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ABE Student guide How to use the Harvard system of referencing

What is a reference system? A reference system is a technique to enable readers of your work to see that your points are thoroughly researched. A reference is both a signpost and an acknowledgement. It shows where you found the information and credits the originator of the information you are using. You must include a reference every time you: (i) use someone else s ideas in your own words, (ii) summarise someone else s ideas, (iii) quote someone else s words, and (iv) reproduce a diagram, table, graph or chart from someone else s work. Correct referencing is also intended to prevent plagiarism. Plagiarism means claiming somebody else s work as your own. For a more detailed explanation on plagiarism, go to the ABE Study Tips section in the Members Area at https://www.abeukmembers.com/c_qcfStudyTips.asp. ABE uses software to detect plagiarism. All cases of plagiarism will be penalised. What is the Harvard reference system? There are different reference systems, but one of the main ones is called the Harvard reference system. The origins of the system are not clear although it is not thought to be directly related to Harvard University. The Harvard reference system has seven key components. These are the author s name and initials, date of publication, title, journal name, publisher, place of publication and edition. Most of these components are used each time to clearly identify a publication. Why use the Harvard reference system? ABE students are required to use the Harvard system when referring to the sources of information or opinion you want to use to explain or justify a point. The use of a well-known consistent common system will enable examiners to easily check your references. It is also helpful for you to learn to use a system which you will probably also use in the future if you progress to university. How do I use the Harvard reference system? There are set formats to use depending on where the reference appears. The simplest way to explain the format is to provide examples, and so the following examples cover the majority of circumstances you will face. The examples are given in blue for clarity. There are two sets of usages: (1) Where the reference is included in the text, and (2) Where the reference is included in a reference list. All references in the text must have a matching full reference in the reference list.

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A bibliography lists all the publications you have used in the assignment but which are not necessarily cited in your text (and so not on your reference list). If you include a bibliography in your work then this should also be in the Harvard style. It is usually positioned directly after the reference list. Note that the use of full stops, commas, brackets, spaces, italics and so on must be followed exactly in order to use the system correctly. The word publication in the following section includes articles, books, journals, magazines, websites and any other works from which you have directly or indirectly quoted. If you need more information on how to use the Harvard reference system, which is not covered by this guide, then you should go to university websites, as they often provide more detailed guidance for less common situations.

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1. Where the reference is included in the text 1.1 Author s name The author s name is followed by the year of publication: This opinion is shared by Jones (2009). This opinion is shared by Jones (2009) and Smith (2010). If the author has published more than one publication, which makes the same point, then the years are shown in chronological order: This opinion is shared by Jones (2009, 2010). If the author has published more than one publication, which makes the same point within a year, then a lower case letter should be added after the year in alphabetical order: This opinion is shared by Jones (2009a, 2009b). This issue was explained by Jones (2009a), with more details in Jones (2009b). 1.2 Author s name not referenced directly in the text If you paraphrase an author, then the author s name and publication year in brackets must be included at the relevant point in the sentence or at the end of the sentence: Time management is the key to success in business (Jones, 2009). Time management is the key to success in business (Jones, 2009), although this can be difficult to achieve. 1.3 More than one author not directly referenced in the text The author s name and publication year in brackets must be included at the relevant point in the sentence or at the end of the sentence: Time management is the key to success in business (Jones, 2009; Smith, 2010), although this can be difficult to achieve. 1.4 Direct quote from an author When directly quoting from part of a publication, quotation marks and a page reference must be included. Use p. for one page and pp. . Both should have a space before the number, for more than one page: Jones (2009, p. 34) states that much of our consumption of time is involuntary . Jones (2009, pp. 34-35) states that much of our consumption of time is involuntary: during our formative years we act in accordance with hidden choices made for us .

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If it is a long quotation then the quotation can also be indented and started on a new line: Jones (2009, pp. 34-35) states that: Much of our consumption of time is involuntary: during our formative years we act in accordance with hidden choices made for us by parents and other authority figures schoolteachers, religious leaders, uncles and aunts, bosses at work. 1.5 Two or more authors for the same publication Both names should be used in the order given for the publication: This opinion is shared by Jones and Loftus (2009). This opinion is shared by Jones, Smith and Loftus (2009). In the same way as section 1.2 the names of the authors and publication year must be included in brackets at the relevant point in the sentence or at the end of the sentence: Time management is the key to success in business (Jones and Loftus, 2009). Time management is the key to success in business (Jones and Loftus, 2009), although this can be difficult to achieve. If there are four or more authors then the name of the first author should be used followed by et al. which means and others : This opinion is shared by Jones, et al. (2009). Time management is the key to success in business (Jones, et al. 2009). 1.6 Corporate authors Where the publication is from a recognised organisation then the name of the organisation is used with the date: The research by the Association of Business Executives (2011) is conclusive. 1.7 Chapter authors in edited works Where the author s work has been published as part of an edited publication, then the name of the chapter author is referenced, not the author/editor of the publication it is taken from. However, the bibliography must show both the chapter author and the author of the publication. The word cited is used to refer to the original reference: This opinion is shared by Gill (2008 cited in Jones, 2009, p. 34).

