You are on page 1of 75
Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries 2009 American University of Kuwait College of
Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries
2009
American University of Kuwait
College
of Business Administration
The Challenges for Quality of Higher Education in Kuwait
The Challenges for Quality of Higher
Education in Kuwait
Aisha Al-Omran and Hanas A. Cader American University of Kuwait P.O. Box 3323, Safat 13034, Kuwait.
Aisha Al-Omran and Hanas A. Cader
American University of Kuwait
P.O. Box 3323, Safat 13034, Kuwait.
August 2009

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

General Framework of Research
General Framework of Research

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Introduction

During the last years of the recent century, a growing interest in education in general, and specifically in higher education, had been noted, where community awareness of the importance of higher education significantly increased. This community interest has been coinciding with countries interest of this corner-stone foundation of development and progress in all contemporary civil societies.

Higher education is no longer such a complementary component that owned only by those having influence and high social standards, but now everyone cares about it as fundamental element to all people to ensure high economic future of society because of it impacts the income level of individuals, and thus on the economies of the state, resulting in the provision of more job opportunities for the community, which would be beneficial for the state to increase the opportunities of optimal use of society members.

Challenge 1: Globalization

Higher education strategy under the umbrella of globalization had absorbed the academia tiers over the past years when the preparation for national higher education strategies in both developed and developing countries began to improve the universities’ performance to meet globalization challenges. Therefore, this strategy shall be reformulated to come in the context of this vision and response, or alignment with this challenge. Thus, the general features and pillars of this strategy have taken into account the global landscape of higher education.

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

1- Globalization Concept: the concept of globalization becomes the most traded issue at the end of 20 th century and the beginning of the 12 th century. It has been used in the economic, political, cultural and educational fields. “Globalization” is used to denote that you become “Global”, which also demonstrates the growing development of merger and integration of systems and relationships beyond the geographical and affiliation limits of state and nation. These systems are rather political, cultural and technological than mere economic relations, which indicate that the world is modeled quickly into a common social space by economic and technological forces, and that these developments in a particular region of the world will have consequences on the life chances of individuals and communities on the other side of the globe.

The dialectic of globalization thesis rests on two pivots: the internal transformation (National - Local) and multinational shift. The former depends of economic and national policies, while the second dimension based on economic policies of many countries. Therefore, the essence of globalization is limited to national economies and governments, but it has been included in a new way of thinking on economic and social spaces and time, and is linked to political and cultural influence. The term “Globalization” is sometimes used interchangeably with “Internationalization”, nevertheless the definitions and differences between both terms are not clear. Some people consider globalization as a catalyst, while internationalization is the response. Internationalization is a range of behaviors influenced by the globalization process.

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Thus, globalization is not a single and simple phenomenon, but it is a global system concentrated in multi-faceted phenomenon, politically, economically, socially, culturally and technologically. Hence, globalization does not recognize borders or geography, and it allows free movement of goods, money and information across borders without barriers, and based on communication, knowledge and technology. It has been supported by international organizations such as World Trade Organization “WTO”, the International Monetary Fund “IMF”, and the World Bank “WB”.

2- Globalization and Higher Education: globalization exerts pressure on higher education that making the reformation process is necessary. The universality of academic curriculums becomes a constituent of the advancement required for our study planning and program development. Programs of world universities, especially in the field of Business Administration, are advancing rapidly. With the increase of global knowledge and effective communication methods, it has been easy for the countries that were isolated by the difficulty of communication and lack of knowledge to access information, communication and doing business electronically.

With the development of communication technology, we have a set of tools for use in education, no longer we need to rely exclusively on moving students and teachers around the world. We can take advantage of modern technological means of communication to increase cooperation between countries. The participation of students in many countries of the world becomes possible to study together in one class without leaving their homes. There are investment institutions aiming

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

to sell information, and accordingly education is globalized with a view of shaping the world.

Globalization in higher education led to a meeting point and an internal transformation, particularly in the global knowledge system and the concentration of ideas and resources. With the advancement of information technology “IT”, the forces of globalization have changed the concept of time and space, and the universities became managed through orbits or across spatiotemporal boundaries. As said earlier in this article, internationalization to some extent is a response to the impact of globalization. Internationalization recognizes national borders, identities of communities, and cultures, and calls for international cooperation.

In higher education, the understanding of internationalization is that the process of integration of international dimension in higher education, research and services. Agglomerations in higher education have led to change in the relationship between higher education on the one hand, society and the economy on the other hand, when knowledge has become a main fountain in the advanced economies; the so-called floating economy on the knowledge base. There are currently more than (8000) universities, (7000) Institute of higher education having mutual recognition, and more than (82) million students, which number is expected to become (100) million students in 2025.

In the light of technological developments, the traditional universities are no longer the sole source of higher education, and new universities appear to meet the values and needs for students and their more efficiently teaching in the programs and topics that related to the needs of labor market,

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

particularly after governments have left labor freedom to market factor. As a result of reduction of government spending on education, education shifts from being a public commodity, i.e. a public service, to a service governed by the market forces of supply and demand, and the future and status of universities become vulnerable and unsecured. Thus, the idea of alliances between universities in order to withstand the financial challenges and to survive began. They have opted mergers and alliances between new and existing universities rather to increase their competitiveness than to compete against each other, and so cross-border alliances appeared.

There are more than (172) blocs of international universities, where global cooperation between universities is no longer an option, but a necessity for development in the global market. Examples of such alliances are the alliance of Beijing University and Seoul National University and the University of Tokyo. There are academic pools that providing e-education; there are (16) universities on the internet worldwide offering master's program in business administration “ABM” directed to China and Southeast Asia markets. Globalization can produce benefit to the developing countries of higher education outputs. For instance, in countries like Egypt and Jordan, there is a large number of university graduates, but there are no jobs for them in the labor market. Thus, the limited labor market and failure to communicate the world trade channels have led to economic stagnation and isolation in the region. Treatment lies in the establishment of future disciplines that meet the needs of local market and fit with the needs of the global market.

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

The synthesis between globalization and higher education will enhance the chances for a better life. India, for example, has benefited from globalization by building software engineering industry, software engineers training, and setting up service industries, companies, and projects that providing jobs for about (800,000) persons in the world technology industry. This is the input of more than (100) university, where incorporations like IBM, Intel, Microsoft, and Oracle have development centers and links with local manufacturers to benefit from their graduates.

Unfortunately, the education outputs in many developing countries are not appropriate for the international labor market, and national economic and social needs. Globalization has reflections on higher education and focus on international competition. Economic globalization drives higher education institutions towards new directions, such as business in terms of improving efficiency and productivity. The structural changes in the global economy call for restructuring and reforming higher education strategies.

3- General Agreement on Trade in Services “GATS”: in the light of economy and capital market internationalization and the expansion of international trade, the movement of goods and services liberalization agreements have extended to the higher education sector through the GATS, which has been managed by WTO. The 3 rd millennium has witnessed a significant built-in to the globalization of higher education embodied in the transition of academic programs and educational institutions across the borders.

