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**ϒ E LECTROMAGNETIC F IELD T HEORY
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Bo Thidé

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Also available

**E LECTROMAGNETIC F IELD T HEORY E XERCISES
**

by Tobia Carozzi, Anders Eriksson, Bengt Lundborg, Bo Thidé and Mattias Waldenvik Freely downloadable from www.plasma.uu.se/CED

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E LECTROMAGNETIC F IELD T HEORY
B T´
S I S P D A S P U U.

2) on an HP Visualize 9000/360 workstation running HP-UX 11. Electromagnetic Field Theory ISBN X-XXX-XXXXX-X
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. 2001.14159 and Web2C 7.
Copyright ©1997.4. 2002 and 2003 by Bo Thidé Uppsala. Sweden All rights reserved.i
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A This book was typeset in L TEX 2ε (based on TEX 3.11. 1998. 1999. 2000.

. . . . . .
Example 2. . . . . . . 1. . . . . . .
. . . 2.2 Maxwell’s displacement current . . . . . . .1 The wave equation for E . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The time-independent wave equation for E 2. . .
.3.2. . . . . . .5 Maxwell’s microscopic equations . . . . . .2. . . . . . . 1. . . . . . 1. . . . . . .2 25 26 26 26 27 28 30 31 32
. . . . .
. 1. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . 2. .3 Electrodynamics .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . .
. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .1 Equation of continuity for electric charge 1. . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . .6 Maxwell’s macroscopic equations . . . . . 1. . . 1.4 Faraday’s law of induction . . . .
. . . . . . . . .2 The wave equation for B . . . . . . . . . .i
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Contents
Preface 1 Classical Electrodynamics 1. 1.1 Faraday’s law as a consequence of conservation of magnetic charge .
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. . . . . . . . .2 Waves in conductive media . 21 Example 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . .1 Coulomb’s law . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Electromagnetic Duality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Electromotive force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Wave equations in electromagnetodynamics
Plane Waves . .
xi 1 2 2 3 6 6 7 9 10 10 11 12 15 16 16
. . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . 2. . . .4 The complex ﬁeld six-vector . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. .2 Duality of the electromagnetodynamic equations 19 Example 1. . 18 Example 1. . .
. . . . . . . 1. . .1 Ampère’s law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .1 Telegrapher’s equation . . . . 20 Example 1.3. . . 2. . . . . . .2 The electrostatic ﬁeld . . . . .2 The magnetostatic ﬁeld . . . . .1 Electrostatics .3 Dirac’s symmetrised Maxwell equations for a ﬁxed mixing angle .1. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . 23 2 Electromagnetic Waves 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .1. . . . . . . . .
.
. . . . . . . .
. .5 Duality expressed in the complex ﬁeld six-vector 22
Bibliography . . 1. .
. . .2. . . .3.1 The Wave Equations . . . . . . . . . .2 Magnetostatics . . . .

. .2 Lorentz space . . .2 Covariant Classical Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Covariant Classical Electrodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . .1.
. . . . . . . . . Metric tensor . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . .3.
. . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . .3 The Electrodynamic Potentials . .3 Minkowski space . . . . . . .2 The Liénard-Wiechert potentials . Radius four-vector in contravariant and covariant form Scalar product and norm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .3. . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 Relativistic Electrodynamics 4. . . . . .3 Observables and Averages . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Invariant line element and proper time . .1 Charged Particles in an Electromagnetic Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lagrange formalism . . . . . . . . . . . . .uu. . . .2. . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .1 Electromagnetodynamic potentials . . . 4. 4. .
. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . Bibliography . .3 Gauge transformations . . . . .2 The Magnetostatic Vector Potential 3. . . .
. Hamiltonian formalism . . . .1 Covariant equations of motion . . . . .1 Lagrange-Hamilton formalism for ﬁelds and interactions
Downloaded from http://www. . . Bibliography . Four-vector ﬁelds . . . . .3. . The Lorentz group . . . . . . . . . 4. 4. . . . . . . 4. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . .3. . . . . . . . . . 37 37 38 38 40 44 44 45 46 48 49 49 50 51 52 52 53 54 56 56 56 57 59 61 61 62 64 67 69 69 69 70 72 76 76
. . 34 Bibliography . . . .
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. . . .se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. . . . . . . . . . 5. . . The Lorentz transformation matrix . . . . . . .3 The electromagnetic ﬁeld tensor . . . . .2 Coulomb gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Covariant Field Theory . . .
. . . . . . . . .1 The four-potential . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . Example 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3 Electromagnetic Potentials 3. . . . . . . . .plasma. . . . . . . . .1 Lorenz-Lorentz gauge . . . . . . . .i
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C ONTENTS
2. . . . . . 5. .
. .1 The Electrostatic Scalar Potential . . . . . . . .1 The Lorentz transformation . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . 3.
5 Electromagnetic Fields and Particles 5. . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . The retarded potentials . . . .
. . .1 The Special Theory of Relativity . .

3. . .1 Electric Polarisation and Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. 7. . .2 Radiation from an accelerated point charge . . . . . . . . . .1 Radiation from Extended Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .
7 Electromagnetic Fields from Arbitrary Source Distributions 7. . . . .2 The momentum theorem in Maxwell’s theory Bibliography . . . . .1 The Hertz potential . . . . . . .1. . . . . . .3 Magnetic dipole radiation . . . . . . . . .2 The Electric Field . . . . . . .2 Electric dipole radiation . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . Example 8. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Example 5. . . . . . . . . . . 84 Bibliography . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .2. . . . . . .uu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. 7. . 8. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Finite bandwidth signals . . . . . . . .
8 Electromagnetic Radiation and Radiating Systems 8. . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .
. .
. . . . .2 Radiation from a two-dimensional current distribution 8. . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . .i
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The electromagnetic ﬁeld . . .2 Magnetisation and the Magnetising Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. .
. . . . . . The direct method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Liénard-Wiechert potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . .1 The ﬁelds from a uniformly moving charge . . . . . . . . .1 Field energy difference expressed in the ﬁeld tensor . .2.2 The convection potential and the convection force136 . . . . .4 Radiated Energy . . . . . . .
Downloaded from http://www. . . . . . . . .
. . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
109 109 110 113 116 116 120 122 124 124 125 127 129 133 135 Example 8. . . . . . . . The differential operator method . . .plasma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . 87 87 87 90 92 92 93 96 97 99 101 103 106 106 107 108
. . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . 8. . 85 6 Electromagnetic Fields and Matter 6. . . . . . 8. . . . .1 The Magnetic Field . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.3 The Radiation Fields . 7. . . . .1 Monochromatic signals . .
. . .2. . . 8.se/CED/Book
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. . . .3. . . . . . .1 The energy theorem in Maxwell’s theory . . . . . . .4 Electric quadrupole radiation . 6. . . . . .1 Radiation from a one-dimensional current distribution 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Electric multipole moments . . . . . . . .4. . . .3 Radiation from a Localised Charge in Arbitrary Motion . . . . . .3 Energy and Momentum . . . . . . 7. 81
Other ﬁelds . .2 Multipole Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.1. . 6. . . .

. . . . .4 Invariant line element . . . . . .1 Metric tensor . . . . . . . . . . . F. .3. . 139 Bremsstrahlung . . . . . . . . . . .1.
. . . F.3 The far ﬁelds from an electric dipole . . . . . . . .
. Synchrotron radiation . . . . . . . . . .3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Radiation in the general case . . . F. . . . F. .2. . F. . .2 Fields and potentials . . . . . .
. . . . . . . F. . . . F. .3. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Electromagnetic Radiation . . Cyclotron radiation . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . .1 Relationship between the ﬁeld vectors in a plane wave F. . . .2. . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . Maxwell’s stress tensor . . .se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .5 The far ﬁelds from an electric quadrupole . . F. . .3. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Example 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . .7 Four-current density . . F. . . . The Lorenz-Lorentz gauge condition in vacuum . . . . F. . . . . . . . Vector and scalar potentials . . . . . . . . . . .4
. . . . . . .2. . .8 Four-potential . .1 Maxwell’s equations . . . . . . . . . . . .plasma. . . 143
Cyclotron and synchrotron radiation . . . Poynting’s vector . .3 Bremsstrahlung for low speeds and short acceleration times . .5 Radiation from charges moving in matter ˇ Vavilov-Cerenkov radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Special Relativity . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . F. . . . . . . . . . .6 Four-momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 The ﬁelds from a point charge in arbitrary motion . . . . . .2 Covariant and contravariant four-vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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. F. F. . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . F.
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146 148 148 151 151 153 156 161 163 163 163 163 163 163 164 164 164 164 164 164 164 164 165 165 165 165 165 166 166 166 166 166 166 166 167
F Formulae F. . . . . . . . . .2 The far ﬁelds from an extended source distribution . . . . . . . .
. . . Constitutive relations . .3 Force and energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . .9 Field tensor .3. . . . . . . . . .1 The Electromagnetic Field . .3 Lorentz transformation of a four-vector . . . . . . . .3
Radiation for small velocities . . . . . . .i
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C ONTENTS
8. . . . . .2.5 Four-velocity . .uu. . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .3. .
8. . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . F. . . . . Virtual photons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The far ﬁelds from a magnetic dipole . . . . .
.
. . . . . . . . . .

. . . Volume element . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Directed area element . . . . .
. . .
. . . . . . . .
167 167 167 167 168 168 168 168 168 168 169 169 170 163 171 171 171 171 173 173 173 174 175
Appendices M Mathematical Methods M.
. . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . .4 Vector analysis . . .4
Vector Relations . . . . . . . . . norm and metric in Lorentz space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example M.
. Scalar ﬁelds .
. . .
. . . . . . . . . 181 Example M. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .3 Vector algebra . . . . . . .
.
. . . Radius vector . . . . Vector product . M. . . Directed line element . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .
. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .
Downloaded from http://www. . . . . . . 180 Example M. . . . . . . .1 Scalars. .
. . . . . .
. .uu. . .6 The four-del operator in Lorentz space . . . . F. . . . . .
. . . .
.
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Fields . . . . . . . .
. .
. . . . .
.
. . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . .4 Scalar product. General vector algebraic identities General vector analytic identities . . . . .
. . . . . .4. .
. . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .2 Vector formulae . . .1 Tensors in 3D space . . 180
Example M. . . . . . . . . . Base vectors . . . . . . M. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . F. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
183 183 184 184 185 185
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F. . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . The del operator
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Vectors . . Vector ﬁelds . .plasma. .4.
. . . . .1 Spherical polar coordinates . . . . . . .
Example M. . . . . . Tensor ﬁelds . . . . .
. . . . . . . Example M. . . . . . . Vectors and Tensors M. . . . 178
M. . . . . . . Integral relations . . The gradient . .
. . . .
. . .2 Contravariant and covariant vectors in ﬂat Lorentz space . . . . . . . . Special identities . . . . . . .1.
. . . . .
. .
. .5 Metric in general relativity .
. . .
. .
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. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solid angle element . . . . . . . . . 182
Dyadic product . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 180 Scalar product .3 Inner products in complex vector space . .
. . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M.2. . . . .
186 186 187 187 187 187 188 189 189 190 190
Downloaded from http://www. . . .7 Gradients of scalar functions of relative distances in 3D . . . . . . . . . .2 Hamilton’s equations . Example M. . .1 Lagrange’s equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Laplacian . Example M. . . . . . M. . . . . . . 185
The divergence . . . . .se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example M. . .plasma. . . .8 Divergence in 3D . Bibliography . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . The curl . M. .i
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C ONTENTS
Example M. . . . . Example M. .9 The Laplacian and the Dirac delta . . . . . . . . .
. .
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.10 The curl of a gradient . . . . . . . .uu. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Analytical Mechanics . . . . . . .11 The divergence of a curl . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.6 8. . . . . . . . .
. . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Synchrotron radiation lobe width . . . Electric dipole geometry . . . . . . . . .
3 5 7 13
Relative motion of two inertial systems . . . . . .13 8. . . .10 8. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Rotation in a 2D Euclidean space .12 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Loop antenna . . .2 4. . . . . 110 111 113 118 121 126 128 141 142 147 149 152 154 159
M. . . . . .i
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List of Figures
1. . . . . . . Electric dipole geometry .
. . The perpendicular ﬁeld of a moving charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 1. .5 8. . . . 105 Linear antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electron-electron scattering . . . . . . .9 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Coulomb interaction between two electric charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˇ Vavilov-Cerenkov cone . .11 8. . . . . . Moving loop in a varying B ﬁeld . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . 58 Linear one-dimensional mass chain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Tetrahedron-like volume element of matter . . . . . .8 8. . . .1 8. . . . . .
. . . .1 7. . . . . . . . . . 76 Radiation in the far zone . . . . . . . . . . Angular distribution of radiation during bremsstrahlung Location of radiation during bremsstrahlung .2 8. . . . . . Radiation from a moving charge in vacuum . . . . .7 8. . An accelerated charge in vacuum . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multipole radiation geometry . . . .3 8. . . . . Coulomb interaction for a distribution of electric charges Ampère interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 5.4 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. 57 Minkowski diagram .1 4. Radiation from a charge in circular motion . . . . . . . . .2 1. . . . . . . . . . . .

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To the memory of professor L EV M IKHAILOVICH E RUKHIMOV dear friend. great physicist and a truly remarkable human being.

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If you understand. things are such as they are G ENSHA
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. things are such as they are If you do not understand.

covariant formulation of classical electrodynamics. These two things opened up my eyes for the beauty and intricacy of electrodynamics. to become the ﬁve-credit course Classical Electrodynamics in 1997. force. This turned out to be a rather successful
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. professor P ER -O LOF F RÖ MAN . in Swedish. and to ensure its quality and scope to make it useful in higher university education anywhere in the world. two-credit course Electromagnetic Radiation at our faculty. already at the classical level. both in my studies. and I fell in love with it. In an attempt to encourage participation by other scientists and students in the authoring of this book. I joined the research group there and took on the task of helping my supervisor. To some extent. the electromagnetic potentials. The book is the outgrowth of the lecture notes that I prepared for the four-credit course Electrodynamics that was introduced in the Uppsala University curriculum in 1992. I took my ﬁrst advanced course in electrodynamics at the Theoretical Physics department. I hope the book may be useful for research workers too. Shortly thereafter. The aim has been to write a book that can serve both as an advanced text in Classical Electrodynamics and as a preparation for studies in Quantum Electrodynamics and related subjects. research and teaching. Ever since that time. In 1972. and covariant Lagrangian/Hamiltonian ﬁeld theoretical methods for electromagnetic ﬁelds. and includes such things as electrostatics and magnetostatics and their uniﬁcation into electrodynamics. it was produced within a World-Wide Web (WWW) project. I have off and on had reason to return to electrodynamics. gauge transformations. by B ENGT L UNDBORG who created. Intended primarily as a textbook for physics students at the advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate level.i
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Preface
This book is the result of a twenty-ﬁve year long love affair. Uppsala University. and the current book is the result of my own teaching of a course in advanced electrodynamics at Uppsala University some twenty odd years after I experienced the ﬁrst encounter with this subject. momentum and energy of the electromagnetic ﬁeld. particles and interactions. developed and taught the earlier. parts of these notes were based on lecture notes prepared. with the preparation of a new version of his lecture notes on Electricity Theory. radiation and scattering phenomena. electromagnetic waves and their propagation in vacuum and in media. It provides a thorough treatment of the theory of electrodynamics. mainly from a classical ﬁeld theoretical point of view.

from WWW ‘hit’ statistics that at the time of writing this. Germany. This way it is my hope that it will be particularly useful for students and researchers working under ﬁnancial or other circumstances that make it difﬁcult to procure a printed copy of the book. but know.uu. I have not only received comments on it from fellow Internet physicists around the world. Lindau. the book serves as a frequently used Internet resource. Finally. S TAFFAN RÖSBY. Uppsala Division. I am grateful not only to Per-Olof Fröman and Bengt Lundborg for providing the inspiration for my writing this book. Moscow. Thanks are also due to my longterm space physics colleague H ELMUT KOPKA of the Max-Planck-Institut für Aeronomie. I am particularly indebted to Academician professor V ITALIY L. and to my fellow members of the C APELLA P EDAGOGICA U PSALIENSIS. for interesting discussions on electrodynamics and relativity in general and on this book in particular. all at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics. but A also about the more delicate aspects of typesetting a book in TEX and LTEX.
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. I also wish to thank my former graduate students M ATTIAS WALDENVIK and T OBIA C AROZZI as well as A NDERS E RIKSSON. Uppsala. who not only taught me about the practical aspects of the of high-power radio wave transmitters and transmission lines.plasma. Sweden February.i
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P REFACE
move. 2001 B O T HIDÉ
Downloaded from http://www. G INZBURG for his many fascinating and very elucidating lectures. I dedicate this book to my son M ATTIAS. comments and historical footnotes on electromagnetic radiation while cruising on the Volga river during our joint Russian-Swedish summer schools.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. who all have participated in the teaching and commented on the material covered in the course and in this book. but also to C HRISTER WAHLBERG and G ÖRAN FÄLDT. and YAKOV I STOMIN. my high-school physics teacher. I would like to thank all students and Internet users who have downloaded and commented on the book during its life on the World-Wide Web. Lebedev Institute. my daughter K AROLINA. Uppsala University. By making an electronic version of the book freely down-loadable on the net.

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Classical Electrodynamics

Classical electrodynamics deals with electric and magnetic ﬁelds and interactions caused by macroscopic distributions of electric charges and currents. This means that the concepts of localised electric charges and currents assume the validity of certain mathematical limiting processes in which it is considered possible for the charge and current distributions to be localised in inﬁnitesimally small volumes of space. Clearly, this is in contradiction to electromagnetism on a truly microscopic scale, where charges and currents have to be treated as spatially extended objects and quantum corrections must be included. However, the limiting processes used will yield results which are correct on small as well as large macroscopic scales. It took the genius of James Clerk Maxwell to unify electricity and magnetism into a super-theory, electromagnetism or classical electrodynamics (CED), and to realise that optics is a subﬁeld of this new super-theory. Early in the 20th century, Nobel laureate Hendrik Antoon Lorentz took the electrodynamics theory further to the microscopic scale and also laid the foundation for the special theory of relativity, formulated by Albert Einstein in 1905. In the 1930s Paul A. M. Dirac expanded electrodynamics to a more symmetric form, including magnetic as well as electric charges and also laid the foundation for the development of quantum electrodynamics (QED) for which Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger, and Richard P. Feynman earned their Nobel prizes in 1965. Around the same time, physicists such as the Nobel laureates Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam, and Steven Weinberg managed to unify electrodynamics with the weak interaction theory to yet another super-theory, electroweak theory. In this chapter we start with the force interactions in classical electrostatics and classical magnetostatics and introduce the static electric and magnetic ﬁelds and ﬁnd two uncoupled systems of equations for them. Then we see how the conservation of electric charge and its relation to electric current leads to the dynamic connection between electricity and magnetism and how the two

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can be uniﬁed into one ‘super-theory’, classical electrodynamics, described by one system of coupled dynamic ﬁeld equations—the Maxwell equations. At the end of the chapter we study Dirac’s symmetrised form of Maxwell’s equations by introducing (hypothetical) magnetic charges and magnetic currents into the theory. While not identiﬁed unambiguously in experiments yet, magnetic charges and currents make the theory much more appealing for instance by allowing for duality transformations in a most natural way.

1.1 Electrostatics

The theory which describes physical phenomena related to the interaction between stationary electric charges or charge distributions in space with stationary boundaries is called electrostatics. For a long time electrostatics, under the name electricity, was considered an independent physical theory of its own, alongside other physical theories such as magnetism, mechanics, optics and thermodynamics.1

1.1.1 Coulomb’s law

It has been found experimentally that in classical electrostatics the interaction between stationary, electrically charged bodies can be described in terms of a mechanical force. Let us consider the simple case described by Figure 1.1 on the facing page. Let F denote the force acting on a electrically charged particle with charge q located at x, due to the presence of a charge q located at x . According to Coulomb’s law this force is, in vacuum, given by the expression F(x) = qq qq x − x =− 3 4πε0 |x − x | 4πε0 1 |x − x | = qq 4πε0 1 |x − x | (1.1)

where in the last step Formula (F.71) on page 169 was used. In SI units, which we shall use throughout, the force F is measured in Newton (N), the electric charges q and q in Coulomb (C) [= Ampère-seconds (As)], and the length |x − x | in metres (m). The constant ε0 = 107 /(4πc2 ) ≈ 8.8542 × 10−12 Farad

1 The

physicist and philosopher Pierre Duhem (1861–1916) once wrote:

‘The whole theory of electrostatics constitutes a group of abstract ideas and general propositions, formulated in the clear and concise language of geometry and algebra, and connected with one another by the rules of strict logic. This whole fully satisﬁes the reason of a French physicist and his taste for clarity, simplicity and order. . . .’

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q x−x q x O

F IGURE 1.1: Coulomb’s law describes how a static electric charge q, located at a point x relative to the origin O, experiences an electrostatic force from a static electric charge q located at x .

x

per metre (F/m) is the vacuum permittivity and c ≈ 2.9979 × 108 m/s is the speed of light in vacuum. In CGS units ε0 = 1/(4π) and the force is measured in dyne, electric charge in statcoulomb, and length in centimetres (cm).

**1.1.2 The electrostatic ﬁeld
**

Instead of describing the electrostatic interaction in terms of a ‘force action at a distance’, it turns out that it is often more convenient to introduce the concept of a ﬁeld and to describe the electrostatic interaction in terms of a static vectorial electric ﬁeld Estat deﬁned by the limiting process Estat ≡ lim

def

q→0

F q

(1.2)

where F is the electrostatic force, as deﬁned in Equation (1.1) on the facing page, from a net electric charge q on the test particle with a small electric net electric charge q. Since the purpose of the limiting process is to assure that the test charge q does not inﬂuence the ﬁeld, the expression for Estat does not depend explicitly on q but only on the charge q and the relative radius vector x − x . This means that we can say that any net electric charge produces an electric ﬁeld in the space that surrounds it, regardless of the existence of a second charge anywhere in this space.1

the preface to the ﬁrst edition of the ﬁrst volume of his book A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, ﬁrst published in 1873, James Clerk Maxwell describes this in the following, almost poetic, manner [9]:

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Using (1.1) and Equation (1.2) on the previous page, and Formula (F.70) on page 169, we ﬁnd that the electrostatic ﬁeld Estat at the ﬁeld point x (also known as the observation point), due to a ﬁeld-producing electric charge q at the source point x , is given by Estat (x) = q x−x q =− 4πε0 |x − x |3 4πε0 1 |x − x | = q 4πε0 1 |x − x | (1.3)

In the presence of several ﬁeld producing discrete electric charges qi , located at the points xi , i = 1, 2, 3, . . . , respectively, in an otherwise empty space, the assumption of linearity of vacuum1 allows us to superimpose their individual electrostatic ﬁelds into a total electrostatic ﬁeld Estat (x) = x − xi 1 q 4πε0 ∑ i x − x 3 i i (1.4)

If the discrete electric charges are small and numerous enough, we introduce the electric charge density ρ, measured in C/m3 in SI units, located at x within a volume V of limited extent and replace summation with integration over this volume. This allows us to describe the total ﬁeld as Estat (x) = 1 x−x 1 =− d3x ρ(x ) 3 4πε0 V 4πε0 |x − x | 1 ρ(x ) =− d3x 4πε0 V |x − x | d3x ρ(x )

V

1 |x − x |

(1.5)

where we used Formula (F.70) on page 169 and the fact that ρ(x ) does not depend on the unprimed (ﬁeld point) coordinates on which operates. We emphasise that under the assumption of linear superposition, Equation (1.5) is valid for an arbitrary distribution of electric charges, including discrete charges, in which case ρ is expressed in terms of Dirac delta distributions: ρ(x ) = ∑ qi δ(x − xi )

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(1.6)

‘For instance, Faraday, in his mind’s eye, saw lines of force traversing all space where the mathematicians saw centres of force attracting at a distance: Faraday saw a medium where they saw nothing but distance: Faraday sought the seat of the phenomena in real actions going on in the medium, they were satisﬁed that they had found it in a power of action at a distance impressed on the electric ﬂuids.’ fact, vacuum exhibits a quantum mechanical nonlinearity due to vacuum polarisation effects manifesting themselves in the momentary creation and annihilation of electron-positron pairs, but classically this nonlinearity is negligible.

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7)
which is the differential form of Gauss’s law of electrostatics.uu.62) on page 168. Inserting this expression into expression (1.
x
V
as illustrated in Figure 1.2: Coulomb’s law for a distribution of individual charges x i localised within a volume V of limited extent.plasma.e.
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E LECTROSTATICS
5
q x − xi qi xi O
F IGURE 1. Equation (1.i
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1.4) on the preceding page.8)
i. × [ α(x)] ≡ 0 for any 3D R3 scalar ﬁeld α(x). according to Formula (F.5) on the facing page. and using the representation of the Dirac delta distribution. Taking the divergence of the general Estat expression for an arbitrary electric charge distribution. we ﬁnd that · Estat (x) = 1 x−x d3x ρ(x ) 4πε0 V |x − x |3 1 1 =− d3x ρ(x ) · 4πε0 V |x − x | 1 1 =− d3x ρ(x ) 2 −x | 4πε0 V |x 1 = d3x ρ(x ) δ(x − x ) ε0 V ρ(x) = ε0 ·
(1.se/CED/Book
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Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.73) on page 169. Since. we immediately ﬁnd that in electrostatics × Estat (x) = − 1 4πε0 × d3x
V
ρ(x ) |x − x |
=0
(1.5) on the facing page we recover expression (1.2.

given by the expression F(x) = µ0 JJ (x − x ) dl × dl × 4π C |x − x |3 C µ0 JJ 1 =− dl × dl × 4π C |x − x | C
(1. µ0 = 4π × 10−7 ≈ 1. located at x and carrying a current J in the direction of dl .9a) (1. with tangential line element dl.11)
which is a most useful relation. electrostatics can be described in terms of two vector partial differential equations ρ(x) ε0 stat × E (x) = 0 · Estat (x) = representing four scalar partial differential equations. From the deﬁnition of ε0 and µ0 (in SI units) we observe that ε0 µ0 = 1 107 (F/m) × 4π × 10−7 (H/m) = 2 (s2 /m2 ) 4πc2 c (1.uu..2566 × 10−6 H/m is the vacuum permeability. in vacuum. At ﬁrst glance. Here we shall discuss this theory in some detail.9b)
1. According to Ampère’s law this force is.1 Ampère’s law
Experiments on the interaction between two small loops of electric current have shown that they interact via a mechanical force. (1. electric charges moving with constant speeds.plasma. Equation (1. much the same way that electric charges interact. magnetostatics deals with stationary electric currents. located at x and carrying a current J in the direction of dl.2 Magnetostatics
While electrostatics deals with static electric charges.2. Let F denote such a force acting on a small loop C.
1.10)
In SI units.e. i. due to the presence of a small loop C .i
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To summarise.se/CED/Book
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.10) above may appear unsymmetric in terms of the loops and therefore to be a force law which is in contradiction with
Downloaded from http://www. and the interaction between these currents. with tangential line element dl.

However. in the following symmetric way F(x) = − µ0 JJ 4π x−x dl · dl |x − x |3 (1.51) on page 168.3: Ampère’s law describes how a small loop C.10) on the preceding page.se/CED/Book
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.13)
C C
which clearly exhibits the expected symmetry in terms of loops C and C . by applying the vector triple product ‘bac-cab’ Formula (F. Equation (1. we may attribute the magnetostatic interaction to a static vectorial magnetic ﬁeld Bstat .2
M AGNETOSTATICS
7
J C dl x−x x C J x O F IGURE 1.12)
Since the integrand in the ﬁrst integral is an exact differential.
1. carrying a static electric current J through the tangential line element dl located at x . we can rewrite (1.uu. carrying a static electric current J through its tangential line element dl located at x.2 The magnetostatic ﬁeld
In analogy with the electrostatic case. The loops can have arbitrary shapes as long as they are simple and closed.
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1.2.plasma. dl
Newton’s third law. this integral vanishes and we can rewrite the force expression.10) as F(x) = − µ0 JJ 4π µ0 JJ − 4π dl
C C
dl ·
C C
x−x dl ·dl |x − x |3
1 |x − x |
(1. experiences a magnetostatic force from a small loop C . It turns out that the elemental
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.

Taking the divergence of both sides of Equation (1.15)
Bstat can be deﬁned as x−x def µ0 J dl × dBstat (x) ≡ 4π |x − x |3
(1. Formula (F.10) on page 6 may we written F(x) = J
C
dl × Bstat (x)
(1. Formula (F. The SI unit for the magnetic ﬁeld. Applying the operator ‘bac-cab’ rule.15) and utilising Formula (F.15) can be written × Bstat (x) = =− µ0 4π
V
j(x ) |x − x |
=0
(1.70) on page 169. Equation (1.14) to an integrated steady state electric current density j(x).17)
µ0 × 4π
×
2
d3x j(x )
j(x ) |x − x | V µ0 1 + 4π |x − x | d3x
= d3x [j(x ) · ] 1 |x − x |
V
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which expresses the small element dBstat (x) of the static magnetic ﬁeld set up at the ﬁeld point x by a small line element dl of stationary current J at the source point x .57) on page 168. is Tesla (T). With this deﬁnition of B stat . we obtain Biot-Savart’s law: Bstat (x) = x−x µ0 µ0 d3x j(x ) × =− 3 4π V 4π |x − x | j(x ) µ0 × d3x = 4π |x − x | V d3x j(x ) × 1 |x − x | (1.14)
V
where we used Formula (F.se/CED/Book
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. Comparing Equation (1.16)
In order to assess the properties of Bstat . · ( × a) vanishes for any vector ﬁeld a(x). and the fact that j(x ) does not depend on the unprimed coordinates on which operates. the curl of Equation (1. we obtain · Bstat (x) = µ0 · 4π × d3x
V
since.5) on page 4 with Equation (1.15). measured in A/m2 in SI units.plasma. If we generalise expression (1.63) on page 168. we see that there exists a close analogy between the expressions for Estat and Bstat but that they differ in their vectorial characteristics. sometimes called the magnetic ﬂux density or magnetic induction.

The net result is simply × Bstat (x) = µ0 d3x j(x )δ(x − x ) = µ0 j(x) (1.
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(1. and integrate the second one by parts.uu.se/CED/Book
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1.22a) (1.plasma. we must consider classical electrostatics and classical magnetostatics as two independent theories. the laws of electrostatics and magnetostatics can be summarised in two pairs of time-independent. vanishes when integrated over a large sphere far away from the localised source j(x ).3 Electrodynamics
As we saw in the previous sections.21b)
(1. and that the second integral vanishes because · j = 0 for stationary currents (no charge accumulation in space). obtained by applying Gauss’s theorem.73) on page 169.18) In the ﬁrst of the two integrals on the right hand side.19)
Then we note that the ﬁrst integral in the result.21a) (1.22b)
×B
(x) = µ0 j(x)
Since there is nothing a priori which connects Estat directly with Bstat . namely the equations of classical electrostatics ρ(x) ε0 stat × E (x) = 0 · Estat (x) = and the equations of classical magnetostatics · Bstat (x) = 0
stat
(1. by utilising Formula (F.
Downloaded from http://www.56) on page 168 as follows: 1 |x − x | V 1 ∂ = xk d3x ˆ · j(x ) ∂xk |x − x | V 1 ∂ − d3x = xk dS · j(x ) ˆ ∂xk |x − x | V S d3x [j(x ) · ]
−
d3x
V
· j(x ) 1 |x − x |
1 |x − x |
· j(x )
(1.20)
V
1. we use the representation of the Dirac delta function given in Formula (F. uncoupled vector partial differential equations.

20) on the previous page.plasma. In the case of non-stationary sources and ﬁelds. x )
V
V
∂ = µ0 j(t. x) ∂t
1 |x − x | (1. Electric charge is a conserved quantity and electric current is a transport of electric charge. Doing so. 2. x). as a consequence.3.2 Maxwell’s displacement current
We recall from the derivation of Equation (1. x) = −∂ρ(t.23)
which states that the time rate of change of electric charge ρ(t. j has to be deﬁned in statistical mechanical terms as j(t. x )δ(x − x ) + µ0 ∂ 4π ∂t d3x ρ(t. The electric charge conservation law can be formulated in the equation of continuity ∂ρ(t. x. in Maxwell’s displacement current. v) is the (normalised) distribution function for particle species α with electric charge qα . This is the celebrated Faraday’s law of induction.
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. x) + µ0 ε0 E(t. x) = ∑α qα d3v v fα (t.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. In the simplest case it can be deﬁned as j = vρ where v is the velocity of the electric charge density ρ. x) = µ0 d3x j(t.23). x) denote the time-dependent electric current density. This uniﬁcation of the theories of electricity and magnetism is motivated by two empirically established facts: 1. v) where fα (t.i
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However.
1. x) = 0 ∂t (1. when we include time-dependence. x) + · j(t. we must.24)
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1.uu. and formally repeating the steps in the derivation of Equation (1. x) is balanced by a divergence in the electric current density j(t. x)/∂t. In general.1 Equation of continuity for electric charge
Let j(t. these theories are uniﬁed into one theory. classical electrodynamics.20) on the previous page that there we used the fact that in magnetostatics ·j(x) = 0. This fact manifests itself in the equation of continuity and. set · j(t. we would obtain the formal result × B(t. A change in the magnetic ﬂux through a loop will induce an EMF electric ﬁeld in the loop. in accordance with the continuity Equation (1. x.3.

plasma. its existence has far-reaching physical consequences as it predicts the existence of electromagnetic radiation that can carry energy and momentum over very long distances.i
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.5) on page 4 to time-varying ﬁelds allows us to make the identiﬁcation 1 ∂ 4πε0 ∂t d3x ρ(t. x )
V
1 |x − x |
=
1 ∂ − ∂t 4πε0 ∂ = E(t. as the ﬁrst term in a Taylor expansion of the law j[E(t. which can be split up in ‘ordinary’ conduction currents. We can view Ohm’s law. We draw the attention to the fact that even in cases
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. x)].
Downloaded from http://www.27) above. x) = σE(t. x)/∂t is the famous displacement current. a current density j(t. in the last step. As we shall see later. in a stroke of genius.3. x) is assumed to represent the density of the total electric current. x )
V
1 |x − x | (1. σ is a tensor. The displacement current is an extra term which behaves like a current density ﬂowing in vacuum. by Maxwell [8] in order to make the right hand side of this equation divergence free when j(t.27)
where σ is the electric conductivity (S/m). for instance in an anisotropic conductor. In the most general cases. Under certain physical conditions.
1. even in vacuum. we have assumed that a generalisation of Equation (1. x) (1. x) = µ0 j(t.3
E LECTRODYNAMICS
11
where. This term was introduced. x) + ∂ ε0 E(t.3 Electromotive force
If an electric ﬁeld E(t. x) ∂t (1. x) ∂t
d3x ρ(t. called Ohm’s law: j(t.uu. The result is Maxwell’s source equation for the B ﬁeld × B(t. polarisation currents and magnetisation currents. This general law incorporates non-linear effects such as frequency mixing. There exist also hydrodynamical and chemical processes which can create currents. Examples of media which are highly non-linear are semiconductors and plasma. and for certain materials. Equation (1.26)
where the last term ∂ε0 E(t. we will need to consider this formal result further. x) is applied to a conducting medium. one can sometimes assume a linear relationship between the electric current density j and E. x) will be produced in this medium.25)
Later.

1. x) = dl · E(t.27) on the previous page.
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. In the presence of such a ﬁeld EEMF .4 Faraday’s law of induction
In Subsection 1.8) which states that × Estat (x) = 0 and thus that Estat is a conservative ﬁeld (it can be expressed as a gradient of a scalar ﬁeld). on page 5 we derived Equation (1.3. x) ∂t S S
(1. Stationary currents therefore require that an electric ﬁeld which corresponds to an electromotive force (EMF) is present.29) above vanishes and that this equation becomes E= dl · EEMF (1. we still have to use Ohm’s law with care. This implies that the closed line integral of E stat in Equation (1. in Maxwell’s generalised form. x). this electric ﬁeld will exert work on the charges in the medium and. time-dependent (temporal dispersive media) but then it is often the case that Equation (1. Equation (1. in general. there will be some energy loss. x) dt
C
d =− dt
∂ dS · B(t. Ohm’s law. If the current is caused by an applied electric ﬁeld E(t.i
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when the linear relation between E and j is a good approximation. If E is irrotational (conservative). unless the medium is superconducting.31)
Downloaded from http://www.1. takes the form j = σ(Estat + EEMF ) The electromotive force is deﬁned as E=
C
(1. x) = − d Φm (t. In particular.plasma.uu.28)
dl · (Estat + EEMF )
(1. reads E(t. This is formulated in Faraday’s law which. The conductivity σ is.27) on the preceding page is valid for each individual Fourier component of the ﬁeld.30)
C
It has been established experimentally that a nonconservative EMF ﬁeld is produced in a closed circuit C in the magnetic ﬂux through this circuit varies with time.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. The rate at which this energy is expended is j · E per unit volume. j will decay away with time.29)
where dl is a tangential line element of the closed loop C. x) = − dS · B(t.2 we derived the differential equations for the electrostatic ﬁeld.

3
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13
v
dS B(x)
v C dl
B(x)
F IGURE 1.
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1.plasma.4: A loop C which moves with velocity v in a spatially varying magnetic ﬁeld B(x) will sense a varying magnetic ﬂux during the motion.3.uu. transforms it into the differential equation ∂ B(t.
where Φm is the magnetic ﬂux and S is the surface encircled by C which can be interpreted as a generic stationary ‘loop’ and not necessarily as a conducting circuit. Application of Stokes’ theorem on this integral equation.4. Let us therefore consider the case. The convective derivative is evaluated according to the well-known operator formula × E(t. that the ‘loop’ is moved in such a way that it links a magnetic ﬁeld which varies during the movement.32) ∂t which is valid for arbitrary variations in the ﬁelds and constitutes the Maxwell equation which explicitly connects electricity with magnetism. x) (1.33)
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x) = dl · EEMF = −
S
(1. Applying this rule to Faraday’s law. x) = − d dt dS · B = − dS · ∂B − ∂t dS · (v · )B (1.17) on page 8 holds also for time-varying ﬁelds: · B(t. we obtain E(t. we ﬁnally get E(t. according to Formula (F.41)
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C
S
where EEMF is the ﬁeld which is induced in the ‘loop’.31) on page 12.40)
In the ﬁxed system. and Equation (1.i
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which follows immediately from the rules of differentiation of an arbitrary differentiable function f (t.35)
(it is one of Maxwell’s equations) so that.uu. dl · (EEMF − v × B) = − dS · ∂B ∂t (1. x) = dl · EEMF = − dS · ∂B − ∂t dl · (B × v) (1. in the moving system.59) on page 168.. x(t)). x) = 0 (1.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. Equation (1.34) in the following way: E(t. an observer measures the electric ﬁeld E = EEMF − v × B (1.34)
S
S
S
During spatial differentiation v is to be considered as constant.plasma. The use of Stokes’ theorem ‘backwards’ on Equation (1.
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. rearranging the terms.38)
C
S
C
or. i. × (B × v) = (v · )B allowing us to rewrite Equation (1.e.36)
C
d dt
S
dS · B × (B × v)
=−
dS ·
∂B − ∂t
(1.39) above yields × (EEMF − v × B) = − ∂B ∂t (1.37)
S
dS ·
With Stokes’ theorem applied to the last integral.

45d)
In these equations ρ(t. x).
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. x) ∂t ·E = (1. conduction currents (motion of free charges) as well as all atomistic (polarisation. a moving observer measures the following Lorentz force on a charge q qEEMF = qE + q(v × B) (1.se/CED/Book
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1. Together with the appropriate constitutive relations. Another name often used for them is the Maxwell-Lorentz equations.e.3
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Hence.45b) (1. x) and B(t. we can conclude that for a stationary observer. and j(t. the Maxwell equation ×E = − ∂B ∂t (1. x) represents the total.42)
corresponding to an ‘effective’ electric ﬁeld in the ‘loop’ (moving observer) EEMF = E + (v × B) (1. i.e.5 Maxwell’s microscopic equations
We are now able to collect the results from the above considerations and formulate the equations of classical electrodynamics valid for arbitrary variations in time and space of the coupled electric and magnetic ﬁelds E(t. x) ε0 ∂B ×E = − ∂t ·B = 0 ∂E × B = ε 0 µ0 + µ0 j(t. and the initial and boundary conditions pertinent to the physical situation at hand. The equations are ρ(t.3.plasma.. As they stand. free as well as induced (polarisation) charges.45c) (1. i.
Downloaded from http://www. electric current. x) represents the total. electric charge.uu. which relate ρ and j to the ﬁelds. they form a system of well-posed partial differential equations which completely determine E and B.. the equations therefore incorporate the classical interaction between all electric charges and currents in the system and are called Maxwell’s microscopic equations.45a) (1.43)
Hence.
1.44)
is indeed valid even if the ‘loop’ is moving. possibly both time and space dependent.

However. albeit not a complete.
i i i
.48)
i.46b)
Under certain conditions.46a) (1. B] H = H[t.e.3. x) ∂t (1.49b) (1. these derived ﬁelds are complicated nonlocal. Let us follow Dirac
Downloaded from http://www.45) provide a correct classical picture for arbitrary ﬁeld and source distributions. for macroscopic substances it is sometimes convenient to introduce new derived ﬁelds which represent the electric and magnetic ﬁelds in which. In the most general case.uu. we see that they exhibit a certain. These ﬁelds are the electric displacement D and the magnetising ﬁeld H. we may assume that the response of a substance to the ﬁelds is linear so that D = εE H=µ B
−1
(1.i
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C LASSICAL E LECTRODYNAMICS
1.45). symmetry.
1. that the derived ﬁelds are linearly proportional to the primary ﬁelds and that the electric displacement (magnetising ﬁeld) is only dependent on the electric (magnetic) ﬁeld. The ﬁeld equations expressed in terms of the derived ﬁeld quantities D and H are · D = ρ(t. x) ∂B ×E = − ∂t ·B = 0 ∂D ×H = + j(t.49a) (1. the material properties of the substances are already included. B] (1.49c) (1. nonlinear functionals of the primary ﬁelds E and B: D = D[t..47) (1.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. including both microscopic and macroscopic scales. E. in an average sense. x. for instance for very low ﬁeld strengths. We will study them in more detail in Chapter 6.49d)
and are called Maxwell’s macroscopic equations.4 Electromagnetic Duality
If we look more closely at the microscopic Maxwell equations (1.plasma. x.6 Maxwell’s macroscopic equations
The microscopic ﬁeld equations (1. E.

the Maxwell equations will be symmetrised into the following four coupled. which we denote by jm = jm (t.53f)
j → −cj
e
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. x). x).23) on page 10.52)
which has the same form as that for the electric monopoles (electric charges) and currents.50c) to rewrite this relation.50) exhibit the following symmetry (recall that ε0 µ0 = 1/c2 ): E → cB
e m
(1.50b).51)
where we used the fact that.i
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i
1.53e) (1. Taking the divergence of (1. according to Formula (F. Equation (1. the divergence of a curl always vanishes.50a) (1. and a magnetic current density. partial differential equations: ρe ε0 ∂B ×E = − − µ0 jm ∂t 1 ρm · B = µ0 ρm = 2 c ε0 1 ∂E ∂E + µ0 je = 2 + µ0 je × B = ε 0 µ0 ∂t c ∂t ·E = (1.4
E LECTROMAGNETIC D UALITY
17
and make the ad hoc assumption that there exist magnetic monopoles represented by a magnetic charge density.53d) (1.63) on page 168. we obtain the equation of continuity for magnetic monopoles ∂ρm + · jm = 0 ∂t (1.53c)
e
cρ → ρ
m
cB → −E
cj → j
m
ρ → −cρ
e m
(1.se/CED/Book
i i i
. we ﬁnd that · ( × E) = − ∂ ( · B) − µ0 · jm ≡ 0 ∂t (1. which we denote by ρm = ρm (t.53b) (1.50b) (1. vector. We notice that the new Equations (1. Using (1. With these new quantities included in the theory.50c) (1. and with the electric charge density denoted ρe and the electric current density denoted je .53a) (1.50d)
We shall call these equations Dirac’s symmetrised Maxwell equations or the electromagnetodynamic equations.plasma.
Downloaded from http://www.uu.

