating to the urban areas. energy and enterprise. 28 .' World Food Summit Investment in production capacity. encouraging an appropriate regulatory regime and encouraging greater cooperation between governments and industry. their home communities. depriving their communities of needed skills. Public investme nt takes an integrated rural development approach to enhance the quality of life in rural communities and allows rural Canadians to compete in a global economy. And for many of the nine million rural Canadians who represent approximately one third of the total Canadian population. The Government of Canada promotes investment from both public and private sources to meet these challenges. marketing. and acquiring access to markets. The long-term viability of rural Canada (including coastal and isolated communities) is a key element to meeting this goal. their distance from urban centres makes access to infrastructure and services. information. both costly and difficult. so that they are able to contribute fully to the growth and stability of Canada and continue to ensure food security for Canadians.Commitment Six: Promoting Investment 'We will promote optimal allocation and use of public and private investments to foster human resources. Food-producing and other natural resource oriented communities in Canada are affected by changes in the economy which lead to the need for new skills. is essential if they are to thrive and grow. human resource development and related supporting infrastructure is essential to ensure continued economic viability for producers and processors. Some of the key challenges for rural communities include managing the resource base sustainably. The challenges include informing potential investors about the investment climate in Canada. or return to. sustainable food. Access to capital and training. and other services.food sector is designed to make Canada a preferred location for investment in the agri.

It has been applied to conservation of genetic resources. A sample of current projects includes: • work to combat potato blight. (AAFC) Encourage the development of new technology and products by encouraging research through tax regimes. and ensure that rural communities in all regions of Canada share in the economic benefits of the global knowledge-based economy. (AAFC. and § industrial uses of agricultural products. • optimal feed mixes of grass and legume silage. adapt policies. centres of excellence and the Matching Investment Initiative. and to facilitate the retention and expansion of existing investment and strategic alliances between Canadians and foreign firms. The following areas are targeted for special attention: § hog production and processing. crop varieties and production and protection systems. • development of natural sweeteners. (Federal government) Identify and promote opportunities for domestic and international direct investment and support related alliances in the Canadian agriculture and agri-food sector. 29 . including biotechnology. using both traditional and non-traditional systems.Increasing competitiveness: investing in knowledge and technology Agriculture and Agrifood Canada's Matching Investment Initiative funds collaborative research between Canadian government and industry to develop and transfer new technology to the agrifood sector. to facilitate the establishment of new strategic alliances and other partnerships. § nutraceuticals or functional foods. § agriculture and food biotechnology. • identification of pork genes responsible for desirable meat characteristics. (AAFC) Encourage venture capital funds for startup and expansion of agriculture and agri-food related businesses. § processed consumer products. Canada's International Investment Promotion Framework for the Agri-food Sector The key objectives of this frame work are: to attract foreign direct investment into the Canadian agrifood sector. food and non-food products. (Federal government) Enhance accessibility to federal programs and services in rural areas. Actions Through the application of a 'rural lens'. programs and services to reflect the social and economic realities of rural Canada. and • new canola hybrids. Finance).

good governance and human rights underlie both its domestic and international relations. which is most conducive to achieving sustainable development for all. enhance opportunities for investment. and removal of monopolies and other distortions in the distribution of food. for example. attitudes. In order to achieve food security for all. Canada works with others to support an enabling global environment conducive to world food security. women and indigenous peoples. the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) supports programming in developing countries and in countries in transition. based on the full and equal participation of women and men. as part of the international community. The promotion of such policies focuses attention on the need to increase employment.' World Food Summit Individual countries are primarily responsible for creating the policy and institutional climate conducive to food security. the United Nations (UN). reduce poverty and provide social security programs as the basis for improving access to food. Improving the enabling environment also includes providing assistance in areas such as land tenure. the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). by providing technical assistance at the micro and meso level to complement the macroeconomic framework. social and economic environment is designed to create the best conditions for the eradication of poverty and for durable peace. plays an important role in supporting their efforts. and public policies and programs. As a charter member and prominent participant in the multilateral system. customs. strengthening civil society and facilitating openness and transparency in public administration enhances public participation in governance and provides vulnerable groups. 30 . As the lead player in delivering Canada's ODA. the G7. access to credit. the Bretton Woods institutions and the World Trade Organization. countries must overcome systemic discrimination embedded in laws. Canada. However.Part III: International Actions Commitment One: An Enabling Environment 'We will ensure that an enabling political. Canada's long tradition of respect for democracy. such as minorities. A key element in Canada's approach at both the multilateral and bilateral levels is the promotion of policies conducive to a stable macroeconomic environment. In addition. through. with a voice in decisions affecting them.