For the decline of governmental role in the development of higher education strategies and not considering higher

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

education as a public commodity, an opposition of GATS has emerged. Four main categories of trade in education cross- borders through GATS can be defined, namely; (1) presentation of services across borders: provision of service cross borders without need to move the consumer (student), such as distance education, e-learning via internet, and virtual universities, which adopt information technology and communications; (2) consumption of services across borders:

student moves to the country that providing service to complete study, it is most common at this time; (3) commercial presence: transfer of educational institution that is producing the service or one of its subsidiaries to provide higher education services directly across borders, either by establishment of local branch of the university or by obtaining an agency from local producer to market educational services to foreign universities; and (4) movement of individuals:

university professor moves to another country to provide services across borders, which type is prevalent in both industrial and developing countries.

4- Globalization challenges to Higher Education (Al- Ateeqi, 2009).

  • 1. Globalization has led to the presence of foreign world universities in the developing countries, which exacerbate competition against, and beat, national universities.

  • 2. Governments role in supporting public universities has been reduced, and their ability to increase tuition fees disabled for economic, political, and social reasons.

  • 3. Types

of

higher

education

vary,

and

new

kinds

of

universities,

such

as

open

universities,

distance

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

education, and virtual universities which cost less than traditional universities, have emerged.

  • 4. Imbalance between scientific disciplines and fields of fundamental and humanities may happen.

  • 5. Private sector invests in higher education, and engages in higher education as a competitor of the public sector on commercial profitable basis.

  • 6. Quality of the education provided by private and foreign universities is not secured.

  • 7. The governmental role in formulation of strategies and setting up targets to maintain the national identity has been absent and reduced.

Challenge 2: Scientific and Technological Development, and Lack of Resources

Development in the Arab world takes place in an era where the achievements of science, scientific researches, and their technological applications accelerate, the barriers between local, national, and global markets melt, and innovations and developments in the international competition fields based on accuracy and ready access of information are reflected.

Education system separated from the application becomes unsuitable for graduation of cadres that fit for the current era.

Keeping the competitive niche requires that the outputs of education shall have high level of competence and skill, which needs to exert more effort to anchor educational institutions and scientific research to the industrial, productive, and service sectors.

 

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

In this research, I shed light on the general, polytechnic, university, graduate studies, and scientific research in Arab countries.

The challenges facing these institutions are highlighted, and a vision for overcoming those challenges developed.

The linking of industrial, productive, and service sectors to research bodies is considered, and obstacles that impede the activation of this interdependence and how to overcome those obstacles, will be identified

Finally,

some

recommendations

assisting

in

the

development of

education

and

scientific

research

systems in order to keep

up

with

science

and

technology era are displayed.

Noteworthy, the most important function of university is to conduct and develop scientific and technological research, prepare scientists and researchers, revolutionize specialized scientific knowledge, contribute in solving the scientific, technical, and technological problems of industrial, production, and service institutions, and activate scientific openness to the external world in order to meet the current challenges.

University

is

interested

in

the

development

of

community

to

face

common

problems

and

get

immunized

g

it

against

the

negative

aspects

of

globalization.

University units are established to communicate the industrial, productive, and service sectors, and search

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

for

the

right

partner

to

finance

technological research.

scientific

and

Study and scientific leave system is adopted and stimulated for training, transfer of developed ideas and expertise from the outside.

A

plan

to

attract

migrants

to

return

and

work at

homeland by providing appropriate remunerations and stable life is developed.

Banks and other financial institutions are encouraged to lend and finance scientists and research non-profitably.

Scientists are encouraged to attend international scientific conferences by financing their travel costs.

Plans, strategies, and legislations are developed for tying industrial, productive, and service sectors on the one hand with the research institutions, on the other.

Executives of research institutions are interested to implement the respective programs and allocate a great deal of research being carried out to address the problems faced by industrial, production, and service societies.

Database for scientific publication, research findings, marketing and advertising new technologies, classification of research centers and national competencies, and tabulation of statistics and annual reports that can be operated to convince the decision makers, is developed.

 

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Focus is made on taking advantage of the experiences of research institutions, national consultant, engineering, and legal companies and establishments.

Seminars are held, consultations delivered, training courses implemented, and exhibitions participated.

The competent governmental authorities are interested in science and technology sector by development of national plans, regulations, rules, and identifying of problems.

Synergies between industrial, production, and service sectors, on the one hand, and research institutions, on the other hand, are exploited promote the level of educational programs and output of polytechnic and technological universities, institutes, and colleges.

Programs and plans required for continuous training and learning are developed to uplift the graduates’ level.

Arab website is established. Challenge 3: Increasing Unemployment Rates

"The possible measurement of development achievements for various countries through human development index delivered by United Nation Development Program “UNDP”, based on the value of this high human development, is internationally agreed. Index classifies countries into three grades: less human development." (Bassiouni, 2001). In the framework of this international classification, I would note also that the State of Kuwait has proven developmental performance record in various economic and social fields. This distinctive developmental performance was reflected in the

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

first ranking of Kuwait among Arab countries with high human development in accordance with the human development index for 2005.

Despite these outstanding development achievements, debate is still wide on a number of development issues, which has been revolving around the possible increase of the private sector role in Kuwait economy, and how to correct the imbalances of labor market. “The increased role of private sector in Kuwait economy is one of the strategic objectives, and the correction of imbalances of Kuwait labor market, without conflict, will be considered one of the means to achieve this strategic objective”, according to official statements of the State senior leadership. The most important characteristics of Kuwait labor market, which are usually used to reflect the imbalances, can be summarized as follows:

  • 1. Fragmentation of labor market between public sector market that employing citizens, and private sector market that hiring expatriates,

  • 2. The disparity in wages and benefits, so that wages and benefits package for Kuwaitis in the public sector is superior to its counterpart in the private sector,

  • 3. Low unemployment rates in the economy as a whole and among Kuwaiti labor in particular, and

  • 4. The upward tendency of unemployment rates among Kuwaiti labor since 2000. Under the strategic objective to increase the role of private sector in economy, the State issued in 2000 the national labor law in non-governmental organizations, which includes a number of actions that attempt to address some imbalances in the labor market;

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

the expansion of insurance nets: granting unemployment allowance for job seekers, such as social insurance, which includes retirement and social allowances to cover workers in the sector; increased employment rates for nationals in the sub-sectors of the private sector; and depriving the companies that hiring expatriates and not comply with the imposed rates from participation in government tenders. Official documents issued by the Ministry of Planning, prior to restructuring, "Indicate that the rising tendency of the unemployment rate among Kuwaiti was a result of granting unemployment allowance to Kuwaitis of job seekers, especially with regard to women engagement as job seekers since the issuance of law." (Al-Enezi, 2009).

Under rising unemployment rate among Kuwaitis, perhaps it is not surprising that unemployment is one of the development emerging issues that attracted the attention of decision makers because the State of Kuwait was characterized by low rates of unemployment among its citizens. This interest may be translated into a number of questions; is there a significant unemployment problem? What is the future of Kuwait labor market over the long term? What is the view on the low rates of unemployment? The series of meetings of experts tries to answer these questions and others by forward-looking manner.

Challenge 4: Privatization

The mechanism of privatization may be a strategic option in these years to upgrade higher education institutions and

ensure

the

quality

of

outputs.

Although

the

idea

of

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

privatization is based on the profit principle, however its introduction in the field of higher education must combine the private interest of profit and the public interest of achieving the educational and development goals for society.

There are many formulas and forms of privatization of higher education institutions spread to many countries of the world, particularly in countries with a capitalist and liberal economy, among these formulas and forms are the following:

  • - Private colleges and universities run on commercial basis; i.e. their aim is profit, and some are in the form of joint stock companies whose shares exchanges.

are

traded

in

stock

  • - Universities and colleges with reduced tuition fees; this kind is public property, but depends in large part of its funding on annual earnings from students’ tuition fees.

