A REPORT ON SUMMER TRAINING AT PGCIL

1

POWER GRID CORPORATION OF INDIA LIMITED (COMPANY PROFILE):Introduction: POWERGRID, a Govt. of India Enterprise, was established in 1989 under the Indian Companies Act 1956, with an initial authorized share capital of Rs. 50, 000 million. POWERGRID, the Central Transmission Utility (CTU) of the country, is one of the largest and best-managed transmission utilities in the world with its huge transmission network spread over the entire length and breadth of the country. POWERGRID consistently maintaining the availability of its transmission system above 99.50% level through deployment of latest Operation and Maintenance techniques at par with global standards. Mission:“Establishment and operation of Regional and National Power Grids to facilitate transfer of power within and across the Regions with reliability, security and economy, on sound commercial principles.” Objective:The Corporation has set following objectives in line with its Mission and its status as "Central Transmission Utility":  Undertake transmission of energy through Inter-State Transmission System.  Discharge all functions of planning and coordination relating to Inter-State Transmission System witho State Transmission Utilities; o Central Government; o State Government; o Generating Companies; o Regional Electricity Boards;
2

o Authority; o Licensees; o Transmission Licensees; o Any other person notified by the Central Government on this behalf.  Exercise supervision and control over the Inter-State Transmission System.  Efficient Operation and Maintenance of Transmission Systems.  Establish/augment and operate all Regional Load Dispatch Centers and Communication facilities.  To facilitate private sector participation on Transmission system through Independent Private Transmission Company, Joint Ventures.  To assist various SEBs and other utilities in up gradation of skills & sharing of expertise by organizing regular conferences, tailor-made training workshops directed towards specific technological and O&M areas and extending laboratory facilities for testing purposes etc.  Restoring power in quickest possible time in the event of any natural disasters like supercyclone, flood etc. through deployment of Emergency Restoration Systems. Developmental Stages: The phased development of POWERGRID at the time of its formation was foreseen as follows:  Phase-I: Transfer of Transmission facilities along with related manpower from Central / Centre–State Joint Venture Organizations.  Phase-II: Transfer of existing Regional Electricity Boards and Regional Load Dispatch Centers together with associated communication facilities.
3

 Phase-III: Establish Power Pool to facilitate exchange of power between States/Regions leading to formation of National Power Grid.

Establishment of Transmission System Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd. acquired its initial network of assets in 1992 and subsequently through the Power Transmission Systems Ordinance the Government of India acquired and transferred the power transmission infrastructure of four of India’s largest power generating companies to Powergrid. Thereafter, transmission assets from other central generating companies were also transferred to us and POWERGRID has subsequently expanded the transmission infrastructure further all over India. Transmission of electricity is defined as bulk transfer of power over a long distance at a high voltage, generally of 132 kV and above. In India, transmission lines have grown from 3,708 km in 1950 to more than 265,000 km now. There are 5 regional grids:  Northern Region: Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu And Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal and Uttar Pradesh  Eastern Region: Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa Sikkim and West Bengal.  Western Region: Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Chhattisgarh, Goa Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.

4

In FY 2007-08.000 circuit km of high voltage transmission lines and 116 sub-stations spread across the country.55000 crore towards investment in transmission projects during the Government of INDIA’s eleventh five year plan beginning April 1. 2007 and ending on March 31. 2012. as at September. Pondicherry and Tamil Nadu. Manipur. thereby adding transmission network of 7. it commissioned transmission projects worth about Rs.000 MW by 2012. 6000 crore.20 2008 66.377 99. POWER GRID: NETWORK CAPABILITIES Particulars Transmission network (ckt kms) Substations (number) 2005 50.461 104 59. POWERGRID has further plans to enhance the capacity to more than 37. Kerala.100 99. 2008.745 85 2006 55. Mizoram. Nagaland and Tripura POWERGRID’s network. POWERGRID has envisaged an investment program of Rs.120 93 54.52 Transformation Capacity (MVA) 49.  North-Eastern Region: Arunachal Pradesh.100 MW in FY 2007-08. comprises of over 69. 9 EHV AC sub-stations and transformation capacity of more than 13700MVA. Assam.442 System Availability 99.000 MW from 14.64 2007 59.417 99. Southern Region: Andhra Pradesh.74 5 . Karnataka.350 circuit kms.800 112 73. Meghalaya. The inter-regional power transfer capacity of National Grid has been enhanced to about 17.

is an efficient way to change voltages. Early commercial installations included one in the Soviet Union in 1951 between Moscow and Kashira. However. HVDC systems are less expensive and suffer lower electrical losses. For shorter distances. Power loss can also be reduced by reducing resistance.High Voltage Direct Current(HVDC) Introduction A high-voltage direct current (HVDC) electric power transmission system uses direct current for the bulk transmission of electrical power. power is also proportional to voltage. For long-distance distribution. higher voltage reduces the transmission power loss. The modern form of HVDC transmission uses technology developed extensively in the 1930s in Sweden at ASEA. Practical manipulation of DC voltages only became possible with the development of high power electronic devices such 6 . The transformer. but the power lost as heat in the wires is proportional to the square of the current. the higher the voltage. High voltages cannot be easily used in lighting and motors. Thus. so for a given power level. and so transmission-level voltage must be reduced to values compatible with end-use equipment. commonly achieved by increasing the diameter of the conductor. which only works with alternating current. the lower the power loss. High Voltage Transmission High voltage is used for transmission to reduce the energy lost in the resistance of the wires. Sweden in 1954. Power in a circuit is proportional to the current. the higher cost of DC conversion equipment compared to an AC system may be warranted where other benefits of direct current links are useful. higher voltage can be traded off for lower current. and a 10-20 MW system in Gotland. but larger conductors are heavier and more expensive. in contrast with the more common alternating current systems. For a given quantity of power transmitted.