poverty reduction and food security. (CIDA. inputs. civil society) Promote the democratic process of free and open elections. such as health care. Women produce up to 80% of household food in Sub-Saharan Africa. However. adding to women's domestic workload and reducing their opportunities to earn income outside the home. 65% in Asia. civil society) Support developing country implementation of the Platform for Action from the Fourth World Conference on Women. In their family role. women are almost exclusively responsible for family nutrition. * Women: The Key to Food Security. (CIDA. in many cases. (CIDA. training. Canada can help increase food security in the regions where the need is the greatest. such as education. freedom of speech. Yet they do not have equal access to the resources that will enhance their earning power. through the multilateral development system. job and career opportunities or support services such as child care. This makes a significant contribution to women's capacity to buy or grow food. information or inputs (seeds. public participation. and child and elder care. they do not have equal access to land. As income earners. tools and fertilizer). October 1995 Actions Provide technical assistance bilaterally. and partners to support efforts of developing countries and countries in transition to put in place policies. (CIDA. civil society) Promote the participation of all stakeholders in the development of food security solutions at the national and community level. Through these investments. good governance. land ownership and education and training for poor women. Finance) 31 . DFAIT. civil society) Support the effective implementation of the Highly Indebted Poor Country Debt Initiative. credit. Canada supports programs in developing countries which facilitate access to credit. DFAIT. and 45% in Latin America and the Caribbean*. (CIDA. Finance) Encourage developing countries and countries in transition to adopt stable monetary and fiscal policies which will achieve sustainable and equitable economic growth and increase access to food. (CIDA. International Food Policy Research Institute. legislation and programs conducive to sustainable development. supply of safe water and sanitation. as earners of income necessary to purchase food and as providers of care practices essential to proper nutrition. bilateral relations and technical assistance programs. as the major producers of food for domestic consumption. women typically spend a higher proportion of their incomes on food for the family. credit. the rule of law and the protection of basic human rights in all international fora. Many governments are reducing their support to social programs due to budget constraints.Women feed the world Women play key roles in food security in developing countries. including the factors which affect it.

Within this framework. All of these factors have the potential to either increase the incomes or increase the food production of the poor. Canada joined with other 32 . through education and the provision of basic needs. Over the course of the last decade. Canada has joined others at major UN conferences.insecure.for-work projects not only make food immediately accessible to the food. Each of CIDA's six programming priorities . In 1997. human rights/democratic development/good governance.contribute both directly and indirectly to the reduction of poverty. increasing their productive capacity through training and access to productive resources and reducing barriers limiting their participation in society. infrastructure services. to sufficient. and the full and equal participation of men and women in the development of their communities.market roads. social and economic opportunities for vulnerable and disadvantaged groups. For example. equitable and prosperous world. DFAIT. in agreeing to specific targets and actions in these areas. Commitment Two: Access to Food 'We will implement policies aimed at eradicating poverty and inequality and improving physical and economic access by all. private sector development and the environment . (CIDA. women/gender equality. This means ensuring equal political. such as irrigation works or farm-to. one of the ways Canada targets the poor is through its food aid strategy.reliance. The purpose of this program is to support sustainable development in developing countries in order to reduce poverty and to contribute to a more secure. Canada's primary channel for addressing global poverty is through its ODA program. AAFC. which takes a developmental as well as an emergency approach to the delivery of food aid. This involves recognizing and developing the potential of the poor. food.basic human needs.Promote efficiencies in the food processing and distribution systems of developing countries and countries in transition which could lead to lower food prices paid by consumers and increased prices paid to food producers.' World Food Summit Poverty Reduction Canada's approach to poverty reduction is to help countries and communities address the root causes and structural factors of poverty and focus on building people's self. including minorities and indigenous peoples. civil society). at all times. nutritionally adequate and safe food and its effective utilization. they can also help ensure future food security by allowing households to maintain and build their productive capital while building up agricultural infrastructure.

7% of gross national product and increase aid levels toward that goal as the fiscal situation permits. potable water and sanitation. Food should be safe and nutritionally adequate. involving the most vulnerable groups. People should have enough nutrients. Finance) Nutrition and Effective Utilization Improving access to food and/or the means of production is not enough to ensure food security.5 million babies annually could be averted with adequate breastfeeding. Canada supports the promotion of good nutrition through a variety of projects which recognize nutrition both as its own sector and the impact to be derived from integrating nutrition with other sectors such as health and education. and specifically to support their efforts to meet the international target of reducing by one half the proportion of people living in absolute poverty by the year 2015. and fuel. primary health care. (CIDA. 33 . proteins. (CIDA. including food and nutrition. Given the close relationship between poverty and food security. basic education and primary health care in order to reduce poverty through sustainable development. (Federal government) Meet the government's target of devoting at least 25% of the ODA budget to investments in basic human needs. vitamins and minerals to enable them to lead a fully productive life. (CIDA. Canada remains strongly supportive of the re-establishment of a culture of breastfeeding around the world. playing a key role in their nutrition. civil society) Continue to support the efforts of developing countries to reduce poverty. CIDA has identified a responsibility centre in the Agency for food security and is reviewing how the impact of CIDA's poverty reduction efforts on food security can be enhanced.OECD members to accept a target of reducing by one half the proportion of people living in absolute poverty by the year 2015. nutritional adequacy and safety is related to physical and economic access to good quality food. Actions Review existing programs related to food security. health and development. To a large extent. As a result of the World Food Summit. education. While mindful of the health concerns related to the potential transferability of HIV through breast. Canada has played a leadership role in micronutrients. civil society) Remain committed to the UN's ODA target of 0.milk. The World Health Organization estimates that the death of 1. and establish options for increasing the impact of ODA on those who are most food insecure. poverty reduction programming within the above six priorities will contribute directly to the World Food Summit's goal. including efforts to increase food fortification and micronutrient supplementation. Breastfeeding has a dramatic impact on the food security of infants. energy.