  • - "Nonprofit private universities and colleges established and funded by private organization, such as charity associations and institutions. This type of universities and colleges receive nominal fees from students, while the rest of funding comes from investments by such institutions or from contributions invested for the benefit of these institutions. The realized profits of these institutions are reinvested or used to develop them." (Jad Al Rab, 2005).

  • - Governmental universities and colleges receiving a significant portion of their income from private sources; this pattern is deemed public domain, but they get essential part of their income through their commercial activities, such as consultant or research works rendered

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

to the public and private sectors, or leasing some facilities and benefits to the private sector.

  • - "Governmental or nonprofit universities and colleges seeking to implement some principles and policies of market economy on their interior services sector through competitive contracting with private companies or institutions to diversify their sources of income between the poor and rich." (Mustafa, 2006).

The poor and those of low income may be suspicious of the privatization of higher education institutions, which –in their sole discretion- will be a direct cause of discrimination between them and the sons of the rich and wealthy people in the opportunity of education in general, and the quality education, in particular. Public opinion is divided in many societies into two directions:

  • - A direction sees negative effect: the supporters of this trend confirm that the privatization of higher education institutions will lead to sacrificing the principle of equal educational opportunities and the idea of social justice in education among all strata of society, and that society will have to pay a high price in the long run in the form of increasing social class gaps.

  • - A direction sees no negative effect: the fans of this trend confirm that the privatization of higher education will not affect the sons of poor class, but private universities will contribute to easing the burden on the public universities by absorbing large numbers of those classes who can financially study in the new disciplines that may not available in public universities, and therefore allow large numbers of poor people to study in the public universities.

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Between Opponents and Supporters

Privatization in the

field

of

higher

education

among

educational community is still controversial between supporters and opponents. The following are key arguments of supporters and opponents on this issue:

Supporters’

Argument

of

Education Institutions:

Privatization

of Higher

  • - Poor economic efficiency and productivity of public sector institutions compared to private sector organizations. Supporters attribute this problem to many reasons; the most important cause is that public institutions are subject to political and social pressures forcing them to adopt policies and practices that negatively affect their productivity.

  • - Privatization manages the enterprises and institutions on economic grounds. This reflects positively on the optimum use of resources, and improves quality.

  • - Increased scope of popular participation to maximize the interest of individuals, companies, and private organizations to invest in education, making policies, supervising its implementation, and control it.

  • - Increased sensitivity of higher education institutions to

the

student needs, and better response

to

the labor

market.

  • - Serious academic achievement and search for excellent success as a result of bearing the burden of study by the student.

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

  • - The existence of higher education institutions in particular realizes improvement in the performance of governmental universities and colleges as a result of pressure relief.

  • - Increased efficiency of interior and exterior institutions of higher education.

  • - Limited migration of students to study abroad at their own expense.

  • - Solving the problem of acceptance of non-citizens in some countries where high percentage of them exists.

  • - Ensuring the contribution of wealthy families in paying tuition, as they benefited most from free higher education, and this will achieve a kind of justice.

Opponents’

Argument

of

Education Institutions:

Privatization

of Higher

  • - The belief that private higher education is better than the governmental higher education is mere exaggeration. In Japan, Philippines, and Brazil, for instance, there is private higher education, but the quality of education in public universities in these countries is the best.

  • - In many countries, the unemployment rate of graduates of private universities is higher than the rate among graduates of public universities.

  • - The research

and developmental level of private

universities and colleges is reduced for concentration on earning and professional success and limiting their role to

give students extra individual benefits, but the social return is lower.

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

  • - Social and economic inequality in society is deepened.

  • - Incomplete market conditions to trade in education; one of the characteristics of human capital (as in education) is that it could not be resold by the investor in case of loss and debt repayment, unlike the case of material investment, where the investor can resell the machines, for example, to settle obligations in the event of project loss.

What is the Proper Planning?

When a decision to privatize higher education institutions is taken in any of aforesaid formulas, it is necessary to ask a question about how to ensure consistent educational plans for private universities with the national and social tendency towards education. There are indeed two types of development planning by governments, namely:

  • - Obligatory planning; which is implemented through the orders of State agents.

  • - Indicative planning, which suits the direction of privatization, and allows the State whereby to intervene, directly or indirectly, in the economic, financial, and educational life through the planning of economic, financial, and educational policies in such manner that affects the incentives of individuals and their positions, and pushes the national economy towards the goals that conform to the requirements of development, without direct intervention in the executive field work. The introduction of indicative planning requires the following:

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

  • - The space in which market mechanisms operate is widening, and the area in which bureaucratic resolution operates is shrunk.

  • - Under no circumstances, this means the absence of State from the scene, but it has meant a change in the content of government intervention and not in the principle of intervention. The State under the indicative planning does not itself produce goods and services, including education, unless there are clear and unequivocal causes so require.

  • - The criteria

under which the level of performance is

judged will be reconsidered as central planning judges the level of performance by purely material standards, while the standard of performance in the indicative planning is macro-educational accomplishment (Magnified level of education) and its different indicators in terms of structural changes in the structure of the system and philosophy of education, and the resulted obvious changes in the patterns of students’ behavior and thinking.

Abstract

The previous handling of privatization in the higher education field may draw attention to the importance of following directions:

  • - It is necessary to apply the principle of private investment in higher education institutions as a strategic option to develop the level of technical and administrative performance.

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

  • - It is important to give the owners of private universities a space of freedom to chart their own educational plans and build appropriate curricula, provided that they shall abide by the basic premise that lights the formal education system.

  • - Certain

degree of rights

for

the society members

at

different social and economic levels to

join

higher

education institutions according to criterion of efficiency and merit is ensured, taking into account their preferences and desires.

  • - It is important to know the motives and basis behind the investment of private sector in higher education before being allowed to do so.

  • - The application of privatization input to higher education institutions is widened on the compatible types, provided that human is considered a value, not only as a consumer.

Given the role of higher education, scientific research, and its great economic importance, there are many shortcomings in coordination among concerned bodies, conflicting jurisdictions, and lack of communication lines among them so as to benefit from the economic revenues and returns of higher education, and to direct the strategies of coming period optimally, then to develop the appropriate legislation, which will help in bringing higher education to the competitive edge, particularly we open on the world, and the universe becomes now a small village. Therefore, the problems relating to higher education should be addressed, and the control role on the people entering this field for civil associations and private sector shall be strengthened in order to ensure quality

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

of higher education, and thus ensure its outputs of educated intellectual graduate that can be of benefit to his country.

Defining the Problem

Definition of problem is represented by a number of aspects, such as conflict of jurisdictions as stated in the problem, the lack of vision, and then absence of clear governing legislation.

Research Objectives

The research aims to meet the challenges stated in the introduction, taking into our consideration the openness to the world and the required quality of education subject to international standards, and to clarify the role of Private Universities Council in terms of objectives, targets, and competition with other universities to achieve distinct output.

The Importance of Research

For Science

The research derives its importance from the following:

1.

The

importance

of

subject

and

the

problem

it

addresses; it studies higher education

and

its

importance in economic and organizational terms and innovation phenomenon, which has particular importance in the present time more than ever before. This is due to the following:

A.

