CK 12 Chemistry Workbook | Weight | Atomic Orbital

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CK-12 Chemistry Workbook

Parsons

CK-12 Foundation is a non-profit organization with a mission to reduce the cost of textbook materials for the K-12 market both in the U.S. and worldwide. Using an open-content, webbased collaborative model termed the “FlexBook,” CK-12 intends to pioneer the generation and distribution of high-quality educational content that will serve both as core text as well as provide an adaptive environment for learning. Copyright © 2010 CK-12 Foundation, www.ck12.org Except as otherwise noted, all CK-12 Content (including CK-12 Curriculum Material) is made available to Users in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution/NonCommercial/Share Alike 3.0 Unported (CC-by-NC-SA) License (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/), as amended and updated by Creative Commons from time to time (the “CC License”), which is incorporated herein by this reference. Specific details can be found at http://about.ck12.org/terms. Printed: July 27, 2010

Author
Richard Parsons

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. . . . . . . . . . .1 Making Observations . . . . . . Lesson 1. . . . . . . Lesson 3. .ck12. .3 2. . . . . . . . . . .2 Making Measurements .A Physical Science Worksheets 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Measurements in Chemistry . . . . . . .3 3. .2 1. . . . . . . . . .4 Matter Lesson 1. . .5 Lesson 1.1 The Scientific Method .1 Lesson 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 3. . . . . . . . . . . .4 1. . . . . . . . . . Lesson 2. . . . . . . 3 Chemistry in the Laboratory Worksheets 3. . .1 2. . . . . .2 Chemistry in History . . . 4 The Atomic Theory Worksheets 4. . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Using Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents 1 The Science of Chemistry Worksheets 1.org . . . . . . .1 1.1 Early Development of a Theory iii www. . . . . .3 Chemistry is a Science of Materials Lesson 1. .3 Using Mathematics in Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Using Algebra in Chemistry . . . .4 2. . . .3 Using Data .2 2. . . . . Exponential Notation Worksheet . .4 How Scientists Use Data . . . . . . 2 Chemistry . . . 23 Lesson 1. . . . . .4 Lesson 3. . . . . . . Lesson 3. . . .5 Energy . . . . . . . . .3 1. . . . 1 1 1 1 1 3 5 5 5 12 15 20 21 21 21 21 21 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Lesson 2. . . . . Lesson 2. . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 5.org iv . . . . . .3 Heisenberg’s Contribution . . . .3 7. . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 5. . . . . . . . . . .4 Lesson 7. .4. . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . .1 Families on the Periodic Table .4 Writing Electron Configurations . .ck12. . . .4 The Bohr Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7. . . . . .1 Electron Configurations of Main Group Elements . . . .3 5. . . . .2 Pauli Exclusion .2 5. Lesson 7. . . . . . 6 Quantum Mechanics Model of the Atom Worksheets 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Lesson 8. . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . .1 The Wave-Particle Duality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. .2 Electron Configurations .4 6. . . . Lesson 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Lesson 9.2 Further Understanding of the Atom . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . .2 Schrodinger’s Wave Functions Lesson 6. . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . .1 6. Lesson 6. . . . . . . . Lesson 9.3 6. . . . . . . 5 The Bohr Model of the Atom Worksheets 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Wave Form of Light . . . . . . .3 Aufbau Principle . . . . .3 Lewis Electron Dot Diagrams . . . .2 4. .1 The Electron Spin Quantum Number Lesson 7. . . . . . Lesson 9. . . . . . . . . . .3 Lesson 4.3 Atomic Terminology .4 Lesson 5. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Quantum Numbers . . . Lesson 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . www. . . . . . . . . . 35 36 36 36 39 39 39 39 43 43 43 46 . . . . . .5 Shapes of Atomic Orbitals 7 Electron Configurations for Atoms Worksheets 7. . . . . . . . .2 The Dual Nature of Light . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 6. . . . . . . . . .2 Orbital Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 7. . . Lesson 6. 8 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table Worksheets 8. . . Lesson 7.5 Lesson 6. . . . . .1 5. . . . . . .3 The Periodic Table and Electron Configurations 9 Relationships Between the Elements Worksheets 9. . . .3 Light and the Atomic Spectra . . . 23 23 25 25 25 25 25 27 27 27 27 27 27 35 Lesson 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.9. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Atoms that Form Covalent Bonds . . . . . . .3 Lesson 11. . .6 Lesson 9. . 14 Molecular Architecture Worksheets 14. . . .1 Types of Bonds that Form Between Atoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . .org . . 10. . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . .4 Lesson 14. . . . . .4 Electronic and Molecular Geometry . . . . . . . 10. . . . .1 Lesson 11. . . . . . . .3 Naming Covalent Compounds . . . .2 Lesson 10. . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . .1 Predicting Formulas of Ionic Compounds . . . . . . . . .2 Lesson 14. . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . .2 Lesson 12. . . 12 Writing and Naming Ionic Formulas Worksheets 12. . . 46 46 46 47 47 47 47 49 49 51 52 53 53 54 55 55 55 55 57 57 57 57 57 57 67 10 Trends on the Periodic Table Worksheets 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ck12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. .2 Lesson 11. . . . .2 The Covalent Molecules of Family 2A-8A . . .2 Ionic Bonding .1 Lesson 13. . . .2 Lesson 13. . . . . . . . 13 Covalent Bonding Worksheets 13. . . 11.3 Lesson 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electron Affinity . . . . . . Lesson 9. .3 Lesson 13. .1 Lesson 12. . . . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . .5 Molecular Polarity . . 13. . . . .1 Lesson 14. .1 The Formation of Ions . . . . . . . . . . . 15 The Mathematics of Compounds Worksheets v www. . 13. . . . . . . 11 Ions and the Compounds They Form Worksheets 11. . . . . . . .1 Atomic Size . . . 11. . . . . Lesson 9. .5 Transition Elements . . . . . . . . . . .3 Properties of Ionic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Lanthanide and Actinide Series . . .5 Lesson 14. . . . . . . .4 Chemical Family Members Have Similar Properties . . . . . . . . . . .2 Inorganic Nomenclature . . . .1 Lesson 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Resonance . . . . . . . .2 Ionization Energy .3 Lesson 14. . . . . . . . . . .1 The Covalent Bond . . . . . . . .

. 16. . . . .2 Lesson 15. . . .3 Percent Composition .4 Lesson 15. . .4 Boiling Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Lesson 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Lesson 19. .2 Lesson 16. .1 Determining Formula and Molecular Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .org vi . . . . .7 Lesson 18. . . . . . .2 Balancing Equations .1 The Properties of Liquids 19. 17. . . . . . . . . .1 Lesson 19. . . . . . . . .3 Lesson 18. .3 Lesson 16. 15. . 17 Mathematics and Chemical Equations Worksheets 17. .3 Lesson 15. .4 Lesson 17.3 Lesson 19. . . 18. . . . . . . . 101 . . . . . . . . . . . 101 19. . . . . 18. . . . . . . .2 Forces of Attraction . . . . . .3 Types of Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Lesson 16. .3 Gases and Pressure . . . . 67 68 70 71 77 77 77 78 83 83 83 86 88 89 91 91 91 91 93 95 98 99 101 16. . . 15. . . . . . . . . .5 Lesson 18. . . . 17. . .2 Lesson 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Lesson 17. .4 Empirical and Molecular Formulas 16 Chemical Reactions Worksheets 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Stoichiometry Involving Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Vapor Pressure . . . . .2 Gases . . . . . . .4 Gas Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. . . . .6 Lesson 18. .1 Lesson 17. . . . .3 Lesson 17. 19 The Liquid State Worksheets 19. . . .15. . . . . . . . . 18 The Kinetic Molecular Theory Worksheets 18. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Lesson 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Mole Concept and Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . . . . 18. . . . . . . 101 19. . . . .6 Molar Volume . 101 www. . .4 Lesson 18. . . .1 The Three States of Matter . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Mole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Mass-Mass Calculations 17. . . . . . .5 Universal Gas Law . . . . . . . . .4 Percent Yield . . . . . . .3 Limiting Reactant . . . . .1 Chemical Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Lesson 18. . . . . .5 Energy Calculations . . .1 Lesson 15. . . . .ck12. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 21.2 Why Solutions Occur 21. 127 . .2 Lesson 21. . . . . .3 Lesson 23. . . . . . . . . . . 118 21. . . . . . . 113 . . 125 22. . . 123 125 22. . . . 113 21. 103 20. . . . .3 Solution Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Lesson 23. .1 Lesson 22. .3 Types of Forces of Attraction for Solids 20. . . .1 Rate of Reactions 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 . . . 125 22. . . . . .3 Lesson 20. . . .7 Lesson 21. . . . . 117 21. . . .2 Collision Theory . . . 127 . . . .6 Lesson 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Covalent Compounds in Solution .1 Lesson 21. . . . . . . . . .7 Colligative Properties . .3 Reactions Between Ions in Solutions 23 Chemical Kinetics Worksheets 23. . 113 . . . . 125 127 . . . . . . . . . 112 20.3 Lesson 22. . . .5 Solubility Graphs . . . . . . . . .4 Measuring Concentration 21. . . . . . . 101 20 The Solid State Worksheets-HSC 103 20. . .3 Lesson 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Molecular Arrangement in Solids Controls Solid Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Lesson 23.2 Lesson 20. .9 Lesson 21. . . .6 Factors Affecting Solubility 21. .19. 129 vii www. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Lesson 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Phase Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Lesson 20. . . . . . . . . . . .5 Reaction Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 21.ck12. . . . . .8 Lesson 21.9 Separating Mixtures 22 Ions in Solution Worksheets . . . . . . . . .5 Lesson 21. .5 Lesson 19. . .4 Factors That Affect Reaction Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 23.8 Colloids . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Potential Energy Diagrams 23. . . . . . . . . . .1 Lesson 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Ions in Solution .org . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Heat of Vaporization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Lesson 22. . . .5 Lesson 23. . . 117 . . .2 Melting . . . . . . . . .1 The Solution Process . . . . . . . . . 112 113 21 The Solution Process Worksheets 21. . . . . . . . . .4 Lesson 23. . . . . . . 129 23. . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction to Equilibrium . . . . . . 157 28 Electrochemistry Worksheets 163 28. 163 www. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ck12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 24. 147 26 Water. . . . . . . . . .3 Lesson 26.5 Lesson 25.1 Energy Change in Reactions . . . . . 131 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 pH . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Lesson 27. . . . . . .4 Lesson 24. . .1 Arrhenius Acids 143 . . 144 25. 156 27. .1 Lesson 25. . . . . . . . . . .7 Lesson 25. . . . .1 Origin of the Term Oxidation . . . . . . .4 Lesson 26. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Lesson 25. . . . . . . 149 26. . . . . . . . . .HS Chemistry 27.8 Lesson 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 . . . . . . . . .3 Spontaneous Processes . .3 Lesson 25. . . . . . . . . . . 142 25 Acids and Bases Worksheets 25.6 Weak Acid/Base Equilibria 25. . . . . . .24 Chemical Equilibrium Worksheets 131 24. . . . . . . .1 Lesson 24. .1 Water Ionizes .6 Lesson 25. . .7 Bronsted Lowry Acids-Bases . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Lesson 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 24. . . . . . . . 151 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 26. . . . . . . .1 Lesson 27. 151 27. . 144 25. .3 Lesson 24. . .3 The Effect of Applying Stress to Reactions at Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . pH and Titration Worksheets 149 26. . . . . . .5 Gibb’s Free Energy .2 Lesson 24. . . . . . . . . . . .3 Titrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Lesson 27. 149 26. . . . .4 Entropy . . . . . . . . 146 25.2 Enthalpy . . . 150 151 27 Thermodynamics Worksheets . . . . . . . . .4 Slightly Soluble Salts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Lesson 27. . . . . . . . . . . . .org viii . . . . . . . .4 Buffers . . . . . . . . .8 Lewis Acids and Bases . . . . 155 27. . . . . 144 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Arrhenius Bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Equilibrium Constant . . .1 Lesson 28. . . . . . .2 Lesson 26. .1 Lesson 26. . 143 . . . . 143 25. . .4 Salts . . . . . . . . . . .2 Strong and Weak Acids 25. . . . . . . .4 Lesson 24. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .1 Lesson 30. . 174 29. .5 Nuclear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 29. . . . . . . . .5 Lesson 30. . . . . .5 Lesson 29. . . . . 163 28. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Lesson 29. .2 Hydrocarbons . . 185 30. . . . A Unique Element 183 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 ix www. .ck12. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Lesson 30. . . . .3 Balancing Redox Equations Using the Oxidation Number Method 163 28. . .4 Lesson 29. . . .2 Lesson 29. . 183 30. . 177 29. . . . . .2 Lesson 28. . . . . 171 29. . . . . . . . .28. 171 29. . . . . . . . . . . .5 Biochemical Molecules . . . . . 181 30 Organic Chemistry Worksheets 30. . 166 28.3 Lesson 29.2 Lesson 30. . . . . .3 Nuclear Force .4 Functional Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Lesson 29. . .4 Nuclear Disintegration .6 Lesson 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 171 29 Nuclear Chemistry Worksheets 29. . .6 Radiation Around Us 29. .4 Electrolysis .2 Oxidation-Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Lesson 28. . . . . . . . . .org . .1 Discovery of Radioactivity . . . . .2 Nuclear Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Lesson 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 30. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Lesson 30. .5 Lesson 28. . . . . .3 Aromatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 30. . . .7 Applications of Nuclear Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Carbon. . . . . 174 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Galvanic Cells . . . . . . . . . . . .

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moving a brick to the moon does not cause any matter in it to disappear or be removed.ck12.org .4 Lesson 1.1 The Scientific Method There are no worksheets for this lesson.3 Lesson 1. For example. 1. 1. We call this force of attraction.3 Chemistry is a Science of Materials There are no worksheets for this lesson.Chapter 1 The Science of Chemistry Worksheets 1. the force of gravity.4 Matter Mass Versus Weight Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name___________________________ Date_________ The mass of an object is a measure of the amount of matter in it. The mass (amount of matter) of an object remains the same regardless of where the object is placed. The gravitational pull on the object varies depending on where the object is with respect to the 1 www.1 Lesson 1. 1.2 Chemistry in History There are no worksheets for this lesson. The weight of an object is the force of attraction between the object and the earth (or whatever large body it is resting on).2 Lesson 1.

For example.4 1. the force of gravity is constant and so we can determine either the mass or the weight of an object if we know one of those two.ck12. We measure mass with a balance. N on the surface of the earth. N ) Exercises 1.00 kg)(9. the conversion factor between mass and weight is: 1. On. Example: What is the weight in Newtons of a 3. N on the earth. which is a spring that compresses when a weight is placed on it. an object will have the same measured mass that it had on the earth. of course. We measure weight with a scale. would be different on the moon.org ) = 20. A balance compares the unknown mass to known masses by balancing them on a lever. what is its mass? ( mass = (200. This same man would weigh only 30 pounds on the moon because the moon’s gravity is only one-sixth that of earth. a man who weighs 180 pounds on earth would weigh only 45 pounds if he were in a stationary position. the spring compresses less and the scale shows less weight.80 N /kg) = 29. or near the surface of.00 kg 9.earth or other gravity producing object.4 N ) Example: If an object weighs 200. If this man were in outer space with no planet or moon nearby. 000 miles above the earth’s surface.00 kg of mass will have a weight of 9. The mass of this man.80 N 2 .80 N ewtons (the standard unit of force in the SI system). There would be gravitational pull on him at all.0 kg mass on the surface of the earth? (gravitational force = (3. the earth. however. how much mass does it contain? www. If an object weighs 400. his weight would be zero. On or near the surface of the earth. If the gravitational pull is less. 4. would be the same in all those situations because the amount of matter in him is constant. The weight. If we take our balance and known masses to the moon.

of a 50 kg mass on the surface of the earth? On the surface of the earth. what is its mass on the moon? 1. 4.org . 3 www. N weight? If an object weighs 1200 N on the earth. how much will it weigh on the moon? If an object has a mass of 120 kg on the earth.5 Lesson 1. What is the weight. how much mass is contained in a 600. in Newtons. 5.ck12.5 Energy There are no worksheets for this lesson.2. 3.

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A Physical Science Worksheets 2.. the number 2 means exactly 2. do not involve numbers. You have been working with numbers for many years in your math classes thus numbers are not new to you. we can read our measuring instruments only to a limited number of subdivisions.a perfect 2! Such numbers are produced only by definition.00000000. 5 www. Unfortunately. We are limited by our ability to see smaller and smaller subdivisions.2 Lesson 2.. require numbers.1 Measurements in Chemistry There are no worksheets for this lesson. 2. In math class. The numbers you use in math class are considered to be exact numbers. That is.999 rounded to 2 nor does it mean 2. most observations are quantitative and so. but in chemistry.Chapter 2 Chemistry .2 Using Measurements Significant Figures Worksheet Name___________________________ Date_________ Working in the field of science almost always involves working with numbers. it does not mean 1. not by measurement.1 Lesson 2. and these two numbers are perfect numbers. with an infinite number of zeros .000001 rounded to 2.ck12. When you are given the number 2 in a math problem.org . we can define 1 f oot to contain exactly 12 inches. there are some differences between the numbers you use in math and the numbers you use in science. In the case of measurements. Some observations in science are qualitative and therefore. but we cannot measure an object to be exactly 12 inches long.

4 22. Therefore. www.org 6 . when you record a measurement. It is proper to estimate one place beyond the calibrations of the measuring instrument. you must write down all the digits actually measured. In the case shown above. Measurements do not produce perfect numbers and since science is greatly involved with measuring.36.ck12.3 inches but less than 1. the regularity. 1.41359 22. Table 2. the regularity becomes apparent.37899 22. 1. In this system. we cannot prove it to be so. but when the numbers are reported showing the limits of the measurements as in List B.4 22. To record a measurement. Even using powerful microscopes to construct and read our measuring devices.42333 22.1: Two Sets of Observations Observations List A 22. the written number must indicate the limit of the measurement. it is difficult to perceive a regularity in List A. and when you perform mathematical operations on measurements. If the numbers reported show the limits of the measurements. or 1.39414 m m m m Observations List B 22.4 inches. including measurements of zero and you must NOT write down any digit not measured. we eventually reach a limit.34.37 inches. Many times. the analysis of the measurements made in a science experiment is simply the search for regularity in the observations. 1.4 m m m m In the lists of observations above.33. It is very important to recognize and report the limitations of measurements along with the magnitude and unit of the measurement. The only real problem that occurs with this system is that zeros are sometimes used as measured numbers and are sometimes used simply to locate the decimal point and ARE NOT measured numbers. or lack there of. science does not produce perfect numbers (except in defined numbers such as conversion factors).35.and we are limited by our ability to construct smaller and smaller subdivisions. even though the actual measurement of an object may be a perfect number of inches. and therefore. the final answer must also indicate the limit of the original measurements. becomes visible. the correct measurement is greater than 1.4 22. this measurement should be reported as either 1. One of the methods used to keep track of the limit of a measurement is called Significant Figures.

13.16 inches.15. 1. All non-zero digits are significant. 2. It is vital that you include the zeros in your measurement report because these are measured places. This is read 1. it is apparent that the object is. These readings indicate that the measuring instrument had subdivisions down to the tenths place and the hundredths place is estimated. Ending zeros are significant if the decimal point is actually written in but not significant if the decimal point is an understood decimal. 4.In this second case. we must distinguish between measured zeros and place-holding zeros. Examples of the Rules 1. There is some uncertainty about the last and only the last digit. 3. as nearly as we can read. 7 www. Here are the rules for determining the number of significant figures in a measurement. RULES FOR DETERMINING THE NUMBER OF SIGNIFICANT FIGURES 1. All beginning zeros are NOT significant. All zeros between non-zero digits are significant.50 inches.00 inch. the measurement should be reported as 1. 543 has 3 significant figures. In our system of writing significant figures. This is read as 1. 1. Since we know the tenths place is zero and can estimate the hundredths place to be zero. All non-zero digits are significant.14.org . or 1.ck12. exactly at 1 inch.

437 has 5 significant figures. 4.0353 L _____ 1.00800 g _____ 500 g _____ 480 f t _____ www. 7.0406 has 7 significant figures. Ending zeros are significant if the decimal point is actually written in but not significant if the decimal point is an understood decimal. 1. has 6 significant figures.ck12.70 has 3 significant figures. 1. 1. 4. All beginning zeros are NOT significant. 6. 8. 302. 000 has 1 significant figure. 5. 33. 1. has 7 significant figures. 000. 0. 000.2 lbs _____ 2. 000 has 3 significant figures.000002 has 1 significant figure.300 has 5 significant figures.org 8 .321754 has 7 significant figures. 454 g _____ 2. 1. 3. 004 has 4 significant figures. 000. 00013.3937 L _____ 0.0000075 has 2 significant figures. All zeros between non-zero digits are significant. 7. Exercises How many significant figures are given in each of the following measurements? 1. 2.3002 has 6 significant figures. 103. 3. 050 has 3 significant figures. 1.25 has 4 significant figures.00000 has 7 significant figures. 10. 050. 2.22. has 4 significant figures.205 lbs _____ 0. 0. 302. 37. 000.

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

0.0350 kg _____ 100. cm _____ 1, 000 m _____ 0.625 L _____ 63.4540 mm _____ 3, 060 m _____ 500. g _____ 14.0 mL _____ 1030 g ______ 9, 700 g _____ 125, 000 m _____ 12, 030.7210 g _____ 0.0000000030 cm _____ 0.002 m _____ 0.0300 cm _____ 1.00 L _____ 0.025 m/s _____ 0.100 kg _____ 0.00300 km _____ 303.0 g _____ 250 g _____ 1, 000. m _____

Maintaining Significant Figures Through Mathematical Operations In addition to using significant figures to report measurements, we also use them to report the results of computations made with measurements. The results of mathematical operations with measurements must include an indication of the number of significant figures in the original measurements. There are two rules for determining the number of significant figures after a mathematical operation. One rule is for addition and subtraction, and the other rule is for multiplication and division. (Most of the errors that occur in this area result from using the wrong rule, so always double check that you are using the correct rule for the mathematical operation involved. Significant Figure Rule for Addition and Subtraction The answer for an addition or subtraction problem must have digits no further to the right than the shortest addend. Example:

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13.3843 cm 1.012 cm + 3.22 cm 17.6163 cm = 17.62 cm Note that the vertical column farthest to the right has a 3 in the top number but that this column has blank spaces in the next two numbers in the column. In elementary math lasses, you were taught that these blank spaces can be filled in with zeros, and in such a case, the answer would be 17.6163 cm. In science, however, these blank spaces are NOT zeros but are unknown numbers. Since they are unknown numbers, you cannot substitute any numbers into the blank spaces and you cannot claim to know, forsure, the result of adding that column. You can know the sum of adding (or subtracting) any column of numbers that contains an unknown number. Therefore, when you add these three columns of numbers, the only columns for which you are sure of the sum are the columns that have a known number in each space in the column. When you have finished adding these three numbers in the normal mathematical process, you must round off all those columns that contain an unknown number (a blank space). Therefore, the correct answer for this addition is 17.62 cm and has four significant figures. Example:

12 m + 0.00045 m 12.00045 m = 12 m In this case, the 12 has no numbers beyond the decimal and therefore, all those columns must be rounded off and we have the seemingly odd result that after adding a number to 12, the answer is still 12. This is a common occurrence in science and is absolutely correct. Example:

56.8885 cm 8.30 cm + 47.0 cm 112.1885 cm = 112.2 cm This answer must be rounded back to the tenths place because that is the last place where all the added numbers have a recorded digit. www.ck12.org

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Significant Figure Rule for Multiplication and Division The answer for a multiplication or division operation must have the same number of significant figures as the factor with the least number of significant figures. Example: (3.556 cm)(2.4 cm) = 8.5344 cm2 = 8.5 cm2 In this case, the factor 2.4 has two significant figures and therefore, the answer must have two significant figures. The mathematical answer is rounded back to two significant figures. Example: (20.0 cm)(5.0000 cm) = 100 cm2 = 100. cm2 In this example, the factor 20.0 cm has three significant figures and therefore, the answer must have three significant figures. In order for this answer to have three significant figures, we place an actual decimal after the second zero to indicate three significant figures. Example: (5.444 cm)(22 cm) = 119.768 cm2 = 120 cm2 In this example, the factor 22 cm has two significant figures and therefore, the answer must have two significant figures. The mathematical answer is rounded back to two significant figures. In order to keep the decimal in the correct position, a non-significant zero is used. Exercises Add, subtract, multiply, or divide as indicated and report your answer with the proper number of significant figures. 1. 703 g 7 g + 0.66 g 2. 5.624 f t 0.24 f t + 16.8 f t 3. 34 kg − 0.2 kg 4. 18.7 m + 0.009 m

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7.060 cm) 9.002 cm)(84 cm) 8. 0. is 300. 000.32 cm by 600 cm and then divide the product by 8. 9.3 cm. This more convenient system is called Exponential Notation by mathematicians and Scientific Notation by scientists. The speed of light. very large and very small numbers are expressed as the product of a number between 1 and 10 and some power of 10. 000.00000000000975 www. Multiply: (107. 000 can be written as 106 .0000000080 0. 000.4 × 10−2 8. 000 can be written as 9 × 106 . 000.666 cm. Multiply: (2.4 cm by 0.0000082 cm. It is very inconvenient to write such numbers and even more inconvenient to attempt to carry out mathematical operations with them. 2. Therefore. 6. the mass of the earth is 6.5 × 10 4←− Table 2. and the mass of an electron is 0. 000 meters/second.org Scientific Notation 9.−→ 6. Multiply 0. 000.ck12. 000 kg. 000 and 1. Multiply 2.23 cm. This is called the “exponent” This is called the “coefficient”. 000. for example. In scientific notation.0 × 10−9 9. 10.014 0. 000.5672 × 104 8. 000.21 0. Add 65.75 × 10−12 12 . 672 8. and 10 cm.2: Examples Decimal Notation 95.888 cm)(0. for example. 000. 000. In a similar manner.21 cm.21 × 100 1.21 cm and 0. 000. 340 100 7. Divide 72. The number 9.34 × 103 1 × 102 7.0000000000000000000000000000009 kg. can be written as the product of 9 times 1.5.3 Exponential Notation Worksheet Name___________________________ Date_________ Work in science frequently involves very large and very small numbers. 2. 000.00000004 can be 1 written as 4 times 108 or 4 × 10−8 . Imagine trying to divide the mass of the earth by the mass of an electron! Scientists and mathematicians have designed an easier method for dealing with such numbers. 000.