(DFAIT. regulations or other suitable measures. civil society) Support research currently under way through the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). A sample of current initiatives funded by CIDA which promote breast-feeding includes support for research in Zimbabwe on Vitamin A supplementation at birth to reduce HIV transmission and another study assessing the feasibility and acceptability of using breast-milk retinol as an indicator of Vitamin A status. IDRC) Continue to promote the implementation of the Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and support international efforts.Actions Continue to support and promote enhancements to the nutritional adequacy of foods through support to efforts to eliminate Vitamin A deficiency. It seeks to protect the right of every child to be adequately nourished as a means of attaining and maintaining health. iodine deficiency disorders and to reduce iron deficiency anemia by the year 2000. which are essential to adequate and reliable food supplies at the household. drought and desertification. It aims to protect this right by ensuring that breast-milk substitutes are not marketed or distributed in ways that may interfere with breastfeeding.' World Food Summit 34 . and combat pests. to protect. CIDA. considering the multifunctional character of agriculture. IDRC. promote and support breastfeeding and enhanced education and empowerment of women to provide good nutrition for themselves and their families. national. The Code stipulates that parents are not to be exposed to advertising that implies that artificial feeding is equivalent to or superior to breastfeeding. (CIDA. fisheries. Implementing the Code in developing countries The Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes was adopted by the World Health Assembly in May 1981. The World Health Assembly has urged all Member States to translate the Code into national legislation. including supporting the Micronutrient Initiative. regional and global levels. civil society). which is addressing micro-nutrient deficiency through nutritional enhancement of common food crops. agriculture. Commitment Three: Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development 'We will pursue participatory and sustainable food. and those of developing countries. (CIDA. forestry and rural development policies and practices in high and low potential areas.

given the 49% drop in ODA toward agriculture. livestock. expected increases in population and changing food preferences will necessitate a doubling of food production in the next three decades . hunting and gathering. Putting research into action requires that rural populations are active participants in agriculture development programs. including the role of women. This is especially relevant to women. and it has adopted poverty alleviation as the guiding impulse of all its activities. who are often the primary producers of food for domestic consumption. Research is key to ensuring productivity enhancement and natural resource sustainability. The CGIAR centres conduct research in areas critical to food security. Genuine rural development depends on effective agrarian reform which gives rural people a means of producing food for themselves. with little prospect for significant expansion using current technology. including improvements to basic food crops. fishing. In an effort to address this 35 . marketing boards. industry associations and enterprises. Canada supports research which contributes to long-term resource sustainability and food security through the work of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). working with local communities to restore the natural resource base for farming. However. Current high levels of malnutrition. Measures also include ensuring the necessary agricultural infrastructure such as downstream support for storage. Canada supports the agriculture development programs of developing countries.and it must be done sustainably. have had a dampening impact on public funding to national and international agricultural research. For many developing countries. transport and marketing. processing. Unfortunately. In addition. public funding remains the major contributor to research programs that ensure natural-resource sustainability and meet the production and technological needs of small-scale food producers operating beyond the scope of major markets. and agroforestry and community forest management. soils and local seeds. reductions of government expenditures. where most of this growth will occur. food and nutrition during the 1990-95 period. their communities and their countries in an environmentally sustainable manner. This is a particular challenge for developing countries. soil and water management. the network recognizes that agricultural improvements must directly benefit the poor. and institutional support for cooperatives. herding. biotechnology. many rural populations are disenfranchised and lack or have limited access to means of production. biodiversity. a network of 16 international research centres related to food and agriculture. the reduction of pesticide misuse and household food security issues. Key areas of intervention include conservation of water.Most of the world's arable land is already under production. Continued support to such programs provides a challenge to Canada. which have affected most countries. forestry and fisheries.

Emphasis will be placed on ensuring that this renewed programming emphasis benefits the most food. Canada supports the Action Plan of the International Conference on Population and Development. and provides ongoing support to the programs of a range of organizations active in population issues. non-governmental organizations (NGOs). policy makers and researchers . these communities hold knowledge critical to the sustainable use of biodiversity and agricultural productivity. Source: Environment and Development: The Crucial Decade. Population. Food and Nutrition Guidelines to better focus efforts. desertification. medium and microenterprise innovation and technology. funds food-security related research programs on the following themes: people. indigenous communities are neither consulted about the exploitation of their knowledge and resources. natural resources and food security It is estimated that within 30 years another 2. These programs put a special emphasis on participation of all stakeholders producers (particularly women). community-based and alternative approaches to natural resource management. CIDA is developing Agriculture. land and water. towards food production in developing countries. urban agriculture. including the UN Population Fund and the World Health Organization. through its support to international agreements in areas such as biodiversity. Canada supports the use of modern biotechnology as a means of enhancing food production and agricultural sustainability. In many cases. for example. Action to build risk assessment and mitigation capacity at appropriate levels may be necessary to reasonably ensure the safe use of these products by certain developing countries. An integrated approach is needed to stabilize world population growth while at the same time increasing the supply and availability of food. 36 . within the six ODA programming priorities. Spring 1992. however. Canada contributes to ensuring that the world's existing resources are conserved. The Convention to Combat Desertification and the Convention on Biological Diversity. Preserving indigenous knowledge Indigenous people living traditional lifestyles have an important role to play in preserving agricultural knowledge. CIDA is working with several organizations to develop guidelines for environmental assessment and traditional knowledge which can be used in development projects. small. Canada's principal development research organization. The international community has recognized the contributions that indigenous peoples can make and is working to include them. CIDA.through participatory approaches and social and policy analysis.5 billion people will join the world population. These pressures will place great strain on the productive resources of the poorest countries on earth. Development Magazine. In ecosystems ranging from arid to tropical to sub-tropical. The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) IDRC.decline. and that more than 90% of this growth will occur in developing countries.insecure people. contain provisions on technology transfer and indigenous knowledge. Canada supports these conventions and is also taking its own steps to acknowledge the contribution of indigenous communities to sustainable development. and sustainable use of biodiversity. nor compensated for their use.