The

challenges

posed

by

emerging

global

variables by other competitive universities, and

  • B. Unclear role of Private Universities Council to draw up strategic operational plans for the future of higher education.

 

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

 

2.

The

research

derives

its

importance

from

the

 

important

slice

it

addresses,

i.e.

research

and

development units

in

research

institutions,

which

assume

the

responsibility

 

of

development

and

innovation.

 

3.

Studies on this subject are scarce, particularly in the field of higher education strategies for better future for Kuwaitis.

For Researcher

 

The researcher

is

interested

in

the

field

of higher

education institutions, and she detects the importance of development and innovation, and the role of strategic management and planning therein, in addition to the general aspect, namely, the practical aspect of graduates.

Research Questions

Based on the research problem, this study endeavors to answer a number of basic questions, which will be confirmed or denied by the analysis of answers as follows:

Question 1: Who is the authority Private Universities Council reports to, and what is the organizational structure of Private Universities Council?

Question 2: What are the Private Universities Council’s role, objectives, and mechanism of action in university registration and follow-up?

Question 3:

What

is the number of private universities

in

Kuwait?

Question 4:

What is the basis for scholarship? Is there a plan for specialization?

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Question 5:

Is there an internal scholarship for Master and Ph.D. degrees?

Question 6:

Is there a committee to study the thesis of Graduates and distribute them to ministries and bodies according to specialty for benefit?

Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research “KISR”

Several questions were directed to KISR such as:

What is the primary role of KISR?

What are the criteria by which the subject of research is identified or not?

What are the potentials and resources available for scientific research?

What is

the basis

on

which resources are allocated

and distributed to costs?

various researches in

terms of

Research Methodology

This study adopts the descriptive analytical approach that based on collection, classification, organization, analysis of information and data, and then expressing them quantitatively and qualitatively so as to reach conclusions and generalizations that contribute in development and change. The results have been presented by use of quantitative method and expressed by figures, tables, and graphs. The methodology adopted in this study is divided into two parts:

  • A. Desk Portion

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

It is the theoretical part, in which the researcher tries to dive into the depths of desk academic study to penetrate the literature on the topic of strategic planning for higher education and the importance of that to get high-level graduates of education and culture helping the progress and uplift of country compared to developed countries. The researcher depends on the books and references available on this subject, and she reviews the relevant governmental periodicals, articles, reports, researches, statistics, regulations, and laws in order to lay the proper foundations for the study route, in general.

  • B. Field Portion It is the practical part, represented by the field study of research center in Kuwait under consideration, which aims at linking the theoretical framework with practical status, gathering as much necessary data and information as possible to cover all aspects of the subject, and selecting the defined hypotheses of study.

The researcher visited the Ministry of Planning and interviewed a number of officials, and she visited the Ministry of Higher Education and interviewed Professor Rabia Randi, Head of Studies and Planning. She also visited Workforce Restructuring Project Center to see the numbers, and secure the testimonies of, Kuwaiti employees in the private sector. Eng. Dr. Faris Al Enezi has provided us with a lot of information about private sector employees, both Kuwaitis and expatriates, and their educational levels.

The researcher also interviewed Prof. Dr. Imad Al Ateeqi, the Secretary General of Private Universities Council in Kuwait, and asked him about the number of private universities,

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

number of students, State requirements for new university, and the way to monitor it periodically. Prof. Dr. Al Ateeqi provided us with the following:

  • - Study on “The contribution of private universities in equal opportunities for higher education in Kuwait”, a paper presented to the Arab Regional Conference on Higher Education, UNESCO – Cairo, 5-7 May, 2009 (“Equal Opportunities for Higher Education in Kuwait” enclosed).

Sources and Methods of Information Collection and Analysis

The researcher depends on two types of sources for gathering of information, namely:

  • - Books, reference, researches, reports, periodicals, and other publications, whether in Arabic or in English, in addition to the regulations, laws, and governmental statistics in order to create the general framework for study, write the theoretical part of it, and prepare a suitable ground for the necessary questionnaires.

  • - Field visits and personal interviews carried out by the researcher with a number of officials in the State.

Limits of Study Objective Limits

The study involves a number of different topics, which finally serve strategic planning for higher education in the State of Kuwait. The researcher highlights the role of higher education in economic terms, and the fact that the State should take care of the outputs of higher education.

 

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Spatial Limits

The study addresses

the

strategic

planning

and

economic importance of higher education in the State of

Kuwait.

Temporal Limits

The theoretical part of study was conducted during a period from June to August 2009.

Population of Study

The

Ministry

of

Higher

Education,

KISR,

and

the

Private

Universities Council in the State of Kuwait

Division of Study and Arrangement of Contents

The contents of this study have been arranged and presented in four chapters as follows:

Chapter I

:

Strategy of Higher Education in Kuwait

Section 1

Section 2

:

:

Higher Education Strategy Strategic Pivots

Chapter II :

Performance Evaluation and Quality Education

Section 1

:

Performance Evaluation

Section 2

:

Quality of Higher Education

Section 3

:

Unemployment in Kuwait

Chapter III:

Findings, Recommendations, and Field Study

Findings of Research

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

  • 1. Synopsis

  • 2. Recommendations

References

Appendix

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Chapter I Strategy of Higher Education in Kuwait
Chapter I
Strategy of Higher Education in Kuwait

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Section 1 Higher Education Strategy
Section 1
Higher Education Strategy

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Section 1 Higher Education Strategy

Strategy takes into account the current and future Kuwait's society needs compatible with development goals and plans in order to graduate qualified students capable to meet these requirements through formulation of policy, definition of actions necessary to provide the appropriate environment for this development, and through the focal pivots around this strategy, whether in connection with admission in these universities, programs of study, accreditation and quality control basis, or encouragement of creativity in scientific research.

Vision

An educational system of high quality that is able to graduate qualified and specialized human cadres in different fields of knowledge to meet the community present and future needs in such manner that is in harmony with the achievement of sustainable economic and social development.

Message

The higher education sector is developed and updated to become more able to graduate qualified students enabled to meet the different needs of economic, social, political, and cultural activities equipped with academic and applied qualifications that are consistent with current and future needs of community.

Objectives

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

  • 1. Preparation of human cadres qualified and specialized in various fields of knowledge to meet community needs.

  • 2. Provision of academic, psychological, and social environment to support creation, excellence, innovation and talent perfection,

  • 3. Promotion, support, and upgrading of scientific research, particularly applied research directed to serve and develop Kuwait society,

  • 4. Establishing close institutional interconnection between the public and private sectors, on the one hand, and higher education institutions, on the other, to take advantage of the qualified capabilities in these institutions for the development of these sectors through consultation and applied scientific research,

  • 5. Improvement of quality and efficiency of compatibility of higher education to the requirements of society through the creation of standards and bases for accreditation of quality control to be applied to all institutions of higher education and comply with international standards,

  • 6. Keeping abreast of developments in information technology and communications, and employment of them in management and academic programs in terms of content, teaching methods, and evaluation, and

  • 7. The economics of education in the higher education sector, which include securing necessary funds and development of appropriate mechanisms for the distribution of financial resources available, and utilization of them efficiently and effectively according to priorities, are taken into consideration.

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Procedures and Policies Required for Providing an Appropriate Environment to Develop and Uplift Higher Education and Scientific Research in Kuwait:

1.