3107 = (8. 000 + 15. the exponent is positive. 2. If the exponents are the same. 000. If you are moving the decimal to the left. 000) 8.5) × 104 = 5.000 243 9. 000 = 58. 11. 1. The value of using exponential notation occurs when there are many non-significant zeros. 12. 13 www. the exponent is negative.000 9. One and only one non-zero digit exists to the left of the decimal and ALL significant figures are maintained. 8. Consider the following example.As you can see from the examples above. 000.ck12. the coefficients are added and the exponent remains the same. and if you are moving the decimal to the right.012567 0.3) × 107 = 3.000 502. you count the spaces that you need to move the decimal and that number becomes the exponent of 10. 000. 000 − 53.5 × 104 = (4. 14.000 105 77.000. 10. The exponential form should have exactly one non-zero digit to the left of the decimal and you must carry all significant figures.3 + 1.000. 3. 000) If the exponents of the numbers to be added or subtracted are not the same. then one of the numbers must be changed so that the two numbers have the same exponent.3 435. 6. 15.6 × 107 − 5.000.0000000000100 0.000000000000467 0.000.3 × 107 (86.000 Carrying Out Mathematical Operations with Exponential Numbers When numbers in exponential notation are added or subtracted. the exponents must be the same. Exercises Express the following decimal numbers in exponential form. 7. 9. 000 = 33.3 × 104 + 1. to convert a number from decimal to exponential form.6 − 5.000 0.8 × 104 (43.org .000. 13. 4.000200 186.0035 0. 4. 1000 150. 5.

10. 8. 8.2 × 101 ) = Multiplying or Dividing with Numbers in Exponential Form When multiplying or dividing numbers in scientific notation.34 × 105 ) + (1.30 × 105 . multiply the coefficients and add the exponents.22 × 105 ) = (4. is not in proper exponential form because it has two non-zero digits to the left of the decimal. 9.34 × 105 ) − (1. 2.34 × 1015 ) − (1. In this case.9 × 105 We also could have chosen to alter the other number.Examples The two numbers given below.4 × 10−6 ) = (6. Exercises Add or subtract the following exponential numbers as indicated. To divide exponential numbers. To multiply exponential numbers. it is exactly the same answer as before. 1.6 × 105 + 0.9 × 105 . (8.2 × 104 ) = (8.0 × 104 = 89 × 104 The answer. we choose to change 3. 5. divide the coefficients and subtract the exponents.34 × 10−5 ) + (1.34 × 1015 ) + (1. 7.66 × 10−5 ) + (6.2 × 104 ) = (8. We will change one of the numbers so that it has the same exponent as the other number.22 × 103 ) = (5. www. 3. The two numbers can now be added. Instead of changing the second number to a higher exponent.38 × 105 ) + (1. in their present form.6 × 105 + 3. This change is made by moving the decimal one place to the left and increasing the exponent by 1.org 14 .2 × 1016 ) = (6.88 × 103 ) − (1. 8.2 × 10−2 ) = (1.ck12.0 × 104 to 0.93 × 10−1 ) − (1. the numbers do not have to have the same exponents. we could have changed the first number to a lower exponent. 86 × 104 + 3.2 × 10−6 ) = (4. When we convert the answer to proper exponential form. 6. in this case. cannot be added because they do not have the same exponent.6 × 105 → 86 × 104 Now. we can add the numbers. 4.2 × 10−4 ) = (6. 89 × 104 → 8.30 × 105 = 8.0 × 104 = 8.6 × 10−4 ) + (1.

2 × 106 The coefficient of the answer comes out to be 9.1×10−11 = 2.2) 10(−9)+(−4) = 32.0 × 107 )(2. 10.0×10 −5 Divide: 8.0 × 107 )(4.0 × 107 2. Multiply: (2.0 × 10−3 )(1.2×10 5 = 2.0 × 107 ) = Multiply: (4.2)(104+2 ) = 9.2 × 10−9 )(8.8 × 10−13 The product in the last example has too many significant figures and is not in proper exponential form. Multiply: (2 × 109 )(4 × 1014 ) = (2 × 4)(109+14 ) = 8 × 1023 Multiply: (2 × 10−9 )(4 × 104 ) = (2 × 4)(10−9+4 ) = 8 × 10−5 Multiply: (2 × 10−5 )(4 × 10−4 ) = (2 × 4)(10−5−4 ) = 8 × 10−9 ( ) Multiply: (8.2 × 10−4 ) = (8. 4.ck12. since the original coefficients had two significant figures.6×103 Divide: 2.0 × 107 ) = Multiply: (5.Examples of Multiplying Exponential Numbers Multiply: (4.6×10−5 Divide: 3. 8.3 × 10−12 . and then move the decimal and correct the exponent.3×10−4 = 4.2 × 8. 3. the zero in the tenths place is carried. 6.3 In the final example.24 but since we can only carry two significant figures in the answer. Exercises 1.2 .00 × 10−22 ) = 5 Divide: 4.2 × 2.org . 2. 9. the answer must have two significant figures and therefore.1×10 8.0×10 15 Divide: 6. 7.3 Using Mathematics in Chemistry Measurements Worksheet Name___________________________ Date_________ 15 www. so we must round to two significant figures. 33 × 10−13 .2 × 104 )(2. Examples of Dividing Exponential Numbers ( ) 7 Divide: 8×104 = 8 (107−4 ) = 4 × 103 2×10 2 ( 8 ) ( (−7)−(−4) ) 8×10−7 = 4 × 10−3 Divide: 2×10−4 = 2 10 ( )( ) 4. it has been rounded to 9.2 × 10−2 ) = Multiply: (4 × 10−11 )(5 × 102 ) = Multiply: (1.6 10(3)−(−4) = 2.2 × 102 ) = (4.200 × 105 ) = Multiply: (2 × 10−13 )(3.4 Lesson 2. 3.53 × 103 )(4.6×10 3 = 3.0×105 = 2. 5.

ck12. All the other standards are expressed in terms of these objectbased standards.org 16 . Length was compared to the length of one’s foot. In a standard system of measurement. For example. and time. It was stored at constant temperature so that it did not expand or contract. some length is chosen to be the standard and copies of this object can then be used by everyone making measurements. length and time are object-based standards and velocity (meters/second) and acceleration (m/s2 ) are expressed in terms of length and time. two people measuring the same distance will get the same measurement. mass. all measurements must include a unit term. www. Measurements were orginally made by comparing the object being measured to some familiar object. volume = length × length × length. the standard meter is the distance light travels in a 1 vacuum in 299. and so on. Systems of measurement have several standards such as length.458 second and the standard second is based on the vibrations of a cesium −133 atom. elbow to fingertip.792. a word following the number that indicates the standard the measurement is based on. Standards based on physical objects are called undefined units. As people’s needs increased for more consistent measurements. or composition. the balance makes it possible to determine the mass of an object more accurately than we could by lifting the object and a clock gives a better measure of time than we could determine by observing the sun’s position in the sky. It allows us to make more exact quantitative observations. Other measures were handspans. such as cm3 . mass. For a time. temperature. shape. STANDARD systems of measurement were devised. and are based on physical objects such as platinum bars or vibrating atoms. the standard for length (one meter) was a platinum bar which was marked and stored at constant temperature in a vault.Measurement makes it possible to obtain more exact observations about the properties of matter such as the size. Volume is expressed in terms of the length standard. Presently. For any system of measurements. Standard masses are also stored in airtight containers to insure no change due to oxidation. For example. With a standard system of measurement.

meters). Examples: 17 www.00 inch = 2. All the sub-divisions in the SI system are in decimal form.00 quart = 0. the unit terms as well as the numbers obey the algebraic laws of exponents and cancellation. The undefined units in the SI system are the meter. When converting units. The system used for scientific work is called the Metric System in its short form and is called the International System (SI) in its complete form. and second.There are two major systems of standards used in the United States. the significant figures of the answer are based on the significant figures of the measurement. The unit terms for measurements are an integral part of the measurement expression and must be carried through every mathematical operation that the numbers go through. have an infinite number of significant figures. not on the conversion factors.946 liter 1.ck12.00 pound = 4. English to Metric 1.54 N ewtons (= 454 grams on earth) Units and Sub-Divisions for the SI System Basic unit for length = meter Basic unit for mass = gram Basic unit for time = second Unit for volume = liter (lee-ter) 1000 millimeters = 1 meter 100 centimeters = 1 meter 1000 meters = 1 kilometer 10 centimeters = 1 millimeter 1000 milligrams = 1 gram 1000 grams = 1 kilogram 1000 milliliters = 1 liter 1 milliliters = 1 cubic centimeter = 1 cm3 All the relationships between units are defined numbers and therefore.org . feet) and the system used for all scientific and technical work (kilograms. In performing mathematical operations on measurements. gram. Conversion Factors.54 centimeters 1. The one commonly used by the public (pounds.

Table 2. If we have a measurement in inches and we ( f oot ) wish to convert the measurement to feet.3: Unit Terms Follow the Rules of Algebra Math Operations 6x + 2x = 8x (5x)(3x) = 15x2 9x3 = 3x2 3x 21x = 7( x ) 3a a Converting Units Frequently. we know that there are 12 inches in 1 f oot. For example. This process is quite simple if you follow a standard procedure called unit analysis.7 f eet Unit Term Operations 6 mL + 2 mL = 8 mL (5 cm)(3 cm) = 15 cm2 9 cm3 = 3 cm2 3 cm 21 grams = 7 grams 3 cm3 cm3 1 f oot 12 inches We design the conversion factor specifically for this problem so that the unit term “inches” will cancel out and the final answer will have the unit “feet”. For example. www. This procedure involves creating a conversion factor from equivalencies between various units. inches to f eet. the conversion factor between inches and feet is 12 inches = 1 f oot. 10 whees = 1 dat. we would generate a conversion factor 121 inches and multiply the measurement by this conversion factor. inches) ) = 41. Example: Convert 6.4 nobs) ) = 32 hics 5 hics 1 nob Example: Convert 4. ( (6. it is necessary to insert a series of conversion factors.5 whees to dats given the conversion factor. ( (500. This is how we know to put the unit term “inches” in the denominator and the unit term “foot” in the numerator. ( (4. Example: Convert 500.4 nobs to hics given the conversion factor. it is necessary to convert units measuring the same quantity from one form to another.ck12. Therefore.5 whees) ) = 0. it may be necessary to convert a length measurement in meters to millimeters. 5 hics = 1 nob.45 dats 1 dat 10 whees Sometimes.org 18 .

org . the final answer is 30.ck12. ( (5. Convert 5. kg 454 g 1 lb 1 kg 1000 g The mathematical answer for this conversion comes out to be 29. Convert 1.54 cm 1 inch 10 mm 1 cm 3.2 mm )( ) = 1. ( (5. Therefore. Convert 340. kg.00 pix 1 hat 10 wags 2 pix 1 hat 10 mm 1 cm 2.Example: Convert 5. it requires a written in decimal after the zero to make the zero significant. Convert 66 lbs to kg. 4.2 lbs/f t3 340. pounds (force) can be converted to grams (mass) with the conversion factor 454 g = 1 lb. 10 wags = 1 hat. As long as the object is at the surface of the earth. ( (66 lbs) )( ) = 30. Exercises 19 www.28 in3 1 f t3 You should examine the units yourself to make sure they cancel and leave the correct units for the answer.22 cm) 2.964 but must be rounded off to two significant figures since the original measurement has only two significant figures. ( (1.00 inches) )( ) = 127 mm ) = 12.22 cm to mm. and 1 hat = 2 pix.39 cm3 1 in3 17.964 is rounded to two significant figures.00 wags) Solved Conversion Problems 1.00 inches to mm. When 29.00 wags to pix given the conversion factors. mg 1 cm3 1g 1000 mg 1 lb 454 g 16. mg/cm3 to lbs/f t3 . ( )( )( )( )( ) = 21.

5 Lesson 2. 2. 12.0 rat to utes given the conversion factors. 2. 10 cots = 1 tog.0 grams in pounds. 7.1. 1 cur = 10 nibbles.69 m in cm.0 curs to nibbles given the conversion factor. Express 32. 8.0 lbs/qt to g/mL. Convert 240.ck12. Convert 1. Convert 15 inches to mm. 10. 000 mm to m. www. Convert 40. 5. mm to cm. Express 3. 10 rats = 1 gob and 10 gobs = 1 ute. Express 140 mm in cm.4 Using Algebra in Chemistry There are no worksheets for this lesson. 11. 5 gags = 1 bobo. (Be aware that such a conversion between weight and mass is only reasonable on the surface of the earth.) Express 690 mm in m.org 20 . 4. 9. cots to togs given the conversion factor. 3. 6. gags to bobos given the conversion factor. Convert 8. Convert 14. Convert 100. Convert 32.

2 Making Measurements There are no worksheets for this lesson. 3.1 Lesson 3.3 Lesson 3.3 Using Data There are no worksheets for this lesson. 3.1 Making Observations There are no worksheets for this lesson.ck12.4 Lesson 3.4 How Scientists Use Data There are no worksheets for this lesson. 21 www.org .Chapter 3 Chemistry in the Laboratory Worksheets 3.2 Lesson 3. 3.

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2 Further Understanding of the Atom There are no worksheets for this lesson. 4.1 Early Development of a Theory There are no worksheets for this lesson.org .1 Lesson 4. 4.ck12.3 Lesson 4.Chapter 4 The Atomic Theory Worksheets 4.3 Atomic Terminology There are no worksheets for this lesson.2 Lesson 4. 23 www.

org 24 .ck12.www.

5.2 The Dual Nature of Light There are no worksheets for this lesson.Chapter 5 The Bohr Model of the Atom Worksheets 5.4 The Bohr Model There are no worksheets for this lesson.4 Lesson 5.org . 5. 5.1 Lesson 5.3 Light and the Atomic Spectra There are no worksheets for this lesson.ck12.2 Lesson 5.1 The Wave Form of Light There are no worksheets for this lesson.3 Lesson 5. 25 www.

org 26 .ck12.www.

4 Lesson 6.5 Shapes of Atomic Orbitals Quantum Numbers and Orbital Shapes Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry .4 Quantum Numbers There are no worksheets for this lesson.2 Schrodinger’s Wave Functions There are no worksheets for this lesson.1 The Wave-Particle Duality There are no worksheets for this lesson. .org . 6.5 Lesson 6. 6.2 Lesson 6.1 Lesson 6.3 Heisenberg’s Contribution There are no worksheets for this lesson. . . 6.3 Lesson 6. Name___________ Date_____ 27 www.ck12. 6.Chapter 6 Quantum Mechanics Model of the Atom Worksheets 6.

Table 6.1: Energy Level Sub-Level Number of Sub-Level Orbitals Maximum Number of Electrons in Sub-Energy Level 2 2 6 2 6 10 2 6 10 14 2 6 10 14 18 2 6 10 14 18 22 Quantum Numbers for this SubLevel

1 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6

s s p s p d s p d f s p d f g s p d f g h

1 1 3 1 3 5 1 3 5 7 1 3 5 7 9 1 3 5 7 9 11

n = 1, l = 0 n = 2, l = 0 n = 2, l = 1 n = 3, l = 0 n = 2, l = 1 n = 1, l = 2 n = 4, l = 0 n = 4, l = 1 n = 1, l = 2 n = 4, l = 3 n = 5, l = 0 n = 5, l = 1 n = 5, l = 2 n = 5, l = 3 n = 5, l = 4 n = 6, l = 0 n = 6, l = 1 n = 6, l = 2 n = 6, l = 3 n = 6, l = 4 n = 6, l = 5

Mathematically, from Schrodinger’s Equation, energy level 5 would have a fifth sub-level named g. It would have 9 orbitals and hold a maximum of 18 electrons. Similarly, energy level 6 would have this g sub-level and another sub-level named h. Sub-level h would have 11 orbitals and would hold a maximum of 22 electrons. This pattern would continue through all the larger energy levels. In terms of usefulness, however, we have no atoms that contain enough electrons to use the 5g, 6g, 6h, 7g, 7h sub-levels. The known atoms never use any www.ck12.org

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energy sub-levels beyond 5f, 6f , and 7f . Therefore, in most listings of energy levels and sub-levels, energy levels 5, 6, and 7 will look exactly like energy level 4, with only s, p, d, and f sub-levels listed. The probability patterns for these sub-levels are shown below. The s orbitals in every energy level are spherical.

Figure 6.1 The three p orbitals in energy levels 2 − 7 are dumbbell shaped.

Figure 6.2 The five d orbitals in energy levels 3 − 7 are sometimes referred to a butterfly shaped. The seven f orbitals in energy levels 4 − 7 are too complex to describe.

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Figure 6.3

Figure 6.4

Exercises True/False 1. All sub-energy levels with ℓ = 1, regardless of the principal energy level quantum number will have dumbbell shape. A. True B. False 2. Theoretically, it is possible for a principal energy level to have n2 sub-energy levels. A. True B. False 3. It is impossible for an electron in an atom to have the quantum numbers n = 3, ℓ = 2, ml = 3, ms = + 1 . 2 A. True B. False Multiple Choice 4. How many sub-energy levels may be present if the principal quantum number is 3? A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 www.ck12.org

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6 C. spherical B. 18 7. 3 C. 5 D. 9 9. 1 B. How many orbitals are present in the subshell for which n = 5 and ℓ = 4? A. 7 E. None of these.E. 3 C. What is the shape of an orbital in the subshell for which n = 3 and ℓ = 0? A. 5 E. 7 E. butterfly or clover shaped 31 www. 5. 2 B.org . 5 D. 1 B.ck12. 4 D. 1 B. 10 E. 3 C. 9 6. 8 D. 9 8. How many atomic orbitals are present in the subshell for which n = 3 and ℓ = 2? A. How many electrons can be accommodated in the energy level for which n = 3? A. dumbbell C. How many possible orbitals are there when n = 3? A.

1. 0. s B. 2 E. 4 C. 12. what are the possible values of ℓ? A. 10. 3 D. 3. and 15. 2s B. A. Could be any of these. None of these. E. 1. d D.D. 0. www. 1. ℓ = 1? A. Which type of orbital is described by the quantum numbers n = 2. None of these. p C. f −orbital or none of these. None of these. 2d D.org 32 . 2f E. 2. Identify the image above as an s−orbital. 4 B. spherical B. E. 0. butterfly or clover shaped D. 2p C. What is the shape of an orbital in the subshell for which n = 7 and ℓ = 0? A. 13. f E. If the principal quantum number of an atomic orbital is 4. Could be any of these. 14. 1. 2. 2.ck12. d−orbital. None of these. None of these. dumbbell C. 11. Use the image below to answers questions 13. p−orbital. 3.

3 E. No Image Sources (1) CK12. (4) CK12. . (3) CK12.Figure 6. . 33 www.ck12. Will an orbital of the shape pictured above be found in the n = 2 energy level? A. . 2 D. . What is the ℓ value for the type of orbital pictured above? A. CCBYSA. (2) CK12. 0 B. CCBYSA. 1 C. CCBYSA. CCBYSA. Yes B. CCBYSA. 4 15.org . (5) CK12.5 14. .

ck12.www.org 34 .

not an acceptable set of 2 quantum numbers for an electron? 35 www.org .1 The Electron Spin Quantum Number Quantum Numbers Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ 1. What are the mℓ quantum numbers for each of these three electrons? 15. 2. 10. 11. Which quantum number indicates the electron’s energy level? Which quantum number indicates the electron’s sub-energy level? Which quantum number indicates the electron’s orbital within the sub-energy level? Which quantum number indicates the electron’s spin? What is the lowest energy level that has a d sub-level? What is the total number of electrons that can exist in the 3rd energy level? Which sub-energy level is indicated by ℓ = 1? which sub-energy level is indicated by ℓ = 2? What is the maximum number of electrons that can be held in an f sub-energy level? What does it mean for an electron to be “excited”? What are the n and ℓ quantum numbers for the last electron in bromine? What are the n and ℓ quantum numbers for the last electron in iron? What are the n and ℓ quantum numbers for the electron in hydrogen? The three electrons in the 2p sub-energy level of nitrogen have the n and ℓ quantum numbers. 3. 8. mℓ = 2. What is the basic tenet of the quantum theory? 16. Why are the quantum numbers n = 2.Chapter 7 Electron Configurations for Atoms Worksheets 7. ℓ = 2.1 Lesson 7. 13. 4. s = 1 .ck12. 9. 12. 6. 7. 5. 14.

18. 7. . What maximum number of electrons in an atom can have the quantum numbers n = 3. Sketch a picture of the 2s sub-energy level showing any nodes present. .1: Draw the Orbital Configuration for these Atoms Symbol Mg Orbital Diagram www. Give the full set of quantum numbers for each of the electrons in a helium atom.2 Pauli Exclusion There are no worksheets for this lesson.4 Lesson 7.3 Aufbau Principle There are no worksheets for this lesson.org 36 .4 Writing Electron Configurations Orbital Configuration Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry . . What maximum number of electrons in an atom can have the quantum numbers n = 2.3 Lesson 7.2 Lesson 7.ck12. 19. Name_________ Date_____ Table 7.17. 7. ℓ = 1? 20. ℓ = 3? 7.

org .1: (continued) Symbol P Orbital Diagram Ge Kr O 37 www.Table 7.ck12.

ck12.1: (continued) Symbol F Orbital Diagram Pb Table 7.org 38 .Table 7.2: Write the Electron Configuration Code for these Atoms Atom V Mg P Ge Kr O F Pb Electron Configuration Code 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d3 Image Sources www.

