DENTAL ANATOMY CDM 1090 / 1080 REVIEW – Part II – Posterior Teeth Dr.

Audrey Levitt Galka Director of Dental Anatomy KEY POINTS IN IDENTIFYING POSTERIOR TEETH PREMOLARS CLASS TRAITS Usually have 2 cusps except mandibular 2nd premolar- may have 3 (2 lingual) Heights of Contour from Proximal View: Facial- in cervical third (mandibular 2nd premolar may be in middle third) Lingual- middle third • Proximal Contacts from Buccal View: Mesial Contact: Middle third (near junction of occlusal and middle thirds) Distal Contact: more cervical- in middle third *Exception- Mandibular first premolars- mesial contacts more cervical than distal contacts • Contacts are facial to the center faciolingually. • • • • • • Buccal View- Pentagonal Crown Facial Cusp Tip mesial to mid-root axis except for Maxillary first premolar where facial cups tip lies DISTAL to mid-root axis. Mesial cusp ridge of facial cusp is shorter than distal cups ridge. Exception-Maxillary first premolar where mesial cusp ridge is longer. Marginal Ridges: Mesial marginal ridges more occlusal than distal marginal ridges except on mandibular first premolars- where distal marginal ridge in more occlusal position than mesial marginal ridge. Occlusal View All premolars -wider faciolingually than mesiodistally Maxillary premolars more oblong (considerably wider F-L than M-D), whereas mandibular premolars are more square (closer to equal dimension F-L as M-D). Roots Apical end of roots frequently bend distally.

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2nd more occlusal than distal whereas EXCEPTIONreverse true of Mandib 1st premolar.Buccal cusp longer than lingual. More prominent buccal ridge on Max.asymmetrical. more so on max. cusp tips farther apart Both maxillary premolars have mesial and distal root depressions. first premolar . 1st longer M-D Max. but less common on Max. Maxillary second premolar less angular. outline of maxillary is trapezoidal. with mesial cusp slope longer than distal cusp slope. (on the first the facial is tipped towards the distal) Maxillary first premolar. which have buccal cup tip more to mesial or centered. Maxillary second usually have one root. second premolar. second premolar. 2nd Central groove on Max.cusp tips closer together. giving more rounded effect to crown. but may have 1 or 2 canals. Maxillary premolars have their lingual cusps tipped toward mesial. lingual side of tooth narrower than buccal side. first premolars TYPE TRAITS: Distinguishing Mandibular 1st and 2nd Premolar Mandibular second premolar – shorter wider crown Mandibular first premolar sharper buccal cusp than on Mandib. premolars. Buccal cusp of Maxillary first premolar more pointed than Max.distal contact more occlusal than mesial Buccal cusp. Maxillary second premolar. more hexagonal symmetrical and more oval On both max. first than Max.buccal cusp tip placed distal to midroot axis line.mesial cusp ridge shorter than distal on both mandibular premolars Lingual cusp of 1st is SMALL and NON-FUNCTIONAL: ON 2nd THEY ARE LONGER AND FUNCTIONAL Lingual cusps of Mandib. 2nd position mesial in 2-cusp tooth: if 3-cuspmesiolingual is more prominent than DL 2 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . Proximal view: outline of mandibular premolar crowns are rhomboidal. Mesial marginal ridge grooves almost always present on Maxillary 1st. Maxillary second premolar B and L cusps nearly same length Maxillary first premolar. second premolar. Maxillary premolars.ARCH TRAITS • • Mandibular premolar crowns tilt to the lingual (first premolar noticeably more than the second) relative to root. second premolar Mesial contact of Mand. but only Maxillary first premolar exhibits MESIAL CROWN CONCAVITY.Occlusal View. TYPE TRAITS: Distinguishing Max 1st from Max 2nd Premolars • Maxillary first aligned over root. Maxillary first premolars almost always have 2 roots. with mesial slope shorter than distal. Exception to all other premolars and canines.

2nd premolar. (triangular ridges) visible Proximal View Facial height of contour. where crowns may taper toward facial.occlusal surface more square than that of 2-cusp type because crown wider with 2L cusps. MOLARS • • • • • • • • CLASS TRAITS Crowns wider M-D then C-O Crowns taper from facial to lingual except some Max 1st molars with large DL cusps. 1st molars).middle third Buccal View Proximal Contacts Mesial: Middle third (or at the junction of occlusal and middle thirds) Distal: More cervical.a premolar) Mesial root surface of Mandib. Exception: When lingual cusps large.occlusal outline.• • • • Mandib.little of occlusal surface visible From Distal Proximal View.mesiolingual groove If 3-cusp mandib.occlusal outline. From Mesial Proximal View.. Crowns taper from Mesial to Distal both F-L and O-G (Crowns get shorter from M-D). *Distal marginal ridge mandib.round or oval 3-cusp mandib. 2nd premolar.lingual groove between L cusps Mandibular 1st premolar.gingival third Lingual height of contour.more of occlusal surface. 1st premolar.Middle of middle third • • • 3 . 2nd premolar.only adult tooth where mesial marginal ridge more cervical than distal marginal ridge *Mesial marginal ridge of mandib.2nd premolar is the only premolar root surface NOT likely to have MID-ROOT depression.occlusal surface broader on lingual than buccal side (like some Max.somewhat diamond-shaped 2-cusp mandib. 1st premolar slopes cervically from buccal toward center of occlusal surface at 45 degree angle and parallel to triangular ridge of buccal cusp. 1st premolar more horizontal and longer from B-L than mesial marginal ridge. Occlusal View Mandib. (THINK: Mesial surface contacts a canine and distal contacts a broader tooth F-L . 1st premolar.

1st molars more divergent and widely separated vs. first molars more spread apart. second molars which are more parallel and closer together TYPE TRAITS: Distinguishing Maxillary First Molar From Maxillary Second Molar More taper from facial to lingual on Max. mandib.located on ML cusp).ARCH TRAITS.Mandib. 2nd molar . 2nd molars have 4 cusps with a cruciform occlusal pattern vs. there are variations: Mandib.Rhomboidal Mandibular molar crowns tilt lingually Mandibular molars have 2 roots. then mesiofacial.Rectangular Maxillary molar crowns wider F-L than M-D . 2 in mesial root and 1 in distal root Maxillary molars usually have 4 root canals: 2 in wide MB root and one each in DB and lingual roots *Clinically.Pentagonal . 1st molars. Mandib. 1st molars which have 5 cusps and a dryopithicus occlusal pattern Roots of Mandib. second molars due to smaller or missing DL cusp Maxillary first molars most likely have fifth (non-functioning) cusp -Cusp of Carabelli.Distinguishing Maxillary and Mandibular Molars • • • • • • Mandibular molar crowns wider M-D than F-L.35% of time D root may have 2nd canal Mandib. a larger mesial and smaller distal Maxillary molars have 3 roots. 2nd molars closer. not usually found on Max. 2nd molar only has 3 canals 4 . Max.8% of time 2nd D canal Often. 2nd molar . Mandib. Roots of Max. 1st molar . molars which have 2 transverse ridges running F-L directly between respective cusps TYPE TRAITS: Distinguishing Mandibular 1st Molar from Mandibular 2nd Molar • • • • • • • • • • Mandib. shortest distofacial. more parallel and more distal bend Mandibular molars normally have 3 root canals. 2nd molar Roots of Max. palatal is longest Maxillary molars have oblique ridge running from ML to DF vs.Mandib.

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