losses are quoted as about 3% per 1. without increasing prospective short circuit current  Reducing line cost. high power capable MOSFETs (power metal–oxide–semiconductor fieldeffect transistors) and gate turn-off thyristors (GTOs) Advantages and Limitations of alternating current transmission The advantage of HVDC is the ability to transmit large amounts of power over long distances with lower capital costs and with lower losses than AC. In addition. AC power is lost to dielectric losses. HVDC needs fewer conductors as there is no need to support multiple phases.000 km. such as thyristors. 7 . Examples include: Undersea cables. in remote areas  Increasing the capacity of an existing power grid in situations where additional wires are difficult or expensive to install  Power transmission and stabilization between unsynchronised AC distribution systems  Connecting a remote generating plant to the distribution grid  Stabilizing a predominantly AC power-grid.  Endpoint-to-endpoint long-haul bulk power transmission without intermediate 'taps'. thinner conductors can be used since HVDC does not suffer from the skin effect  Facilitate power transmission between different countries that use AC at differing voltages and/or frequencies  Synchronize AC produced by renewable energy sources  Long undersea cables have a high capacitance. High-voltage direct current transmission allows efficient use of energy sources remote from load centers. insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). While this has minimal effect for DC transmission. Also. where high capacitance causes additional AC losses. for example. In a number of applications HVDC is more effective than AC transmission.as mercury arc valves and later semiconductor devices. Depending on voltage level and construction details. the current required to charge and discharge the capacitance of the cable causes additional I2R power losses when the cable is carrying AC.

but RMS is only about 71% of the peak voltage. The peak voltage of AC determines the actual insulation thickness and conductor spacing. as is expanding existing schemes to multiterminal systems. otherwise arcing and contact wear would be too great to allow reliable switching. In AC power. Because HVDC allows power transmission between unsynchronised AC distribution systems. Because DC operates at a constant maximum voltage without RMS. power flow must be actively regulated by the control system instead of by the inherent properties of the transmission line. Changes in load that would cause portions of an AC network to become unsynchronized and separate would not similarly affect a DC link. which may be used exclusively in one system as HVDC systems are less standardized than AC systems and the used technology changes fast. Multi-terminal lines are rare 8 . realizing multiterminal systems is complex. by preventing cascading failure from propagating from one part of a wider power transmission grid to another. This has caused many power system operators to contemplate wider use of HVDC technology for its stability benefits alone Disadvantages The disadvantages of HVDC are in conversion. The cost of the inverters may not be offset by reductions in line construction cost and lower line loss. switching and control. the root mean square (RMS) voltage measurement is considered the standard. it can help increase system stability. Further operating an HVDC scheme requires keeping many spare parts. In contrast to AC systems. The required static inverter are expensive and have limited overload capacity. and the power flow through the DC link would tend to stabilize the AC network. The magnitude and direction of power flow through a DC link can be directly commanded. Controlling power flow in a multiterminal DC system requires good communication between all the terminals. At smaller transmission distances the losses in the static inverters may be bigger than in an AC transmission line. because for a given power rating the constant voltage in a DC line is lower than the peak voltage in an AC line.HVDC can carry more power per conductor. this allows existing transmission line corridors with equally sized conductors and insulation to carry 29% more power into an area of high power consumption than AC. and changed as needed to support the AC networks at either end of the DC link. which can lower costs. High voltage DC circuit breakers are difficult to build because some mechanism must be included in the circuit breaker to force current to zero.

Costs of high voltage DC transmission Normally manufacturers such as AREVA. which were unreliable. Another system. The insulated-gate bipolar transistor(IGBT) is now also used and offers simpler control and reduced valve cost. Siemens and ABB do not state specific cost information of a particular project since this is a commercial matter between the manufacturer and the client. the low-voltage control electronics sends light pulses along optical fibres to the high-side control electronics. dispenses 9 . The low-voltage control circuits used to switch the thyristors on and off need to be isolated from the high voltages present on the transmission lines. The thyristor is a solid-state semiconductor device similar to the diode. In a hybrid control system. up to 800 kV in some cases. called direct light triggering. Because the voltages in HVDC systems. exceed the breakdown voltages of the semiconductor devices. This is usually done optically. land costs. A detailed evaluation of DC vs. but with an extra control terminal that is used to switch the device on at a particular instant during the AC cycle. AC cost may be required where there is no clear technical advantage to DC alone and only economics drives the selection. underwater route. overhead vs. circuit length. The thyristor valve was first used in HVDC systems in the 1960s. and AC network improvements required at either terminal. HVDC converters are built using large numbers of semiconductors in series. Rectifying and inverting Components Early static systems used mercury arc rectifiers. Costs vary widely depending on the specifics of the project such as power rating. Though 800kV systems are still to be realised in India.

An enhancement of this configuration uses 12 valves (often known as a twelve-pulse system). and harmonics are considerably reduced. At the AC end a set of transformers. and to ensure the correct eventual DC voltage. Rectifying and inverting system Rectification and inversion use essentially the same machinery. there is a phase change every 30 degrees. With twelve valves connecting each of the two sets of three phases to the two DC rails. various passive resistive and reactive components help filter harmonics out of the DC rails. establishing a thirty degree phase difference between the two sets of three phases. Many substations are set up in such a way that they can act as both rectifiers and inverters. the other a delta secondary. with a phase change only every sixty degrees. instead using light pulses from the control electronics to switch light-triggered thyristors (LTTs). often three physically separate single-phase transformers. One of the sets of supplies is then configured to have a star (wye) secondary. The AC is split into two separate three phase supplies before transformation. However. In addition to the conversion transformers and valve-sets. Although forced commutated converters have occasionally been proposed for very special applications such as tapping of an HVDC line. The basic configuration uses six valves. The output of these transformers is then connected to a bridge rectifier formed by a number of valves. to provide a local earth. the thyristor based converter is still the only economical and well proven solution for bulk power transmission. considerable harmonics remain on the DC rails. connecting each of the three phases to each of the two DC rails. The theory of the HVDC converter The considerations are restricted on the line commutated converter which so far has dominantly been used for HVDC systems.with the high-side electronics. The Three-pulse Commutation group 10 . isolate the station from the AC supply.