HC/PMRA and their partners) Continue to negotiate the revision of the International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture at FAO. a new international instrument under the Biodiversity Convention for the safe transfer and handling of living organisms modified by biotechnology. and desertification and increase efforts to promote the negotiation of an international convention on forests among Canada's development partners and in international fora. (All partners) Encourage and participate in actions to build risk assessment and management capacity at all appropriate levels in order to reasonably ensure that the transfer. and promote expeditious conclusion of a UNEP POPs agreement based on sound science and risk management principles. climate change. continue to build research capacity in developing countries (National Agricultural Research 37 . (Federal. civil society) Continue to participate in the negotiation of the Biosafety Protocol. working closely with the international community. civil society) Encourage the transfer of technology in agricultural production. (EC. DFO) Continue to participate in a highly visible leadership role in international initiatives to manage persistent organic pollutants (POPs). (CIDA. will work toward the development of appropriate policy frameworks to promote the conservation of natural resources. Canada. (DFAIT. civil society. (AAFC) Promote the adoption by developing countries and countries in transition of policies and programs that will remove impediments to increased food production by domestic producers (particularly the poor and women) and stimulate more effective processing and distribution.climate change. to establish terms of international cooperation in this field. (CIDA. Actions Support the implementation of conventions on biodiversity. cooperative and NGO arrangements. NRCan. technical. handling and/or use of living modified organisms derived from modern biotechnology is consistent with the preservation of biological diversity. provincial and territorial governments. marketing and storage through commercial. pollution prevention. and the conservation of fish stocks. DFAIT. farmers) In recognition of the importance of research to the development process. including ratification of the UN Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) Aarhus POPs Protocol. including direct farmer-to-farmer twinning arrangements. (All partners) Continue promoting the rapid ratification and early entry into force of the UN Agreement on Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks and promote international support for FAO's Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries.

(DIAND. benefit from freer trade in the short term. so as to build up the critical mass to tackle the many aspects of food insecurity. Canada advocates the key role of common standards in facilitating liberalization. or groups in society. certification. technical cooperation and information exchanges with a number of countries. certification. Aboriginal communities and organizations.' World Food Summit Canada's trade policy emphasizes the maintenance and extension of a rules-based multilateral system through the World Trade Organization (WTO) and through participation in regional and bilateral initiatives.Systems: the private sector. Canada believes that progress is being made in gradually reducing trade barriers and other distortions specific to global food and agricultural trade. technical cooperation and information exchanges with a number of countries. private sector) Utilize the newly formed Canadian Association of Parliamentarians on Population and Development to focus attention on the importance of population issues to sustainable development and food security. Canada advocates the key role of common standards in facilitating liberalization. it also recognizes that not all nations. support the new partnership process to enhance meaningful dialogue on programming and research. supporting international standard-setting organizations and entering bilateral agreements in inspection. (Civil society) Commitment Four: Trade and Food Security 'We will strive to ensure that food. agricultural trade and overall trade policies are conducive to fostering food security for all through a fair and market-oriented world trade system. supporting international standard-setting organizations and entering bilateral agreements in inspection. IDRC. Canada's trade policy emphasizes the maintenance and extension of a rules-based multilateral system through the World Trade Organization (WTO) and through participation in regional and bilateral initiatives. civil society) Continue to play a leading role in CGIAR's technical and governance deliberations and work with the centres to secure a stable funding base. IDRC. (All partners) Support international efforts to establish a World Fisheries Day. Health and Legal Dimensions of the Use of Traditional Food Resources being undertaken by Université Laval. and that transition measures may be necessary to help countries adjust. However. other government departments) Monitor the results of work in progress with indigenous peoples by Canadian institutions. academic community. (CIDA. (CIDA. and ensure that the poor are explicitly targeted. such as the International Study of the Economic. universities and NGO networks). Canada will 38 .

DFAIT. for example. Together with international partners. such as capacity building and the exchange of technical expertise. It is a positive outcome for Canada as a significant food exporter and importer. the impact of trade on the environment. and the measures needed to provide better access to food by all countries. pursuing the Asia-Pacific Economic Council's (APEC) fish and fish product Early Voluntary Sectoral Liberalization (EVSL) trade liberalization proposal. trade agreements and food insecurity in order to develop and support research on the impacts of trade policies on food security. This is an important contribution to their long-term food security since it helps them overcome agricultural protectionism and food self-sufficiency concerns in favour of food self-reliance. This includes. such as those within the Asia-Pacific Economic Council and the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). Fair trade Canada supports efforts by the international community to address any possible negative effects of trade liberalization on developing countries. provincial agri-food ministries. civil society) Facilitate the preparedness of developing countries for the next round of multilateral trade negotiations through a number of measures. which outlines measures to sustain the availability of food aid and technical assistance to help the least-developed countries and net-foodimporting countries during the period of transition. both on vulnerable people and on the environment. will be required to improve understanding of the elements contributing to food security.work with producers and processors in Canada and governments abroad to ensure that trade rules are fa ir. (CIDA. enforced fairly and reinforce food security. Actions Continue to promote the benefits of rules-based trade during the next round of WTO negotiations and regional trade negotiations. Canada has lent a strong voice in support of the WTO's Marrakesh Decision on Measures Concerning the Possible Negative Effects of the Reform Programme on Least Developed and Net-Food-Importing Developing Countries. Through its support to food sector development activities and agr icultural research. continued research on the impacts of trade liberalization. (DFAIT. DFO) Participate in a discussion to review the relationship between trade. the linkages between trade and food security. AAFC. CIDA. Canada can help developing countries improve the productivity and efficiency of their food sectors and other parts of their economies so they are better able to compete with and trade in world markets. AAFC) Continue to encourage the international community to monitor the impact of trade liberalization in the agricultural sector on least-developed and net-food-importing 39 . (DFAIT. AAFC.

