Individual Research: Book Reviews, Article Summaries, and Practitioner Interviews

Name- ANIKET A. VARADE Team Number- 1.6 OD Topic- TEAM LEADERSHIP Book Review    Title of the book- LEADING ORGANIZATIONS FROM THE INSIDE OUT Book authors- Bruce LaRue, Paul Childs and Kerry Larson Year published- 2006 (2nd Edition)

Article Summaries Article 1: - A case for safety leadership team training of hospital managers Citation: - Singer, S., Hayes, J., Cooper, J., Vogt, J., Sales, M., Aristidou, A., Gray, G., Kiang, M., & Meyer, G. (2011). A case for safety leadership team training of hospital managers. Health Care Management Review, 36(2), 188-200. doi: 10.1097JHMR.0b013e318208cd1d

Article 2: - Smart Leadership – Finding the right mix of minds to manage the future Citation: - Weinstock, M. (2010). Smart Leadership. Hospitals & Health Networks, 84(9), 28-31. Retrieved from Business Full Text database

Article 3: - Leading the team Citation: - O'Neil, M. (2011). Leading the Team. Supervision, 72(4), 8-10. Retrieved from Business Full Text database Practitioner Interviews
 Katherine Justice Executive Director, Human Resources and Affirmative Action at UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON-CLEAR LAKE

Phil Solis Human Resource Administrator at Houston Community Health Centers

S. .S. The process of Action Learning Teams taps into that knowledge to take the organization to the next level. less than 200 page book that expertly intertwines Action Learning Teams (ALT‟s) into knowledge management. recently retired President of the U. creating knowledge based action learning teams. Experiences from other organizations provide real world examples that can be immediately put to use. "Who are knowledge workers". and how does one tell them what to do when they may know more than their manager does. Major General Robert Ivany.BOOK REVIEW LEADING ORGANIZATIONS FROM THE INSIDE OUT (Unleashing the Collaborative Genius of Action-Learning Teams) The book by Bruce La Rue. Army. ALTs will help ensure that the knowledge of the team is translated into action that makes a real difference for an organization. This book has been adopted as part of the curriculum at the University of Phoenix in their Doctorate of Management second year leadership class. and Kerry Larson is an easy to read. Army War College also provides a chapter that describes how Action Learning Teams played a vital role in fundamentally transforming the U. ALT‟s can shorten the time needed to effectively implement change initiatives in an organization by helping the practitioner understand both the behavioral and operational aspects of organizational change. Don't let that concern you though if you don't think that is the level you are looking for. The forward by Marshall Goldsmith prepares the reader for what is in store by asking the question. Paul Childs. as the book is easy to read and follow. This is truly a hands-on guidebook with real world examples that clearly describe the stages and processes of implementing organizational change using ALT‟s.

drawing together individuals with highly specialized knowledge in order to collaborate on the development and application of new forms of . design and deployment of these changes. We have been introduced to reengineering. ALT‟s tend by nature to be cross-functional and even cross-organizational. kaizen. ALT‟s are a unique form of team charged with developing specialized capabilities that do not currently exist in the organization. The reasons authors believe most of these efforts are lacking is that the necessary people who are affected and care about these changes are not included in the assessment. principles and techniques. together with score of team development processes. The control based hierarchy with its roles is still the organization found today. Author says creating knowledge based ALT‟s is the best alternative for the success of an organization. fundamental transformation is still largely an illusion. matrix organizations. empowerment. all promising to help us cope with the pace of change and complexity found in today‟s organizations. The book starts with the explanation of what actually are Action-Learning teams. transformational leadership. networks. and of a form not readily developed by other means such as formal education or training. They say we need engage key stakeholders beyond inviting them to a company meeting to hear what a small executive team came up with about how they are going to do their work differently in the future. After all the efforts of the last number of years. knowledge and energy that is increasingly necessary to navigate change today.One of the sections in the book says that we have seen in the last twenty years of proliferation of management and organizational methodologies. The capabilities developed by ALT‟s tend to be strategic in nature. Despite all these advances in new thinking and techniques. alliances. most organizations today do not look or operate much differently than those fifty years ago. total quality. The authors say that it is their experience that organizations managed in this way fail to tap into hidden reservoir of talent.