Magnetic charge exists and is indestructible in the same way that electric charge exists and is indestructible.54b) (1.54e) (1. B a pseudovector (axial vector).15) on page 8 for Bstat ]: Estat (x) = − x−x µ0 µ0 d3x jm (x ) × = 3 4π V 4π |x − x | jm (x ) µ0 × d3x =− 4π |x − x | V d3x jm (x ) × 1 |x − x | (1.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.54c) (1.59) on
Downloaded from http://www.i “main” — 2003/1/23 — 18:57 — page 18 — #36
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C LASSICAL E LECTRODYNAMICS
which is a particular case (θ = π/2) of the general duality transformation (depicted by the Hodge star operator) E = E cos θ + cB sin θ c ρ = cρ cos θ + ρ sin θ c j = cj cos θ + j sin θ
m e m
(1.
i i i
.1 FARADAY ’ S LAW AS
A CONSEQUENCE OF CONSERVATION OF MAGNETIC CHARGE
Postulate 1.
E XAMPLE 1. x) = 0 ∂t Use this postulate and Dirac’s symmetrised form of Maxwell’s equations to derive Faraday’s law. a Biot-Savartlike law for electric ﬁelds [cf. The assumption of the existence of magnetic charges suggests a Coulomb-like law for magnetic ﬁelds: Bstat (x) = µ0 µ0 x−x =− d3x ρm (x ) 3 4π V 4π |x − x | 1 µ0 d3x ρm (x ) =− 4π V |x − x | Estat ] d3x ρm (x )
V
1 |x − x |
(1.1 (Indestructibility of magnetic charge).54a) (1. if magnetic currents exist.plasma. which behaves as a mixing angle in a two-dimensional ‘charge space’. must be pseudoscalars and jm a pseudovector. Equation (1. invariant. ρe a (true) scalar. Formula (F. In other words we postulate that there exists an equation of continuity for magnetic charges: ∂ρm (t.54f)
c B = −E sin θ + cB cos θ
e e m m e m
ρ = −cρ sin θ + ρ cos θ
e e m
j = −cj sin θ + j cos θ
which leaves the symmetrised Maxwell equations.55)
[cf. Equation (1.56)
V
Taking the curl of the latter and using the operator ‘bac-cab’ rule.54d) (1. and hence the physics they describe (often referred to as electromagnetodynamics). Since E and je are (true or polar) vectors.uu.5) on page 4 for and. x) + · jm (t. then ρm and θ.

58)
We assume that Formula (1.uu.24) on page 10] which we recognise as Equation (1.57)
V
Comparing with Equation (1. thereby letting jm tend to zero. we ﬁnd that × Estat (x) = − =− µ0 4π
V
µ0 × 4π
2
×
d3x jm (x )
jm (x ) |x − x | V 1 µ0 + 4π |x − x | d3x
= d3x [jm (x ) · ] 1 |x − x | (1.e. are invariant under the duality transformation (1. By postulating the indestructibility of a hypothetical magnetic charge.56) on the preceding page is valid also for time-varying magnetic currents. Equation (F. we obtain.1
D UALITY OF
THE ELECTROMAGNETODYNAMIC EQUATIONS
E XAMPLE 1. Equation (1.50b) on page 17. Explicit application of the transformation yields
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. we obtain × Estat (x) = −µ0
V
d3x jm (x ) δ(x − x ) = −µ0 jm (x)
(1. we have thereby been able to replace Faraday’s experimental results on electromotive forces and induction in loops as a foundation for the Maxwell equations by a more appealing one.18) on page 9 for Estat and the evaluation of the integrals there. and the assumption of the generalisation of Equation (1.26) on page 11].
E ND OF
EXAMPLE
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1.50b) on page 17.54). A transformation of this electromagnetodynamic result by rotating into the ‘electric realm’ of charge space. Equation (1. × E(t. x) = −µ0 d3x jm (t. yields the electrodynamic Equation (1. formally.59)
= −µ0 jm (t. electromagnetodynamic form of Maxwell’s equations (Dirac’s symmetrised Maxwell equations).50) on page 17. Equations (1.73) on page 169..plasma. the Faraday law in the ordinary Maxwell equations. dual to the electric displacement current [cf. This process also provides an alternative interpretation of the term ∂B∂t as a magnetic displacement current.
Downloaded from http://www.4
E LECTROMAGNETIC D UALITY
19
page 168. x )
V
V
1 |x − x | (1. x )δ(x − x ) − ∂ B(t. Then.se/CED/Book
i i i
. i. with the use of the representation of the Dirac delta function.52) on page 17. Equation (1.2
Show that the symmetric. x) ∂t µ0 ∂ 4π ∂t d3x ρm (t.55) on the facing page to time-dependent magnetic charge distributions. the equation of continuity for magnetic charge. x) −
[cf.

65d) (1.i “main” — 2003/1/23 — 18:57 — page 20 — #38
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C LASSICAL E LECTRODYNAMICS
ρe cos θ + cµ0 ρm sin θ ε0 1 1 ρe ρe cos θ + ρm sin θ = = ε0 c ε0 ∂ B 1 ∂ × E+ − E sin θ + B cos θ = × (E cos θ + cB sin θ) + ∂t ∂t c 1 ∂E ∂B cos θ + cµ0 je sin θ + sin θ = −µ0 jm cos θ − ∂t c ∂t ∂B 1 ∂E sin θ + cos θ = −µ0 jm cos θ + cµ0 je sin θ − c ∂t ∂t = −µ0 (−cje sin θ + jm cos θ) = −µ0 jm 1 ρe · B = · (− E sin θ + B cos θ) = − sin θ + µ0 ρm cos θ c cε0 = µ0 −cρe sin θ + ρm cos θ = µ0 ρm · E= · (E cos θ + cB sin θ) = × B− 1 ∂ E = c2 ∂t
(1.65c) cos θ cos θ jm = −cje sin θ + cje tan θ cos θ = −cje sin θ + cje sin θ = 0 (1.plasma.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.64b)
Downloaded from http://www.65a) 1 1 e e 2 e 2 (ρ cos θ + ρ sin θ) = ρ = cos θ cos θ m e e e ρ = −cρ sin θ + cρ tan θ cos θ = −cρ sin θ + cρe sin θ = 0 (1.3
D IRAC ’ S SYMMETRISED M AXWELL EQUATIONS FOR A
FIXED MIXING ANGLE
Show that for a ﬁxed mixing angle θ such that ρm = cρe tan θ jm = cje tan θ the symmetrised Maxwell equations reduce to the usual Maxwell equations. Explicit application of the ﬁxed mixing angle conditions on the duality transformation (1.uu.60)
(1.61)
(1.54) on page 18 yields 1 1 ρe = ρe cos θ + ρm sin θ = ρe cos θ + cρe tan θ sin θ c c (1.65b) 1 e 1 e je = je cos θ + je tan θ sin θ = (j cos2 θ + je sin2 θ) = j (1.64a) (1.
i i i
.2
E XAMPLE 1.63) 1 ∂E 1 ∂B cos θ − sin θ − 2 c ∂t c ∂t 1 m = µ0 j sin θ + je cos θ = µ0 je c QED
E ND
OF EXAMPLE
1.62)
1 1 ∂ × (− E sin θ + B cos θ) − 2 (E cos θ + cB sin θ) c c ∂t 1 1 ∂B 1 ∂E = µ0 jm sin θ + cos θ + µ0 je cos θ + 2 cos θ c c ∂t c ∂t (1.

we ﬁnd that · E= and · B = µ0 ρm = 0 so that ·E = 1 ρe ρe cos θ − 0 = cos θ ε0 ε0 (1.54) on page 18 yields E = E cos θ − c B sin θ This means that ·E = · E cos θ − c · B sin θ (1.66)
Furthermore. We notice that the inverse of the transformation given by Equation (1. By varying the mixing angle θ we can change the fraction of magnetic monopoles at will without changing the laws of electrodynamics. For θ = 0 we recover the usual Maxwell electrodynamics as we know it.69)
and so on for the other equations.plasma.
1. ﬁxed ratio between the two types of charges is a matter of convention. So whether we assume that the particles are only electrically charged or have also a magnetic charge with a given. as long as we assume that this fraction is the same for all particles. from the expressions for the transformed charges and currents above. equivalently.67) (1.uu.i “main” — 2003/1/23 — 18:57 — page 21 — #39
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1. ‘hides’ the magnetic monopole inﬂuence (ρ m and jm ) on the dynamic equations.
Downloaded from http://www. Such particles are referred to as dyons [14].4
E LECTROMAGNETIC D UALITY
21
Hence.1
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.70) QED
E ND OF
EXAMPLE
ρe 1 ρe = ε0 cos θ ε0
(1. a ﬁxed ratio between the electric and magnetic charges/currents.68)
(1.3
The invariance of Dirac’s symmetrised Maxwell equations under the similarity transformation means that the amount of magnetic monopole density ρm is irrelevant for the physics as long as the ratio ρm /ρe = tan θ is kept constant. a ﬁxed mixing angle.se/CED/Book
i i i
. or.

Searches for magnetic charge continue at the present time. the cross product of G itself vanishes: G × G = (E + icB) × (E + icB) = E × E − c2 B × B + ic(E × B) + ic(B × E) = 0 + 0 + ic(E × B) − ic(E × B) = 0 (1.5
D UALITY EXPRESSED IN THE COMPLEX FIELD SIX .e. The inner product of G with itself G · G = (E + icB) · (E + icB) = E 2 − c2 B2 + 2icE · B is conserved.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.plasma.VECTOR
Expressed in the complex ﬁeld vector.4.75) (1.74) (1.71)
1.73b) (1. and may have played an important role in the development of the universe. 3. E 2 − c2 B2 = Const E · B = Const as we shall see later. The cross product of G with the complex conjugate of itself G × G∗ = (E + icB) × (E − icB) = E × E + c2 B × B − ic(E × B) + ic(B × E) = 0 + 0 − ic(E × B) − ic(E × B) = −2ic(E × B) (1.
Downloaded from http://www.
E ND
OF EXAMPLE
1.uu. . . 2.VECTOR
The complex ﬁeld six-vector G(t. x) where E. x) + icB(t. x) = E(t. the duality trans1 Nobel
laureate Julian Schwinger (1918–1994) has put it [15]:
‘.76)
is proportional to the electromagnetic power ﬂux. As with any vector. there are strong theoretical reasons to believe that magnetic charge exists in nature. I.73a) (1.i “main” — 2003/1/23 — 18:57 — page 22 — #40
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C LASSICAL E LECTRODYNAMICS
E XAMPLE 1. introduced in Example 1. has a number of interesting properties: (1.4
T HE
COMPLEX FIELD SIX .4
E XAMPLE 1. emphasizing that electromagnetism is very far from being a closed object’. The inner product of G with the complex conjugate of itself G · G∗ = (E + icB) · (E − icB) = E 2 + c2 B2 is proportional to the electromagnetic ﬁeld energy.72)
4..
i i i
. B ∈ R3 and hence G ∈ C3 .

ISBN 981-02-2095-2. London. L IFSHITZ.. Electromagnetic Theory. Oxford . ISBN 0-471-30932-X. G REINER. x). New York.77)
(1.
E ND OF
EXAMPLE
1.uu. third ed. B ECKER. Inc. [5] J. 2 of Course of Theoretical Physics. [6] L. Ltd.54) on page 18 become G = E + ic B = E cos θ + cB sin θ − iE sin θ + icB cos θ from which it is easy to see that G · G∗ = while G · G = e−2iθ G · G (1.. Theory and Applications. BARRETT AND D.
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. .
Downloaded from http://www. G RIMES. . H ALLÉN.i “main” — 2003/1/23 — 18:57 — page 23 — #41
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1. ISBN 0-387-94799-X.. W. NY. [3] W. L ANDAU AND E. [4] E. 1999.. fourth revised English ed. 1962.4
B IBLIOGRAPHY
23
formation Equations (1.78)
Furthermore. John Wiley & Sons. Electromagnetic Fields and Interactions. vol. JACKSON. Ltd. M. New York. ISBN 0-486-64290-9. 1975. Heidelberg. D. World Scientiﬁc Publishing Co. Singapore. assuming that θ = θ(t. we see that the spatial and temporal differentiation of G leads to ∂ G = −i(∂t θ)e−iθ G + e−iθ ∂t G ∂t ∂ · G ≡ · G = −ie−iθ θ · G + e−iθ · G ∂t G ≡ ∂× G ≡ × G = −ie
−iθ
(1.79) G = e−iθ G · eiθ G∗ = |G|2
2
= E(cos θ − i sin θ) + icB(cos θ − i sin θ) = e−iθ (E + icB) = e−iθ G
(1. Pergamon Press.80b) (1..80a) (1. .plasma. Classical Electrodynamics. 1995. . Dover Publications..5
Bibliography
[1] T. 1982.se/CED/Book
i i i
.80c)
θ×G+e
−iθ
×G
which means that ∂t G transforms as G itself only if θ is time-independent. and that · G and × G transform as G itself only if θ is space-independent.. Berlin. Foundations. Chapman & Hall. M. NY . New York. Inc. The Classical Theory of Fields. [2] R. Springer-Verlag. . Advanced Electromagnetism. D. 1996. Classical Electrodynamics. . ISBN 0-08-025072-6.

155 (1864). Classical Field Theory. Inc. 757–761. 1962. A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. .. . Reading. 1997. ISBN 0-486-60637-8. . . Perseus Books Publishing. [11] D. . [8] J. B. Dover Publications. Science. . . Cambridge .uu. NY. Inc. S CHWINGER. [15] J. [9] J. J R . C. [13] F. New York. C. Dover Publications. L OW. Classical Electricity and Magnetism.. 165 (1969). Classical Electromagnetic Theory. 1954. K. 1. New York. third ed. M C P HEDRAN. second ed. M ELROSE AND R. John Wiley & Sons. C. Inc... Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. ROHRLICH.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. Reading.plasma. third ed. ISBN 0-7382-0056-5. . ISBN 0-201-05702-6. Electromagnetic Processes in Dispersive Media.. [12] W. Perseus Books.i
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“main” — 2003/1/23 — 18:57 — page 24 — #42
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C LASSICAL E LECTRODYNAMICS
[7] F.. L.
i i i
. A. Royal Society Transactions. C. ISBN 0-47157269-1. MA . ISBN 0-486-60636-8. Inc. MA . Toronto. New York. 1998. Inc.. H. A. and Singapore. L. . New York. VANDERLINDE. M AXWELL. M AXWELL. Reading. John Wiley & Sons. K. Classical Electrodynamics. vol. Chichester. NY and London. [16] J. S CHWINGER . 1991.. ISBN 0-471-59551-9.L. 1954. A dynamical theory of the electromagnetic ﬁeld.
Downloaded from http://www. MA. 1990. P HILLIPS. A magnetic model of matter. New York. . . 2. ISBN 0-52141025-8.. [17] J. NY. A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. D E R AAD . 1953. T SAI. E. Electromagnetic Theory. Inc.. NY . Classical Charged Particles. S TRATTON. L. M ILTON . M AXWELL. PANOFSKY AND M. [14] J. pp.C. AND W. ISBN 07-062150-0. vol. . ISBN 0-201-48300-9. Brisbane. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1993. Cambridge University Press.. [10] J.

x) of arbitrary time.1c) (2. We shall derive these second order equations which. However.1d)
and can be viewed as an axiomatic basis for classical electrodynamics. and then discuss the implications of them. as we shall see are wave equations. Equations (1. x) and current distributions j(t. prescribed charge distributions ρ(t. as is well known from the theory of differential equations. It turns out that these alternative equations are wave equations. second order partial equations. these four ﬁrst order. Maxwell’s microscopic equations [cf. coupled partial differential vector equations can be rewritten as two un-coupled.i
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Electromagnetic Waves
In this chapter we investigate the dynamical properties of the electromagnetic ﬁeld by deriving a set of equations which are alternatives to the Maxwell equations.45) on page 15] are ρ(t. x) × B = ε 0 µ0 ∂t ·E =
(Coulomb’s/Gauss’s law) (Faraday’s law) (No free magnetic charges) (Ampère’s/Maxwell’s law)
(2. In particular.and space-dependent form. x) ε0 ∂B ×E = − ∂t ·B = 0 ∂E + µ0 j(t.1b) (2. indicating that electromagnetic waves are natural and common manifestations of electrodynamics. these equations are well suited for calculating the electric and magnetic ﬁelds E and B from given. one for E and one for B.
25
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.1a) (2. We shall also show how the B wave ﬁeld can be easily calculated from the solution of the E wave equation.

since ρ = 0.64) on page 168 × ( × E) = ( · E) −
2
E
(2.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.1d).1.i
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26
E LECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
2.11) on page 6 and rearranging.1 The wave equation for E
In order to derive the wave equation for E we take the curl of (2.
2.4)
(2. yields j = σE we ﬁnd that Equation (2.2) can be rewritten
2
(2.28) on page 12.2)
According to the operator triple product ‘bac-cab’ rule Equation (F.1a) on the preceding page yields ·E = 0 and since EEMF = 0. Ohm’s law. also using Equation (1.8) ∂t ∂t
Downloaded from http://www.3)
Furthermore. and no electromotive force EEMF = 0. Equation (1.
2.5)
E − µ0
∂ ∂ σE + ε0 E = 0 ∂t ∂t
(2.2 The wave equation for B
The wave equation for B is derived in much the same way as the wave equation for E.7)
which is the homogeneous wave equation for E.
2
E − µ0 σ
∂E 1 ∂2 E − =0 ∂t c2 ∂t2
(2.1b) and using (2.uu.1d) and use Ohm’s law j = σE to obtain × ( × B) = µ0 × j + ε0 µ0 ∂ ∂ ( × E) = µ0 σ × E + ε0 µ0 ( × E) (2. to obtain × ( × E) = − ∂ ∂ ∂ j + ε0 E ( × B) = −µ0 ∂t ∂t ∂t (2.6)
or.
i i i
. ρ = 0.1 The Wave Equations
We restrict ourselves to derive the wave equations for the electric ﬁeld vector E and the magnetic ﬁeld vector B in a volume with no net charge.plasma.1. Take the curl of (2. Equation (2.

plasma.3 The time-independent wave equation for E
We now look for a solution to any of the wave equations in the form of a timeharmonic wave.1c).11)
E − µ0 σ
1 ∂2 ∂ E0 (x)e−iωt − 2 2 E0 (x)e−iωt ∂t c ∂t 1 2 = E − µ0 σ(−iω)E0 (x)e−iωt − 2 (−iω)2 E0 (x)e−iωt c 1 = 2 E − µ0 σ(−iω)E − 2 (−iω)2 E = c ω2 σ = 2E + 2 1 + i E=0 c ε0 ω
(2. we can rewrite this equation as
2
· B = 0 for any medium and rearran(2. As is clear from the above.i
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2. Equation (2. since the results for the B ﬁeld follow trivially.14)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. ging. This yields
2
(2.7) on the preceding page. with the use of Equation (F.se/CED/Book
i i i
.uu.12)
Introducing the relaxation time τ = ε0 /σ of the medium in question we can rewrite this equation as
2
E+
ω2 c2
1+
i E=0 τω
(2.13) tends to
2
E+
ω2 E=0 c2
(2.7) on the facing page. We therefore make the following Fourier component Ansatz E = E0 (x)e−iωt and insert this into Equation (2.9)
Using the fact that.1
T HE WAVE E QUATIONS
27
which. it sufﬁces to consider only the E ﬁeld. according to (2. We notice that it is of exactly the same form as the wave equation for the electric ﬁeld.1.
2.
Downloaded from http://www. Equation (2.64) on page 168 and Equation (2.1c) on page 25 can be rewritten ( · B) −
2
B = −µ0 σ
∂B ∂2 − ε0 µ0 2 B ∂t ∂t
(2.13)
In the limit of long τ.10)
B − µ0 σ
∂B 1 ∂2 B − =0 ∂t c2 ∂t2
This is the wave equation for the magnetic ﬁeld.

19b) ×E = − ∂t · B = µ 0 ρm (2. Equations (1. representing weakly damped propagating waves.17)
where in the last step we introduced the characteristic impedance for vacuum R0 = µ0 ≈ 376. In the short τ limit we have instead
2
E + iωµ0 σE = 0
(2.i “main” — 2003/1/23 — 18:57 — page 28 — #46
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E LECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
which is a time-independent wave equation for E. and SHF signals.19b) and using (2.19a) ε0 ∂B − µ 0 jm (2. we may say that the displacement current ε 0 ∂E/∂t is negligible relative to the conduction current j = σE.19d).11) on page 6.1
WAVE EQUATIONS IN
Derive the wave equation for the E ﬁeld described by the electromagnetodynamic equations (Dirac’s symmetrised Maxwell equations) [cf. and assuming. the propagation term ∂2 E/c2 ∂t2 is negligible even for VHF.19c) ∂E × B = ε 0 µ0 + µ 0 je (2. Hence. for symmetry reasons.15)
which is a time-independent diffusion equation for E. that there exists a linear relation between the magnetic current density jm and the magnetic
Downloaded from http://www.plasma. in metallic conductors. using the fact that c = 1/ ε0 µ0 according to Equation (1.18)
E XAMPLE 2.16) k= c √ we can write.19d) ∂t under the assumption of vanishing net electric and magnetic charge densities and in the absence of electromotive and magnetomotive forces. σ σ 1 σ 1 = = = τω ε0 ω ε0 ck k µ0 σ = R0 ε0 k (2. Interpret this equation physically. Alternatively.7 Ω ε0
ELECTROMAGNETODYNAMICS
(2. which means that the diffusion picture is good for all frequencies lower than optical frequencies. If we introduce the vacuum wave number ω (2. ·E = Taking the curl of (2.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.
i i i
. For most metals τ ∼ 10−14 s.50) on page 17] ρe (2.uu. UHF.

plasma. hence. we obtain the timeindependent wave equation in Dirac’s symmetrised electrodynamics
2
E+
ω2 c2
1−
From this equation we conclude that the existence of magnetic charges (magnetic monopoles). je = σe E) jm = σ m B one ﬁnds. we analyse the time-independent wave equation for a single Fourier component.
Downloaded from http://www. Equation (2. no waves exist at all!
E ND OF
EXAMPLE
2. we can rewrite the wave equation as
2 2 E. Then our wave equation becomes
2
E + iωµ0 σe + =
2
σm c2 1−
E+
ω2 E − µ 2 σm σe E 0 c2
E+
ω2 c2
1 µ0 m e σe + σm /c2 E=0 σ σ +i 2 ε ω 0 ε0 ω
(2.21) Using the vector operator identity × ( × E) = ( · E) − and the fact that · E = 0 for a vanishing net electric charge. the wave equation becomes a (time-independent) diffusion equation
2
R2 m e σe + σm /c2 0 σ σ 1 + i E = 0 R2 m e ω2 ε0 ω 1 − ω0 σ σ 2
(2. µ 0 /ε0 is the square of the vacuum radiation resistance R0 . that 1 ∂E ∂ ∂ ( × B) = −µ0 σm × B − µ0 j e + 2 ∂t ∂t c ∂t 1 ∂E ∂E 1 ∂2 E − − µ0 σ e c2 ∂t ∂t c2 ∂t2 (2. we see that we pick up extra terms.
(2.22)
This is the homogeneous electromagnetodynamic wave equation for E we were after. Compared to the ordinary electrodynamic wave equation for E. even if the electric conductivity vanishes.7) on page 26. Furthermore.uu.i
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i
2. and non-vanishing electric and magnetic conductivities would lead to a shift in the effective wave number of the wave. and rearranging a bit.1
T HE WAVE E QUATIONS
29
ﬁeld B (the analogue of Ohm’s law for electric currents.1
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. we note that in the particular case that √ ω = R0 σm σe .se/CED/Book
i i i
. according to Formula (2.24)
E + iωµ0 σe +
σm c2
E=0
(2.23)
Realising that.25)
and.18) on the preceding page.20)
× ( × E) = −µ0 × jm −
= −µ0 σm µ0 σe E +
E − µ 0 σe +
σm c2
∂E 1 ∂2 E − − µ2 σ m σ e E = 0 0 ∂t c2 ∂t2
(2. In order to understand what these extra terms mean physically. Finally. noting that ε0 µ0 = 1/c2 . the imaginary term does not necessarily vanish and the wave might therefore experience damping (or growth) according as σ m is positive (or negative) in a perfect electric isolator.

shows that the longitudinal component of E. Then the del operator becomes ˆ =n ˆ ∂ ∂ζ (2.uu.27d) by n.32) ∂E ∂ζ = − n· ˆ ∂B ∂t (2. with a decrement given by the relaxation time τ in the medium.i
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30
E LECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
2.e.29)
This.28)
which simpliﬁes to the ﬁrst-order ordinary differential equation for the normal component En of the electric ﬁeld dEn σ + En = 0 dt ε0 with the solution En = En0 e−σt/ε0 = En0 e−t/τ (2. we ﬁnd that ˆ 0 = n· n× ˆ ˆ ∂B ∂ζ = n· µ0 σ + ε0 µ0 ˆ ∂ E ∂t (2.
i i i
.27b) by n.plasma. i.27c) (2.30) (2.27a). x) + ε0 µ0 ∂E ∂E = µ0 σE + ε0 µ0 ∂t ∂t ∂B ∂t (2.31)
Downloaded from http://www.26)
and Maxwell’s equations attain the form ∂E ∂ζ ∂E n× ˆ ∂ζ ∂B n· ˆ ∂ζ ∂B n× ˆ ∂ζ n· ˆ =0 =− =0 = µ0 j(t.27d)
Scalar multiplying (2. the component which is perpendicular to the plane surface is independent of ζ and has a time dependence which exhibits an exponential decay.. Scalar multiplying (2.27b) (2. we similarly ﬁnd that ˆ 0 = n· n× ˆ ˆ or n· ˆ ∂B =0 ∂t (2.2 Plane Waves
Consider now the case where all ﬁelds depend only on the distance ζ to a given plane with unit normal n.27a) (2. together with (2.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.

37)
this solution can be written as E = E0 ei(k·x−ωt) (2. that they can each be represented by a Fourier component proportional to exp{−iωt}.i
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i
2. which describes the propagation of plane waves in a conducting medium. i = 1.7) on page 26.2
P LANE WAVES
31
From this.plasma. 3 (2. 2.27c). we can easily derive the equation ∂2 E ∂E 1 ∂2 E − µ0 σ − =0 ∂ζ 2 ∂t c2 ∂t2 (2.38)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.
2..e.34)
As is well known.35)
where f and g are arbitrary (non-pathological) functions of their respective arguments. In other words. If the medium is an insulator so that σ = 0.36)
By introducing the wave vector k = kn = ˆ ωˆ ω n= k ˆ c c (2. we conclude that the only longitudinal component of B must be constant in both time and space.1 Telegrapher’s equation
In analogy with Equation (2.se/CED/Book
i i i
. and (2. each component of this equation has a solution which can be written Ei = f (ζ − ct) + g(ζ + ct). then the equation takes the form of the one-dimensional wave equation ∂2 E 1 ∂2 E − =0 ∂ζ 2 c2 ∂t2 (2. i. This general solution represents perturbations which propagate along ζ.33)
This equation.
Downloaded from http://www. the only non-static solution must consist of transverse components.2. where the f perturbation propagates in the positive ζ direction and the g perturbation propagates in the negative ζ direction. the solution of Equation (2. If we assume that our electromagnetic ﬁelds E and B are time-harmonic.uu.34) becomes E = E0 e−i(ωt±kζ) = E0 ei(
kζ−ωt)
(2. is called the telegrapher’s equation.

gives n× ˆ ∂E = iωB = ik n× E ˆ ∂ζ (2.46) σ ε0 ω = (α2 − β2 ) + 2iαβ (2. to each transverse component of E.2.
2. and making the timeharmonic wave Ansatz in Equation (2. If E and/or B has a direction in space which is constant in time.27b) on page 30. solving for B.36).41)
where.uu. one ﬁnds that k2 1 + i or β2 = α2 − k2 αβ = k2 σ 2ε0 ω (2.
i i i
.2 Waves in conductive media
Assuming that our medium has a ﬁnite conductivity σ.44)
Downloaded from http://www. in the last step.16) on page 28 was used to introduce the wave number k. Taking the square root of this expression.i
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i
32
E LECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
Let us consider the lower sign in front of kζ in the exponent in (2. Inserting this solution into Equation (2.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. This corresponds to a wave which propagates in the direction of increasing ζ.42) (2.43)
Squaring. there exists an associated magnetic ﬁeld given by Equation (2. we have a plane polarised wave (or linearly polarised wave).33) on the previous page.45) (2. we ﬁnd that the time-independent telegrapher’s equation can be written ∂2 E ∂2 E + ε0 µ0 ω2 E + iµ0 σωE = 2 + K 2 E = 0 2 ∂ζ ∂ζ where K 2 = ε0 µ0 ω2 1 + i σ ε0 ω = ω2 c2 1+i σ ε0 ω = k2 1 + i σ ε0 ω (2.39)
or. Equation (2.plasma. we obtain K=k 1+i σ = α + iβ ε0 ω (2. B= 1 1ˆ k √ n× E = k × E = k × E = ε0 µ0 n× E ˆ ˆ ω ω c (2.40).40)
Hence.

From the above. in the last step. is damped. Equation (2.48a)
2
2 1+
σ ε0 ω
β=k
−1
2
(2. the ﬁelds are given. In the case that ε0 ω σ. rewritten α + iβ in the amplitude-phase form |A| exp{iγ}. the solution of the time-independent telegrapher’s equation.se/CED/Book
i i i
.plasma. and ﬁnd that it is given by B= 1 ˆ 1 ˆ 1 ˆ K k × E = ( k × E)(α + iβ) = ( k × E) |A| eiγ ω ω ω (2.47)
which can be easily solved and one ﬁnds that 1+ α=k
σ ε0 ω 2
+1 (2. can be written E = E0 e−βζ ei(αζ−ωt) (2.41) on the preceding page.50)
where we have. and that E and B in the wave are out of phase.2
P LANE WAVES
33
Squaring the latter and combining with the former.51)
From this analysis we conclude that when the wave impinges perpendicularly upon the medium.48b)
As a consequence.uu. and consequently also B. by E = E0 exp − B = (1 + i) µ0 σω ζ exp i 2 µ0 σω ζ − ωt 2 (2.40) on the facing page we can calculate the associated magnetic ﬁeld.i
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i
2. we immediately see that E.52b)
µ0 σ ( n× E ) ˆ 2ω
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. we can approximate K as follows: σ K = k 1+i ε0 ω √ = ε0 µ0 ω(1 + i)
1 2
σ ε0 ω =k i 1−i ε0 ω σ σ = (1 + i) 2ε0 ω µ0 σω 2
1 2
≈ k(1 + i)
σ 2ε0 ω
(2.
Downloaded from http://www. inside this medium. one obtains the second order algebraic equation (in α2 ) α2 (α2 − k2 ) = k 4 σ2 4ε2 ω2 0 (2.52a) (2.49)
With the aid of Equation (2.

e.uu..
i i i
.54)
Furthermore. i.3 Observables and Averages
In the above we have used complex notation quite extensively. if we have two physical vectors F and G which both are time-harmonic. the physically acceptable interpretation of the scalar product of two complex vectors.. then we must make the following interpretation F(t. is F(t. For instance. This is for mathematical convenience only.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. x) · G(t. every physical measurable quantity is always real valued. representing physical observables.i
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i
34
E LECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
Hence. letting ∗ denotes complex conjugate. However.plasma.53)
This distance δ is called the skin depth. we can express the real part of the complex vector F as 1 Re {F} = Re F0 (x) e−iωt = [F0 (x) e−iωt + F∗ (x) eiωt ] 0 2 (2. x) = Re {F} · Re {G} = Re F0 (x) e−iωt · Re G0 (x) e−iωt (2. Hence. It is particularly important to remember this when one works with products of physical quantities.56) 1 = Re F0 · G∗ + F0 · G0 e−2iωt 0 2 1 = Re F0 e−iωt · G∗ eiωt + F0 · G0 e−2iωt 0 2 1 = Re F(t. I. can be represented by Fourier components proportional to exp{−iωt}. x) + F0 · G0 e−2iωt 2
Downloaded from http://www.
2. x) · G∗ (t.55)
and similarly for G. x) · G(t. For instance.e. in this notation differentiations are almost trivial to perform. ‘Ephysical = Re {Emathematical }’. both ﬁelds fall off by a factor 1/e at a distance δ= 2 µ0 σω (2. x) = Re F0 (x) e−iωt · Re G0 (x) e−iωt 1 1 = [F0 (x) e−iωt + F∗ (x) eiωt ] · [G0 (x) e−iωt + G∗ (x) eiωt ] 0 0 2 2 1 = F0 · G∗ + F∗ · G0 + F0 · G0 e−2iωt + F∗ · G∗ e2iωt 0 0 0 0 4 (2.

.. MA . H. . If so.uu. P HILLIPS. New York. ISBN 0-471-30932-X.
Downloaded from http://www.
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. K. second ed. . 1962. . PANOFSKY AND M. NY . . ..se/CED/Book
i i i
. ISBN 0-201-05702-6. we measure temporal averages ( ) of our physical observables. Classical Electricity and Magnetism. third ed. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Classical Electrodynamics. Reading. . JACKSON. John Wiley & Sons. 1999.plasma.. D.57)
since the temporal average of the oscillating function exp{−2iωt} vanishes. we see that the average of the product of the two physical quantities represented by F and G can be expressed as 1 1 F · G ≡ Re {F} · Re {G} = Re F · G∗ = Re F∗ · G 2 2 (2.3
B IBLIOGRAPHY
35
Often in physics. Inc.i
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i
2. [2] W. Inc.
Bibliography
[1] J.

i
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i
36
E LECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
Downloaded from http://www.uu.
i i i
.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.plasma.

we get Estat (x) = − φstat (x) (3. Hence.i
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i
3
Electromagnetic Potentials
Instead of expressing the laws of electrodynamics in terms of electric and magnetic ﬁelds. shows that this equation has the solution φstat (x) = 1 4πε0 ρ(x ) 3 d x +α |x − x | (3.8) on page 5. An example of such a quantity is a scalar constant.
3.5) on page 4. the electrostatic ﬁeld Estat (x) is irrotational. we obtain Poisson’s equation
2 stat
φ
(x) = − · Estat (x) = −
ρ(x) ε0
(3.7) on page 5.1)
Taking the divergence of this and using Equation (1. The scalar function φstat (x) in Equation (3.1 The Electrostatic Scalar Potential
As we saw in Equation (1. it may be expressed in terms of the gradient of a scalar ﬁeld.
37
i i i
. namely Equation (1. In this chapter we will introduce and study the properties of such potentials. it turns out that it is often more convenient to express the theory in terms of potentials.2)
A comparison with the deﬁnition of Estat .3)
V
where the integration is taken over all source points x at which the charge density ρ(x ) is non-zero and α is an arbitrary quantity which has a vanishing gradient. If we denote this scalar ﬁeld by −φstat (x).3) is called the electrostatic scalar potential.

.
3.e.63) on page 168 we know that any 3D vector a has the property that · ( × a) ≡ 0 and in the derivation of Equation (1.plasma.62) on page 168 we know that such a vector can always be written as the gradient of a scalar ﬁeld.6)
Downloaded from http://www.and space-dependent magnetic ﬁeld. From Equation (F. let us study the electrodynamic potentials φ(t.15) on page 8. add to it a quantity whose spatial gradient vanishes.uu. Because of this divergence-free nature of the time. In the magnetostatic case.17) on page 8 in magnetostatics we found that · Bstat (x) = 0.5)
V
where a(x) is an arbitrary vector ﬁeld whose curl vanishes.
i i i
.3 The Electrodynamic Potentials
Let us now generalise the static analysis above to the electrodynamic case.i
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E LECTROMAGNETIC P OTENTIALS
3.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. We saw above that the electrostatic potential (as any scalar potential) is not unique: we may. x) and j(t. A similar arbitrariness is true also for the magnetostatic vector potential. In other words.45c) on page 15 we note that also in electrodynamics the homogeneous equation · B(t. we can express it as the curl of an electromagnetic vector potential: B(t. as described by Maxwell’s equations (1. From Equation (F. x). x).4)
where Astat (x) is called the magnetostatic vector potential. x) and B(t. x). x) = 0 remains valid.2 The Magnetostatic Vector Potential
Consider the equations of magnetostatics (1.4) allows us to deﬁne the static vector potential as Astat (x) = µ0 4π j(x ) 3 d x + a(x) |x − x | (3. i. From Equation (1. without changing the physics.22) on page 9.45) on page 15. x) (3. Identifying this expression with Equation (3. x) and A(t. we may start from Biot-Savart’s law as expressed by Equation (1. and corresponding ﬁelds E(t. x) = × A(t. the case with temporal and spatial dependent sources ρ(t. We therefore realise that we can always write Bstat (x) = × Astat (x) (3.

7)
or.10) and (3. x) and B(t. after some simple algebra and the use of Equation (1.8)
As before we utilise the vanishing curl of a vector expression to write this vector expression as the gradient of a scalar function. If. at the ﬁnal stage. x). there exists an important difference between the two approaches: in classical electrodynamics the only directly observable quantities are the ﬁelds themselves (and quantities derived from them) and not the potentials.9)
This means that in electrodynamics. x) − ∂ A(t. in analogy with the electrostatic case. use Equation (3.11b)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.i
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i
3. the treatment becomes signiﬁcantly simpler if we use the potentials in our calculations and then. x) ∂ − ( · A) ε0 ∂t 2A 1∂ 1 ∂φ 2 A − 2 2 − ( · A) = −µ0 j(t. x) from Equation (3.
Downloaded from http://www. x) = − φ(t. On the other hand. x). × E(t. x) ∂t ∂t (3. x) + ∂ A(t. x) = − ∂ ∂ [ × A(t. x) + 2 c ∂t c ∂t
2
φ=−
(3. However. Equation (3.8) becomes equivalent to E(t.10) above to calculate the ﬁelds or physical quantities expressed in the ﬁelds. x) and A(t. it is a matter of taste whether we want to express the laws of electrodynamics in terms of the potentials φ(t.uu. we obtain × E(t.6) on the facing page and Equation (3.32) on page 13. Inserting (3. we introduce the electromagnetic scalar potential function −φ(t.11) on page 6. Equation (1.11a) (3. x) ∂t (3. rearranging the terms.plasma. x) = − φ(t.3
T HE E LECTRODYNAMIC P OTENTIALS
39
Inserting this expression into the other homogeneous Maxwell equation. x) can be calculated from the formula E(t.se/CED/Book
i i i
.10)
and B(t. x) = 0 ∂t (3. x)] = − × A(t. E(t. x) + ∂ A(t. x) ∂t (3. x). Hence.45) on page 15 we obtain.6) on the facing page into Maxwell’s equations (1. the general inhomogeneous wave equations ρ(t. or in terms of the ﬁelds E(t.6) on the preceding page.

14b)
1 In fact. we must also specify · A. this fact has sometimes been overlooked and the condition was earlier referred to as the Lorentz gauge condition. It had been discovered by the Danish physicist Ludvig V. was not the original discoverer of this condition. x) ∂ + ε0 ∂t
·A+
2
A = µ0 j(t. coupled. which represent eight scalar ﬁrstorder. if we write Equation (3. In the literature.12b)
These two second order.12a) (3. x) we can consider this as a speciﬁcation of × A.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. x) − 2φ = 2 ∂t2 c ε0 2A 1∂ A = 2 2 − 2 A = µ0 j(t. Lorenz already in 1867 [5].11) on the preceding page and Equations (3.plasma. i = 1. the Dutch physicist Hendrik Antoon Lorentz. partial differential equations. form 1 ∂2 φ − c2 ∂t2 1 ∂2 A − c2 ∂t2
2
φ=
ρ(t. x) −
1 ∂φ c2 ∂t 1 ∂φ ·A+ 2 c ∂t
(3. who in 1903 demonstrated the covariance of Maxwell’s equations. Since this divergence does not enter the derivation above. 3 of A) are completely equivalent to the formulation of electrodynamics in terms of Maxwell’s equations. However. representing in all four scalar equations (one for φ and one each for the three components Ai . Equations (3.12) on page 40 simplify into the following set of uncoupled inhomogeneous wave equations:
2
φ ≡
def
2
A ≡
def
1 ∂2 − c2 ∂t2 1 ∂2 − c2 ∂t2
2
2
1 ∂2 φ ρ(t.3. more symmetric. But we know from Helmholtz’ theorem that in order to determine the (spatial) behaviour of A completely. partial differential equations.14a) (3.13)
the coupled inhomegeneous wave Equation (3.1 Lorenz-Lorentz gauge
If we choose ·A+ · A to fulﬁl the so called Lorenz-Lorentz gauge condition1 1 ∂φ =0 c2 ∂t (3. 2. x) = B(t. As they stand.6) on page 38 in the form ×A(t. coupled.12) above look complicated and may seem to be of limited use. we are free to choose · A in whatever way we like and still obtain the same physical results!
3.
i i i
.uu. x) c ∂t φ=
(3.i
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40
E LECTROMAGNETIC P OTENTIALS
which can be rewritten in the following.
Downloaded from http://www.

18)
the generic 3D inhomogeneous wave equation. often called the 3D inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation.se/CED/Book
i i i
. x ) + k2G(x. respectively.15)
where Ψ is a shorthand for either φ or one of the components Ai of the vector potential A. x) = f (t.16a) and (3.17a) into Equation (3.17a) (3. and using the vacuum dispersion relation for electromagnetic waves ω = ck (3. x)
(3. and that the same is true for the generic potential component: Ψ(t. Each of these four scalar equations is an inhomogeneous wave equation of the following generic form:
2
Ψ(t.19) can therefore be expressed as a superposition of solutions of an equation where the source term has been replaced by a point source:
2
G(x. x ) = −δ(x − x )
(3. x) eiωt
Inserting the Fourier representations (3. x). The solution of (3. each point on a wave front acts as a point source for spherical waves which form a new wave from a superposition of the individual waves from each of the point sources on the old wave front.6 on page 185.16b)
−∞
exists.15) above. As postulated by Huygen’s principle. turns into
2
Ψω (x) + k2 Ψω (x) = − fω (x)
(3.plasma.i
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3. ρ(t x)/ε 0 or µ0 ji (t.15).
Downloaded from http://www.uu.20)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. x) = Ψω (x) = dω Ψω (x) e−iωt
∞ −∞
(3.19)
which is a 3D inhomogeneous time-independent wave equation. x)] ≡ fω (x) =
∞ def def ∞
1 2π
−∞ ∞
dω fω (x) e−iωt dt f (t. Equation (3. x) eiωt
(3. We assume that our sources are well-behaved enough in time t so that the Fourier transform pair for the generic source function F −1 [ fω (x)] ≡ f (t.3
T HE E LECTRODYNAMIC P OTENTIALS
41
where 2 is the d’Alembert operator discussed in Example M. and f is the pertinent generic source component.17b)
1 2π
−∞
dt Ψ(t. x) = F [ f (t.16a) (3.