CFIA.developing countries as provided for in the WTO Marrakesh Decision and the Ministers' Singapore Declaration. Wars can also have a long-term impact on food security due to the widespread use of landmines. preventing civilian populations from undertaking agricultural activities. the International Office of Epizootics and the International Plant Protection Convention. 40 . which not only affect the regular cycle of production and distribution of food but also often result in emergency situations where massive amounts of food aid are required to avoid disaster. Canadian diplomatic efforts. rehabilitation.' World Food Summit Peacebuilding Among the most serious disruptions to food security are those caused by war and civil unrest. DFAIT. Commitment Five: Emergency Prevention and Preparedness 'We will endeavour to prevent and be prepared for natural disasters and man-made emergencies and to meet transitory and emergency food requirements in ways that encourage recovery. (Canadian Standards Association) Support the WTO Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures and work toward the development of international standards for food safety and animal and plant health at the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Canada has been a world leader in efforts to ban and eliminate landmines and additional financing has been provided to help countries remove landmines and assist victims. Canada's armed forces continue to be a mainstay of UN peacebuilding efforts. (AAFC. also focus on preventing and seeking diplomatic solutions to conflicts and on strengthening the UN's capacity and effectiveness in this area. which are frequently deployed in productive areas. both bilateral and multilateral. development and a capacity to satisfy future needs. (DFAIT) Work with industry to facilitate development of an internationally acceptable organic certification and accreditation system. HC).

However. partners in Canada and abroad) Continue to work with key partners (governments and NGOs) to mobilize international cooperation for a rapid entry into force of the treaty to ban landmines. increasing the effectiveness of multilateral peacebuilding mechanisms. democratic government. DFAIT. and supporting peacebuilding initiatives in countries or policy areas which fall outside of the priorities for Canadian ODA Actions Continue efforts. Emergency Food Aid Food emergencies can have a devastating and long-term impact on people's lives. DND. universalization of the treaty and new programs of assistance for victim assistance and de-mining. 41 . as appropriate. peacekeepers within the context of UN peacekeeping operations. managed by CIDA. The Canadian Peacebuilding Initiative works on two fronts. when emergency situations do occur. • The Peacebuilding Program. DND) Continue to support peacebuilding initiatives by strengthening the long-term foundations such as a strong civil society. food aid may be the only means of saving lives over the short term until recovery and longer-term development can be resumed. managed by DFAIT. supports activities aimed at strengthening domestic peacebuilding capacity in Canada. where conflicts do occur. • The Peacebuilding Fund. CIDA. Canada is actively supporting international efforts to enhance disaster preparedness for countries prone to natural disasters. Canada will continue to give priority to providing food aid in emergency situations. (CIDA. (DFAIT. NGOs.Canada. the UN peacekeeping presence and technical assistance personnel. innovative initiatives aimed at strengthening the capacity of societies affected by conflict to manage conflict without violence. Disasters can also jeopardize an already fragile pattern of growth and divert significant resources away from development. (CIDA. civil society). respect for human rights. supports catalytic. Because of this critical role. help find lasting solutions. venues and training for peaceful conflict resolution and the reduction of the roots of conflict such as poverty and inequality. to prevent conflicts from occurring and. (DFAIT. Initiatives are designed in accordance with locally-identified needs and are coordinated with international and regional organizations. DFAIT. civil society) Continue to provide. Peace and Food Security Canada has been an active participant in peacemaking and peacebuilding initiatives around the world over the last half century. in conjunction with others.

education and income. with insufficient food to adequately feed their populations. particularly women and children. (CIDA. Actions Continue to provide assistance to national and international efforts to assist countries and regions in the area of disaster preparedness. civil society) In discussions toward a new Food Aid Convention. (CIDA) Continue to give the highest priority to emergency food aid as a response to man-made and natural disasters and seek ways to maximize the effectiveness of food aid and. Programming is targeted on countries that are poor. contribute to long-term food security and development goals. This is a needs-based approach. CIDA's approach links food aid initiatives with complementary activities in primary health care and nutrition.CIDA's New Food Aid Strategy The reduction of hunger is at the centre of this new strategy. (CIDA. basic education. concentrating on the most cost-effective interventions. seek to develop links between the Convention and the World Food Summit Plan of Action.generating activities. 42 . increased income for the hungry poor. Canada is committed to improving the overall nutritional value of food aid through increased fortification of staples and food aid commodities. civil society) Work with the World Food Programme (WFP) and other donors on cost-effective means to increase the micronutrient value of food aid commodities. Such initiatives contribute to the recovery and reconstruction phases of emergencies and aid in the long-term development of populations. with the greatest cost-efficiency. and poverty-targeted agricultural production. and generally without the financial resources to commercially import the food needed to fill this gap. (CIDA). and placing emphasis on effectively assessing results. It also supports programs which include micronutrient supplementation as well as to integrated projects which link nutrition to health. It focuses on vulnerable groups within those countries. and special emphasis is placed on ensuring coordination of food aid with longer-term food security and development goals.