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1.8 Secondary sources A secondary source is where author A in a publication refers to author B , but you have not read author B s original text yourself. It is important to highlight this as the original author B may have been misinterpreted by author A : This opinion is shared by Gill (2008 cited in Jones, 2009, p. 34). Time management is the key to success in business (Gill, 2008 cited in Jones, 2009), although this can be difficult to achieve. 1.9 Tables and diagrams The source must be provided for all data. If the data is taken from a book: (Jones, 2009, p.24) If the author is referring to secondary data from another source: (World Bank, 2003 cited in Jones, 2009, pp. 35-36) If you reproduce an entire table or diagram then you must add a footnote: National Statistics Office 2007 cited in Jones, 2009, p. 35 1.10 Websites The authorship of the publication must be shown along with the date that it was published: Time management is the key to success in business (The Times, 2009).

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2. Where the reference (or citation) is included in the reference list The reference list is included at the end of your work. It must include all publications that you have consulted which have informed your thinking, irrespective of whether you refer to a particular publication in the body of your document. If you do refer to a publication then you need to use the format as per section 1 above. All publications should be listed alphabetically by author. If there is more than one publication from an author then they should be listed together with the earliest version first. 2.1 Books The format is author, initials, year, title of book (in italics), place of publication (town/city not country), publisher: Jones, L.H., 2009. Time well spent. London: Kogan Page If the book has an edition number then this needs to be included after the title: Jones, L.H., 2009. Time well spent. 4th ed. London: Kogan Page If the book has more than one author then their names should all be included in the order they appear on the publication with and to link the last two authors: Jones, L.H. and Loftus, P, 2009. Time well spent. London: Kogan Page Jones, L.H., Gill, C. and Loftus, P., 2009. Time well spent. London: Kogan Page If the book has four or more authors then the name of the first author should be used followed by et al. which means and others : Jones, L.H. et al., 2009. Time well spent. London: Kogan Page If there are several publications by the same author in the same year they should be differentiated by including a lower case letter after the year in alphabetical order. The letters should match the references included in the body of your document. Jones, L.H., 2009a. Time well spent. London: Kogan Page Jones, L.H., 2009b. Time better spent. London: Kogan Page If the book has not been published (in press) is used instead of the date. Jones, L.H., (in press). Time well spent. London: Kogan Page 2.2 Books which are edited The same format as above but the editor s name is shown followed by ed. or eds. if there are more than one: Jones, L.H. ed., 2009. Time well spent. London: Kogan Page

