MEDICAL ADMINISTRATION  The giving of, dispensing of, or application of medicines, drugs, or remedies to believe or cure an illness

ADMINISTRATION BUCCAL  The delivery of a medication by application to the buccal mucosa

ADMINISTARTION INHALATION  The delivery of a medication by breathing it

ADMINISTRATION INTRANASAL  Drug administered by the nasal or oral respiratory route for a local or systematic effect ADMINISTRATION ORAL  The delivery of a medication by oral cavity .

ADMINISTRATION RECTAL  The delivery of a medication through the rectum ADMINISTRATION SUBLINGUAL  The delivery of a medication by placing it under the ventral surface of the tongue for dissolution and absorption through the mucous membrane .

ADMINISTRATION TOPICAL  The delivery of a medication by application to the skin or mucous membrane .

ADMINISTRATION CONSIDERATIONS  Many practical aspects of drug administration influence the effectiveness of prescribed therapy. However. phenytoin is readily absorbed orally but slowly and erratically absorbed when given I. Timing Sometimes giving an oral drug during or shortly after a meal decreases the amount of drug absorbed. In contrast. For example. For these patients. so it produces higher blood levels than a tablet. that a liquid form is more easily and completely absorbed than a tablet. such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Administration Route Routes of administration aren’t therapeutically interchangeable. This decrease isn’t clinically significant with most drugs may in fact be helpful with irritating drugs. consult a pharmacist.M. Some may require special storage conditions such as refrigeration. . however. Most drugs should be stored in tightly capped containers and protected from direct sunlight and extremes of temperature and humidity. which can cause them to deteriorate. If you’re in doubt about the effect of food on a certain drug. it can be given orally to treat antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis because it concentrates in stool. Remember. such as: Drug Form Some tablets and capsules are too large to be swallowed easily by patients who are seriously ill. many penicillins and tetracyclines shouldn’t be scheduled for administration at mealtimes because certain foods can inactivate them. Storage Storing a drug improperly can alter its potency. However. request an oral solution or elixir of the drug. vancomycin must be given parenterally because oral administration yields inadequate blood vessels for treating systematic infections.

eye.MEDICATIONS ADMINISTRATION Routes of administration          Topical Route Otic administration Opthalmic administration Gastric route Rectal and vaginal route Intradermal route Subcutaneous route Intramascular Route Intravenous route DOSAGE CONSIDERATIONS         Half life: Drug form: Administration route: Timing: Storage: Drug Action: Drug Receptor Interaction: Outcome of drug action: Major Administration Routes and Drug Forms The table below shows the major administration and the drug form available for each. skin) Parenteral Rectal . Route Form Route Form Oral (solid) Capsule Powder Tablet Elixir Emulsion Solution Suspension Syrup Solution Solution Suppository Vaginal Oral (liquid) Foam Gel Solutions Suppository Tablet Aerosol Cream Lotion Ointment Paste Patch Powder Topical (ear. nose.

lozenges and pastilles: designed to dissolve in the mouth Caplets: gelatin-coated tablets that dissolve in the stomach Time-release capsules: encased substances that are further enclosed in smaller casings that deliver a drug dose over an extended period of time .FORMS OF MEDICATION PREPARATIONS ORAL Tablets: compressed or molded substances Troches.

to decrease gastric irritability. rather than the stomach.Capsules: substances encased in either hard or a soft soluble container or gelatin shell that dissolves in the stomach Enteric-coated: coated tablets that dissolve in the intestines. usually mixed with water or juice Sustained-release: compounded substances designed to release a drug slowly to maintain a steady blood medication level . never crushed Powder and granules: finely ground substances.

TOPICAL Powder: lightly dusted on skin Ointments: semisolid substances for topical use Transdermal patches: contain medication Liniments: substances mixed with an that is absorbed through the skin cover an alcohol. oil or soapy emollient extended period of time .

thicker than an ointment.Pastes: semisolid substances. absorbed slowly through the skin Suppositories: gelatinous substances designed to dissolve when inserted in the rectum or vagina INHALANTS Inhalations: drug administered by the nasal or oral respiratory route for a local or systematic effect .

SOLUTIONS Solutions: contain one or more soluble chemical substances dissolved in water Gargles: aqueous solutions Enemas: aqueous solutions for rectal instillation Syrups: substances dissolved in a sugar liquid .

and synthetic sweeteners and surface-active flavoring and coloring agents Elixirs: nonaqueous solutions that contain water. varying alcohol content and glycerin or other sweeteners .Emulsion: a 2-phase system in which one liquid is dispersed in the form of small droplets throughout another liquid Douches: aqueous solutions that function as a cleansing or antiseptic agent that may be dispensed in the form of powder for dissolving in warm water Mouthwashes: aqueous solutions that may contain alcohol. glycerin.

Nasal solutions: aqueous solutions in the form of drops or sprays Optic or otic solutions: aqueous solutions that are instilled as drops Suspensions: particle or powder substances that must be dissolved in a liquid before administration .

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