setting the rules of the game. in high and low potential areas. Canadian technical assistance to developing countries and countries in transition supports their efforts to create an economic. particularly in the poorer developing countries. In some areas. but public sector investment will be critical well into the future. Canada also supports specialized international organizations which provide assistance and advice to countries interested in creating a suitable environment and in supporting public and catalyzing private sector investments. However. domestic production and imports. Rural and urban development strategies in developing countries are adjusting to the rapidly changing roles of the public and private sectors and the increasing decentralization in political and fiscal decision. in the case of developing countries. Publicly funded research and technology development (including government policy and regulations) will remain key to meeting the challenges of food security. social and political environment that is conducive to attracting and retaining domestic and foreign investment. Governments will continue to be important in the future but their focus will shift toward providing true public goods. and rural development. For a healthy agriculture and agri. a country's general economic and foodrelated policies must provide a stable environment for investment in human resources. which are only possible in an economic and legal environment that promotes domestic savings. 43 . severely limit the potential for domestic food production and distribution. capital formation and efficient markets. fisheries and forestry systems. production capacity. and correcting policy and market failures. such as education and health care services.Commitment Six: Promoting Investment 'We will promote optimal allocation and use of public and private investments to foster human resources.income developing countries. agriculture.food sector.' World Food Summit Many countries strive to achieve food security through a combination of incomegenerating activities. These elements require significant levels of domestic public and private investment. the scarcity of investment resources and infrastructure in rural areas. and the lack of credit in agriculture and fisheries. agricultural research and technological improvements. and.making. in most low. sustainable food. and supporting infrastructures. the private sector already plays an expanding role in helping to trans form the food sector. this combination is supplemented by international support.

(CIDA. agriculture and environmental protection. Through such organizations as the Grameen Bank. civil society) Encourage countries to reduce excessive military expenditures. International Finance Corporation (IFC). especially in areas that directly enhance sustainable food security. civil society). including in areas directly related to food security. to maximize the opportunities of the poor. education.helping the poor achieve sustainable livelihoods and consequently sustainable food security. and the World and Regional Development Banks. to invest in their own food security.5 billion of revenue and investments in developing countries and $6 billion in orders for Canadian goods and services.Investing in the Poorest Canada plays a key role in the World Bank's Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest. CIDA. INC contributes to strengthening investment and trade linkages between Canada and developing countries by transferring Canadian knowledge and technology. CIDA) Support the Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest (CGAP) and direct financial and technical assistance to micro-credit institutions in the third world. poor people receive small loans to set up businesses or training in incomegenerating skills and micro-enterprise development. and redirect resources to increase public investment in areas which will enhance food security such as health. support Canadians who wish to invest in developing countries. The program maintains relationships with some 400 Canadian partner organizations conducting over 3. IDRC. and the Self-Employed Women's Association of India. both men and women. the program has generated an estimated $7. (DFAIT. (CIDA. Canada also supports the creation of a suitable enabling environment as well as providing support to public and catalyzing private sector investments through multilateral institutions. CIDA is interested in exploring the access dimension of food security through support to micro -credit assistance . such as the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). 44 . InterAmerican Investment Corporation (IIC). (EDC. A recent study indicates that since 1978. Everybody Wins: supporting joint ventures for development CIDA's Industrial Cooperation (INC) Program supports Canadian private sector enterprises interested in building long-term alliances with developing country enterprises. civil society) Through the Export Development Corporation and the Industrial Cooperation Program of CIDA. Actions Support the efforts of developing countries and countries in transition to create a policy environment that is conducive to domestic and foreign investment. which promotes best practices in poverty reduction and is currently developing poverty yardsticks to help measure progress in poverty reduction. support is provided to advocacy organizations to help them promo te appropriate legislation and policies that will create a supportive environment for micro-enterprise. In addition.000 projects in virtually every sector and in some 110 developing countries.

with the active involvement of civil society. (AAFC. civil society) Develop and use international and national indicators and monitoring efforts to identify food-insecure countries. recognizing their critical role in enhancing food security. DFAIT. AAFC. and follow-up the World Food Summit Plan of Action at all levels in cooperation with the international community. all partners) Encourage the organizations of the UN Development System and other multilateral development institutions to enhance their co-operation and co-ordination. civil society) 45 . (CIDA.Shaping the 21st Century. monitor.' The Government of Canada. CIDA. in order to more effectively support developing country efforts to reduce poverty and enhance food security. according a role to civil society.Commitment Seven: Implementation and Monitoring 'We will implement. Finance) Encourage multilateral development institutions to 'manage for results' and to better ensure that their operations are contributing to the achievement of internationally agreed targets. will continue to participate with the international community in the search for solutions to world food security in order to reduce by half the number of undernourished people no later than the year 2015. One of the key tasks will be to continue to develop tools that will help all partners understand the nature. Canada will fulfill its commitment made at the World Food Summit by working with its international partners to address food security concerns. particularly with regard to their field-level operations. Finance) Continue to support the development of food insecurity and vulnerability information mapping systems (FIVIMS) to measure targets and monitor progress for developing countries. all partners) Encourage developing country governments to prepare national plans of action for food security. regions and population groups and the types of interventions best suited to reduce food insecurity in developing countries and countries in transition. DFAIT. including the target of reducing the number of undernourished people to half their present level no later than 2015. (CIDA. (AAFC. CIDA. and to assist civil society to play a more active role in working with governments to find sustainable solutions to food security. Actions Seek to ensure that the FAO Committee on World Food Security (CFS) adopts procedures to encourage the effective participation of relevant actors of civil society in the CFS monitoring process. extent and distribution of food insecurity from the global to the local level. placing emphasis on effective donor action and coordination through integration of the targets set out in the OECD's development strategy. (CIDA. (AAFC.