The leakage inductances of phases 1 and 3 will be the reactances which determine the current. as precise and virtually delay-free control elements. since it disappears when the circuit is expanded into the six pulse bridge. Thus for a short period of time. A symmetrical ac network with no impedance and with no impedance and with sinusoidal voltage UL is assumed. Although it does not 11 . the commutation process has ended and valve 3 is carrying the entire direct current. Curve of the direct voltage during commutation is along the average value of the voltages of valves 1 and 3. as is generally customary in converter theory. At this point. which only permit a current change of limited steepness. valve 1 extinguishes. Basic HVDC converter control concepts The converter valves. Assume that valve 1 carries the direct current and that at an arbitrary point in time (after the voltage intersection) valve 3 receives a control impulse. This is referred to as commutation overlap and its duration is defined as the overlap angle U. As soon as the short circuit current has achieved the amplitude of the direct current (the composite current is zero). This is due to leakage inductances of the converter transformer.Of the numerous converter configurations which have come into use for a wide variety of applications. The Commutation process In actuality. This is simply a phase to phase short circuit of the transformer. HVDC technology uses exclusively the three phase bridge circuit. The leakage inductances are considered lumped elements on the valve side of the transformer. In many respects this is optimal converter connection. are the most important actuators of the HVDC control system. commutation of direct current requires a certain amount of time. The short circuit current flows through valve 3 in the forward direction and through valve 1 counter to the forward direct current. Moreover. A current loop will be created with Uv as the driving voltage. a completely smooth direct current (Id) effected by a smoothing reactor with infinite inductance (ld) is also assumed. In addition. the releasing and the receiving phases are carrying current simultaneously. The star point loading is of no consequence. in most cases the converter groups have an additional actuator in the form of the transformer tap changer. The starpoint loading has been taken into account by means of delta connection on the primary side. The three-phase bridge consists of two three-pulse commutation groups connected in series.

it is advantageous to also use it for this purpose during normal operation.operate on a continuous basis and there are relatively long periods of idle time. with the exception of filter circuits. called monopole. It is occasionally advantageous to assign the current control function to the inverter. it nevertheless is responsible for important control function. If no metallic conductor is installed. one of the terminals of the rectifier is connected to earth ground. is connected to a transmission line. ground. or below. The issues surrounding earthreturn current include 12 . is determined by the direct current or an alternating current proportional to the direct current. Current control Current control mainly determines • Steady state transmission power • Changes in transmission power according to size and rate of change • The dynamic behavior of the system including temporary overload • Limitation of transient overcurrents determined by amplitude and duration The loading of all essential components of an HVDC system. Then it is always active and monitors itself. The earthed terminal may or may not be connected to the corresponding connection at the inverting station by means of a second conductor. since the current control of the rectifier is needed as a proactive function. Therefore it is a type of single wire earth return. Configurations Monopole and earth return In a common configuration. In HVDC two point systems. current flows in the earth between the earth electrodes at the two stations. at a potential high above. the rectifier generally assumes the task of the current control. Therefore current control is also a very essential protective function. However. The other terminal.

 When a fault develops in a line. transmission line cost is higher than a monopole with a return conductor.  Since for a given total power rating each conductor of a bipolar line carries only half the current of monopolar lines. there are a number of advantages to bipolar transmission which can make it the attractive option. Since these conductors must be insulated for the full voltage. so that some power may continue to be transmitted even if one line is damaged. Submarine cable installations initially commissioned as a monopole may be upgraded with additional cables and operated as a Bipole.  A bipolar system may also be installed with a metallic earth return conductor. 13 .  These effects can be eliminated with installation of a metallic return conductor between the two ends of the monopolar transmission line. as in the case of monopolar transmission with a metallic earth-return. the return conductor need not be insulated for the full transmission voltage which makes it less costly than the high-voltage conductor.200 MW at voltages of +/-600 kV. the second conductor may be carried on an independent set of transmission towers. the cost of the second conductor is reduced compared to a monopolar line of the same rating. operating in monopolar mode. with earth return electrodes installed at each end of the line.Electrochemical corrosion of long buried metal objects such as pipelines  Underwater earth-return electrodes in seawater may produce chlorine or otherwise affect water chemistry. in opposite polarity. Bipolar systems may carry as much as 3. Under normal load. which can affect magnetic navigational compasses for ships passing over an underwater cable.  In very adverse terrain. Since one terminal of the converters is connected to earth. BIPOLAR In bipolar transmission a pair of conductors is used. negligible earth-current flows. However.  An unbalanced current path may result in a net magnetic field. each at a high potential with respect to ground. This reduces earth return loss and environmental effects. approximately half the rated power can continue to flow using the earth as a return path.

generate toxic compounds such as oxides of nitrogen and ozone. HVDC systems make it possible to interconnect unsynchronized AC networks. in the former case in the form of oscillating particles. In particular. which may have an environmental impact on particulate condensation. (Particles of different polarities have a different mean-free path. the polarity of the ions emitted can be controlled. Electrons are torn from neutral air. The use of a positive voltage will reduce the ozone impacts of monopole HVDC power lines. in the latter a constant wind. an HVDC system may have about half the loss per unit length of a high voltage AC system carrying the same amount of power. Applications Overview The controllability of current-flow through HVDC rectifiers and inverters. while the charged particles drift.Corona Discharge Corona discharge is the creation of ions in a fluid (such as air) by the presence of a strong electric field. create audible and radio-frequency interference. Offshore windfarms also require undersea cables. Due to the space charge formed around the conductors. Both AC and DC transmission lines can generate coronas. This effect can cause considerable power loss. With monopolar transmission the choice of polarity of the energised conductor leads to a degree of control over the corona discharge. and bring forth arcing. However. and generate it further downwind of the power line. AC network interconnections AC transmission lines can only interconnect synchronized AC networks that oscillate at the same frequency and in phase. and their applications in efficient submarine cables mean that HVDC cables are often used at national boundaries for the exchange of power. and either the positive ions or else the electrons are attracted to the conductor. Many areas that wish to share power have unsynchronized networks. and their turbines are unsynchronized. their application in connecting unsynchronized networks. A generator connected to a long AC transmission line may become unstable and fall out of synchronization with a distant AC power system. and also add the possibility of controlling AC voltage and reactive power flow. creating the potential for health effects. An HVDC transmission link may make it 14 .) Negative coronas generate considerably more ozone than positive coronas.