Rb. N a.1 Electron Configurations of Main Group Elements There are no worksheets for this lesson. K. Cs) react with water to produce heat. When quantum theory generated electron configurations which demonstrated that the ele- 39 www.ck12. Essentially.3 Lesson 8. The vertical columns of elements are frequently referred to chemical “families” because of their similar chemical characteristics. That is.2 Orbital Configurations There are no worksheets for this lesson. the only difference in the reactions is that the larger alkali metals react faster than the smaller ones.2 Lesson 8. 8. he placed the elements in vertical columns according to their chemical behavior. All the alkali metals (Li. and the metal hydroxide in solution. hydrogen gas.3 The Periodic Table and Electron Configurations The Periodic Table and Electron Configuration Worksheet When Mendeleev organized the periodic table. elements were placed in the same vertical columns because they behaved similarly in chemical reactions.org . 8.1 Lesson 8.Chapter 8 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table Worksheets 8.

ments in the same family have the same outer energy level electron configuration. or a noble gas? ____________ (c) how many valence electrons does it have? ____________ 3. non-metal. or a noble gas? ____________ (c) how many valence electrons does it have? ____________ 4. (a) What is the identity of the element? ____________ www. metalloid. metalloid. If the outermost energy level electron configuration of an atom is ns2 np6 . non-metal.2: The Electron Configuration of Family 7A Elements Element F Cl Br I Exercises 1. Since chemical behavior is determined by outer energy level electron configuration.1: The Electron Configuration of Family 1A Elements Element Li Na K Rb Cs Electron Configuration 1s2 2s1 1s2 2s2 sp6 3s1 1s2 2s2 sp6 3s2 3p6 4s1 1s2 2s2 sp6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s1 1s2 2s2 sp6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s1 Table 8. non-metal. (a) to which family does it belong? ____________ (b) is the atom a metal. or a noble gas? ____________ (c) how many valence electrons does it have? ____________ 2. the reason these elements behaved similarly became clear. metalloid. If the outermost energy level electron configuration of an atom is ns2 np1 . The electron configuration of an element is [Ar]4s2 3d3 . Table 8. (a) to which family does it belong? ____________ (b) is the atom a metal. If the outermost energy level electron configuration of an atom is ns2 np4 .org Electron Configuration 1s2 2s2 2p5 1s2 2s2 sp6 3s2 3p5 1s2 2s2 sp6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p5 1s2 2s2 sp6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p5 40 . (a) to which family does it belong?____________ (b) is the atom a metal.ck12. it was clear that elements that behaved similarly should have similar electron configuration.

org . Write the electron configuration of only the outermost energy level for an element that is in family 5A of the fifth period of the periodic table. or an actinide? ____________ 5. Write the electron configuration of only the outermost energy level for an element that is in family 8A of the third period of the periodic table.(b) In what period does the element belong? ____________ (c) In what group does the element belong? ____________ (d) Is the element a main group element. ____________ 41 www. a lanthanide. ____________ 6.ck12. a transition element.

org 42 .ck12.www.

43 www.2 Electron Configurations Electron Configuration Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ 1.Chapter 9 Relationships Between the Elements Worksheets 9.1 Families on the Periodic Table There are no worksheets for this lesson. 9.2 Lesson 9. Fill in the orbital electron representation for phosphorus.org .ck12.1 Lesson 9.

Draw the orbital representation for the electron configuration of calcium. Fill in the electron orbital configuration for cobalt.2. 4. Fill in the electron orbital configuration for bromine.ck12. www. 3.org 44 .

6. How many valence electrons does bromine have? 11. 45 www. 10. Write the electron configuration code for bromine. 8. What will be the outer energy level electron configuration for element #118? 15. How many valence electrons does calcium have? 13.5. How many valence electrons does phosphorus have? 7.org . Write the electron configuration code for phosphorus.ck12. How many valence electrons does tellurium have? 14. Draw the orbital representation of the electron configuration for silicon. How many valence electrons does cobalt have? 9. Write the electron configuration code for cobalt. Write the electron configuration code for calcium. 12.

16.org 46 .5 Transition Elements There are no worksheets for this lesson. Draw the electron-dot formula for calcium. 4. Draw the electron-dot formula for silicon.6 Lesson 9. 5. Draw the electron-dot formula for cobalt.ck12. 6.5 Lesson 9. How many valence electrons does silicon have? 9. 2. 9.4 Lesson 9. 9. Draw the electron-dot formula for bromine.4 Chemical Family Members Have Similar Properties There are no worksheets for this lesson. 3.3 Lesson 9. Image Sources www.3 Lewis Electron Dot Diagrams Electron Dot Formulas Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ 1.6 Lanthanide and Actinide Series There are no worksheets for this lesson. Draw the electron-dot formula for phosphorus. 9. Draw the electron-dot formula for element #118.

5. 10.2 Lesson 10. Which atom is larger.3 Electron Affinity Trends in the Periodic Table Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ 1. oxygen or sulfur? Which is chemically more reactive. by volume. 6.ck12.org .3 Lesson 10.Chapter 10 Trends on the Periodic Table Worksheets 10. 7.1 Atomic Size There are no worksheets for this lesson. 4. oxygen or sulfur? 47 www.2 Ionization Energy There are no worksheets for this lesson. by volume. 3. potassium or cesium? Which is chemically more reactive. 8. 10.1 Lesson 10. 2. in the third period? Describe the relationship between atomic volume and ionization energy. hydrogen or helium? What is the smallest atom. Which atom has the greatest electron affinity? What is the most stable number of electrons for an atom’s outermost energy level? Which is larger in volume.

9.org 48 .ck12. 15. 14. Which atom in period 3 has the greatest electron affinity? Which atom in period 3 has the largest volume? Which atom has greater ionization energy. potassium or calcium? What is the outer energy level electron configuration of a noble gas? Which atom in period 3 has the lowest ionization energy? Explain why fluorine. 12. 11. has a greater electron affinity. www. even though it is larger than neon. 13. 10. aluminum or gallium? Which atom has greater second ionization energy.

000 18. Element X is a representative element.8 relate to element Y whose first six ionization energies are shown in the table below. 400 15.1: The First Six Ionization Energies of Element Number of Ionization Energy 1 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th st Ionization Energy (kJ/mol) 800 1.ck12.1 The Formation of Ions Ion Formation Worksheet Questions 1 . How many electrons is element X most likely to gain or lose in a normal chemical reaction? 4. Element Y is a representative element. 000 21. Table 11.1 Lesson 11. 49 www.Chapter 11 Ions and the Compounds They Form Worksheets 11. Which family of elements does element X belong to? 3. What is the most likely charge for an ion of element X? Questions 5 . 000 25. 000 1.org .4 relate to element X whose first six ionization energies are shown in the table below. Is element X more likely to be a metal or a non-metal? 2.

What is the most likely charge for an ion of element Y ? Questions 9 . 800 6.Element M is a representative element. 000 5. How many electrons is element M most likely to gain or lose in a normal chemical reaction? 12. 000 6.ck12. Is element M more likely to be a metal or a non-metal? 10. 800 4. What is the most likely charge for an ion of element M ? The table below gives the electron affinities for period 3 of the periodic table. 800 9. 800 2.2: The First Six Ionization Energies of Element Number of Ionization Energy 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th Ionization Energy (kJ/mol) 500 4. 000 9. 100 1. 000 8.org 50 .3: The First Eight Ionization Energies of Element Number of Ionization Energy 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th Ionization Energy (kJ/mol) 1. Is element Y more likely to be a metal or a non-metal? 6. Table 11.Table 11. 000 36. 000 13. How many electrons is element Y most likely to gain or lose in a normal chemical reaction? 8. Which family of elements does element M belong to? 11. www. 000 15.12 relate to element M whose first eight ionization energies are shown in the table below. 000 27. Which family of elements does element Y belong to? 7.

is it most likely to gain or lose electrons? C. 13.org .4: The Electron Affinities of Elements in Period Three Family 1A 2A 0 3A 42 4A 134 5A 72 6A 200 7A 349 8A 0 Electron 52 Affinity (kJ/mol) The table below gives the electron affinities for period 4 of the periodic table. Which first ionization energy do you think belongs to Cs? C. If all the elements in a family have an electron affinity of 0 kJ/mol.5: The Electron Affinities of Elements in Period Four Family 1A 2A 2 3A 29 4A 119 5A 78 6A 195 7A 325 8A 0 Electron 48 Affinity (kJ/mol) While family 5A is somewhat anomalous. would you expect it to be a metal or a non-metal? 14. 500. Given the electron configuration of the outermost energy level of an atom to be s2 p4 : A. K. and Cs in random order are 370.2 Ionic Bonding 51 There are no worksheets for this lesson. 400. what family is it most likely to be? 15. A. The first ionization energies (in kJ/mol) of Li. is the element a metal or non-metal? B. Table 11.Table 11. www. what is the most likely charge on an ion of this element? 11. Which first ionization energy do you think belongs to Li? B. Rb. the general trend is apparent in this data. N a.ck12. If a representative element has an electron affinity greater than 150 kJ/mol. 520. and 420.2 Lesson 11. What knowledge about chemical families did you use to make those choices? 16. how many electrons is it most likely to gain or lose in a normal chemical reaction? D.

11.3

Lesson 11.3 Properties of Ionic Compounds

There are no worksheets for this lesson.

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Chapter 12 Writing and Naming Ionic Formulas Worksheets
12.1 Lesson 12.1 Predicting Formulas of Ionic Compounds

Formula Writing Worksheet
CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Fill in the squares with the appropriate formula for the compound formed by the combination of the atoms or ions that intersect. Table 12.1: Formula Writing Practice bromine potassium calcium aluminum ammonium iron(III) lead(II) acetate sulfate phosphate hydroxide sulfur

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12.2

Lesson 12.2 Inorganic Nomenclature

Inorganic Nomenclature Worksheet
CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Table 12.2: Name the Following Compounds Number 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Formula LiF N a3 P O4 Al(OH)3 Cl2 O7 P bO F e 2 S3 T eO2 CuSO4 Ca3 (P O4 )2 HN O3 Name _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________

Table 12.3: Write Formulas for the Following Compounds Number 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Name copper(I) sulfide boron trichloride potassium carbonate sulfur hexafluoride chlorine monofluoride dinitrogen tetraoxide tin(IV) oxide silver acetate diphosphorus pentoxide lithium nitrate Formula _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________

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2 Lesson 13.ck12.2 Atoms that Form Covalent Bonds There are no worksheets for this lesson.3 Lesson 13.1 Lesson 13.1 The Covalent Bond There are no worksheets for this lesson.3 Naming Covalent Compounds There are no worksheets for this lesson.org . 13. 55 www. 13.Chapter 13 Covalent Bonding Worksheets 13.

org 56 .www.ck12.

14.5 Molecular Polarity Molecular Geometry Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry 57 www.ck12.org . 14.5 Lesson 14.2 Lesson 14.1 Types of Bonds that Form Between Atoms There are no worksheets for this lesson.4 Electronic and Molecular Geometry There are no worksheets for this lesson.3 Lesson 14.3 Resonance There are no worksheets for this lesson. 14. 14.2 The Covalent Molecules of Family 2A8A There are no worksheets for this lesson.1 Lesson 14.4 Lesson 14.Chapter 14 Molecular Architecture Worksheets 14.

do not contribute to electronic geometry. but since they are all tied to the central atom. we use “ball and stick” models. To convey a sense of three dimensionality.ck12. The electron pairs move as far apart as possible. Table 14. These pairs consist of all sigma bond pairs and all unshared pairs of electrons. the two pairs can avoid each other best if they are 180◦ apart. and unshared pairs of electrons. imagine them situated on the surface of a sphere with the central atom at the center.1: Visualizing Electron Pairs Electron Pairs To visualize the electron pairs that contribute to electronic geometry. This means that the two pairs and the central atom are in a straight line. Image If there are only two pairs of electrons in the valence shell of the central atom. and the electronic geometry of that molecule. To use VSEPR theory. Pi bond electrons are excluded because the electrons are not placed between bonding atoms and therefore. (sigma bonds plus non-shared pairs) around the central atom of a molecule. There is a correlation between the number of electron pairs. surround a given atom on a flat page. The molecules are actually three dimensional which is not shown by Lewis structures. www. the arrangement is linear. we must first be able to determine the number of valence shell electron pairs around the central atom. This is the essence of the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory for predicting molecular shapes.Name______________________ Date_________ Lewis structures only show how many bonding pairs of electrons.org 58 . The idea that allows us to predict the electronic geometry is that each pair of electrons (shared or unshared) repels all the other electron pairs. they can only orient themselves in such a way that they make the angles between them as large as possible.

The angles between the three pairs of electrons around the center is 120◦ and the angles between the pairs around the center and the pairs on the ends is 90◦ . The angles between electron pairs would be 120◦ and we call the shape trigonal planar.org . Once the number of electron pairs surrounding the central atom is determined. the three pairs push around to the shape shown at right. The angles in this shape are 109. the sixth pair of electrons produces the octahedral shape shown at right.Table 14.5◦ . Finally.1: (continued) Electron Pairs If a third pair of electrons is added. Image A fourth pair of electrons causes the electrons to push around into the shape shown at right. the elec- 59 www. the tetrahedron. A fifth pair of electrons produces the shape known as trigonal bipyramidal. The three pairs of electrons and the central atom are all in a single plane.ck12. All angles in this shape are 90◦ .

In all four cases.3: The Relationship Between Shared Pairs and Molecular Geometry Shared Pairs The central atom of each of these molecules is surrounded by four pairs of electrons. ammonia. Table 14.ck12. not all the electron pairs are shared. We will look at an example that shows the difference between electronic and molecular geometry.2: The Relationship Between Number of Electron Pairs and Electronic Geometry Electron Pairs Around the Central Atom 1 2 3 4 5 6 pair pairs pairs pairs pairs pairs Electronic Geometry Linear Linear Trigonal Planar Tetrahedral Trigonal Bipyramidal Octahedral The molecular geometry may be different from the electronic geometry because many times. According to VSEPR theory. The overall shape of the molecule is determined by how many pairs of electrons are around the central atom. It is sometimes difficult for students to recognize the difference between the orientation of electron pairs (called electronic geometry) and the overall shape of the molecule (called molecular geometry). H2 O. In order to determine molecular geometry. CH4 .org Molecular Geometry 60 . and how many of these have atoms attached. and methane. the electronic geometry is tetrahedral but only one of the molecules will have tetrahedral molecular geometry. N H3 . Table 14. The four pairs will point to the corners of the geometrical shape known as a tetrahedron. The angles between the electron pairs will be approximately 109. An unshared electron pair will not have an atom in that position of the electronic geometry.5◦ . HCl. we must recognize which pairs of electrons have an atom attached and which are lone pairs. water. www. Consider the following four molecules: hydrogen chloride.tronic geometry is known. these four pairs will be oriented in three-dimensional space to be as far away from each other as possible.

the molecular geometry will be linear.Table 14.org . Molecular Geometry In the methane molecule.4: Table of Molecular Geometries Central Atom Electronic Electron Geometry Pairs 2 3 Linear Trigonal Planar Bonding Pairs 2 1 Molecular Geometry Linear Linear Sketch 61 www. Table 14. two electron pairs are shared and two are unshared. There is no atom attached to them. Since there are only two atoms joined by a bond. the molecular geometry is bent (aka angular. These spaces are empty. In the water molecule. and so not only is the electronic geometry tetrahedral but the molecular geometry is also tetrahedral.ck12. even though there are four pairs of electrons around the chlorine atom. one pair of electrons is unshared and the other three are shared. aka V-shaped). This results in a molecular shape called pyramidal. all four pairs of electrons are shared. three of them are not shared. So while the electronic geometry is tetrahedral. In the ammonia molecule.3: (continued) Shared Pairs In the case of HCl.

4: (continued) Central Atom Electronic Electron Geometry Pairs 3 Trigonal Planar Bonding Pairs 2 Molecular Geometry Bent Sketch 3 Trigonal Planar 3 Trigonal Planar 4 Tetrahedral 1 Linear 4 Tetrahedral 2 Bent 4 Tetrahedral 3 Pyramidal 4 Tetrahedral 4 Tetrahedral 5 Trigonal Bipyramidal 1 Linear 5 Trigonal Bipyramidal 2 Linear www.Table 14.org 62 .ck12.

ck12.4: (continued) Central Atom Electronic Electron Geometry Pairs 5 Trigonal Bipyramidal Bonding Pairs 3 Molecular Geometry T-shape Sketch 5 Trigonal Bipyramidal 4 Distorted Tetrahedron 5 Trigonal Bipyramidal 5 Trigonal Bipyramidal 6 Octahedral 1 Linear 6 Octahedral 2 Linear 6 Octahedral 3 T-shape 63 www.org .Table 14.

and therefore the electronic geometry of the carbonate ion is based on 3 pairs of electrons around the central atom.Table 14. shown at right. however. One of those pairs. But these fours pairs of electrons are involved in two sigma bonds and two pi bonds. and the carbon atom is surrounded by 4 pairs of electrons.org 64 . The Lewis structure for the carbonate ion. Pi bonds are not directed bonds. Since both pairs of electrons are shared. and will be linear. Thus.ck12. the electronic geometry of carbon dioxide is based on two pairs of electrons around the central atom. and those electron pairs do not contribute to electronic geometry. you must keep in mind that only electron pairs involved in sigma bonds and unshared pairs contribute to electronic geometry. the molecular geometry will also be linear. the electronic geometry is trigonal planar and since all three pairs www.4: (continued) Central Atom Electronic Electron Geometry Pairs 6 Octahedral Bonding Pairs 4 Molecular Geometry Square Planar Sketch 6 Octahedral 5 Square Pyramidal 6 Octahedral 6 Octahedral In order to choose the correct molecular geometry. it is clear that the central atom is carbon. Therefore. shows the central atom is carbon and it is surrounded by 4 electron pairs. is a pi bond. In the Lewis structure for the carbon dioxide molecule (shown at right).

A molecule that does have polar bonds can still be non-polar. S8 . the molecules will be non-polar. P4 . have no polar bonds and therefore do not have dipoles. and indicate whether the molecular will be polar or non-polar.are shared. molecular geometry. Molecules composed of all the same atom such as Cl2 . Polarity Bonds between atoms that are of the same element are non-polar bonds.org . Table 14. If the polar bonds are symmetrically distributed. the bond dipoles cancel and do not produce a molecular dipole. the molecular geometry is also trigon planar. Table 14.ck12. H2 .5: Symmetrical and Non-Symmetrical Molecular Shapes Molecular Shape Linear Bent Trigonal Planar Pyramidal Tetrahedral T-shaped Distorted Tetrahedron Trigonal Bipyramidal Square Planar Square Pyramidal Octahdral Exercises Fill in the table with electronic geometry.6: Polarity Table Formula AsH3 Electronic Geometry Molecular Geometry Polarity Symmetry Symmetrical Non-Symmetrical Symmetrical Non-Symmetrical Symmetrical Non-Symmetrical Non-Symmetrical Symmetrical Symmetrical Non-Symmetrical Symmetrical 65 www. O2 . That is.

org 66 .ck12.6: (continued) Formula BCl3 IF3 SiBr4 SeH4 XeI4 OF2 KrF2 ICl5 CCl2 F2 Electronic Geometry Molecular Geometry Polarity Image Sources www.Table 14.

02 grams.1 Determining Formula and Molecular Mass Calculating Molar Masses Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ The relative masses of atoms.org . in units called Daltons.Chapter 15 The Mathematics of Compounds Worksheets 15. An Avogadro’s number of particles is called one mole and the mass of that group of particles is called the molar mass (or mass of one mole) of that substance.02 Daltons. are listed in the periodic table. Example: Find the molar mass of calcium phosphate. of 6.01 Dalton and relative mass of the an oxygen atom to be 16. Therefore. the mass in grams.01 + 1.02 × 1023 . the mass of the group will be the same number as the relative mass. on this same scale. For example.1 Lesson 15. but the units will be grams.01 + 16. would be the sum of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. in the same units.00 = 18. of atoms or molecules are taken. 1. The relative masses of molecules. the periodic table lists the relative mass of a hydrogen atom as 1. 6. Ca3 (P O4 )2 . can be determined by adding up the masses of all the atoms that make up the molecule.00 Daltons. 67 www.02 × 1023 water molecules is 18. H2 O.ck12. When an Avogadro’s number. That is. the relative mass of a water molecule.

1 2 × 31. 3. 6.02 × 1023 particles) is the relative molecular mass in grams. 2.org 68 . N aOH N aBr P bSO4 Ca(OH)2 AgF C6 H12 O6 Ba(C2 H3 O2 )2 ZnCl2 (N H4 )2 SO4 (N H4 )3 P O4 15. 5. 8.0 Total = 120. the molar mass of calcium phosphate is 310.ck12.3 = 62.2 The Mole Moles Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ An Avogadro’s number of particles of a substance is called one mole of that substance. 10.Table 15. 9.2 Lesson 15.1: Adding Up a Molar Mass Atoms of Element 3 Ca atoms = 2 P atoms = 8 O atoms = Atoms x Atomic Mass 3 × 40. (Do not fail to include units in your answers. of atoms or molecules are taken.3 Therefore. The relationship between the moles and mass of a substance is given by: www.3 grams/mole.0 8 × 16. the mass of the group will be the same number as the relative molecular mass. 4. but the units will be grams. Exercises Find the molar masses of the following compounds. When an Avogadro’s number. The mass of one mole of a substance (6. 6.) 1.02 × 1023 .0 = 128. 7.0 _____ 310.

250 moles molar mass 40.20 moles of Ca(N O3 )2 ? Solution: The molar mass of Ca(N O3 )2 is 164.6 grams? Solution: molar mass = 56.ck12.2 g grams = = 225 g/mol moles 0.0 g/mol Example 2: What is the mass. of 4.0 g/mol. grams = (moles)(molar mass) = (4. N aOH? Solution: The molar mass of N aOH is 40.1 g/mol) = 689 grams Example 3: What is the molar mass of an unknown substance is 0. (“mol” is the abbreviation of mole.0 g = = 0. You put your thumb over the quantity you are solving for and the part of the triangle not covered shows the correct formula.250 moles of the substance has a mass of 52. Figure 15.) moles = grams 10.20 mol)(164.grams = (moles)(molar mass) This relationship can be solved for any one of the three variables in the expression.250 mol 69 www.1 g/mol.1 Example 1: How many moles are present in 10.0 grams of sodium hydroxide.org . grams molar mass grams moles grams = (moles)(molar mass) moles = molar mass = Some students find the triangle below to be a useful crutch. in grams.

Example 4: What is the mass of 3.01 × 1023 molecules of ammonia, N H3 ? Solution: This problem involves converting the number of molecules to moles (divide by Avogadro’s number), and then multiplying the moles by the molar mass. ( mass = (3.01 × 10
23

molecules)

1.00 mol 6.02 × 1023 molecules

)(

17.0 g 1.00 mol

) = 8.50 grams

Exercises

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

How many moles are present in 5.00 grams of N aOH? How many grams are present in 2.50 moles of N H3 ? How many moles are present in 100. g of Ca(N O3 )2 ? What is the mass of 0.468 moles of C6 H12 O6 ? How many moles are present in 1.00 × 1024 molecules of water? What is the mass, in grams, of one molecule of water? What is the molar mass of a substance if 0.336 moles of it has a mass of 70.0 grams? Convert 4.00 grams of CH4 to moles. Convert 4.00 moles of CH4 to grams. How many molecules are present in 1.00 g of Al(C2 H3 O2 )2

15.3

Lesson 15.3 Percent Composition

Percent Composition Worksheet
CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ The percent composition (or percentage composition) of a compound is a measure of the percentage of each different element present in the compound. To calculate the percent composition, the mass of each individual element is divided by the total mass of the compound and then multiplied by 100 (to get its percentage). The percent composition of a compound can be calculated either from the known masses of the elements in the compound (determined in the lab) or from the formula of the compound. Example: The composition of a compound is determined in the laboratory to be 5.748 grams of sodium and 8.862 grams of chlorine. What is the percent composition of the compound? Solution: The total mass of this sample of the compound is 14.61 grams. www.ck12.org

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5.748 14.61 8.862 % chlorine = 14.61 % sodium =

g × 100 = 39.34% g g × 100 = 60.66% g

When you add up all the percentages of elements, you should get 100%, although on many occasions, rounding may cause the last digit of the total to be off by 1. That is, on occasion, you get a total of 99.9% or 100.1% due to several individual percentages all being rounded up or all being rounded down. Example: Calculate the percent composition of all the elements in (N H4 )3 P O4 . Solution: 3 N atoms = 3 × 14.01 = 42.03 12 H atoms = 12 × 1.01 = 12.12 1 P atom = 1 × 30.97 = 30.97 4 O atoms = 4 × 16.00 = 64.00 Formula weight for (N H4 )3 P O4 = 149.12 42.03 30.97 × 100 = 28.19% %P = × 100 = 20.77% 149.12 149.12 64.00 12.12 × 100 = 8.13% % O = × 100 = 42.92% %H= 149.12 149.12

%N=

When the four percentages are added in this case, the total is 100.01%. The extra 0.01% is due to the fact that all four of these percentages were rounded up. Exercises 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Determine Determine Determine Determine Determine the the the the the percent percent percent percent percent composition composition composition composition composition of of of of of N a2 SO4 . N aOH. AlCl3 . Ca(C2 H3 O2 )2 . C6 H12 O6 .