A

greater

role

shall

be

given

to

the

private

sector

participation in shaping the future of higher education

through increased representation in the Higher Education Council and facilitation of its participation in providing more opportunities for excellent higher education for both Kuwaitis and expatriates.

  • 2. Financing the public universities will be studied to ensure that the necessary resources being replenished by continuous restructuring of university fees and establishment of finance fund for needy students that funded from different sources, mostly government support for universities.

  • 3. Concepts of quality control in various components of higher education system and stages shall be introduced through the establishment of an independent institution that applies international standards.

  • 4. Policies of admission to universities will be reconsidered to achieve the greatest possible degree of harmonization between student desire and specialties available to them through the study of admission methods at the college level and facilitation of transition from one specialty to another within the same college.

  • 5. The necessary mechanisms shall be provided to embrace and take care of students who have the ability to excel and create, and scientific research and development encouraged.

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Section 2 Pivots of Strategy
Section 2
Pivots of Strategy

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

I.

Admission

Section 2 Pivots of Strategy

  • 1. Student’s grade point average “GPA” in secondary school certificate examination or its equivalent will be taken principally as basis for admission.

  • 2. Admission will be competitive matter through uniform Admission Coordination Committee for public universities, taking into account some social and geographical conditions of students.

  • 3. Higher Education Council will identify annually the number

of

admissions

in

colleges/programs/specialties in the public and private

universities and community colleges in proportion to

their capacity,

on

the one

hand,

and labor market

needs, on the other, to ensure quality.

  • 4. Higher Education Council will determine student admissions at the college level or departments in such manner that achieves maximum harmony between student desire and specialties available.

  • 5. Students will be permitted to move from one specialty to another in the university to allow students to study the fields in which they can be creative according to the conditions and controls established by the universities for this purpose, taking into account the academic level of students.

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

 

2009

  • 6. Student admission bases in

physical

and

arts

education will be reconsidered to ensure the selection

of

really

talented

and

capable

students

in

these

specialties.

 
  • 7. The number of admissions to overloaded programs and specialties will be gradually reduced. (Afifi, 2002).

II.

Academic Courses

 
  • 1. The plans and academic programs in the universities will be reconsidered for constant updating once every four years.

  • 2. Centers of excellence in specific disciplines in each university will be established, and the specialties that having no adequate components to maintain quality graduates reconsidered.

  • 3. Graduate programs will be expanded and outstanding students to be stimulated to enroll.

  • 4. Performance

Development

Centers

for

the

faculty

members in established.

public and

private universities will be

  • 5. Scholars will be seconded to obtain PH.D degree from prestigious universities in the disciplines required.

III.

IT and Communications

 
  • 1. Computer courses shall be continuously updated in the light of increased knowledge of high school students in these subjects in coordination with the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research.

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

  • 2. IT and communication will be used in all programs in terms of content, teaching techniques, and evaluation methods.

  • 3. Capacity of faculty members to use technology in teaching will be developed.

  • 4. Equipment and infrastructure necessary to enable faculty members and students to use technology in teaching and learning will be provided.

  • 5. IT and communications will be used in distance learning programs, and universities are encouraged to cooperate in this regard.

IV. Funding 1. University

fees

will

be

restructured

to

be

commensurate with the income of citizens, on the one hand, and the cost of study in each course or program, on the other.

  • 2. Funds for needy students shall be established, and a proportion of annual government support will be allocated to these funds and increased annually until it reaches 100% within 10 years, in order that government support becomes fully devoted to these funds.

  • 3. Financing and other community institutions will be encouraged to establish students finance funds.

Additional

  • 4. government

support

to

complete

and

furnish

the

infrastructure

of

new

universities

will

continue.

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

  • 5. Part of universities budgets will be allocated for the purposes of scholarships for doctoral degrees.

  • 6. Portion of additional governmental support will be allocated to finance competitively disciplines and centers of excellence in universities.

  • 7. Annual governmental grant will be shared by public universities based on percentages of the number of students in these universities.

  • 8. Services of higher

education

will

be marketed

to

attract foreign students and facilitate their

registration

procedures

in

the

universities

and

residence through the expansion of various programs.

  • V. Accreditation and Quality Control

    • 1. Independent authority to assess and control quality in the public and private universities will be established in line with international standards.

    • 2. Independent body for accreditation will be established to replace the current Accreditation Council.

    • 3. Offices for

accreditation

and

universities will be established.

quality control in

  • 4. Uniform efficiency examination of graduates will be adopted. (Dr. Hamouda, 2000).

VI. Creativity and Scientific Research

  • 1. Supreme authority for scientific research in the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, including representatives of higher education institutions, private sector, Higher Council for Science

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

and Technology, and institutions concerned with scientific research will be established and working to:

  • A. Consolidate

scientific

and

research

efforts

in

higher

education

institutions

and

other

institutions,

  • B. special

Establish

fund

to

finance scientific

research in the Ministry of Higher Education and

Scientific Research,

  • C. Guide researchers towards scientific research most useful to meet the community needs,

  • D. Support serious researchers and give them encouragement, praise, and moral incentives,

  • E. Maintain closer relations with public and private institutions concerned with scientific research to conduct customary researches,

  • F. Promote the dissemination of scientific production and combine efforts for issuance of specialized scientific magazines on the national level, and

  • G. Build and make available to all people a complete database on scientific research, researchers, thesis of graduate studies, and graduation projects.

2. The necessary funding for scientific research will be provided, efficient research cadres mobilized, and suitable opportunities for them to acquire the required expertise maintained.

3.

Centers

of

excellence

in

universities

will

be

established in line with the strong disciplines.

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

  • 4. Actual regulatory and technical partnerships will be established between universities and various sectors of development, production, and services.

  • 5. The mutual use of resources, facilities, and equipment available in the universities will be maximized for scientific research purposes and cooperation with the different productive sectors.

  • 6. Mechanisms needed to embrace and care for students with excellent and creative abilities will be provided.

VII. Management of Sector

  • 1. Higher Education Council, supreme Accreditation, Quality Control, and Scientific Research Bodies will be enabled to collect and analyze information in order to serve the purpose of making appropriate decisions.

  • 2. “Information Management Systems” will be used in the decision-making and universities business administration, which shall include the following systems:

Students information

Uniform admission

Financial affairs

Administrative affairs

HR and Payroll Management

Asset and Warehouses Management

  • 3. Selection of university leadership will depend on efficiency and competition.

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

  • 4. Decentralization in management, implementation, and expansion of the delegation of authority in the universities will be adopted.

  • 5. The principle of transparency and accountability in the management of sector at both national and university levels will apply.

  • 6. Management of creativity and scientific research sector will be improved.

  • 7. Offices will be operated in the universities to follow up and employ graduates.

VIII.Legislations

  • 1. Statutes of higher education and universities will be revised to implement the policies for formation of the proposed bodies.

  • 2. The legislations will be reviewed to ensure:

A.

Amendment

of

regulations

and instructions

concerning the promotion basis and scientific devotion of faculty members in public and private universities,

B.

Amendment of regulations and scholarships, and

instructions of

C.

Revision of laws and regulations to increase private sector participation in sector boards.