. and recall the expression for the Laplace operator in such a coordinate system. into Equation (3. If we interpret r as the radial coordinate in a spherically polar coordinate system.i
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42
E LECTROMAGNETIC P OTENTIALS
and the solution of Equation (3.19) on the preceding page which corresponds to the frequency ω is given by the superposition Ψω (x) = d3x fω (x )G(x. Hence. the solution can only be dependent on r = |x − x | and not on the direction of x − x .uu.24) (3. Equation (3. x ) (3. depends only on x − x and there is no angular dependence in the equation.23)
where C ± are constants. In Equation (3.24) above.20) on the previous page can under this assumption be approximated by C+ + C−
V
d3x =−
2
1 + k2 C + + C − |x − x |
d3x
V
1 |x − x |
(3. this equation takes the form d2 (rG) + k2 (rG) = 0 dr2 with the well-known general solution G = C+ eikr e−ikr eik|x−x | e−ik|x−x | + C− ≡ C+ + C− r r |x − x | |x − x | (3.22)
Away from r = |x − x | = 0. x ) is called the Green function or the propagator.20) on the preceding page becomes d2 (rG) + k2 (rG) = −rδ(r) dr2 (3.21)
V
The function G(x. Since G( x − x ) ∼ C + 1 1 + C− . Equation (3.plasma.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.
i i i
. the Dirac generalised function δ(x − x ). away from the source point x . |x − x | |x − x | x−x → 0 (3.26)
V
d x δ( x − x )
3
Downloaded from http://www.20) on the preceding page and integrate over a small volume around r = |x − x | = 0.e.25)
The volume integrated Equation (3. i. In order to evaluate the constants C ± . which represents the point source.20) on the previous page. we insert the general solution.

3
T HE E LECTRODYNAMIC P OTENTIALS
43
In virtue of the fact that the volume element d3x in spherical polar coordinates is proportional to |x − x |2 .30b)
d3x
f (tret .30a) (3.uu.16a) on page 41.e. that C+ + C− = 1 4π (3.31)
This is a solution to the generic inhomogeneous wave equation for the potential components Equation (3.. x ). Furthermore. i. x) is set up by the source at an earlier time.i
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i
3. x) = C +
V
(3. we must in
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. x ) |x − x |
(3. we obtain Ψ(t. However. We note that the solution at time t at the ﬁeld point x is dependent on the behaviour at other times t of the source at x and that both retarded and advanced t are mathematically acceptable solutions.se/CED/Book
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.28)
V
V
The Fourier transform to ordinary t domain of this is obtained by inserting the above expression for Ψω (x) into Equation (3.17a) on page 41:
+ V 3 ∞ −∞
Ψ(t.
Downloaded from http://www.24) on the facing page into Equation (3.73) on page 169.18) on page 41]: k |x − x | |x − x | = t− ω c k |x − x | |x − x | tadv = tadv (t. the second integral vanishes when |x − x | → 0. hence.21) on the preceding page gives Ψω (x) = C + d3x fω (x ) eik|x−x | + C− |x − x | d3x fω (x ) e−ik|x−x | |x − x | (3. we ﬁnd that the integrand in the ﬁrst integral can be written as −4πδ(|x − x |) and.plasma. from Equation (F. x) = C
dx d3x
V
dω fω (x )
∞
exp −iω t − k|x−x | ω exp −iω t + k|x−x | ω |x − x | |x − x | (3. x ) + C− |x − x |
d3x
V
f (tadv . if we assume that causality requires that the potential at (t. x − x ) = t − and use Equation (3.15) on page 41.27)
Insertion of the general solution Equation (3. according to Equation (3. at (tret . x − x ) = t + = t+ ω c tret = tret (t.29)
+ C−
−∞
dω fω (x )
If we introduce the retarded time tret and the advanced time tadv in the following way [using the fact that in vacuum k/ω = 1/c.

33)
1 ∂2 A 1 ∂φ = −µ0 j(t. The retardation (and advancement) effects ccur only in the vector potential.35)
where α has vanishing gradient. x ) µ0 d3x A(t.27) on the previous page.32a) (3. x) ε0
(3.11) on page 39 or Equations (3.32b)
Since these retarded potentials were obtained as solutions to the Lorenz-Lorentz equations (3. in analogy with Equation (3. we shall use them frequently in the following. x) =
1 4πε0
d3x
V
ρ(t. As they stand.
Downloaded from http://www. Dirac. according to Equation (3.i
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E LECTROMAGNETIC P OTENTIALS
Equation (3. x ) d3x 4πε0 V |x − x | j(tret . C + = 1/(4π).14) on page 40 they are valid in the Lorenz-Lorentz gauge but may be gauge transformed according to the scheme described in subsection 3.1
The retarded potentials
From the above discussion on the solution of the inhomogeneous wave equations in the Lorenz-Lorentz gauge we conclude that. see also [3].plasma. which is the solution of the
1 In fact. has the solution
2
φ(t. x) + 2 (3.3 on the next page. John A. inspired by a discussion by Paul A. x ) +α |x − x |
(3.34) 2 ∂t2 c c ∂t The ﬁrst of these two is the time-dependent Poisson’s equation which.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.2 Coulomb gauge
In Coulomb gauge. M. x) = (3.
3.31) on the preceding page set C − = 0 and therefore.3. the electrodynamic potentials in vacuum can be written 1 ρ(tret .3) on page 37. one chooses · A = 0 so that Equations (3.3. Feyn-
man derived in 1945 a fully self-consistent electrodynamics using both the retarded and the advanced potentials [7]. often employed in quantum electrodynamics. Wheeler and Richard P.12) on page 40 become
2
φ=− A−
ρ(t. We note that in the scalar potential expression the charge density source is evaluated at time t. x) = 4π V |x − x | φ(t. under the assumption of causality.uu.
i i i
.

x) φ(t.37).6) we see that the ﬁelds are unaffected by the gauge transformation (3.uu. gauge invariant. x) and A(t.37b)
where Γ(t.3. x) = φ(t. x) + (3. A transformation of the potentials φ and A which leaves the ﬁelds. of course.10) and (3. By deﬁnition. deﬁned by φ = 0.plasma. x) and A (t. If we transform φ(t. x) → φ (t.
3. Comparing these expressions with (3.38a) (3. the way the electromagnetic scalar potential φ(t.3 Gauge transformations
We saw in Section 3. x) − Γ(t. In fact.
Downloaded from http://www.2 on page 38 that in electrostatics and magnetostatics we have a certain mathematical degree of freedom. deﬁned by A3 = 0.36)
Other useful gauges are • The temporal gauge. A physical law which does not change under a gauge transformation is said to be gauge invariant.37a) (3. invariant is called a gauge transformation.10) on page 39 for the electric ﬁeld and into Equation (3. x ) |x − x |
(3. also known as the Hamilton gauge.i
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3.se/CED/Book
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.62) on page 168 was used. up to terms of vanishing gradients and curls.6) on page 38 for the magnetic ﬁeld. x) and the vector potential A(t. x) is an arbitrary. we obtain the transformed ﬁelds E =− φ − B = ∂A ∂( Γ) ∂A ∂( Γ) ∂A = − φ− − + = − φ− ∂t ∂t ∂t ∂t ∂t × A = × A − × ( Γ) = × A (3.38b)
where.3
T HE E LECTRODYNAMIC P OTENTIALS
45
inhomogeneous wave equation
2
A−
µ0 ∂ 1 ∂2 A = −µ0 j + 2 ∂t2 c 4π ∂t
d3x
V
ρ(t.1 on page 37 and in Section 3. and hence Maxwell’s equations.
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. to pick suitable forms for the potentials and still get the same physical result. • The axial gauge. x) are related to the physically observables gives leeway for similar ‘manipulation’ of them also in electrodynamics. x) according to the mapping scheme ∂Γ(t. x) → A (t. differentiable scalar function called the gauge function. once again Equation (F. the ﬁelds themselves are. x) = A(t. x) simultaneously into new ones φ (t. x) ∂t A(t. and insert the transformed potentials into Equation (3.

Maxwell’s equations are replaced by [see also Equations (1.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.40)
these transformed Lorenz-Lorentz equations will keep their original form. i. The process of choosing a particular gauge condition is referred to as gauge ﬁxing.39a) (3. Am ) by assuming that the potentials are related to the ﬁelds in the following symmetrised form:
Downloaded from http://www.41b) (3. one derives the inhomogeneous wave equations for the usual ‘electric’ scalar and vector potentials (φe . these equations will be transformed into 1 ∂2 φ − c2 ∂t2 1 ∂2 A − c2 ∂t2
2
φ+
∂ ∂t
2
A−
1 ∂2 Γ − c2 ∂t2 1 ∂2 Γ − c2 ∂t2
2
Γ =
ρ(t. x) which is restricted to fulﬁl Equation (3. If. The set of potentials which have been gauge transformed according to Equation (3. Equation (3.37) on the preceding page with a gauge function Γ(t. x) ε0
(3. those gauge transformed potentials for which the Lorenz-Lorentz equations (3.41c) (3.50) on page 17]: ·E = ρe ε0 ∂B ∂t ∂E ∂t (3. x) and A(t.37) on the resulting Lorenz-Lorentz potential equations (3.
E XAMPLE 3.1 E LECTROMAGNETODYNAMIC POTENTIALS
In Dirac’s symmetrised form of electrodynamics (electromagnetodynamics).
i i i
. in particular. we choose · A according to the Lorenz-Lorentz condition. x)
We notice that if we require that the gauge function Γ(t.i “main” — 2003/1/23 — 18:57 — page 46 — #64
i
i
46
E LECTROMAGNETIC P OTENTIALS
The potentials φ(t.e.. Ae ) and their ‘magnetic’ counterparts (φm .37) on the previous page.uu. x) calculated from (3.41d)
× E = −µ0 jm − · B = µ 0 ρm
× B = µ 0 j e + ε 0 µ0
In this theory. can be further gauge transformed according to (3.14) are invariant.41a) (3.40) above. comprises the Lorenz-Lorentz gauge. x) itself be restricted to fulﬁl the wave equation 1 ∂2 Γ − c2 ∂t2
2
Γ=0
(3. and apply the gauge transformation (3.11a) on page 39. with an arbitrary choice of · A.13) on page 40.14) on page 40.plasma.39b)
2
Γ = µ0 j(t.

46d) (3.1
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.plasma. Inserting the symmetrised expressions (3. x) (3. these formulae reduce to the usual Maxwell theory Formula (3.42) on the preceding page into Equations (3.43c) (3. x) c2 ∂t2 (3. x) 2 φm 1 ∂ ρ − 2 φm = c2 ∂t2 ε0 2 Ae 1 ∂ − 2 Ae = µ0 je (t.43b) = µ0 je (t. x) = µ0 jm (t. x) ∂ m 2 m ·A = − φ + ∂t ε0 2 Ae 1 ∂ 1 ∂φe − 2 Ae + · Ae + 2 2 ∂t2 c c ∂t
2 e
φ +
(3.43d)
1 ∂ 2 Am − c2 ∂t2
2
Am +
· Am +
1 ∂φm c2 ∂t
By choosing the conditions on the vector potentials according to the Lorenz-Lorentz prescripton [cf. x) − × Am ∂t 1 ∂ φm (t.11a) on page 39] ∂ ρe (t.13) on page 40] 1 ∂ e φ =0 c2 ∂t 1 ∂ · A m + 2 φm = 0 c ∂t · Ae + these coupled wave equations simplify to ρe (t.. the striking properties of Dirac’s symmetrised Maxwell theory.45)
exhibiting once again. respectively.44) (3.43a) (3. Equation (3. x) 1 ∂ 2 φe − 2 φe = 2 ∂t2 c ε0 m (t..46c) (3.46a) (3.se/CED/Book
i i i
.41) on the facing page.42b)
In the absence of magnetic charges.10) on page 39 and Formula (3. equivalenty for φm ≡ 0 and Am ≡ 0.
Downloaded from http://www. x) c2 ∂t2 1 ∂ 2 Am − 2 Am = µ0 jm (t.3
T HE E LECTRODYNAMIC P OTENTIALS
47
E = − φe (t.uu. one obtains [cf.46b) (3.6) on page 38. or. Equations (3. x) + × Ae c ∂t
(3. x) · Ae = − ∂t ε0 ρm (t. as they should. x) − 2 Am (t. x) − B=− 1 c2
∂ e A (t.i “main” — 2003/1/23 — 18:57 — page 47 — #65
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3.42a) (3.
E ND OF
EXAMPLE
3.

. John Wiley & Sons. Interaction with the absorber as a mechanism for radiation.. 1962. 1996.
Downloaded from http://www. D. H OYLE . [5] L. World Scientiﬁc Publishing Co. Inc.. ISBN 0-471-63117-5. . Reading. A. F EYNMAN. . G UIDRY. Pte. P. JACKSON.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. . MA . K.uu. 50 in Frontiers in Physics: A Lecture Note and Reprint Series. H. third ed. [2] M. FADEEV AND A. Gauge Fields: Introduction to Quantum Theory. Reading. S LAVNOV. [4] J. Inc. . 1980. D. S IR AND J. Classical Electrodynamics. [7] J. NARLIKAR. Gauge Field Theories: An Introduction with Applications. . 157–. NY . 287–301.plasma. [3] F. P HILLIPS. Ltd.. Inc. No. pp. . W HEELER AND R.
i i i
. Inc. New Jersey.. [6] W. . 1991. Reviews of Modern Physics. Singapore. . PANOFSKY AND M. MA . V. Lectures on Cosmology and Action at a Distance Electrodynamics. NY . Classical Electricity and Magnetism.. London and Hong Kong. New York. ISBN 08053-9016-2. 1999. Philosophical Magazine (1867). 17 (1945). John Wiley & Sons. A. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. ..i
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Bibliography
[1] L. . New York. L ORENZ. ISBN 0-471-30932-X. . ISBN 9810-02-2573-3(pbk). ISBN 0-201-05702-6. Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company. second ed. pp.

by the American physicist and philosopher David Bohm.) and toward the idea that a given concept has signiﬁcance only in relation to suitable broader forms of reference.e. an inertial system is a system in which free bodies move uniformly and do not experience any acceleration. one which holds independently of all conditions. For as is well known.’
1 The
49
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. opens with the following paragraph [4]: ‘The theory of relativity is not merely a scientiﬁc development of great importance in its own right. contexts.. and indeed. The special theory of relativity1 describes how physical processes are interrelated when observed in different inertial systems in uniform.
4. This is the object of this chapter.1 The Special Theory of Relativity
An inertial system.. in which the law of inertia (Galileo’s law. the modern trend is away from the notion of sure ‘absolute’ truth. to the introduction of a characteristic. is a system of reference. even into a great deal of thinking outside of science. and to ensure that our laws of physics be independent of any speciﬁc coordinate frame. (i. and types of approximation etc. rectilinear motion relative to each other and is based on two postulates:
Special Theory of Relativity. which began in physics. or rigid coordinate system. ﬁnite speed of √ propagation in vacuum that equals the speed of light c = 1/ ε0 µ0 and which can be considered as a constant of nature. or inertial reference frame. To take this ﬁnite speed of propagation of information into account. within which that concept can be given its full meaning. Newton’s ﬁrst law) holds. In other words. and which is spreading into other ﬁelds of science. in a most natural way.i
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4
Relativistic Electrodynamics
We saw in Chapter 3 how the derivation of the electrodynamic potentials led. degrees. It is even more signiﬁcant as the ﬁrst stage of a radical change in our basic concepts. requires a treatment of electrodynamics in a relativistically covariant (coordinate independent) form.

x.e. The velocity of light in empty space is independent of the motion of the source that emits the light. 1905).se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. respectively. the inertial system Σ has been translated a distance vt along the x axis in Σ. x . z ). in the same way. The times and the spatial coordinates as measured in the two systems are t and (x.1 The Lorentz transformation
Let us consider two three-dimensional inertial systems Σ and Σ in vacuum which are in rectilinear motion relative to each other in such a way that Σ moves with constant velocity v along the x axis of the Σ system. x . tensors) in an equation describing a physical process must transform in a covariant manner.1.
4. z ) O z x z O x
F IGURE 4. y . z) in Σ is represented by P(t . y. At time t = t = 0 the origins O and O and the x and x axes of the two inertial systems coincide and at a later time t they have the relative location as depicted in Figure 4.1 (Relativity principle. All laws of physics (except the laws of gravitation) are independent of the uniform translational motion of the system on which they operate. An event represented by P(t. y. At time t.1: Two inertial systems Σ and Σ in relative motion with velocity v along the x = x axis. y . Postulate 4. i. let us introduce the two quantities v (4. z) P(t .1) β= c 1 γ= (4. Poincaré. and t and (x .
Postulate 4.2 (Einstein.i
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R ELATIVISTIC E LECTRODYNAMICS
vt y Σ Σ y v P(t. y .1.plasma. A consequence of the ﬁrst postulate is that all geometrical objects (vectors. For convenience. z ) in Σ . At time t = t = 0 the origin O of Σ coincided with the origin O of Σ.2) 1 − β2
Downloaded from http://www. y.
i i i
.uu. 1905). z). x..

z ) at time t in Σ in such a way that both observers conclude that the speed (spatial distance divided by time) of light in vacuum is c. we shall make frequent use of these shorthand notations. z) at time t in Σ and an observer at (x . the speed of light in Σ and Σ is the same.2 Lorentz space
Let us introduce an ordered quadruple of real numbers.i
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4. enumerated with the help of upper indices µ = 0.plasma. Using this fact.3a) and the square of (4.
Downloaded from http://www.3d)
Taking the difference between the square of (4.uu.3b) (4.3a) (4. respectively. As shown by Einstein. 1. 3.3c) (4.1
T HE S PECIAL T HEORY
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51
where v = |v|. Hence.4) above to c2 t 2 − x 2 − y2 − z2 = c2 t 2 − x 2 − y 2 − z 2 (4.1. where the zeroth component is ct (c is the
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.se/CED/Book
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. A linear coordinate transformation which has this property is called a (homogeneous) Lorentz transformation.3) we see that the y and z coordinates are unaffected by the translational motion of the inertial system Σ along the x axis of system Σ.3b) we ﬁnd that c2 t 2 − x 2 = γ2 c2 t2 − 2xcβt + x2 β2 − x2 + 2xvt − v2 t2 v2 c2 2 2 = c t − x2 1− = 1 c2 t 2 1 − v2 c2 − x2 1 − v2 c2 (4. In the following. y. y .4)
From Equations (4. we ﬁnd that we can generalise the result in Equation (4. are connected by the following transformation: ct = γ(ct − xβ) x = γ(x − vt) y =y z =z (4. 2.5)
which means that if a light wave is transmitted from the coinciding origins O and O at time t = t = 0 it will arrive at an observer at (x. the two postulates of special relativity require that the spatial coordinates and times as measured by an observer in Σ and Σ .
4.

more accurately. To every such vector there exists a dual vector. x).5) on the preceding page. x2 . as deﬁned in Equation (4. because I am really not responsible for the fact that nature in its most fundamental aspect is fourdimensional. obtained as (the upper index µ in xµ is summed over and is therefore a dummy index and may be replaced by another dummy index ν): xµ = gµν xν (4. and the remaining components are the components of the ordinary R3 radius vector x deﬁned in Equation (M.8)
This scalar product acts as an invariant ‘distance’. x1 . . i.e.uu. four-dimensional vector space. is. which we denote by g µν . y.i
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speed of light and t is time).7)
This summation process is an example of index contraction and is often referred to as index lowering. described by Equation (4. Things are what they are. x3 ) = (ct.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. I do not apologise.
Radius four-vector in contravariant and covariant form
The radius four-vector xµ = (x0 .6) above. .1 We require that this four-dimensional space be a Riemannian space. In this space we therefore deﬁne a metric tensor. x1 . x2 .’
Downloaded from http://www. a vector in contravariant component form). the prototype of a contravariant vector (or. .6)
We want to interpret this quadruple xµ as (the component form of) a radius four-vector in a real. in this space..
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.1) on page 172: xµ = (x0 . x3 ) = (ct. The vector dual to xµ is the covariant vector xµ . by deﬁnition.
Scalar product and norm
The scalar product of xµ with itself in a Riemannian space is deﬁned as gµν xν xµ = xµ xµ (4. z) ≡ (ct. If we want the Lorentz transformation invariance. also known as the fundamental tensor. x. a space where a ‘distance’ and a scalar product are deﬁned. to be the manifestation of the conservation of
1 The British mathematician and philosopher Alfred North Whitehead writes in his book The
Concept of Nature [13]: ‘I regret that it has been necessary for me in this lecture to administer a large dose of four-dimensional geometry. x) (4.plasma. or norm. linear.

if the metric tensor is deﬁned according to expression (4.13)
Hence. the index lowering operation in our chosen ﬂat 4D space becomes nearly trivial: xµ = gµν xν = (ct.11)
i.se/CED/Book
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. linear 4D space with a positive deﬁnite norm which is conserved during ordinary rotations is a Euclidean vector space. 1 0 0 0 0 −1 0 0 (gµν ) = 0 0 −1 0 0 0 0 −1
(4.plasma. in matrix notation.1
T HE S PECIAL T HEORY
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53
the norm in a 4D Riemannian space. −}.
Metric tensor
By choosing the metric tensor in L4 as 1 if µ = ν = 0 gµν = −1 if µ = ν = i = j = 1. then the explicit expression for the scalar product of xµ with itself in this space must be xµ x µ = c2 t 2 − x 2 − y2 − z2 (4. this can be written 0 0 x0 x 1 0 0 0 x x1 0 −1 0 0 x1 −x1 = x2 0 0 −1 0 x2 = −x2 x3 0 0 0 −1 x3 −x3 (4.i
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4. These
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57..e. {+.10) above the covariant radius four-vector xµ is obtained from the contravariant radius fourvector xµ simply by changing the sign of the last three components. a matrix with a main diagonal that has the sign sequence.9)
We notice that our space will have an indeﬁnite norm which means that we deal with a non-Euclidean space.uu. A corresponding real. −. −. −x) Using matrix algebra. We call the four-dimensional space (or spacetime) with this property Lorentz space and denote it L4 . 2.10)
(4. or signature.12)
(4.
Downloaded from http://www. We denote such a space R4 . 3 0 if µ = ν or.

The latter has the advantage that the transition from 3D to 4D becomes smooth. As we see. one can alternatively choose a signature {−. Without changing the physics. covariant and mixed forms of the metric tensor hold: gµν = gνµ g = gµν gνκ g = g gκµ =
νκ κµ µν
(4.10) on the preceding page. we see that this tensor has a trace Tr gµν = −2 whereas in R4 .15c) (4. while it will introduce some annoying minus signs in the theory. for this particular choice of metric. given by the quadratic differential form ds2 = gµν dxν dxµ = dxµ dxµ = (dx0 )2 − (dx1 )2 − (dx2 )2 − (dx3 )2 (4. −} seems to be the most commonly used one. as in any vector space with deﬁnite norm. +.10) on the previous page has a number of interesting properties: ﬁrstly. −.i
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components are referred to as the space components. x) · (ct. As we see. a mixed four-tensor of rank 2 which fulﬁls δµ = δν = ν µ 1 0 if µ = ν if µ = ν (4.9) on the preceding page. we ﬁnd.uu. the trace equals the space dimensionality.plasma. −. The L4 metric tensor Equation (4. this form is indeﬁnite as expected for a non-Euclidean space. that the following relations between the contravariant. the signature {+.15b) δµ ν δν µ
µ
gµ ν gν µ
= =
(4.16)
Invariant line element and proper time
The differential distance ds between the two points xµ and xµ + dxµ in L4 can be calculated from the Riemannian metric.17)
where the metric tensor is as in Equation (4. In current physics literature. +.14)
which indeed is the desired Lorentz transformation invariance as required by Equation (4. Secondly. The square
Downloaded from http://www. the scalar product of x µ with itself becomes xµ xµ = (ct.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. +}.15a) (4. the zeroth component is referred to as the time component.
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.15d)
Here we have introduced the 4D version of the Kronecker delta δν . after trivial algebra. −x) = c2 t2 − x2 − y2 − z2 (4.

se/CED/Book
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. The time-like. we may also say that in this case we are on the light cone.19)
Since dτ measures the time when no spatial changes are present. Expressing Equation (4. but if dx2 + dy2 + dz2 > c2 dt2 ds is a space-like interval.i
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4.22) (4.20)
is invariant during a Lorentz transformation.uu.17) on the facing page.23) (4. whereas dx2 + dy2 + dz2 = c2 dt2 (4.
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.1
T HE S PECIAL T HEORY
OF
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55
root of this expression is the invariant line element 1 1− 2 c 1− dx 1 dt
2
ds = c
dx 2 + dt
2
dx 3 + dt
2
dt v2 dt c2 (4. we ﬁnd that ds2 = c2 dt2 − dx2 − dy2 − dz2 (4. it is called the proper time. space-like or light-like aspects of an interval ds is invariant under a Lorentz transformation. Conversely. we may say that every coordinate transformation which preserves this differential interval is a Lorentz transformation.
Downloaded from http://www.21)
is a light-like interval.5) on page 51 in terms of the differential interval ds and comparing with Equation (4. If in some inertial system dx2 + dy2 + dz2 < c2 dt2 ds is a time-like interval.18)
=c
1 (v x )2 + (vy )2 + (vz )2 dt = c c2 c = c 1 − β2 dt = dt = c dτ γ
1−
where we introduced dτ = dt/γ (4. A vector which has a light-like interval is called a null vector.plasma.

27)
The Lorentz group
It is easy to show. and deﬁned by the speed parameters β1 and β2 .25)
which is a scalar ﬁeld.28) above.24)
The scalar product between this four-vector ﬁeld and another one bµ (xκ ) is (4.. −a) · (b0 . from one inertial system Σ to another inertial system Σ . z).plasma.29)
Downloaded from http://www.
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.28) (4. as described by xκ = (ct. an invariant scalar quantity α(x κ ) which depends on time and space. that two successive Lorentz transformations of the type in Equation (4. is called a four-vector. the coordinate transformation xµ → x µ = x µ (x0 . y. a) for a general contravariant four-vector ﬁeld in L4 and ﬁnd that the ‘lowering of index’ rule. x2 . for such an arbitrary four-vector yields the dual covariant four-vector ﬁeld aµ (xκ ) = gµν aν (xκ ) = (a0 (xκ ). In analogy with the notation for the radius four-vector we introduce the notation aµ = (a0 . correspond to a single transformation with speed parameter β= β1 + β2 1 + β1 β2 (4. b) = a0 b0 − a · b (4.
The Lorentz transformation matrix
Introducing the transformation matrix γ −βγ 0 0 −βγ γ 0 0 Λµν = 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
(4.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. i. −a(xκ )) gµν aν (xκ )bµ (xκ ) = (a0 . x1 .32) on page 178.3) on page 51. Equation (M.i
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R ELATIVISTIC E LECTRODYNAMICS
Four-vector ﬁelds
Any quantity which relative to any coordinate system has a quadruple of real numbers and transforms in the same way as the radius four-vector x µ does. x. can be written x µ = Λµν xν The inverse transform then takes the form xµ = (Λ−1 )µν x ν (4..e. by means of direct algebra.uu. respectively. i.e. x3 ).26)
the linear Lorentz transformation (4.

the world line for a light ray which propagates in vacuum is the trajectory x0 = x1 .30e)
X 2 = x2
3
dS = ids
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. The trajectory for an event as a function of time and space is called a world line. In other words. x1 . X 0 = ict) to (x 1 .30d) (4. we shall not make any further use of group theory.30c) (4.i
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i
4.1. x3 ) in 4D space-time is a way of saying that ‘something takes place at a certain time t = x0 /c and at a certain place (x. x3 )’. y. x2 .uu. Furthermore. one can show that this set possesses at least one identity element and at least one inverse element. x2 . However tempting. This rotation 2 2 leaves the Euclidean distance x1 + X 0 = x2 − c2 t2 invariant. z) = (x1 . Introducing X 0 = ix0 = ict X =x X =x
3 1 1
(4.
4.
This means that the nonempty set of Lorentz transformations constitutes a closed algebraic structure with a binary operation which is associative.1
T HE S PECIAL T HEORY
OF
R ELATIVITY
57
X0 X
0
θ x1 θ x1
F IGURE 4.plasma. For instance.2: Minkowski space can be considered an ordinary Euclidean space where a Lorentz transformation from (x1 .3 Minkowski space
Specifying a point xµ = (x0 . Such a point is therefore called an event. X 0 = ict ) corresponds to an ordinary rotation through an angle θ. this set of Lorentz transformations constitutes a mathematical group.30b) (4.se/CED/Book
i i i
.30a) (4.
Downloaded from http://www.

Here w denotes the world line for an event and the line x0 = x1 ⇔ x = ct the world line for a light ray in vacuum.34) from the unprimed system to the primed system. We shall call the 4D Euclidean space constructed in this way the Minkowski space M4 .33b)
1 The fact that our Riemannian space can be transformed in this way into an Euclidean one means that it is. Note that the event P is simultaneous with all points on the x1 axis (t = 0).33a) (4. including O = O. Then dS 2 = (dX 0 )2 + (dx1 )2 (4.
i i i
.31) i.i
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R ELATIVISTIC E LECTRODYNAMICS
Σ x0 = ct
w x0 x0 = x 1
ϕ
P ϕ O=O P ct
x1
x1 = x
F IGURE 4.17) on page 54 transforms into dS 2 = (dX 0 )2 + (dX 1 )2 + (dX 2 )2 + (dX 3 )2 (4.e. including the origin O while the event P . is not simultaneous with O in the unprimed system but occurs there at time |P − P | /c.3: Minkowski diagram depicting geometrically the transformation (4. it sufﬁces to consider the simpliﬁed case where the relative motion between Σ and Σ is along the x axes. which is also simultaneous with all points on the x axis. we see that Equation (4.plasma. into a 4D differential form which is positive deﬁnite just as is ordinary 3D Euclidean space R3 .
√ where i = −1. strictly speaking. a pseudo-Riemannian space.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.
Downloaded from http://www.32)
and we consider X 0 and x1 as orthogonal axes in an Euclidean space. As in all Euclidean spaces. to an observer at rest in the primed system..uu.1 As before. every interval is invariant under a rotation of the X 0 x1 plane through an angle θ into X 0 x 1 : X 0 = −x1 sin θ + X 0 cos θ x = x cos θ + X sin θ
1 1 0
(4.

29) on page 56 for successive Lorentz transformation then corresponds to the tanh addition formula tanh ϕ1 + tanh ϕ2 (4.38) dτ v2 v2 1− 1−
c2 c2
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.34b)
which are identical to the transformation equations (4. which leads to the interpretation of the Lorentz transformation as an ‘ordinary’ rotation.35a) (4. may. and the associated differential proper time dτ [see Equation (4.se/CED/Book
i i i
. the ‘ict’ trick will turn out to be an impasse.3 on the facing page.
4. if we leave the ﬂat L4 space and enter the curved space of general relativity. and transform back to the original space and time variables by using Equation (4.3) on page 51 if we let sinh ϕ = γβ cosh ϕ = γ tanh ϕ = β (4. but is not very physical.37) uµ = = γ(c. Let us therefore immediately return to L4 where all components are real valued. when multiplied with the scalar invariant m0 yields the four-momentum dx µ m0 c m0 v pµ = m0 = m0 γ(c. Besides.2
C OVARIANT C LASSICAL M ECHANICS
59
See Figure 4.30) on page 57 backwards.uu. u) (4.2 on page 57.35b) (4.34a) (4. Equation (4. If we introduce the angle ϕ = −iθ. v) = 2 dτ v v2 1− 1−
c2 c2
which. be illustrative.
Downloaded from http://www.plasma. we obtain ct = −x sinhϕ + ct cosh ϕ x = x cosh ϕ − ct sinh ϕ (4. often called the rapidity or the Lorentz boost parameter. = (p0 .35c)
It is therefore possible to envisage the Lorentz transformation as an ‘ordinary’ rotation in the 4D Euclidean space M4 This rotation i M4 corresponds to a coordinate change in L4 as depicted in Figure 4. = (u0 .2 Covariant Classical Mechanics
The invariance of the differential ‘distance’ ds in L4 . v) = . at best.18) on page 55] allows us to deﬁne the four-velocity µ dx c v . p) (4.36) tanh(ϕ1 + ϕ2 ) = 1 + tanh ϕ1 tanh ϕ2 The use of ict and M4 .i
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i
4.

we obtain cp0 = γm0 c2 = m0 c2 1−
v2 c2
= mc2
(4. cpµ = (cp0 . Multiplying the zeroth (time) component of the four-momentum pµ with the scalar invariant c. cp) = E 2 − c2 p2 = (m0 c2 )2 1 − v2 c
2
(4. cp) = (E.
i i i
. cp) Scalar multiplying this four-vector with itself.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.uu.plasma.41)
Since this component has the dimension of energy and is the result of a covariant description of the motion of a particle with its kinetic momentum described by the spatial components of the four-momentum. Hence.43)
= (m0 c )
2 2
Since this is an invariant.38) on the previous page.i
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R ELATIVISTIC E LECTRODYNAMICS
From this we see that we can write p = mv where m = γm0 = m0
v 1 − c2
2
(4. (4. −cp) · (E.40)
We can interpret this such that the Lorentz covariance implies that the masslike term in the ordinary 3D linear momentum is not invariant. this equation holds in any inertial frame.42)
v2 1− 2 c
(4. we interpret cp0 as the total energy E. A better way to look at this is that p = mv = γm0 v is the covariantly correct expression for the kinetic three-momentum. particularly in the frame where p = 0 and there we have E = m 0 c2 This is probably the most famous formula in physics history.39)
(4.44)
Downloaded from http://www. Equation (4. we obtain cpµ cpµ = c2 gµν pν pµ = c2 [(p0 )2 − (p1 )2 − (p2 )2 − (p3 )2 ] = (E.

3 Covariant Classical Electrodynamics
In the rest inertial system the charge density is ρ0 .3 on page 38.74) on page 184. respectively.49)
With the help of the above.uu.6 on page 185.i
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4. v) = (ρc.46)
is called the four-current.73) on page 184 and its covariant counterpart ∂µ = ∂/∂xµ in Equation (M. For instance. As is shown in Example M.se/CED/Book
i i i
. Equation (1. ρv) dτ (4. the homogeneous wave equation is Lorentz covariant.1 The four-potential
If we introduce the four-potential Aµ = φ .14) on page 40.48)
where φ is the scalar potential and A the vector potential.23) on page 10 is ∂µ jµ = 0 (4. the covariant form of the equation of continuity. we can write the uncoupled inhomogeneous wave equations. in the following compact (and covariant) way:
2 µ
A = µ0 jµ
(4. the d’Alembert operator is invariant and. we can formulate our electrodynamic equations covariantly.47)
Since it has the characteristics of a four-scalar.3.
4. deﬁned in Section 3.3
C OVARIANT C LASSICAL E LECTRODYNAMICS
61
4. The four-vector (in contravariant component form) j µ = ρ0 dxµ = ρ0 uµ = ρ0 γ(c. The contravariant form of the four-del operator ∂µ = ∂/∂xµ is deﬁned in Equation (M.45)
where we introduced ρ = γρ0 (4. hence.
Downloaded from http://www. the d’Alembert operator is the scalar product of the four-del with itself:
2
= ∂µ ∂µ = ∂µ ∂µ =
1 ∂2 − c2 ∂t2
2
(4.50)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. Equations (3.A c (4.plasma.

can be written ∂µ Aµ = 0 The gauge transformations (3.53)
then from Equation (4.55)
where |x − x |0 is the usual distance from the source point to the ﬁeld point. −(x − x )) = c2 (t − t )2 − x − x
2
(4. x − x ) Scalar multiplying this relative four-vector with itself.51)
If only one dimension Lorentz contracts (for instance.
4. x − x ) · (c(t − t ).13) on page 40. evaluated in the rest system (signiﬁed by the index ‘0’). x 2 .14) on page 40 in vacuum for the case of a well-localised charge q at a source point deﬁned by the radius four-vector x µ = (x 0 = ct . due to relative motion along the x direction). In the rest system we know that the solution is simply Aµ
0
=
φ .0 4πε0 c |x − x |0
(4.2 The Liénard-Wiechert potentials
Let us now solve the the inhomogeneous wave equations (3.. we obtain Rµ Rµ = (c(t − t ). a 3D spatial volume transforms according to 1 dV = d3x = dV0 = dV0 γ 1 − β2 = dV0 1− v2 c2 (4.37) on page 45 in covariant form are Aµ → A µ = Aµ + ∂µ Γ(xν ) (4. We can therefore conclude that the elementary charge is a universal constant.56)
(4.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.e. x 1 . the charge in a given volume is conserved.46) on the preceding page we see that ρdV = ρ0 dV0 (4.plasma.uu. Let us introduce the relative radius four-vector between the source point and the ﬁeld point: Rµ = xµ − x µ = (c(t − t ).57)
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R ELATIVISTIC E LECTRODYNAMICS
and the Lorenz-Lorentz gauge condition. x 3 ). x3 ).
i i i
.3.54)
i.A c
=
v=0
q 1 . Equation (3. The ﬁeld point (observation point) is denoted by the radius four-vector xµ = (x0 = ct. x2 .52) (4. x1 .

60) uν Rν = γ(c. = (c.55) on the facing page. uµ Rµ is invariant.62)
As all scalar products. (x − x )0 )
(4.57) on the facing page. −(x − x )0 ) = c x − x
(4.65)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. to the solution Equation (4. in an arbitrary inertial system.i
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4.55) on the facing page. Equation (4. 0) · ( x − x uµ q 4πε0 cuν Rν
. We note from Equation (4. in the rest system. If we evaluate it in the rest system the result is: uµ Rµ = uµ Rµ
0
= (uµ )0 (Rµ )0
0
= (c. It is therefore the correct solution. 0) (4.3
C OVARIANT C LASSICAL E LECTRODYNAMICS
63
We know that in vacuum the signal (ﬁeld) from the charge q at x µ propagates to xµ with the speed of light c so that x − x = c(t − t ) Inserting this into Equation (4. which means that we can evaluate it in any inertial system and it will have the same value in all other inertial systems. x − x ) (4. we see that Rµ Rµ = 0 or that Equation (4.64)
subject to the condition Rµ Rµ = 0 has the proper transformation properties (proper tensor form) and reduces.se/CED/Book
i i i
. −(x − x ) = γ c x − x − v · (x − x ) (4.37) on page 59 and Equation (4. x − x )0 = ( x − x
0
. valid in any inertial system.59) (4.58)
Now we want to ﬁnd the correspondence to the rest system solution.plasma.63)
0
We therefore see that the expression Aµ = (4.56) on the preceding page can be written Rµ = ( x − x .61) 2 v2 1 − c2 1 − v2 c
v=0
and (Rµ )0 = ( x − x . According to Equation (4.uu.37) on page 59 that in the rest system c v uµ 0 = .60) (4. v) · x − x .
Downloaded from http://www.

moving relative an observer with a velocity v.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.plasma. (4.73)
Downloaded from http://www.71a) (4.i
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Generalising expression (4.64) can be written Aµ (xκ ) = q 4πε0 1 v .71b)
4.72)
We notice that the kth component of the vector c can be represented as ck = ai b j − a j bi = ci j = −c ji . we conclude that for a very localised charge volume.68)
def def
v c
(4. x) = These potentials are called the Liénard-Wiechert potentials. the scalar and vector potentials are given by the expressions q 1 q 1 = 4πε0 s 4πε0 |x − x | − β · (x − x ) q v q v A(t.67)
from which we see that the solution (4.70)
where in the last step the deﬁnition of the four-potential.3. was used. cs c2 s = φ .3 The electromagnetic ﬁeld tensor
Consider a vectorial (cross) product c between two ordinary vectors a and b: c = a×b = ˆ i jk ai b j xk = (a2 b3 − a3 b2 ) x1 + (a3 b1 − a1 b3 ) x2 + (a1 b2 − a2 b1 ) x3 ˆ ˆ ˆ
(4. Writing the solution in the ordinary 3D-way.
i i i
. cs c2 s (4.A c (4.uu. x) = = 2 s 2 |x − x | − β · (x − x ) 4πε0 c 4πε0 c φ(t.66)
v · (x − x ) ≡ x − x − β · (x − x ) c
(4.69) (4. Equation (4. i.48) on page 61.1) on page 50 to vector form: β = βv ≡ ˆ and introducing s ≡ x−x − we can write uν Rν = γcs and uµ = cuν Rν 1 v . j = k (4.

77a) (4.78)
Inspection of (4. we notice the clear difference between the axial vector (pseudovector) B and the polar vector (‘ordinary vector’) E. In matrix representation.76b)
E = − φ−
In component form. Equation (4. Our goal is to express the electric and magnetic ﬁelds in a tensor form where the components are functions of the covariant form of the four-potential.77) makes it natural to deﬁne the fourtensor F µν = ∂Aν ∂Aµ − = ∂µ Aν − ∂ν Aµ ∂xµ ∂xν (4. the Maxwell equation ×E = − ∂B ∂t (4.3
C OVARIANT C LASSICAL E LECTRODYNAMICS
65
In other words.77b)
From this. The same is true for the curl operator ×.74)
can in this tensor notation be written ∂E j ∂Ei ∂Bi j − j =− i ∂x ∂x ∂t (4.plasma.48) on page 61: Aµ = φ . the contravariant ﬁeld tensor
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.79)
This anti-symmetric (skew-symmetric).i
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4. For instance.75)
We know from Chapter 3 that the ﬁelds can be derived from the electromagnetic potentials in the following way: B= ×A (4. four-tensor of rank 2 is called the electromagnetic ﬁeld tensor.
Downloaded from http://www. the pseudovector c = a × b can be considered as an antisymmetric tensor of rank two.A c (4.76a) ∂A ∂t (4.uu.se/CED/Book
i i i
. this can be written Bi j = ∂A j ∂Ai − = ∂i A j − ∂ j Ai ∂xi ∂x j ∂φ ∂Ai Ei = − i − = −∂i φ − ∂t Ai ∂x ∂t (4.78) and Equation (4.

i i i
.82) −Ey /c Bz 0 −B x −Ez /c −By Bx 0 That the two Maxwell source equations can be written ∂ν F νµ = µ0 jµ (4. The matrix representation for the covariant ﬁeld tensor is 0 E x /c Ey /c Ez /c −E /c 0 −Bz By Fµν = x (4. Equation (4.80) above for the covariant component form of the electromagnetic ﬁeld tensor F µν . equivalently.plasma.84)
which is the Maxwell source equation for the electric ﬁeld.i
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R ELATIVISTIC E LECTRODYNAMICS
can be written 0 −E x /c −Ey /c −Ez /c E /c 0 −Bz By = x Ey /c Bz 0 −B x Ez /c −By Bx 0
F µν
(4.83)
is immediately observed by explicitly setting µ = 0 in this covariant equation and using the matrix representation Formula (4. to obtain 1 ∂F 00 ∂F 10 ∂F 20 ∂F 30 + + + = 0+ ∂x0 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 c 1 = · E = µ0 j0 = µ0 cρ c or.uu.86) ∂x0 ∂x ∂x ∂x c ∂t ∂y ∂z
Downloaded from http://www.81)
It is perhaps interesting to note that the ﬁeld tensor is a sort of four-dimensional curl of the four-potential vector Aµ .84) above yields ∂F 01 ∂F 11 ∂F 21 ∂F 31 1 ∂E x ∂Bz ∂By + 1 + 2 + 3 =− 2 +0− + = µ0 j1 = µ0 ρv x (4. Equation (1. For µ = 1.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. · E = µ 0 c2 ρ = ρ ε0 (4.45a) on page 15.80)
The covariant ﬁeld tensor is obtained from the contravariant ﬁeld tensor in the usual manner by index contraction (index lowering): Fµν = gµκ gνλ F κλ = ∂µ Aν − ∂ν Aµ (4.85) ∂E x ∂Ey ∂Ez + + ∂x ∂y ∂z
(4.