Transmission Planning Criteria Introduction The objective of system planning is to evolve a power system with a level of performance characterised by an acceptable degree of adequacy and security based on a trade-off between costs and risks involved. but these are still inadequate to go in for a totally probabilistic approach. Above a certain break-even distance (about 50 km for submarine cables. Machinery to convert between AC and DC power adds a considerable cost in power transmission. Insofar as power transmission systems are concerned . there are no widely adopted uniform guidelines which determine the criteria for transmission planning vis-svis acceptable degree of adequacy and security. Even though the factors affecting system performance are probabilistic in nature. and perhaps 600–800 km for overhead cables). Wind farms located off-shore may use HVDC systems to collect power from multiple unsynchronized generators for transmission to the shore by an underwater cable. long operating experience and availability of reliable statistical data regarding performance of system components. are essential. control and communication facilities and resource constraints. For adopting probabilistic approach. The common theme in the various approaches is the “acceptable system performance”. outage duration. Hence it is considered prudent to adopt a deterministic approach for the present with a committed thrust towards progressive adoption of probabilistic approach. an HVDC power line will interconnect two AC regions of the powerdistribution grid. namely equipment failure rate.economically feasible to use remote generation sites. deterministic approach has been used most commonly. etc. the lower cost of the HVDC electrical conductors outweighs the cost of the electronics. The conversion from AC to DC is known as rectification and from DC to AC as inversion. Practices in this regard vary from country to country. voltage levels. Such data are presently being compiled by a few utilities. Planning Philosophy  The transmission system shall be planned on the basis of regional self-sufficiency with an ultimate objective of evolving a National Power Grid. The criteria generally depends on the factors such as availability of generation vis-à-vis demand. and configuration of the system. The regional self-sufficiency 15 . being rather easy to apply. In general. however.

 The adequacy of the transmission should be rested for different feasible load generation scenarios. Adoption of multi-voltage level and multi-circuit transmission lines. sensitivity of its complete closure with loads to be met(to the extent possible)from other generating stations is also studied. the plant mix consideration. down time (in case of upgradation and reconductoring options)  In case of generating station close to a major load centre.  The system shall be evolved based on detailed power system studies which shall include:1. diversity in weather pattern and load forecasting errors in either regions.) 2. 4. EMTP Studies to determine switching/temporary overvoltages . 5. Application of Series Capacitors in existing transmission line to increase power transfer capability. 3. energy losses. Short Circuit Studies 3. Stability Studies 4. 16 . Reconductoring of the existing AC transmission line with higher size conductors or with AAAC.criteria based on load generation balance may still dictate to have inter-regional exchanges with adequate inter-connection capacity at appropriate points taking into account the topology of the two networks.  The following options may be considered for strengthening of the transmission network:1. Upgradation of the existing AC transmission lines. the next transmission voltage should also be considered. The choice shall be based on cost. generation shortages due to forced outages. Such inter-regional power exchanges shall also be considered these studies. (Whenever three or more circuits of the same voltage class are envisaged between two sub-stations. Addition of new Transmission lines to avoid overloading of existing system. Power Flow Studies 2. reliability. right-of-way requirements.

two S/C lines in same corridor or different corridors. Further the angle between start-up power source and the NPP switchyard should be. The cause or reason for such removal may be a fault . maintained within 10 degrees. Double Contingency – The contingency arising out of removal of two system elements from service. in the present context. Whenever voltage on HV side of ICT is less than 0.  Reactive power flow through ICTs shall be minimal. be planned as asynchronous ties unless otherwise permitted from operational consideration. 17 . no reactive power shall flow through ICT. In case of transmission system associated with Nuclear Power Stations there shall be two independent sources of power supply for the purpose of providing start-up power facilities. 2. Contingency is the temporary removal of one or more system elements from service. for the purpose of charging. Single Contingency – The contingency arising out of removal of one system element from service. It includes a D/C line.  Thermal/Nuclear Generating units shall normally not run at leading power factor. planned maintenance/repair etc. Nuclear power stations shall generally be planned so as to terminate it at large load centres to facilitate islanding of the power station in case of contingency. Rare Contingency – Temporary removal of complete generating station or complete substation (including all the incoming & outgoing feeders and transformers ) from service.975 pu. However. a S/C line and a transformer etc.  Inter-regional links shall.  Where only two circuits are planned for evacuation of power from a generating station. generating unit may be allowed to operate at leading power factor as per the respective capability curve. 3. these should be two single lines instead of a double circuit line. as far as possible. HVDC bipole and stuck breaker condition.  The evacuation system for sensitive power stations viz.. 1. Normally it shall not exceed 10% of the rating of the ICTs.

Off-Peak Load relevant where Pumped Storage Plants are involved or inter-regional exchanges are envisaged. Reactive Power (MVAR) 18 . Load demands The profile of annual and daily demands will be determined from past data. whichever is less. the loads will be suitably adjusted substation wise to match with the availability. These data will usually give the demand at grid supply points and for the whole system identifying the annual and daily peak demand. Minimal load – It is the expected minimum system demand and is determined from average ration of annual peak load and minimum load observed in the system for the last 5 years. In case these peak load figures are more than the peaking availability. Active power The system peak demands shall be based on the latest reports of Electric Power Survey (EPS) Committee. Annual Peak Load – It is the simultaneous maximum demand of the system being studied. The load demands at other periods (seasonal variations and minimum loads)shall be derived based on the annual peak demand and past pattern of load variations.Load Generation Scenarios The load-generation scenarios shall be worked out so as to reflect in a pragmatic manner the daily and seasonal variations in the load demand and generation availability. 4. 2. Seasonal variation in Peak loads(corresponding to high thermal and high hydro generation) 3. From practical considerations the load variations over the year shall be considered as under:1. It is based on latest Electric Power Survey (EPS) or total peaking power availability.