all partners). A draft Code of Conduct on the Right to Food was discussed and subsequently endorsed by a broad cross-section of civil society. Social and Cultural Rights. protected and fulfilled. as stated in the International Covenant on Economic.Provide periodic reports to the CFS on Canada's contribution to the World Food Summit. Actions Contribute to clarifying the content of the right to food. The Right to Food As agreed in the World Food Summit Plan of Action. informing citizens of this human right and its meaning. 46 . including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Economic. This right was recognized and reaffirmed in the Rome Declaration on World Food Security and the World Food Summit Plan of Action of 1996. working with others. Canada has endorsed numerous international declarations and conventions which clearly recognize the right to adequate food and the fundamental right of everyone to be free from hunger. Most recently." The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights. has been asked to better define the rights related to food and to propose ways to implement and realize these rights. promoting the International Code of Conduct on the Human Right to Adequate Food and monitoring the extent to which the right to food is being respected. Canada co-sponsored a resolution affirming this right at the 1998 Commission of Human Rights. (Federal Government. (Civil society). Social and Cultural Rights" and "to give particular attention to implementation and full and progressive realization of this right. in Saskatoon. Social and Cultural Rights. Canada aims to ensure that future actions related to this right focus on helping poor countries and peoples shoulder the individual and collective responsibility which are key to their right to food. Canadian civil society held a consultation aimed at promoting and increasing awareness of the right to food. In March 1997. as stated in the International Covenant on Economic. and to serve as an ethical foundation and guide for the implementation and realization of the right to food. there is a need to "clarify the content of the right to adequate food and the fundamental right of everyone to be free from hunger. and continue to support and work with the international community and governments at all levels to ensure the full realization of this right. Civil society works to promote the Right to Food Civil society organizations around the world have developed and endorsed an International Code of Conduct on the Human Right to Adequate Food to help clarify the content of the right to adequate food and the responsibilities of all actors involved in ensuring its full realization. civil society). Engage in campaigns to promote the right to food. (AAFC.

will engage all sectors of the population and ensure that the needs and priorities of all are represented. Through the consultation process of developing Canada's Action Plan.Support the convening of a UN seminar on implementation of the right to adequate food and remain closely involved in the development of the Commission on Human Rights resolution on the right to food. while encouraging participation of communities and individuals in developing and implementing policies and programs. Sharing research. The consultative process which created this plan. The national plan indicates the broad range of actions to be taken by the different levels of the Canadian government. the drafters of the national plan identified three basic elements: Partnership is the key. Part IV: Conclusion Implementation and Monitoring of Canada's Action Plan for Food Security Canada is committed to taking the necessary measures to implement and monitor its Action Plan for Food Security. To guide those deliberations. (DFAIT). information and best practices can achieve real change. Research plays an essential role. Informed advocacy and policy dialogue. will also characterize its implementation and monitoring. In this way. Information and knowledge must be shared if food security for all is to be achieved. the process will reflect the multisectoral and interdependent nature of the Plan's obligations. will maximize synergy. national and international levels. coordination and collaboration of the diverse cast of players. set its priorities and identified its actions and actors. Dialogue. All sectors of Canadian society will have a role to play in ensuring that food insecurity in Canada and abroad is reduced by half no later than the year 2015. voluntary and private sector participants. several over-riding principles stood out. strengthen networks. and work inclusively. but also in determining the nature of the challenge and measuring progress toward goals. as well as non-governmental. from community. minimize duplication and achieve mutua l reinforcement. Cooperation. Each in turn will examine the plan for its implications on their own programs and activities. The key will be for all players to seek new and more creative partnerships. not only in finding new solutions. based on public education and open and participatory governance. clarify roles. 47 . They represent a general consensus of participants involved in developing the Plan and will act as a guiding force in its implementation. policy reflection and change is the democratic way.

(All partners) 48 . A recent initiative by civil society. outlines the major challenges to poverty and suggests actions for government. this mechanism will benefit from an informed and motivated public which can keep the issue of food security on the public agenda. which is one of the points addressed in the Agenda. Such a mechanism will provide a focal coordination point. This will provide an excellent tool for increasing public awareness and multisectoral engagement on the issue of food security. organizations.In the foregoing Action Plan. Public Awareness and Engagement Canada's inclusive process of policy formulation thrives on a well-informed public input. Actions Establish a bureau to coordinate the implementation and monitoring of key actions identified in Canada's Action Plan for Food Security and report on them to Canadians every two years. institutions and individuals involved. Canada has developed specific joint actions involving all stakeholders. this mechanism will require substantial support from the responsible departments. stakeholders and the general public. monitor and report on the actions. the CCIC Ten-point Agenda for Eliminating Poverty. the private sector. because of the comprehensive nature of many of the actions. Among the critical tasks will be developing the appropriate mechanism to implement. keeping abreast of all major food security policies and activities. prepared by the Canadian Council for International Cooperation. (AAFC) Use Canada's Action Plan for Food Security as a springboard for awareness and public information. Because of the multisectoral nature of the Action Plan and of the actors involved in implementing it. And. (All partners) Enhance public awareness activities through World Food Day activities. serving as an information source for partners. civil society and individuals. agencies.