. Electrodynamics and Classical Theory of Fields and Particles. New York. New York. 1985.89) (4. 1982. revised ed. A HARONI. Oxford . Routledge. BARUT.
Bibliography
[1] J. [6] L. L ANDAU AND E. Pergamon Press. New York and London. ISBN 0-415-14809-X. 3.45d) on page 15. vol. G RANDY. in three-vector form. The two Maxwell ﬁeld equations ×E = − ·B = 0 correspond to (no summation!) ∂κ Fµν + ∂µ Fνκ + ∂ν Fκµ = 0 (4. B OHM. New York. Inc.. ISBN 0-486-64870-2..88)
which is the Maxwell source equation for the magnetic ﬁeld.83) on the preceding page and Equation (4.i “main” — 2003/1/23 — 18:57 — page 67 — #85
i
i
4. 1980. Academic Press.91) constitute Maxwell’s equations in four-dimensional formalism. ISBN 0-486-64038-8. M.se/CED/Book
i i i
. . Inc. ISBN 0-12-295250-2.91) ∂B ∂t (4. Dover Publications. fourth revised English ed. NY..87)
and similarly for µ = 2.. Dover Publications. x) ∂t (4. [3] R. Introduction to Electrodynamics and Radiation. second. we can write the result as × B − ε 0 µ0 ∂E = µ0 j(t. B ECKER. Dover Publications. 2 of Course of Theoretical Physics. Electromagnetic Fields and Interactions. ∂By ∂Bz ∂E x − − ε0 µ0 = µ0 j x ∂z ∂y ∂t (4.3
B IBLIOGRAPHY
67
or. NY. Inc.
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. [5] W. 1970. 1975. using ε0 µ0 = 1/c2 . L IFSHITZ. [4] D.plasma. The Special Theory of Relativity. The Classical Theory of Fields. In summary. D. Equation (4.90)
Hence. NY. Equation (1. O.uu. The Special Theory of Relativity.
Downloaded from http://www.. . T. ISBN 0-08-025072-6. ISBN 0-486-64290-9.. 1996. New York. [2] A. Ltd.

P HILLIPS. Cambridge University Press.. ISBN 05-001331-9.. [10] W. ISBN 0-201-06710-2. K. 1965. MA . . H. . Inc.. E. Classical Electricity and Magnetism. Cambridge . New York.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. Oliver and Boyd... . second ed. Tensor Calculus. L OW.. [12] B.. [11] J. 1962. M ØLLER. Inc. London. .
Downloaded from http://www. 1972. . Reading. Reading. Glasgow . ISBN 0-471-59551-9. . John Wiley & Sons. S PAIN. . The Theory of Relativity. Advanced Quantum Mechanics. Edinburgh and London. [8] H. J. . Oxford University Press. The Macmillan Press Ltd. ISBN 333-12845-1. Classical Field Theory. Beccles and Colchester. third ed. ISBN 0-521-09245-0. W HITEHEAD.. . . 1967. 1920. N. Inc. PANOFSKY AND M. M UIRHEAD. Concept of Nature. Ltd. 1997. . MA .i
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[7] F. . . . 1973. [13] A. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. The Special Theory of Relativity.plasma. NY .uu. . ISBN 0-201-05702-6. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. S AKURAI. second ed.
i i i
. [9] C.

We will also show that we can ﬁnd ﬁnd a Hamiltonian-type function in 4D and solve the corresponding Hamilton-type equations to obtain the correct covariant formulation of classical electrodynamics. From these equations we may then calculate the charged particle dynamics in the most general case. but prescribed distributions of charges and currents.i
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5
Electromagnetic Fields and Particles
In previous chapters.
5.1 Charged Particles in an Electromagnetic Field
We ﬁrst establish a relativistically correct theory describing the motion of charged particles in prescribed electric and magnetic ﬁelds. we calculated the electromagnetic ﬁelds and potentials from arbitrary. is fully covariant. In this chapter we study the general problem of interaction between electric and magnetic ﬁelds and electrically charged particles.1.1 Covariant equations of motion
We will show that for our problem we can derive the correct equations of motion by using in 4D L4 a function with similiar properties as a Lagrange function in 3D and then apply a variational principle. and yields results which are relativistically correct.
69
i i i
.
5. The analysis is based on Lagrangian and Hamiltonian methods.

A free particle has only kinetic energy.uu.3)
For an interaction with the electromagnetic ﬁeld we can introduce the interaction with the help of the four-potential given by Equation (4.plasma.1)
where dτ is the proper time deﬁned via Equation (4. According to Formula (M.2) with the 4D Lagrangian (5.4)
We call this the four-Lagrangian and shall now show how this function. yields covariant results which are physically correct. uµ ) dτ = 0
(5.i
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i
70
E LECTROMAGNETIC F IELDS
AND
PARTICLES
Lagrange formalism
Let us now introduce a generalised action S (4) = L(4) (xµ .
i i i
. Formula (5. This suggests that in 4D the Lagrangian for a free particle should be 1 free L(4) = m0 uµ uµ 2 (5. and L(4) acts as a kind of generalisation to the common 3D Lagrangian so that the variational principle
τ1
δS (4) (τ0 .5)
=
τ0
m0 uµ δuµ + q Aµ δuµ + uµ ∂ν Aµ δxν
Downloaded from http://www.2).2)
with ﬁxed endpoints τ0 . τ1 ) = δ
τ1
=
τ0 τ1
m0 µ u uµ + quµ Aµ dτ 2 τ0 ∂Aµ m0 ∂(uµ uµ ) µ δu + q Aµ δuµ + uµ ν δxν µ 2 ∂u ∂x dτ = 0
τ1
dτ
(5.100) on page 189 the ordinary 3D Lagrangian is the difference between the kinetic and potential energies.4) inserted. If the particle mass is m0 then in 3D the kinetic energy is m0 v2 /2. τ1 ) = δ
τ0
L(4) (xµ . The variation principle (5.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. together with the variation principle. We require that L(4) is a scalar invariant and does not contain higher than the second power of the four-velocity u µ in order that the equations of motion be linear.18) on page 55. uµ ) dτ (5.78) on page 65 in the following way 1 L(4) = m0 uµ uµ + quµ Aµ (xν ) 2 (5. leads to δS (4) (τ0 . τ1 is fulﬁlled.

10) above.plasma. we can express dAν /dτ as follows: dAν ∂Aν dxµ = µ = ∂µ Aν uµ dτ ∂x dτ (5. and noting the common factor quµ of the resulting term and the last term.1
C HARGED PARTICLES
IN AN
E LECTROMAGNETIC F IELD
71
According to Equation (4. according to the variational principle. τ1 ) =
τ0
−m0
dAµ µ duµ µ δx − q δx + quµ ∂ν Aµ δxν dτ dτ dτ
(5. this expression shall vanish and δxν is arbitrary between the ﬁxed end points τ0 and τ1 .11) into the second term in right-hand member of Equation (5.37) for the four-velocity. we obtain
τ1
δS (4) (τ0 . we obtain the ﬁnal variational principle expression
τ1
δS (4) (τ0 .8) dτ dτ
Partial integration in the two ﬁrst terms in the right hand member of (5. the four-velocity is uµ = dx µ dτ (5.uu.9)
where the integrated parts do not contribute since the variations at the endpoints vanish. τ1 ) =
τ0
m0 uµ
d d δxµ + qAµ δxµ + quµ ∂ν Aµ δxν dτ (5.se/CED/Book
i i i
. the following expression:
τ1
δS (4) (τ0 . τ1 ) =
τ0
−m0
duν + quµ ∂ν Aµ − ∂µ Aν dτ
δxν dτ
(5. A change of irrelevant summation index from µ to ν in the ﬁrst two terms of the right hand member of (5.i
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5.5) on the facing page.8) gives
τ1
δS (4) (τ0 .12)
Since. the expression inside
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.37) on page 59.7)
Inserting this into the ﬁrst two terms in the last integral in Equation (5. τ1 ) =
τ0
−m0
duν dAν −q + quµ ∂ν Aµ δxν dτ dτ dτ
(5.11)
By inserting this expression (5.6)
which means that we can write the variation of uµ as a total derivative with respect to τ : δuµ = δ dx µ dτ = d δxµ dτ (5.10)
Applying well-known rules of differentiation and the expression (4. after moving the ensuing common factor δxν outside the partenthesis.9) yields.
Downloaded from http://www.

14)
This is the sought-for covariant equation of motion for a particle in an electromagnetic ﬁeld. It is often referred to as the Minkowski equation. the spatial part of this 4-vector equation is the covariant (relativistically correct) expression for the Newton-Lorentz force equation. To this end we introduce a canonically conjugate four-momentum pµ in an analogous way as the ordinary 3D conjugate momentum: pµ = ∂L(4) ∂uµ (5.
Hamiltonian formalism
The usual Hamilton equations for a 3D space are given by Equation (M.17)
Downloaded from http://www.15a) (5.13)
With the help of Equation (4.37) on page 59.
i i i
. to deﬁne the four-Hamiltonian H(4) = pµ uµ − L(4) (5.12) on the preceding page must vanish.79) on page 65 we can express this equation in terms of the electromagnetic ﬁeld tensor in the following way: m0 duν = quµ Fνµ dτ (5. we have found an equation of motion for a charged particle in a prescribed electromagnetic ﬁeld: m0 duν = quµ ∂ν Aµ − ∂µ Aν dτ (5. t) = pi qi − L(qi .16)
and utilise the four-velocity uµ . In other words.plasma.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. qi is a ˙ ˙ generalised coordinate and pi is its canonically conjugate momentum.105) on page 190 in Appendix M. qi .15b)
where H(pi .uu. These six ﬁrst-order partial differential equations are ∂H dqi = ∂pi dt dpi ∂H =− ∂qi dt (5. qi .i
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in the integrand in the right hand member of Equation (5. As the reader can easily verify. as given by Equation (4. We seek a similar set of equations in 4D space. t) is the ordinary 3D Hamiltonian.

21) that H(4) is indeed a scalar invariant. Equation (5. Equation (5. the radius four-vector xµ . According to Equation (4.20)
Inserting this into (5.18) to derive an explicit algebraic expression for the canonically conjugate momentum four-vector.21)
Since the four-velocity scalar-multiplied by itself is uµ uµ = c2 .i
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5. from the deﬁnition (5.15) on the preceding page.18b) µ ∂x dτ which form the four-dimensional Hamilton equations. Equations (5. we clearly see from Equation (5. we obtain 1 1 H(4) = m0 uµ uµ + qAµ uµ − m0 uµ uµ − quµ Aµ (xν ) = m0 uµ uµ 2 2 (5.plasma.1
C HARGED PARTICLES
IN AN
E LECTROMAGNETIC F IELD
73
With the help of these.22) 2 However.23)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. c times a four-momentum has a zeroth (time) component which we can identify with the total energy. we introduce the following eight partial differential equations: ∂H(4) dxµ = (5.4) on page 70.18a) ∂pµ dτ dpµ ∂H(4) =− (5. deﬁned in Equation (4. we obtain 1 (5.18) on page 55. whose value is simply m0 c2 (5.20) provides the algebraic relationship H(4) = uµ = 1 pµ − qAµ m0 (5.19) H(4) = pµ uµ − L(4) = pµ uµ − m0 uµ uµ − quµ Aµ (xν ) 2 Furthermore.16) on the preceding page and Equations (5. and the expression for L(4) . at the same time (5. This later consistency check is left as an exercise to the reader. Our strategy now is to use Equation (5.uu.
Downloaded from http://www. Hence we require that the component p0 of the conjugate four-momentum vector deﬁned according to Equation (5.16) of the canonically conjugate fourmomentum pµ .42) on page 60.17) on the facing page. we see that pµ = ∂L(4) ∂ = ∂uµ ∂uµ 1 m0 uµ uµ + quµ Aµ (xν ) = m0 uµ + qAµ 2 (5. and the invariant line element ds.16) on the facing page be identical to the ordinary 3D Hamiltonian H divided by c and hence that this cp0 solves the Hamilton equations. Using the deﬁnition of H(4) .19). considered as the generalised four-coordinate.se/CED/Book
i i i
.

i i i
. and using the fact that for H(4) is equal to the scalar value m0 c2 /2.24) above. as derived in Equa-
Downloaded from http://www.20) on the previous page was used.26)
which is identical to the covariant equation of motion Equation (5. Rearranging terms.23): ∂H(4) q ∂Aν = − (pν − qAν ) µ µ ∂x m0 ∂x ∂Aν q = − m0 uν µ m0 ∂x ∂Aν = −quν µ ∂x duµ ∂Aµ dpµ = −m0 − q ν uν =− dτ dτ ∂x
(5.21) to eliminate uµ . Recalling expression (4.27a) (5.25)
where in the last step Equation (5.27b) (5. one gets H(4) = m0 2 1 = 2m0 1 = 2m0 1 1 pµ − qAµ pµ − qAµ m0 m0 pµ − qAµ pµ − qAµ (5.48) on page 61 and representing the canonically conjugate four-momentum as pµ = (p0 .24)
pµ pµ − 2qAµ pµ + q2 Aµ Aµ
That this four-Hamiltonian yields the correct covariant equation of motion can be seen by inserting it into the four-dimensional Hamilton’s equations (5. and using Equation (4.27c)
Inserting these explicit expressions into Equation (5.80) on page 66.uu.se/CED/Book
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and if this is used in (5.plasma. we obtain the following scalar products: pµ pµ = (p0 )2 − (p)2 1 Aµ pµ = φp0 − (p · A) c 1 µ A Aµ = 2 φ2 − (A)2 c (5.14) on page 72. We can then safely conclude that the Hamiltonian in question is correct.18) and using the relation (5. p). we obtain m0 duµ = quν ∂µ Aν − ∂ν Aµ = quν Fµν dτ (5.

34)
where the quantity mv is the usual kinetic momentum.1
C HARGED PARTICLES
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E LECTROMAGNETIC F IELD
75
tion (5. the 4D transformation (5.31)
is the ordinary 3D Hamilton function for a charged particle moving in scalar and vector potentials associated with prescribed electric and magnetic ﬁelds.i
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5.30)
Since the fourth component (time component) p0 of a four-momentum vector pµ multiplied by c represents the energy [cf.28)
(5.42) on page 60]. Consequently. we can rewrite this expression for the ordinary Lagrangian as follows: L = qA · v + mv2 − qφ − c
2
m2 v2 + m2 c2 0
2 2
= mv − q(φ − A · v) − mc = −qφ + qA · v − m0 c
v2 1− 2 c
(5.35)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.17) between L (4) and H(4) ] L = p·v−H (5.uu.se/CED/Book
i i i
.plasma.
Downloaded from http://www.22) on page 73.29)
with two possible solutions q p0 = φ ± c (p − qA)2 + m2 c2 0 (5. the positive solution in Equation (5. H ≡ cp0 = qφ + c (p − qA)2 + m2 c2 0 (5. we obtain the equation 2 1 q2 m0 c2 (p0 )2 − (p)2 − qφp0 + 2q(p · A) + 2 φ2 − q2 (A)2 = 2 2m0 c c which is the second order algebraic equation in p0 : (p0 )2 − q2 2q 0 φp − (p)2 − 2qp · A + q2 (A)2 + 2 φ2 − m2 c2 = 0 0 c c
(p−qA)2
(5. Equation (4.32)).31) above) and (Equation (5.30) must be identiﬁed with the ordinary Hamilton function H divided by c. we obtain the explicit expression for the ordinary 3D Lagrange function L = p · v − qφ − c (p − qA)2 + m2 c2 0 (5.32)
Using the explicit expressions (Equation (5.33)
and if we make the identiﬁcation m0 v p − qA = = mv v2 1 − c2
(5. The ordinary Lagrange and Hamilton functions L and H are related to each other by the 3D transformation [cf.

prescribed distributions of charges and currents. and (i + 1)th mass point. identical mass points m. we have considered two classes of problems. Let us now put the ﬁelds and the particles on an equal footing and present a theoretical description which treats the ﬁelds. ideal springs with spring constants k. each with mass m and connected to its neighbour along a one-dimensional straight line. ηi (t).
5. and their interactions in a uniﬁed way. the motion of mass point i will be a one-dimensional oscillatory motion along x.plasma.2.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.1: A one-dimensional chain consisting of N discrete. Either we have calculated the ﬁelds from given. by identical ideal springs with spring constants k.
What we have obtained is the relativstically correct (covariant) expression for the Lagrangian describing the motion of a charged particle in scalar and vector potentials associated with prescribed electric and magnetic ﬁelds. along the x axis.2 Covariant Field Theory
So far. The equilibrium distance between the neighbouring mass points is a and ηi−1 (t).1 Lagrange-Hamilton formalism for ﬁelds and interactions
Consider N identical mass points. drawing inferences from this model problem. Let us denote the deviation for mass point i from ˆ
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5. prescribed ﬁelds. ith. we apply a similar view on the electromagnetic problem.i
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ηi−1 m m m
ηi
ηi+1 m m x
k a
k a
k a
k a
F IGURE 5. the particles.
i i i
. After perturbation. or we have derived the equations of motion for charged particles in given. of positions of the (i − 1)th. connected to their neighbours with identical.uu. This involves transition to a ﬁeld picture with an inﬁnite number of degrees of freedom. distributed evenly with a distance a to their two nearest neighbours. We shall ﬁrst consider a simple mechanical problem whose solution is well known. which we choose to be the x axis. ηi+1 (t) are the instantaneous deviations. At equilibrium the mass points are at rest. Then.

Li = ηi+1 − ηi 1 m 2 ηi − ka ˙ 2 a a
2
(5.plasma.se/CED/Book
i i i
.40c) (5.100) on page 189.
Downloaded from http://www. in the following way: L = ∑ aLi
i=1 N
(5.2
C OVARIANT F IELD T HEORY
77
its equilibrium position by ηi (t) x.t = µ ∂t ∂x 2 ∂t
2
(5.37)
Let us write the Lagrangian. as given by Equation (5. .40b) (5.uu. let the springs become inﬁnitesimally short according to the following scheme: a → dx dm m → =µ a dx ka → Y ηi+1 − ηi ∂η → a ∂x we obtain L= where L η.41)
−Y
∂η ∂x
2
(5. at the same time. ∂η 1 ∂η ∂η .i
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5.42)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.36)
According to Equation (M. If we now let N → ∞ and. ˆ The solution to this mechanical problem can be obtained if we can ﬁnd a Lagrangian (Lagrange function) L which satisﬁes the variational equation δ L(ηi .39)
is the so called linear Lagrange density.37) above.38)
Here. t) dt = 0 ˙ (5. ηi . the Lagrangian is L = T − V where T denotes the kinetic energy and V the potential energy of a classical mechanical system with conservative forces.40d)
L dx
(5. In our case the Lagrangian is L= 1 N m˙ 2 − k(ηi+1 − ηi )2 ηi 2∑ i=1 (5.40a) linear mass density Young’s modulus (5.

44) ∂η ∂t ∂ ∂η ∂x ∂ ∂η
∂t ∂x
where the variation is arbitrary (and the endpoints ﬁxed).36) on the preceding page yields: δ L dt =δ = =0 ∂η ∂η dx dt L η. spinors and other ﬁelds that appear in quantum physics.
i i i
. Under the assumption of time independence and ﬁxed endpoints. to a continuous description.plasma. in which the mass points were identiﬁed by a discrete integer variable i = 1. .43)
The last integral can be integrated by parts. . This means that the integrand itself must vanish. as we shall see. But. ˆ A consequence of this transition is that the number of degrees of freedom for the system went from the ﬁnite number N to inﬁnity! Another consequence is that L has now become dependent also on the partial derivative with respect to x of the ‘ﬁeld coordinate’ η. . be it classical scalar or vectorial ﬁelds. the variation principle (5. This results in the expression ∂L − ∂ ∂L − ∂ ∂L δη dx dt = 0 (5. If we introduce the functional derivative δL ∂L ∂ ∂L = − (5. . where the inﬁnitesimal mass points were instead identiﬁed by a continuous real parameter x.i
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Notice how we made a transition from a discrete description. .45) δη ∂η ∂x ∂ ∂η
∂x
we can express this as δL ∂ ∂L − =0 δη ∂t ∂ ∂η
∂t
(5. the transition is well worth the price because it allows us to treat all ﬁelds. 2.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. namely their position along x. ∂t ∂x ∂L δη + ∂L δ ∂η + ∂L δ ∂η dx dt ∂η ∂t ∂x ∂ ∂η ∂ ∂η ∂t ∂x
(5.46)
Downloaded from http://www. N. or wave functions.uu. on an equal footing.

For this 3D case we get the variational principle δ L dt = δ L d3x dt
=0
∂η = δ L η.e.se/CED/Book
i i i
.uu. into Equation (5.48)
where the variation δη is arbitrary and the endpoints are ﬁxed. the one-dimensional wave equation for compression waves which propag√ ate with phase speed vφ = Y/µ along the linear structure.49) ∂η ∂xµ ∂ ∂ηµ
∂x
This constitutes the four-dimensional Euler-Lagrange equations.plasma. Introducing the three-dimensional functional derivative ∂ ∂L δL ∂L = − i δη ∂η ∂x ∂ ∂η
∂xi
(5.42) on page 77. we obtain the equation of motion for our one-dimensional linear mechanical structure.50)
we can express this as δL ∂ ∂L − =0 δη ∂t ∂ ∂η
∂t
(5.
Downloaded from http://www. µ d4x ∂x ∂L − ∂ ∂L δη d4x = ∂η ∂xµ ∂ ∂ηµ
∂x
(5. A generalisation of the above 1D results to a three-dimensional continuum is straightforward.2
C OVARIANT F IELD T HEORY
79
which is the one-dimensional Euler-Lagrange equation. It is: µ ∂2 ∂2 η−Y 2η = 2 ∂t ∂x µ ∂2 ∂2 − 2 2 Y ∂t ∂x η=0 (5.51)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.i
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5. Inserting the linear mass point chain Lagrangian density. Equation (5.46) on the facing page.. This means that the integrand itself must vanish: ∂ ∂L ∂L − =0 (5.47)
i.

we differentiate this expression and identify terms.52)
and deﬁne the Hamilton density H π.56)
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In analogy with particle mechanics (ﬁnite number of degrees of freedom). If we want to describe the electromagnetic ﬁeld in terms of a Lagrange density L and Euler-Lagrange equations.uu.
i i i
. as usual. ∂t ∂xi (5. when we described the mechanical ﬁeld.3) on page 70 and V is the volume. we used a scalar ﬁeld η(t. ∂η ∂η . It is given by L(4) /V where L(4) is given by Equation (5. x) = ∂ ∂L
∂η ∂t
(5.53)
If. Expressed in the rest mass density 0 .t = π −L i ∂x ∂t η. we may introduce the canonically conjugate momentum density π(xµ ) = π(t. the mechanical Lagrange density can be written L mech = 1 2
0u µ
uµ
(5.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.54b)
The Hamilton density functions are in many ways similar to the ordinary Hamilton functions and lead to similar results. a ﬁeld part and an interaction part. it comes natural to express L in terms of the four-potential Aµ (xκ ).plasma.54a) (5. η.55)
where the mechanical part has to do with the particle motion (kinetic energy). We therefore assume that the total Lagrange density L tot for this system can be expressed as L tot = L mech + L inter + L ﬁeld (5. The entire system of particles and ﬁelds consists of a mechanical part. we obtain the following Hamilton density equations ∂η ∂H = ∂π ∂t δH ∂π =− δη ∂t (5.
The electromagnetic ﬁeld
Above.

From Formula (4. A convenient expression for this interaction Lagrange density is L inter = jµ Aµ (5.i “main” — 2003/1/23 — 18:57 — page 81 — #99
i
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5.1
Show. Einstein summation
and from Formula (4.80) on page 66 we recall that 0 −E x /c −E y /c −E z /c E /c 0 −Bz By F µν = x E y /c Bz 0 −B x E z /c −By Bx 0
(5.plasma.62)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. we express this ﬁeld Lagrange density as L ﬁeld = 1 µν F Fµν 4µ0 (5.se/CED/Book
i i i
.82) on page 66 that 0 E x /c E y /c E z /c −E /c 0 −Bz By F µν = x −E y /c Bz 0 −B x −E z /c −By Bx 0
(5.e. that 1 µν 1 F F µν = 4µ0 2 B2 − ε0 E 2 µ0 (5.60)
i.57)
For the ﬁeld part L ﬁeld we choose the difference between magnetic and electric energy density (in analogy with the difference between kinetic and potential energy in a mechanical ﬁeld).61)
where µ denotes the row number and ν the column number. by explicit calculation.2
C OVARIANT F IELD T HEORY
81
The L inter part which describes the interaction between the charged particles and the external electromagnetic ﬁeld..
F IELD ENERGY DIFFERENCE EXPRESSED IN THE FIELD TENSOR E XAMPLE 5.
Downloaded from http://www.uu.59)
From this we can calculate all physical quantities. the difference between the magnetic and electric ﬁeld energy densities. Using the ﬁeld tensor.58)
so that the total Lagrangian density can be written L tot = 1 2
0u µ
uµ + jµ Aµ +
1 µν F Fµν 4µ0
(5. Then.

Equation (5.65) and the results in Example 5.1 that ∂L EM = jν ∂Aν
(5. we note from Equation (5. the electromagnetic part of the Lagrangian density L EM = L inter + L ﬁeld = jν Aν + 1 µν F Fµν 4µ0
(5. To see this.64)
where. expression (5.49) on page 79 (with η replaced by Aν ). we can derive the dynamics for the whole system.
E ND
QED
OF EXAMPLE
5.1
Using L tot in the 3D Euler-Lagrange equations. in the last step.i
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and direct substitution yields F µν F µν = F 00 F 00 + F 01 F 01 + F 02 F 02 + F 03 F 03 + F 10 F 10 + F 11 F 11 + F 12 F 12 + F 13 F 13 + F 20 F 20 + F 21 F 21 + F 22 F 22 + F 23 F 23 + F 30 F 30 + F 31 F 31 + F 32 F 32 + F 33 F 33
2 2 = 0 − E 2 /c2 − E y /c2 − E z /c2 x 2 − E y /c2 + B2 + 0 + B2 z x
− E 2 /c2 + 0 + B2 + B2 x z y
(5.63)
= −2E 2 /c2 + 2B2 = 2(B2 − E 2 /c2 ) or 1 µν 1 F F µν = 4µ0 2 B2 1 2 − E µ0 c 2 µ0 = 1 2
2 2 = −2E 2 /c2 − 2E y /c2 − 2E z /c2 + 2B2 + 2B2 + 2B2 z x x y
2 − E z /c2 + B2 + B2 + 0 y x
B2 − ε0 E 2 µ0
(5.49) on page 79.65)
inserted into the Euler-Lagrange equations.
i i i
. the identity ε0 µ0 = 1/c2 was used.uu.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. For instance.plasma. yields two of Maxwell’s equations.66)
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se/CED/Book
i i i
. for the Lagrangian density L EM and with Aν as the ﬁeld quantity become ∂L EM ∂L EM 1 − ∂µ = jν − ∂µ F µν = 0 ∂Aν ∂(∂µ Aν ) µ0 (5.plasma.uu. ∂µ ∂L EM 1 ∂ F κλ Fκλ = ∂µ ∂(∂µ Aν ) 4µ0 ∂(∂µ Aν ) ∂ 1 (∂κ Aλ − ∂λ Aκ )(∂κ Aλ − ∂λ Aκ ) ∂µ = 4µ0 ∂(∂µ Aν ) = 1 ∂ ∂µ ∂κ Aλ ∂κ Aλ − ∂κ Aλ ∂λ Aκ 4µ0 ∂(∂µ Aν ) − ∂λ Aκ ∂κ Aλ + ∂λ Aκ ∂λ Aκ = But ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂κ Aλ + ∂κ Aλ ∂κ Aλ ∂κ Aλ ∂κ Aλ = ∂κ Aλ ∂(∂µ Aν ) ∂(∂µ Aν ) ∂(∂µ Aν ) ∂ ∂ = ∂κ Aλ ∂κ Aλ + ∂κ Aλ gκα ∂α gλβ Aβ ∂(∂µ Aν ) ∂(∂µ Aν ) ∂ ∂ = ∂κ Aλ ∂κ Aλ + gκα gλβ ∂κ Aλ ∂α Aβ (5.70) (5.
Downloaded from http://www.71)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.69) ∂ 1 ∂µ ∂κ Aλ ∂κ Aλ − ∂κ Aλ ∂λ Aκ 2µ0 ∂(∂µ Aν ) (5.i
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5.68) ∂(∂µ Aν ) ∂(∂µ Aν ) ∂ ∂ = ∂κ Aλ ∂κ Aλ + ∂α Aβ ∂α Aβ ∂(∂µ Aν ) ∂(∂µ Aν ) = 2∂µ Aν Similarly.67)
This means that the Euler-Lagrange equations. expression (5. ∂ ∂κ Aλ ∂λ Aκ = 2∂ν Aµ ∂(∂µ Aν ) so that ∂µ 1 1 ∂L EM = ∂µ ∂µ Aν − ∂ν Aµ = ∂µ F µν ∂(∂µ Aν ) µ0 µ0 (5.49) on page 79.2
C OVARIANT F IELD T HEORY
83
Furthermore.

73)
Insertion into the 1D Euler-Lagrange equation. Equation (5.46) on page 78.72)
which.75)
which describes the Yukawa meson ﬁeld for a scalar meson with mass m.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. scalar ﬁeld η which has the following Lagrange density: L = 1 ∂µ η∂µ η − m2 η2 2 (5. yields the dynamic equation (
2
− m2 )η = 0
(5.74)
with the solution η = ei(k·x−ωt) e−m|x| |x| (5.uu. according to Equation (4.plasma. As a simple example.78)
Downloaded from http://www.
Other ﬁelds
In general.76)
we obtain the Hamilton density H = 1 2 2 c π + ( η)2 + m2 η2 2 (5. is the covariant version of Maxwell’s source equations.i
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or ∂µ F µν = µ0 jν (5. With π= 1 ∂η c2 ∂t (5. Both linear and non-linear ﬁelds are studied with this technique.83) on page 66. Another Lagrangian density which has attracted quite some interest is the Proca Lagrangian L EM = L inter + L ﬁeld = jν Aν + 1 µν F Fµν + m2 Aµ Aµ 4µ0 (5. the dynamic equations for most any ﬁelds. can be derived from a Lagrangian density together with a variational principle (the Euler-Lagrange equations).
i i i
. and not only electromagnetic ones.77)
which is positive deﬁnite. consider a real.

vol. fourth revised English ed. ISBN 0-471-81368-0. New York. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. E. second ed.
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i
5. The Classical Theory of Fields. it will have an impact on electrodynamics as well as on cosmology and astrophysics. ISBN 0-08-025072-6.uu. 1970. G INZBURG. Advanced Quantum Mechanics. Dover Publications. .2
B IBLIOGRAPHY
85
which leads to the dynamic equation ∂µ F µν + m2 Aν = µ0 jν (5. [8] D. G RANDY.
Bibliography
[1] A. London. H. D. 1967. L ANDAU AND E. Academic Press. Electrodynamics and Classical Theory of Fields and Particles. 2 of Course of Theoretical Physics. BARUT. . Tokyo and Melbourne. PANOFSKY AND M. S AKURAI. MA . 1989. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. second ed. Revised third ed.
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. Introduction to Electrodynamics and Radiation. MA . J. NY. . Reading. Classical Field Theory. London. Pergamon Press. in other words. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers. Space experiments of this kind onboard satellites have led to stringent upper bounds on the photon mass. L IFSHITZ. ISBN 0-201-02918-9. P HILLIPS.. including those of the earth and galactic spiral arms. would be signiﬁcantly modiﬁed to yield measurable discrepances from their usual form. . . 1962. Classical Electricity and Magnetism. Inc. 1980.. [2] V. ISBN 0-201-06710-2. . Sydney and Toronto.. Inc.. Oxford . 1976. O. M. L.... . Inc. massive photons. or. large-scale magnetic ﬁelds. Classical Mechanics. . . [3] H. John Wiley & Sons. 1975. K. Reading. Ltd. Applications of Electrodynamics in Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics. [4] W. ISBN 288124-719-9. ISBN 0-486-64038-8.se/CED/Book
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. G OLDSTEIN.. 1981. Reading. If massive photons would exist. New York. [5] L. [6] W. ISBN 0-201-05702-6. T. Inc. .79)
This equation describes an electromagnetic ﬁeld with a mass.plasma. . New York and London. Montreux.. Inc. S OPER. Paris. [7] J. If the photon really has a mass. MA . ISBN 0-12-295250-2. .. New York.

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which. as we shall see.45) derived in Chapter 1 are valid on all scales where a classical description is good. leads to the introduction of (di)electric polarisation and magnetisation which.
6. has certain limitations.1. when macroscopic matter is present.
6. justiﬁes the introduction of two help quantities. This view. However. derived ﬁelds are introduced in order to incorporate effects of macroscopic matter when this is immersed fully or partially in an electromagnetic ﬁeld. it is sometimes convenient to use the corresponding macroscopic Maxwell equations (in a statistical sense) in which auxiliary. the electric displacement vector D and the magnetising ﬁeld H. in turn. for instance in engneering applications.i
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6
Electromagnetic Fields and Matter
The microscopic Maxwell equations (1.1 Electric Polarisation and Displacement
In certain cases.1)
87
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.1 Electric multipole moments
The electrostatic properties of a spatial volume containing electric charges and located near a point x0 can be characterized in terms of the total charge or electric monopole moment q=
V
d3x ρ(x )
(6. it may be convenient to separate the inﬂuence of an external electric ﬁeld on free charges ont the one hand and on neutral matter in bulk on the other.

j = 1.7) on page 5.plasma.5)
V
V
V
Using the expression Equation (M. the electric dipole moment vector p(x0 ) = d3x (x − x0 ) ρ(x ) (6.3) on page 37 from a charge distribution located near x0 can be Taylor expanded in the following way: φstat (x) = 1 (x − x0 )i q 1 + pi 4πε0 |x − x0 | |x − x0 |2 |x − x0 |
1 + Qi j |x − x0 |3
3 (x − x0 )i (x − x0 ) j 1 − δi j + . . unit: C/m2 ). Particularly important is the dipole moment. As can be seen from this expression.87) on page 187 and applying the diver-
Downloaded from http://www. Let P denote the electric dipole moment density (electric dipole moment per unit volume. 3. the electric potential from this volume distribution P(x ) of electric dipole moments p at the source point x can be written φp (x) = 1 4πε0 1 = 4πε0 1 x−x =− 3 |x − x | 4πε0 1 d3x P(x ) · |x − x | d3x P(x ) · d3x P(x ) · 1 |x − x | (6. 2. also known as the electric polarisation. the electrostatic potential Equation (3.uu. i = 1. 2 |x − x0 | |x − x0 | 2
(6. For a normal medium.2)
V
with components pi .4)
where Einstein’s summation convention over i and j is implied. In particular. In analogy with the second term in the expansion Equation (6.3)
V
with components Qi j . the major contributions to the electrostatic interactions come from the net charge and the lowest order electric multipole moments induced by the polarisation due to an applied electric ﬁeld. i. the electric quadrupole moment tensor Q(x0 ) = d3x (x − x0 )(x − x0 ) ρ(x ) (6. only the ﬁrst few terms are important if the ﬁeld point (observation point) is far away from x0 .4).i
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where the ρ is the charge density introduced in Equation (1.
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. and higher order electric moments. 3. 2. in some medium. .se/CED/Book
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to the lowest order. non-cancelling dipole moment on the surface of the volume. we can write down the following alternative version of Maxwell’s equation (6. can be neglected. the effective charge density becomes ρ(x) − · P(x). polarisation charges are separated thus becomes ·E = ρtrue (x) − · P(x) ε0 (6.3) on page 37 for the electrostatic potential from a static charge distribution ρ. Doing so.se/CED/Book
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.plasma. By introducing the notation ρpol = − · P for the ‘polarised’ charge density in the medium.1
E LECTRIC P OLARISATION
AND
D ISPLACEMENT
89
gence theorem.8)
Rewriting this equation.7) on page 5 where free.6)
S
where the ﬁrst term.
Downloaded from http://www. The version of Equation (1.7)
Comparing this expression with expression Equation (3.23a) on page 92 ·E = ρtotal (x) ε0 (6. we ﬁnd that the contribution ˆ from the electric dipole moments to the potential is given by φp = 1 4πε0 d3x
V
−
· P(x ) |x − x |
(6. unless there is a discontinuity in P · n at the surface.uu. in which the second term is a polarisation term. and at the same time introducing the electric displacement vector (C/m2 ) D = ε0 E + P we obtain · (ε0 E + P) = · D = ρtrue (x) (6. we see that − · P(x) has the characteristics of a charge density and that.11)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. and ρtotal = ρtrue + ρpol for the ‘total’ charge density. This is one of Maxwell’s equations and is valid also for time varying ﬁelds.10) (6. which describes the effects of the induced. ‘true’ charges and bound.i
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6.9)
where ρtrue is the ‘true’ charge density in the medium. we can rewrite this expression for the potential as follows: φp (x) = 1 4πε0 1 = 4πε0 P(x ) · P(x ) − d3x |x − x | |x − x | V ˆ · P(x ) P(x ) · n d2x − d3x |x − x | |x − x | V d3x ·
V
(6.

the linear and isotropic relationship between P and E P = ε0 χE (6. i. In such a situation the principle of superposition is no longer valid and non-linear effects such as frequency conversion and mixing can be expected. So there is no correspondence in the magnetic case to the electric monopole moment (6. 2.uu.
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. ε = ε0 (1 + χ) (6. Inserting the approximation (6. a physical transport of true charges. we can write the latter D = εE where.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. we may have ‘true’ currents jtrue . We identify them with ∂P/∂t.plasma. but which may produce net effects at discontinuities and boundaries.12)
is a good approximation. the susceptibility is a tensor.12) but non-linear terms are important.. The
Downloaded from http://www.9) on the previous page.12) into Equation (6. the relationship is not of a simple linear form as in Equation (6.14) (6.1). approximately. We shall call such currents magnetisation currents and denote them jM . In general. The quantity χ is the electric susceptibility which is material dependent. There may also be intrinsic currents of a microscopic.e. For electromagnetically anisotropic media such as a magnetised plasma or a birefringent crystal. In analogy with ‘true’ charges for the electric case. We call such currents induced by an external ﬁeld polarisation currents. nature that are inaccessible to direct observation. for low enough ﬁeld strengths |E|.i
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Often.2 Magnetisation and the Magnetising Field
An analysis of the properties of stationary magnetic media and the associated currents shows that three such types of currents exist: 1. In analogy with electric polarisation P there may be a form of charge transport associated with the changes of the polarisation with time. No magnetic monopoles have been observed yet. 3. often atomic.13)
6.

Equation (6. we discussed an alternative way.se/CED/Book
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.2
M AGNETISATION
AND THE
M AGNETISING F IELD
91
lowest order magnetic moment. the divergence of the left hand side vanishes while the divergence of the right hand side does not. be led to think that × B = µ0 jtrue + ∂P + ×M ∂t (6.17)
We might then.plasma. in this simplistic view. Ampère-turn density) as H= B −M µ0 (6.18)
Moving the term × M to the left hand side and introducing the magnetising ﬁeld (magnetic ﬁeld intensity.i
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6.15)
V
For a distribution of magnetic dipole moments in a volume. In Chapter 1.16)
In a stationary medium we therefore have a total current which is (approximately) the sum of the three currents enumerated above: jtotal = jtrue + ∂P + ×M ∂t (6. to introduce the displacement current. we can write this incorrect equation in the following form × H = jtrue + ∂P ∂D ∂E = jtrue + − ε0 ∂t ∂t ∂t (6. Maxwell realised this and to overcome this inconsistency he was forced to add his famous displacement current term which precisely compensates for the last term in the right hand side.
Downloaded from http://www.uu.20)
As we see.
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. or magnetic dipole moment per unit volume. corresponding to the electric dipole moment (6. we would pick up a term which makes the equation inconsistent.9) on page 89. erroneously. based on the postulate of conservation of electric charge. M. we may describe this volume in terms of the magnetisation.19)
and using the deﬁnition for D. Via the deﬁnition of the vector potential one can show that the magnetisation current and the magnetisation is simply related: jM = ×M (6. is the magnetic dipole moment m= 1 2 d3x (x − x0 ) × j(x ) (6.2).

23d) by E and subtracting. we can write H= B µ (6. in analogy with the electric case.22)
Maxwell’s equations expressed in terms of the derived ﬁeld quantities D and H are · D = ρ(t.uu.23d)
× H = j(t.21)
where. we obtain − ∂ ∂t d3x
V
1 (H · B + E · D) = 2
V
d3x j · E +
S
d2x (E × H) · n ˆ
(6. x) +
and are called Maxwell’s macroscopic equations.23c) by H.23b) (6.1 The energy theorem in Maxwell’s theory
Scalar multiplying (6. These equations are convenient to use in certain simple cases.3 Energy and Momentum
We shall use Maxwell’s macroscopic equations in the following considerations on the energy and momentum of the electromagnetic ﬁeld and its interaction with matter. introduce a magnetic susceptibility for the medium. x) ·B = 0 ×E = − ∂B ∂t ∂ D ∂t (6. we obtain H · ( × E) − E · ( × H) = · (E × H) ∂D 1∂ ∂B −E·j−E· =− (H · B + E · D) − j · E = −H · ∂t ∂t 2 ∂t (6.
6. µ = µ0 (1 + χm ) (6.25)
Downloaded from http://www.3.24)
Integration over the entire volume V and using Gauss’s theorem (the divergence theorem).23a) (6. they describe uniquely (but only approximately!) the properties of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds in matter.se/CED/Book
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6.i
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We may.
i i i
. Denoting it χm .plasma. approximately. Together with the boundary conditions and the constitutive relations.23c) (6.

3.28) on page 12: j = σ(E + EEMF ) which means that d3x j · E = d3x
V
(6.
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.25) on the facing page j2 ∂ + σ ∂t 1 (E · D + H · B) + 2
Field energy
V
d3x j · EEMF =
d3x
V
d3x
V
S
d2x (E × H) · n ˆ
Radiated power
Applied electric power
Joule heat
(6.se/CED/Book
i i i
.
6. It is convenient to introduce the following quantities: 1 d3x E · D 2 V 1 Um = d3x H · B 2 V S = E×H Ue = (6.30) (6. U m is the magnetic ﬁeld energy. and S is the Poynting vector (power ﬂux).26)
V
j2 − σ
V
d3x j · EEMF
(6. both measured in J.3
E NERGY
AND
M OMENTUM
93
We assume the validity of Ohm’s law so that in the presence of an electromotive force ﬁeld.31)
where U e is the electric ﬁeld energy.uu.i
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6.29) (6.27)
Inserting this into Equation (6. For this purpose we consider the force density given by the Lorentz force per unit volume ρE+j×B. measured in W/m2 .28) which is the energy theorem in Maxwell’s theory also known as Poynting’s theorem.2 The momentum theorem in Maxwell’s theory
Let us now investigate the momentum balance (force actions) in the case that a ﬁeld interacts with matter in a non-relativistic way.plasma. we make the linear approximation Equation (1.
Downloaded from http://www.

34)
respectively.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.
i i i
.32) above and re-shufﬂing terms. Using these two expressions in the ith component of Equation (6.33)
and [H( · B) − B × ( × H)]i = 1 ∂B ∂ ∂H H· + −B· 2 ∂xi ∂xi ∂x j 1 Hi B j − B · H δ i j 2 (6. we get (ρE + j × B)i − = ∂ ∂x j 1 2 E· ∂D ∂E −D· ∂xi ∂xi + H· ∂B ∂H −B· ∂xi ∂xi + ∂ (D × B)i ∂t
1 1 E i D j − E · D δ i j + Hi B j − H · B δ i j 2 2 (6.35)
Downloaded from http://www.32) can be expressed as [E( · D) − D × ( × E)]i = ∂D ∂E ∂ 1 E· −D· + 2 ∂xi ∂xi ∂x j 1 E i D j − E · D δi j 2 (6.plasma.i
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Using Maxwell’s equations (6.32)
= [E( · D) − D × ( × E)] + [H( · B) − B × ( × H)] ∂ − (D × B) ∂t One veriﬁes easily that the ith vector components of the two terms in square brackets in the right hand member of (6.23) and symmetrising. we obtain ρE + j × B = ( · D)E + ∂D ×B ∂t ∂D = E( · D) + ( × H) × B − ×B ∂t = E( · D) − B × ( × H) ∂ ∂B − (D × B) + D × ∂t ∂t = E( · D) − B × ( × H) ∂ − (D × B) − D × ( × E) + H( · B) ∂t ×H−
=0
(6.uu.