In case of nuclear units the minimum level of output shall be taken as not less than 70% of the rated capacity. it shall be the responsibility of the respective utility to bring the load power factor to these limits by providing shunt capacitors at appropriate places in the system. Various norms are used for working out the peaking availability of different types of generating units. For developing an optimal power system.85 for peak load and light load conditions respectively. it is suggested that pending availability of such data. Recognising the fact that this data is presently not available. the utilities must clearly spell out the substationwise maximum and minimum demand in MWs and MVARs on seasonal basis.85 lag during peak load condition and 0. Generation Despatches Generation despatch of Hydro and Thermal/Nuclear units would be determined judiciously on the basis of hydrology as well as scheduled maintenance program of the generating stations.Reactive Power plays an important role in EHV transmission system planning and hence forecast of reactive power demand on an area-wise or substation-wise basis is as important as active power forecast. This forecast would obviously require adequate data on the reactive power demands at different substations as well as the projected plans for reactive power compensation.75 and 0. In areas where power factor is less than the limit specified above. • Annual Peak Load 19 .9 lag during light load condition expecting areas feeding predominantly agricultural loads where power factor can be taken as 0. Generation dispatches corresponding to the following operating conditions shall be considered depending on the nature and characteristics of the system. This will require compilation of past data in order to arrive at reasonably accurate load forecast. the load power factor at 120/132KV voltage levels shall be taken as 0.

Permissible Line Loading Limits • Permissible line loading limit depend on many factors such as voltage regulation. ownership pattern. in case of power station/complex where six or more units exist. for every six units one unit –second largest-is assumed to be under annual planned maintenance. Thermal capacity of a line refers to the amount of 20 . • Off peak conditions with maximum pumping load where Pumped Storage stations exist and also with the inter-regional exchanges. stability and thermal capacity etc. The generation dispatch for purpose of carrying out sensitivity studies corresponding to complete closure of generating station close to a major load centre shall be worked out by increasing generation at other stations to the extent possible keeping in view the maximum likely availability at these stations. • Special dispatches corresponding to high agricultural load with low power factor. wherever applicable. • Complete closure of a generating station close to a major load centre.• Maximum Thermal generation – It is the condition when hydro generation is low(not necessarily minimum)and thermal generation is kept maximum to meet seasonal peak loads(not necessarily annual peak load). • Annual Minimum Load • Special area dispatches – It is the condition when power output from all the generating stations located in an area (in close proximity) is kept at the maximum feasible level.In other words it is the condition when the gap between monthly peak demand and hydro power availability is maximum. Maximum Feasible level of a generating station is the maximum power output when all the units in a power station are in service. However. • Maximum Hydro generation – It is the condition when hydro power availability is maximum during the year. It is also known as High Hydro condition. if envisaged. assuming no planned or forced outages. shares etc.

current that can be carried by a line conductor without exceeding its design operating temperature. • Thermal loading limits are generally decided by design practice on the basis of ambient temperature. the SIL will get reduced by a factor k.line loading can also be shown (in terms of surge impedance loading of uncompensated line)as a function of line length assuming a voltage regulation of 5% and phase angular difference of 30 degrees between the two ends of the line. it is usual to load the short lines above SIL and long lines lower than SIL (because of the stability limitations). for some of the existing lines which have been designed for a conductor temperature of 65 deg Celsius the loading shall be correspondingly reduced. In the case of AAAC conductors. Designs of transmission line with ASCR conductors in EHV systems will normally be based on a conductor temperature limit of 75 deg Celsius. maximum conductor temperature limit will be taken as 85 deg Celsius. etc. Under these conditions the sending end and receiving end voltages and current are equal in magnitude but different in phase position. where k = sqrt (1-degree of compensation) For lines whose permissible line loading as determined from the curve is higher than the thermal loading limit. In case of shunt compensated lines. maximum permissible conductor temperature. While SIL gives a general idea of the loading capability of the line . However. permissible loading limit shall be restricted to thermal loading limit. Temporary Overvoltages 21 . In India. wind velocity. the ambient temperatures obtaining in the various parts of the country are different and vary considerably during the various seasons of the year. Surge Impedance Loading (SIL) means a unit power factor load over a resistance line such that series reactive loss (I^2*R) along the line is equal to shunt capacitive gain (V^2*Y).

peak phase to neutral (343 kV = 1 p.u.u.5 p.u. transformers and reactors etc.u.) 800 kV system 1.u. having wave fronts 250/2500 micro sec. switching on and off of the reactors shall not cause a voltage change exceeding 5%. single-phase-to-ground faults etc. peak phase to neutral (653 kV = 1 p. 63 & 80 at 420 kV 22 . The size of reactors should be such that under steady state condition. peak phase to neutral (653 kV = 1 p.) Switching Overvoltages These overvoltages generated during switching of lines.5 p. In the cases where network below 132/220 kV voltage level is not represented in the system planning studies.9 p.u.u.) Reactive Power Compensation  Shunt Capacitors Reactive Compensation should be provided as far as possible in the low voltage systems with a view to meeting the reactive power requirements of load close to the load points thereby avoiding the need for VAR transfer from the high voltage system to the low voltage system.These are power frequency overvoltages produced in a power system due to sudden load rejection. 420 kV system 1.  Shunt Reactors • Switchable reactors shall be provided at EHV substations for controlling voltages within the limits defined without resorting to switching-off of lines. 420 kV system 2. The standard sizes(MVAR) of reactors are:- 400 kV (3-ph units) 50.) 800 kV system 1. peak phase to neutral (343 kV = 1 p.u. the shunt capacitors required for meeting the reactive power requirements of load shall be provided at 132/220 kV buses.4 p.