Appendix I: Members of the Joint Consultative Group Civil Society James Dunn Board of Directors Aboriginal Nurses' Association of Canada Brenda Thomas Assembly of First Nations François Poulin Vice-President Canadian Council of Fish Harvesters Daniel Bernier Executive Director Canadian Council of Fish Harvesters Sally Rutherford Executive Director Canadian Federation of Agriculture Jim Cornelius Executive Director Canadian Foodgrains Bank Ian McCreary 49 .

Partners in Rural Development Susan Cox Executive Director Daily Bread Food Bank Beth Brown Public Policy Researcher Daily Bread Food Bank Ron Bulmer President Fisheries Council of Canada The Honourable David MacDonald Chair Global Network on Food Security 50 .Policy Manager Canadian Foodgrains Bank Bruce Moore Executive Director General CHF .Partners in Rural Development Tom Taylor Deputy Director CHF .

Food Security Working Group Ontario Public Health Association Tina Conlon Canadian Program Officer OXFAM Canada Elaine Henderson Food Security Program America's Program 51 .Gary Sealey Global Network on Food Security Harry Bombay Executive Director National Aboriginal Forestry Association Nettie Wiebe President National Farmers Union Suzanne Hendricks President National Institute of Nutrition Melody Roberts Co-chair.

OXFAM Canada Esperanza Moreno Deputy Executive Director and Director of Quebec programs OXFAM Quebec André Beaudoin Director General International Development Corporation Union des producteurs agricoles Laura Breuer International Programs Coordinator Unitarian Service Committee of Canada Micheline Beaudry Professor Department of Food Science and Nutrition Université Laval Hélène Delisle Professor Department of Nutrition 52 .

Food and Rural Affairs Alvin Jory Coordinator Ontario Ministry of Agriculture.University of Montreal Provincial Governments Darcy Willis Senior Policy Analyst Alberta Agriculture. Food and Rural Development George Maicher Planning and Development Officer New Brunswick Department of Agriculture and Rural Development Bobby Seeber Policy Advisor Ontario Ministry of Agriculture. Food and Rural Affairs Federal Government Departments Suzanne Vinet Executive Director Programs and Multilateral Affairs Division 53 .

Planning and Coordination Directorate Canadian Food Inspection Agency Peter Fiori Senior Policy Analyst.Marketing and Industry Services Branch Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Rollande Leduc Deputy Director Programs and Multilateral Affairs Division Marketing and Industry Services Branch Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Robert Asare-Danso Programs Coordinator Programs. Policy. Agriculture Environment and Natural Resources Canadian International Development Agency 54 . International Coordination Policy. Planning and Management Canadian International Development Agency Iain MacGillivray Senior Advisor.

Carol Smith-Wright Senior Advisor International Affairs Directorate Environment Canada Marshall Moffat Director Economic Analysis Branch Fisheries and Oceans Canada Bill Cranston Economist Economic Analysis Branch Fisheries and Oceans Canada Anthony Levita Economist Economic Analysis Branch Fisheries and Oceans Canada Anouk Lamare Advisor UN Specialized Agencies and Economic Issues Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade 55 .

Marcel Saucier Trade Policy Officer Tariffs and Market Access Division Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Halina Cyr Head Nutrition and Healthy Eating Unit Promotion and Programs Branch Health Canada Christina Zehaluk Nutritionist Bureau of Nutritional Science Food Directorate Health Canada Rigo Vettoretti Chief Social Policy Branch Human Resources Development Canada Marilyn Whitaker Director 56 .

International Relations Directorate Indian and Northern Affairs Canada Valerie Pryce Senior Advisor International Relations Directorate Indian and Northern Affairs Canada Linda Jordan Senior Advisor Community Development Directorate Indian and Northern Affairs Canada Seymour Dubrow Advisor International Relations Directorate Indian and Northern Affairs Canada Bill Edwardson Executive Director International Development Research Centre Ola Smith Senior Program Specialist International Development Research Centre 57 .

Lindsay Glassco.Rosalie McConnell Senior Policy Advisor Canadian Forest Service International Affairs Natural Resources Canada Acknowledgement The JCG would like to acknowledge the contributions of Susan Taylor-Meehan. 58 . Marion Parry and Kendel Rust in the development of Canada's Action Plan for Food Security.

Italy. the UK. Germany. Japan.A. the U..S. France.Appendix II: Acronyms and Abbreviations AAFC Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada BCC Breastfeeding Committee for Canada CFIA Canadian Food Inspection Agency CFS FAO Committee on World Food Security CGIAR Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research CIDA Canadian International Development Agency DFAIT Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade DFO Department of Fisheries and Oceans DIAND Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development DND Department of National Defense EC Environment Canada EDC Export Development Corporation FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FIVIMS Food insecurity and vulnerability information mapping systems G7 Economic and political forum comprised of Canada. Russia and the European Union GHG Greenhouse gas HC Health Canada HRDC Human Resources Development Canada IDRC International Development Research Centre INC Industrial Cooperation Program JCG Joint Consultative Group LICO's Low income cut-offs NCW National Council of Welfare NGO Non-governmental organization NRCan Natural Resources Canada ODA Official Development Assistance OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development PMRA Pest Management Regulatory Agency POPs Persistent Organic Pollutants UN United Nations UNEP United Nations Environment Programme 59 .

1996 60 .UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund WFS World Food Summit WHO World Health Organization WTO World Trade Organization "Food security exists when all people. safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life." World Food Summit. at all times. Rome. have physical and economic access to sufficient.

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