This equation is called the momentum theorem in Maxwell’s theory.plasma.3
E NERGY
AND
M OMENTUM
95
Introducing the electric volume force Fev via its ith component (Fev )i = (ρE + j × B)i − 1 2 E· ∂D ∂E ∂H ∂B −D· −B· + H· ∂xi ∂xi ∂xi ∂xi (6. In vacuum (6.41)
i
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6.38) as ∂T i j κκm ∂S = Fev + 2 ∂x j c ∂t (6.40)
where S is the Poynting vector deﬁned in Equation (6.29) on page 93.42)
Force on the matter
Field momentum
Maxwell stress
which expresses the balance between the force on the matter.37)
∂T i j = ( · T)i ∂x j
(6.39) (6.36)
and the Maxwell stress tensor T with components 1 1 T i j = E i D j − E · D δ i j + Hi B j − H · B δ i j 2 2 we ﬁnally obtain the force equation Fev + ∂ (D × B) ∂t =
i
(6.38)
If we introduce the relative electric permittivity κ and the relative magnetic permeability κm as D = κε0 E = εE B = κm µ0 H = µH we can rewrite (6.se/CED/Book
i i i
.42) becomes d3x ρ(E + v × B) + 1 d c2 dt d3x S =
V S
V
d2x T n ˆ
(6.
Downloaded from http://www. Integration over the entire volume V yields d3x Fev + d dt d3x
V
V
κκm S= c2
S
d2x T n ˆ
(6.uu.44)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. the rate of change of the electromagnetic ﬁeld momentum and the Maxwell stress.43)
or d mech d ﬁeld p + p = dt dt
S
d2x T n ˆ
(6.

1999.plasma.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. NY . Electromagnetic Theory. John Wiley & Sons.. 1962. MA . . Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Reading. Inc. . . Electromagnetic Theory. ISBN 07-062150-0.uu. Classical Electricity and Magnetism.i
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Bibliography
[1] E. New York.
Downloaded from http://www. NY and London. [3] W. New York. K. S TRATTON.. Inc. PANOFSKY AND M... [2] J. London. second ed. D. JACKSON. ISBN 0-201-05702-6. 1962.. P HILLIPS. Chapman & Hall. ISBN 0-471-30932-X. H ALLÉN. .
i i i
. Inc. Ltd. A. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Classical Electrodynamics. . 1953. third ed. . [4] J. H..

x) = Ψω (x) =
∞
1 2π
−∞
dω Ψω (x) e−iωt
∞ −∞
(7. or even from the wave equations in Chapter 2. Strictly speaking. x) and current densities j(t. x). in principle.e. it is often physically more lucid to calculate them from the electromagnetic potentials derived in Chapter 3. In this chapter we will derive the electric and magnetic ﬁelds from the potentials. However. we may still use this approach even for sources and ﬁelds of ﬁnite duration. x) eiωt
That such transform pairs exist is true for most physical variables which are neither strictly monotonically increasing nor strictly monotonically decreasing with time.i
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7
Electromagnetic Fields from Arbitrary Source Distributions
While. a source containing only one single frequency component). For charge and current densities varying in time we can therefore.15) on page 41 we presupposed the existence of a Fourier transform pair (3. work with individual Fourier components ρω (x) and jω (x). This is the method we shall utilise in this chapter in order to derive the electric and magnetic ﬁelds in vacuum from arbitrary given charge densities ρ(t. by taking the proper limits. the existence of a single Fourier component assumes a monochromatic source (i.16a) on page 41 for the generic source term Ψ(t. We recall that in order to ﬁnd the solution (3.1b)
dt Ψ(t. which in turn requires that the electric and magnetic ﬁelds exist for inﬁnitely long times.1a) (7.. deﬁned by the temporal Fourier transform
97
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.31) for the generic inhomogeneous wave equation (3. without loss of generality. respectively. the electric and magnetic ﬁelds can be calculated from the Maxwell equations in Chapter 1.

the following Fourier transform pair for the vector potential must exist: A(t.4b) d3x ρω (x ) 2π −∞ 4πε0 V |x − x | where in the last step. x) = A0 (x)e
−iω0 t
Downloaded from http://www. Equation (3. x) eiωt (7.3b) 2π −∞ under the assumption that only retarded potentials produce physically acceptable solutions.
i i i
. x) = ρ0 (x)e−iω0 t j(t. The temporal Fourier transform pair for the retarded scalar potential can then be written φ(t. −ω φω = φ∗ −ω
V
(7. x) = jω (x) =
∞ −∞ ∞ −∞
dω ρω (x) e−iωt
∞ −∞
(7.5a) (7.3a)
1 ∞ dt j(t.7b) (7. we have the much simpler expressions ρ(t.plasma. x) eiωt = 2π −∞ 4π Clearly. x) = j0 (x)e
−iω0 t
(7. x) eiωt = (7. x) = Aω (x) =
∞ −∞
dω Aω (x) e−iωt d3x jω (x ) eik|x−x | |x − x |
(7. x) = ρω (x) = and j(t.2a) (7.7d)
φ(t. x) = φω (x) =
∞ −∞
dω φω (x) e−iωt
(7.28) on page 43.7a) (7. x) eiωt
dω jω (x) e−iωt
(7. Similar transform pairs and requirements of real-valuedness exist for the ﬁelds themselves.se/CED/Book
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in order that all physical quantities be real.i
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pairs ρ(t. we must require that Aω = A∗ .4a)
1 1 ∞ eik|x−x | dt φ(t.2b)
1 2π
dt ρ(t. Similarly. In the limit that the sources can be considered monochromatic containing only one single frequency ω0 .uu. we made use of the explicit expression for the temporal Fourier transform of the generic potential component Ψω (x).7c) (7.5b)
µ0 1 ∞ dt A(t. x) = φ0 (x)e−iω0 t A(t.

5b) on the facing page. x) =
× A(t. jω = j0 δ(ω − ω0 ) etc. Using the Fourier transformed version of Equation (7. Fourier transform back to ordinary t space.6) on page 38:
B(t. we obtain
Bω (x) =
× Aω (x) =
µ0 × 4π
V
d3x jω (x )
eik|x−x | |x − x |
(7. We note that in this context.10)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.13) on page 40. and Formula (3.
Downloaded from http://www.8) above and Equation (7.1
T HE M AGNETIC F IELD
99
where again the real-valuedness of all these quantities is implied. let ρ0 mean the same as the Fourier amplitude ρω and so on.. We are working in the Lorentz gauge and note that in ω space the Lorentz condition. without any loss of stringence. takes the form
k · Aω − i φω = 0 c
(7.5a) and Equation (7. we can safely assume that all formulae derived for a general temporal Fourier representation of the source (general distribution of frequencies in the source) are valid for these simple limiting cases. As discussed above. x)
(7.
7.plasma.uu.se/CED/Book
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7.9)
which provides a relation between (the Fourier transforms of) the vector and scalar potentials. deﬁned by Equation (7. and that we therefore. at the ﬁnal stage.5b) on the facing page. we can make the formal identiﬁcation ρω = ρ0 δ(ω − ω0 ).1 The Magnetic Field
Let us now compute the magnetic ﬁeld from the vector potential. Equation (3.8)
The calculations are much simpliﬁed if we work in ω space and.

se/CED/Book
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E LECTROMAGNETIC F IELDS
FROM
A RBITRARY S OURCE D ISTRIBUTIONS
Using Formula (F. dominates at large distances and represents energy that is transported out to inﬁnity. Formula (1. The second term. x ) × (x − x ) µ0 + d3x d3x 3 4πc V |x − x | |x − x |2
V Induction ﬁeld Radiation ﬁeld
d3x
|x − x |3 ∞ i(k|x−x |−ωt) × (x − x ) −∞ dω (−iω)jω (x )e
)ei(k|x−x |−ωt) × (x − x )
(7. the radiation ﬁeld or the far ﬁeld.
i i i
. x ) × (x − x ) j(t j(tret . Note how the spatial derivatives ( ) gave rise to a time derivative (˙)!
Downloaded from http://www.uu.57) on page 168. x ) def j(t ≡ ∂j ∂t (7.13)
t=tret
The ﬁrst term. we can rewrite this as Bω (x) = − µ0 4π µ0 =− 4π eik|x−x | |x − x | V x−x d3x jω (x ) × − eik|x−x | V |x − x |3 x − x ik|x−x | 1 + d3x jω (x ) × ik e |x − x | |x − x | V d3x jω (x ) × jω (x )eik|x−x | × (x − x ) V |x − x |3 (−ik)jω (x )eik|x−x | × (x − x ) + d3x |x − x |2 V d3x
(7.11)
=
µ0 4π
From this expression for the magnetic ﬁeld in the frequency (ω) domain. we obtain the total magnetic ﬁeld in the temporal (t) domain by taking the inverse Fourier transform (using the identity −ik = −iω/c): B(t. the induction ﬁeld. is the electrodynamic version of the BiotSavart law in electrostatics.12) where ˙ ret .plasma.15) on page 8. x) = =
∞ −∞
dω Bω (x) e−iωt d3x
V ∞ −∞ dω jω (x
µ0 4π
+ = µ0 4π
1 c
V
|x − x |2 ˙ ret .

14) above. and also using the fact that k = ω/c.14) ρω (x )e d3x 3 |x − x | V ρω (x )(x − x ) jω (x ) eik|x−x | − − ik d3x c |x − x | |x − x | V d3x ρω (x )
Using the Fourier transform of the continuity Equation (1. inserting Equations (7. we can rewrite this Equation as Eω (x) = 1 4πε0 ρω (x )eik|x−x | (x − x ) V |x − x |3 eik|x−x | 1 [ · jω (x )](x − x ) − ikjω (x ) − d3x c V |x − x | |x − x | d3x Iω The last vector-valued integral can be further rewritten in the following way: Iω = =
V
(7.uu.5b) as the explicit expressions for the Fourier transforms of φ and A: Eω (x) = − φω (x) + iωAω (x) =− 1 4πε0 1 = 4πε0
eik|x−x | iµ0 ω eik|x−x | + d3x jω (x ) 4π V |x − x | |x − x | V ik|x−x | (x − x ) (7.2
T HE E LECTRIC F IELD
101
7.
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i
7. we use the temporally Fourier transformed version of Formula (3.plasma.16) (7.15)
Doing so in the last term of Equation (7.2 The Electric Field
In order to calculate the electric ﬁeld.10) on page 39.18)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.4b) and (7.17)
d3x
V
[
dx
3
· jω (x )](x − x ) eik|x−x | − ikjω (x ) |x − x | |x − x | ik|x−x | ∂ jωm xl − xl e − ik jωl (x ) xl ˆ ∂xm |x − x | |x − x |
(7.se/CED/Book
i i i
.23) on page 10 · jω (x ) − iωρω (x ) = 0 we see that we can express ρω in terms of jω as follows ρω (x ) = − i ω · jω (x ) (7.

we arrive at the following ﬁnal expression for the Fourier transform of the total E ﬁeld: Eω (x) = − 1 4πε0 1 = 4πε0 + + − 1 c 1 c ik c d3x ρω (x ) eik|x−x | eik|x−x | iµ0 ω + d3x jω (x ) 4π V |x − x | |x − x | ρω (x )eik|x−x | (x − x ) |x − x |3 [jω (x )eik|x−x | · (x − x )](x − x ) (7.19)
we can rewrite Iω as Iω = − +
V
d3x
V 3
jωm
∂ ∂xm
∂ dx ∂xm
xl − xl eik|x−x | xl eik|x−x | + ikjω ˆ |x − x | |x − x |2 xl − xl xl eik|x−x | ˆ jωm |x − x |2
(7. according to Gauss’s theorem.51) on page 168 backwards. since ∂ ∂xm jωm xl − xl ik|x−x | e |x − x |2 = xl − xl ik|x−x | e |x − x |2 xl − xl ik|x−x | ∂ + jωm e ∂xm |x − x |2 ∂ jωm ∂xm
(7.i
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E LECTROMAGNETIC F IELDS
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But.
i i i
. once again using the vacuum relation ω = kc.uu.20)
where.plasma.21)
Using the triple product ‘bac-cab’ Formula (F. at last. the last term vanishes if jω is assumed to be limited and tends to zero at large distances.17) on the previous page. we ﬁnd.22) |x − x |4 [jω (x )eik|x−x | × (x − x )] × (x − x ) |x − x |4 [jω (x )eik|x−x | × (x − x )] × (x − x ) |x − x |3
V
d3x
V
d3x
V
d3x
V
d3x
V
Taking the inverse Fourier transform of Equation (7.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. the expression in time domain for
Downloaded from http://www.22). and inserting the resulting expression for Iω into Equation (7. Further evaluation of the derivative in the ﬁrst term makes it possible to write Iω = − d3x
V
−jω
3
eik|x−x | 2 jω · (x − x ) (x − x )eik|x−x | + 2 |x − x | |x − x |4 jω · (x − x ) (x − x ) |x − x |3 e
ik|x−x |
− ik
dx
V
−
eik|x−x | + jω |x − x |
(7.

se/CED/Book
i i i
.e.plasma. the part of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds.e. calculated above.uu. x )(x − x ) |x − x |3 [j(tret . The ﬁelds which are dominating in this zone are by deﬁnition the radiation ﬁelds. x ) × (x − x )] × (x − x ) j(t |x − x |3
Radiation ﬁeld
Here. x) = =
∞ −∞
dω Eω (x) e−iωt d3x
V
1 4πε0
ρ(tret .23)
+
d3x
V
+
d3x
V
[˙ ret . recall the discussion following Equation (3.i
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7. The other two terms represent an intermediate ﬁeld which contributes only in the near zone and must be taken into account there. We shall therefore make the assumption that the observer is located in the far zone. the ﬁrst term represents the retarded Coulomb ﬁeld and the last term represents the radiation ﬁeld which carries energy over very large distances.31) on page 43 in Chapter 3. i. prescribed distributions of charges and currents.3
T HE R ADIATION F IELDS
103
the total electric ﬁeld: E(t.
7. x ) × (x − x )] × (x − x ) |x − x |4
Intermediate ﬁeld
Retarded Coulomb ﬁeld
+
1 4πε0 c 1 4πε0 c 1 4πε0 c2
d3x
V
Intermediate ﬁeld
(7. i. With this we have achieved our goal of ﬁnding closed-form analytic expressions for the electric and magnetic ﬁelds when the sources of the ﬁelds are completely arbitrary. x ) · (x − x )](x − x ) |x − x |4 [j(tret . The only assumption made is that the advanced potentials have been discarded..12) on page 100 and Equation (7.
Downloaded from http://www. From Equation (7.. which are capable of carrying energy and momentum over large distances. very far away from the source region(s).3 The Radiation Fields
In this section we study electromagnetic radiation.23) on the previous
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.

we obtain Brad (t. we can often make a spectrum analysis into the frequency domain and study each Fourier component separately. x ) × (x − x ) j(t |x − x |2 (7.i
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E LECTROMAGNETIC F IELDS
FROM
A RBITRARY S OURCE D ISTRIBUTIONS
page.11) on page 100 and Equation (7. x) eiωt 2π −∞ jω (x ) × (x − x ) ik|x−x | kµ0 d3x e = −i 4π V |x − x |2 jω (x ) × k ik|x−x | µ0 e d3x = −i 4π V |x − x | 1 ∞ Erad (x) = dt Erad (t. The Fourier representation of the radiation ﬁelds Equation (7. A superposition of all these components and a transformation back to the time domain will then yield the complete solution.25)
t=tret
Instead of studying the ﬁelds in the time domain. x ) × (x − x )] × (x − x ) j(t |x − x |3
(7. centred
Downloaded from http://www.26b)
ˆ where we used the fact that k = k k = k(x − x )/ |x − x‘|. respectively and are explicitly given by 1 ∞ dt Brad (t. x ) def j(t ≡
∞ −∞
dω Erad ω (x) e−iωt d3x
V
1 4πε0 c2
[˙ ret . x) eiωt ω 2π −∞ k [jω (x ) × (x − x )] × (x − x ) ik|x−x | = −i d3x e 4πε0 c V |x − x |3 [jω (x ) × k] × (x − x ) ik|x−x | 1 e d3x = −i 4πε0 c V |x − x |2 Brad (x) = ω
(7.24a)
Erad (t.24b)
∂j ∂t
(7. x) =
∞ −∞
dω Brad ω (x) e−iωt =
µ0 4πc
d3x
V
˙ ret . If the source is located inside a volume V near x0 and has such a limited spatial extent that max |x − x0 | |x − x |.24b) above were included in Equation (7.uu. which give the total electric and magnetic ﬁelds. x) = = where ˙ ret .plasma. and the integration surface S .
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.26a)
(7.22) on page 102.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.24a) and Equation (7.

on x0 .45) and Formula (F. Within approximation (7. normal to the surface S which has its centre at x0 .uu. we see that we can ˆ approximate.se/CED/Book
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.28)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. and the unit vector ˆ ˆ k of the radiation k vector from x are nearly coincident.i
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7.plasma. has a large enough radius |x − x0 | that we can approximate
max |x − x0 |.26b) for the
(7. we see from Figure 7.27) the expressions (7.1 that k and n are nearly parallel.1: Relation between the surface normal and the k vector for radiation generated at source points x near the point x0 in the source volume V. ˆ ˆ ˆ k · dS k· n = dS ≈ dΩ |x − x0 |2 |x − x0 |2 Both these approximations will be used in the following.1
k x − x ≡ k · (x − x ) ≡ k · (x − x0 ) − k · (x − x0 ) ≈ k |x − x0 | − k · (x − x0 )
(7.
Downloaded from http://www. At distances much larger than the extent of V. the unit vector n.46) on page 168 that dS = |x − x0 |2 dΩ = |x − x0 |2 sin θ dθ dϕ ˆ and noting from Figure 7.26a) and (7.3
T HE R ADIATION F IELDS
105
S dS = nd2x ˆ ˆ k x−x x
x − x0
x x0
x − x0 V
O
F IGURE 7.27)
Recalling from Formula (F.

and Erad . Equation (7. we obtain S = 1 1 R 2 0 32π |x − x0 |2
2 V
d3x (jω × k)e−ik·(x −x0 )
x − x0 |x − x0 |
(7.i
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E LECTROMAGNETIC F IELDS
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A RBITRARY S OURCE D ISTRIBUTIONS
radiation ﬁelds can be approximated as µ0 ik|x−x0 | jω (x ) × k −ik·(x −x0 ) e e d3x 4π |x − x | V (7.4 Radiated Energy
Let us consider the energy that is carried in the radiation ﬁelds Brad . We have to treat signals with limited lifetime and hence ﬁnite frequency bandwidth differently from monochromatic signals. we can obtain the temporal average of the radiated power P directly.31)
Downloaded from http://www. Equation (7.4.1 Monochromatic signals
If the source is strictly monochromatic. with integrals over points in the source volume only.plasma.26b) on page 104. then the ﬁelds can be approximated as spherical waves multiplied by dimensional and angular factors.29a) µ0 eik|x−x0 | 3 −ik·(x −x0 ) ≈ −i d x [jω (x ) × k] e 4π |x − x0 | V [jω (x ) × k] × (x − x ) −ik·(x −x0 ) 1 e eik|x−x0 | d3x Erad (x) ≈ −i ω 4πε0 c |x − x |2 V 1 eik|x−x0 | (x − x0 ) ≈i × d3x [jω (x ) × k] e−ik·(x −x0 ) 4πε0 c |x − x0 | |x − x0 | V (7.30)
Using the far-ﬁeld approximations (7.
i i i
..29a) and (7.26a).18) on page 28. if max |x − x0 | |x − x |.uu.
7.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.29b) Brad (x) ≈ −i ω I. simply by averaging over one period so that S = E×H = 1 1 Re E × B∗ = Re Eω e−iωt × (Bω e−iωt )∗ 2µ0 2µ0 1 1 = Re Eω × B∗ e−iωt eiωt = Re Eω × B∗ ω ω 2µ0 2µ0
(7.
7.29b) and the fact that 1/c = √ √ ε0 µ0 and R0 = µ0 /ε0 according to the deﬁnition (2.e.

7. The total energy transmitted through a unit area is the time integral of the Poynting vector:
∞ −∞
dt S(t) = =
∞ −∞ ∞ −∞
dt (E × H) dω
∞ −∞
dω
∞ −∞
(7. To calculate the total radiated energy we need to integrate over the whole bandwidth.plasma. Parseval’s identity]
∞ −∞
dt S(t) = 2π = 2π
∞ −∞ 0
dω (Eω × H−ω )
∞ ∞ 0
(Eω × H−ω ) dω + (Eω × H−ω ) dω − (Eω × H−ω ) dω +
= 2π
0
−∞ −∞ 0 ∞ 0
(Eω × H−ω ) dω (Eω × H−ω ) dω
= 2π 2π µ0 2π = µ0 =
∞ 0 ∞ 0 ∞ 0
(7.
Downloaded from http://www.34)
Equation (7.2 Finite bandwidth signals
A signal with ﬁnite pulse width in time (t) domain has a certain spread in frequency (ω) domain.33) can be written [cf. making use of (7.28) on page 105.35)
(E−ω × Hω ) dω
(Eω × B−ω + E−ω × Bω ) dω (Eω × B∗ + E∗ × Bω ) dω ω ω
where the last step follows from the real-valuedness of Eω and Bω . We insert the Fourier transforms of the ﬁeld components which dominate at large
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.33) dt (Eω × Hω ) e−i(ω+ω )t
If we carry out the temporal integration ﬁrst and use the fact that
∞ −∞
dt e−i(ω+ω )t = 2πδ(ω + ω )
(7.se/CED/Book
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.uu.i
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7.4. dP 1 = R0 dΩ 32π2
2 V
d3x (jω × k)e−ik·(x −x0 )
(7.4
R ADIATED E NERGY
107
or.32)
which is the radiated power per unit solid angle.

PANOFSKY AND M. The result. ISBN 0-201-05702-6. L ANDAU AND E. V.e. S TRATTON. 1953. Classical Electricity and Magnetism... ISBN 0-08-025072-6.37)
and recalling the deﬁnition (2. ISBN 0-471-30932-X. NY and London.. ISBN 9810-02-2573-3(pbk). H OYLE . Pte. D. Singapore.uu. 2 of Course of Theoretical Physics.. Lectures on Cosmology and Action at a Distance Electrodynamics.26b). NARLIKAR. Ltd. fourth revised English ed. 1999.
Downloaded from http://www. MA . . K. [5] J. H.28) into Equation (7. This means that the amount of energy that is being radiated is independent on the distance to the source (as long as it is large). the radiation ﬁelds (7.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. M. . . at large distances. 1962. Ltd. [2] J.38)
which. P HILLIPS..36)
Inserting the approximations (7. Oxford .18) on page 28 for the vacuum resistance R 0 we obtain dUω 1 dω ≈ R0 dΩ 4π
2 V
d x (jω × k)e
3
−ik·(x −x0 )
dω
(7. McGraw-Hill Book Company. after integration over the area S of a large sphere which encloses the source. World Scientiﬁc Publishing Co.38) includes only source coordinates.. JACKSON. vol. i.
Bibliography
[1] F.
i i i
. Inc. John Wiley & Sons. Classical Electrodynamics. New Jersey. The Classical Theory of Fields. second ed.i
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E LECTROMAGNETIC F IELDS
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A RBITRARY S OURCE D ISTRIBUTIONS
distances..27) and (7. is a good approximation to the energy that is radiated per unit solid angle dΩ in a frequency band dω. third ed. It is important to notice that Formula (7. . New York. NY .26a) and (7. [3] L. A. . S IR AND J. [4] W.plasma. Inc.36) above and also introducing U=
0 ∞
Uω dω
(7. Pergamon Press. . L IFSHITZ. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. . . D. London and Hong Kong. ISBN 07-062150-0. Reading.. Inc. 1975. 1996. Electromagnetic Theory. New York. . is U= 1 4π µ0 ε0 d2x n· ˆ
S 0 ∞
dω
V
d3x
jω × k ik|x−x | 2 ˆ k e |x − x |
(7.

However.
8.
109
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. one can. symmetric or in any other way simple enough that a direct calculation of the radiated ﬁelds and energy is possible.i
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8
Electromagnetic Radiation and Radiating Systems
In Chapter 3 we were able to derive general expressions for the scalar and vector potentials from which we then. one has to resort to approximations. it is often difﬁcult to evaluate the source integrals unless the current has a simple distribution in space. This is for instance the case when the current ﬂows in one direction in space only and is limited in extent. Poynting ﬂux and energy for an arbitrary current density Fourier component and then add these Fourier components together to construct the complete electromagnetic ﬁeld at any time at any point in space. in practice. calculated the total electric and magnetic ﬁelds from arbitrary distributions of charge and current sources. In the general case. in Chapter 7.1 Radiation from Extended Sources
Certain radiation systems have a geometry which is one-dimensional. An example of this is a linear antenna. Thus. calculate the radiated ﬁelds. at least in principle. The only limitation in the calculation of the ﬁelds was that the advanced potentials were discarded. We shall consider both these situations.

Furthermore.1 For a Fourier component ω0 the standing wave current density can be written as j(t . x )
L 2
F IGURE 8.1.uu.i
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E LECTROMAGNETIC R ADIATION
AND
R ADIATING S YSTEMS
sin[k(L/2 − x3 )]
−L 2
j(t . for a monochromatic signal. Equations (7. The current in the feeder and the antenna wire is set up by the EMF of the generator (the transmitter). The charges in this thin wire are set in motion due to the EMF of the generator (transmitter) to produce an antenna current which is the source of the EM radiation. fed across a small gap at its centre with a monochromatic source.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.1 Radiation from a one-dimensional current distribution
Let us apply Equation (7. thin conductor of length L which carries a one-dimensional time-varying current so that it produces electromagnetic radiation. The combined effect of this is that the antenna current forms a standing wave as indicated in Figure 8. the current must vanish at the end points −L/2 and L/2 and.1)
where the current amplitude I0 is a constant (measured in A). At the ends of the wire.
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8. the current is reﬂected back with a 180◦ phase shift to produce a antenna current in the form of a standing wave. transmitting antenna.32) on page 107 to calculate the power from a linear. The antenna is a straight.
Downloaded from http://www.7) on page 98] where j0 (x ) = I0 δ(x1 )δ(x2 ) sin[k(L/2 − x3 )] x3 ˆ sin(kL/2) (8. x ) = j0 (x ) exp{−iω0 t } [cf. We assume that the conductor resistance and the energy loss due to the electromagnetic radiation are negligible. Since we can assume that the antenna wire is inﬁnitely thin. the current is sinusoidal and is reﬂected at the ends of the antenna wire and undergoes there a phase shift of π radians.1: A linear antenna used for transmission.plasma.

2 to evaluate the source integral
2 V
d3x j0 × k e−ik·(x −x0 ) sin[k(L/2 − x3 )] I0 k sin θe−ikx3 cos θ eikx0 cos θ dx3 sin(kL/2) −L/2 k2 sin2 θ eikx0 cos θ sin2 (kL/2)
2 L/2 L/2 2
=
2 = I0
2
2
0
sin[k(L/2 − x3 )] cos(kx3 cos θ) dx3
2
2 = 4I0
cos[(kL/2) cosθ] − cos(kL/2) sin θ sin(kL/2)
(8.2) Inserting this expression and dΩ = 2π sin θ dθ into Formula (7. we use a spherical polar coordinate system as in Figure 8.32) on page 107 with the explicit monochromatic current (8.se/CED/Book
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.2: We choose a spherical polar coordinate system (r = |x| . we ﬁnd that the total radiated power from the antenna
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.uu.1) inserted. θ.i
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i
8. ϕ) and orient it so that the linear antenna axis (and thus the antenna current density jω ) is along the polar axis with the feed point at the origin.32) on page 107 and integrating over θ.plasma.
In order to evaluate Formula (7.
Downloaded from http://www.1
R ADIATION
FROM
E XTENDED S OURCES
111
r ˆ x3 = z x
L 2
ϕ ˆ
ˆ θ θ jω (x ) ˆ k x2
ϕ x1 −L 2 F IGURE 8.

.7) 1 1 1 + cos(πu) 1 1 1 + cos(πu) = du + du 4 −1 (1 + u) 4 −1 (1 − u) v 1 1 1 + cos(πu) du = 1 + u → = 2 −1 (1 + u) π 2π 1 − cos v 1 1 dv = [γ + ln 2π − Ci(2π)] = 2 0 v 2 ≈ 1.
Downloaded from http://www.6)
The integral in (8. Formula (8.
i i i
.6) we obtain the value Rrad (λ/2) ≈ 73 Ω.22
π 2
where in the last step the Euler-Mascheroni constant γ = 0. i. .3) above reduces to
2 P(λ/2) = R0 I0
1 4π
π 0
cos2
cos θ dθ sin θ
π 2
(8.3)
One can show that π lim P(L) = kL→0 12 L λ
2 2 R0 I0
(8. it can in fact also be evaluated analytically as follows:
π 0
cos2
1 cos2 π u cos θ 2 du = dθ = [cos θ → u] = 2 sin θ −1 1 − u π 1 + cos(πu) cos2 u = 2 2 1 1 + cos(πu) 1 du = 2 −1 (1 + u)(1 − u) (8.6) can always be evaluated numerically.e.4)
where λ is the vacuum wavelength.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. The quantity Rrad (L) = P(L) P(L) π = 1 2 = R0 2 6 Ieff 2 I0 L λ
2
≈ 197
L λ
2
Ω
(8. Inserting this into the expression Equation (8.uu. and the cosine integral Ci(x) were introduced.i
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112
E LECTROMAGNETIC R ADIATION
AND
R ADIATING S YSTEMS
is
2 P(L) = R0 I0
1 4π
π 0
cos[(kL/2) cosθ] − cos(kL/2) sin θ sin(kL/2)
2
sin θ dθ
(8.5772 . But.5)
is called the radiation resistance.. For the technologically important case of a half-wave antenna.plasma. for L = λ/2 or kL = π.

z ) describes the source point x (the antenna current).3 According to Equation (7.1
R ADIATION
FROM
E XTENDED S OURCES
113
r ˆ x3 = z = z x ˆ θ θ ˆ k x2 z ˆ jω (x ) x1 ϕ ρ ˆ F IGURE 8. x ϕ ϕ ˆ ϕ ˆ
8.se/CED/Book
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8. This means that the antenna current oscillates in the form of a sinusoidal standing
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. We choose the Cartesian coordinate system x1 x2 x3 with its origin at the centre of the loop as in Figure 8.29a) on page 106 in the formula collection the Fourier component of the radiation part of the magnetic ﬁeld generated by an extended.1.
Downloaded from http://www.uu.plasma. θ.3: For the loop antenna the spherical coordinate system (r. ϕ .2 Radiation from a two-dimensional current distribution
As an example of a two-dimensional current distribution we consider a circular loop antenna and calculate the radiated ﬁelds from such an antenna. monochromatic current source is Brad = ω −iµ0 eik|x| 4π |x| d3x e−ik·x jω × k (8. ϕ) describes the ﬁeld point x (the radiation ﬁeld) and the cylindrical coordinate system (ρ . The circumference of the loop is chosen to be exactly one wavelength λ = 2πc/ω.8)
V
In our case the generator produces a single frequency ω and we feed the antenna across a small gap where the loop crosses the positive x1 axis.

14) (8. we obtain for the cylindrical coordinate system which describes the source: ρ = cos ϕ x1 + sin ϕ x2 ˆ ˆ ˆ ϕ = − sin ϕ x1 + cos ϕ x2 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ = sin θ cos(ϕ − ϕ)ˆ + cos θ cos(ϕ − ϕ)θ + sin(ϕ − ϕ)ϕ r ˆ (8.13)
With these expressions inserted and d3x = ρ dρ dϕ dz .15)
= I0 ak
e
0
−ika sin θ cos(ϕ −ϕ) 2π
+ I0 ak cos θ
0
e−ika sin θ cos(ϕ −ϕ) sin(ϕ − ϕ) cos ϕ dϕ ϕ ˆ
Downloaded from http://www.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. we recall from subsection F.4.1 on page 167 that the following relations between the base vectors hold: r = sin θ cos ϕ x1 + sin θ sin ϕ x2 + cos θ x3 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ = cos θ cos ϕ x1 + cos θ sin ϕ x2 − sin θ x3 θ ˆ ˆ ˆ
ϕ = − sin ϕ x1 + cos ϕ x2 ˆ ˆ ˆ and
ˆ x1 = sin θ cos ϕˆ + cos θ cos ϕθ − sin ϕϕ ˆ r ˆ ˆ x2 = sin θ sin ϕˆ + cos θ sinϕθ + cos ϕϕ ˆ r ˆ ˆ x3 = cos θˆ − sin θθ ˆ r With the use of the above transformations and trigonometric identities.11) (8.i
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E LECTROMAGNETIC R ADIATION
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current wave around the circular loop with a Fourier amplitude jω = I0 cos ϕ δ(ρ − a)δ(z )ϕ ˆ (8.uu. the source integral becomes
V
d3x e−ik·x jω × k = a
2π
2π 0
dϕ e−ika sin θ cos(ϕ −ϕ) I0 cos ϕ ϕ × k ˆ ˆ cos(ϕ − ϕ) cos ϕ dϕ θ (8.9)
For the spherical coordinate system of the ﬁeld point.10) (8.
i i i
.plasma.12)
ˆ = − sin θ sin(ϕ − ϕ)ˆ − cos θ sin(ϕ − ϕ)θ + cos(ϕ − ϕ)ϕ r ˆ ˆ z = x3 = cos θˆ − sin θθ ˆ ˆ r
This choice of coordinate systems means that k = kˆ and x = aρ so that r ˆ k · x = ka sin θ cos(ϕ − ϕ) and ˆ ϕ × k = k[cos(ϕ − ϕ)θ + cos θ sin(ϕ − ϕ)ϕ] ˆ ˆ (8.

se/CED/Book
i i i
. the ﬁrst integral in the RHS of (8. introducing the auxiliary integration variable ϕ = ϕ −ϕ.19) e
−ika sin θ cos ϕ
0
cos 2ϕ dϕ = −2πJ2 (ka sin θ)
Putting everything together. 2π].16)
= cos ϕ
0 2π
= cos ϕ
0
=
2π 1 cos ϕ e−ika sin θ cos ϕ dϕ 2 0 2π 1 + cos ϕ e−ika sin θ cos ϕ cos 2ϕ dϕ 2 0
Analogously.18)
which means that
2π 0 2π
e−ika sin θ cos ϕ dϕ = 2πJ0 (ka sin θ) (8.1
R ADIATION
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Utilising the periodicity of the integrands over the integration interval [0.i
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8.
Downloaded from http://www. Jn (−ξ) = (−1)n Jn (ξ) Jn (−ξ) = i−n π
π 0
e−iξ cos ϕ cos nϕ dϕ =
i−n 2π
2π 0
e−iξ cos ϕ cos nϕ dϕ
(8.15) can be rewritten
2π 0 2π
e−ika sin θ cos ϕ cos ϕ cos(ϕ + ϕ) dϕ e−ika sin θ cos ϕ cos2 ϕ dϕ + a vanishing integral e−ika sin θ cos ϕ 1 1 + cos 2ϕ 2 2 dϕ (8.15) can be rewritten
2π 0
e−ika sin θ cos ϕ sin ϕ cos(ϕ + ϕ) dϕ
2π 1 sin ϕ e−ika sin θ cos ϕ dϕ 2 0 2π 1 e−ika sin θ cos ϕ cos 2ϕ dϕ − sin ϕ 2 0
=
(8.uu. and utilising standard trigonometric identities.plasma. the second integral in the RHS of (8. we ﬁnd that
V
d3x e−ik·x jω × k = I θ + I ϕ θˆ ϕ ˆ ˆ = I0 akπ cos ϕ [J0 (ka sin θ) − J2 (ka sin θ)] θ + I0 akπ cos θ sin ϕ [J0 (ka sin θ) + J2 (ka sin θ)] ϕ ˆ
(8.17)
As is well-known from the theory of Bessel functions.20)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.

x) + · j(t.i
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so that. x) such that · π = −ρtrue ∂π = jtrue ∂t (8.23) on page 10.2. can be written ∂ρ(t. If we introduce a vector ﬁeld π(t. x) = 0 ∂t (8.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.
i i i
. we can obtain the radiated E ﬁeld with the help of Maxwell’s equations.23)
In Section 6. in spherical coordinates where |x| = r. the polarisation charge density.1 The Hertz potential
Let us consider the equation of continuity.24a) (8. We shall use Hertz’ method to obtain this expansion.1. we can introduce an approximation which leads to a multipole expansion where individual terms can be evaluated analytically. x) = Re = −iµ0 e(ikr−ωt ) I θ+I ϕ θˆ ϕ ˆ 4πr
µ0 sin(kr − ωt ) I θ + I ϕ θˆ ϕ ˆ 4πr I0 akµ0 ˆ = sin(kr − ωt ) cos ϕ [J0 (ka sin θ) − J2 (ka sinθ)] θ 4r + cos θ sin ϕ [J0 (ka sin θ) + J2 (ka sin θ)] ϕ ˆ (8.24b)
Downloaded from http://www.1 we introduced the electric polarisation P such that · P = −ρ pol .plasma. −iµ0 eikr I θ+I ϕ (8. according to expression (1.
8.
8. and when we are interested in evaluating the radiation far from the source volume.uu. which.21) θˆ ϕ ˆ 4πr To obtain the desired physical magnetic ﬁeld in the radiation (far) zone we must Fourier transform back to t space and take the real part and evaluate it at the retarded time: Brad (x) = ω Brad (t.22)
From this expression for the radiated B ﬁeld.2 Multipole Radiation
In the general case.

if we compare with the electric polarisation [cf. Πe acts as a “super-potential” in the sense that it is a potential from which we can obtain other potentials. and has therefore the retarded solution Πe (t.29)
If we introduce the help vector C such that C= × Πe (8. fulﬁl their inhomogeneous wave equations. The quantity π is referred to as the polarisation vector since.i
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8. Requiring that the scalar and vector potentials φ and A.26a) (8. As we see.2
M ULTIPOLE R ADIATION
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and compare with Equation (8.23) on the preceding page.uu.26b)
where φ and A are the electromagnetic scalar and vector potentials. formally.27)
This equation is of the same type as Equation (3.25)
We introduce a further potential Πe with the following property · Πe = −φ 1 ∂Πe =A c2 ∂t (8. one ﬁnds. using (8. it treats also the “true” (free) charges as polarisation charges so that ·E = ρtrue + ρpol − · π − · P = ε0 ε0 (8.se/CED/Book
i i i
. namely as a dipole moment density. x ) |x − x |
(8.28)
with Fourier components Πe (x) = ω 1 4πε0 d3x
V
πω (x )eik|x−x | |x − x |
(8. x) = 1 4πε0 d3x
V
π(tret . Furthermore. we see that π(t. respectively.24) and (8.30)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. that Hertz’ vector must satisfy the inhomogeneous wave equation
2
Πe =
1 ∂2 e Π − c2 ∂t2
2
Πe =
π ε0
(8.9) on page 89].
Downloaded from http://www.15) on page 41. It is called the Hertz’ vector or polarisation potential.plasma.26). x) satisﬁes this equation of continuity. Equation (6. respectively. we see that the quantity π is related to the “true” charges in the same way as P is related to polarised charge.

28) on the previous page.plasma. expression (8. then the radiation at x is well approximated by a few terms in the multipole expansion.31b)
Clearly. For this purpose we recall from potential theory that eik|x−x | eik|(x−x0 )−(x −x0 )| ≡ |x − x | |(x − x0 ) − (x − x0 )|
∞ n=0
= ik ∑ (2n + 1)Pn (cos Θ) jn (k x
(8. Under these assumptions. Assume that the source region is a limited volume around some central point x0 far away from the ﬁeld (observation) point x illustrated in Figure 8.32) − x0 )h(1) (k |x − x0 |) n
Downloaded from http://www.
i i i
. where · E = 0. If k |x − x0 | 1 k |x − x0 |. due to the presence of non-vanishing π(tret . x ) in the vicinity of x0 . Since we are mainly interested in the ﬁelds in the far zone.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.uu. in a formal series. we can expand the Hertz’ vector. a long distance from the source region.4. the last equation is valid only outside the source volume. respectively.
we see that we can calculate the magnetic and electric ﬁelds. this is no essential limitation.4: Geometry of a typical multipole radiation problem where the ﬁeld point x is located some distance away from the ﬁnite source volume V centred around x0 .i
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x−x x − x0 x x Θ x0 V
O F IGURE 8.31a) (8. as follows 1 ∂C c2 ∂t ×C
B= E=
(8.

φ) (8. in spherical polar con ordinates.. x − x0 = ( x − x0 .34a) (8.i
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8. θ.2
M ULTIPOLE R ADIATION
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where eik|x−x | is a Green function |x − x | Θ is the angle between x − x0 and x − x0 (see Figure 8. φ ) x − x0 = (|x − x0 | .36)
hold.35)
d x πω (x ) jn (k x
3
− x0 ) P−m (cos θ n
)e
−imϕ
We notice that there is no dependence on x − x0 inside the integral.34b)
Inserting Equation (8.
Downloaded from http://www. Then we may to a good approximation replace h(1) with the ﬁrst term in n its asymptotic expansion: h(1) (k |x − x0 |) ≈ (−i)n+1 n eik|x−x0 | k |x − x0 | (8.uu.4 on page 118) Pn (cos Θ) is the Legendre polynomial of order n jn (k x − x0 ) is the spherical Bessel function of the ﬁrst kind of order n
h(1) (k |x − x0 |) is the spherical Hankel function of the ﬁrst kind of order n n According to the addition theorem for Legendre polynomials. we can write Pn (cos Θ) =
m=−n
∑ (−1)m Pm (cos θ)P−m(cos θ )eim(ϕ−ϕ ) n n
n
(8.29) on page 117.33) above.33)
where Pm is an associated Legendre polynomial and.plasma. i. when the following inequalities k x − x0 1 k |x − x0 | (8.37)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. we can in a formally exact way expand the Fourier component of the Hertz’ vector as Πe = ω × ik ∞ n ∑ ∑ (2n + 1)(−1)mh(1) (k |x − x0 |) Pm (cos θ) eimϕ n n 4πε0 n=0 m=−n
V
(8. the integrand is only dependent on the relative source vector x − x0 .e.32) on the facing page. θ . We are interested in the case where the ﬁeld point is many wavelengths away from the well-localised sources. together with Equation (8.se/CED/Book
i i i
. into Equation (8.

x )
(8.uu.40)
V
Since π represents a dipole moment density for the “true” charges (in the same vein as P does so for the polarised charges).2 Electric dipole radiation
Choosing n = 0 in expression (8. however.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.2. which inserted ω into Equation (8.30) on page 117 will yield C.i
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and replace jn with the ﬁrst term in its power series expansion: jn (k x − x0 ) ≈ 2n n! k x − x0 (2n + 1)!
n
(8. x ) =
V V
d3x (x − x0 )ρ(t . if many Πe (n) terms are needed for an accurate result. the expansions of the ω spherical Hankel and Bessel functions used above may not be consistent and must be replaced by more accurate expressions.41)
Downloaded from http://www. pω = V d3x πω (x ) is the Fourier component of the electric dipole moment p(t. For a linear source distribution along the polar axis. Taking the inverse Fourier transform of Πe will yield the Hertz’ vector in time domain.39b). The resulting expression can then in turn be inserted into Equation (8.31) on page 118 in order to obtain the radiation ﬁelds.33) on the previous page. we obtain Πe (0) = ω eik|x−x0 | 4πε0 |x − x0 | d3x πω (x ) = 1 eik|x−x0 | pω 4πε0 |x − x0 | (8.35) on the previous page. and Pn (cos θ) gives the angular distribution of the radiation.39b)
n=0
∑ Πe (n) ω
∞
(8. we obtain the multipole expansion of the Fourier component of the Hertz’ vector Πe ≈ ω where Πe (n) = (−i)n ω 1 eik|x−x0 | 2n n! 4πε0 |x − x0 | (2n)! d3x πω (x ) (k x − x0 )n Pn (cos Θ) (8.39a)
V
This expression is approximately correct only if certain care is exercised.
8.
i i i
. the angular distribution must be computed with the help of Formula (8. In the general case. x0 ) = d3x π(t . Θ = θ in expression (8.38)
Inserting these expansions into Equation (8.plasma. Let us now study the lowest order contributions to the expansion of Hertz’ vector.39b).