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2.3 Chapters of edited books The format is chapter author, their initials, year of chapter, title of chapter followed by In: book editor s name, editor s initials followed by ed. or eds. , year, title of book in italics, place of publication (town/city not country), publisher, chapter number or page numbers: Gill, C. 2010. Business management. In Jones, L.H., ed. 2009. Time well spent. London: Kogan Page. Ch.2. 2.6 Books which have been translated The format is author, initials, year, title of book (in italics), Translated from , the language, by , name of translator, place of publication (town/city not country), publisher: Jones, L.H., 2009. Time well spent. Translated from French by C.Gill. London: Kogan Page 2.7 E-books For a restricted access source the format is author, initials, year, title of book (in italics), type of medium (in square brackets), place of publication (town/city not country), publisher, Available through , source/database, web address or URL (with < and > ), Accessed and date (in square brackets): Jones, L.H., 2009. Time well spent. [e-book] London: Kogan Page. Available through: Association of Business Executives Members website <http://www.abeuk.com.uk> [Accessed 1 August 2011]. If the e-book is available for free on the internet the phrase Available at: is used: Jones, L.H., 2009. Time well spent. [pdf] London: Kogan Page. Available at: <http://www.abeuk.com.uk/aboutus/timewellspent.pdf> [Accessed 1 August 2011]. 2.8 Journal/magazine articles The format is author, initials, year, title of article, full title of journal (in italics), volume number (or issue or part number), page numbers: Jones, L.H., 2009. Time well spent. Management Journal, 4 (3), pp. 34-40. Mintzberg, H., 2010. How can you possibly think?. Business Executive, 118, pp. 6-7 If the journal/magazine is available on the internet it follows the same format as an e-book: Jones, L.H., 2009. Time well spent. [e-journal] London: Kogan Page. Available through: Association of Business Executives Members website <http://www.abeuk.com> [Accessed 1 August 2011]. 2.9 Newspaper articles The format is author, initials, year, title of article or column header, full title of newspaper (in italics), day and month, page number, column line (using a for the first column, b for the second, etc.): Jones, L.H., 2009. Time well spent. The Guardian, 1 August, p. 3c.
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If the article is online the format is author, initials, year, title of publication or page, name of newspaper (in italics), type of medium (in square brackets), Available at: , web address or URL (with < and > ), Accessed and date (in square brackets): Jones, L.H., 2009. Time well spent. Guardian Online, [online] 1 August. Available at: <http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2011/aug/01/time-well-spent> [Accessed 4 August 2011]. 2.11 Annual reports The format is corporate author, year, full title of annual report (in italics), place of publication, publisher Association of Business Executives, 2010. Report to members 2009-2010. New Malden: Association of Business Executives. If the article is online the format is corporate author, year, full title of annual report (in italics), type of medium (in square brackets), Available at: , web address or URL (with < and > ), Accessed and date (in square brackets): Association of Business Executives, 2010. Report to members 2009-2010. [online] Available at: <http://www.abeuk.com/aboutus/report> [Accessed 1 August 2011]. 2.12 Broadcasts The format is series title (in italics) and episode name and number (if relevant), year, type of medium (in square brackets), broadcasting organisation, channel, date, time of transmission: Newsnight, 2011. [TV programme] BBC, BBC1, 1 August 2011 21:00. If the broadcast is a podcast or archived TV programme the format is broadcaster/author, year, programme title (in italics), series title (if relevant), type of medium (in square brackets), Available at: , web address or URL (with < and > ), Accessed and date (in square brackets): Westminster Hour, 2011. Episode 213 (31 July 2011). Weekly Podcast. [Podcast] July 2011. Available at: <http://www.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/series/westhour> [Accessed 1 August 2011]. If it is a YouTube video the format is screen name of contributor, year, video title (in italics), series title (if relevant), type of medium (in square brackets), Available at: , web address or URL (with < and > ), Accessed and date (in square brackets): Association of Business Executives, 2011. Association of Business Executives. [video online] Available at: <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3BJruJPeGvg> [Accessed 1 August 2011]. 2.13 Interviews The format is interviewee s name, year of interview, title of interview (in italics), Interviewed by , interviewer s name, type of medium (in square brackets), location, date of interview: Jones, L., 2011. Time management. Interviewed by Christine Gill. [interview] New Malden. The full transcript of the interview should be given in the appendices. If the interview was viewed on television the format is interviewee s name, initials, year of interview, title of interview or interview on name of programme (in italics), Interviewed by , interviewer s
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name, type of medium (in square brackets), name of channel, date of transmission, time of transmission: Jones, L., 2011. Interview on Newsnight Interviewed by Jeremy Paxman [TV programme] BBC1, 1 August 2011 21:06. 2.14 Media (press) releases The format for a paper media release is corporate author, year, title (in italics), media release and date: Association of Business Executives, 2011. New membership benefits. Press release, 1 August 2011. If the media release has been sent electronically the format is corporate author, year, title (in italics), media release and date: Association of Business Executives, 2011. New membership benefits. [press release] 1 August 2011, Available at: <http://www.abeuk.com/ news/benefits> [Accessed 1 August 2011]. 2.15 Blogs The format is author, year, title of individual blog entry, blog title (in italics), type of medium (in square brackets), blog posting date, Available at: , web address or URL (with < and > ), Accessed and date (in square brackets): Jones, 2011. People are not managing their time. Guardian online business blog, [blog] 1 August, Available at: <http://guardian.co.uk/business/blog/2011/aug/timewellmanaged> [Accessed 4 August 2011]. If a commentator is being referenced the format is the same except the author s name would be different. Gill, 2011. People are not managing their time. Guardian online business blog, [blog] 1 August, Available at: <http://guardian.co.uk/business/blog/2011/aug/timewellmanaged> [Accessed 4 August 2011].

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3. Missing details If the author is not shown, or cannot be identified, then use Anonymous or Anon. : Time management is the key to success in business (Anon., 2009). If there is no date shown, or it cannot be ascertained, then use n.d. : Time management is the key to success in business (Jones, n.d), although this can be difficult to achieve. If no place of publication can be identified use s.l. : Jones, L.H., 2009. Time well spent. s.l.: Kogan Page If no publisher can be identified use s.n. : Jones, L.H., 2009. Time well spent. London: s.n. Where an approximate date can be identified use the following: For the probable year use 2009? Jones, L.H., 2009?. Time well spent. London: Kogan Page For approximately 2009 use ca. 2009 Jones, L.H., ca. 2009. Time well spent. London: Kogan Page When the decade is certain but not the year use 200Jones, L.H., 200-. Time well spent. London: Kogan Page For the probable decade use 199? Jones, L.H., 199?. Time well spent. London: Kogan Page

Issued by the Association of Business Executives: 8 August 2011


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