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Chapter II Section 1: Performance Evaluation in Education Institutions Section 2: Quality of Higher Education Section
Chapter II
Section 1: Performance Evaluation in
Education Institutions
Section 2: Quality of Higher Education
Section 2: Unemployment in Kuwait

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Section 1: Performance Evaluation in Education Institutions
Section 1: Performance Evaluation in
Education Institutions

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Performance Evaluation Tools in any Educational Institution

Permanent and continuous identification of house activities, including all administrative and academic levels, and

Identification of progress, determination of realized success and failure degree and making comparison with the planned standards and indicators in order to achieve continuous performance improvement

Evaluation Concept

Evaluation is a process whereby the degree of achievement of practical goals is judged; a diagnostic and therapeutic process. Strengths and shortages are identified by evaluation, and correction of deficiencies follows in every possible way. Evaluation is to reach the required degree of quality in the entire performance of employees.

Performance Evaluation and Follow-up

Performance

is

measurements:

evaluated

by

several

successive

  • 1. Determining the extent to which management has been able to achieve the respective assigned tasks,

  • 2. Defining the reasons for

deviations from the stated

performance milestones which affect the academic and institutional performance,

  • 3. Proposing ways to address areas beyond the control of management, and

  • 4. Developing bases

for

comparison

between

various

activities of performance evaluation, which is an important part of follow-up process dividing into two tiers:

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

A.

Trying to propel the proposed activities to achieve objectives, and

  • B. Identifying impediments of work and trying to get rid of them to promote the message of College effectively and efficiently.

Key Elements of Performance Evaluation

"I.

Scientific Panel; faculty members, including:

 
  • 1. Adequacy of faculty members to the actual needs at the scientific sectional and specialization level,

  • 2. Availability of qualifications, scientific expertise and professionalism of all members,

  • 3. Allocation of sufficient time by the faculty members to perform their university duties,

  • 4. academic

How

burden,

and

others,

for

a

faculty

member

is

appropriate

to

the

requirements

of

effective performance,

 
  • 5. The extent to which modern methods and techniques are applied in teaching and delivery of information,

  • 6. Presence of distinguished scientific schools or research centers, and

  • 7. Availability of cultural communication opportunities among faculty members, other scientific bodies, and production and service institutions in the society.

II.

Academic Programs, including:

 
  • 1. The extent of compatibility of academic programs with the

needs of society,

labor market,

and

the

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

requirements of knowledge expansion, and that each course shall include developed curriculum to ensure contemporary era,

  • 2. The relevance of courses and academic programs to both university and college messages, and the preparation requirements of a graduate who has the ability to analysis, logically think, create, assume responsibility, work with research team, and deal with the modern technological means,

  • 3. The availability of specific and declared systems to assess student performance, and

  • 4. The extent of commitment to academic standards that have been established by the committees of various education sectors.

III.

Libraries and Information Centers, including:

  • 1. The availability of libraries equipped with the necessary information sources, which also include digital libraries, audio and video devices, and modern communication means like Internet, to increase the efficiency of faculty members and academic achievement for students,

  • 2. The availability of staff qualified to facilitate these services and supervise the delivery and maintenance of them valid for work efficiently, and

  • 3. The accessibility of library and internet services to

applicants and the availability comfortable places to see. IV. Student Affairs and Results, including:

of

good

and

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

  • 1. The extent of compatibility of students admitted to the available potentials, and

  • 2. The efficiency of system used for examination procedures, grading, and the introduction of modern systems for assessment and grade evaluation.

  • V. Research Activity and Studies, including:

    • 1. The extent of contribution of faculty members in the applied scientific research activities (Research Projects) and development of knowledge outside the field of scientific promotion, and

  • 2. The extent of contribution

of faculty

members in

research teams that working in service of different production sectors in the community.

The elements

also

include

the

availability

of financial

resources and sound financial management, as well as the availability of buildings, utilities, and facilities related to the

educational process, equipment.

such

as

laboratories and other

They also include student and personnel services, such as youth welfare activities, support of university textbook, excellence rewards, as well as the extent of college contribution in the community service, environment development, the comprehensiveness and diversity of these services, and the existence, comprehensiveness, and quality of college information guide." (PUC, 2009).

Organizational Structure

Of Private Universities Council and General Secretariat in Kuwait

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Minter of Higher Education Private Universities Council Accreditation R&D Committee Committee Grants & Applications Scholarship Committee
Minter of Higher
Education
Private Universities
Council
Accreditation
R&D Committee
Committee
Grants &
Applications
Scholarship
Committee
Committee
Secretary General of
Private Universities
Council
General Secretariat
of Private
Universities Council

______________________________________________________________

Source: Ministry of Higher Education – Private Universities Council

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Academic Second Semester of 2008/2009 Enrolled Students

University/Co

No. of

Stude

No. of Non-

Non-

Total

llege

Stude

nts %

Kuwaiti

Kuwaiti

nts

Students

Student

s %

Arab Open

  • 1852 39%

 

2954

61%

4806

University

Gulf University of Science & Technology

  • 2070 85%

 
  • 375 15%

 

2445

College of

227

65%

  • 122 35%

 

3349

Kuwait,

Maastricht

Business

School

American

  • 1257 74%

 
  • 442 26%

 

1699

University of

Kuwait

Australian

  • 1471 97%

 
  • 402 21%

 

1873

College of

Kuwait

Boxhel College for Girls

 
  • 394 91%

  • 40 9%

 

434

ME University of America

 
  • 195 89%

  • 25 11%

 

220

ME College of America

 
  • 176 96%

8

4%

184

Total

7642

64%

4368

36%

12010

______________________________________________________________

Source: Ministry of Higher Education – Private Universities Council

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

From the above table, we find that the numbers of students enrolled are increasing, and this requires necessary call for quality higher education, which researcher addresses in the following section.

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Section 2: Quality of Higher Education
Section 2: Quality of Higher Education

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Quality Management

Quality management can be defined as endless means including each component and individual in the organization and their involvement in the system of continuous quality improvement, which focuses on avoiding errors by ensuring that the works have been first performed properly to assure quality and continuous upgrading of product.

Impediments to Quality Projects

Senior management in educational institutions is not convinced of the importance and potential of change.

Quality core has not been properly identified through a clear and correct manner of definition.

It is unfamiliar how to implement programs of quality.

There is no full awareness how to preserve and improve the quality of institutions.

The crisis of incompatibility of educational outputs with the needs of labor market, in a time where the numbers of graduates from different levels of education in the state increase, is continuing. Consequently, there is an increase in the number of new entrants to, in addition to the former unemployed people in, the labor market to create the so- called explosion of unemployment crisis.

Ultimately, we find that the certificates of graduates are irrelevant to the labor market and community requirements. It is not benefiting at this time to say how much we graduate, but who are the graduates, and to where are they being graduated? We find more crave by the graduates to the way

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

of their graduation, rehabilitation, training, and the demanded employment after a long break from the employment street.

Is there really a defect in the nature of most specialties of these graduates and the labor market does not need them, which led to an increase in the proportion of unemployed? So, who is responsible in this situation? Will this require a reconsideration of policies and curricula for their outputs to conform to the labor market needs and absorptive capacity? So, why this has not been done yet?

The question is repeated in another way; why do some specialties continue in educational institutions although the market does not accept them or rather do not have adequate employment? Why there is no deep thinking twice before going into opening the door to new disciplines in the universities or closure of disciplines of which labor market becomes overloaded, and thus the education budget is saved, and the graduates’ ordeal in search for employment matching their specialties stopped?