15.4

Lesson 15.4 Empirical and Molecular Formulas

Empirical Formulas Worksheet
CK-12 Foundation Chemistry

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Name______________________ Date_________ Empirical formulas represent the simplest whole number ratio of the atoms that make up a compound. In some cases, such as CO2 , the empirical formula is exactly the same as the actual molecular formula. In other cases such as benzene, C6 H6 , whose empirical formula is CH, the molecular formula is some multiple of the empirical formula. Empirical formulas can be determined either from the masses of the elements making up the compound or from the percent composition. Example 1: What is the empirical formula of a compound that contains 0.0134 grams of iron, 0.00769 grams of sulfur, and 0.0115 grams of oxygen? Step 1: Convert each of the masses into moles of atoms of that element. This is accomplished by dividing the grams of each element by the atomic mass of the element.

moles F e =

0.0134 g = 0.000240 mol 55.8 g/mol 0.00769 g moles S = = 0.000240 mol 32.1 g/mol 0.0115 g = 0.000719 mol moles O = 16.0 g/mol

It is important to note that we are determining the number of moles of each atom that exists in the compound and therefore, for the diatomic gases, we use the atomic mass of a single atom of the element (not the diatomic molar mass). Step 2: The ratio of moles that we determined in step 1 is the correct ratio for the compound. We are not allowed, however, to write a formula in the form, F e0.000230 S0.000240 O0.000719 . Before we can write the formula, we must get the ratio into a simplest whole number ratio. This is often accomplished by dividing each of the moles by the smallest of them.

moles F e =

0.000240 = 1.00 0.000240 0.000240 = 1.00 moles S = 0.000240 0.000719 moles O = = 3.00 0.000240

Therefore, the empirical formula for this compound is F eSO3 . Example 2: Find the empirical formula of a compound that contains 48.78% carbon, 2.439% hydrogen, 26.02% oxygen, and 22.77% nitrogen. www.ck12.org

72

415 moles H = 1. where step 2 does NOT produce a simple whole number ratio. moles O = 2.625 1. it is easiest to assume a 100. and then proceed as in Example 1. grams to get grams for each element. moles N = 2 Therefore.00 Step 3: In a case.626 mols 16.Solution: When the empirical formula is to be determined from percent composition.org . Using this technique.49 = 1.78 g = 4.626 moles O = 1. take each percentage of the 100. the empirical formula for this compound is C5 H3 O2 N2 .625 1. grams C = 48.77 g moles N = = 1.415 mols 1.625 2. such as this one. Exercises 73 www.00 g/mol 22.ck12.78 g.01 g/mol 26.625 mols 14. moles H = 3. grams H = 2.625 moles C = = 2. each of the percentages in the problem becomes the mass of the element in grams.00 = 1.02 g. moles C = 5. This is usually an integer between 2 and 5 but could possible be a larger integer.77 g Step 1: 48. we then choose a multiplier with which to multiply each of the final numbers such that we do get a simple whole number ratio.439 g grams O = 26. In this case.01 g/mol 2.062 1.01 g/mol moles C = Step 2: Divide each of the moles by the smallest. 4.02 g moles O = = 1. gram sample. grams N = 22.062 mols 12. the multiplier is 2.50 = 1.439 g moles H = = 2.625 moles N = 1.

which would be CH. the molecular formula for this compound is 4 times the empirical formula. g/mol? Solution: The formula mass of HCO2 is 45 g/mol. Molecular formulas show the actual number of atoms of each element that make up the compound. When we divide the formula mass. Find the empirical formula for a compound that is 67. Find the empirical formula for a compound that is 75. Dividing 45 g/mol into 90.24% oxygen.org 74 .1% zinc and the rest oxygen. 14 g/mol. Example: What is the molecular formula for a compound with the empirical formula HCO2 and a molar mass of 90.62069 g of carbon. 56 g/mol. 2.65% carbon. The molecular formula for benzene is C6 H6 but the empirical formula for benzene would be the simplest whole number ratio for these atoms. A sample of a compound was found to contain 48. g/mol yields a multiplier of 2.11% hydrogen. If we have the empirical formula CH2 and the molar mass of 56 g/mol for a compound. A sample of a compound was found to contain 0.7 g/mol. the multiplier is 6. 3. Therefore. and C5 H10 all have the same empirical formula.ck12. C4 H8 . What is its empirical formula? Molecular Formulas Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Empirical formulas show the simplest whole number ratio of the atoms of the elements that make up a compound. we can determine the molecular formula by dividing the formula mass of CH2 into the molar mass to find the multiplier. 8. A compound has the empirical formula C4 H4 O and a molar mass of 136 g/mol. 0. A compound has the empirical formula C2 OH4 and a molar mass of 88 g/mol. What is its molecular formula? 3. we also need the molar mass of the compound.10345 g of hydrogen. Therefore. The formula mass of CH2 is 14 g/mol. the molecular formula for this compound is 2 × CHO2 = H2 C2 O4 . The molecular formula will always be some whole number multiple of the empirical formula.27586 g of oxygen. we get the multiplier 4. and 43.2% chlorine. namely CH2 . and 0. Find the empirical formula for a compound that is 32. What is its molecular formula? www.0% hydrogen. The molecules C2 H4 . 4. Exercises 1. In the case of benzene. into the molar mass. The empirical formula can be determined from either the masses of the elements in a compound or from percent composition.1. C3 H6 . What is the empirical formula? 5.0% carbon and 25. A compound has the empirical formula CF BrO and a molar mass of 254. CH2 × 4 = C4 H8 . What is its molecular formula? 2.8% chromium and 67. In order to determine the molecular formula.

0% potassium.5% oxygen. and 38. What is its molecular formula? 5. .5% carbon. Its molar mass is 166. 75 www. Its molar mass is 104 g/mol. A compound is 7.ck12.2 g/mol. A compound is 47.org .308% carbon. What is its molecular formula? Image Sources (1) Richard Parsons.4.692% hydrogen and 93. CCBYSA. 14.

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0)15 M gO 4. Fe + H2 O → F e3 O4 + H2 7.2 Balancing Equations Balancing Equations Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Balance the following equations by inserting the smallest whole number coefficients. 0)15 CuCl + (1. 0)15 P b(N O3 )2 → (1.Chapter 16 Chemical Reactions Worksheets 16. (1. (1. 0)15 P b 8.2 Lesson 16. 0)15 O2 → (1. (1. 16.1 Lesson 16. 0)15 H2 O → (1. 0)15 CO2 + (1.ck12. 0)15 H2 O 9. 0)15 H2 O 77 www. (1.org . 0)15 H2 O 10. 0)15 Cu2 S + (1. (1.1 Chemical Equations There are no worksheets for this lesson. 0)15 CO2 + (1. 0)15 KOH + (1. 0)15 O2 → (1. (1. 0)15 C2 H6 + (1. 0)15 F e2 O3 5. 0)15 N2 O3 → (1. 0)15 N a + (1. 0)15 F e + (1. 0)15 K3 P O4 + (1. 0)15 H3 P O4 → (1. 0)15 N aOH + (1. 0)15 M g + (1. 0)15 Al(N O3 )3 + (1. 0)15 HCl 2. (1. 0)15 H2 O + (1. (1. 0)15 HN O2 6. 0)15 O2 → (1. (1. 0)15 O2 → (1. 1. 0)15 Al + (1. 0)15 H2 S → (1. 0)15 C2 H5 OH + (1. 0)15 H2 3.

17. Iron + oxygen yields iron (III) oxide. 19.11. Sodium chlorate (N aClO3 ) yields sodium chloride + oxygen. (1.org 78 . When chemists are confronted with an overwhelming number of things. Lead (II) nitrate + hydrogen sulfide yields lead (II) sulfide + nitric acid (HN O3 ). 0)15 O2 → (1.3 Lesson 16. Antimony + chlorine yields antimony (III) chloride. 16. Synthesis (also called Direct Combination) A synthesis reaction occurs when two or more substances combine to make a single. (1. 0)15 HCl 14. One popular system of classification for chemical reactions places them in five major categories. 0)15 H2 → (1. (1. 0)15 C5 H12 + (1. 16. (1. 0)15 H2 O 15. 0)15 H2 SO4 → (1. 0)15 N H4 Cl + (1. 18. 0)15 CaCl2 + (1. Aluminum + sulfuric acid (H2 SO4 ) yields aluminum sulfate + hydrogen gas. 0)15 N H3 + (1. www. 0)15 N2 + (1. Some of the categories have different names in different books and you should become familiar with all the names. 0)15 CO2 + (1. Types of Chemical Reactions 1. 0)15 N H3 12. 0)15 Al(OH)3 + (1. 0)15 H2 S → (1. The reactants may be elements or compounds but the product will always be a compound.ck12. 20. 0)15 Al2 (SO4 )3 + (1.3 Types of Reactions Types of Chemical Reactions Worksheet There are millions of different compounds and therefore. they tend to classify them into groups in order to make them easier to study and discuss. (1. 0)15 Al2 S3 + (1. 0)15 SbCl3 + (1. there must be millions of different chemical reactions to form these compounds. 0)15 Ca(OH)2 → (1. more complex substance. The general formula for this type of reaction can be shown as: A + B → AB Some examples of synthesis reactions are shown below. 0)15 H2 O Convert the following word equations into formula equations and then balance them. 0)15 H2 O 13.

the equation is element + compound → element + compound. C12 H22 O11(s) → 12 C(s) + 11 H2 O(g) P b(OH)2(s) → P bO(s) + H2 O(g) 2 Ag2 O(s) → 4 Ag(s) + O2(g) 3. Single Displacement (also called Single Replacement) In this type of reaction. This type of reaction is the opposite of a synthesis reaction. The general form of this equation can be written as: A + BC → B + AC (positive ion replaced) Or A + BC → C + BA (negative ion replaced) In either case. Decomposition (also called Analysis) A decomposition reaction occurs when one substance is broken down into two or more simpler substances.2 H2(g) + O2(g) → 2 H2 O(g) C(s) + O2(g) → CO2(g) CaO(s) + H2 O(L) → Ca(OH)2(s) You should note in each case above. 79 www. there are two or more substances in the reactants and only one substance as the product. a neutral element becomes as ion as it replaces another ion in a compound. Some examples of single displacement reactions are shown below.org . as shown by the general formula below: AB → A + B Some examples of decomposition reactions are shown below. 2.ck12.

hydrocarbon + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water Some examples of combustion reactions are shown below. Combustion When organic compounds are burned.ck12. AB + CD → CB + AD The reaction is Compound + Compound → Compound + Compound Some examples of double displacement reactions are shown below. CH4(g) + 2 O2(g) → 2 H2 O(g) + CO2(g) 2 C2 H6(g) + 7 O2(g) → 6 H2 O(g) + 4 CO2(g) C3 H8(g) + 5 O2(g) → 4 H2 O(g) + 3 CO2(g) Exercises Fill in the reaction type on the line following the balanced equation. 3 N aBr + H3 P O4 → N a3 P O4 + 3 HBr _________________________ www. pairs of ionic compounds exchange partners. AgN O3(aq) + N aCl(aq) → AgCl(s) + N aN O3(aq) ZnBr2(aq) + 2 AgN O3(aq) → Zn(N O3 )2(aq) + 2 AgBr(s) H2 SO4(aq) + 2 N aOH(aq) → N a2 SO4(aq) + 2 H2 O(L) 5. The basic form of the combustion reaction is shown below. they react with oxygen in the air to form carbon dioxide and water. Double Displacement (also called Double Replacement and Metathesis) In this reaction type. 1.org 80 .Zn(s) + H2 SO4(aq) → ZnSO4(aq) + H2(g) 2 Al(s) + 3 CuCl2(aq) → 2 AlCl2(aq) + 3 Cu(s) Cl2(g) + KBr(aq) → KCl(aq) + Br2(L) 4. The basic form for this type of reaction is shown below.

H2 O + SO3 → H2 SO4 _________________________ 8. 3 Ca(OH)2 + Al2 (SO4 )3 → 3 CaSO4 + 2 Al(OH)3 _________________________ 3. Li3 N + 3 N H4 N O3 → 3 LiN O3 + (N H4 )3 N _________________________ 81 www.2. 4 C5 H9 O + 27 O2 → 20 CO2 + 18 H2 O _________________________ 10. 3 M g + F e2 O3 → 2 F e + 3 M gO _________________________ 4. 2 N H3 + 3 I2 → N2 I6 + 3 H2 _________________________ 7. 2 P bSO4 → 2 P bSO3 + O2 _________________________ 6. 2 N H3 + H2 SO4 → (N H4 )2 SO4 _________________________ 9.ck12.org . C2 H4 + 3O2 → 2 CO2 + 2 H2 O _________________________ 5.

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2.1 Lesson 17. 0.0 moles of potassium chlorate.6 grams of lead (II) oxide? A.2 Lesson 17. how many moles of oxygen can be produced by the complete reaction of 10.113 moles B.158 moles C. KClO3 ? 83 www.org . None of these.2 Mass-Mass Calculations Stoichiometry Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ 1. How many moles are present in 58.263 moles D.300 moles E.ck12.Chapter 17 Mathematics and Chemical Equations Worksheets 17. 0. 0. 0. According to the following balanced equation.1 The Mole Concept and Equations There are no worksheets for this lesson. 17.

org 84 . 5. 15. 0. 1. None of these.600 moles E.02 g www. 0. 2 KClO3 → 2 KCl + 3 O2 . 0. grams of water.326 moles B. 1. Balance the following equation and determine how many moles of water will be produced by the complete reaction of 0.0 moles B. 0)15 H2 O A. 20.80 moles B. None of these. 0)15 Al2 (SO4 )3 + (1. 0)15 H2 O A. 0. 0.816 moles D. grams of KClO3 ? A. 0)15 H2 + (1. Using the balanced equation. 4. If hydrogen is completely reacted with oxygen and produces 180.00 moles E.22 moles E.2 KClO3 → 2 KCl + 3 O2 A. how many moles of O2 can be produced by the complete reaction of 100.600 moles of aluminum hydroxide? (1. how many grams of hydrogen was consumed? The following equation for the reaction is not yet balanced. 0)15 Al(OH)3 + (1. 10. None of these. 0)15 O2 → (1. 2.544 moles C.67 moles C.200 moles C. 4. 6. (1. 0)15 H2 SO4 → (1.0 moles D. 3.ck12.0 moles D.

1 g D. 480. 3.0 g E. 160.B. 0)15 CaO + (1. 100. equation? (1. In a particular reaction. 0)15 CO2 A.34 g C.2 g 9. A. How many grams of bromine gas would be liberated when 25.ck12. g D. 10. according to following. 121 g C. 12. g E.6 g E.4 g D. 180. g 6. 20.35 grams of calcium oxide. How many grams of octane. 6. 286 g D. as yet unbalanced.2 g C. 0)15 Ca + (1. 136 g B. 222 g C. How many grams of iron (III) oxide are required to produce 150. 94. How many grams of calcium can be produced by the complete reaction of 9. when burned in oxygen gas are required to produce 272 grams of carbon dioxide? The other product is water.70 g B. C8 H18 . None of these. 0)15 C → (1.0 grams of gallium bromide were heated and decomposed to form gallium metal and bromine gas? 85 www. 7. 88. g B. None of these. grams of carbon monoxide? A. 8. 90. 7.org .19 g E. iron (III) oxide and carbon solid reacted to produce iron metal and carbon monoxide.

17.4 g B.77 g of water are available to react? (The equation is not yet balanced.5 moles of copper and 5. 2000.ck12.44 g of calcium oxide and 7. 0)15 Cu + (1.1 g E. How many grams of barium carbonate will be formed? A.) www. 1240 g B. silver nitrate C.org 86 .3 Lesson 17.4 g C.3 Limiting Reactant Limiting Reactant Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ 1. 2. 0)15 Cu(N O3 )2 + (1. g of potassium carbonate react completely with barium phosphate to produce potassium phosphate and barium carbonate. How many grams of calcium hydroxide will be formed in the following reaction when 4. 19. If 2.A. 0)15 Ag A. None of these. None of these. copper (II) nitrate D. 0)15 AgN O3 → (1. None of these. what is the limiting reactant? (The equation is not yet balanced. 2220 g D.5 moles of silver nitrate are available to react in the following equation. 16. 1680 g C. silver E. copper B. 27. 2860 g E.) (1.8 g D. 10. 21.

Write the balanced equation for the reaction and determine how many grams of sulfur trioxide will be produced when 6. 12. HN O3 .2 g B. 4.9 g E.572 g C. A.492 g E.org . Some of the acid in acid rain is produced from the following reaction: 3 N O2 + H2 O → N O + 2 HN O3 A falling raindrop with a mass of 0. 0)15 H2 O → (1. 16.30 g of S and 10.(1. 0.250 g 87 www. What mass of HN O3 can be produced? A.0500 gram comes into contact with 0. 4. 0)15 Ca(OH)2 A. 3.7 g C. 0. 0)15 CaO + (1.77 g C. 0.200 gram of N O2 . 11. None of these.11 g E.540 g D. Magnesium undergoes a single replacement reaction with nitric acid.00 grams of nitric acid. Sulfur reacts with oxygen gas to produce sulfur trioxide. 5. 15. 13. 0. 0. None of these.695 g B. 0. None of these. Write the balance equation for the reaction and determine how many grams of hydrogen gas will be formed from the reaction of 3. 5.3 g B.00 grams of magnesium with 18.86 g D.2 g D.183 g B. A. 7.0 g of O2 are available for reaction.ck12.

00 mols of CO are used in the reaction.0239 g E. 0. CH3 OH can be produced by the following reaction. 2 H2 + CO → CH3 OH Assume CO is the limiting reactant and 2.01 g C.org 88 .0264 g D. 7. None of these.4 Lesson 17. Methanol. how many grams of the excess reactant remains after the reaction? A. Consider the following reaction: 2 Al + 6 HBr → 2 AlBr3 + 3 H2 .11 g D. 6. 7.4 Percent Yield Percent Yield Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ 1. 0. 0. 17. what is the percent yield? 2.C. None of these. 5. When 87.0 g of Al is combined with 401 g of HBr. 0.0388 g C. 12.146 g E. 0.780 mols of CH3 OH are produced by the reaction.350 g D.0415 g B. Consider the following reaction. In problem #5. None of these.89 g B. 3. If 0. how many grams of H2 are formed? A.4 g E. 0.ck12. 3 Si + 2 N2 → Si3 N4 www.

org .5 Energy Calculations There are no worksheets for this lesson. If the actual yield from the reaction in A is 100. what is the percent yield? 17. what is the percent yield? 4. what is the percent yield? 3. H2 SO4 by the following reaction.ck12.5 Lesson 17.A. How many moles of SO2 are formed? C.0 moles of F eS2 react with 60. 2 SO2 + O2 + 2 H2 O → 2 H2 SO4 A. What is the theoretical yield of Si3 N4 from this reaction when 21.45 mols of Si are reacted with excess N2 ? B. g of SO2 is completely consumed? B.0 moles. Part of the SO2 that is introduced into the atmosphere by the combustion of sulfur containing compounds ends up being converted to sulfuric acid. If the actual yield of SO2 is 25.0 moles of O2 . Consider the reaction: 4 F eS2 + 11 O2 → 2 F e2 O3 + 8 SO2 A. What is the theoretical yield of H2 SO4 if 100. If 5. How many moles of the reactant in excess will be left over at the end of the reaction? D. g of H2 SO4 . what is the limiting reactant? B.92 mols of Si3 N4 are actually produced. If 20. 89 www.

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org .1 The Three States of Matter There are no worksheets for this lesson.3 Lesson 18. _______ 4.1 Lesson 18. _______ 2. Molecules of different substances move at different velocities when they are the same temperature.Chapter 18 The Kinetic Molecular Theory Worksheets 18.ck12. The volume of a gas is the sum of the volumes of the individual molecules.2 Lesson 18. _______ 3.3 Gases and Pressure Kinetic Molecular Theory Worksheet CK12 Foundation Chemistry Name ________________________________ Date ______________ True or False _______ 1. 18. 18. The mass of a gas is the sum of the masses of the individual molecules.2 Gases There are no worksheets for this lesson. Molecules of the same substance move at the same velocity when they are 91 www.

_______ 11. at the same temperature.org 92 . A liquid has its own shape and volume regardless of the container. Molecules of liquid water and molecules of solid water (ice) at the same temperature have the same velocity. Molecules are in motion at all temperatures above absolute zero. Molecules of different substances (different mass). _______ 5. O2 B. all at the same temperature.at the same temperature. in which of the gas samples will the molecules be moving the slowest? A.ck12. H2 C. _______ 6. Multiple Choice 13. Four different flasks of the same size contain four different gases. They will all have the same velocity. CO2 www. For the same situation as in problem 13. O2 B. exert different amounts of force when they collide with the walls of their container. _______ 9. Smaller mass molecules move with greater velocity than larger mass molecules at the same temperature. CO2 D. In which of the following gas samples will the molecules be moving the fastest? A. _______10. _______ 7. Gases are more compressible than solids and liquids because they have more space between the molecules. All molecules at the same temperature have the same velocity. 14. H2 C. N2 E. All molecules at the temperature has the same average kinetic energy. _______ 12. _______ 8.

the temperature will be doubled D.4 Lesson 18. In which flask will the pressure be the highest? A. If the temperature is increased to 4T. the temperature will be halved C. Each of the flasks shown below contain the same number of molecules at the same temperature. 18. unable to determine without more information 2. Flask 3 D. An ideal gas is contained in a volume V at temperature T. The pressure will be the same in all the flasks. 15. If the volume is doubled at constant pressure. Flask 4 E.org . Flask 2 C. the temperature will be unchanged B. An ideal gas is sealed in a container at constant volume.D. N2 E. They will all have the same velocity. Flask 1 B.4 Gas Laws Combined Gas Laws Worksheet CK12 Foundation Chemistry Name ________________________________ Date ______________ 1.ck12. what would happen to the pressure? 93 www. what change will occur in the temperature? A.

increased to 4P C. None of these. What volume will this gas occupy if it is at −23. decreased to ¼ P D. the pressure is 1. mm of Hg pressure? A. it increases by a factor of 16 4. 6.0o C. When the temperature of the gas is 100. A sample of gas is held at constant volume. A sample of gas occupies 100. 100. 300.A. 100. 83. 10. 27 K B. mL B. 833 L D. it increases by a factor of 4 D.0 liters of oxygen gas is held at 3800. If the temperature of an ideal gas is increased from 300 K to 1200 K. 50. What volume will this sample occupy under standard conditions? A. 232 mL D. 116 mL C. None of these. K D.0 L www. K C. it increases by a factor of 2 C.00 atm? A.0o C and 380. K. mm of Hg pressure and 27. it increases by a factor of 8 E. unchanged B. unable to determine without more information 3. What must the temperature become in order for the pressure to become 3. cannot be determined from this data 5. E.ck12. 8.33 L B. what change occurs in the kinetic energy of the gas? A.00 atm.org 94 . 169 mL E. it remains constant B. mL at 1520 T orr and 323 K.3 L C.

8. 1. 409 K B. originally at 25. 8.org . mL? A.0 atm C.53 L. Given a sample of gas at 1.0o C and the volume increases to 4.25 liters at 1140 mm of Hg. mL. If the original temperature was 363 K.00 atm as the volume of the container is increased from 85. A gas sample occupies 3. 0 K E.250 mol of methane gas.0o C and 750. torr are heated until a volume of 20. What is the new pressure? 10. None of these. and the absolute temperature quadrupled? A. Determine the temperature at which the gas will occupy 4.0 mL of nitrogen gas at STP is heated to 80. the volume decreased to half. None of these.0o C? 95 www. 10. 955 K D.0 atm of pressure is applied to 0. 73. what would the pressure become if the amount of gas is doubled. 2.0 atm D. 2. The pressure of a gas is reduced from 1.0 L and a pressure of 2660 torr is reached.ck12. 7.50 atm to 1.00 L of hydrogen. 4.E.0 atm pressure. What is the new temperature? 9. what is the final temperature? 18. 16 atm 3. 2.0 liter container to 5.0 atm B.5o C and 1825 mm of Hg.5 Lesson 18.0 atm E.00 atm at 27.25 liters at 24. What must the temperature be if the volume is to be 1400.0 mL to 350. 682 K C. How many moles of gas are required to fill a 1.5 Universal Gas Law Universal Gas Law Worksheet CK12 Foundation Chemistry Name ________________________________ Date ______________ 1.