5.ϕ ϕ = ˆ
1 4πε0
eik|x−x0 | 1 − ik pω sin θ ϕ ˆ |x − x0 | |x − x0 |
(8. If a spherical coordinate system is chosen with its polar axis along pω as in Figure 8.42a) (8. the components of Πe (0) are ω 1 eik|x−x0 | pω cos θ 4πε0 |x − x0 | 1 eik|x−x0 | def ˆ pω sin θ Πe ≡ Πe (0) · θ = − θ ω 4πε0 |x − x0 | Πe ≡ Πe (0) · r = ˆ r ω
def def
(8.2
M ULTIPOLE R ADIATION
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ˆ k x3 x Brad Erad
θ p r ˆ x2
ϕ x1 F IGURE 8.42b) (8. we obtain ω
(0) Cω = Cω. the calculations are simpliﬁed.uu.42) of Πe (0) inserted.31) on page 118. Equation (6.5: If a spherical polar coordinate system (r. θ.2) on page 88 which describes the static dipole moment].
Downloaded from http://www. ϕ) is chosen such that the electric dipole moment p (and thus its Fourier transform pω ) is located at the origin and directed along the polar axis. with the spherically polar components (8.plasma. we obtain directly the Fourier
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.
[cf.30) on page 117 for the help vector C.se/CED/Book
i i i
.43)
Applying this to Equation (8.42c)
Πe ≡ Πe (0) · ϕ = 0 ˆ ϕ ω
Evaluating Formula (8.i
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8.

45b) Brad = − ω These ﬁelds constitute the electric dipole radiation.i )(xi − x0.39b) on page 120 for the expansion of the Fourier transform of the Hertz’ vector is for n = 1: Πe (1) = −i ω eik|x−x0 | d3x k x − x0 πω (x ) cos Θ 4πε0 |x − x0 | V 1 eik|x−x0 | d3x [(x − x0 ) · (x − x0 )] πω (x ) = −ik 4πε0 |x − x0 |2 V
(8. also known as E1 radiation.2.i (8.i
Downloaded from http://www.uu. we can now write down the Fourier components of the radiation parts of the magnetic and electric ﬁelds from the dipole: ωµ0 eik|x−x0 | ωµ0 eik|x−x0 | pω k sin θ ϕ = − ˆ (pω × k) (8.44b)
Keeping only those parts of the ﬁelds which dominate at large distances (the radiation ﬁelds) and recalling that the wave vector k = k(x − x0 )/ |x − x0 | where k = ω/c.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.46)
Here.48a) (8.45a) 4π |x − x0 | 4π |x − x0 | 1 eik|x−x0 | 1 eik|x−x0 | ˆ pω k2 sin θ θ = − [(pω × k) × k] Erad = − ω 4πε0 |x − x0 | 4πε0 |x − x0 | (8.i ) πω (x ) and introducing ηi = xi − x0.plasma.48b) (8.i
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components of the ﬁelds 1 eik|x−x0 | ωµ0 − ik pω sin θ ϕ ˆ 4π |x − x0 | |x − x0 | ik 1 1 x − x0 − Eω = cos θ 2 2 4πε0 |x − x0 | |x − x0 | |x − x0 | ik|x−x0 | ik 1 ˆ e − + − k2 sin θ θ pω |x − x0 | |x − x0 |2 |x − x0 | Bω = −i (8.3 Magnetic dipole radiation
The next term in the expression (8.44a)
(8.
8.47)
ηi = xi − x0.
i i i
. the term [(x − x0 ) · (x − x0 )] πω (x ) can be rewritten [(x − x0 ) · (x − x0 )] πω (x ) = (xi − x0.

j ηi − πω.55)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. the ﬁrst being symmetric and the second antisymmetric in the indices i.49)
i.24) on page 116.46) on the preceding page as 1 (x − x0 ) × d3x πω (x ) × (x − x0 ) 2 V 1 = i (x − x0 ) × d3x jω (x ) × (x − x0 ) 2ω V 1 = −i (x − x0 ) × mω ω 1 2
(8..53)
where we introduced the Fourier transform of the magnetic dipole moment mω =
V
d3x (x − x0 ) × jω (x )
(8. π(t. j ηi − πω. as the sum of two parts.i η j = [πω.2
M ULTIPOLE R ADIATION
123
the jth component of the integrand in Πe (1) can be broken up into ω 1 {[(x − x0 ) · (x − x0 )] πω (x )} j = ηi πω. We note that the antisymmetric part can be written as 1 1 ηi πω.i )] 2 2 1 = [πω (η · η ) − η (η · πω )] j 2 1 (x − x0 ) × [πω × (x − x0 )] = 2
(8.i η j 2 1 + ηi πω. we can write the antisymmetric part of the integral in Formula (8.uu. j.50)
j
The utilisation of Equations (8.i
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i
8. and the fact that we are considering a single Fourier component. magnetic dipole.i η j 2 (8.se/CED/Book
i i i
.antisym ω
(1)
=−
k eik|x−x0 | (x − x0 ) × mω 4πε0 ω |x − x0 |2
(8.51)
Hence.e. x) = πω e−iωt allow us to express πω in jω as πω = i jω ω (8.52) (8. j (ηi ηi ) − η j (ηi πω.
Downloaded from http://www. part of Π e (1) ω can be written Πe.54)
The ﬁnal result is that the antisymmetric.plasma. j ηi + πω.

31) on page 118 then gives the B and E ﬁelds. yields the resulting ﬁelds. but fairly straightforward algebra (which we will not present here).31) on page 118.57)
Again we use this expression in Equation (8.39b) The symmetric part Πω on page 120 for the expansion of the Hertz’ vector can be expressed in terms of the electric quadrupole tensor. as before.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.30) on page 117 to evaluate C. Discarding.plasma.sym (1)
d3x (x − x0 )(x − x0 )ρ(t.58b)
This type of radiation is called electric quadrupole radiation or E2 radiation. Tedious.
8.56b)
8. (8. x )
(8.30) on page 117 to calculate the ﬁelds via Equations (8.
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In analogy with the electric dipole case. The radiation components of the ﬁelds in the far ﬁeld zone (wave zone) are given by iµ0 ω eik|x−x0 | k · Qω × k 8π |x − x0 | i eik|x−x0 | k · Qω × k × k Erad (x) = ω 8πε0 |x − x0 | Brad (x) = ω (8. with which Equations (8.56a) (8.58a) (8.4 Electric quadrupole radiation
of the n = 1 contribution in the Equation (8.3) on page 88: Q(t.3 Radiation from a Localised Charge in Arbitrary Motion
The derivation of the radiation ﬁelds for the case of the source moving relative to the observer is considerably more complicated than the stationary cases
Downloaded from http://www.2. we obtain µ0 eik|x−x0 | (mω × k) × k 4π |x − x0 | k eik|x−x0 | Erad (x) = mω × k ω 4πε0 c |x − x0 | Brad (x) = − ω which are the ﬁelds of the magnetic dipole radiation (M1 radiation). x0 ) =
V e. which is deﬁned in accordance with Equation (6. we insert this expression into Equation (8. all terms belonging to the near ﬁelds and transition ﬁelds and keeping only the terms that dominate at large distances.uu.

can be thought of as a localised. x) = 4π V |x − x | φ(t. x) = (8. x ) dS dr − ρ(tret . x ) 1 − d3x c |x − x | dq 1 − (x−x )·v c|x−x |
(8. x ) (x − x ) · v 3 dx c |x − x | (x − x ) · v = ρ(tret .61)
or
ρ(tret .3.i
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i
8.32) on page 44 in Chapter 3 1 ρ(tret . classically. for instance an electron. unstructured and rigid “charge distribution” with a small.6 on the next page. Since dt = dr /c and dS dr = d3x we can rewrite this expression for the net charge as dq = ρ(tret .6 on page 126 which contributes to the ﬁeld at x(t) is located at x (t ) on a sphere with radius r = |x − x | = c(t − t ). x ) d3x − ρ(tret .uu. Since we assume that the electron (or any other other similar electric charge) is moving with a velocity v whose direction is arbitrary and whose magnitude can be almost comparable to the speed of light. The part of this “charge distribution” dq which we are considering is located in dV = d3x in the sphere in Figure 8. x ) (x − x ) · v dS dt |x − x | (8. x ) d x . we consider a charge q . ﬁnite radius. x ) d3x =
(8. r + dr ) and the net amount of charge in this radial interval is dq = ρ(tret .59b)
and consider a source region with such a limited spatial extent that the charges and currents are well localised. part of the charge distribution will “leak” out of the volume element d3x . Speciﬁcally.3
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studied above.62)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. The radius interval of this sphere from which radiation is received at the ﬁeld point x during the time interval (t . we cannot say that the charge and current to be used in (8.59a) (8. which. x ) µ0 d3x A(t. x ) d x and V vρ(tret .1 The Liénard-Wiechert potentials
The charge distribution in Figure 8.
8.60)
where the last term represents the amount of “source leakage” due to the fact that the charge distribution moves with velocity v(t ).se/CED/Book
i i i
. because in the ﬁnite time interval during which the observed signal is generated.59) is 3 3 V ρ(tret . respectively.
Downloaded from http://www. x ) d3x 4πε0 V |x − x | j(tret . In order to handle this non-stationary situation. t + dt ) is (r . we use the retarded potentials (3.plasma.

i
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x(t)
dr dV q
F IGURE 8. as time increases.6: Signals which are observed at the ﬁeld point x at time t were generated at source points x (t ) on a sphere.se/CED/Book
i i i
£¤ ¢ £¤ ¢ £¤ ¡¡¡ ¡ ¡ ¡ £¤ £¤ £¤ £¤ £¤ ¢¡¡¡ ¢ ¡¡¡¡¡£¤ ¤¢ ¤¢ ¤ £¡£¡£¡ ¢ ¡¡¡¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¡ ¡ ¡ £¡£¡£¡£¡£¡ ¡¡¡ ¢ ¡¡¡¡¡£¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ £¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡£¡ ¡¡¡¡¡¡¡¡£¤
v(t ) x−x x (t )
dS
c
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. The source charge element moves with an arbitrary velocity v and gives rise to a source “leakage” out of the source volume dV = d3x .64b)
For a sufﬁciently small and well localised charge distribution we can.63)
This is the expression to be used in the Formulae (8.
.64a) (8. The result is (recall that j = ρv) φ(t. use the mean value theorem and the fact that V dq = q to evaluate these expressions to
Downloaded from http://www.
which leads to the expression ρ(tret . assuming that the integrands do not change sign in the integration volume. x) = A(t. x ) 3 dq dx = |x − x | |x − x | − (x−x )·v c (8.uu. with the velocity c outward from the centre.59) on the preceding page for the retarded potentials. centred on x and expanding.plasma. x) = 1 4πε0 µ0 4π dq |x − x | − (x−x )·v c v dq |x − x | − (x−x )·v c (8.

3
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become 1 q q 1 = 4πε0 |x − x | − (x−x )·v 4πε0 s c q v v v q A(t.uu.68a) ∂A(t. It is important to realise that in the complicated derivation presented here. x) = − φ(t.se/CED/Book
i i i
.66b) (8. whereas in the covariant derivation two frames of equal standing were moving relative to each other with v. x) = × A(t. The electric and magnetic ﬁelds are calculated from the potentials in the usual way: B(t.i
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8. x) (8. x) = x − x (t ) − (x − x (t )) · v(t ) c x − x (t ) v(t ) = x − x (t ) 1 − · |x − x (t )| c x − x (t ) v(t ) = (x − x (t )) · − c |x − x (t )| (8.68b)
E(t.3. The potentials (8.65a) (8.65b)
is the retarded relative distance.plasma.2 on page 62 by using a covariant formalism.
Downloaded from http://www. x) −
8. and we shall now study such emission problems. Expressed in the four-potential. x) = = φ(t. x) = where s = s(t .65) are precisely the LiénardWiechert potentials which we derived in Section 4.48) on page 61.2 Radiation from an accelerated point charge
Consider a localised charge q and assume that its trajectory is known experimentally as a function of retarded time x = x (t ) (8. cs c2 s = φ . the observer is in a coordinate system which has an “absolute” meaning and the velocity v is that of the particle.3.A c (8. the Liénard-Wiechert potentials become Aµ (xκ ) = q 4πε0 1 v .66c) (8. Equation (4.69)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.66a) (8. x) ∂t (8. x) = 4πε0 c2 |x − x | − (x−x )·v 4πε0 c2 s c2 c φ(t.67)
The Liénard-Wiechert potentials are applicable to all problems where a spatially localised charge emits electromagnetic radiation.

70a) (8.71b)
Downloaded from http://www. we drop the subscript “ret” on t from now on). The retarded velocity and acceleration at time t are given by v(t ) = dx dt dv d2 x = dt dt 2 (8. we have in general no knowledge of the velocity and acceleration at times later than t ..e.71a) (8.i
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E LECTROMAGNETIC R ADIATION
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?
q x (t ) θ
|x − x | v c
x0 (t) θ0
v(t )
x − x0 x−x x(t)
F IGURE 8.70b)
˙ a(t ) = v(t ) =
As for the charge coordinate x itself.uu. i.plasma. in particular not at the time of observation t. This means that we know the trajectory of the charge q .
(in the interest of simplifying our notation.7: Signals which are observed at the ﬁeld point x at time t were generated at the source point x (t ).se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.
i i i
. deﬁnes the virtual simultaneous coordinate x0 (t). based on the velocity v(t ). Because of the ﬁnite speed of propagation of the ﬁelds. x . for all times up to the time t at which a signal was emitted in order to precisely arrive at the ﬁeld point x at time t. has followed a yet unknown trajectory. After time t the particle. Extrapolating tangentially the trajectory from x (t ). which moves with nonuniform velocity. the trajectory at times later than t is not (yet) known.70) to the relative vector x − x yields d (x − x (t )) = −v(t ) dt d2 (x − x (t )) = −˙ (t ) v dt 2 (8. If we choose the ﬁeld point x as ﬁxed. application of (8.

According to Formulae (8. Equations (8.68) on page 127 the electric and magnetic ﬁelds are determined via differentiation of the retarded potentials at the observation time t and at the observation point x. With this convention.66) on page 127. which in turn is expressed implicitly in t via Equation (8.
The differential operator method
We introduce the convention that a differential operator embraced by parentheses with an index x or t means that the operator in question is applied at constant x and t. we ﬁnd that ∂ ∂t x − x (t ) = x−x ∂ · |x − x | ∂t x − x (t ) = − (x − x ) · v(t ) (8.uu. respectively.se/CED/Book
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.72) above. to determine the electric and magnetic ﬁelds and associated quantities at the time of observation t. by applying the operator (∂/∂t)x to Equation (8. and the unprimed time derivative operator ∂/∂t means that we differentiate with respect to t while keeping x ﬁxed.3
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The retarded time t can. x))| c x x ∂ ∂t |x − x | = 1− ∂t x c ∂t (x − x ) · v(t ) ∂t = 1+ c |x − x | ∂t x = 1− ∂ ∂t
(8. This means that the expressions for the potentials φ and A contain terms which are expressed explicitly in t . as we shall see below. are expressed in the charge velocity v(t ) given by Equation (8. we need to investigate carefully the action of differentiation on the potentials. Despite this complication it is possible. x) given by Equation (8.e..
Downloaded from http://www. be calculated from the implicit relation t = t (t. x3 ) while keeping t ﬁxed.72) we ﬁnd that ∂t ∂t |x − x (t (t. at least in principle. x2 .i
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8.72)
and we shall see later how this relation can be taken into account in the calculations. i. But the Liénard-Wiechert potentials φ and A.70a) on the preceding page and the retarded relative distance s(t .plasma.65) on page 127. To this end.73) |x − x |
x
x
Furthermore. the spatial derivative differentiation operator = xi ∂/∂xi means that we differˆ entiate with respect to the coordinates x = (x1 .74)
x
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. x) = t − |x − x (t )| c (8. In these formulae the unprimed .

75)
where s = s(t .77)
This is an algebraic equation in ( )t t with the solution ( )t t = − (8.72) on the previous page we obtain ( )t t = −( )t x−x |x − x (t (t. Making use of Equation (8.78)
which gives the following operator relation when ( )t is acting on an arbitrary function of t and x: ( )t = ( )t t ∂ ∂t + ( )t = − x−x cs ∂ ∂t + ( )t
x
(8.75).se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.79) and (8.
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.76) we are now able to replace t by t in the operations which we need to perform.80a)
(8. by applying ( )t to Equation (8.66) on page 127.80b)
x
Downloaded from http://www. that 1 q 4πε0 s v(t ) x − x ∂s q x−x − =− − 4πε0 s2 |x − x | c cs ∂t x ∂A ∂ µ0 q v(t ) ∂A ≡ = ∂t ∂t x ∂t 4π s x ∂s q = x − x s˙ (t ) − x − x v(t ) v 2 s3 4πε0 c ∂t φ ≡ ( φ)t =
(8.76)
x
Likewise.uu.plasma. for instance.79)
x
With the help of the rules (8. x))| =− · ( )t (x − x ) c c |x − x | (x − x ) · v(t ) x−x + ( )t t =− c |x − x | c |x − x | x−x cs
(8. we obtain the following useful operator identity ∂ ∂t =
x
∂t ∂t
x
∂ ∂t
=
x
|x − x | s
∂ ∂t
(8.i
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This is an algebraic equation in (∂t /∂t)x which we can solve to obtain ∂t ∂t =
x
|x − x | |x − x | = s |x − x | − (x − x ) · v(t )/c
(8. We ﬁnd. x) is the retarded relative distance given by Equation (8.

83)
Radiation (acceleration) ﬁeld
The ﬁrst part of the ﬁeld. x) 4πε0 s c q x − x (t ) × 3 (t . x) − ∂ A(t. Hence.73) on page 129 and Equations (8. tends to the ordinary Coulomb ﬁeld when v → 0 and does not contribute to the radiation.plasma.81)
Starting from expression (8.
Downloaded from http://www. x) 4πε0 s |x − x (t )| − (x − x (t )) − |x − x (t )| v(t )/c cs(t . the acceleration ﬁeld.
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. x) ∂t
x
−
˙ |x − x (t )| v(t ) 2 c (8. x) ∂t (x − x (t )) − |x − x (t )| v(t )/c q = 2 (t .se/CED/Book
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. were used. x)
∂s(t .70) on page 128.3
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Utilising these relations in the calculation of the E ﬁeld from the LiénardWiechert potentials.i
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8. the electric ﬁeld generated by an arbitrarily moving charged particle at x (t ) is given by the expression E(t. x) = − φ(t.82)
where Equation (8.65) on page 127. we see that we can evaluate (∂s/∂t )x in the following way ∂s ∂t =
x
∂ ∂t
x
x−x −
(x − x ) · v(t ) c ∂ x − x (t ) ∂v(t ) · v(t ) + (x − x (t )) · ∂t ∂t
=
1 ∂ x − x (t ) − ∂t c
=−
˙ (x − x ) · v(t ) v2 (t ) (x − x ) · v(t ) + − c c |x − x |
(8. we obtain E(t. x) 4πε0 s c2
Coulomb ﬁeld when v → 0
1−
v2 (t ) c2
+
(x − x (t )) −
|x − x (t )| v(t ) ˙ × v(t ) c (8. The second part of the ﬁeld. Equations (8. x) = q |x − x (t )| v(t ) (x − x (t )) − 3 (t . respectively. x).uu.66a) on page 127 for the retarded relative distance s(t . is radiated into the far zone and is therefore also called the radiation ﬁeld. the velocity ﬁeld.

87)
so that
| |
x
(8.84) c This allows us to rewrite Equation (8. x) = q v2 (x − x0 ) 1 − 2 4πε0 s3 c + (x − x ) × ˙ (x − x0 ) × v 2 c (8. x) = ∂ x−x × cs ∂t q ∂A x−x x−x =− ×v− × 2 s2 |x − x | 4πε0 c c |x − x | ∂t x × A(t.89)
q |x − x | v ˙ (x − x ) × (x − x ) − ×v 2 s3 4πε0 c c q ˙ (x − x ) × [(x − x0 ) × v] = 4πε0 c2 s3
Downloaded from http://www. the virtual simultaneous coordinate. Since the time it takes from a signal to propagate (in the assumed vacuum) from x (t ) to x is |x − x | /c.83) on the previous page in the following way x − x0 (t) = x − x (t ) − E(t. this relative vector is given by |x − x (t )| v(t ) (8.80a).i
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From Figure 8.88)
The radiation part of the electric ﬁeld is obtained from the acceleration ﬁeld in Formula (8. But. according to (8.7 on page 128 we see that the position the charged particle would have had if at t all external forces would have been switched off so that the trajectory from then on would have been a straight line in the direction of the tangent at x (t ) is x0 (t). x) = x−x c |x − x x−x = c |x − x × −( φ)t − × E(t. x) ∂A ∂t (8.76) on page 130. x−x q x−x ×v × ( )t φ = 2 s2 |x − x | c |x − x | 4πε0 c B(t.83) on the preceding page as Erad (t.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.85)
In a similar manner we can compute the magnetic ﬁeld: B(t.86)
where we made use of Equation (8.65) on page 127 and Formula (8.uu. x) (8. During the arbitrary motion. x) ≡ ( )t × A = ( )t × A − A
x
(8. x) = =
|x−x |→∞
lim E(t.plasma. we interpret x − x0 as the coordinate of the ﬁeld point x relative to the virtual simultaneous coordinate x0 (t).
i i i
.

84) on the preceding page. According to Equation (8. An example of such a quantity is the retarded relative distance s(t .84) on the facing page.plasma.88) on the facing page. the radiation part of the magnetic ﬁeld can be written Brad (t. x) = x − x (t ) −2 x − x (t )
2
(x − x (t )) · v(t ) 2 (x − x (t )) · v(t ) + c c (8.3
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where in the last step we again used Formula (8. when inserted into Equation (8.91)
If we use the following handy identity (x − x ) · v c =
2
+
(x − x ) × v c
2
|x − x |2 v2 2 |x − x |2 v2 cos2 θ + sin θ c2 c2 |x − x |2 v2 |x − x |2 v2 (cos2 θ + sin2 θ ) = = c2 c2
(8.93)
Furthermore.94)
=
(x − x0 ) × v |x − x |2 v2 − 2 c c
2
(8. x). Using this formula and Formula (8.95)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.
Downloaded from http://www. we obtain the following identity: (x − x (t )) × v = (x − x0 (t)) × v which.se/CED/Book
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.66) on page 127. yields the relation (x − x ) · v c
2
(8.i
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8.uu. x) = x−x × Erad (t.92)
we ﬁnd that (x − x ) · v c
2
=
(x − x ) × v |x − x |2 v2 − 2 c c
2
(8. x) c |x − x | (8.90)
The direct method
An alternative to the differential operator transformation technique just described is to try to express all quantities in the potentials directly in t and x. from Equation (8. the square of this retarded relative distance can be written s2 (t .93) above.

65) can be expressed in terms of the virtual simultaneous coordinate x0 (t). shown that all quantities in the deﬁnition of s. x) =
(x − x0 ) × v c v2 2 sin θ0 c2
2
(8.e. What we have just demonstrated is that if the particle velocity at time t can be calculated or projected from its value at the retarded time t . and hence s itself.97b)
2
= |x − x0 | = |x − x0 |
v2 1− 2 c
(x − x0 ) · v + c
(8. We have..e. Taking the square root of both sides of Equation (8. we obtain the following alternative ﬁnal expressions for the retarded relative distance s in terms of the charge’s virtual simultaneous coordinate x0 (t): |x − x0 |2 − 1−
2
s(t.84) on page 132. we
Downloaded from http://www.
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. the retarded distance s in the Liénard-Wiechert potentials (8. where we make our observations. viz.i
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Inserting the above into expression (8. i. and in the ﬁeld coordinate x = x(t).97a) (8.uu. when the motion of the charge is somehow known.96). this expression becomes s2 = x − x
2
−2 x−x |x − x | v c
(x − x0 ) × v (x − x ) · v |x − x |2 v2 + − 2 c c c
2
2
= (x − x ) −
2
−
2
(x − x0 ) × v c
2
(x − x0 ) × v = (x − x0 ) − c ≡ |x − x0 (t)|2 −
(8.97c) above and standard vector analytic formulae. the point at which the particle will have arrived at time t. in this special case we are able to express the retarded relative distance as s = s(t. when we obtain the ﬁrst knowledge of its existence at the source point x at the retarded time t .96)
(x − x0 (t)) × v(t ) c
2
where in the penultimate step we used Equation (8.91) on the preceding page for s2 . I. can..se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. in other words.plasma.97c)
Using Equation (8. be expressed in terms of the time t alone. x) and we do not have to involve the retarded time t or any transformed differential operators in our calculations..

This gives us the possibility to extrapolate its position at the observation time.
We note that in the case of uniform velocity v.99) ∂t Hence. Equation (1.se/CED/Book
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.uu.7 on page 128.e.3
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obtain s2 = |x − x0 |2 1 − v2 c2 + + (x − x0 ) · v c
2
= 2 (x − x0 ) 1 −
v2 c2
vv · (x − x0 ) c2
(8.65a) on page 127 and Equation (8. v ≡ 0.
Downloaded from http://www.plasma. x0 (t) = x (t). the angle between x − x0 and v is θ0 while then angle between x − x and v is θ .98) above we ﬁnd that
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. It will therefore move uniformly in a straight line with the constant velocity v.100a) · φ = − 1− 2 · φ = − φ+ c c c vv = 2 −1 · φ c v v v B = ×A = × 2φ = φ× 2 = − 2 × φ c c c v v v v vv = 2× · φ − φ = 2 × 2 −1 · φ (8. isolated space and we know that it will not be affected by any external forces.100b) c c c c c v = 2 ×E c Here 1 = xi xi is the unit dyad and we used the fact that v × v ≡ 0. unaccelerated motion of the charge.33) on page 13]: ∂ → −v · (8. with the potentials given by Equations (8.68) on page 127.i “main” — 2003/1/23 — 18:57 — page 135 — #153
i
i
8. What remains is just ˆ ˆ to express φ in quantities evaluated at t and x.
T HE FIELDS FROM A
UNIFORMLY MOVING CHARGE
E XAMPLE 8. time and space derivatives are closely related in the following way when they operate on functions of x(t) [cf. x (t). x (t ). from its posi˙ tion at the retarded time. the E and B ﬁelds can be obtained from Formulae (8. the localised charge moves in a ﬁeld-free..98)
v v = 2 (x − x0 ) + × × (x − x0 ) c c which we shall use in the following example of a uniformly. i.1
In the special case of uniform motion. From Equation (8. Since the particle is not accelerated. As depicted in Figure 8. the virtual simultaneous coordinate x0 will be identical to the actual simultaneous coordinate of the particle at time t.65) on page 127 as follows: 1 ∂vφ v ∂φ ∂A = − φ− 2 = − φ− 2 E = − φ− ∂t c ∂t c ∂t vv v v (8.

v → c. v → c ⇒ E becomes dependent on θ0 4. sin θ0 ≈ 0 ⇒ E → (1 − v2 /c2 )ECoulomb 5.100a) on the preceding page.101)
When this expression for φ is inserted into Equation (8. v → 0 ⇒ E goes over into the Coulomb ﬁeld ECoulomb 2. the following result E(t.uu. sin θ0 ≈ 1 ⇒ E → (1 − v2 /c2 )−1/2 ECoulomb
E ND
OF EXAMPLE
8.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.102)
=
q v2 (x − x0 ) 1 − 2 4πε0 s3 c
follows.1
Downloaded from http://www. x) = µ0 q 4πs3 1− v2 c2 v × (x − x0 ) = 1 v×E c2 (8.103)
From these explicit formulae for the E and B ﬁelds we can discern the following cases: 1.i “main” — 2003/1/23 — 18:57 — page 136 — #154
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φ=
q q 1 =− s2 4πε0 s 8πε0 s3 v q v × (x − x0 ) =− (x − x0 ) + × 4πε0 s3 c c
(8. the magnetic ﬁeld can be calculated and one ﬁnds that B(t.
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.85) on page 132 ˙ with v ≡ 0 inserted. Of course. In a similar way. v → c.plasma. the same result also follows from Equation (8. x) = q vv vv −1 · φ = − − 1 · s2 c2 8πε0 s3 c2 q v v = (x − x0 ) + × × (x − x0 ) 4πε0 s3 c c − = v v vv v v · (x − x0 ) − 2 · × × (x − x0 ) c c c c c
v v v2 q (x − x0 ) + · (x − x0 ) − (x − x0 ) 2 3 4πε0 s c c c − v v · (x − x0 ) c c
(8. v → 0 ⇒ B goes over into the Biot-Savart ﬁeld 3.102) we conclude that E is directed along the vector from the simultaneous coordinate x0 (t) to the ﬁeld (observation) coordinate x(t). From Equation (8.

we obtain 1 ρ(x ) 3 φ(t. Transforming x1 ξ1 = 1 − v2 /c2 ξ2 = x 2 ξ3 = x 3
def
(8.105) reduces to an ordinary Poisson equation
2 ξ Ψ(ξ)
= −f( 1 4π
1 − v2 /c2 ξ1 . x) and a generic source component f (t. ξ2 . Formula (3. x) (8. x) =
1 ∂2 − c2 ∂t2
2
Ψ(t.105)
i.uu.. If we return to the original deﬁnition of the potentials and the inhomogeneous wave equation.2
Let us consider in more detail the treatment of the radiation from a uniformly moving rigid charge distribution.3
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T HE CONVECTION POTENTIAL AND
THE CONVECTION FORCE
E XAMPLE 8. this equation can be written ˆ 1− v2 c2 ∂2 Ψ ∂2 Ψ ∂2 Ψ + + = − f (x) ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x2 1 2 3 (8. for a generic potential component Ψ(t. ∂/∂ξ3 ).106c)
and introducing the vectorial nabla operator in ξ space. in the denominator.110)
Applying this to the explicit scalar and vector potential components.107)
in this space. ξ3 ) ≡ − f (ξ) f (ξ ) 3 dξ ξ−ξ f (x ) 3 dx s
1 2
(8. This equation has the well-known Coulomb potential solution Ψ(ξ) = (8.106a) (8. ∂/∂ξ2 . in a time-independent form.e.106b) (8.109)
V
where. x)
(8.108)
V
After inverse transformation back to the original coordinates.104)
we ﬁnd that under the assumption that v = v x1 . this becomes Ψ(x) = 1 4π (8. x) = d x = 2 φ(t.
Downloaded from http://www.15) on page 41. x).plasma. realising that for a rigid charge distribution ρ moving with velocity v the current is given by j = ρv. x) = f (t.se/CED/Book
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. x) = dx (8.
2
Ψ(t.111a) 4πε0 V s vρ(x ) 3 1 v A(t. v2 s = (x1 − x1 ) + 1 − 2 c
2
[(x2 − x2 ) + (x3 − x3 ) ]
2
2
(8.i “main” — 2003/1/23 — 18:57 — page 137 — #155
i
i
8.111b) 4πε0 c2 V s c
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. the time-independent equation (8. ξ ≡ (∂/∂ξ1 .

When the rigid charge distribution is well localised so that we can use the potentials (8. we can rewrite expression (8.112b)
which we recognise as the Liénard-Wiechert potentials.117) (8. Let us now consider the action of the ﬁelds produced from a moving.65) on page 127. on a charged particle q.uu. x) = 4πε0 c2 s φ(t. We notice. Equations (8.116) (8. cf.112) the convection potential becomes ψ = 1− v2 c2 q 4πε0 s (8. and the fact that ∂t = −v · [cf.113) above as F = q E+v× v ×E c2 =q v v v v · φ − φ− × × φ c c c c (8.65) on page 127. that the derivation here. This force is given by the Lorentz force F = q(E + v × B) (8.i “main” — 2003/1/23 — 18:57 — page 138 — #156
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For a localised charge where ρ d3x = q .
i i i
.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. based on a mathematical technique which in fact is a Lorentz transformation.115)
The scalar function ψ is called the convection potential or the Heaviside potential.118)
The convection potential from a point charge is constant on ﬂattened ellipsoids of
Downloaded from http://www.112a) (8.114)
Applying the “bac-cab” rule. Formula (F.plasma.51) on page 168. x) = (8.. is of more general validity than the one leading to Equations (8.113)
With the help of Equation (8.99) on page 135]. Formula (8. on the last term yields v v v v2 v × × φ = · φ − φ c c c c c2 which means that we can write F = −q ψ where ψ = 1− v2 c2 φ (8.103) on page 136 and Equations (8. also moving with velocity v. these expressions reduce to q 4πε0 s qv A(t.111) on the previous page. rigid charge distribution represented by q moving with velocity v. however.

2
Radiation for small velocities
If the charge moves at such low speeds that v/c simpliﬁes to s = x−x − (x − x ) · v ≈ x−x .121)
so that the radiation ﬁeld Equation (8. and since the force is proportional to the gradient of ψ.119)
8.45) on page 122 if we introduce p = q x (t ) (8.124)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.i
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i
8. x) = ˙ (x − x ) × [(x − x ) × v]. v v c (8.
Downloaded from http://www. the force between two charges is in general not directed along the line which connects the charges. The negative outcome of this experiment is explained by the special theory of relativity which postulates that mechanical laws follow the same rules as electromagnetic laws. Formula (8.122)
from which we obtain. A consequence of this is that a system consisting of two comoving charges connected with a rigid bar. c |x − x | v ≈ x−x . will experience a torque.120)
and Formula (8.uu. with the use of Formula (8.3
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revolution.123) and the electric dipole ﬁeld Equations (8. aimed at measuring the absolute speed of the earth or the galaxy. the magnetic ﬁeld Brad (t. which means that it is perpendicular to the ellipsoid surface. deﬁned through Equation (8. so that a compensating torque appears due to mechanical stresses within the charge-bar system. v c (8.plasma. c q 4πε0 c2 |x − x |3 v 1.se/CED/Book
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. x) = q 4πε0 c3 |x − x |2 [˙ × (x − x )].110) on page 137 as x1 − x 1
2
These Heaviside ellipsoids are equipotential surfaces.88) on page 132.
E ND OF
EXAMPLE
= γ2 (x1 − x1 )2 + (x2 − x2 )2 + (x3 − x3 )2 = Const
1 − v2 /c2
+ (x2 − x2 )2 + (x3 − x3 )2
(8.84) on page 132 x − x0 = (x − x ) − v c (8.66) on page 127
c
(8. This is the idea behind the Trouton-Noble experiment.89) on page 132 can be approximated by Erad (t.122) and (8.123)
It is interesting to note the close correspondence which exists between the nonrelativistic ﬁelds (8.

125a) (8. x) = q ˙ (x − x ) × [(x − x ) × v].uu. x) = q |x − x | [˙ × (x − x )].88) on page 132. and the expressions for the Poynting ﬂux and power derived from them. The electric and magnetic ﬁelds. Note that here we are treating a charge with v c but otherwise totally unspeciﬁed motion while we compare with formulae derived for a stationary oscillating dipole.
8.125b)
x − x = x − x0
The power ﬂux in the far zone is described by the Poynting vector as a function of Erad and Brad . v 4πε0 c3 s3 ˙ v v (8.129)
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. yields Erad (t. The total radiated power (integrated over a closed spherical surface) becomes P= q 2 v2 ˙ µ0 q 2 (˙ )2 v = 6πc 6πε0 c3 (8.128)
from which we obtain.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. This condition (for an arbitrary magnitude of v) inserted into expression (8. 4πε0 c2 s3 ˙ v v (8.122) on the previous page and Equation (8.plasma. with the use of Formula (8.127)
which is the Larmor formula for radiated power from an accelerated charge.3.126)
˙ where θ is the angle between v and x − x0 . We use the close correspondence with the dipole case to ﬁnd that it becomes S= x−x µ0 q 2 (˙ )2 v sin2 θ 2 c |x − x |2 |x − x | 16π (8.i
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and at the same time make the transitions ˙ ¨ q v = p → −ω2 pω (8.3 Bremsstrahlung
An important special case of radiation is when the velocity v and the acceler˙ ˙ ation v are collinear (parallel or anti-parallel) so that v × v = 0.89) on page 132 for the radiation ﬁeld. dependent on the instantaneous position of the charge at x (t ). Equation (8.123) on the preceding page. the magnetic ﬁeld Brad (t. are here instantaneous values. The angular distribution is that which is “frozen” to the point from which the energy is radiated. respectively.

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v = 0.5c

v = 0.25c v=0 v

F IGURE 8.8: Polar diagram of the energy loss angular distribution factor sin2 θ/(1 − v cos θ/c)5 during bremsstrahlung for particle speeds v = 0, v = 0.25c, and v = 0.5c.

The difference between this case and the previous case of v c is that the approximate expression (8.120) on page 139 for s is no longer valid; we must instead use the correct expression (8.66) on page 127. The angular distribution of the power ﬂux (Poynting vector) therefore becomes S= ˙ µ0 q 2 v 2 sin2 θ 16π2 c |x − x |2 1 − v cos θ c x−x |x − x | (8.130)

6

It is interesting to note that the magnitudes of the electric and magnetic ﬁelds ˙ are the same whether v and v are parallel or anti-parallel. We must be careful when we compute the energy (S integrated over time). The Poynting vector is related to the time t when it is measured and to a ﬁxed surface in space. The radiated power into a solid angle element dΩ, measured relative to the particle’s retarded position, is given by the formula dU rad (θ) µ0 q 2 v 2 ˙ sin2 θ dΩ = S · (x − x ) x − x dΩ = dt 16π2 c 1 − v cos θ c dΩ (8.131)

6

On the other hand, the radiation loss due to radiation from the charge at retarded time t : dU rad dU rad dΩ = dt dt ∂t ∂t dΩ

x

(8.132)

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dS dr x dΩ θ q x2 vdt x1 x − x2 + c dt

F IGURE 8.9: Location of radiation between two spheres as the charge moves with velocity v from x1 to x2 during the time interval (t , t + dt ). The observation point (ﬁeld point) is at the ﬁxed location x.

Using Formula (8.76) on page 130, we obtain dU rad s dU rad dΩ = S · (x − x )s dΩ dΩ = dt dt |x − x | (8.133)

Inserting Equation (8.130) on the preceding page for S into (8.133), we obtain the explicit expression for the energy loss due to radiation evaluated at the retarded time dU rad (θ) µ0 q 2 v 2 ˙ sin2 θ dΩ = dt 16π2 c 1 − v cos θ c

5

dΩ

(8.134)

The angular factors of this expression, for three different particle speeds, are plotted in Figure 8.8 on the previous page. Comparing expression (8.131) on the preceding page with expression (8.134) above, we see that they differ by a factor 1−v cos θ/c which comes from the extra factor s/ |x − x | introduced in (8.133). Let us explain this in geometrical terms. During the interval (t , t + dt ) and within the solid angle element dΩ the particle radiates an energy [dU rad (θ)/dt ] dt dΩ. As shown in 8.9 this energy is at time t located between two spheres, one outer with its origin at x1 (t ) and radius c(t − t ), and one inner with its origin at x2 (t + dt ) = x1 (t ) + v dt and radius c[t − (t + dt )] = c(t − t − dt ).

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**From Figure 8.9 we see that the volume element subtending the solid angle element dΩ = is d3x = dS dr = x − x2
**

2

dS x − x2

2

(8.135)

dΩ dr

(8.136)

Here, dr denotes the differential distance between the two spheres and can be evaluated in the following way dr = x − x2 + c dt − x − x2 − x − x2 ·v x − x2 x − x2 · v dt x − x2 v cos θ = c− dt = cs dt x − x2 (8.137)

where Formula (8.66) on page 127 was used in the last step. Hence, the volume element under consideration is d3x = dS dr = s dS cdt x − x2 (8.138)

We see that the energy which is radiated per unit solid angle during the time interval (t , t + dt ) is located in a volume element whose size is θ dependent. This explains the difference between expression (8.131) on page 141 and expression (8.134) on the facing page. ˜ Let the radiated energy, integrated over Ω, be denoted U rad . After tedious, but relatively straightforward integration of Formula (8.134) on the preceding page, one obtains ˜ dU rad µ0 q 2 v2 ˙ = dt 6πc 1 1 − v2 c

2

3

=

˙ 2 q 2 v2 v2 1− 2 3 4πε0 c3 c

−3

(8.139)

If we know v(t ), we can integrate this expression over t and obtain the total energy radiated during the acceleration or deceleration of the particle. This way we obtain a classical picture of bremsstrahlung (braking radiation). Often, an atomistic treatment is required for an acceptable result.

Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.

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E XAMPLE 8.3

B REMSSTRAHLUNG FOR LOW SPEEDS AND

SHORT ACCELERATION TIMES

Calculate the bremsstrahlung when a charged particle, moving at a non-relativistic speed, is accelerated or decelerated during an inﬁnitely short time interval. We approximate the velocity change at time t = t0 by a delta function: ˙ v(t ) = ∆v δ(t − t0 ) which means that ∆v(t0 ) =

∞ −∞

(8.140)

˙ v dt 1 so that, according to Formula (8.66) on page 127,

(8.141)

Also, we assume v/c s ≈ x−x

(8.142)

and, according to Formula (8.84) on page 132, x − x0 ≈ x − x (8.143)

From the general expression (8.88) on page 132 we conclude that E ⊥ B and that it sufﬁces to consider E ≡ Erad . According to the “bremsstrahlung expression” for Erad , Equation (8.128) on page 140, E= q sin θ ∆v δ(t − t0 ) 4πε0 c2 |x − x | (8.144)

In this simple case B ≡ Brad is given by B= E c (8.145)

Fourier transforming expression (8.144) for E is trivial, yielding Eω = 8π2 ε q sin θ ∆v eiωt0 2 0 c |x − x | (8.146)

We note that the magnitude of this Fourier component is independent of ω. This is a consequence of the inﬁnitely short “impulsive step” δ(t −t0 ) in the time domain which produces an inﬁnite spectrum in the frequency domain. The total radiation energy is given by the expression ˜ U rad = = 1 µ0 ˜ dU rad dt = dt

∞ S −∞ ∞ −∞ ∞ −∞ S

E× 1 µ0 c

B µ0

S

· dS dt

∞ −∞

EB dt d2x = E 2 dt d2x

E 2 dt d2x

(8.147)

= ε0 c

S

According to Parseval’s identity [cf. Equation (7.35) on page 107] the following equal-

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148)
which means that the radiated energy in the frequency interval (ω. all spectra have ﬁnite widths.plasma.3
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.se/CED/Book
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.152)
1 2 dω ≈ ω 137 3π
∆v c
2
dω ω
(8.150)
∆v c
dω 2π
˜ rad We see that the energy spectrum Uω is independent of frequency ω.i
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8. with an upper cutoff limit set by the quantum condition 1 hωmax = m(∆v)2 ¯ 2 (8. for an electron where q = − |e|. we ﬁnd that ˜ rad Uω dω = dNω hω ¯ or.
E ND OF
EXAMPLE
8. ¯ Even if the number of photons becomes inﬁnite when ω → 0.153)
where we used the value of the ﬁne structure constant α = e2 /(4πε0 hc) ≈ 1/137.3
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ity holds:
∞ −∞
E 2 dt = 4π
0
∞
|E ω |2 dω
(8. where e is the elementary charge.149)
S
For our inﬁnite spectrum. Equation (8.uu. dNω = 2 e2 4πε0 hc 3π ¯ ∆v c
2
(8. these photons have negligible energies so that the total radiated energy is still ﬁnite.
Downloaded from http://www. This means that if we would integrate it over all frequencies ω ∈ [0. we obtain q 2 (∆v)2 ˜ rad Uω dω = 16π3 ε0 c3 = = q 16π3 ε0 c3 q2 3πε0 c
2
S
(∆v)2
2π 0
sin2 θ 2 d x dω |x − x |2
π
dϕ
0 2
sin2 θ sin θ dθ dω
(8.151)
which expresses that the highest possible frequency ωmax in the spectrum is that for which all kinetic energy difference has gone into one single ﬁeld quantum (photon) with energy hωmax . In reality. a divergent integral would result.146) on the facing page. ∞]. If we adopt the picture that the total energy is quantised in terms ¯ of Nω photons radiated during the process. ω + dω) is ˜ rad Uω dω = 4πε0 c |E ω |2 d2x dω (8.

66) on page 127..e. we obtain dU rad (α.89) on page 132 for the magnetic ﬁeld and the radiation part of the electric ﬁeld are general. can be written S= 1 x−x 1 (E × B) = |E|2 µ0 cµ0 |x − x | (8. the ˙ case v ⊥ v. without loss of generality.154a) (8.156a) (8. With the charged particle orbiting in the x1 x2 plane as in Figure 8.88) and Formula (8.
Downloaded from http://www.154f)
Because of the rotational symmetry we can.3. an orbit radius a.uu.154d) (8.89) on page 132.10 on the facing page.i
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8.133) on page 142.158)
where the retarded distance s is given by expression (8. With the radiation part of the electric ﬁeld. ϕ) |x − x | s 2 = |E| dt cµ0 (8. expression (8.
i i i
. The power ﬂux is given by the Poynting vector.154e) (8. and an angular frequency ω0 . with the help of Formula (8.88) on page 132. A very important special case is circular motion. we obtain ϕ(t ) = ω0 t x (t ) = a[ x1 cos ϕ(t ) + x2 sin ϕ(t )] ˆ ˆ ˙ v(t ) = x (t ) = aω0 [− x1 sin ϕ(t ) + x2 cos ϕ(t )] ˆ ˆ ˙ ¨ v(t ) = x (t ) = −aω2 [ x1 cos ϕ(t ) + x2 sin ϕ(t )] ˆ 0 ˆ v = |˙ | = ˙ v aω2 0 v = |v| = aω0 (8.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. rotate our coordinate system around the x3 axis so the relative vector x − x from the source point to an arbitrary ﬁeld point always lies in the x2 x3 plane.e. which.156b)
where in the last step we simply used the deﬁnition of a scalar product and the ˙ fact that the angle between v and x − x is θ. inserted. i.154c) (8.10). From the above expressions we obtain (x − x ) · v = x − x v sin α cos ϕ ˙ (x − x ) · v = − x − x v sin α sin ϕ = x − x v cos θ ˙ ˙ (8. i.154b) (8..4 Cyclotron and synchrotron radiation
Formula (8. valid for any kind of motion of the localised charge.plasma.157)
Inserting this into Equation (8. x − x = x − x ( x2 sin α + x3 cos α) ˆ ˆ (8.155)
where α is the angle between x − x and the normal to the plane of the particle orbit (see Figure 8.

one ﬁnds.se/CED/Book
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.
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.159) = 5 dt 16π2 c 1 − v sin α cos ϕ c 2
2
The angles θ and ϕ vary in time during the rotation. x) x v q a α 0 θ ˙ v ϕ(t ) x1 (t .10: Coordinate system for the radiation from a charged particle at x (t ) in circular motion with velocity v(t ) along the tan˙ gent and constant acceleration v(t ) toward the origin. after some cumbersome algebra. two limits are particularly interesting: 1. The x1 x2 axes are chosen so that the relative ﬁeld point vector x − x makes an angle α with the x3 axis which is normal to the plane of the orbital motion.159) above. that
2 2 v v dU rad (α.159) over this dΩ gives.156b) on the preceding page. x ) x−x
x3 F IGURE 8. But we can parametrise the solid angle dΩ in the angle ϕ and the (ﬁxed) angle α so that dΩ = sin α dα dϕ.156a) and (8. v/c 1 which corresponds to cyclotron radiation.uu. Integration of Equation (8. so that θ refers to a moving coordinate system. after some algebra.3
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x2 (t. The radius of the orbit is a.i
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8. ϕ) µ0 q 2 v2 1 − c sin α cos ϕ − 1 − c2 sin α sin ϕ ˙ (8.
and using (8. the angular integrated expression ˜ dU rad µ0 q 2 v2 ˙ = dt 6πc 1 1 − v2 c
2
2
(8.plasma.160)
In Equation (8.
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165)
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Consequently. the denominator in Equation (8.plasma.i
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2. 0) µ0 q 2 v2 = 2c dt 16π 1− v c
3
(8. Equation (8.
Cyclotron radiation
For a non-relativistic speed v reduces to c. This means that we can write dU rad (θ) µ0 q 2 v2 ˙ µ0 q 2 v 2 ˙ 2 = (1 − cos θ) = sin2 θ dt 16π2 c 16π2 c (8.
Synchrotron radiation
When the particle is relativistic.159) on the previous page gives
2 v v ˙ dU rad (π/2.162)
where θ is deﬁned in Figure 8. v/c
1 which corresponds to synchrotron radiation. v c. which deﬁnes the forward direction of the particle motion (α ≈ π/2.156b) on page 146 sin2 α sin2 ϕ = cos2 θ
(8.164)
which means that an observer near the orbit plane sees a very strong pulse followed.163) above and Equation (8.159) on the preceding page
˙ dU rad (α.164) are very important results since they can be used to determine the characteristics of the particle motion both in particle accelerators and in astrophysical objects where a direct measurement of particle velocities are impossible. The two cases represented by Equation (8. In the orbit plane (α = π/2). half an orbit period later. ϕ ≈ 0). Equation (8.159) on the preceding page then becomes ˙ 1 dU rad (π/2.10 on the preceding page.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. Equation (8.
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.159) on the previous page becomes very small if sin α cos ϕ ≈ 1. ϕ) µ0 q 2 v2 = (1 − sin2 α sin2 ϕ) dt 16π2 c But. according to Equation (8. by a much weaker pulse.uu.161)
(8. ϕ) µ0 q 2 v2 1 − c cos ϕ − 1 − c2 sin ϕ = 5 dt 16π2 c 1 − v cos ϕ c 2
2
(8. a ﬁxed observer near the orbit plane will observe cyclotron radiation twice per revolution in the form of two equally broad pulses of radiation with alternating polarisation.

11.se/CED/Book
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which vanishes for angles ϕ0 such that cos ϕ0 = sin ϕ0 = v c 1− v2 c2 (8. i.plasma.169)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. see Figure 8.166b)
Hence.
(8. synchrotron radiation from ultra-relativistic charges is characterized by a radiation lobe width which is approximately ∆θ ≈ 1 γ (8.3
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(t.
1−
v2 c2
1. deﬁned by γ= 1
v 1 − c2
2
1. x) x−x ∆θ
x2
v q a 0 ∆θ ˙ v ϕ(t ) x1 (t .uu.
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8. α = π/2 the lobe width is given by ∆θ.168)
Hence.11: When the observation point is in the plane of the particle orbit.166a) (8.167)
one can approximate ϕ0 ≈ sin ϕ0 = 1− v2 1 = c2 γ (8. x )
x3 F IGURE 8. the angle ϕ0 is a measure of the synchrotron radiation lobe width ∆θ..

When many charged particles. we can have three different situations depending on the relative phases of the radiation ﬁelds from the individual particles: 1.173)
A spectral analysis of the radiation pulse will will therefore exhibit a (broadened) line spectrum of Fourier components nω0 from n = 1 up to n ≈ 2γ3 . The charged particles are perfectly evenly distributed in the orbit. Then the relative phase differences of the individual electric and magnetic ﬁelds radiated are negligible and the total radiated ﬁelds from all individual particles will add up to become N times that from one particle.172)
As a general rule. In the ultra-relativistic synchrotron case one can therefore expect frequency components up to ωmax ≈ 1 = 2γ3 ω0 ∆t (8. N say. In this case the phases of the radiation ﬁelds cause a complete cancellation of the ﬁelds themselves.se/CED/Book
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This angular interval is swept by the charge during the time interval ∆t = ∆θ ω0 ∆θ ω0 (8. This is called coherent radiation. contribute to the radiation.170)
during which the particle moves a length interval ∆l = v∆t = v (8. the spectral width of a pulse of length ∆t is ∆ω 1/∆t. 2.plasma. No radiation escapes.uu.171)
in the direction toward the observer who therefore measures a pulse width of length ∆t = ∆t − v ∆θ v∆t v v 1 ∆l ∆t = 1 − = ∆t − = 1− ≈ 1− c c c c ω0 c γω0 v v 2 1− c 1+ c 1 v 1 1 1 ≈ 1− 2 = 3 = v γω0 c 2γω0 2γ ω0 1+ c 1/γ2 ≈2 (8.
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Downloaded from http://www. This means that the power radiated from the N particles will be N 2 higher than for a single charged particle.

Radiation in the general case
We recall that the general expression for the radiation E ﬁeld from a moving charge concentration is given by expression (8. then sin ψ = 0. ϕ) µ0 q 2 |x − x | |x − x | v ˙ (8.158) on page 146 yields the general formula dU rad (θ. This happens for an open ring current.102) on page 136 and Figure 8. Examples of this can be found both in earthly laboratories and under cosmic conditions. sin ψ = 1. The charged particles are somewhat unevenly distributed in the orbit.se/CED/Book
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.89) on page 132. the perpendicular component along the x3 axis of the electric ﬁeld from this moving charge is q v2 1 − 2 (x − x0 ) · x3 ˆ (8. This √ means that out of the N particles. For v ⊥ v.plasma.
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Virtual photons
Let us consider a charge q moving with constant. N will exhibit deviation from perfect randomness—and thereby perfect radiation ﬁeld cancellation—and give √ rise to net radiation ﬁelds which are proportional to N.i
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8. we can rewrite this as q b (8. carried initially by evenly distributed charged particles. ˙ ˙ If v is collinear with v.175)
˙ where ψ is the angle between v and v.97a) on page 134 and simple geometrical relations. and we speak about incoherent radiation. which is subject to thermal ﬂuctuations.12 on the following page. we get bremsstrahlung.3
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3.177) E⊥ = 4πε0 γ2 (vt)2 + b2 /γ2 3/2 E⊥ = E3 =
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.uu.174) = ×v (x − x ) × (x − x ) − dt 16π2 cs5 c Integration over the solid angle Ω gives the totally radiated power as
2 v ˜ dU rad µ0 q 2 v2 1 − c2 sin ψ ˙ = 2 3 dt 6πc 1 − v2 c
2
2
(8.176) 4πε0 s3 c Utilising expression (8. This expression in Equation (8. high velocity v(t ) along the x1 axis. which corresponds to cyclotron radiation or synchrotron radiation. According to Formula (8. From statistical mechanics we know that this happens for all open systems √ and that the particle densities exhibit ﬂuctuations of order N. As a result. the radiated power will be proportional to N.

we can rewrite this as ˜ U=
0 ∞
˜ Uω dω = 4πε0 v
∞ 0 vγ/ω bmin
bmax bmin 0
∞
Eω.⊥ = 1 2π
∞ −∞
dt E⊥ (t) eiωt =
q 4π2 ε0 bv
bω K1 vγ
bω vγ
(8.178)
Here. The passage of this ﬁeld “pulse” corresponds to a frequency distribution of the ﬁeld energy. bω vγ (8.i
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vt q b θ0 |x − x0 | B E ⊥ x3 ˆ
F IGURE 8. Due to the equipartition of the ﬁeld energy into the electric and magnetic ﬁelds.uu. approaching the ﬁeld of a plane wave.181)
≈
q2 2π2 ε0 v
db dω b
Downloaded from http://www.35) on page 107. bω vγ (8. ˆ ˆ
v = v x1 ˆ
This represents a contracted ﬁeld. K1 is the Kelvin function (Bessel function of the second kind with imaginary argument) which behaves in such a way for small and large arguments that q . the total ﬁeld energy can be written ˜ U = ε0
V 2 E⊥ d3x = ε0 bmax bmin ∞ −∞ 2 E⊥ vdt 2πb db
(8. we obtain Eω.180)
where the volume integration is over the plane perpendicular to v.179b) showing that the “pulse” length is of the order b/(vγ).se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.⊥ ∼ 0.179a) Eω.⊥ ∼ 2 4π ε0 bv Eω.12: The perpendicular ﬁeld of a charge q moving with velocity v = v x is E ⊥ z. With the use of Parseval’s identity for Fourier transforms.⊥
2
dω 2πb db (8.plasma.
i i i
. Fourier transforming. Formula (7.

we see that Nω dω ≈ 2α ln π E1 cp1 − cp1 m0 c2 E 1 − E 1 dω ω (8.uu. including only the lowest order contributions.186) (8. x)H = κm µ0 H (8.187)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.i
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8. As in the case of bremsstrahlung. In quantum theory. derived ﬁeld quantities D and H according to D = ε(t. respectively. Then we ﬁnd that Nω dω ≈ cγ 2α ln π bmin ω dω ω (8.3. Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle gives bmin ∼ h/ p1 − p1 so that the number of photons exchanged in the process ¯ is of the order Nω dω ≈ cγ 2α p1 − p1 ln π hω ¯ dω ω (8. The result of this interaction is that they change their linear momenta from p 1 to p1 and p2 to p2 . A diagrammatic representation of (a semi-classical approximation of) this process is given in Figure 8.183)
where α = e2 /(4πε0 hc) ≈ 1/137 is the ﬁne structure constant. ¯ Let us consider the interaction of two (classical) electrons. this process is known as Møller scattering.se/CED/Book
i i i
. the inﬂuence from matter on the electromagnetic ﬁelds by introducing new.184)
Since this change in momentum corresponds to a change in energy hω = E 1 − E1 ¯ and E1 = m0 γc2 . 1 and 2.185)
a formula which gives a reasonable semi-classical account of a photon-induced electron-electron interaction process.5 Radiation from charges moving in matter
When electromagnetic radiation is propagating through matter. to some extent.182)
where an explicit value of bmin can be calculated in quantum theory only.3
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from which we conclude that ˜ Uω ≈ q2 vγ ln 2ε v 2π 0 bmin ω (8. As mentioned earlier. new phenomena may appear which are (at least classically) not present in vacuum.13 on the following page.
Downloaded from http://www. it is intriguing to quantise the energy into photons [cf.
8.152) on page 145]. Equation (8. x)E = κε0 E B = µ(t.plasma. one can under certain simplifying assumptions include.

often called macroscopic Maxwell equations. manifesting itself in a collisional interaction between the charge carriers. and hence the relative permittivity κ and the relative permeability κm all have ﬁxed values.
i i i
. Equation (2. x) ∂B ×E = − ∂t ·B = 0 ∂D ×H = + j(t.189)
describing (1D) wave propagation in a material medium.188b) (8. causes the waves to decay exponentially with time and space. In Chapter 2 we concluded that the existence of a ﬁnite conductivity. x) ∂t (8. the Maxwell equations. for each type of material we consider.188a) (8.190)
Downloaded from http://www. independent on time and space. take the form · D = ρ(t.plasma.13: Diagrammatic representation of the semi-classical electron-electron interaction (Møller scattering).188c) (8.
Expressed in terms of these derived ﬁeld quantities. we can derive the general telegrapher’s equation [cf.33) on page 31] ∂E ∂2 E ∂2 E − σµ − εµ 2 = 0 ∂ζ 2 ∂t ∂t (8. Let us therefore assume that in our medium σ = 0 so that the wave equation simpliﬁes to ∂2 E ∂2 E − εµ 2 = 0 ∂ζ 2 ∂t (8.188d)
Assuming for simplicity that the electric permittivity ε and the magnetic permeability µ.uu.se/CED/Book
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E LECTROMAGNETIC R ADIATION
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p2
p2
γ
p1
p1
F IGURE 8.

11) on page 6.194).i
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8. in each medium we consider n = Const for each frequency component of the ﬁelds. 2. all these quantities are rank-two tensor ﬁelds. If. the vacuum formula for the associated magnetic ﬁeld. assuming that E is time-harmonic.196)
is valid also in a material medium (assuming. in addition. the phase speed of electromagnetic waves in vacuum. that n has a ﬁxed constant scalar value). in general.3
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If we introduce the phase velocity in the medium as 1 c 1 vϕ = √ = √ =√ εµ κε0 κm µ0 κκm (8.40) on page 32.193)
is called the refractive index of the medium. the medium is anisotropic or birefringent. 1 1 ˆ √ ˆ B = εµ k × E = k×E = k×E vϕ ω (8.194)
As in the vacuum case discussed in Chapter 2. according to Equation (1. i = 1. 3 (8. the solution of Equation (8. With these deﬁnitions.
Downloaded from http://www.plasma.e.
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.se/CED/Book
i i i
.191)
√ where. deﬁned as ˆ k ≡ k k = kˆ ϕ = v
def
ω vϕ vϕ vϕ
(8. and κm themselves.195)
where now k is the wave vector in the medium given by Equation (8. Associated with the phase speed of a medium for a wave of a given frequency ω we have a wave vector.. i. then the general solution to each component of Equation (8. In general n is a function of both time and space as are the quantities ε.192)
The ratio of the phase speed in vacuum and in the medium c √ √ def = κκm = c εµ ≡ n vϕ (8. i.190) can be written E = E0 ei(k·x−ωt) (8. have a longitudinal component.190) on the preceding page Ei = f (ζ − vϕ t) + g(ζ + vϕ t). c = 1/ ε0 µ0 is the speed of light. as mentioned. κ. Under our simplifying assumptions. can be represented by a Fourier component proportional to exp{−iωt}.. Equation (2.e. A consequence of a κ = 1 is that the electric ﬁeld will.uu. µ.

uu. the phase speed in the medium can be smaller or larger than the speed of light: vϕ = c ω = n k (8. of charged particle species σ. rectilinear motion in vacuum does not give rise to any radiation. for each given frequency. a charge in uniform.194) on the preceding page. vϕ is always smaller than c. N σ = Nσ (x) so that the refractive index and also the phase and group velocities are space dependent.100a) on page 135. rectilinear motion in a
Downloaded from http://www. then at that point vϕ → ∞ while vg → 0 and the wave Fourier component at ω is reﬂected there.i
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It is important to notice that depending on the electric and magnetic properties of a medium. so that the group velocity vg = ∂ω ∂k (8.
i i i
. on the value of the refractive index n.199)
Nσ q2 σ ε0 mσ
(8.198)
has a unique value for each frequency component. respectively. Let us now consider a charge in uniform. If the medium has a refractive index which. Because in this case also k(ω) and ω(k). and is different from v ϕ . In a gas of free charges. the phase and group velocities in a plasma are different from each other. Except in regions of anomalous dispersion. Here mσ and Nσ denote the mass and number density. If the frequency ω is such that it coincides with ωp at some point in the medium. we say that the medium is dispersive. such as a plasma. as is usually the case.1. the refractive index is given by the expression n2 (ω) = 1 − where ω2 = ∑ p
σ
ω2 p 2 ω
(8.plasma.200)
is the plasma frequency. and. In an inhomogeneous plasma. in the last step. hence. we used Equation (8. dependent on frequency ω.197)
where. see in particular Equation (8.
ˇ Vavilov-Cerenkov radiation
As we saw in Subsection 8. As can be easily seen.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.

201a) (8. Equations (8. which we know is an absolute limit for the motion of anything.
Downloaded from http://www.se/CED/Book
i i i
. This is the basis for the Vavilov-Cerenkov radiation that we shall now study. if v/c 1/n we recover the well-known vacuum case but with modiﬁed phase speed. of the retarded (and advanced) potentials in Chapter 3 and the Liénard-Wiechert potentials. If we recall the general derivation. which.203a)
A(t. x) = 1 q q 1 = 4πε0 |x − x | − n (x−x )·v 4πε0 s c 1 qv 1 qv = 4πε0 c2 |x − x | − n (x−x )·v 4πε0 c2 s c (8. we realise that we obtain the latter in the medium by a simple formal replacement c → c/n in the expression (8. A medium of this kind has the interesting property that particles. We also note that the retarded and advanced times in the medium are
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. of course. Speciﬁcally.201b)
Hence.3
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medium with electric properties which are different from those of a (classical) vacuum. can experience that the particle speeds are higher than the phase ˇ speed in the medium. are below the phase speed in vacuum.i
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8. Hence. are φ(t. in this particular medium.66) on page 127 for s. the Liénard-Wiechert potentials in a medium characterized by a refractive index n.65) on page 127. in the vacuum case. the speed of propagation of (the phase planes of) electromagnetic waves is less than the speed of light in vacuum.204)
The need for the absolute value of the expression for s is obvious in the case when v/c ≥ 1/n because then the second term can be larger than the ﬁrst term.202) (8. including particles.plasma.203b)
where now s = x−x −n (x − x ) · v c (8. entering into the medium at high speeds |v|. x) =
(8.uu. consider a medium where ε = Const > ε0 µ = µ0 This implies that in this medium the phase speed is vϕ = 1 c =√ <c n εµ0 (8.

put Cerenkov as the author. the potentials become singular. Equation (3.208)
In the direction deﬁned by this angle θc .206)
For v/c ≥ 1/n.1 ˇ The Vavilov-Cerenkov cone is similar in nature to the Mach cone in acoustics. the ﬁeld exists within a sphere of radius |x − x | around the particle while the particle moves a distance l = v(t − t ) (8.205b)
so that the usual time interval t − t between the time measured at the point of observation and the retarded time in a medium becomes t−t = |x − x | n c (8. and submitted it to Nature.209)
along the direction of v. all ﬁeld spheres are tangent to a straight cone with its apex at the instantaneous position of the particle and with the apex half angle αc deﬁned according to sin αc = cos θc = c nv (8. when cos θc = c nv (8. Cerenkov in 1934.205a) (8.30) on page 43] k |x − x | |x − x | n = t− ω c k |x − x | |x − x | n tadv = tadv (t.206).plasma. In the direction θc where the potentials are singular.207)
or. x − x ) = t − (8. Vavilov explained the results in terms of radioactive particles creating Compton electrons which gave rise to the radiation (which was
Downloaded from http://www. equivalently.uu.
1 The ﬁrst systematic exploration of this radiation was made by P. the retarded distance s. x − x ) = t + = t+ ω c tret = tret (t. Vavilov wrote a manuscript with the experimental ﬁndings.210)
This cone of potential singularities and ﬁeld sphere circumferences propagates ˇ with speed c/n in the form of a shock front. During the time interval t − t given by expression (8. I.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. called Vavilov-Cerenkov radiation. A. In the manuscript.i
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[cf.
i i i
. and therefore the denominators in Equations (8. Vavilov’s research group at the Lebedev Institute ˇ in Moscow.203) on the previous page vanish when n(x − x ) · v nv = x−x cos θc = x − x c c (8. ˇ who was then a post-graduate student in S.

The ﬁrst observation of this type of radiation was reported by Marie Curie in 1910.
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.213b)
the correct interpretation). In fact. private communication].
In order to make some quantitative estimates of this radiation. Sommerfeld sent a letter to Tamm via Austria. predictions of a similar effect had been made as early as 1888 by Heaviside. This generates a Vavilov-Cerenkov shock wave in the form of a cone.i
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8. The paper was then sent to Physical Review and was.211)
This Fourier component can be used in the formulae derived for a linear current in Subsection 8. 1937.212) (8.3
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x(t)
θc x (t )
αc
q
v
F IGURE 8. and by Sommerfeld in his 1904 paper “Radiating body moving with velocity of light”.213a) (8. L.14: Instantaneous picture of the expanding ﬁeld spheres from a point charge moving with constant speed v/c > 1/n in a medium where ˇ n > 1. we note that we can describe the motion of each charged particle q as a current density: j = q v δ(x − vt ) = q v δ(x − vt )δ(y )δ(z ) x1 ˆ which has the trivial Fourier transform jω = q iωx /v e δ(y )δ(z ) x1 ˆ 2π (8. but the paper was rejected. M.1. On May 8. E.1 if only we make the replacements ε0 → ε = n 2 ε0 nω k→ c (8. In the same year.plasma.se/CED/Book
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. Tamm and I. eventually published in 1937. ˇ Frank and Cerenkov received the Nobel Prize in 1958 “for the discovery and the interpretation ˇ of the Cerenkov effect” [V.uu. Ginzburg.
Downloaded from http://www. Tamm. Frank published the theory for the effect (“the singing electron”). saying that he was surprised that his old 1904 ideas were now becoming interesting. but she never pursued the exploration of it [8]. I. after some controversy with the American editors who claimed the results to be wrong.

k. The integral in (8.35) on page 107 (integrated over a closed sphere at large distances). using jω from Equation (8.uu.i
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In this manner. This means that the integrand function is practically zero outside the integration interval ξ ∈ [−1. we can set sin2 θ ≈ sin2 θc and the result of the integration is ˜ rad Uω = 2π
π 0 rad Uω (θ) sinθ dθ = cos θ = −ξ = 2π 1 −1 1 −1 rad Uω (ξ) dξ
q 2 nω2 sin2 θ sin2 1 − nv cos θ c = nv 4π3 ε0 c3 1 − c cos θ ω v
Xω v 2
dΩ
(8. ∞) without introducing too much an error.212) on the previous page. equivalently. X] on the x axis we can evaluate the integral to obtain
rad Uω dΩ
which has a maximum in the direction θc as expected. Via yet another variable substitution we can therefore approximate sin θc
2 1 −1
sin2
1 + nvξ c 1 + nvξ c
ω v
Xω v 2
dξ ≈ 1 − =
c2 n2 v2
cX ωn c2
sin2 x dx 2 −∞ x
∞
(8. the resultˇ ing Fourier transforms of the Vavilov-Cerenkov magnetic and electric radiation ﬁelds can be calculated from the expressions (7.38) on page 108]
rad Uω dΩ
1 ≈ 4πε0 nc q 2 nω2 = 16π3 ε0 c3
2 V
(jω × k)e
∞
−ik·x
dx
3
dΩ
2
(8. near cos θc = c/(nv). Consequently.214) sin2 θ dΩ
ωx exp i − kx cos θ v −∞
dx
where θ is the angle between the direction of motion.plasma.” If we limit the spatial extent of the motion of the particle to the closed interval [−X.215) over Ω therefore picks up the main contributions from θ ≈ θc .214) is singular of a “Dirac delta type. Equation (7. Consequently.217)
cXπ 1− 2 2 ωn n v
Downloaded from http://www.216) is strongly peaked near ξ = −c/(nv). The integration of (8. The total energy content is then obtained from Equation (7.22) on page 102.11) and (7.216)
dξ
The integrand in (8.215)
q 2 nω2 sin2 θc ≈ 2π2 ε0 c3
sin2
1 + nvξ c 1 + nvξ c
ω v
Xω v 2
(8. x1 . and the direction to ˆ ˆ the observer. one may extend the ξ integration interval to (−∞.
i i i
. 1]. respectively. For a Fourier component one obtains [cf.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. The magnitude of this maximum grows and its width narrows as X → ∞. or.

Realising this.
Bibliography
[1] H. Inc.3
B IBLIOGRAPHY
161
leading to the ﬁnal approximate result for the total energy loss in the frequency interval (ω. London. p. . A LFVÉN AND N. ω + dω) q 2X ˜ rad Uω dω = 2πε0 c2 1− c2 n2 v2 ω dω (8. [3] M. Cosmic radiation and radio stars.. G INZBURG. 1982. Academic Press. ISBN 0-08-026481-6.. Classical Electromagnetic Radiation. the refractive index is usually frequency dependent. Interference and Diffraction of Light. Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation. Principles of Optics. .. New York. Applications of Electrodynamics in Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics.i “main” — 2003/1/23 — 18:57 — page 161 — #179
i
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8. JACKSON. W OLF. under the condition that the expression inside the parentheses in the right hand side is positive. Our derivation above for a ﬁxed value of n is valid for each individual Fourier component. NY . .uu..
Downloaded from http://www. 1999.219)
This result was derived under the assumption that v/c > 1/n(ω). [6] J. .plasma. ISBN 0-471-30932-X. Electromagnetic Fields and Interactions. i. . Orlando. 1980. New York. (London) Ltd.
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. Oxford. 78 (1950). Gordon and Breach Science Publishers. B ECKER. ISBN 288124-719-9. H ERLOFSON. 1980. third ed. B ORN AND E.se/CED/Book
i i i
. D. .. Physical Review. For all media it is true that n(ω) → 1 when ω → ∞. [4] V.218)
As mentioned earlier. so there exist alˇ ways a highest frequency for which we can obtain Vavilov-Cerenkov radiation from a fast charge in a medium. [5] J. ISBN 012-472257-1. second ed. we ﬁnd that the radiation energy per frequency unit and per unit length is ˜ rad Uω dω q 2ω = 2X 4πε0 c2 1− c2 n2 (ω)v2 dω (8. . Classical Electrodynamics. John Wiley & Sons. . . Revised third ed. NY. Pergamon Press. [2] R.. Inc. H EALD. New York. L. ISBN 0-486-64290-9. B. . Dover Publications. Montreux. M ARION AND M.. 1989. A. Inc...e. Paris. 616. sixth ed. Tokyo and Melbourne.

Classical Electricity and Magnetism. Toronto. Classical Electrodynamics. . New York. [9] J. K. ISBN 0-201-05702-6. New York.i
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[7] W. Brisbane. ISBN 0-47157269-1. Perseus Books. 1953.. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. VANDERLINDE. MA. [8] J. H. P HILLIPS. S CHWINGER . Electromagnetic Theory. K.. J R . Reading. T SAI. [10] J.. Inc. ..
i i i
.. McGraw-Hill Book Company. L. John Wiley & Sons. . A. A. AND W. Chichester. 1993. Inc. Inc. 1998. Reading. Classical Electromagnetic Theory. and Singapore. M ILTON .uu. 1962. D E R AAD . L. ISBN 07-062150-0. NY and London.plasma.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. PANOFSKY AND M. ISBN 0-7382-0056-5. second ed.
Downloaded from http://www. S TRATTON. MA .

5) (F.4)
Constitutive relations
D = εE B H= µ (F.i
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F
Formulae
F.8)
F.1) (F.10)
E = − φ−
163
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.7) (F.1 The Electromagnetic Field
F.1.3) (F.9) ∂ A ∂t (F.1.2 Fields and potentials
Vector and scalar potentials
B= ×A (F.2) (F.1 Maxwell’s equations
·D = ρ ∂ B ∂t ∂ ×H = j+ D ∂t ×E = − ·B = 0 (F.6)
j = σE P = ε0 χE
(F.

se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.plasma.17) (F.18)
Downloaded from http://www.11)
F.2 Electromagnetic Radiation
F.2.3 The far ﬁelds from an electric dipole
Brad (x) = − ω ωµ0 eik|x| pω × k 4π |x| 1 eik|x| (pω × k) × k Erad (x) = − ω 4πε0 |x| (F.1.i
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F ORMULAE
The Lorenz-Lorentz gauge condition in vacuum
·A+ 1 ∂ φ=0 c2 ∂t (F.3 Force and energy
Poynting’s vector
S = E×H (F.14)
F.
i i i
.15) (F.1 Relationship between the ﬁeld vectors in a plane wave
B= ˆ k×E c (F.12)
Maxwell’s stress tensor
1 T i j = Ei D j + Hi B j − δi j (Ek Dk + Hk Bk ) 2 (F.2.uu.13)
F.2.16)
F.2 The far ﬁelds from an extended source distribution
Brad (x) = ω −iµ0 eik|x| d3 x e−ik·x jω × k 4π |x| V i eik|x| d3 x e−ik·x jω × k x× ˆ Erad (x) = ω 4πε0 c |x| V (F.

19) (F.plasma. x) = (x − x ) × c|x − x | s = x − x − (x − x ) · ∂t ∂t |x − x | s v c + (x − x ) × ˙ (x − x0 ) × v c2 (F.
Downloaded from http://www.24)
(F.23) (F.22)
F.2.4 The far ﬁelds from a magnetic dipole
Brad (x) = − ω µ0 eik|x| (mω × k) × k 4π |x| k eik|x| Erad (x) = mω × k ω 4πε0 c |x| (F.1 Metric tensor
1 0 0 0 0 −1 0 0 gµν = 0 0 −1 0 0 0 0 −1 (F.uu.2.28)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.5 The far ﬁelds from an electric quadrupole
Brad (x) = ω iµ0 ω eik|x| k · Qω × k 8π |x| i eik|x| Erad (x) = k · Qω × k × k ω 8πε0 |x| (F.se/CED/Book
i i i
. x) B(t.i
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i
F.26) (F.3 Special Relativity
F.20)
F.27)
x − x0 = (x − x ) − |x − x | =
x
F. x) = v2 q (x − x0 ) 1 − 2 4πε0 s3 c E(t.25) v c (F.3
S PECIAL R ELATIVITY
165
F.3.2.21) (F.6 The ﬁelds from a point charge in arbitrary motion
E(t.

3.3.uu.34)
F.37)
F.
i i i
.3.6 Four-momentum
pµ = m0 uµ = E . v) dτ (F.3 Lorentz transformation of a four-vector
x µ = Λµν xν γ −γβ 0 0 −γβ γ 0 0 Λµν = 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 γ= 1 − β2 v β= c (F.i
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F.32) (F.3.30)
(F.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.3.p c (F.3.3.29)
F.7 Four-current density
j µ = ρ0 u µ (F.35)
F.31)
(F.4 Invariant line element
ds = c dt = c dτ γ (F.plasma.36)
F.5 Four-velocity
uµ = dx µ = γ(c.38)
Downloaded from http://www.2 Covariant and contravariant four-vectors
vµ = gµν vν (F.33)
F.8 Four-potential
Aµ = φ .A c (F.

∂x ∂y ∂z
(F. In ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ component (tensor) notation can be written
i
= ∂i =
∂ ∂ ∂ .40)
where xi .44)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. β(x).39)
F. b(x).4 Vector Relations
Let x be the radius vector (coordinate vector) from the origin to the point (x1 . y. and x3 ≡ z. The differential vector operator is in Cartesian coordinates given by ≡ ∑ xi ˆ
i=1 3
∂ def ∂ def ≡ xi ˆ ≡ ∂ ∂xi ∂xi
(F.43a) (F.43c)
ϕ = − sin ϕ x1 + cos ϕ x2 ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ x1 = sin θ cos ϕˆ + cos θ cos ϕθ − sin ϕϕ ˆ r ˆ ˆ x2 = sin θ sin ϕˆ + cos θ sin ϕθ + cos ϕϕ ˆ r ˆ ˆ x3 = cos θˆ − sin θθ ˆ r
Directed line element
ˆ dx x = dl = dr r + r dθ θ + r sin θ dϕ ϕ ˆ ˆ ˆ (F. c(x).43b) (F. .42c) (F. .1 Spherical polar coordinates
Base vectors
r = sin θ cos ϕ x1 + sin θ sin ϕ x2 + cos θ x3 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ θ = cos θ cos ϕ x1 + cos θ sin ϕ x2 − sin θ x3 ˆ ˆ ˆ (F. .9 Field tensor
0 −E x /c −Ey /c −Ez /c E /c 0 −Bz By F µν = ∂µ Aν − ∂ν Aµ = x Ey /c Bz 0 −B x Ez /c −By Bx 0 (F. . x2 . x2 ≡ y.plasma.4
V ECTOR R ELATIONS
167
F. arbitrary vector ﬁelds. . .41)
F.
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F. ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3
=
∂ ∂ ∂ .se/CED/Book
i i i
.3. d(x).42b) (F. Let further α(x). x3 ) ≡ (x. be arbitrary scalar ﬁelds and a(x).uu. .42a) (F.4. 2. z) and let |x| denote the magnitude (“length”) of x. 3 is the ith unit vector and x1 ≡ x.

56) (F.4.47)
F.50) (F.55) (F.49) (F.48) (F.uu.57) (F.54)
a × b = −b × a =
a × (b × c) + b × (c × a) + c × (a × b) = 0
a × (b × c) = b(a · c) − c(a · b)
a · (b × c) = (a × b) · c
(a × b) × (c × d) = (a × b · d)c − (a × b · c)d
(a × b) · (c × d) = a · [b × (c × d)] = (a · c)(b · d) − (a · d)(b · c)
General vector analytic identities
(αβ) = α β + β α · (αa) = a · α + α · a × (αa) = α × a − a × α (F.
i i i
.53) (F.61) (F.64)
Downloaded from http://www.62) (F.46)
Volume element
d3x = dV = drdS = r2 dr dΩ (F.45)
Directed area element
d2x n = dS = dS r = r2 dΩ r ˆ ˆ ˆ (F.plasma.51) (F.52) (F.58) (F.59) (F.2 Vector formulae
General vector algebraic identities
a · b = b · a = δi j ai b j = ab cos θ ˆ i jk a j bk xi (F.60) (F.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.63)
2
· (a × b) = b · ( × a) − a · ( × b)
(a · b) = a × ( × b) + b × ( × a) + (b · )a + (a · )b · α=
2
× (a × b) = a( · b) − b( · a) + (b · )a − (a · )b α
× ( × a) = ( · a) −
· ( × a) = 0
× α=0
a
(F.i
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i
168
F ORMULAE
Solid angle element
dΩ = sin θ dθ dϕ (F.

65) (F.75) (F.77)
Integral relations
Let V(S ) be the volume bounded by the closed surface S (V). by dS(≡ d2x n). ≡ ∂xi xi .i
i
“main” — 2003/1/23 — 18:57 — page 169 — #187
i
F.plasma.74) (F.72) (F. directed along the outward pointing surface normal unit vector n.78) (F.80)
dS α
S
( × a) d3x =
dS × a
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. a = a(x) an arbitrary vector ﬁeld. ˆ ˆ
i
x−x =− |x − x | |x − x | x 1 =− 3 |x| |x| x−x 1 1 =− =− |x − x |3 |x − x | |x − x | x 1 · = 4πδ(x) =− 2 3 |x| |x| 1 x−x =− 2 = 4πδ(x − x ) · |x − x |3 |x − x | k 1 k·x = k· =− 3 |x| |x| |x| x k·x × k× =− if |x| = 0 3 |x| |x|3 1 k 2 =k 2 = −4πkδ(x) |x| |x| × (k × a) = k( · a) + k × ( × a) − (k · a) |x − x | =
(k · x) = k x |x| = |x|
×x = 0
·x = 3
(F.79) (F.
Downloaded from http://www.69) (F.71) (F.uu.se/CED/Book
i i i
.66) (F. and ≡ ∂x xi .76) (F.4
V ECTOR R ELATIONS
169
Special identities
In the following x = xi xi and x = xi xi are radius vectors. Then ˆ ˆ
V V V
( · a) d3x = ( α) d3x =
S
S
dS · a
(F. k an arbitrary constant ˆ ˆ ∂ ∂ vector.73) (F. Denote the 3dimensional volume element by d3x(≡ dV) and the surface element.70) (F.67) (F.68) (F.

international ed.
i i i
. MA . H. ISBN 07-043316-8. . F ESHBACH.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. ISBN 0-201-05702-6.. Mathematical Methods for Physicists.uu.81) (F. [3] W. Methods of Theoretical Physics. 1953. M. Inc. second ed. . Classical Electricity and Magnetism..plasma. McGraw-Hill Book Company. PANOFSKY AND M. ISBN 0-12059816-7. Reading. P HILLIPS. . J. 1962. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. B. A RFKEN AND H. [2] P. . Inc. Inc.. 1995.
Downloaded from http://www.. . New York. . W EBER. NY . CA . M ORSE AND H. fourth. . Academic Press. . then α dl =
C C S
dS × α dS · ( × a)
(F. Part I..i
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i
170
F ORMULAE
If S (C) is an open surface bounded by the contour C(S ). whose line element is dl. . K. San Diego.82)
a · dl =
S
Bibliography
[1] G.

pseudovector and a pseudotensor is that the latter behave differently under such coordinate transformations which cannot be reduced to pure rotations. We will describe the observables in classical electrodynamics mathematically in terms of scalars. vectors. However. .
171
i i i
.i
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i
M
Mathematical Methods
M. 3. pseudoscalars. pseudovectors. . l. The difference between a scalar. . 2. A vector describes some kind of physical motion due to vection and a tensor describes the motion or deformation due to some form of tension. tensors or pseudotensors and will not exploit differential forms to any signiﬁcant degree. .1. and Greek indices µ. generalisations to more abstract notions of these quantities are commonplace. or row vector. κ. . j. 2. . ν. Vectors and Tensors
Every physical observable can be described by a geometric object. of the coordinates xN where N is the dimensionality of the space under consideration. λ. vector and tensor and a pseudoscalar. Its N-tuple representation simply enumerates the coordinates which describe this point. The most basic vector is the radius vector which is the vector from the origin to the point of interest. 3 to denote vector or tensor components in the real Euclidean three-dimensional (3D) conﬁguration space R3 .1 Scalars. which are used in four-dimensional (4D) space. . run over the range 1. One suitable representation is in terms of an ordered N-tuple. Throughout we adopt the convention that Latin indices i.1 Vectors
Radius vector
A vector can be represented mathematically in a number of different ways. the radius vector from the origin to a point is synonymous with the coordinates of the point itself. k. 1. In this sense. A scalar describes a scalar quantity which may or may not be constant in time and/or space.
M. run over the range 0.

i = 1.3)
(M. we represent a vector in 3D Euclidean space R3 by a boldface letter or symbol in a Roman font. Typographically. x1 . x3 ). x2 . 2. x1 .2)
This component notation is particularly useful in 4D space where we can represent the radius vector either in its contravariant component form xµ ≡ (x0 . x3 ) ≡ (x. Alternatively. Whenever possible and convenient we shall in the following always assume EΣ and suppress explicit summation in our formulae. x3 ) or its covariant component form xµ ≡ (x0 . x3 )
def def
(M. We note that for a change of coordinates xµ → x µ = x µ (x0 . x2 . the differential radius vector dxµ transforms as ∂x µ (M.
i i i
. x3 ) of coordinates xi .i
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M ATHEMATICAL M ETHODS
In the 3D Euclidean space R3 . x2 . An example is Lorentz space L4 which is a 4D Riemannian space utilised to formulate the special theory of relativity. y. x2 .uu. z)
def
(M.5) dx µ = ν dxν ∂x which follows trivially from the rules of differentiation of x µ considered as functions of four variables xν .4)
The relation between the covariant and contravariant forms is determined by the metric tensor (also known as the fundamental tensor) whose actual form is dictated by the properties of the vector space in question.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. we have N = 3 and the radius vector can be represented by the triplet (x1 . Therefore a representation of the radius vector in ˆ R3 is ˆ ˆ x = ∑ xi x i ≡ xi x i
def i=1 3
(M. we may describe the radius vector in component notation as follows: xi ≡ (x1 .1)
where we have introduced Einstein’s summation convention (EΣ) which states that a repeated index in a term implies summation over the range of the index in question. The dual representation of vectors in contravariant and covariant forms is most convenient when we work in a non-Euclidean vector space with an indeﬁnite metric. 3.plasma. x1 .
Downloaded from http://www. due to a transformation from a system Σ to another system Σ . x2 . The coordinates xi are scalar quantities which describe the position along the unit base vectors xi which span R3 .

it is also called an invariant. In particular. follows trivially from the rules of differentiation. x2 . x2 .uu. a2 (x).9)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. Since a four-scalar has the same value at a given point regardless of coordinate system.8)
Vector ﬁelds
We can represent an arbitrary vector ﬁeld a(x) in R3 as follows: a(x) = ai (x) xi ˆ In component notation this same vector can be represented as ai (x) = (a1 (x).2 Fields
A ﬁeld is a physical entity which depends on one or more continuous parameters. for the differential dxµ . Equation (M. a3 (x)) = ai (x j ) (M. the transformation rule for the differential operator ∂/∂xµ under a transformation xµ → x µ becomes ∂ ∂xν ∂ = ∂x µ ∂x µ ∂xν which. each point in this space can be considered as one degree of freedom so that a ﬁeld is a representation of a physical entity which has an inﬁnite number of degrees of freedom. V ECTORS
AND
T ENSORS
173
M. x3 ) ≡ α(xµ )
def
(M. a four-scalar ﬁeld is denoted α(x0 .7)
which indicates that the four-scalar α depends on all four coordinates spanning this space.i
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i
M.se/CED/Book
i i i
.5) on the preceding page.
Downloaded from http://www. x3 ) ≡ α(xi )
def
(M.1.
Scalar ﬁelds
We denote an arbitrary scalar ﬁeld in R3 by α(x) = α(x1 .6)
This ﬁeld describes how the scalar quantity α varies continuously in 3D R 3 space.plasma. Such a parameter can be viewed as a “continuous index” which enumerates the “coordinates” of the ﬁeld. Analogous to the transformation rule.1
S CALARS . (M.10) (M. In 4D. again. x1 . in a ﬁeld which depends on the usual radius vector x of R3 .

e.14)
i. in 4D an assemblage yµ = (y0 .15) A31 (x) A32 (x) A33 (x) Strictly speaking. a3 (xν )) (M. a2 (xν ). during the change from Σ to Σ . a1 (xν ). for instance in the following matrix form: A11 (x) A12 (x) A13 (x) def Ai j (xk ) ≡ A21 (x) A22 (x) A23 (x) (M.uu. according to the rule yµ = ∂xν yν ∂x µ (M.
Downloaded from http://www. For instance. the relation between aµ and aµ is determined by the metric of the physical 4D system under consideration. a3 (xν )) or. Again.12) (M. y2 . in covariant component form.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.. The analogous requirement for a covariant four-vector is that it transforms. in the same way as the differential coordinate element dx µ transforms according to Equation (M.
i i i
.8) on the previous page.13)
i. a1 (xν ).e.11)
where xν is the radius four-vector.plasma.
Tensor ﬁelds
We denote an arbitrary tensor ﬁeld in R3 by A(x). a2 (xν )..5) on page 172. it transforms to the new system according to the rule yµ= ∂x µ ν y ∂xν (M. y1 . an arbitrary four-vector ﬁeld in contravariant component form can be represented as aµ (xν ) = (a0 (xν ). This tensor ﬁeld can be represented in a number of ways. the tensor ﬁeld described here is a tensor of rank two. y3 ) constitutes a contravariant four-vector (or the contravariant components of a four-vector) if and only if. as aµ (xν ) = (a0 (xν ). during a transformation from a system Σ with coordinates xµ to a system Σ with coordinates x µ . in the same way as the differential operator ∂/∂xµ transforms according to Equation (M.i
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M ATHEMATICAL M ETHODS
In 4D. Whether an arbitrary N-tuple fulﬁls the requirement of being an (N-dimensional) contravariant vector or not. depends on its transformation properties during a change of coordinates.

which at a
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. Consequently. lying ˆ on the side of d2x toward which the unit normal vector n points.20) and Newton’s second law.plasma.uu.20)
Using (M. This force concept is meaningful only if the forces are short-range enough that they can be assumed to act only in the surface proper. j. tensors may have any rank n. the notation where a vector (tensor) is represented in its component form is called the tensor notation.3 with the following further property
i jk ilm
= δ jl δkm − δ jm δkl
(M.1 on the following page indicates how this volume may look like.1
Consider a tetrahedron-like volume element V of a solid. Let dS = d2x n be the directed surface ˆ element of this volume element and let the vector T n d2x be the force that matter. k is an even permutation of 1. j.3 (M. k is an odd permutation of 1.i “main” — 2003/1/23 — 18:57 — page 175 — #193
i
i
M. V ECTORS
AND
T ENSORS
175
A particularly simple rank-two tensor in R3 is the 3D Kronecker delta symbol δi j . also known as the Levi-Civita tensor 1 if i.se/CED/Book
i i i
. k are equal i jk = −1 if i.18) 0 if at least two of i.19)
In fact. we ﬁnd that the matter of mass m. j.
T ENSORS IN 3D SPACE E XAMPLE M. ﬁgure M. According to Newton’s third law.16)
The 3D Kronecker delta has the following matrix representation 1 0 0 (δi j ) = 0 1 0 0 0 1
(M.2. ﬂuid. acts on matter which ˆ lies on the opposite side of d2x. or gaseous body.2. A tensor of rank n = 2 may be represented by a twodimensional array or matrix whereas higher rank tensors are best represented in their component forms (tensor notation). this surface force fulﬁls T− n = −T n ˆ ˆ (M.
Downloaded from http://www. with the following properties: δi j = 0 if i = j 1 if i = j (M.1
S CALARS . In this picture a scalar is considered to be a tensor of rank n = 0 and a vector a tensor of rank n = 1. whose atomistic structure is irrelevant for the present analysis.17)
Another common and useful tensor is the fully antisymmetric tensor of rank 3.

23) above is valid not only in equilibrium but also when the matter in V is in motion. In other words Fext m (M.plasma. given instant is located in V obeys the equation of motion T n d2x − cos θ1 T x1 d2x − cos θ2 T x2 d2x − cos θ3 T x3 d2x + Fext = ma ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ (M.i “main” — 2003/1/23 — 18:57 — page 176 — #194
i
i
176
M ATHEMATICAL M ETHODS
x3
n ˆ
d2x x2 V
x1 F IGURE M.1: Terahedron-like volume element V containing matter.21)
where Fext is the external force and a is the acceleration of the volume element.23) in component ˆ
Downloaded from http://www.uu.23)
From the above derivation it is clear that Equation (M.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. one ﬁnds that in this limit T n = ∑ ni T xi ≡ n i T x i ˆ ˆ ˆ
i=1 3
(M.22) T n = n 1 T x1 + n 2 T x 2 + n 3 T x 3 + 2 a − ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ dx m Since both a and Fext /m remain ﬁnite whereas m/d2x → 0 as V → 0. Introducing the notation T i j = T xi ˆ
j
(M.
i i i
.24)
for the jth component of the vector T xi . we can write Equation (M.

we must require that ρ ∂T i j d vj − fj − =0 dt ∂xi (M. the jth component of the vector T xi .27)
The jth component of this equation can be written d v j dm = dt f j d3x + T nj d2x = ˆ f j d3x + ni T i j d2x (M.25) was used. We shall now show how one can use the momentum law (force equation) to derive the equation of motion for an arbitrary element of mass in the body.26)
Hence.uu.plasma.1
S CALARS . here denoted T i j . we can rewrite the result as ρ
V
d v j d3x = dt
V
f j d3x +
V
∂T i j 3 dx ∂xi
(M. we ﬁnd that the component of the vector T n in the ˆ direction of an arbitrary unit vector m is ˆ T nm = T n · m ˆˆ ˆ ˆ
3 j=1
= ∑ T nj m j = ∑ ˆ
3
j=1
i=1
∑ ni T i j
3
m j ≡ ni T i j m j = n· T · m ˆ ˆ
(M.25)
Using Equation (M. x1 .31)
Note that ∂v j /∂t is the rate of change with time of the velocity component v j at a ﬁxed point x = (x1 . Note that T nm is independent of the particular coordinate ˆˆ system used in the derivation.se/CED/Book
i i i
. in the last step.29)
Since this formula is valid for any arbitrary volume.25) above.30)
or. To this end we consider a part V of the body.
E ND OF
EXAMPLE
M.
Downloaded from http://www.28)
V
V
S
V
S
where. we obtain d dt v dm =
V V
f d3x +
S
T n d2x ˆ
(M.1
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. Equation (M. equivalently ρ ∂v j ∂T i j + ρv · v j − f j − =0 ∂t ∂xi (M. Setting dm = ρ d 3x and using the divergence theorem on the last term.i
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M. V ECTORS
AND
T ENSORS
177
form as follows T nj = (T n) j = ∑ ni T i j ≡ ni T i j ˆ ˆ
i=1 3
(M. can be interpreted as the ˆ i jth component of a tensor T. If the external force density (force per unit volume) is denoted by f and the velocity for a mass element dm is denoted by v. x3 ).

νk−1 (xκ ) k νk+1 .. We speak of • a contravariant four-tensor ﬁeld...33)
More generally.36)
i.e. a dual application of the lowering operation on a rank 2 tensor in contravariant form yields Aµν = gµκ gλν Aκλ (M..
E XAMPLE M...
i i i
. k+1 The 4D metric tensor (fundamental tensor) mentioned above is a particularly important four-tensor of rank 2..32)
This rule is often called lowering of index....νn (xκ ) = Aνk+1 νk+2 .νk−1 µ gµk νk Aν1νk+1 .νnk (xκ ) νk
(M.2 C ONTRAVARIANT AND COVARIANT VECTORS IN
FLAT
L ORENTZ SPACE
The 4D Lorentz space L4 has a simple metric which can be described either by the
Downloaded from http://www.νn ν2 .µ
(M. • a covariant four-tensor ﬁeld...µnk (xν ). denoted Aµ1 2. In covariant component form we shall denote it gµν ..uu....se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.. This metric tensor determines the relation between an arbitrary contravariant four-vector aµ and its covariant counterpart aµ according to the following rule: aµ (xκ ) ≡ gµν aν (xκ )
def µ µ .35)
Successive lowering and raising of more than one index is achieved by a repeated application of this rule.34) (M.. denoted Aµ1 µ2 ..νk−1 νk ν gµk νk Aνk+1 νk+2 .. • a mixed four-tensor ﬁeld. The raising of index analogue of the index lowering rule is: aµ (xκ ) ≡ gµν aν (xκ )
def
(M.µn (xν ).νn (xκ ) = Aµ1 ν2 . the following lowering and raising rules hold for arbitrary rank n mixed tensor ﬁelds:
ν1 ν2 .νk−1 ν1 ν2 . we have three forms of four-tensor ﬁelds of rank n. This operation is also known as a tensor contraction.. denoted Aµ1 µ2 . For example.plasma.i “main” — 2003/1/23 — 18:57 — page 178 — #196
i
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178
M ATHEMATICAL M ETHODS
In 4D.....µn (xν ). the same rank 2 tensor in covariant form.

−a2 .e. a3 ) = (a0 . a matrix with a main diagonal that has the sign sequence. 2.
Downloaded from http://www.38)
(M.i “main” — 2003/1/23 — 18:57 — page 179 — #197
i
i
M.46)
a3 = 0 · a0 + 0 · a1 + 0 · a2 + 1 · a3 = −a3
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. −} metric we obtain µ=0: µ=1: µ=2: µ=3: or aµ = (a0 .uu. −. +. −} or −1 if µ = ν = 0 gµν = 1 (M.e.. −a) Radius 4-vector itself in L4 and in this metric is given by (M. In component form it can be written: aν ≡ (a0 . a)
def
i. +.plasma. V ECTORS
AND
T ENSORS
179
metric tensor 1 if µ = ν = 0 gµν = −1 if µ = ν = i = j = 1.39) if µ = ν = i = j = 1. −a3 ) = (a0 .
which.43)
1 2
a1 = 0 · a − 1 · a + 0 · a + 0 · a = −a a2 = 0 · a + 0 · a − 1 · a + 0 · a = −a
(M. −a1 . a2 .44) (M. we obtain the covariant version of this vector as aµ ≡ (a0 . a1 . 3 0 if µ = ν (M. is represented as −1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 (gµν ) = 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
i.1
S CALARS . or signature.. Equation (M. a2 . −.37)
Consider an arbitrary contravariant four-vector aν in this space. a2 . is represented as 1 0 0 0 0 −1 0 0 (gµν ) = 0 0 −1 0 0 0 0 −1
(M. a3 ) = gµν aν In the {+.47)
0 def
(M.41)
According to the index lowering rule. 2. a matrix with signature {−. a3 ) = (a0 .40)
which. in matrix notation.se/CED/Book
i i i
. {+. +}.42)
a 0 = 1 · a 0 + 0 · a 1 + 0 · a 2 + 0 · a 3 = a0
1 2 3 0 1 2 3
(M.32) on the preceding page. a1 . −. 3 0 if µ = ν (M. a1 . in matrix notation.45) (M. −.

This allows us to write a · b = ab cos θ (M.50)
where we used the fact that the scalar product xi · x j is a representation of ˆ ˆ the Kronecker delta δi j deﬁned in Equation (M.32) and (M. −x1 . x2 .3 Vector algebra
Scalar product
The scalar product (dot product.uu. inner product) of two arbitrary 3D vectors a and b in ordinary R3 space is the scalar number a · b = a i x i · b j x j = x i · x j ai b j = δi j ai b j = ai bi ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ (M. a2 . x.i “main” — 2003/1/23 — 18:57 — page 180 — #198
i
i
180
M ATHEMATICAL M ETHODS
xµ = (x0 . +} metric we obtain
aµ = (a0 . −x)
(M.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.1. x2 .51)
where θ is the angle between a and b..
i i i
.52)
def
(M. z) = (x0 . y. −x3 ) = (x0 .
Downloaded from http://www. +. x3 ) = (x0 . i. an invariant which is independent of in which 4D coordinate system it is measured.plasma.2
M. x) where x0 = ct. a1 . a3 ) = (−a0 .53)
where we made use of the index lowering and raising rules (M. using the {−. The result is a four-scalar.16) on page 175. the scalar product of the differential radius four-vector with itself..e.33). +. a)
E ND OF
(M. It is also the square of the line element ds which is the distance between neighbouring points with coordinates x µ and xµ + dxµ . the 3D scalar product is often denoted (ab). x1 . a3 ) = (−a0 .49)
EXAMPLE
M.54)
i. xµ = (x0 . x1 . a2 . The scalar product of a in R3 with itself is a · a ≡ (a)2 = |a|2 = (ai )2 = a2 and simlarly for b.e. The quadratic differential form ds2 = gµν dxν dxµ = dxµ dxµ (M. In 4D space we deﬁne the scalar product of two arbitrary four-vectors aµ and bµ in the following way aµ bµ = gνµ aν bµ = aν bν = gµν aµ bν (M. −x2 . x3 ) = (x0 . is an invariant called the metric.48)
Analogously. In Russian literature. a1 .

in R6 ).3
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.1
S CALARS .3
A 3D complex vector A is a vector in C3 (or.55)
The inner product of A with itself may be deﬁned as A2 ≡ A · A = a2 − a2 + 2iaR · aI ≡ A2 ∈ C R I from which we ﬁnd that A= a2 − a2 + 2iaR · aI ∈ C R I (M. the deﬁnition of the scalar product in terms of the inner product of complex vector with its own complex conjugate yields |A|2 ≡ A · A∗ = a2 + a2 = |A|2 R I with the help of which we can deﬁne the unit vector as ˆ A = A= |A| = aR aR a2 + a2 R I aR + i ˆ aI a2 + a2 R I aI aI ˆ (M.plasma.56)
Using this in Equation (M. V ECTORS
AND
T ENSORS
181
I NNER PRODUCTS IN
COMPLEX VECTOR SPACE
E XAMPLE M. we see that we can interpret this so that the complex unit vector is ˆ A A= = A aR aR a2 − a2 + 2iaR · aI R I a2 + a 2 R I aR + i ˆ aI a2 − a2 + 2iaR · aI R I aI a2 + a 2 R I aI ˆ
=
a2 − a2 − 2iaR · aI R I
aR + i ˆ
a2 − a2 − 2iaR · aI R I
a I ∈ C3 ˆ (M.se/CED/Book
i i i
.58)
On the other hand.
Downloaded from http://www.59)
a2 + a 2 R I a2 + a 2 R I
aR + i ˆ
a2 + a2 R I a2 + a 2 R I
E ND OF
EXAMPLE
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M. if we like.57)
def def
(M. expressed in terms of two real vectors aR and aI in R3 in the following way
def def ˆ A ≡ aR + iaI = aR aR + iaI aI ≡ A A ∈ C3 ˆ ˆ
(M.60) a I ∈ C3 ˆ
def
(M.uu.55) above.

E ND OF
EXAMPLE
M.61)
which is the indeﬁnite. x) = (ct. hence. several important problems are treated in a 4D spherical polar coordinate system. θ. r.5
Downloaded from http://www. In such a space. Then the radius four-vector can be given as xµ = (ct.4
S CALAR PRODUCT. −a) · (b0 .uu.2 on page 179] and. The L4 metric is the quadratic differential form ds2 = dxµ dxµ = c2 (dt)2 − (dx1 )2 − (dx2 )2 − (dx3 )2 (M. φ). φ) and the metric tensor is κ e 0 0 0 0 e−λ 0 0 (M. r.62) (M. NORM AND
METRIC IN
L ORENTZ SPACE
In L4 the metric tensor attains a simple form [see Example M. the metric takes the form ds2 = c2 eκ (dt)2 − eλ (dr)2 − r2 (dθ)2 − r2 sin2 θ(dφ)2 (M.plasma.5
M ETRIC IN
GENERAL RELATIVITY
In the general theory of relativity. −. the scalar product in Equation (M.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. x) = (ct)2 − (x1 )2 − (x2 )2 − (x3 )2 = s2 (M.4
E XAMPLE M. r. real norm of L4 . −} signature it becomes aµ bµ = (a0 .64) (gµν ) = 2 0 0 −r 0 2 sin2 θ 0 0 0 −r where κ = κ(ct. −.
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. b) = a0 b0 − a · b The important scalar product of the L4 radius four-vector with itself becomes xµ xµ = (x0 . θ.i
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M ATHEMATICAL M ETHODS
E XAMPLE M. φ) and λ = λ(ct.63)
E ND OF
EXAMPLE
M. For the {+. −x) · (x0 .53) on page 180 can be evaluated almost trivially. θ.65)
In general relativity the metric tensor is not given a priori but is determined by the Einstein equations. −x) · (ct.

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T ENSORS

183

Dyadic product

The dyadic product ﬁeld A(x) ≡ a(x)b(x) with two juxtaposed vector ﬁelds a(x) and b(x) is the outer product of a and b. Operating on this dyad from the right and from the left with an inner product of an vector c one obtains A · c ≡ ab · c ≡ a(b · c) c · A ≡ c · ab ≡ (c · a)b

def def def def

(M.66a) (M.66b)

i.e., new vectors, proportional to a and b, respectively. In mathematics, a dyadic product is often called tensor product and is frequently denoted a ⊗ b. In matrix notation the outer product of a and b is written a1 b1 a1 b2 a1 b3 x1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ (M.67) ab = x1 x2 x3 a1 b2 a2 b2 a2 b3 x2 a1 b3 a3 b2 a3 b3 x3 ˆ

which means that we can represent the tensor A(x) in matrix form as a1 b1 a1 b2 a1 b3 Ai j (xk ) = a1 b2 a2 b2 a2 b3 (M.68) a1 b3 a3 b2 a3 b3 which we identify with expression (M.15) on page 174, viz. a tensor in matrix notation.

Vector product

The vector product or cross product of two arbitrary 3D vectors a and b in ordinary R3 space is the vector c = a×b = ˆ i jk a j bk xi (M.69)

Here i jk is the Levi-Civita tensor deﬁned in Equation (M.18) on page 175. Sometimes the 3D vector product of a and b is denoted a ∧ b or, particularly in the Russian literature, [ab]. Alternatively, a · b = ab sin θ e ˆ (M.70)

where θ is the angle between a and b and e is a unit vector perpendicular to the ˆ plane spanned by a and b. A spatial reversal of the coordinate system (x1 , x2 , x3 ) = (−x1 , −x2 , −x3 ) changes sign of the components of the vectors a and b so that in the new

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M ATHEMATICAL M ETHODS

coordinate system a = −a and b = −b, which is to say that the direction of an ordinary vector is not dependent on the choice of directions of the coordinate axes. On the other hand, as is seen from Equation (M.69) on the preceding page, the cross product vector c does not change sign. Therefore a (or b) is an example of a “true” vector, or polar vector, whereas c is an example of an axial vector, or pseudovector. A prototype for a pseudovector is the angular momentum vector L = r × p and hence the attribute “axial.” Pseudovectors transform as ordinary vectors under translations and proper rotations, but reverse their sign relative to ordinary vectors for any coordinate change involving reﬂection. Tensors (of any rank) which transform analogously to pseudovectors are called pseudotensors. Scalars are tensors of rank zero, and zero-rank pseudotensors are therefore also called pseudoscalars, an example being the pseudoscalar xi · ( x j × xk ). ˆ ˆ ˆ This triple product is a representation of the i jk component of the Levi-Civita tensor i jk which is a rank three pseudotensor.

M.1.4 Vector analysis

The del operator

In R3 the del operator is a differential vector operator, denoted in Gibbs’ notation by and deﬁned as

def

≡ xi ˆ

∂ def ≡ ∂ ∂xi

(M.71)

where xi is the ith unit vector in a Cartesian coordinate system. Since the ˆ operator in itself has vectorial properties, we denote it with a boldface nabla. In “component” notation we can write ∂i = ∂ ∂ ∂ , , ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 (M.72)

In 4D, the contravariant component representation of the four-del operator is deﬁned by ∂µ = ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ , , , ∂x0 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 (M.73)

whereas the covariant four-del operator is ∂µ = ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ , , , ∂x0 ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 (M.74)

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T ENSORS

185

We can use this four-del operator to express the transformation properties (M.13) and (M.14) on page 174 as y µ = ∂ν x µ yν and yµ = ∂µ x ν yν respectively.

T HE FOUR - DEL OPERATOR IN L ORENTZ SPACE E XAMPLE M.6

(M.75)

(M.76)

In L4 the contravariant form of the four-del operator can be represented as ∂µ = 1∂ , −∂ = c ∂t 1∂ ,− c ∂t 1∂ , c ∂t (M.77)

and the covariant form as 1∂ ∂µ = ,∂ = c ∂t

(M.78)

Taking the scalar product of these two, one obtains 1 ∂2 − 2= 2 c2 ∂t2 which is the d’Alembert operator, sometimes denoted an opposite sign convention. ∂µ ∂µ = (M.79) , and sometimes deﬁned with

E ND OF

EXAMPLE

M.6

With the help of the del operator we can deﬁne the gradient, divergence and curl of a tensor (in the generalised sense).

The gradient

The gradient of an R3 scalar ﬁeld α(x), denoted a(x): α(x) = ∂α(x) = xi ∂i α(x) = a(x) ˆ α(x), is an R3 vector ﬁeld (M.80)

From this we see that the boldface notation for the nabla and del operators is very handy as it elucidates the 3D vectorial property of the gradient. In 4D, the four-gradient is a covariant vector, formed as a derivative of a four-scalar ﬁeld α(xµ ), with the following component form: ∂µ α(xν ) = ∂α(xν ) ∂xµ (M.81)

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E XAMPLE M.7

G RADIENTS OF

SCALAR FUNCTIONS OF RELATIVE DISTANCES IN

3D

Very often electrodynamic quantities are dependent on the relative distance in R 3 between two vectors x and x , i.e., on |x − x |. In analogy with Equation (M.71) on page 184, we can deﬁne the “primed” del operator in the following way: = xi ˆ ∂ =∂ ∂xi (M.82)

Using this, the “unprimed” version, Equation (M.71) on page 184, and elementary rules of differentiation, we obtain the following two very useful results: |x − x | = xi ˆ =− and 1 |x − x | =− x−x =− |x − x |3 1 |x − x |

E ND OF

x−x ∂|x − x | ∂|x − x | = = − xi ˆ ∂xi |x − x | ∂xi |x − x |

(M.83)

(M.84)

EXAMPLE

M.7

The divergence

We deﬁne the 3D divergence of a vector ﬁeld in R3 as · a(x) = ∂ · x j a j (x) = δi j ∂i a j (x) = ∂i ai (x) = ˆ ∂ai (x) = α(x) ∂xi (M.85)

which, as indicated by the notation α(x), is a scalar ﬁeld in R3 . We may think of the divergence as a scalar product between a vectorial operator and a vector. As is the case for any scalar product, the result of a divergence operation is a scalar. Again we see that the boldface notation for the 3D del operator is very convenient. The four-divergence of a four-vector aµ is the following four-scalar: ∂µ aµ (xν ) = ∂µ aµ (xν ) = ∂aµ (xν ) ∂xµ (M.86)

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T ENSORS

187

D IVERGENCE IN 3D

E XAMPLE M.8

For an arbitrary vector ﬁeld a(x ), the following relation holds: a(x ) · a(x ) 1 · = (M.87) + a(x ) · |x − x | |x − x | |x − x | which demonstrates how the “primed” divergence, deﬁned in terms of the “primed” del operator in Equation (M.82) on the facing page, works.

E ND OF

EXAMPLE

R3

M.8

The Laplacian

The 3D Laplace operator or Laplacian can be described as the divergence of the gradient operator:

2

=∆=

·

=

3 ∂ ∂2 ∂ ∂2 xi · x j ˆ ˆ = δi j ∂i ∂ j = ∂2 = 2 ≡ ∑ 2 i ∂xi ∂x j ∂xi i=1 ∂xi

(M.88)

The symbol 2 is sometimes read del squared. If, for a scalar ﬁeld α(x), 2 α < 0 at some point in 3D space, it is a sign of concentration of α at that point.

T HE L APLACIAN AND THE D IRAC DELTA E XAMPLE M.9

**A very useful formula in 3D R3 is 1 1 · = 2 = −4πδ(x − x ) −x | −x | |x |x where δ(x − x ) is the 3D Dirac delta “function.”
**

E ND OF

(M.89)

EXAMPLE

M.9

The curl

In R3 the curl of a vector ﬁeld a(x), denoted × a(x), is another R3 vector ﬁeld b(x) which can be deﬁned in the following way: × a(x) = ˆ ˆ i jk xi ∂ j ak (x) = i jk xi ∂ak (x) = b(x) ∂x j (M.90)

where use was made of the Levi-Civita tensor, introduced in Equation (M.18) on page 175. The covariant 4D generalisation of the curl of a four-vector ﬁeld aµ (xν ) is the antisymmetric four-tensor ﬁeld Gµν (xκ ) = ∂µ aν (xκ ) − ∂ν aµ (xκ ) = −Gνµ (xκ ) A vector with vanishing curl is said to be irrotational. (M.91)

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E XAMPLE M.10

T HE

CURL OF A GRADIENT

Using the deﬁnition of the R3 curl, Equation (M.90) on the preceding page, and the gradient, Equation (M.80) on page 185, we see that × [ α(x)] = ˆ i jk xi ∂ j ∂k α(x) (M.92)

which, due to the assumed well-behavedness of α(x), vanishes: ˆ i jk xi ∂ j ∂k α(x) = = + + ≡0 We thus ﬁnd that × [ α(x)] ≡ 0 for any arbitrary, well-behaved R3 scalar ﬁeld α(x). In 4D we note that for any well-behaved four-scalar ﬁeld α(xκ ) (∂µ ∂ν − ∂ν ∂µ )α(xκ ) ≡ 0 (M.95) (M.94)

i jk

∂ ∂ α(x) xi ˆ ∂x j ∂xk α(x) x1 ˆ α(x) x2 ˆ α(x) x3 ˆ (M.93)

∂2 ∂2 − ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x3 ∂x2 ∂2 ∂2 − ∂x3 ∂x1 ∂x1 ∂x3 ∂2 ∂2 − ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x1

so that the four-curl of a four-gradient vanishes just as does a curl of a gradient in R 3 . Hence, a gradient is always irrotational.

E ND OF

EXAMPLE

M.10

E XAMPLE M.11

T HE

DIVERGENCE OF A CURL

With the use of the deﬁnitions of the divergence (M.85) and the curl, Equation (M.90) on the preceding page, we ﬁnd that · [ × a(x)] = ∂i [ × a(x)]i =

i jk ∂i ∂ j ak (x)

(M.96)

Using the deﬁnition for the Levi-Civita symbol, deﬁned by Equation (M.18) on

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T the kinetic energy and V the potential energy of a mechanical system. we ﬁnd that.e. qi .t = T −V dt (M. together with the Kronecker and Levi-Civita tensors and their generalisations to higher ranks.2 Analytical Mechanics
M.2
A NALYTICAL M ECHANICS
189
page 175.100)
where qi is the generalised coordinate.2. The Lagrangian satisﬁes the Lagrange equations ∂ ∂t ∂L ∂qi ˙ − ∂L =0 ∂qi (M.97)
i. Evett [3].98) R3
2 µ
∂2 ∂2 − ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x3 ∂x2 ∂2 ∂2 − ∂x3 ∂x1 ∂x1 ∂x3 ∂2 ∂2 − ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x1
a1 (x) a2 (x) a3 (x) (M. that
vector ﬁeld a(x).11
Numerous vector algebra and vector analysis formulae are given in Chapter F.101)
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57.99)
In 4D.1 Lagrange’s equations
As is well known from elementary analytical mechanics. due to the assumed well-behavedness of a(x).i
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M. Those which are not found there can often be easily derived by using the component forms of the vectors and tensors. A short but very useful reference in this respect is the article by A.plasma. for a (xκ ) = 0
E ND OF EXAMPLE M.
Downloaded from http://www. the four-divergence of the four-curl is not zero. ∂ ∂ ∂i i jk ∂ j ak (x) = ak i jk ∂xi ∂x j = + + ≡0 · [ × a(x)] ≡ 0 for any arbitrary. the Lagrange function or Lagrangian L is given by L(qi . well-behaved ∂νGµν = ∂µ ∂ν aν (xκ ) − (M. (M.uu. ˙ dqi ..
M. t) = L qi .se/CED/Book
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.

t) ˙ ˙ (M.2. qi . CA . noting that according to Equation (M. Inc.105) above is equal to − pi dqi and identifying terms. fourth.106a) (M. ISBN 0-12059816-7.102) above. [2] R. qi .uu. J. 1967. .. the Hamiltonian (Hamilton function) H can be deﬁned via the Legendre transformation H(pi . the second and fourth terms on the right hand side cancel. t) = pi qi − L(qi .104)
After differentiating the left and right hand sides of this deﬁnition and setting them equal we obtain ∂H ∂H ∂H ∂L ∂L ∂L dpi + dqi + dt = qi dpi + pi dqi − ˙ ˙ dqi − dqi − dt (M.101) on the preceding page that ∂L = pi ˙ ∂qi (M. Furthermore. ISBN 0-471-20452-8. San Diego.
i i i
.103) the third term on the right hand side of Equation (M. . New York. international ed. W EBER. . . B. Inc.106b)
Bibliography
[1] G. . . John Wiley & Sons. we obtain the Hamilton equa˙ tions: ∂H dqi = qi = ˙ ∂pi dt ∂H dpi = − pi = − ˙ ∂qi dt (M. Mathematical Methods for Physicists.105) ˙ ∂pi ∂qi ∂t ∂qi ∂qi ˙ ∂t According to the deﬁnition of pi . NY .102)
and note from Equation (M. 1995. Academic Press. A. A RFKEN AND H. Elements of Abstract Algebra.
Downloaded from http://www.103)
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To the generalised coordinate qi one deﬁnes a canonically conjugate momentum pi according to pi = ∂L ∂qi ˙ (M. Equation (M.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57..plasma. D EAN..2 Hamilton’s equations
From L.

American Journal of Physics. Permutation symbol approach to elementary vector analysis. Inc. Ltd. Springer-Verlag.se/CED/Book
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. Part I. 1953. [4] P. NY . [5] B. E VETT. . ISBN 07-043316-8. 34 (1965). New York. pp. 1965. Vienna.. New York. 1997..
Downloaded from http://www.
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. 503–507. Classical Mathematical Physics. Methods of Theoretical Physics. third ed. .2
B IBLIOGRAPHY
191
[3] A. Edinburgh and London. . S PAIN.i
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M.plasma. T HIRRING. ISBN 0-387-94843-0. M. F ESHBACH. ISBN 05-001331-9. M ORSE AND H. A. E. Tensor Calculus. McGraw-Hill Book Company..uu. Oliver and Boyd. [6] W.

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Downloaded from http://www.

18 dummy index. 190 canonically conjugate momentum density. 172 electric charge conservation law. 186 dot product. 150 collisional interaction. 187 Dirac’s symmetrised Maxwell equations. 145 cyclotron radiation. 184 Dirac delta. 183 dyons. 119 associative. 178 contravariant four-vector. 156 displacement current. 10 classical electrodynamics (CED). 13 cosine integral. 180 dual vector. 184 del squared. 151 canonically conjugate four-momentum. 154 complex ﬁeld six-vector. 22 complex notation. 45 axial vector. 187 cutoff. 155 anomalous dispersion. 156 antisymmetric tensor. 43 Ampère’s law. 8 birefringent. 143. 65. 15 contravariant component form. 143 bremsstrahlung. 61. 56 contravariant vector. 52 dyadic product. 44 Coulomb’s law. 21 E1 radiation. 11 divergence. 155 braking radiation. 151 d’Alembert operator. 54 differential vector operator. 115 Biot-Savart’s law. 65 contravariant four-tensor ﬁeld. 50 covariant component form. 138 convective derivative. 72 canonically conjugate momentum. 57 axial gauge. 147. 91 anisotropic. 52. 124 Einstein equations. 77 constitutive relations. 187 differential distance. 28 classical electrodynamics. 12 conservative forces. 56 covariant vector. 34 complex vector. 1 closed algebraic structure. 52 convection potential. 174 contravariant four-vector ﬁeld. 172 contravariant ﬁeld tensor. 65 associated Legendre polynomial. 181 component notation.i “main” — 2003/1/23 — 18:57 — page 193 — #211
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Index
acceleration ﬁeld. 80 characteristic impedance. 2 covariant. 41. 66 covariant four-tensor ﬁeld. 6 Ampère-turn density. 52 cross product. 57 coherent radiation. 185 del operator. 182 Einstein’s summation convention. 183 curl. 187 conservative ﬁeld. 174 covariant four-vector ﬁeld. 131 advanced time. 172 concentration. 72. 52 duality transformation. 122 E2 radiation. 172 covariant ﬁeld tensor. 184 Bessel functions. 178 covariant four-vector. 10
193
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. 112 Coulomb gauge. 17 dispersive.

185 four-Hamiltonian. 100 far zone. 38 electromagnetism. 41 functional derivative.i “main” — 2003/1/23 — 18:57 — page 194 — #212
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electric charge density. 49 gauge ﬁxing. 153 four-current. 124 electric susceptibility. 57
far ﬁeld. 57 group velocity. 80
Downloaded from http://www. 4 ﬁeld quantum. 1 electromagnetodynamic equations. 58 Euclidean vector space. 45 gauge transformation. 61 four-scalar. 59 Fourier component. 103 Faraday’s law. 119 group theory. 173 four-tensor ﬁelds. 88 electric quadrupole radiation. 52 four-divergence. 8 electric dipole moment. 124 electric quadrupole tensor. 154 electric polarisation. 45 gauge invariant. 189 generalised four-coordinate. 17 electromagnetodynamics. 53 Euler-Lagrange equation. 2 electrodynamic potentials. 95 electricity. 79 Euler-Lagrange equations. 2 electroweak theory. 45 Gauss’s law of electrostatics. 52. 78 fundamental tensor. 19 electric displacement vector. 79 Euler-Mascheroni constant. 70 four-momentum. 93 electric monopole moment. 72. 65 electromagnetic scalar potential. 72 four-Lagrangian. 73 four-dimensional vector space. 89 electric ﬁeld.
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. 178 four-vector. 61 four-del operator. 173 ﬁeld Lagrange density. 184 gradient. 9 equations of classical magnetostatics. 112 event. 27 Fourier transform. 16 electric displacement current. 38 electromagnetic ﬁeld tensor. 9 Euclidean space. 18 electromotive force (EMF). 186 four-gradient. 12 electrostatic scalar potential.uu. 156 Hamilton density.plasma. 87 electric permittivity. 59 four-potential. 1 energy theorem in Maxwell’s theory. 120 electric dipole moment vector. 87. 88 electric quadrupole moment tensor. 11 electric current density. 10. 145. 73 Gibbs’ notation. 88 electric dipole radiation. 39 electromagnetic vector potential. 56. 12 ﬁeld.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. 3 electric ﬁeld energy. 184 four-dimensional Hamilton equations. 61 equation of continuity for magnetic monopoles. 4 electric conductivity. 185 Green function. 46 gauge function. 172. 37 electrostatics. 81 ﬁeld point. 178 Galileo’s law. 145 ﬁne structure constant. 5 general inhomogeneous wave equations. 93 equation of continuity. 122 electric displacement. 174 four-velocity. 17 equations of classical electrostatics. 90 electric volume force. 42. 39 generalised coordinate.

158 macroscopic Maxwell equations. 55 line element. 45 Hamiltonian. 92 magnetisation. 103 invariant. 123 magnetic dipole radiation. 178 M1 radiation. 57 irrotational. 49 inertial system. 175 Liénard-Wiechert potentials. 91
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. 16. 154 magnetic susceptibility. 117 Hertz’ method. 53 index contraction. 40. 8 magnetic monopoles. 180 instantaneous. 80 Hamilton equations. 77 Lagrange equations. 62 lowering of index. 64.
Downloaded from http://www. 17 magnetic current density. 93. 190 Heaviside potential. 158 incoherent radiation. 32 longitudinal component. 189 Lagrange function. 53.plasma. 138 Lorentz gauge condition. 190 Hamilton gauge. 190 Levi-Civita tensor. 175 Lagrange density. 77 linearly polarised wave. 55 inverse element. 49 inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation. 41 identity element. 154 magnetic charge density. 189
Laplace operator. 40 Lorentz space. 140 interaction Lagrange density. 117 Hodge star operator. 52 induction ﬁeld. 59 Lorentz force. 187 Larmor formula for radiated power. 91. 19 magnetic ﬁeld. 46 Lorenz-Lorentz gauge condition. 87.se/CED/Book
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. 77. 81 intermediate ﬁeld. 138 Lorenz-Lorentz gauge. 40 help vector. 90 magnetising ﬁeld. 124 magnetic displacement current. 72. 100 inertial reference frame. 187 Kelvin function. 189 kinetic momentum. 91 magnetic ﬂux. 190 Hamilton function. 26 Huygen’s principle. 15. 7 magnetic ﬁeld energy. 51. 77. 138 light cone. 17 magnetic permeability. 57 in a medium. 173 invariant line element. 140 law of inertia.uu. 152 kinetic energy. 41 inhomogeneous time-independent wave equation. 119 Legendre transformation. 151 indeﬁnite norm. 41 inhomogeneous wave equation.i “main” — 2003/1/23 — 18:57 — page 195 — #213
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Hamilton density equations. 93 magnetic ﬁeld intensity. 5. 91 magnetisation currents. 187 Laplacian. 138 Helmholtz’ theorem. 189 Lagrangian. 172 Lorentz transformation. 30 Lorentz boost parameter. 124 Møller scattering. 18 homogeneous wave equation. 13 magnetic ﬂux density. 17 magnetic dipole moment. 77. 127. 75 Kronecker delta. 8 magnetic induction. 116 Hertz’ vector. 41 inner product. 49 Legendre polynomial. 52 index lowering. 55 light-like interval. 153 Mach cone. 180 linear mass density.

84 propagator. 6 massive photons. 11 norm. 49 Newton-Lorentz force equation.se/CED/Book
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. 174 rapidity. 43
Downloaded from http://www. 55 observation point. 184 pseudovector. 93 Proca Lagrangian. 156 Poisson equation. 80 retarded Coulomb ﬁeld. 59 refractive index. 32 plasma. 72 Minkowski space. 184 pseudotensor. 89 polarisation currents. 184 quadratic differential form. 52. 58 mixed four-tensor ﬁeld. 112 radius four-vector. 103 retarded potentials. 127 retarded time. 58 positive deﬁnite norm. 171 raising of index. 103 radiation resistance. 80 metric. 184
polarisation charges. 120 near zone. 16. 92 Maxwell’s microscopic equations. 27 rest mass density. 85 mathematical group. 90 polarisation potential. 103 Newton’s ﬁrst law. 58 pseudoscalar. 93 Poynting vector. 155 relative electric permittivity. 95 relative permeability. 145 physical measurable. 117 polarisation vector. 152 phase velocity. 174 Maxwell stress tensor. 154 relative permittivity. 117 positive deﬁnite. 95 Maxwell’s macroscopic equations. 11 one-dimensional wave equation. 182 null vector. 18 momentum theorem in Maxwell’s theory. 180 metric tensor. 44 retarded relative distance. 37 polar vector. 93 Poynting’s theorem. 180 quantum electrodynamics. 77. 183 Parseval’s identity. 178 mixing angle. 118 power ﬂux. 38 magnetostatics. 178 rank. 144. 65. 57 matrix form. 72 non-Euclidean space.uu. 155 photon. 44 quantum mechanical nonlinearity. 178 Minkowski equation. 4 radiation ﬁeld. 171 pseudotensors. 100. 55 pseudo-Riemannian space. 116. 171 pseudoscalars. 34 plane polarised wave. 172. 189 potential theory. 95 relative magnetic permeability. 15 mechanical Lagrange density. 171. 53 potential energy. 65. 137 Poisson’s equation. 172. 154 Relativity principle. 97 multipole expansion. 4 Ohm’s law. 50 relaxation time. 31 outer product. 53 non-linear effects. 52 radius vector.plasma. 107. 156 plasma frequency. 42 proper time. 95 monochromatic. 103.
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magnetostatic vector potential. 15 Maxwell-Lorentz equations. 52. 131 radiation ﬁelds.

158 vector.se/CED/Book
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total charge. 171 tensor contraction. 28 time-independent telegrapher’s equation. 158 signature. 54 Riemannian space. 148. 183 velocity ﬁeld. 157. 54 time-dependent Poisson’s equation. 31. 171. 4 vacuum wave number. 27 time-independent diffusion equation. 53. 44 time-harmonic wave. 53 special theory of relativity. 34 source point. 54 space-like interval. 31 uncoupled inhomogeneous wave equations. 173 scalar product. 178 tensor ﬁeld. 135 skew-symmetric. 32 time-independent wave equation. 171 scalar. 128.
Downloaded from http://www. 149 telegrapher’s equation.plasma. 183 three-dimensional functional derivative. 31. 151 synchrotron radiation lobe width. 57 Young’s modulus. 12 temporal gauge.i “main” — 2003/1/23 — 18:57 — page 197 — #215
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Riemannian metric. 171 vector product. 172 row vector. 179 simultaneous coordinate. 4 space components. 119 spherical Hankel function of the ﬁrst kind. 25 wave vector. 79 time component. 3 vacuum polarisation effects. 77 Yukawa meson ﬁeld. 117 synchrotron radiation. 106 standing wave. 175 tensor product. 28 time-like interval. 65 skin depth. 87 transverse components. 119 spherical waves. 131 virtual simultaneous coordinate. 28 ˇ Vavilov-Cerenkov radiation. 55 space-time. 180 shock front.uu. 49 spherical Bessel function of the ﬁrst kind. 132 wave equations. 154 temporal dispersive media. 186 scalar ﬁeld. 174 tensor notation. 52. 84
Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. 56. 110 super-potential. 45 tensor. 40 vacuum permeability. 155 world line. 6 vacuum permittivity.