We have to find several reasonable possibilities; why is it unavailable for these disciplines not existing currently in labor sector to open and establish special project that complying with their specialties? Why does the labor market not specify its needs of specialties so that the university approves the students percentage brought from high school to college or directly into the labor market each year? Thus, there will be no burden after graduation of searching for a job because graduates have been already registered directly in the places of employment demand, taking into account various considerations (dismissal, suspension …etc).

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

There are compulsory specialties needed by labor market, and optional disciplines to meet the public interest. Areas of employment are multiple and varied. If it is not required for more jobs in the government, local institutions, and bodies, why the desire of private labor market is not worked on, and other jobs are restructured and built in such manner that complies with the current phase to reach safety line in the future? There are other generations to come, who will strongly demand the provision of real jobs opportunities. Linking education to the labor market is correct claim, as it would not be necessary to eliminate important disciplines because of the lack of positions, but the reality and general appearance suggest that education is linked to the labor market and finding a source of livelihood, otherwise the consequences will be disastrous in the foreseeable future.

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Periods for Receiving Intern Applications

All categories covered by interns of Kuwaitis, sons of Kuwaiti women, sons of diplomats, and people with special needs.

 

Period

 

Category Allowed to Apply for Intern

28

June

9

July

  • - Applications for bachelor from secondary school

2009

 

graduates

 
  • - Transfer to bachelor programs within interns

6 – 20 July 2009

 
  • - Applications for diploma from secondary school graduates

 
  • - Transfer to diploma programs within interns

23

31

August

  • - Graduates of Summer semester 2009 (Course &

2009

 

English secondary school system)

 
  • - Diploma holders

  • - Sons of diplomats

  • - Students desire to transfer to bachelor programs within interns

  • - Students desire to transfer to diploma programs within interns

  • - Students desire to transfer to bachelor programs within interns

  • - High school graduates from a 2 semester system (for this year only) for admission to bachelor programs

1 st week of study for 1 st semester in educational institution

  • - Excellent students enrolled in private educational establishments

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Interns Plan for Secondary School Graduates

Educational

Degrees

Available Specialty

 

Category & Min.

institution

Granted

Percentage of certificate for Intern

Gulf

Bachelor

English (female only)

 

Scientific Section

University

PC science (scientific

 

for Science

only) Accounting,

 

Engineering

and

Business

programs

Technology

Administration, IS

 

(330 seats)

Management,

Information

 

74% for high school

American

Bachelor

PC science (scientific

and English

University of

only), PC Engineering

  • 2.50 for courses and

Kuwait (170

(scientific only),

American system

seats)

Economy, Information

Other Programs:

Systems, Finance, Marketing, Accounting,

70% for high school and English

Administration, Graphic

  • 2.50 for courses and

Design, English,

American system

Multimedia, Int. Studies, Social &

Literary Section:

Behavioral Science

74% for high school

     

and English

  • 2.70 for courses and

American system

 
 

People with Special Needs:

ME

Bachelor

Finance, Accounting,

Scientific Section

University of

Marketing, HR

 

America

Management, IS

 

Engineering programs

(200 seats)

Management, Industrial Engineering (scientific only)

64% for high school and English 2.2 for courses and American system Other Programs:

60% for high school

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

 

2009

 
       

and English

 

2.0

for courses

 

system

 

Literary Section

64% for high school and English

2.20

for courses

 

system

 

Australian

Diploma

Business

 

60% for high school

College of

Administration,

and English

Kuwait (225

Marketing, Mechanical

2.0

for courses and

seats)

Engineering, Aircraft Maintenance Engineering, Oil & Gas Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electronic Engineering Admission in engineering specialization is limited to scientific section only

American system 70% scientific for Aircraft Maintenance Engineering

Boxhel

Diploma

Business

People with

 

College for

Administration,

Special Needs:

 

Girls

Banking, Marketing, Décor & Interior Design, Graphic Design,

50% or more for high school and English

IT

1.50

or more for

ME College

Diploma

Business

courses system.

of America

Administration,

 

(225 seats)

Computer Networking Systems (Males only)

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Interns Plan for Diploma Holders

Educational

Degrees

Available Specialty

Category & Min.

institution

Granted

Percentage of certificate for Intern

Gulf

Bachelor

English (female only)

 

University

PC science (scientific

for Science

only) Accounting,

and

Business

Technology

Administration, IS

(60 seats)

Management

American

Bachelor

PC science (scientific

University of

Kuwait (40

only), Economy,

3.0 in 4.0 points

Information Systems,

seats)

Finance, Marketing, Accounting, Administration, Graphic Design, English, Multimedia, Int. Studies, Social & Behavioral Science

system (80% in other systems)

Australian

Bachelor

Business

College of

Administration,

Kuwait (60

Mechanical

seats)

Engineering, Marketing, Civil Engineering

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Section 3: Unemployment in Kuwait
Section 3: Unemployment in Kuwait

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Unemployment in Kuwait

Unemployment has many reasons. Economists argue that it is technically impossible to eliminate unemployment entirely because there will always be some workers in a state of transition between jobs in time where some other potential employees are too lazy to work at all.

Patients and disabled can increase the proportion

of

unemployment in some countries, but they are classified as

unable

to

work

in

other

countries. The Organization for

Economic Cooperation and Development “OECD” determines full employment in the United States at 4.0-4.6% of the unemployed workers.

Therefore, there is no need to panic with respect to the official unemployment rate in Kuwait, which reaches 5.5% of the local census of population. If compared with Saudi Arabia, the official unemployment rate of is 13%, but some estimates indicate that the rate of unemployment among the youth is around 25%.

The newly elected government in Kuwait may state that it has a lot of pressing political priorities, the first of which should be the fight against standard inflation. However, the fewer unemployment rates should not be used as an excuse to ignore the problems imbedded in labor market, which wholly date back to the fact that many Kuwaiti workers have poor qualification to 21 st -century economy.

The educational system reform in the country is introduced gradually, often propelled by desire through more resonant

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

addresses than being a radical and partial transformation. Maastricht School of Business in Kuwait, inaugurated in 2003, is graduating a small number of MA Degree holders in business. Notwithstanding it has been welcomed, this is barely a substitute for improving basic skills in reading, writing, and science.

Schools must be modernized to teach soft skills that have increasing important largely in today's economy. The rigid doctrine must allow skills that make people more flexible, such as negotiation, communication, self-motivation, teamwork, citizenship, and even saving basic time.

It is unacceptable that children have easy success in schools depending on their conduct excellence rather than relying on their efforts in the classroom. It is important that the education system in Kuwait must create opportunities for each one, regardless of income. It should be designed rather to bridge the gap between rich and poor than to widen it in the manner operates now in the public school versus private school.

Kuwait problem is not unique in the Gulf region. The need to modernize the educational system in Saudi Arabia is even more urgent. However, Kuwait is a small country flooded with oil revenues with a population less than 3 million people. If the government cannot make change here, hope will be so small for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Findings and Recommendations of Research
Findings and Recommendations of Research
 

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

 

2009

I.

Findings

The researcher finds a number of results including:

 
  • 1. Necessary focus on higher education shall be made in light of new challenges.

  • 2. Participation

in

special

conferences

on

higher

education and labor market outputs at the State level shall be considered.

  • 3. The role of private universities shall be activated in coordination with the public universities to achieve the desired results of graduates and their educational and cultural level.

  • 4. It shall be necessary to establish databases on a high level to keep pace with recent developments, and to work on competition in excellent manner.