104 g/mol 6. What is the mass of 100. g/mol D.0 g/mol C. 22. 77. What is the molar mass of a gas if 0. g D. If 2. what must happen to the temperature? A.0 liters of a gas at 27.ck12. 0.0 g.250 L at 1. 560. 0. 100. g/mol C.o C? A.0o C and 0. 80. 4. g/mol E.00 atm and 100. 40. insufficient data to determine 5.38 mols E. 164 g/mol 7.A.2 g/mol D.0 more moles of gas are added to the cylinder.4 g B.2 g/mol E. L of Br2 gas under standard conditions? A. 32. insufficient data to determine www.15 atm has a mass of 10.13 mols B.500 g of it occupies 0. 0.0 moles of an ideal gas is held at constant volume and constant temperature. What is the molar mass of this gas? A. 120. 61. None of these.20 mols C. 44. the temperature must halved D. A cylinder with 2. the temperature will be unchanged B. 0.org 96 .0 g/mol B. g/mol B. 357 g C. 10.29 mols D. 714 g E. the temperature must be doubled C.

org . Flask 2 C. Each of the flasks shown above contains the same number of gas molecules. Flask 4 E. Flask 3 D. All four flasks would have the same pressure.ck12. 9. In which flask would the pressure be lowest? A. Flask 1 B. Each of the flasks shown above contains the same number of gas molecules at the same temperature. 97 www. Flask 2 C. Flask 4 E.8. Flask 3 D. Flask 1 B. All four flasks would have the same pressure. 10. In which flask would the pressure be lowest? A.

A cylinder of O2 gas contains a volume of 60. Flask 4 E.00 atm. 18.org 98 . Calculate the number of moles contained in 6. The total pressure in the flask is 1.10 mol of nitrogen gas and 0. gram sample of hydrogen sulfide gas occupy at STP? Partial Pressure 1.50 L at STP.6 Lesson 18. 12. in which flask will the molecules be moving slowest? A.ck12. How many moles of oxygen gas are in the cylinder? 3. A flask contains only 0. what volume would the gas occupy? 5. at the same temperature.6 Molar Volume Molar Volume and Partial Pressure Worksheet CK12 Foundation Chemistry Name ________________________________ Date ______________ Molar Volume 1. Flask 3 D.40 mol of oxygen gas.If all the flasks above are the same size. What is the partial pressure of the nitrogen gas? www. Flask 2 C.50 L of sulfur dioxide at STP. and contain the same number of molecules. The molecular velocity would be the same in all flasks. What volume would a 200.35 mols of Cl2 are compressed in a cylinder at 5.85 moles of N2 gas at STP. A cylinder contains 15. Flask 1 B. If the gas were released from the cylinder at STP. 2.00 atm. What is the volume of the cylinder in liters? 4.

0 mL of hydrogen gas at STP. What is the partial pressure of each gas in the flask? 18. K to form carbon dioxide and water. The partial pressure of the neon alone is 1. according to the equation below? 99 www.6 kP a. What is the partial pressure of the argon? 4.84 atm.7 Lesson 18. mL sample of hydrogen gas is collected over water at 27o C. how many liters of chlorine are needed to produce 75. g of O2 . 1. When chlorine is added ethyne.00 g of H2 gas is placed in a flask with 1.25 L of ethane are consumed? 3. A mixture of neon and argon gases exert a total pressure of 2. CaCO3(s) → CO2(g) + CaO(s) How many grams of calcium carbonate is needed to produce 3.1.o C.0 g of CO2 . Ethene burns in oxygen at 1.2.org .50 liters of carbon dioxide? 2. The total pressure in the flask is 900. A flask contains 320.7 Stoichiometry Involving Gases Stoichiometry Involving Gases Worksheet CK12 Foundation Chemistry Name ________________________________ Date ______________ 1. torr. The pressure of the hydrogen and water vapor mixture is 78. 320. kP a. 1. C2 H4(g) + 3 O2(g) → 2 CO2(g) + 2 H2 O(g) How many liters of water vapor can be formed if 1. and 88.2-tetrachloroethane is formed.00 g of He gas. C2 H2(g) + 2 Cl2(g) → C2 H2 Cl4(L) If this reaction occurs at 2. A 500.00 atm pressure and 0o C to form carbon dioxide and calcium oxide. What volume of oxygen gas would react with 35. What is the partial pressure of the H2 gas? 3.00 atm pressure and 100.00 atm and 500.5 kP a and the vapor pressure of water at 27o C is 3. g of N2 . Calcium carbonate decomposes at 1. What is the partial pressure of the dry hydrogen gas? 5.2. The total pressure in the flask is 500.ck12.0 g of C2 H2 Cl4 ? 4.39 atm.

2 S(s) + 3 O2(g) → 2 SO3(g) 6.org 100 . will undergo complete combustion with 34. what mass of water vapor will be formed? 8. according to the equation below. If all gases are measured under the same conditions.00 L of propane gas is completely combusted to from carbon dioxide and water vapor at a temperature of 600. if all gases are measured under the same conditions of temperature and pressure.5 L of sulfur trioxide. forming carbon dioxide and water. C3 H8 .2 H2(g) + O2(g) → 2 H2 O(g) 5. K and a pressure of 1. how many liters of ammonia can be formed from 15. How many liters of propane gas. N2 + 3 H2 → 2 N H3 Ammonia is formed by the synthesis of hydrogen and nitrogen as shown in the equation above. When 5.20 atm. if both gases are measured under the same conditions of temperature and pressure? 7.0 L of hydrogen gas? www.ck12. What volume of oxygen is needed to react with solid sulfur to form 2.0 L of oxygen gas.

1 The Properties of Liquids There are no worksheets for this lesson.3 Vapor Pressure There are no worksheets for this lesson. 19.2 Lesson 19.4 Boiling Point There are no worksheets for this lesson.3 Lesson 19.1 Lesson 19.Chapter 19 The Liquid State Worksheets 19.2 Forces of Attraction There are no worksheets for this lesson. 19. 19. 101 www.5 Lesson 19.5 Heat of Vaporization There are no worksheets for this lesson.org .4 Lesson 19. 19.ck12.

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it may increase the temperature of the object. which means it increases 103 www.1 The Molecular Arrangement in Solids Controls Solid Characteristics There are no worksheets for this lesson. it may cause a phase change in that substance. A sample of matter will contain kinetic energy due to the motion of its molecules. Heat gains and losses are measured in units called Joules. This transfer of KE is accomplished by the collision of molecules and continues until the two objects are at the same temperature. liquid. heat always flows from the one with higher temperature to the one with lower temperature.00◦ C. 2. it produces one or both of the following effects: 1. Every chemical change and many physical changes involve the gain or loss of energy.18 Joules of energy to raise the temperature of 1. It requires 4.2 Melting Heat Transfer Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Temperature is defined as the average kinetic energy of all the molecules in a body. When two objects come into contact with each other.Chapter 20 The Solid State Worksheets-HSC 20. When heat energy is added to a substance. but light and electricity are also possible. this energy gain or loss occurs in the form of heat.00 gram of water by 1. and it also contains potential energy due to its phase (solid. In most cases. 20.ck12. while heat is defined as the total kinetic energy of all the molecules in a body. which means it increases the average kinetic energy of the molecules or.1 Lesson 20. gas).org .2 Lesson 20.

126 J/g ·◦ C 0.386 J/g ·◦ C 0. the energy that must be absorbed is called heat of melting. This energy gain or loss does not change the temperature of the substance. When substances undergo a phase change.40 J/g ·◦ C 2. When heat is absorbed by a substance as kinetic energy.34 J/g ·◦ C 4. This means that 1. J/g 205 J/g 64. Cu Gold.18 J/g ·◦ C. 578 J/g 2.00 gram of the substance must absorb to raise its temperature by 1. gives off the same amount of potential energy but it is called the heat of condensation. 069 J/g 1. 320 J/g 841 J/g 104 .5 J/g 111 J/g 109 J/g Fusion.18 J of heat to raise its temperature by 1. The energy gained or lost during a phase change is potential energy.386 J/g ·◦ C 0. the amount of energy is known as the heat of fusion.org Specific Heat 0. the average distance between the molecules changes and this requires an input or output of potential energy. the temperature of the substance increases because temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules of the substance. Different substances have a different amount of increase in temperature when they absorb the same amount of energy. gives off exactly the same amount of energy but for this phase change. each substance has its own heat of melting and heat of vaporization.40 J/g ·◦ C Heat of ∆Hf usion 400. The symbol.2: Thermodynamic Data of Various Substances Substance Aluminum.1: Specific Heat of Various Substances Substance Aluminum. Al Copper. Like specific heat.00◦ C. When a substance changes from solid to liquid. The phase change from liquid to gas requires an input of the heat of vaporization. Cu Gold. The reverse process. 900 J/g 5.235 J/g ·◦ C 2. Table 20. Table 20.900 J/g ·◦ C 0. Ag Ethanol. The quantity of heat 1.00◦ C is called the specific heat of the substance. Heat of Vaporization. gas condensing to liquid. ∆Hvap 10.235 J/g ·◦ C 2. The specific heats of most substances are considerably less than that of water.the potential energy of the substance. C2 H5 OH www. Au Silver. C.126 J/g ·◦ C 0. is often used for specific heat. H2 O Specific Heat 0.900 J/g ·◦ C 0. The reverse process. Ag Ethanol. C4 H10 Water. Al Copper. changing from liquid to solid.ck12. The specific heat of water is 4. Au Silver. C2 H5 OH Butane.00 gram of water requires 4.18 J/g ·◦ C Energy is also absorbed or given off by substances when they undergo a phase change.

and 5. For example. Example: How many Joules are given off when 52. 260 J/g The energy absorbed or given off by a substance during a temperature change (with no phase change) can be calculated with the equation.34 J/g ·◦ C 4.5 g of water cools from 67. Q = mC∆t. 3.0 g)(0. the temperature of the gaseous water will be raised to the final temperature. Example: How many Joules are required to melt 17.18 J/g ·◦ C Heat of ∆Hf usion 80. the solid water will be melted. m is the mass in grams. the problem is solved separately for each process.235 J/g ·◦ C) Final temperature = initial temperature + ∆t = 25◦ C + 382◦ C = 407◦ C The energy absorbed or given off by a substance during a phase change (with no temperature change) can be calculated with the equations.3◦ C) = 9720 J The specific heat is taken from the table above and the units cancel appropriately to yield Joules.5◦ C to 23.2: (continued) Substance Butane. C is the specific heat.1 J/g 334 J/g Fusion.7 grams of solid aluminum at its normal melting point with no temperature change? Solution: Q = m∆Hf usion = (17. Q = m∆Hf usion or Q = m∆Hvap .0◦ C.Table 20. what would the final temperature be? Solution: Q = mC∆t so ∆t = Q mC ∆t = Q 4490 J = = 382◦ C mC (50. and ∆t is the temperature change.7 g)(400. and ∆Hf usion or ∆Hvap is the heat of fusion or vaporization. 2. m is the mass of the substance in grams.2◦ C? Solution: Q = mC∆t = (52.org . 3. 1. many bits of thermodynamic data will be required.18 J/g ·◦ C)(44. if sufficient heat is added to solid water (ice) at −20◦ C to raise the temperature and cause the necessary phase changes. To do calculations for this entire process. the temperature of the liquid water will be raised to the boiling point. Heat of Vaporization. J/g) = 7080 J When heat is added to a substance such that the substance undergoes both a temperature change and a phase change. the solid water will go through five processes.5 g)(4. Example: If 4490 J of heat are added to 50.0 g of solid silver at 25. 105 www. C4 H10 Water.ck12. ∆Hvap 385 J/g 2. the liquid will be vaporized. where Q is the amount of heat in Joules. the temperature of the ice will be raised to the melting point. H2 O Specific Heat 2. where Q is the amount of heat in Joules.

Example: Calculate the heat necessary to raise 100. the specific heat of liquid water. J/g. the heat of fusion for water.450 J/g ·◦ C)(1515◦ C) = 68. 000 J + 35. Q = mC∆t = (100. 200 J Step 2: Melt the solid iron to liquid. specific heat of liquid iron = 0.6 kJ = 132 kJ Example: Calculate the heat necessary to raise 40. specific heat of solid iron = 0. Solution: Step 1: Heat the solid iron from 25. 400 J Step 4: Add up the heat added for each step to get the total. Q = mC∆t = (100.0◦ C. g of iron at 25.◦ C. g)(0. The necessary thermodynamic data are: melting point of iron = 1540. 200 J + 28.00 g of ice at −50. and the specific heat of gaseous water.◦ C.◦ C.770 J/g ·◦ C.ck12. 000 J Step 3: Heat the liquid iron from the melting point (1540. QT OT AL = 68.770 J/g ·◦ C)(460◦ C) = 35. J/g) = 28.◦ C www. g)(280.0◦ C to its melting point at 1540.09 J/g ·◦ C Cwater = 4. heat of fusion of iron = 280. 600 J = 131.We would need to know the specific heat of solid water (not the same as liquid water).450 J/g ·◦ C.◦ C (∆t = 1515◦ C).0◦ C to liquid iron at 2000.org 106 . 400 J = 131. g)(0.◦ C) to the final temperature (2000. Q = m∆Hf usion = (100.18 J/g ·◦ C Cwater vapor = 2. Necessary Thermodynamic Data • • • • • Cice = 2.◦ C) ∆t = 460.01 J/g ·◦ C Melting Point = 0◦ C Boiling Point = 100. the heat of vaporization.0◦ C to water vapor at 180.

00 g)(334 J/g) = 13.00 g)(2260 J/g) = 90.◦ C).00 g)(2. Q = mC∆t = (40.00◦ C) = 4.00 g)(2. Q = mC∆t = (40.org . to the b. 107 www.00 g)(4. 000 J = 131 kJ Questions and Exercises The thermodynamic data necessary for these problems can be found in the preceding pages. Q = m∆Hvap = (40.01 J/g ·◦ C)(80. 360 J Step 3: Raise the temperature of the liquid water from the m. 180 J Step 2: Melt the ice to liquid water.0◦ C to the melting point 0◦ C. Q = mC∆t = (40.18 J/g ·◦ C)(100.◦ C) = 6. (∆t = 100.09 J/g ·◦ C)(50. 400 J Step 6: Add up the results of each step. QT OT AL = 4180 + 13360 + 16720 + 90400 + 6400 = 131.◦ C) = 16.p. to the final temperature (∆t = 100.p.• ∆Hf usion = 334 J/g • ∆Hvap = 2260 J/g Solution: Step 1: Raise the temperature of the ice from −50. Q = m(∆H)f usion = (40. 400 J Step 5: Raise the temperature of the gaseous water from the b.p.◦ C). 720 J Step 4: Vaporize the liquid water.ck12.

Calculate the amount of heat necessary to raise 45.◦ C to 62◦ C? 9.8 g of solid gold are cooled from 80.5◦ C? 11. Use the data given below. Necessary Thermodynamic Data • • • • • • • Csolid Cs = 0. What does the temperature of an object actually measure? 6.0◦ C.3 J/g ∆Hvap = 669 J/g Calorimetry Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ The laboratory process for measuring the amount of heat gained or during a chemical reaction or other energy exchange involves the use of an instrument called a calorimeter.◦ C loses 10.org 108 .0◦ C to 880. and a stirring rod to assure that all the water is the same temperature. 000.167 J/g ·◦ C Melting Point = 29. it is likely that the water touching the vessel would be warmer or colder than the remainder of the water. a thermometer to accurately measure the temperature of the water. J of heat.◦ C? 4.5 g of ice at −10. a reaction vessel where the reaction to be measured will occur.ck12. g of water to change its temperature from 20. what happens to the temperature of a substance when it absorbs heat? 2.0◦ C ∆Hf usion = 16. What happens when two objects at different temperatures are brought into contact? 3. g of water at 25.209 J/g ·◦ C Cgaseous Cs = 0. How many Joules of heat must be added to 5000. what will its final temperature be? 5. a quantity of water to absorb from or give up to the heat from the reaction. At what temperature do molecules have zero kinetic energy? 7. Describe a situation where heat can enter a body without causing an increase in temperature? 8. If 500.◦ C to 80. How much heat is absorbed when 24. The calorimeter has an insulated container to eliminate heat exchange with the outside. How much heat is released when 44. How much heat is needed to melt 25.0◦ C Boiling Point = 690.251 J/g ·◦ C Cliquid Cs = 0.0◦ C is warmed to liquid water at 42. The www. Since the heat will come out of or go into the reaction vessel.0 g of silver at its normal melting point? 10. The basic idea of a calorimeter is sketched below.0 g of cesium metal from 24.1. Assuming no phase change occurs.

Figure 20. knowing the amount of water and the temperature change of the water.1 stirring rod is used to keep the water circulating and thus all the water will be the same temperature. the words calorimeter and calorimetry remain with us. For a less precise calorimeter. Since it is assumed that all the heat absorbed or given off by the reaction went into the water. g of water in a calorimeter if the temper- 109 www. the thermometer. When scientists decided to use the same units in all branches of science. Even though chemists don’t use the calorie unit anymore. Extremely accurate calorimeters are calibrated before each use. To use a calorimeter of the less precise type. A precisely known amount of heat is added to the calorimeter and the temperature change is noted. the unit chemists used to measure heat was the calorie. The words calorimeter (the name of the instrument) and calorimetry (the name of the process) came from the unit. The old unit calorie is equal to 4. the scientist can determine exactly how much heat is required to raise the temperature of the calorimeter by 1. and that is the heat input or output by the reaction. The equation used to calculate the change in heat content of the water is the same one used before. Example: How much heat was absorbed by 1000. the stirrer.18 Joules.00◦ C.org . In this way. measures the temperature of the water before the reaction begins. and measures the maximum or minimum temperature the water reaches after the reaction. At an earlier time. This allows the scientist to measure not only the heat absorbed by the water in the calorimeter but also the heat absorbed by the reaction vessel. namely Q = mC∆t. calorie. ignoring the small amount of absorbed by other components. the scientist measures the amount of water inside very carefully. the scientist can then calculate the amount of heat that the water absorbed or gave off. chemists changed their unit for heat (and all other forms of energy) from calories to Joules. the scientist assumes all the heat added to the calorimeter is absorbed by the water. and the inside walls of the calorimeter.ck12.

ature of the water was raised from 23.org 110 . g)(4. www. g)(4. Calorimeters are used by scientists to measure many types of heat exchanges.0◦ C and into it we place a 100. the heat value of fuels.3◦ C − 25.2◦ C − 25.) The amount of heat lost by the brass will equal the amount of heat gained by the water. When a trainload of coal is delivered.5◦ C to 44.18 J/g ·◦ C)(17. g piece of brass whose temperature we have raised to 91.3◦ C − 91.g)(4. 300 J = −16. The heat calculated on the two sides of the equation can only be equal if we change the sign of one of them. g)(4.0◦ C.0◦ C) = −(100. 000 J = 89 kJ Example: How much heat was absorbed by 500.3 kJ The negative sign of this result indicates the water in the calorimeter lost heat to the reaction. Substituting from the problem yields (250.ck12. Suppose we wished to determine the specific heat of brass.0◦ C) Q = (500.18 J/g ·◦ C)(−7. g of water at 25. and the heat of chemical reactions. the final temperature of the water and the piece of brass are 27. g)(x J/g ·◦ C)(27. When coal is purchased by users from producers.3◦ C) = 89.0◦ C).0◦ C to 17. they must eventually reach the same temperature. the ∆t for the water will be positive but the ∆t for the brass will be negative. Physicists use calorimeters to determine the specific heat of substances. When the heat transfer is complete. (Since they are in contact. Therefore. the price paid is based not only on the mass of coal purchased but also on the amount of heat produced by burning a unit quantity of the coal. We use a calorimeter containing 250.3◦ C. so the reaction was endothermic.2◦ C? Solution: Q = mC∆t = mC(t2 − t1 ) = (500.18 J/g ·◦ C)(21. We can use the following equation to find the specific heat of the brass. g of water in a calorimeter if the water temperature changed from 25.8◦ C) = −16. mwater Cwater ∆twater = −mbrass Cbrass ∆tbrass The negative sign on the brass side of the equation is present because the heat is being gained by the water and lost by the brass. such as finding the specific heat of substances. there is a scientist on hand to take samples of the coal and burn them in a calorimeter to determine the average Joules/gram of heat produced by that particular load of coal and the price is adjusted accordingly.18 J/g ·◦ C)(27. Coal mined in different areas is of different quality.8◦ C? Solution: Q = mC∆t = (1000 .

We use 250. A 7. 270J = 6.0◦ C.8◦ C. . Q = (250. Example: Suppose we carry out the above reaction in a calorimeter. ∆H.27 kJ We can then calculate the ∆H for the reaction by dividing the heat transferred to the water in the calorimeter by the moles of water produced during the reaction.0◦ C to 68. we can’t actually use molar quantities of these materials.4◦ C to 28. That means the N aOH will be the limiting reactant. 2.0◦ C) = 6. What was the heat transfer if 800.377 J/g ·◦ C The heat of reaction.27 kJ = = −62. g of water in the calorimeter and the temperature change during the reaction is from 22. How much heat is absorbed by 1. That is.4◦ C. required by the definition of ∆H.0◦ C to 22.100 mole of H2 O. For the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. The 4.00 g of N aOH is 0.00 g of N aOH with excess HCl solution.0◦ C to 25. It is also standard to express the ∆H for an endothermic reaction as a positive number (the reaction is gaining energy) and the ∆H for an exothermic reaction as a negative number (the reaction is losing energy). x = 0.00 g of water when its temperature changes from 20. g of water in calorimeter form 22. we know this is an exothermic reaction and therefore. Since the temperature of the water in the calorimeter increased. g)(4. Solution: We can calculate the heat absorbed by the water in the calorimeter in the usual way. What is the heat content of this coal in J/g? 111 www. Therefore.38 g sample of coal is burned in a calorimeter and raises the temperature of 1000. HCl + N aOH → N aCl + H2 O. .org . We can use the following equation. −∆Q −6. Calculate the the heat of reaction for the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide.100 mole and will produce 0. we provide for making the ∆H a negative value . We use 4.100 mol ∆H = Exercises 1. we use a fraction of a mole and calculate what the heat transfer would have been for an entire mole.7 kJ/mol moles product 0. g of water in a calorimeter underwent a temperature change from 25.ck12.18 J/g ·◦ C)(6.Solving for x yields. the amount of materials necessary to produce one mole of water would be too large for the calorimeter. for a chemical reaction is commonly expressed in J/mole or kJ/mole of product.0◦ C? 3.

Using the ∆H you found in problem #4. 20.6◦ C. What was the ∆H for this reaction in kJ/mol? 5. g of water and the temperature of the water increased 44.org 112 . g of water instead of 800.3 Types of Forces of Attraction for Solids There are no worksheets for this lesson.3 Lesson 20. www.4 Phase Diagrams There are no worksheets for this lesson. was carried out in a calorimeter. suppose you had carried out exactly this same reaction except that you had used a calorimeter than container 250. g of water. What would the temperature change have been? Give a reason that this reaction wouldn’t be carried out with 250.4. Image Sources (1) Richard Parsons. The calorimeter contained 800. g of water. . CCBYSA. 20. A reaction that formed 10.0 g of magnesium oxide.ck12. M gO.4 Lesson 20.

3 Lesson 21.Chapter 21 The Solution Process Worksheets 21.1 The Solution Process There are no worksheets for this lesson.1 Lesson 21.ck12.3 Solution Terminology There are no worksheets for this lesson.4 Lesson 21. 21.4 Measuring Concentration Concentration by Percent Mass Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ The definition of percent mass concentration is the ratio of the mass of solute divided by the total mass of the solution and multiplied by 100 to convert to a percentage.2 Why Solutions Occur There are no worksheets for this lesson. 21. percent by mass = mass of solute × 100 mass of solution 113 www.org .2 Lesson 21. 21.

grams of solution = (100.ck12. mL of water? 6. The density of pure water is 1.00 g/mL. grams of water? Solution: percent by mass = mass of solute mass of solution × 100 = 100. in 100. mL of this solution? 5. C2 H5 OH.0% by mass solution of N aOH in water is 1. www.33 g/mL.926 g/mL. The density of the solution is 0.0 grams of acetone. grams of ethanol.0% Example: If the density of a 10. mL of this solution? Mole Fraction and Molality Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Mole Fraction The definition of mole fraction is the ratio of the moles of solute divided by the total moles of the solution. The density of a 30. A 35.0 grams of N aOH in 750. What is the concentration gy percent mass of a solution prepared by dissolving 85.Example: What is the percent concentration by mass of a solution formed by dissolving 100. g × 100 = 50.10)(119 grams) = 11.9 grams Exercises 1. how many grams of KN O3 are present in 100. mL)(1. what is the concentration of the silver nitrate by mass percent? 2. How many grams of water are present in the solution in question #2? 4. in 146. g 200.0% M gF2 in water solution? 3.0% of the mass of the solution to get the mass of the potassium nitrate.20 g/mL. What is the percent concentration of acetone by mass? 7. How many grams of phosphoric acid are present in 300.19 g/mL.0 grams of AgN O3 are dissolved in 275 grams of water. How many grams of N aOH are required to prepare 500.0% by mass KN O3 solution in water is 1.0 grams of water. How many grams of M gF2 are present in 100.org 114 .4% solution of H3 P O4 in water has a density of 1.0 g of a 20.19 g/mL) = 119 grams grams of KN O3 = (0. A solution is prepared by dissolving 66. mL of solution and then take 10. mL of the solution? Solution: We can multiply the volume times the density to the mass of the 100. If 30. C3 H6 O.