63 & 110 at 800 kV • Fixed line reactors may be provided to control Temporary Power Frequency overvoltage [after all voltage regulation has taken place] within the limits defined . The 20% margin is intended to take care of the 23 . Keeping these in view the following criteria have been laid down for planning an EHV substation: • The maximum fault level on any new substation bus should not exceed 80% of the rated rupturing capacity of the circuit breaker.  Static VAR Compensation (SVC) Static VAR compensation shall be provided where found necessary to damp the power swings and provide the system stability under conditions defined. number of feeders permissible etc.765 kv (1-ph units) 50. its MVA capacity. are important to the planners so as to provide an idea to them about the time for going in for the adoption of next higher voltage level sub-station and also the number of substations required for meeting a particular quantum of load. • Line reactors (switchable/controlled/fixed) may be provided if it is not possible to charge EHV line without exceeding the voltage limits defined. Sub-Station Planning Criteria • The requirements in respect of EHV sub-stations in a system such as the total load to be catered by the sub-station of a particular voltage level. The dynamic range of static compensators shall not be utilised under steady state operating conditions as far as possible. under all probable operating conditions. The possibility of reducing precharging voltage of the charging end shall also be considered in the context of establishing the need for reactors.

• A stuck breaker condition shall not cause disruption of more than four feeders for 220 kV system and two feeders for 400 kV system and one feeder for 765 kV system. • The capacity of any single sub-station at different voltage levels shall not normally exceed :- 765 kV 400 kV 220 kV 132 kV ----- 2500 MVA 1000 MVA 320 MVA 150 MVA • Size and number of interconnecting transformers (ICTs) shall be planned in such a way that the outage of any single unit would not overload the remaining ICT(s) or the underlying system. The rated breaking current capability of switchgear at different voltage levels may be taken as:- 132 kV 220 kV 400 kV 765 kV ----- 25/31 kA 31.5/40 kA 40 kA 40 kA • Higher breaking current capability would require major design change in the terminal equipment and shall be avoided as far as possible. 24 .increase in short-circuit levels as the system grows.

Transmission Engineering Major Components of Transmission Lines • Conductor • Tower Design and foundation • Earth wire • Insulators • Hardware Fittings • Accessories CONDUCTORS 25 .

Type and Configuration of conductor influences:- • Tower and its geometry • Foundations • Optimum spans • Rating and configuration of Insulator string • Insulator Swings • Ground clearance • Line interferences like electric field at ground. audible noise etc. corona. CONDUCTOR SELECTION SCENARIO • SCENARIO A Selection of character for a transmission line of identified voltage level and specified minimum power flow but power flow capacity becomes ruling factor in selection of conductor size (low voltage lines).BUNDLE CONDUCTOR SELECTION AND OPTIMIZATION Size. radio & TV interference. 26 .

thermal ratings.Basic insulation design and insulator selection Tower configuration analysis . AN.• SCENARIO B Selection of conductor for a transmission line with identified voltage level and a specified minimum power flow but voltage level become ruling factor in selection of conductor/conductor bundle size (EHV/UHV lines).Capital line cost analysis and span optimization 27 .Tower weight and foundation analysis . • SCENARIO C Selection of conductor for high power capacity long distances transmission lines where selection of voltage level and conductor/conductor bundle size are to be done together to obtain most optimum solution (HVDC Bipole) CONDUCTOR BUNDLE SELECTION METHODOLOGY • Primary set of conductor bundle/sizes identified to start optimization • Parameters like insulation requirement. limits for corona. RIV. line losses and statutory clearances identified • Detailed analysis of various alternatives in respect of following to be carried out to select the configuration .

Line loss calculation ..Cost sensitivity analysis CONDUCTOR OPTMIZATION PROCEDURE PRIMARY SELECTION • Thermal rating of the conductor/conductors • Manufacturing facilities • Expense of other utilities • System voltage alternatives • Construction convenience • Line loss considerations • Terrain conditions and ground profile • Span length requirements • Right Of Way limitations CONDUCTOR SELECTION – DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 28 .Economic evaluations(PWRR) of alternatives .Comparison of interference performance .

and hardware as well as limit conditions for swing of conductor and insulator strings. conductor. 4) Allowable limits for: • Electric and magnetic fields • Radio and TV interference • Space charge density 5) Minimum ground clearance 6) Parameters for economic evaluation CONDUCTOR SELECTION FOR SPECIAL TRANSMISSION SYSTEM • UPRATING OF LINES .Sag of the selected conductor at maximum operating temperature should not exceed the sag of the original conductor .BASIC CONSIDERATIONS (NON VARIABLE) 1) Loading condition and reliability level for the transmission line. insulator. 2) Insulator co-ordination 3) Limit load condition for structure.No extra loadings on the structure at various design considerations • UPGRADING OF LINES 29 .

Should be within acceptable limits . EF.Conductor surface gradient within acceptable limits . TVI. AN.Asymmetric bundle • COMPACT LINES . MF etc.Considerations involved in upgrading/up rating CONDUCTOR BUNDLE SELECTION: ESTIMATION OF TOWER WEIGHTS AND FOUNDATION VOLUMES For each alternative of conductor and insulator configuration TOWER WEIGHT ESTIMATION • Preliminary tower design studies conducted • Estimation based on regression analysis and empirical formulae FOUNDATION VOLUME ESTIMATION • Preliminary foundation design studies conducted 30 ..Lowest possible sag and swing for required quantum of power .Line interference in respect of RIV.

CONUCTOR BUNDLE OTIMIZATION: TECHNO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 1) Capital cost of line Cost of each item. construction cost 2) Cost of line losses Annual loss cost = Annual demand cost + Annual energy Loss Cost 3) Results of economic evaluation(PWRR or Annual Cost basis) 4) Cost sensitivity Conductor Types: • ACSR • AAAC • ACAR • New Technology Conductors  Trapezoidal  ACSS  INVAR  Self Damping ALL ALUMINIUM ALLOY CONDUCTOR AAAC • Good Conductivity • High Tensile Strength 31 .