  • 5. Strategic plans to demarcate the progress, which must be conducted on case-by-case basis, shall be developed.

  • 6. Assessment of the performance rates for each fixed period to verify the results shall be conducted.

II.

Recommendations

The researcher delivers a number of recommendations addressed to scientific research in the higher education institutions in the State of Kuwait.

Plans

of

scientific

research,

technological

development, and their programs should be linked to the development plans, needs of the community, and closer cooperation with the private sector.

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Procedures

  • 1. The representatives to the Higher Committee for Scientific Research in the Steering Committee of periodic survey of the scientific and technological needs and capacities, which is conducted by the secretariat of the Supreme Council for Science and Technology, are nominated. Such representatives shall submit periodic reports as required on the periodic survey results.

  • 2. A sub-committee called (Scientific Research Planning Committee) to develop scientific research plans for the higher education institution in the light of the results of periodic surveys and any other studies will be nominated, which may form technical teams to carry out their duties, provided that the relevant private sector institutions in which are represented.

  • 3. Scientific Research Planning Committee in coordination with the Secretariat of the Supreme Council for Science and Technology issues a bulletin including priority research programs in the higher education institutions.

  • 4. Scientific Research Planning Committee in its work is guided by the following: A.

The national priorities of research and development approved by the Supreme Council for Science and Technology,

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

B. Database of the projects already executed in the universities and scientific centers, and

  • C. Proposals for projects to be approved within the national plan for research and development for the years 2010 - for five years.

Integration and coordination of efforts exerted by the higher education institutions in the field of scientific research and technological development:

Procedures

  • 1. Each higher education institution will submit an evaluation report on their experience in the areas of scientific cooperation with regional and international scientific research centers and the donors of scientific support for dissemination of benefit.

  • 2. Each higher education institution submits annual report on its research activities.

  • 3. A Joint Body for Laboratory and Specialized

Equipment Management in

the

higher

education institution will be formed be

conduct the following functions:

  • A. the

Listing

specialized

equipment with

 

common use,

B.

Regulations

and

instructions

are

developed

to

determine

how

qualified

researchers

are

approved

to

use

the

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

devices, program their use, and set fees for use, and

  • C. Types of new equipment required for joint use are identified.

  • 4. Comprehensive electronic library shared by higher education institutions will be established and managed jointly. The library includes electronic detector of periodicals, manuscripts, historical documents, and all databases of each institution.

  • 5. A joint coordination body from the higher

education institutions is formed

for

the

purpose of regional and international

conferences,

and

each

institution

provides

this body with its annual proposed plans for conferences, seminars, and workshops.

  • 6. Each higher education institution will build database for scientific production of faculty members, researchers, doctoral dissertations, and all masters’ thesis. The database will be available on the virtual library.

Development of Human Resources Procedures

  • 1. The joint coordinating body referred to under policy (5) above tasks:

is assigned with following

  • A. Identifying priority scientific conferences and mobilizing resources to ensure

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

effective participation of universities and qualified researchers, and

B.

Assessment

of

cultural

and scientific

agreements concluded between Kuwaiti universities and international universities, as well as the agreements concluded between the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research and other governments to activate them and maximize their benefit.

2.

Researchers

and

faculty

members are

encouraged to carry out researches by research teams independently or jointly, by giving them priority support and reconsidering the bases of promotion in Kuwaiti universities so as to give more value to the research carried out by research teams.

3.

The

members

of

the

faculty

will be

encouraged on applied research.

4. Information and knowledge will be exchanged with scientific research institutions in the Arab countries and the world, and the latest production of scientific and technological revolution, such as Internet and e-mail, is used.

The

use

of Arabic

research activities:

Language in

the scientific and

Procedures

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

  • 1. The use of Arabic numerals in appropriate areas is encouraged.

  • 2. Interaction between Kuwait Arabic academic authorities and higher education institutions and such other institutions that use scientific terms for the purpose of generalization of Arabic translated terminology and standardization in general use.

  • 3. Scientific research in the field of science translation will be promoted.

  • 4. Scientific research in Arabic language will be encouraged.

  • 5. Bulletins dealing with scientific specialized terminology will be prepared in cooperation with Arab institutions, which are distributed to scientific research institutions locally and regionally.

General Policy (6): to build a database for research and development by monitoring the universities outputs of research and development, and measuring their interaction with industry and services sectors.

Procedures

  • 1. Each higher education institution will build a database on the outputs of scientific research in terms of preparation of research titles published in certified periodicals, research abstracts presented at scientific conferences, books published, the number of researchers in

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

the university at doctoral and master degrees, and patents.

  • 2. Each higher education institution will count the number of scientific research and patents, and the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research installs a network between databases of Kuwaiti universities, and builds and annually updates a central database in the ministry for scientific research and technological development in Kuwaiti universities.

  • 3. Each higher education institution will report on the scholarships to a doctorate degree in the areas of knowledge.

  • 4. Each higher education institution will consider its available scientific potentials, such as library, scientific periodicals, information networks, and scientific equipment.

  • 5. The outputs of research of higher education institution are evaluated as much as they are shifted to the development of industry and services.

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

References
References

References

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

1.

Prof.

Dr.

Sayed

Muhammad

Gad

Al

Rab,

“Human

Resources Management”, Advanced Topics and

Researches, Suez Canal University, 2005

  • 2. Prof. Dr. Ahmed Sayed Mustafa, “Human Resources Management”, Modern Management of Intellectual Capital, 2006

3.

Dr.

Khodeir

Kazim

Hamouda,

“Total

Quality

Management” (Amman: Dar Al Masera for Publication,

Distribution, and Printing, 2000)

  • 4. Dr. Abbas Khafaji, “Total Quality Management”, the Hashemite University, Studies, Consultant, and Community Service Center, 1999

  • 5. Dr. Muhammad Maher Aleesh, “Human Resources Management” (Cairo, Ain Shams, 1999)

  • 6. Dr. Nader Ahmad Abu Sheikha, “Human Resources Management”, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, the Hashemite University, Jordan, 2000

  • 7. Dr. Ibrahim Bassiouni, Dr. Ramadan Muhammad Abdul Salam, “Human Resources Management”, Grand Bookshops, Egypt, 2001

  • 8. Dr. Ali Muhammad Abdul Wahab, Dr. Aida Sayed Khattab, “Human Resources Management”, Dar Al-Hariri Printing and Publishing, 2003

  • 9. Dr. Ali Al Selmi, “Egyptian Administration”, Facing New Realities, Ghareeb Bookshop, 1992

    • 10. Dr. Aida Nakhla, Dr. Zuhair Thabit et al, “Behavioral Sciences”, Dar Quba’ Printing and Publishing, 2002

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

  • 11. Dr. Sadeeq Muhammad Afifi, Dr. Muhammad Ibrahim, “Manager and the Development of Personnel Conduct”, Strategic Approach to Manage the Human and Organizational Behavior in Contemporary Organizations, Alexandria University House, 2002

  • 12. Dr. Nafisa Muhammad Bachri, “Human Behavior in Organizations”, year of publication unknown

  • 13. Prof. Imad M. Al-Atiqi,

Prof.

Asad A. Al-Rashed,

Dr.

Fareeda M. Ali. Private Universities Council. May 2009.

“The contribution of private universities in equal opportunities for higher education in Kuwait”

Strategic Planning of Higher Education in the Developing Countries

2009

Appendixes
Appendixes