00 L sample. g moles water = = 5. 115 www.73 mols moles ethanol = Molality The definition of molality is the ratio of the moles of solute divided by the kilograms of solvent.20 g/mL. C2 H5 OH.4% solution of H3 P O4 in water has a density of 1. Suppose we choose a 1.281 7.ck12.org . g of ethanol.100 kg moles ethanol = Example: A 35. g = 2.0 g/mol 100. in 100.17 mols mole f raction of ethanol = = 0. g of water? Solution: 100. What is the mole fraction of H3 P O4 in this solution and what is the molality? Solution: We can choose a sample volume of this solution and get the mass of it by multiplying the volume times the density.0 g/mol 2. g of ethanol.17 mols = 21. g = 2.7 m molality of ethanol = 0. g of water? 100. C2 H5 OH.17 moles 46.17 moles 46. molality = moles of solute kilograms of solvent Example: What is the molality of a solution prepared by dissolving 100. in 100.mole f raction = moles of solute moles of solution Example: What is the mole fraction of ethanol in a solution prepared by dissolving 100.0 g/mol 2.56 moles 18.

34 moles 98. grams) = 425 grams mass of H2 O = 1200. grams − 425 grams = 775 grams 425 g moles H3 P O4 = = 4. moles of solute liters of solution molarity = www. What is the mole fraction of N aOH in this solution? 4.mass of solution = (1000.0 grams of water? 2.0 g/mol 775 g moles H2 O = = 43. What is the molality of this solution? 9.0 g of M gF2 dissolved in 80. What is the molality of the solution in problem 3? 5. The density of the solution is 0. What is the molality of a solution prepared by dissolving 4. C3 H6 O.1 moles 18.500 m solution? 7. in 146.ck12.354)(1200. What is the mole fraction of acetone in the solution in problem 8? Molarity Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ The definition of molarity is the ratio of the mols of solute divided by the volume of the solution.926 g/mL. What is the mole fraction of M gF2 in a solution that has 20.34 mol molality = = 5. The density of a 30.0 g/mol 4.33 g/mL. A solution is prepared by dissolving 66.0 g of water. How many grams of beryllium chloride would you need to add to 125 g of water to make a 0.00 g of N aCl in 100.60 m 0.34 mol mole fraction of H3 P O4 = = 0.0 g of acetone. grams mass of H3 P O4 in the solution = (0. What is the molality of the solution in question 1? 3. What would be the mole fraction of BeCl2 in the solution in problem 6? 8. mL)(1.org 116 .20 g/mL) = 1200.4 mol 4.775 kg Exercises 1.0% by mass solution of N aOH in water is 1.0916 47. g of water? 6.

750 M molarity = 2.50 moles 40.0 g = 1.00 grams of N aOH? 4.0 g of CaF2 ? 5.0 L of 0. A test tube contains 10.00 M CaCO3 solution. What mass of ammonium phosphate is needed to make 100.250 moles 40.100 M solution? 3.org . are needed to make 100.6 Lesson 21.250 mol volume = = = 0.0 g/mol 1.0 grams of N aOH in sufficient water to produce 2.750 M N aOH solution will contain 10.500 M CaF2 solution is required to contain 78. mL of 2. 21.00 liters of solution? Solution: 60. www.60 M solution? 8.0 g/mol mol 0. mL of 0.500 M (N H4 )3 P O4 solution? 6.Example: What is the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 60.0 mL of 3. How many milliliters of 0. What is the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 198 g of BaBr2 in 2.5 Solubility Graphs There are no worksheets for this lesson. How many grams of glycerine. How many grams of ammonia.50 g of N aN O3 is dissolved in 265 mL of solution? 2.00 L moles N aOH = Example: What volume of 0. C3 H8 O3 .750 mol/L moles N aOH = Exercises 1. How many liters of 0.5 Lesson 21.ck12.00 liters of solution? 7.0 g = 0. How many grams of calcium carbonate are in the tube? 21.0 gram of N aOH? 10.200 M N aOH solution is necessary to contain 6.6 Factors Affecting Solubility 117 There are no worksheets for this lesson. N H3 are present in 5. What is the molarity of a solution in which 4.50 mol = 0.333 L M 0.

00 M ) Exercises www. mL of 1.0125 moles of HCl after the dilution. mL graduated cylinder and adding water until the solution reached the 100. For a solution whose concentration is expressed in molarity.7 Colligative Properties Dilution Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ The process of dilution involves increasing the amount of solvent in a solution without changing the amount of solute. the moles in the final solution can be calculated with molsf = Mf × Vf .0 mL (Mi ) (6. the amount of solute never changes. three of the four variables or ways to find three of the four variables and you will asked to calculate the fourth variable.org 118 .0125 moles of HCl before it was diluted and therefore.20 M N aOH solution? Solution: (Mi )(Vi ) = (Mf )(Vf ) (Mf )(Vf ) (1. molsi = molsf and Mi × Vi = Mf × Vf . The original solution contained 0. the moles of solute can be calculated by multiplying the volume in liters times the molarity.21. mL of 0. mL line in the graduate.00 M N aOH solution are necessary to prepare 300. it also contains 0. For example. In the dilution problems you will be given.300 L) Vi = = = 0. molesinitial = molarityinitial × litersinitial or molsi = Mi × Vi .7 Lesson 21.ck12. After the solution has been diluted. you could dilute 50. Example: How many milliliters of 6. for the most part. moles solute = (molarity)(liters) For the moles of solute in the original solution.20 M )(0. Since the mols do not change during dilution. and the concentration change but the amount of solute remains the same. the total volume of the solution.0600 L = 60. In the process of dilution.250 M HCl solution by placing the solution in a 100. The amount of solvent.

What is the concentration of the final solution? 2. freezing point depression. C3 H6 O.0 mL of 16. What is the molarity of solution C? Colligative Properties: Solution Vapor Pressure Worksheet Colligative properties are those properties of a solution that depend on the number of particles of solute present in the solution. Solution C is produced by taking 5. boiling point elevation. mL of 0. mm of Hg and the vapor pressure of pure water at 25◦ C is 23. Therefore. Solution A is 5.78 moles. Solution B is prepared by diluting solution A to a new volume of 100. but the colligative properties of a 1.0 g of water is 2. 100.ck12. What was the concentration of the original concentrated solution? 3.0 M solution of glucose. the chemical behavior and the molar masses of urea. Vapor Pressure Lowering The vapor pressure of a solution can be calculated from the individual vapor pressures of the components (solute and solvent) and the mole fractions of each component. add more particles to the solution than a substance that does not dissociate in water.0 g of acetone is 0.0 M HCl.0 grams of water? The vapor pressure of pure acetone at 25◦ C is 230. at 25◦ C. and changes in osmotic pressure. in 50.0 mL of 6. Raoult’s Law is an expression of the relationship.00 M H2 SO4 to produce a solution that is 1. 200. (N H2 )2 CO. If 25.org . Vapor Pressuresolution = (Xmol fraction solvent )(Vapor Pressuresolvent ) + (Xmol fraction solute )(Vapor Pressuresolute ) Example: What is the vapor pressure. of a solution produced by dissolving 50.600 M N aOH? 4.1.236 acetone and 0.764 water. It must be noted that ionic solutes dissociate when dissolved in water and therefore. C6 H12 O6 .00 M H2 SO4 ? 6. The changes in these properties are dependent entirely on the concentration of particles of solute in the solution.00 mL of solution B and diluting it to 100. what is the final concentration? 5. mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid was diluted to 1. That is.86 moles and 50.0 of acetone. mL.7 mm of Hg.0 M solution of urea will be exactly the same as the colligative properties of a 1.0 M HN O3 is diluted to 500. and not on the chemistry nor the mass of the particles. Solution: 50. are very different. The colligative properties of solutions include vapor pressure lowering. the mole fractions in this solution are 0. 119 www. mL. To what volume must you dilute 10.00 M N aOH is needed to prepare 250. mL of 3. mL. mL.00 mL of 12. and glucose.00 M solution. What volume of 6.00 M N aCl solution is diluted to a final volume of 500.20 liters of 1.

When the solute is a solid. at 25o C. then for a solution with a non-volatile solute.909. we are referring to solutions in which the solute is non-volatile. mm of Hg) = 18.764)(23. (XMol fraction solute )(Vapor PressureSolute ). solid solute whose vapor pressure at room conditions is so small that it is negligible compared to the vapor pressure of water.0 g of glucose is 0. When we substitute the values for a glucose solution into Raoult’s Law. VPSolution = (XSolvent )(VPSolvent ) Example: What is the vapor pressure. Vapor PressureSolution = (XMol fraction solvent )(Vapor PressureSolvent ) + (XMol fraction solute )(Vapor PressureSolute ) If the second term in this equation. Therefore.278 moles. the second term (the one for the solute) is essentially zero because the vapor pressure of the pure solute is essentially zero. in 50.0 g of water is 2.0 grams of water? Glucose is non-volatile and the vapor pressure of pure water at 25◦ C is 23. the mole fraction of water in this solution is 0. www.0 of glucose. Glucose is a non-volatile. Raoult’s Law becomes: Vapor PressureSolution = (XMol fraction solvent )(Vapor PressureSolvent ) This is Raoult’s Law for solutions whose solute is a non-volatile. the vapor pressure of the solution is higher than the vapor pressure of the solvent.78 moles and 50.ck12.org 120 . becomes zero.4 mm of Hg In this case.7 mm of Hg.236)(230. it can be generally be assumed that the solute is non-volatile. evaporates readily. of a solution produced by dissolving 50.3 mm of Hg = 72. Suppose we are making a solution of glucose in water.1 mm of Hg + 54.7 mm of Hg) + (0.V PSOLUTION = (0. That is due to the fact that acetone is a volatile (weak intermolecular forces of attraction) and therefore. When we refer to vapor pressure lowering. 25◦ C. We do not need to calculate the mole fraction of glucose because it isn’t needed in Raoult’s Law for non-volatile solutes. Solution: 50.

The formula used to calculate boiling point elevation is ∆Tb = imKb .ck12. and the concentration of the molecules dissolved. is dissolved in 125 g of water at 25◦ C.909)(23. Glycerin. Depression Worksheet When a non-volatile.0◦ C is 573 T orr. Each solvent will have its own Kb and these values are determined in the laboratory and listed in reference tables. grams of water at 25◦ C. C3 H8 O3 . C6 H14 .VPSolution = (XSolvent )(VPSolvent = (0. and in all cases of non-volatile solutes.17 kP a.P.512◦ C/m.org . What will be the vapor pressure of a solution of 58. at 60. IF the vapor pressure of water at 25◦ C is 23. C2 H5 OH.00 in the molality.P.◦ C. For most non-electrolytes dissolved in water.0 g of benzene? Colligative Properties: B. For example.7 T orr. where ∆Tb is the increase in the boiling point. If 25. and the melting point of the solution will be lower than the melting point of the solvent.0 grams of sodium chloride is added to 500. the van’t Hoff factor is essentially 1. the vapor pressure of the solution is less than the vapor pressure of the pure solvent. and i is the van’t Hoff factor.512◦ C for each increase of 1. what is the vapor pressure of the solution? The vapor pressure of pure ethanol is 113 T orr at 40. Kb is the boiling point elevation constant. what will be the vapor pressure of the resulting solution in kPa? The vapor pressure of pure water at 25◦ C is 3.◦ C.7 mm of Hg) = 21. is a non-volatile. non-electrolyte solute.7 g of ethanol at 40. 125 g of the non-volatile solute glucose.9 g of hexane with 44. Exercises 1. The vapor pressure of hexane. the boiling point of the solution will be higher than the boiling point of the solvent. the boiling point of the solution increases by 0. the boiling point elevation constant for water is 0.6 g of glycerin is dissolved in 133. 2. C6 H12 O6 . that is. The boiling point elevation constant. Elevation and M. The size of the boiling point elevation and the melting point depression are colligative properties. m is the molality of the solute. The vapor pressure of benzene at the same temperature is 391 T orr.5 mm of Hg In this case. For most ionic 121 www. solid solute is added to a solvent. As the molality of the solution increases. If 53. is an experimentally determined constant for the solvent. what is the vapor pressure of the solution? 3. The van’t Hoff factor is the ratio between the actual concentration of particles produced when the substance is dissolved. they are dependent not on the chemistry of the solute but only on the number of solute particles present in the solution. Kb . 4.

Kf . If you are not given an actual value for i in the problem.00 m)(0. assume that i is the number of ions apparently produced per molecule.p. since it dissociates into two ions will have a particle molality of 2. g of water.0 g of N aCl in 500.512◦ C/m) = 2. The formula used to calculate melting point depression is ∆Tf = imKf .56◦ C Since the boiling point of the pure solvent was 100.00 m. Sometimes. in concentrated solutions. is an experimentally determined constant for the solvent. of the solution is 100. on the other hand. The melting point depression constant. This is true in most dilute solutions.ck12.00 molal sodium chloride solution. The van’t Hoff factor. the van’t Hoff factor is equal to the number of discrete ions in a formula unit of the substance. g of water? www.86◦ C/m. What is the boiling point of a solution produced by dissolving 45. the b.86◦ C/m.512◦ C/m.org 122 . Kf for water = 1. Which solution will have higher boiling point: a solution containing 105 g of C12 H22 O11 in 500.0 g of N aCl in 500.512◦ C/m.6◦ C = −18.6◦ C (Since N aCl produces two ions in solution. the freezing point depression constant for water is 1. is the number of ions that the molecule will dissociate into when dissolved. Kf is the melting point depression constant. a glucose solution that is 1. In such cases. 2.compounds dissolved in water. A 1. and i is the van’t Hoff factor. 3. Kb for water = 0. Solution: ∆Tf = imKf = (2)(5. For example.) Since the melting point of the pure solvent was 0.56◦ C Example: What is the melting point of a 5. What is the melting point of a solution produced by dissolving 45.86◦ C/m. g of water.00◦ C+ 2. m is the molality of the solute. i. of the solution is 0.00◦ C. i = 2.00 molal will have a particle concentration that is also 1.00 molal because glucose molecules do not dissociate. Solution: ∆Tb = imKb = (1)(5.00◦ C − 18.6◦ C Exercises 1. For example.00 in the molality. Kf for water = 1.56◦ C = 102. Each solvent will have its own Kf and these values are determined in the laboratory and listed in reference tables.00 m N aCl solution in water? Sodium chloride is a non-volatile solute that dissociates 100% in water. the m.86◦ C for each increase of 1.86◦ C/m) = 18. Kb for water = 0. the value of i will not be exactly equal to the apparent number of ions produced. As the molality of the solution increases.p.0 g of N aCl in 500.00 m)(1.00◦ C. the melting point of the solution decreases by 1. g of water or a solution containing 35. an ionic substance does not dissociate 100% and therefore. non-electrolyte solute. the value of i must also be determined experimentally.00 m glucose solution in water? Glucose is a non-volatile. where ∆Tf is the decrease in the melting point. Example: What is the boiling point of a 5.

org . What is the melting point of a solution of 9.◦ C? 6.0 g of an unknown. a non-electrolyte) must be added to 4. 21. g of water? 21.9 Separating Mixtures There are no worksheets for this lesson.9 Lesson 21.4.50◦ C. g of benzene? 7. non-volatile.8 Colloids There are no worksheets for this lesson. Assuming 100% dissociation. non-electrolyte is dissolved in 130.8 Lesson 21. 123 www. the boiling point of the solution is 102.5◦ C.90◦ C/m. what is the boiling point of a solution of 200.30 g of C12 H25 OH (a non-electrolyte) in 250. The normal melting point of benzene is 5. grams of water to reduce the melting point to −40. The melting point constant for benzene is 4. 000. g of water.ck12. How many grams of C2 H6 O2 (anti-freeze. What is the molar mass of the unknown? 5. g of AlF3 in 500. When 25.

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Chapter 22 Ions in Solution Worksheets 22.1 Ions in Solution There are no worksheets for this lesson.3 Lesson 22.1 Lesson 22. 1. • Identify the precipitate.2 Lesson 22.2 Covalent Compounds in Solution There are no worksheets for this lesson. • Write the net ionic equation. • Identify the spectator ions.3 Reactions Between Ions in Solutions Reactions Between Ions in Solution Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ For the following five reactions (all reactants are in water solution): • Write and balance the molecular equation indicating the state of each reactant and product. • Write the total ionic equation.ck12. 22. 22.org . iron (III) chloride + sodium hydroxide 125 www.

org 126 . sodium chromate + strontium nitrate Balanced molecular equation _____________ Total ionic equation _____________ Precipitate = _____________ Spectator ions = _____________ www. magnesium sulfate + potassium phosphate Balanced molecular equation _____________ Total ionic equation _____________ Precipitate = _____________ Spectator ions = _____________ Net ionic equation _____________ 4.ck12.Balanced molecular equation _____________ Total ionic equation _____________ Precipitate = _____________ Spectator ions = _____________ Net ionic equation _____________ 2. barium chloride + silver nitrate Balanced molecular equation _____________ Total ionic equation _____________ Precipitate = _____________ Spectator ions = _____________ Net ionic equation _____________ 3. copper (II) nitrate + calcium hydroxide Balanced molecular equation _____________ Total ionic equation _____________ Precipitate = _____________ Spectator ions = _____________ Net ionic equation _____________ 5.

1 Rate of Reactions There are no worksheets for this lesson.2 Collision Theory There are no worksheets for this lesson. 1. What is the enthalpy change for (∆H) for the forward reaction? ________________ 5.12. What is the activation energy for the forward reaction? _____________ 3. What is the activation energy for the reverse reaction? _____________ 4. Is the overall reaction as shown exothermic or endothermic? _____________ 2.3 Potential Energy Diagrams Potential Energy Diagrams Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Use the following Potential Energy Diagram to answer questions 1 .3 Lesson 23. 23. 23.org .1 Lesson 23. Is the reverse reaction exothermic or endothermic? _____________ 127 www.Chapter 23 Chemical Kinetics Worksheets 23. What is the ∆H for the reverse reaction? _____________ 6.ck12.2 Lesson 23.

decreases. Describe what happens to two reactant particles that collide with less than the activation energy? Use the following Potential Energy Diagram to answer questions 15 . Which species or group of species has the highest potential energy? _____________ 9. Which species is the activated complex? __________________ 8. stays the same) and the kinetic energy _____________(increases. Which species or group of species has the strongest bonds? _____________ 11. 14. decreases. Which do you think would be faster at that the same temperature. stays the same). the forward or reverse reaction? _____________ 12. In general. Figure 23.22.1 7. as reactant particles begin a collision. the potential energy _____________ (increases. What is the threshold energy for the forward reaction? _____________ 13. Which species or group of species has the weakest bonds? _____________ 10.org 128 .ck12.2 www.Figure 23.

org . What is the activation energy for the reverse reaction? _____________ 17.4 Factors That Affect Reaction Rates There are no worksheets for this lesson.5 Lesson 23. A − B or B − C? _____________ 22. Which bond is stronger. 23. 129 www.15. 23.5 Reaction Mechanism There are no worksheets for this lesson. Is the forward reaction exothermic or endothermic? ______________ 20.ck12. Give a reason for your answer in question 21.4 Lesson 23. What is the activation energy for the forward reaction? _____________ 16. What is the ∆H for the forward reaction? _____________ 18. What is the ∆H for the reverse reaction? _____________ 19. What is the threshold energy for the forward reaction? ______________ 21.

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Increase.Chapter 24 Chemical Equilibrium Worksheets 24.1 Lesson 24. What is the instantaneous effect on the FORWARD REACTION RATE of adding some oxygen gas with no change in pressure? A. Decrease.2 Lesson 24. C.ck12. What is the instantaneous effect on the FORWARD REACTION RATE of adding some solid phosphorus with no change in surface area? A. 2. 24. Increase. No change.1 Introduction to Equilibrium There are no worksheets for this lesson.20 relate to the following reaction at equilibrium in a closed container. 131 www.2 Equilibrium Constant Equilibrium Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Questions 1 .org . B. P(s) + 2 O2(g) P O4(g) ∆H = −794 kJ/mol 1.

What is the instantaneous effect on the FORWARD REACTION RATE of adding some P O4 gas with no change in pressure? A. C. No change. Decrease. 4. Decrease. C. Decrease. B. C. B. B. What is the instantaneous effect on the REVERSE REACTION RATE of adding some oxygen gas with no change in pressure? A. What is the instantaneous effect on the FORWARD REACTION RATE of adding a catalyst? A. Increase. www. Increase. Increase.org 132 . No change. Decrease. C. 3. Increase. B. 8. What is the instantaneous effect on the REVERSE REACTION RATE of adding some solid phosphorus with no change in surface area? A. 5. B. Increase. No change. Decrease. C. Decrease. No change. C. 6.B. No change.ck12. Decrease. No change. What is the instantaneous effect on the FORWARD REACTION RATE of increasing the temperature? A. B. 7. What is the instantaneous effect on the FORWARD REACTION RATE of increasing the pressure by reducing the volume? A. Increase.

C. B. C.ck12. Reverse. Decrease. Which direction will the equilibrium shift when solid phosphorus is added with no change in surface area? A. No shift. B. Increase.org . Forward. B. No change. No change. Forward. B. What is the instantaneous effect on the REVERSE REACTION RATE of adding some P O4 gas with no change in pressure? A. C. Decrease. No change. Increase. What is the instantaneous effect on the REVERSE REACTION RATE of increasing the temperature? A. 12. What is the instantaneous effect on the REVERSE REACTION RATE of adding a catalyst? A. 13. Decrease. 10. B. 133 www. C. C. What is the instantaneous effect on the REVERSE REACTION RATE of increasing the pressure by reducing the volume? A. Increase. Reverse. C. No change. Decrease. No change. No shift. Which direction will the equilibrium shift when oxygen gas is added with no change in pressure? A. 9. Increase. 11. C. B. 14.

Which direction will the equilibrium shift when the pressure is increased by reducing the volume? A. B. Reverse. No shift. C. III. and IV. IV and V. E. 19. C. A. B. Forward. IV. Which direction will the equilibrium shift when the temperature is increased? A. D.ck12. IV only. Reverse.org 134 . 16. www. V. Increasing the temperature. No shift. C. and V. Which direction will the equilibrium shift when a catalyst is added? A. B. Reverse. B. Which direction will the equilibrium shift when gaseous P O4 is added with no change in pressure? A. No shift. V only. C. Adding some oxygen gas. III. Increasing the pressure by reducing the volume. B. 17. 18. No shift. I. Which of the following changes to the sytem at equilibrium will change the value of the equilibrium constant? I. II. Adding some solid phosphorus. Adding a catalyst. II. IV. Forward. Forward. C. Forward. Reverse.15.

the equilibrium will shift forward until a new equilibrium is established.0 M B. the equilibrium constant is 1. 0. 23.0 × 10−6 .1: Equilibrium Constants for Various Equations Choice A.00 M O2 . calculate the equilibrium concentration of SO2 . D.0 M sulfur and 3. 15.00 and that the reaction begins with 60. Which of these reactions will have the greatest proportion of material in the form of products? Table 24.55 M C. If oxygen gas is added to the system at equilibrium.25 M E. 5. Here are four equations with their equilibrium constant values. Equation AB(aq) CD(aq) EF(aq) GH(aq) − A+ + B(aq) (aq) + − C(aq) + D(aq) + − E(aq) + F(aq) − G+ + H(aq) (aq) Equilibrium Constant Ke Ke Ke Ke = 2 × 10−2 = 3 × 10−2 = 3 × 10−3 = 6 × 10−3 22. C.0020 M B.ck12.0 × 10−6 M 135 www. S(s) + O2(g) SO2(g) Given that the equilibrium constant for the reaction is 5. None of these. higher B. the same 21. 1. B.0 M ? A. how will the concentration of oxygen gas in the new equilibrium compare to the original concentration of oxygen gas before the stress was applied? A.org . When the new equilibrium is established. Find the equilibrium concentration of N O2 if the beginning concentration of N2 and O2 are both 2. lower C. 2. Solid sulfur reacts with oxygen gas to form SO2(g) according to the following equation.20. N2(g) + O2(g) 2 N O2(g) . A.50 M D. 2. For the reaction.

0. what will be the equilibrium concentration of H2 ? A.00 M .0 × 10−6 M D.0 M E.0 M and at equilibrium.ck12. There are three common ways a stress may be applied to a chemical system at equilibrium: www. What is the equilibrium constant value? A. None of these. None of these.org 136 . 1. the two reactants begin the reaction at 1. and is not an acceptable explanation for the change. 0. 25. Le Chatelier’s Principle does NOT explain why the system changes.0 C.C. 4. 1. 2.33 M B. None of these. 16 E.3 M D.00 for the reaction.0 D.67 M C. H2(g) + CO2(g) H2 O(g) + CO(g) . 0. The explanation for why the system changes can be found in your textbook. Ke = 4. 24. If all four species begin at 1.020 M E. the concentration of CO is found to be 0. H2(g) + CO2(g) H2 O(g) + CO(g) . For the reaction.80 M . 1. 4. 24.3 The Effect of Applying Stress to Reactions at Equilibrium Le Chatelier’s Principle Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Le Chatelier’s Principle is useful in predicting how a system at equilibrium will respond when certain changes are imposed.7 B.3 Lesson 24. It merely allows you to determine quickly how the system will change when a disturbance is imposed.

Le Chatelier’s Principle states when a system at equilibrium is disturbed. Therefore. thus using up some of the added reactant or producing more of the removed product. and the equilibrium will shift backwards. Ke is not changed by the addition or removal of reactants or products. • changing the volume of the container (which changes partial pressure of all gases in the reaction). You should be aware that adding a gaseous substance that is not involved in the reaction changes the total pressure in the system but does not change the partial pressure of any of the reactants or products and therefore does not affect the equilibrium. Once again. Cooling an exothermic reaction slows both reactions but it slows the reverse more than the forward. thus partially undoing the stress. Le Chatelier’s Principle predicts that the equilibrium will shift forward. however. Similarly. the equilibrium shift partially counteracts the disturbance. but it increases the endothermic reaction more that the exothermic. the amount of the solid present most certainly does change. • changing the temperature. heating an endothermic 137 www. in an exothermic reaction. For an endothermic reaction.ck12.• changing the concentration (or partial pressure) of a reactant or product. Since the concentration of solids are constant. In this way. thus producing more of the removed reactant or using up some of the added product. all the same logic is involved except that the forward reaction is endothermic and the reverse reaction is exothermic. Le Chatelier’s Principle predicts that when heat is added. Since the forward reaction produces heat and the reverse reaction consumes heat. Therefore. the shift tends to “undo” the disturbance. the reverse reaction is endothermic and so increasing the temperature will increase the reverse reaction more than the forward reaction. the equilibrium shift tends to partially return the concentration to its former value but it never gets all the way back to the former value. if the disturbance is the removal of a reactant or the addition of a product. The amount of solid can increase or decrease but the concentration does not change. and thus partially countering the disturbance. hence the equilibrium will shift forward producing more heat. they do not appear in the equilibrium constant expression and their concentrations do not change when disturbances cause equilibrium shifts. the equilibrium will shift backward. Changes in Temperature Increasing the temperature of a system at equilibrium increases both forward and reverse reaction rate. The equilibrium constant value. the equilibrium will shift backward. the equilibrium shifts so as to partially undo (counteract) the effect of the disturbance.org . consuming heat. Changes in Concentration or Partial Pressure If a system at equilibrium is disturbed by adding a reactant or removing a product. It should be noted that when the disturbance is an increase or decrease of concentration of reactant or product.

Toward the products. Toward the reactants.reaction causes the equilibrium to shift forward. Increase Temperature K increases K decreases Decrease Temperature K decreases K increases 5 CO(g) + I2 O5(s) I2(g) + 5 CO2(g) ∆H ◦ = −1175 kJ 1. both reaction rates are increased by the same amount and therefore there will be no equilibrium shift. B. C. the equilibrium will shift to produce fewer moles of gaseous substances so that the pressure will decrease. 2. decreasing the volume will cause the equilibrium to shift toward the side with fewer moles of gaseous substances. which way will the equilibrium shift? A. Le Chatelier’s Principle predicts that the equilibrium will shift in a direction that tends to counteract the disturbance. The total pressure in the vessel will also increase. Therefore.ck12. and the total pressure will decrease.org 138 . Exercises Consider the following reaction. how will the concentration www. the equilibrium constant value will also change when the temperature is changed. so the equilibrium shift will be toward the side that contains more moles of gas. Therefore. Thus. The reverse is true if the volume of the vessel is increased.2: Summary of Reaction Type Endothermic (∆H > 0) Exothermic (∆H < 0) Changes in Volume When the volume of a reaction vessel is decreased. the partial pressure (and concentration) of all gases in the container increase. and cooling an endothermic reaction causes the equilibrium to shift backward. that is. When an equilibrium shifts due to a temperature change all the substances on one side of the equation move in the same direction. No shift. In the case of a catalyst. The Addition of a Catalyst The addition of a catalyst will increase both forward and reverse reaction rates. When equilibrium is re-established after the CO2(g) is added. they all increase or they all decrease. thus increasing pressure and partially counteracting the change. If some CO2(g) is added to this sytem at equilibrium. The partial pressure of all gases will decrease. Table 24.

C. B. Increased. 3. C. Higher. When equilibrium is re-established after the I2(g) is removed. Decreased. No shift. C. C. C. No change. which way will the equilibrium shift? A. how will the amount of I2 O5 compare to the original amount? A. B. When equilibrium is re-established after the CO2(g) is added.org . Increased. When equilibrium is re-established after the I2(g) is removed. 6. No change. Decreased. No change. No change. 8. Increased. Toward the reactants. how will the concentration of I2(g) compare to the original concentration? 139 www. how will the concentration of CO2(g) compare to the original concentration? A. 5. C.ck12. B. Increased. Toward the products. B. When equilibrium is re-established after the CO2(g) is added. B. how will the value of K compare to the original value of K? A. If some I2(g) is removed from this sytem at equilibrium.of I2(g) compare to the original concentration? A. Decreased. 7. B. Lower. 4. Decreased. No change. When equilibrium is re-established after the CO2(g) is added. how will the concentration of I2 O5 compare to the original concentration? A.

Toward the reactants. No change. B.ck12. 13. C. C. Decreased. C. B. how will the value of K compare to the original value of K? A.A. C. If the temperature of this system at equilibrium is lowered. C. 11.org 140 . Increased. Higher. No change. B. When equilibrium is re-established after the temperature was lowered. how will the value of K compare to the original value of K? A. 12. Higher. When equilibrium is re-established after the volume was decreased. Lower. If the volume of the reaction vessel for this system at equilibrium is decreased. which way will the equilibrium shift? A. www. 10. No change. 9. Increased. Decreased. how will the concentration of CO(g) compare to its original concentration? A. Higher. Toward the products. how will the concentration of CO(g) compare to its original concentration? A. 14. No shift. Lower. B. which way will the equilibrium shift? A. B. Toward the products. When equilibrium is re-established after the I2(g) is removed. Toward the reactants. No shift. No change. B. 5. C. When equilibrium is re-established after the temperature was lowered.

how will the value of K compare to the original value of K? A. No change.B. which way will the equilibrium shift? A. When equilibrium is re-established after the temperature was raised. Decreased. C. Decreased. B. 18. C. 4 N O(g) + 6 H2 O(g) 4 N H3(g) + 5 O2(g) ∆H = +1532 kJ 16. C. Lower. Toward the products. No change. Lower. If some N O(g) is added to this sytem at equilibrium. which way will the equilibrium shift? A. C. 141 www. 15. B. Higher. C. 19. C. how will the concentration of N O(g) compare to its original concentration? A. No shift. Increased. When equilibrium is re-established after the N O(g) is added. Toward the reactants.ck12. When equilibrium is re-established after the volume was decreased. B. how will the concentration of N H3(g) compare to the original concentration? A.org . B. Consider the following reaction. B. No change. Toward the reactants. Toward the products. Increased. No shift. No change. If the temperature of this system at equilibrium is raised. 17.

C. What is the solubility of Ca(OH)2 in grams/liter given the Ksp = 6. 8.8 × 10−8 ) or 2− SrSO4 . Will a precipitate form when 140. What is the Ksp for silver dichromate at this temperature? 5.00 × 10−3 moles dissolve per liter of solution. Use this information to calculate the Ksp for SrCrO4 . Ammonium sulfide and cobalt (II) bromide.0 mL of 0. What is the solubility of AgI in grams/liter given the Ksp = 8.3 × 10−17 ? 6. Silver nitrate and lithium hydroxide. write “no reaction”. The solubility of AgC2 H3 O2 is 11. it is found that 6. 24. When excess solid SrCrO4 is shaken with water at 25◦ C.ck12.0 × 10−6 ? 7. Lead (II) chloride has a Ksp value of 1. Barium nitrate and copper (II) sulfate.4 × 10−7 ) precipitate first? Calculate the concentration of SO4 ions that will begin to precipitate each cation. No change. Copper (II) sulfate and potassium carbonate.0 × 10−4 M P b2+ ions and 2. 2.0 mL of 0. Write balanced net ionic equations for the precipitation reactions that occur when the following pairs of solutions are mixed. www. Higher. how will the value of K compare to the original value of K? A.4 Slightly Soluble Salts Solubility and Solubility Product Constant Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ 1.0 × 10−3 M Sr2+ ions. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Lead nitrate and hydrochloric acid.20. B. Lower. (Ksp = 1. When equilibrium is re-established after the temperature was raised.083 g/L at 25◦ C. If no reaction occurs.6 × 10−2 mol/L. (Ksp = 3. The solubility of P bCl2 is 1. What is the Ksp for silver acetate at this temperature? 4. What is the Ksp for P bCl2 ? 3. If a source 2− of SO4 ions is very slowly added to this solution.7×10−5 .11 g/L at 25◦ C. will P bSO4 . A solution contains 1.0550 M N aCl? 9. Use the solubility table in your textbook if you need it. The solubility of Ag2 Cr2 O7 is 0.4 Lesson 24.0100 M P b3 (P O4 )2 is mixed with 550.org 142 .

0150 M N aOH is mixed with 300.1 Lesson 25.400 grams of N aOH in enough water to make 2.0 mL of H2 SO4 are neutralized by 100. mL of 3. what is the molarity of the H2 SO4 ? 6.200 M LiOH.ck12.00 × 10−4 M .00 M Ba(OH)2 ? 7.100 M potassium hydroxide are required to neutralize 75. What is the hydroxide ion concentration in a solution whose pH is 11? 3.00 × 10−3 M Ba(OH)2 . 700.0 mL of 0. 25.00 liters of solution? 4.Chapter 25 Acids and Bases Worksheets 25. mL of 0.org .2 Strong and Weak Acids Strong Acids and Bases Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ 1. What is the pH of the final solution in problem 7? 9. What is the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution prepared by dissolving 0.00 M HCl would be necessary to neutralize 400. What is the final [H + ] and [OH − ]? 143 www. what is the hydroxide ion concentration? 2.00100 M HCl. mL of 0. mL of 1. How many mL of 0. If 50. What is the final [H + ] and [OH − ]? 8. 200.500 M HN O3 ? 5. mL of 0.1 Arrhenius Acids There are no worksheets for this lesson. If the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution is 1.00 × 10−4 M H2 SO4 is mixed with 300.2 Lesson 25. What volume of 6. mL of 1.

0? 10.200 M N aOH to neutralize it? 25. mL of solution. What is the pH of the final solution in problem 11? 13. What is the pH of the final solution in problem 13? 15.0300 M N aOH.org 144 . What do you think is wrong with this calculation? 1. mL of 0. 25. A 1.0 mL of 0.0×10−12 M HBr solution.000200 M HN O3 to 100.300 grams of the acid requires 30. What is the pH of the final solution in problem 9? 11.0100 M HCl is mixed with 35. 6.0 M 10−5 × M g(OH)2 .4? What is the [OH − ] in a solution with pH = 3. mL of 0. Complete the following table.5 pH pH Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Calculate the pH of a solution with [H + ] = 7. What is the pH? 7.050 M N aOH. you will get the pH = 12. What is the final [H + ] and [OH − ] in a solution made by adding 100.0 mL of 0.0 g of KOH is added to enough water to make 400. How many liters of water must be added to change the pH to 3? 8.3 Lesson 25. 2. What is the [H + ] in a solution with pH = 4. 25.4 Salts There are no worksheets for this lesson.0000990 M Ba(OH)2 ? 14. Calculate the pH of a solution that is 7. www. You should have a feeling that something is wrong with this situation because this indicates that a solution of acid has a basic pH.0 mL of 0.0 × 10−5 M . 3.3 Arrhenius Bases There are no worksheets for this lesson.4 Lesson 24. Calculate the pH of a solution that is 0. What is the final [H + ] and [OH − ]? 12.5 Lesson 25. 5. 25.10.0 liter solution has a pH = 2. If you do the regular calculations to determine the pH of a 1. 4.ck12. What is the molar mass of a solid monoprotic acid if 0.

2.ck12. if the Ka for HX is 8.7 × 10−5 . or neutral? Use 1.4 × 10−4 and the Ka of acid B is 1.80 × 10−5 . 8. What is the Ka of this acid? 7.75 4. basic.Table 25.0 × 10−2 M [OH − ] 8. B. or Neutral pH 9. HQ. Explain why a solution of sodium acetate will be basic. What is the Kb for methylamine? 9. or neutral? 10. 6. [H + ] 6. What is the pH of a 0.6 Weak Acid/Base Equilibria Weak Acids and Bases Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ 1.org .1: Acid.150 M solution of N H4 OH? The Kb for N H4 OH is 1. What is the pH of a 0. Base.5 × 10−10 M A. The equation for the reaction of methylamine in water is CH3 N H2(aq) + H2 O + − CH3 N H3(aq) + OH(aq) . 11. 4. or N 25.00 M solution of the weak base methylamine is 12.2 × 10−4 M 10.100 M solution of a weak acid. is 4. HX. Which acid is the stronger acid? 3. 12.0. The Ka of acid A is 6. 5.00 M solution of N H4 N O2 be acidic. The pH of a 1. basic. 145 www.8 × 10−5 as the Kb for N H4 OH and 7. Will a 1.3.1×10−7 .1 × 10−4 as the Ka for HN O2 . Will a 1.0100 M solution of a weak acid. Explain what happens to the pH of a solution of acetic acid when a solution of sodium acetate is added to it.6 Lesson 25. 10. The pH of a 0. Explain the difference between the designations “strong” acid and “weak” acid.00 M solution of potassium acetate be acidic.

and is. A. every time a base gains an H + . such as Bronsted acids and bases. Bronsted acids or bases can be neutral molecules. exist as conjugate pairs whose formulas are related by the gain or loss of a hydrogen ion. conjugate base = ______ www. one product of the reaction is the A. conjugate base = ______ − B. . Write the formula for the conjugate base of each of the following acids. HA. particularly in pairs. . When this acid donate a hydrogen to water. A− + H2 O BASE HA + OH − ACID Acids and bases in the Bronsted model. The use of the symbols HA and A− for the conjugate acid-base pair does not mean that all acids are neutral molecules or that all bases are negative ions.ck12.25.7 Lesson 25. . Every time a Bronsted acid acts as a hydrogen ion donor. . which is then capable of accepting a hydrogen ion. conjugate base = ______ D. therefore. therefore. It signified only that the acid contains a hydrogen ion that is not present in the conjugate base. .ion. Imagine a generic acid. HN O2 . . The term conjugate come from the Latin meaning “joining together” and refers to things that are joined. a Bronsted base.org 146 . HSO4 . HA + H2 O ACID H3 O+ + A− BASE Conversely. . . the product is a Bronsted acid. or negative ions.7 Bronsted Lowry Acids-Bases Conjugate Acids-Bases Worksheet CK12 Foundation Chemistry Name ________________________________ Date ______________ Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs Acids and bases exist as conjugate acid-base pairs. conjugate base = ______ C. positive ions. HCN . HF . Exercises 1. it forms a conjugate base.

A. indicate whether its conjugate partner is an acid or base and write its formula. HI .org . conjugate acid = ______ 3. HCO3 . .2. 2− A. conjugate ______ = ______ C.8 Lewis Acids and Bases There are no worksheets for this lesson. . . . . A. . identify the acid and base on the left and their conjugate partners on the right. .8 Lesson 25. For each given formula. conjugate ______ = ______ 4. . . S 2− . CHOOH( aq) + H2 O(L) B. H2 S(aq) + N H3(aq) − + HCOO(aq) + H3 O(aq) + − N H4(aq) + HS(aq) 25. . Write the formula for the conjugate acid of each of the following bases. Br− . conjugate acid = ______ D. .ck12. . conjugate acid = ______ C. 147 www. HN O3 . conjugate acid = ______ − B. . N H3 . HS − . . conjugate ______ = ______ D. SO4 . . conjugate ______ = ______ B. In each of the following acid-base reactions. .

org 148 .www.ck12.

39 mL of 0.99 mL of 0. pH and Titration Worksheets 26. 26.3 Titrations Titration Worksheet CK12 Chemistry Name _____________________________ Date ____________ Show ALL your work in solving these problems.ck12.29 mL of 0.2968 M lithium hydroxide solution? 2. H2 CO3 ? 4.8351 M F e(OH)2 is needed to neutralize 98.69 mL of it is neutralized by 40.Chapter 26 Water.35 mL of 0.95 mL of potassium hydroxide solution to neutralize 89.50 mL of the solution is titrated to the endpoint with 51. What volume of 0.org . What is the molarity of a CuOH solution if 50.1 Water Ionizes There are no worksheets for this lesson. 26. What is the concentration of hydroiodic acid if 59. It requires 65.2 Indicators There are no worksheets for this lesson.1 Lesson 26.2 Lesson 26.2118 M nitric acid.3 Lesson 26.5417 M H3 P O4 149 www.3574 M carbonic acid. What is the concentration of the potassium hydroxide solution? 3. 1.

HA.ck12. The volume of N aOH solution required to neutralize 1. What is the molar mass of the acid? 6.4 Buffers There are no worksheets for this lesson.org 150 . www. H2 C2 O4 · 2H2 O (molar mass = 126.1500 M N aOH solution.4 Lesson 26. 5.00 mL of the N aOH solution. Calculate the molarity of the N aOH solution. 26. The titration required 42. C. A solution of N aOH was standardized against oxalic acid dehydrate. A.500 g of an unknown solid monoprotic acid.0 mL of 0.500 g sample. Calculate the molar mass of the unknown acid. The standardized N aOH solution is then used to titrate 3.5. Calculate the moles of HA in the 3.000 g of an unknown monoprotic solid acid was titrated with 163. B.066 g/mol).00 mL.500 g of oxalic acid was 45. Oxalic acid is a diprotic acid.

Thus. How much energy is released when 22.00 mol of CH4 are burned? B. That is. This means that the products have 890.org .0 g of methane from CO2 and H2 O (with O2 also being produced). How much energy is given off when 2.Chapter 27 Thermodynamics Worksheets . when one mole of methane is burned.4 kJ are given off to the surroundings.4 kJ less energy stored in the bonds than the reactants. 151 www. ∆H for the reaction = −890.2 Enthalpy Enthalpy Worksheet 1.1 Lesson 27.4 g of CH4 are burned? C. A negative symbol for ∆H indicates an exothermic reaction. The combustion of methane. If you were to attempt to make 45.2 Lesson 27.ck12. releases 890. 27.1 Energy Change in Reactions There are no worksheets for this lesson. CH4(g) + 2 O2(g) → CO2(g) + 2 H2 O(L) ∆H = −890. CH4 .4 kJ A. how much heat would be absorbed during the reaction? Use the following heat of formation table in questions 2 – 6.HS Chemistry 27. 890.4 kJ.4 kJ/mol of heat.

Using data from the heat of formation table above. calculate the heat of reaction for N2 O(g) + N O2(g) → 3 N O(g) . calculate the quantity of heat produced when 1. calculate the enthalpy of reaction for 3 H2(g) + O3(g) → 3 H2 O(g) .ck12.1: The Standard Enthalpy and Entropy of Various Substances Substance C4 H10(g) CaC2(s) Ca(OH)2(s) C2 H2(g) CO2(g) H2(g) H2 O(g) H2 O(L) N H3(g) N O(g) N O2(g) N2 O(g) O2(g) O3(g) o ∆Hf (kJ/mol) S o (J/K · mol) 310 70. Many cigarette lighters contain liquid butane. 6.0 g of gaseous butane is completely combusted in air. www. 83 201 214 131 189 70. Using data from the heat of formation table above. calculate the heat of reaction for 2 N O(g) + O2(g) → 2 N O2(g) .org 152 . Using the heat of formation table above. 220. 193 211 240. 205 239 −126 −63 −987 227 −394 0 −242 −286 −46 90. Using data from the heat of formation table above. 5. C4 H10 . 34 82 0 143 2. calculate the heat of reaction for CaC2(s) + 2 H2 O(L) → Ca(OH)2(s) + C2 H2(g) . 3. 4. Using data from the heat of formation table above.Table 27.

ck12.2: Given Equations and Equation ∆H Value N2 H4(L) + CH4 O(L) → CH2 O(g) + N2(g) + ∆H = −37kJ 3 H2(g) N2(g) + 3 H2(g) → 2 N H3(g) ∆H = −46 kJ CH4 O(L) → CH2 O(g) + H2(g) ∆H = −65 kJ Solution Table 27. using the following reactions and their ∆H values.3: Solution Arrangement Changes Keep Same Keep Same Reverse Equation ∆H Value N2 H4(L) + CH4 O(L) → ∆H = −37 kJ CH2 O(g) + N2(g) + 3 H2(g) N2(g) + 3 H2(g) → 2 N H3(g) ∆H = −46 kJ CH2 O(g) +H2(g) → CH4 O(L) ∆H = +65 kJ Sum Exercises N2 H4(L) + H2(g) → 2 N H3(g) ∆H = −18 kJ 1.Hess’s Law Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Example Problem Find the ∆H for the reaction below.org . using the following reactions and their ∆H values. H2 SO4(L) → SO3(g) + H2 O(g) 153 www. N2 H4(L) + H2(g) → 2 N H3(g) Table 27. Find the ∆H for the reaction below.

Find the ∆H for the reaction below.Table 27.ck12. Find the ∆H for the reaction below.org 154 .6 kJ 3.5: Given Equations and Equation N2(g) + O2(g) → 2 N O(g) N2(g) + 3 H2(g) → 2 N H3(g) 2 H2(g) + O2(g) → 2 H2 O(g) ∆H Value ∆H = −180. using the following reactions and their ∆H values.4: Given Equations and Equation H2 S(g) + 2 O2(g) → H2 SO4(L) H2 S(g) + 2 O2(g) → SO3(g) + H2 O(L) H2 O(L) → H2 O(g) ∆H Value ∆H = −235 kJ ∆H = −207 kJ ∆H = +44 kJ 2. P Cl5(g) → P Cl3(g) + Cl2(g) Table 27. Find the ∆H for the reaction below.5 kJ ∆H = −91. using the following reactions and their ∆H values.6: Equation P4(s) + 6 Cl2(g) → 4 P Cl3(g) 4 P Cl5(g) → P4(s) + 10 Cl2(g) ∆H Value ∆H = −2439 kJ ∆H = +3438 kJ 4. using the following reactions and their ∆H values.8 kJ ∆H = −483. 4 N H3(g) + 5 O2(g) → 4 N O(g) + 6 H2 O(g) Table 27. 3 H2(g) + 2 C(s) + 1 O2(g) → C2 H5 OH(L) 2 www.

9: Given Equations and Equation ∆H Value COCl2(g) + H2 O(L) → CH2 Cl2(L) + O2(g) ∆H = +48 kJ 1 2 HCl(g) + 2 O2(g) → H2 O(L) + Cl2(g) ∆H = +105 kJ CH2 Cl2(L) + H2(g) + 3 O2(g) → COCl2(g) + ∆H = −403 kJ 2 2 H2 O(L) 27.7: Given Equations and Equation C2 H5 OH(L) +3 O2(g) → 2 CO2(g) +3 H2 O(L) C(s) + O2(g) → CO2(g) 1 H2(g) + 2 O2(g) → H2 O(L) ∆H Value ∆H = −875.0 kJ 6.Table 27.org . 2 CO2(g) + H2 O(g) → C2 H2(g) + 5 2 O2(g) Table 27. Find the ∆H for the reaction below. using the following reactions and their ∆H values.2 kJ ∆H = −283.5 kJ ∆H = −285.0 kJ ∆H = −394. 1 1 H2(g) + Cl2(g) → HCl(g) 2 2 Table 27.8: Given Equations and Equation C2 H2(g) + 2 H2(g) → C2 H6(g) H2 O(g) → H2(g) + 1 O2(g) 2 7 C2 H6(g) + 2 O2(g) → 2 CO2(g) + 3 H2 O(g) ∆H Value ∆H = −94.3 Spontaneous Processes 155 There are no worksheets for this lesson.8 kJ 5. using the following reactions and their ∆H values. www. Find the ∆H for the reaction below.3 Lesson 27.5 kJ ∆H = +71.ck12.

83 201 214 131 189 70.27. Table 27. Using data from the entropy of formation table above.4 Entropy Entropy Worksheet Use the following entropy of formation table in questions 1 – 5. 4. calculate the heat of reaction for www.org 156 . calculate the entropy of reaction for 3 H2(g) + O3(g) → 3 H2 O(g) .ck12. Using data from the entropy of formation table above. 193 211 240. 220. 2. 34 82 0 143 1. Using data from the entropy of formation table above. 205 239 −126 −63 −987 227 −394 0 −242 −286 −46 90. Using data from the heat of formation table above.10: The Standard Enthalpy and Entropy of Various Substances Substance C4 H10(g) CaC2(s) Ca(OH)2(s) C2 H2(g) CO2(g) H2(g) H2 O(g) H2 O(L) N H3(g) N O(g) N O2(g) N2 O(g) O2(g) O3(g) o ∆Hf (kJ/mol) S o (J/K · mol) 310 70. calculate the ∆S o for N2 O(g) + N O2(g) → 3 N O(g) . calculate the change in entropy for 2 N O(g) + O2(g) → 2 N O2(g) . 3.4 Lesson 27.

The enthalpy of formation for a free element is A. C4 H10(g) + 13 O2(g) → 4 CO2(g) + 5 H2 O(g) 2 27.CaC2(s) + 2 H2 O(L) → Ca(OH)2(s) + C2 H2(g) . 2 HgO(s) → 2 Hg(L) + O2(g) ∆HR = +181. the thermodynamic stability of the compound _____________. E. A. and Free Energy Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ 1. calculate the change in entropy for the following reaction. Using the entropy of formation table above. 10 kJ/mol. increases B.5 Gibb’s Free Energy Enthalpy. remains constant D. Which of the following can definitely be concluded from the equation and heat of reaction above? 157 www. Entropy. Questions 3 and 4 relate to the following equation and ∆HR value. −100 kJ/mol. varies randomly 2.5 Lesson 27.ck12. B. 1 kJ/mol. 5.7 kJ 3. 0 kJ/mol. As the amount of energy required to decompose a compound increases. decreases C. variable.org . D. C.

4. 7. 90. D. The reaction is endothermic. what is the ∆Hf of HgO? A. internal energy and PV E. CO2(g) C. A.A.9 kJ/mol 5. The reaction is exothermic. 181.7 kJ/mol B. Which of the following four substances is the most thermodynamically stable? Use the data in the Thermodynamic Data Table at the bottom of the worksheet. www. All reactions that occur spontaneously must have a negative _________. The reaction is spontaneous. ∆G C.7 kJ/mol C. −90. 0 kJ/mol D. The free energy of a reaction is the combination of _________ and _________. The reaction is non-spontaneous. None of these. H2 O(L) D. All of these. A. From the equation and heat of reaction above. N O(g) 6. N H3(g) B.org 158 . A. ∆S E. E. enthalpy and entropy D. −181. C. None of these.9 kJ/mol E. ∆H D.ck12. B. T ∆S B. heat and work B. pressure and volume C.

9 kJ D. −634. +269. 9. and 11. None of these. Use the data in the Thermodynamic Data Table at the bottom of this worksheet to find the ∆SR for the reaction above? A.7 kJ B. +806. −269.7 kJ C. 10. Use the ∆HR you found in question 6 and the ∆SR you found in question 8 to calculate ∆GR for this reaction. 4 N H3(g) + 5 CO2(g) → 6 H2 O(L) + 4 N O(g) 8.3 kJ E. 9.0 kJ E.0 kJ D.8 kJ C. −575.1 J/o E.6 kJ C. A. −977. −92. +92. −1419. 11.9 J/o C.6 kJ B. +575. −806.9 kJ 159 www.3 kJ D. +1419.ck12. 977. None of these. Use the data in the Thermodynamic Data Table at the bottom of this worksheet to find the ∆GR for the reaction above? A.1 J/o D. Use the data in the Thermodynamic Data Table at the bottom of this worksheet to find the ∆HR for the reaction above? A. −981. 10. 634. +981.Questions 8.9 J/o B.org . None of these.8 kJ B. relate to the equation shown below.

+3351.5 J/K E. +626. 14. A. None of these. −1550. This reaction will never be spontaneous at any temperature. −635. 2 H2 O(g) + 2 F2(g) → O2(g) + 4 HF(g) . None of these. −626.org 160 . −16. +500.4 kJ 15. 13.E. None of these. www. 0 J/K B. 0 kJ B.5 J/K C. +16.4 kJ E.7 J/K C.7 kJ D.6 kJ D. −500. 2 N O(g) + O2(g) → 2 N O2(g) . +1550. 12. This reaction will be spontaneous at all temperatures. Find ∆GR for the reaction. Find ∆S for the reaction. +1657.0 kJ C.6 kJ E.0 J/K E. What is the change in entropy for 4 Al(s) + 3 O2(g) → 2 Al2 O3(s) ? A. +146.ck12. −146. −3351.0 J/K 16.5 J/K B.0 kJ B. +635.5 J/K D.7 J/K D. What is the change in enthalpy for 4 Al(s) + 3 O2(g) → 2 Al2 O3(s) ? A. Use the results from questions 14 and 15 to determine under what conditions this reaction will be spontaneous. A.7 kJ C. −1657. A. B.

ck12.11: Thermodynamic Properties of Some Substances (at Substance Al(s) Al2 O3(s) CO(g) CO2(g) F2(g) HF(g) H2 O(L) H2 O(g) N H3(g) N O(g) N O2(g) O2(g) o ∆Hf (kJ/mol) ∆Go (kJ/mol) f 0 −1582.8 +192.2 −394.3 +50.C. Table 27.1 +205.6 +51.4 0 −273.9 +188.7 +213.1 +90.8 +69.1 0 −1675.7 −110. D.5 +210. This reaction will be spontaneous at high temperatures.7 +202.3 +33.5 0 −271.2 −237.3 −137. This reaction will be spontaneous at low temperatures.3 0 S o (J/mol · K) +28.8 +240.org .1 −285.8 −241.9 +197.5 +86.8 −46.5 −393.6 −16.1 −228.8 +173.2 0 161 www.

www.ck12.org 162 .

Write a half-reaction for the oxidation process. If the atoms being oxidized and reduced are not already balanced in the half-reactions. 3.3 Lesson 28. 28.org . showing the species containing the atom being oxidized and the product containing that atom.ck12. 5.3 Balancing Redox Equations Using the Oxidation Number Method Balancing Redox Equations Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Steps in the balancing redox equations process. 28. showing the species containing the atom being reduced and the product containing that atom.2 Lesson 28.2 Oxidation-Reduction There are no worksheets for this lesson. Determine the oxidation number for all atoms in the reaction. Write a half-reaction for the reduction process. 4. Determine which atom is being oxidized and which is being reduced. 163 www. 2.1 Origin of the Term Oxidation There are no worksheets for this lesson. 1.1 Lesson 28. balance them.Chapter 28 Electrochemistry Worksheets 28.

(b) If the reaction is basic. 7. Balance all other atoms in each half-reaction except H and O. 11. − Step 3: M nO4 → M n2+ 2− Step 4: C2 O4 → CO2 − Step 5: M nO4 → M n2+ and 2− C2 O4 → 2 CO2 Step 6: − M nO4 + 5 e− → M n2+ 2− C2 O4 → 2 CO2 + 2 e− Step 7: All atoms other than H and O are balanced. Add the two half-reactions and cancel those species that are common to both sides. Add the appropriate number of electrons to each half-reaction needed to bring about the reduction and oxidation. Balance the H and O according to either (a) or (b) depending on whether the reaction is acidic or basic. 8. find the lowest common multiple (LCM) for the electrons in the two half-reactions.org 164 . add OH − and H2 O. then balance H by adding H + . 12. Once the half-reactions are balanced. Charge should now be balanced. Example of an acidic redox reaction balancing. Balance O first by adding H2 O. and they each equal the LCM. Multiply each half-reaction by a whole number so that the total number of electrons in the reduction half-reaction equals the total number of electrons in the oxidation half-reaction. 10.6. 9.ck12. Balance charge first by adding OH − . − 2− Given skeleton: M nO4 + C2 O4 → M n2+ + CO2 (in acid) Step 1: +7 −2 − M nO4 + +3 −2 2− C2 O4 → M n2+ +2 + CO2 +4 −2 (in acid solution) Step 2: M n+7 is being reduced to M n+2 and C +3 is being oxidized to C +4 . then balance O by adding H2 O. The H should now be balanced. Check the equation to be sure that it is balanced by both atoms and charge. (a) If the reaction is acidic. add H2 O and H + . − Step 8a: M nO4 + 5 e− + 8 H + → M n2+ + 4 H2 O www.

− Step 6: M nO4 + 3 e− → M nO2 and − Br− → BrO3 + 6 e− Step 7: All atoms other than H and O are balanced. − Step 3: M nO4 → M nO2 − Step 4: Br− → BrO3 Step 5: Both the atoms being oxidized and the atoms being reduced are balanced in the half-reactions. − 1.org .2− Step 8a: C2 O4 → 2 CO2 + 2 e− Step 9: The lowest common multiple for the electrons is 10. Br2 + SO2 → Br− + HSO4 (in acidic solution) 165 www.ck12. we will multiply the reduction half-reaction by 2 and the oxidation half-reaction by 5. Therefore. − Step 8b: M nO4 + 3 e− + 2 H2 O → M nO2 + 4 OH − − Step 8b: Br− + 6 OH − → BrO3 + 6 e− + 3 H2 O Step 9: The LCM for the electrons is 6. − Step 10: 2 M nO4 + 10 e− + 16 H + → 2 M n2+ + 8 H2 O 2− Step 10: 5 C2 O4 → 10 CO2 + 10 e− − 2− Step 11 and 12: 2 M nO4 + 16 H + + 5 C2 O4 → 2 M n2+ + 8 H2 O + 10 CO2 Example of an basic redox reaction balancing. H2 O. Therefore. − Step 10: 2 M nO4 + 6 e− + 4 H2 O → 2 M nO2 + 8 OH − − Step 10: Br− + 6 OH − → BrO3 + 6 e− + 3 H2 O Steps 11 and 12 (Cancel electrons. and OH − ): − − 2 M nO4 + Br− + H2 O → 2 M nO2 + 2 OH − + BrO3 Exercises Balance the following redox equations. we will multiply the reduction halfreaction by 2 and the oxidation half-reaction by 1. − − Given skeleton: M nO4 + Br− → M nO2 + BrO3 (in basic solution) Step 1: − M nO4 + +7 −2 −1 Br− → +4 −2 M nO2 + +5 −2 − BrO3 (in basic solution) Step 2: M n+7 is being reduced to M n+4 and Br− is being oxidized to Br+5 .

P b B.ck12. 5. Neither.1 Use the standard cell sketched above to answer questions 1 . 28. P b B.4 Electrolysis There are no worksheets for this lesson.4 Lesson 28. Which electrode is the cathode? A. 2. − P bO2 + M n2+ → P b2+ + M nO4 (in acidic solution) − 2− − M nO4 + SO3 → M nO2 + SO4 (in basic solution) − 2− Zn + N O3 → N H3 + Zn(OH)4 (in basic solution) − H2 O2 + Cl2 O7 → ClO2 + O2 (in basic solution) 28. Zn www. 3. 1. Neither.5 Lesson 28. 4. Zn C.2.9. Zn C.org 166 . 3. Which electrode is the anode? A.5 Galvanic Cells Electrochemical Cells Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Figure 28. At which electrode will oxidation occur? A. P b B.

Becomes maximum. Becomes a positive value less than maximum.C.63 V E. D. May increase or decrease. 4.org .89 V D. B. −0. 9. B. Which way do cations flow through the salt bridge? A. C. 6. Toward the P b electrode. Use the standard cell sketched above to answer questions 10 . Remains constant. P b B. −0. Which way do the electrons flow in the external circuit? A. Toward the Zn electrode. C. No cation flow occurs.21. 0. 0. C. Neither. 0. Neither. From P b to Zn. What happens to the cell voltage when the reaction reaches equilibrium? A.63 V C. Zn C. C.ck12. B. No electron flow occurs. Decreases. What happens to the cell voltage as the cell runs? A.89 V B. B. From Zn to P b. 167 www. Which electrode will gain mass as the cell runs? A. Increases. 8. What is the maximum voltage for this standard cell? A. 7.50 V 5. Drops to zero.

Neither. Al B. 1. 11. Al B. Which electrode loses mass as the cell runs? www. 14. C. From Al to Zn. No electron flow occurs. No cation flow occurs. Which way do anions flows through the salt bridge? A. What is the voltage of this standard cell? A.42 V C.90 V E.Figure 28. At which electrode does reduction occur? A. Toward the Zn electrode.2 10.90 V D. 12. B. B. Neither.ck12. 2. 0. Toward the Al electrode. Which electrode is the anode? A. From Zn to Al. C.80 V 13. −2. 15. Zn C.42 V B. Which way do the electrons flow in the external circuit? A. −0. Zn C.org 168 .

2 E. 4 E. 0 18. 12 C. Al B. 20. What will happen to the voltage of the cell if the molarity of Zn2+ is increased? A. 6 B. 4 E. 1 17. 8 D. C. 12 C. how many atoms of zinc must react? A. 0 19. 3 C.A. Increase.00 mole of atoms to be deposited on the cathode? A. Remain the same. 24 B. 8 D. Increase. How many moles of electrons pass through the external circuit in order for 1.ck12. Neither. Zn C. What will happen to the voltage of the cell if the molarity of Al3+ is increased? A. B. Decrease. 16. If 24 electrons pass through the external circuit. If 24 electrons pass through the external circuit. how many atoms of aluminum must react? A. 4 D. 169 www.org . 24 B.

Yes B. Decrease. No 25. (2) Richard Parsons. C. No 24. Al. Decrease slightly. What will happen to the voltage of the cell if the salt bridge is removed? A.org 170 . CCBYSA. and P b. CCBYSA. Al B. P b 23. B. www. Remain the same. Zn C. Will a reaction occur if Pb metal is placed in a solution of Al3+ ? A. C. Yes B. D. Increase slightly. 22. Zn. Will a reaction occur if aluminum metal is placed in a solution of Zn2+ ? A. 21. . Drop to zero. Yes B. Will a reaction occur if aluminum metal is placed in a solution of Zn2+ ? A. In the two cells in this worksheet. there are a total of three reduction half-reaction indicated.B. Remain the same. . Which of these three metals is most easily oxidized? A.ck12. No Image Sources (1) Richard Parsons.

Nuclear notation is a shorthand way of writing information about a particular atom.Chapter 29 Nuclear Chemistry Worksheets 29.1 Discovery of Radioactivity There are no worksheets for this lesson.ck12.org . A group of atoms of an element must all have the same number of protons but they may have several different numbers of neutrons.1 Lesson 29. The atomic number of an atom indicates the number of protons in its nucleus and the mass number of an atom indicates the total number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus.2 Nuclear Notation Nuclear Notation Worksheet CK12 Foundation Chemistry Name ________________________________ Date ______________ Background Each element has one or more atoms associated with it.2 Lesson 29. An example of the accepted form of nuclear notation is shown below. Atoms with the same atomic number but a different mass number are called isotopes. 171 www. 29. A particular atom of an element does not have to have the same number of neutrons. Every atom of a particular element has the same number of protons.

the mass number is 2 greater because the nucleus contains 2 more neutrons and the same number of protons. like all carbon atoms. Another isotope of carbon is a carbon nucleus that contains 6 protons and 8 neutrons. An atom contains 3 protons. a subtraction of the atomic number from the mass number indicates the nucleus contains 6 neutrons. Indicate the number of protons. An atom contains 3 protons. Exercises 1. Here is an example of this notation using a carbon isotope that contains six protons and six neutrons in its nucleus. The mass number is represented in the image by the letter “A” and is positioned as a superscript preceding the X. www.org 172 . 3 neutrons. neutrons.ck12. The atomic number is represented by the letter “Z” and is positioned as a subscript preceding the X. We see a carbon atom represented with an atomic number of 6. 3 neutrons. and 3 electrons. has 6 protons in the nucleus. showing this atom. The nuclear notation for this isotope of carbon appears below. In the nuclear notation for this isotope of carbon. What is its mass number? 3. What is its atomic number? 2. and the mass number for the following nuclear symbol. Since we know the carbon atom has 6 protons.The large “X” represents the symbol for the element. The mass number of 12 shows the nucleus contains a total of 12 protons and neutrons. and 3 electrons.

Number of protons = _____ Number of neutrons = _____ Mass number = _____ 5. and the mass number for the following nuclear symbol. neutrons. Number of protons = _____ 173 www. Number of protons = _____ Number of neutrons = _____ Mass number = _____ 6. and the mass number for the following nuclear symbol. neutrons. Indicate the number of protons. neutrons. and the mass number for the following nuclear symbol.org . Indicate the number of protons.Number of protons = _____ Number of neutrons = _____ Mass number = _____ 4.ck12. Indicate the number of protons.

4 Lesson 29.5 Lesson 29. 1 p 1 Name the nuclear particle indicated by the nuclear symbol shown above.3 Lesson 29. 8.ck12.org 174 . Write the nuclear symbol for an isotope of bromine whose nucleus contains 35 protons and 45 neuterons. www.5 Nuclear Equations Nuclear Equations Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ 1. 29. 29. 1 n 0 Name the nuclear particle indicated by the nuclear symbol shown above. 29. __________ 2.4 Nuclear Disintegration There are no worksheets for this lesson. __________ 3. Write the nuclear symbol for an isotope of neon whose nucleus contains 10 protons and 10 neutrons.Number of neutrons = _____ Mass number = _____ 7.3 Nuclear Force There are no worksheets for this lesson.

Write the complete nuclear symbol for the missing particle. What is the atomic number of this isotope of element X? A.org . . 7. 9. a single nuclear particle is missing. The produce of the ensuing reaction is an isotope of element X and two neutrons. 28 26 Al → M g + ? 13 12 210 210 Po → At + ? 84 85 209 4 Bi → He + ? 83 2 242 12 1 Cm + C → 3 n + ? 96 6 0 223 226 1 Fr + ? → Ra + H 87 88 1 10.0 e -1 Name the nuclear particle indicated by the nuclear symbol shown above. __________ 5. 8. An isotope of bismuth. __________ 4. 82 175 www. __________ In questions 6 – 10.ck12. 6. 209 Bi. 0 β -1 Name the nuclear particle indicated by the nuclear symbol shown above. Multiple Choice 11. 4 α 2 Name the nuclear particle indicated by the nuclear symbol shown above. is bombarded with a proton.

None of these. 83 C. Which of the following particles completes this equation? www. 209 Bi. is bombarded with a proton.B. None of these.ck12. 14. proton D. alpha C. An isotope of bismuth. 211 E. Which of the following particles completes this equation? 241 Pu → 241 Am + ? A. What is the mass number of this isotope of element X? A. Which of the following particles completes this equation? 238 U +4 He → 241 Pu + ? A. None of these.org 176 . beta B. neutron E. neutron E. 210 D. proton D. 13. 208 B. 209 C. 15. beta B. alpha C. The produce of the ensuing reaction is an isotope of element X and two neutrons. None of these. 84 D. 85 E. 12.

232 Ac D. If 234 T h undergoes beta decay. which of the following will be the resultant particle? A. None of these. 234 U undergoes alpha decay and the resultant particle undergoes beta decay. 16. 234 P a D. 234 Ra B. it means that some of the atoms of the element emit radiation 177 www. 233 P a 18.ck12. 230 T h C. What is the final particle after both decays? A. 239 N p E.org . 210 P o if it undergoes two consecutive alpha 29. 236 N p B. beta B. proton D. 230 P a C.6 Lesson 29. None of these. Write the nuclear equations for the decay of decays followed by a beta decay. neutron E. 235 U E. What does it mean when an element is radioactive? A. alpha C.6 Radiation Around Us Radioactivity Worksheet CK12 Foundation Chemistry Name ________________________________ Date ______________ 1.10 B → 6 Li + ? A. 17.

Ar B. Which type of radiation is most similar to high-energy x-rays? A. the purpose of the moderator is to A. What do gamma rays account for? A. A. Within a nuclear reactor. All of the above are true. Stable systems have more potential energy than unstable systems. Xe D. Gamma rays are emitted along with alpha and beta radiation. beta C. it means that some of the atoms of the element are changing into atoms of different elements C. absorb neutrons in the reactor core B. slow down neutrons in the outer containment structure 5. False 3. Which of the following best describes the operation of a cyclotron? www. alpha B. Which of the noble gases is naturally radioactive and has no stable isotopes? A. lost energy D. it means that some of the atoms of the element are becoming more stable D. Rn 7. gamma 6. lost charge C. neutron D. True B. Kr C.B.org 178 . absorb neutrons in the outer containment structure C. 4. All of the above.ck12. lost mass B. 2. slow down neutrons in the reactor core D.

a neutron is produced 9. you could conclude that the radiation was mostly A. 11. All of the particles listed above could be accelerated in a linear accelerator. proton B. a charged particle is accelerated by changing charges in a series of pipes or tubes C. When a piece of paper was placed between the source and Geiger counter. x-ray E.A. An unknown type of radiation was giving a reading on a Geiger counter of 2000 counts per second. a helium-4 nucleus is lost D. beta C. Which of the following changes occurs in a nucleus when a positron is given off? A. D. radiation is always good for you D. Which of the following particles could not be accelerated in a linear accelerator? A. Based on this observation. the reading dropped to 50 counts per second. man is responsible for all radiation E.ck12. a charged particle is accelerated by alternating charges on adjacent Dees while being subjected to a magnetic field which causes the particle to move in a curved path. 8. neutron C. insufficient data 179 www. 10. an uncharged particle is accelerated by alternating charges on adjacent Dees. All of the above are false. a neutron is split into a proton and an electron E. exposure to radiation will always make you radioactive B.org . an uncharged particle is accelerated to great speeds by a fast moving current of air B. a proton is produced B. helium nucleus D. a neutron is lost C. alpha B. solar radiation is more dangerous than nuclear radiation C. electron E. Which of the following statements is false concerning nuclear radiation? A. gamma D.

The half-life of the isotope is 3. 8.0 days C.50 grams of the substance remaining? A.5 days B.0 days E. days D. 6. A 12. Ernest Rutherford C. Insufficient data to determine. 16 days C.0 days B. The two isotopes are equally common. A. 190 B.ck12. 194 C. 12 days 14. If the atomic mass of the element is 193. which of the two isotopes is most commonly found in nature? A. 16. 193. 3. 20.0 gram sample of the isotope half-life of this isotope? A. E. Henri Becquerel D. Albert Einstein B.org 131 I decays to 1. 20. Element X has only two isotopes. mass defect www. How many days will it take before there is only 2.0days.6. 1. Marie Curie E. 24 days E. Pierre Curie 13. 15. One of the isotopes has a mass number of 190 and the other has a mass number of 194. Define the following terms.6 days D.12. None of these. 9.0 grams of a radioactive element is prepared in a nuclear reactor. Nuclear radiation was discovered by A.5 grams in 24. What is the 180 .0 days D.0 days.

critical mass D. beta decay G.B.7 Applications of Nuclear Energy There are no worksheets for this lesson. ionizing power H. fusion F.org . 181 www. binding energy 29.7 Lesson 29. fission E.ck12. chain reaction C.

www.org 182 .ck12.

A Unique Element There are no worksheets for this lesson. ______________ 2.org .1 Lesson 30.2 Hydrocarbons Organic Nomenclature Worksheet CK-12 Foundation Chemistry Name______________________ Date_________ Name the following molecules. 30. 1.1 Carbon. ______________ 183 www.Chapter 30 Organic Chemistry Worksheets 30.2 Lesson 30.ck12.

______________ 4. ______________ 6.ck12.3. ______________ 7. ______________ 8. ______________ www.org 184 . ______________ 9. ______________ 5.

10. 30. 12.4 Functional Groups Have students continue with the Organic Nomenclature worksheet started in lesson 30. Methoxyethane 14.5 Biochemical Molecules There are no worksheets for this lesson.3 Aromatics There are no worksheets for this lesson. 30.ck12.3 Lesson 30.5 Lesson 30. 1. Image Sources 185 www. ______________ 11.org . 2-Dibromopropane 30. 1-Butyne 13. ______________ Draw the following molecules. Butanal 15.4 Lesson 30.2 .

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