• Superior Corrosion resistance compared to ACSR • Improved strength to weight ratio resulting in lower sag • Lower electrical losses Aluminium Conductor Steel Supported (ACSS Conductor) • Similar to ACSR except Aluminium • Steel Core (High Strength) carries most of the load and hence less sag compared to conventional ACSR conductor under emergency loadings. Nickel having low thermal coefficient of expansion(1/3rd that of steel) • After certain transition temperature all load transferred to the core and hence lower sag compared to ACSR after transition temperature • Can be operated up to 2000C 32 . • Can be operated at 200 degree C without loss of strength • Improved Conductivity • Better self damping characteristics Compact Conductors • Aluminium wires/strands shaped trapezoidal • Increased Aluminium area and hence higher current carrying capacity INVAR Conductors • Core made of alloy of Iron.

DESIGN OF TOWERS SALIENT DESIGN CONDITIONS • The reliability of transmission line towers depends on the appropriate selection of design criteria/parameters. • Climatic conditions play an important role in determining the reliability of transmission line tower. EARTHWIRE Functions of Earth wire • To protect conductor against lighting flashovers • To provide a path for fault current Lighting Flashovers • Direct Flashover Occurs due to shielding failure with lighting on the conductor. • A significant number of transmission line failures can be the result of wind speed exceeding design limits due to deficiencies in selection of design parameters/criteria. flashover taking place across the insulator string from conductor to ground. • Back Flashover 33 .

chain link • For protection of insulator string from power follow current Arcing horn • For making electric field uniform and to limit the electric field at live end Corona control ring/Grading ring 34 . socket clevis. Maximum allowable fault current (I) through earthwire mainly depends upon • Area of Earth wire(A) • Maximum permissible temperature • Time of short circuit(t) I varies proportional to A and inversely proportional to sqrt (t) HARDWARE FITTINGS AND ACCESSORIES FOR CONDUCTOR & EARTHWIRE HARDWARE FITTINGS • For attachment of insulator string to tower D-shackles. Chain link • For attachment of insulator string to the conductor Suspension & tension assembly Fittings like D-Shackles.Occurs due to high towering resistance with a high voltage at the grounded tower cross arm compared to conductor. Yoke Plate. resulting in a flashover across the insulator string from ground to conductor. Ball clevis.

For power follow current • Yoke Plate To withstand mechanical loads-Thickness & shear edge maintained To maintain sub conductor spacing • Corona Control Ring/Grading Horn To cover at least one live and insulator disc To cover hardware fittings susceptible for Corona/RIV • Suspension Assembly .To minimize static & dynamic stress in conductor under various loading conditions .Design • Arcing Horn The air gap is maintained for satisfactory performance under actual field conditions.• For fine adjustment of conductor sag -Sag Adjustment plate.To have conductivity more than that of conductor 35 .Minimum level of corona/RIV performance . Turn Buckle HARDWARE FITTINGS.To withstand loads of atleast 95% of conductor UTS .For slipping of conductor under prescribed unbalanced conditions between adjacent conductor spans • Tension Assembly .Shaped to prevent hammering between clamp & conductor .

and the life-cycle cost of an underground power cable is two to four times the cost of an overhead power line Abstract cost estimate 1) Preliminary Survey & Soil Investigation 2) Land Acquisition for Substation and R & R Compensation 36 . Cost Engineering What is cost engineering? Cost Engineering is the science of cost finding by analysis of the processes and expenses of production. through process units rates. Overhead transmission Overhead conductors are not covered by insulation.• Sag Adjustment Plate/Turn Buckle . The conductor material is nearly always an aluminum alloy. in the exact ratio of utilization. made into several strands and possibly reinforced with steel strands. Underground transmission Undergrounding is more expensive. and charging of particularized expense factors. since the cost of burying cables at transmission voltages is several times greater than overhead power lines. and much lower in cost.To adjust sag upto 150mm in steps of 6mm. Copper was sometimes used for overhead transmission but aluminum is lower in weight for equivalent performance.

crops & PTCC • Compensation towards forest 4) Civil Works • Infrastructure for substation • Non Residential Buildings • Colony for transmission lines and substation 5) Equipment (Supply & Erection Cost) • Transmission Lines • Sub Stations 6) Misc. Tools & Plants 7) Maintenance during construction 8) Engineering & administration 9) Losses on stock 10) Contingencies 11) Custom Duty 12) Interest During Construction (IDC) Substation Equipments 1) GIS Substation Equipment.3) Cost of compensation for transmission lines • Compensation towards trees. 2) Circuit Breakers 3) Isolators 37 .

testing and filling apparatus would be provided at new substations. A telephone exchange of 24 lines shall be provided at new substation as a means of effective communication between various buildings of the substation. filtering. These shall be fitted with pressure relief devices and diverting ports suitable for shattering of porcelain housing providing path for the flow of rated currents in the event of arresters failure. shunt reactors and for periodical maintenance necessary oil evacuating. transformers so as to achieve proper insulation coordination.4) Current Transformers 5) Capacitor Voltage Transformers / Voltage Transformers 6) Surge Arresters: They should be provided near line entrances. 3) Oil evacuating. & filling apparatus: To monitor the quality of oil for the satisfactory performance of transformers. Substation Support facilities 1) AC & DC Power supplies 2) Fire Fighting System: Fire fighting system in general conforms to fire insurance regulations of India. Automatic heat actuated emulsifying system is proposed for transformers and reactors. The fire fighting system is proposed with both AC motor & diesel engine driven pumps. testing. 4) Lighting & Communication: Adequate normal and emergency AC & DC lighting shall be provided in the control room of the substation. filtering. 5) Control Room Line Accessories 1) Mid Span compression joint for conductor / earthwire 38 .