knowledge. Authors say that the goal of the book is to learn from the examples and distill the basic principles that make these groups successful. research and the experience of ourselves and others as to how most successful groups perform under pressure to create extraordinary results. The concept of ALT‟s emerged less from a desire to in vent a new form of team and more from the observation. The book states we find the knowledge we need is often so context-sensitive and unique to the complexities of the task at hand that our peers are the best source of knowledge and insight. find the causes. When is an Action-Learning Team appropriate? Several considerations should be weighed when deciding whether an organizational issue lends itself to an ActionLearning approach or not. and implement creative solutions? . money and efforts) of an ALT? b) Can the issue be addressed and improved within the organization? c) Does the organization have the necessary expertise internally to apply to the issue? d) Will the issue have sufficient involvement and support from the key functions or groups of the organization? e) Will the ALT have necessary ability and freedom to investigate the issue. and their worst can be a drain to the human spirit. The paradox of organizations today is that we can accomplish little of significance alone. yet many groups and organizations simply do not function well. design. The following questions can be asked to see whether ALT can be perform well for the betterment of organizationa) Does the organization view the issue as important enough to apply the necessary resources (time.

work experience.having more of a „we‟ rather than‟I‟ attitude. The following people should not be included in the ALTs- . Key Positions: The team should include enough players who have position power so that those not included on the ALT will not easily block progress. Respect: The team members need to have the credibility in the organization so that the results and recommendations will be taken seriously by all parts of the organization. 5. 6. There are certain type of people who should not be included on an ActionLearning Team.The formation of an Action-Learning Team The initial step in putting together an ALT that will direct a major change effort is to find the right membership. Team Players: The members of the team should have the reputation and history of working effectively on a team. 2. They are1. informed. 3. Experience/Expertise: The team needs to have the relevant points of view represented. who wants all the attention and leaves no room for anyone else. key customers and suppliers. etc. Five key characteristics are essential to effective Action-Learning Teams. Leadership: The team needs to have proven leaders able to make things happen and drive the change process in the who has a huge ego. 4.functions.relative to the issue at hand so that informed. intelligent decisions will be made. These people usually have high control needs and want to direct others and make decisions.

Another type of person to avoid is the one who develops mistrust on a team and kiss the possibility of effective teamwork. Characteristic of an Action-Learning Team Leader The characteristic of an ALT leader are a combination of business resolve and the ability to effectively facilitate a team to get positive results.does whatever it takes to get the job done . 2. Key leaders in the organization usually have strong to adapt their facilitation style to the needs of the team Able to build a team culture around the idea of freedom and responsibility Thinks in terms of “we” instead of “I” Has high standards. 3. These are the persons who actually back bite about the members of the team to other members.a catalyst in producing great results Possesses determination. The third type of person to be concerned about is the minimally committed individual.doesn‟t tolerate mediocrity in self or others Results-oriented. The main characteristics ALT leader/facilitator should possess are:         High level of trust and respect by and for the team Very confident of self and open to feedback and criticism Flexible. they may also need to have a position power to have access to and influence on the rest of the organization.1. appreciate other members strengths and have the ability to focus on the greater goal of the team rather than their shortterm interests they should not be included on an ALT. as being a member of an ALT takes a high degree of energy and commitment. Depending on the culture of organization. and unless they are keenly aware of their own limitations.

they have limited potential.Discovering the gaps that impede effectivenessInquiry is the process that examines and observes the organizational strategy in the light of the major forces driving change in the environment. Deployment 4. It ensures that appropriate competencies . they take very little action . Integration Let‟s discuss these phases of the change process one by oneInquiry. Design 3. whether internal or external. The leader needs to be aware of the team dynamics as they form an effective ALT. If they have limited beliefs about themselves. 2. The book integrates both behavioral and operational dimensions of team development within four key phases of the change process: 1. these beliefs are reinforced as an endless loop. As teams create a strong set of beliefs. Under this topic of inquiry. The Belief Model is mentioned. as well as understand how to keep team grounded in reality as they try to understand the root causes of the issue presented. Leading an ALT requires a high degree of awareness. With limited potential. systems and processes will be implemented to accomplish this strategy. Inquiry (Awareness). Great advocate of ALT to the organization The book has also mentioned the skills and competencies the ALT Leader/Fcilitator should possess. This model demonstrates how limiting beliefs can eventually lead to limited results.

guilt. With limited action. A powerful tool that can be used to discover the core issues is called PIP or Potential Improvement Points. Ichak Adizes (1999). Design. The team develops a strategy for solutions by including key stakeholders. it is a way to create an innovative blueprint for solving the PIPs discovered during Inquiry. they got very limited results that reinforce the limited beliefs with which they began the entire process. The book mentions that the recognizing patterns about the problems should not be personalized. of the Adizes institute in Santa Barbara. The goal at the end of Design is to have a clearly defined and specific road map for deploying either a pilot (whenever possible) or the initiative itself. Design is more than just a plan for how to get from here to there. becoming a victim or finger-pointing. California. It is a means of avoiding personal accountability and responsibility for change. and then decide where one will get the maximum leverage. A common manifestation of personalization is blame. This victim mentality is a common behavior. The PIP process is nothing more than a way to get to the core issue that underlie the key problems in an organization so they can be change. a process originally created by Dr.Innovating the roadmap forwardThe purpose of the Design stage is to prioritize those PIP‟s discovered in the Inquiry stage. Personalization makes individuals feel victimized and somewhat unaccountable for the results they create in the organization (Kegan and Lahey 2001). The key to the inquiry process is to discover they key issues that reside in the organization and then to recognize the patterns and beliefs that underlie these issues. It is the Design stage that will allow the ALT to create a true framework for change. suppliers and key vendors or anyone else who may be .

Deployment will accelerate the discovery process by addressing how to break down any barriers the team is experiencing that are preventing them from implementing these initiatives. The main goal of Deployment stage is to make the change initiatives designed in the previous phase a reality by continuing to reflect. when Boeing was designing its 777 aircraft. participants will discover how to implement initiatives with power and influence by building bridges of common interest. . take action and adjust course in order to move the organization toward its desired end-state. they bought their key customers in at specific points in the design process to ensure that the solution they were creating were “fit for purpose”.touched by the problem and the solution. For example. The other techniques used during this stage are        Observation Brainstorming Be Focused Keep it Light Use Spatial Memory Get Physical Create Pilot When Possible Deployment. When accomplished correctly.Transformation in Action The purpose of Deployment stage is to implement initiatives in the workplace while continuing to identify and exploit unforeseen opportunities. In this stage.

when the team and organization “get it” and begin the process of leaving behind the baggage of Disillusionment.Aligning core systems .p. as there is still a sense of hope and optimism in Breakthrough. to the degree it may occur. participants know that the future holds something in between. Having experienced the highs of Induction and the lows of Disillusionment.147). Disillusionment. a particular turning point in the initiative.” The Phases of DeploymentINDUCTION: It is primarily a time at the beginning stages of deployment when an ALT and the executive team are most optimistic about the potential to achieve a given result. Integration. There is an atmosphere of mutual respect that didn‟t exist before. While Induction is future-focused. There are few constraints and limitless possibilities. People become increasingly conscientious as they listen to each other while the breakthrough process occurs. but this phase is a milestone. complete with time and budgetary pressures and the need to create tangible results. BREAKTHROUGH: It can appear similar to Induction. DISILLUTIONMENT: It is at this point that the gap between what is imagined and the ALTs ability to execute can become apparent. “It is the ability to create the appropriate systems of shared meaning that can mobilize the efforts of people in pursuit of desired aims and objectives. There is a subtle but powerful difference in the way problems are approached and conflict is addressed.Communication: It is very critical in this stage to gain as much of a shared vision with the organization as possible. According to Morgan (1997. is set squarely in the present. So it is with Breakthrough.

this principle simply states that there should be no prescription without diagnosis. As leaders. Situational leadership helps us to recognize that every situation is unique. The areas to focus on to make sure there is alignment with the change efforts are:       Commitment to leadership Human Resources Systems Training Troublesome managers Organization structure Culture Things to avoid in this phaseUnder-communicating Understanding the time and effort to fully integrate the initiative Not keeping the focus and energy needed to reinforce the behaviors and attitudes One of the concept I liked in the book is. Until change efforts have been embedded in the culture of the organization. .“SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP” It is a term coined by Paul Hersey (1985). Integration is allowing the change initiative to become part of an organizations DNA. they can be very fragile. Integration is allowing the change initiative to become part of an organization.The purpose of this stage is to look at ways to ensure the change initiative that has been deployed becomes a part of the fabric of the organization. requiring us to become aware of our own biases. preconceptions and prejudices as we encounter each new circumstances.

The AAR not only exposed the failing of the plan. emerged in the form of After Action Review. or what Peter Drucker called “ the exploitation of unforeseen opportunities”. It was a simple inexpensive but brutally honest way to discover what really happened in an engagement. 2002). Understanding the Leaders Intent. I have learned a lot good thing from this book and I am really excited to apply all these principles in my future administrative career. Also in the end some of the examples with applying principles of the book are mentioned. recognize and exploit unforeseen opportunities as they arise. The Emergence of the After Action Review (AAR).Leaders Who Learn From Their Subordinates. why it happened and how the unit could sustain its strong capabilities and improve its weak ones.we need to remain flexible. called “the friction and fog of war” . but cast the spotlights on reluctant leaders who failed to make timely decisions based on what Clauswitz the famous military thinker. According to him workers were never asked the question. Another concept mentioned in the book is “The rise of Knowledge Worker”. and adapt our leadership style accordingly. and in simplifying the work process to make workers more interchangeable and replaceable. .This term is coined by Peter Drucker (1999. the problem of how to make industrial workers more productive was framed in terms of capital investment in plant and equipment.What is your task? Instead the task was determined for them by management and the only question was.How can the task be best performed? Thus. Achieving Synergy Through Cross-Functional Alignment. The Army discovered its own unique Action Learning Technique. Some other topics covered in the book are.

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