electricity must often come from distant sources. The web of interconnections between power producers and consumers ensures that power can flow. 5) Spacer Dampers Some Cost Reduction Techniques By allowing multiple generating plants to be interconnected over a wide area. The capital cost of electric power stations is so high.e. hydro. 4) Vibration Dampers for conductor / earthwire: Stockbridge vibration dampers shall be used to reduce the maximum dynamic train caused be Aeolian vibrations to a value of 150 micro-strain. ocean/tidal. that it is often cheaper to import some portion of the needed power than to generate it locally. The most efficient available plants could be used to supply the varying loads during the day. electricity production cost was reduced. i. wide area transmission grids now span across countries and even large portions of continents. are not considered "base load" but can 39 . coal. and is generally served best by large facilities (and therefore efficient due to economies of scale) with low variable costs for fuel and operations.2) Repair sleeve for conductor 3) Flexible copper bond for earthwire: Flexible copper bonds shall be used for good electrical continuity between the earthwire and the tower. Remote and low-cost sources of energy. nuclear. Because nearby loads are often correlated. Because of the economics of load balancing. Two bonds per suspension tower and four bonds per tension tower shall be used. Reliability was improved and capital investment cost was reduced. wind. could be exploited to lower energy production cost. The unvarying (or slowly varying over many hours) portion of the electric demand is known as the "base load". and electric demand is so variable. even if a few links are inoperative. since stand-by generating capacity could be shared over many more customers and a wider geographic area. such as hydroelectric power or mine-mouth coal. etc. Renewable sources such as solar.

at high AC voltages. between phases and the soil or water in which the cable is buried. High voltage direct current (HVDC) is used to transmit large amounts of power over long distances or for interconnections between asynchronous grids. Costs can be prohibitive for transmission lines. the capacitance between phases or. Hydro and wind sources can't be moved closer to populous cities. preliminary route selection is done by POWERGRID based on such documents as Forest Atlas and the survey of India maps using “bee” line method. such as combined cycle or combustion turbine plants fueled by natural gas are then added as needed. When electrical energy is required to be transmitted over very long distances. Smaller and higher cost sources. in the case of buried cables. but various proposals for massive infrastructure investment in high capacity. followed by field verification through walk over survey. For a long transmission line. All possible steps are taken to avoid the route alignment through the forests. In case where it becomes unavoidable due the geography of 40 . Long distance transmission allows remote renewable energy resources to be used to displace fossil fuel consumption. the lower losses and reduced construction cost of a DC line can offset the additional cost of converter stations at each end. Environmental and Social Aspects Forest Involvement / Clearance As per the practice. significant (although economically acceptable) amounts of energy are lost due to corona discharge.still add power to the grid. Also. and solar costs are lowest in remote areas where local power needs are minimal. it is more economical to transmit using direct current instead of alternating current. Connection costs alone can determine whether any particular renewable alternative is economically sensible. very long distance super grid transmission networks could be recovered with modest usage fees.

utmost care is taken to avoid acquisition of land belonging to tribal community. the alignment is made in such a way that the route through forests is barest minimum. etc • It does not pass through any sanctuaries. etc. POWERGRID has developed an indigenous people (Tribal) Development Plan (IPDP) 41 . For the selection of optimum route. POWERGRID try to locate the substation on government land as far as possible and in the absence of govt. • Any monument of cultural or historical importance is not generally affected. school.the terrain. land private land is acquired. land below transmission line is not required to be acquired and only land for substation is acquired. • It does not infringe with the areas of natural resources. Even for this 20 to 30 hectare land. other establishments. POWERGRID is following the practice of land management to minimize the land requirement to the barest minimum. In order to insure the indigenous (Tribal) people do not suffer adverse affects. following points are to be taken into consideration: • The route of the proposed transmission line does not involve any human rehabilitation. • It does not affect any public utility services like playground . Generally 20 to 30 hectares of land is required for constructing a substation depending upon the type of the voltage level. Social Issues / R&R measures As per the prevailing law. In spite of that. • The route does not create any threat to the survival of the community. national park.

Regulatory Risk BPTAs have the provision that the transmission tariff for new / existing transmission assets commissioned as well as the additional tariff payable due to additional capitalization from year to year. as per notification would also be payable.97 in accordance with norms to be specified by the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) as amended from time to time. 42 . etc. Risk Analysis Revenue Risk The capital cost of the transmission system comprises of i) An equity component ii) A loan component This is recovered through the annual transmission charges consisting of return required for the equity. FERV and incentives. the O & M charges and interest on working capital from the beneficiaries as per Notification in proportion to the benefits derived by them. etc.which ensure that they receive culturally compatible social and economic benefits for any adverse affects. an interest for the loan component together with the depreciation charges. These are recovered in monthly fixed charges from the beneficiaries.12. In addition to annual charges Income Tax. The Bulk Power Transmission Agreement (BPTA) which cover the payments for transmission charges for all the existing projects as well as those that may be included in future after approval by CEA already exists. shall be computed by POWERGRID based on norms / methodology followed in the GOI notification dated 16.

if it is low. to charge the consumer based on KVA rather than KW. and c depends on the units produced and therefore on the fuel charges and the wages of the station staff. SVC (Static Var Compensator) or voltage regulating equipment to maintain the voltages within allowed limits and thus the total cost increases. a pf penalty clause may be imposed on the consumer. it takes more current for the same kWs and hence T and D(Transmission and Distribution) losses are correspondingly increased. where a is a fixed charge for the utility.Tariffs The cost of electric power is normally given by the expression ( a + b*kW + c*kWh) per annum. the consumer may be asked to use the shunt capacitors for improving the power factor of his installations. 43 . Tariff structure may be such as to influence the load curve and to improve the load factor. Tariff should consider the pf (power factor) of the load of the consumer. The power has to install either pf correcting (improvement) devices such as synchronous condensors. 2. b depends on the maximum demand of the system and hence on the interest and depreciation on the installed power station. independent of the power output. 3. One of the following alternatives may be used to avoid the low pf : 1.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful