VOLCANISM

OBJECTIVES
• • • • Definition of a volcano Types of volcanic eruptions Volcanic hazards Resources from volcanoes

What is a volcano?
Etymology - from the Roman god of fire, Vulcan. Vulcan was said to have had a forge (on Vulcano, an active volcano on the Lipari Islands in Italy. - place on the Earth's surface (or any other planet's or moon's surface) where molten rock, gases and pyroclastic debris erupt through the earth's crust - can be a mountain, vent or caldera

What is a volcano?
Mountainous accumulation of materials resulting from successive eruptions of lava from a central vent.

Why do volcanoes erupt?
Due to decompression

Magma is lighter than the solid rock around it

Types of volcanoes 1. Shield – slopes are gentle (15o or less). Composite or strato-volcano – layered structure (tephra and lava flows) . Cinder cone – relatively small (<300 m high). made up of pyroclastic material 3. steep slopes (30 – 40o). shape resembles a Roman shield lying on the ground. made up of successive lava flows 2.

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Types of volcanoes Shield volcanoes Composite volcanoes Cinder cone .

What am I? .

Mexico Mayon.Stratovolcanoes Santa Maria. Philippines . Costa Rica Colima. Guatemala Arenal.

Distribution of volcanoes • Pacific Ring of Fire • Hot spots • Spreading centers .

.g. plume height. etc.) that can be observed during an eruption.How big are volcanic eruptions? Volcanic Explosivity Index or VEI .is based on a number of things (e. volume.

000's of years . Plume Height < 100 m 100-1000 m 1-5 km 3-15 km 10-25 km Volume 1000s m3 10. Helens. 1985 0 1 2 3 4 nonexplosive gentle explosive severe cataclysmic 100. 2 Ma 5 6 7 8 paroxysmal colossal supercolossal megacolossal >25 km >25 km >25 km >25 km Plinian Plin/Ultra-Plinian Ultra-Plinian Ultra-Plinian 100's of years 100's of years 1000's of years 10. 1982 St. 1992 Ruiz.000s m3 1 km3 10s km3 100s km3 1. Hawaiian Haw/Strombolian Strom/Vulcanian Vulcanian Vulc/Plinian How often daily daily weekly yearly 10's of years Example Kilauea Stromboli Galeras.000.000s m3 1.Volcano explosivity index VEI Desc.000.000.000s m3 Class. 1981 Krakatau.000s m3 10. 1883 Tambora. 1815 Yellowstone.000s km3 Galunggung.

375 Mauna Loa.22 0. Indonesia 1883 300 1450BC 4000BC 1815 18 40 60 75 150 .7 2 3 "Major" Eruptions Pinatubo. Philippines 1991 10 Krakatoa. Greece Mazama.Volcanic eruptions Volcano Kilauea. Oregon Tambora. Helens Askja. Hawaii Year 1983 1976 Cubic Kilometers "Large" Eruptions 0. Hawaii Mt. El Salvador Santorini. Italy 1984 1902 1980 1875 79 0.5 0. Iceland Vesuvius. Indonesia Ilopango. Martinique Mount St. Hawaii Mauna Loa. Pelee.1 0.

production of thin lava flows fire fountains .effusive emission of highly fluid basalt lavas with low gas contents .Volcano eruptions Hawaiian .steady lava fountaining.calmest eruption types .

very little ash Structure(s): spatter cones and ramparts. often extensive flows Ejecta: cow-dung bombs and spatter. flat lava cones .Volcano eruptions HAWAIIAN Magma: fluid Explosive activity: very weak ejection of fluid blobs Effusive activity: then. very broad.

hummocky.basaltic lava with smooth.Volcano eruptions Pahoehoe .lava flows that have a rough rubbly surface composed of broken lava blocks (clinkers) . or ropy surface Aa .

episodic explosions with booming blasts .no sustained eruption column .Volcano eruptions Strombolian . explosive outbursts of pasty lava ejected few tens or hundreds of meters .short-lived.

small to large amounts of glassy ash Structure(s) cinder cones . less extensive flows. flows may be absent Ejecta: spherical to fusiform bombs. cinder.Volcano eruptions STROMBOLIAN Magma: moderately fluid Explosive activity: weak to violent ejection of pasty fluid blebs Effusive activity: thicker.

Volcano eruptions Vulcanian .viscous.more explosive than Strombolian eruptions . gas-rich magma that forms vitric (glassy) ash .eruption cloud develops above vent. solid lithic (rock) material from the central vent . with lightning occurences .begins with steam explosions that remove old.

glassy to lithic. blockand-ash cones . block cones. pumice Structure(s): ash cones.Volcano eruptions VULCANIAN Magma: viscous Explosive activity: moderate to violent ejection of solid hot fragments of new lava Effusive activity: flows commonly absent. thick and stubby if present Ejecta: essential. blocks and ash.

formation of domes and glowing avalanches .During the opening stages of the eruption. violent glowing avalanches of hot ash travel down the flanks of the volcano .Volcano eruptions Peleean .

very thick flows. flows may be absent Ejecta: like Vulcanian Structure(s): Ash and pumice cones. commonly with glowing avalanches Effusive activity: domes and/or short.Volcano eruptions PELEEAN Magma: viscous Explosive activity: like Vulcanian. domes .

with some reaching heights of ~45 km. These eruptive columns produce widespread dispersals of tephra which cover large areas with an even thickness of pumice and ash. .generate sustained eruptive columns.Volcano eruptions Plinian .

may be absent Ejecta: glassy ash and pumice Structure(s): widespread pumice lapilli and ash beds.Volcano eruptions PLINIAN Magma: viscous Explosive activity: ejection of large volumes of ash. generally no cone-building . small to very luminous. caldera collapse Effusive activity: ash flows.

as the water is heated. Alaska (1977) . . thus fragmenting the magma into exceptionally fine-grained ash.much more explosive.Volcano eruptions Surtseyan or Phreatomagmatic generated by the intereaction of magma with either groundwater or surface water. Ukinrek. it flashes to steam and expands explosively.

gov.Volcanoes in the Philippines www.phivolcs.dost.ph .

332 1. 1907 1857 1978 Jan.843 1.-1995 Jan. 31 . 4 10 August 1996 Camiguin de Babuyanes Didicas Hibok-hibok Iraya Iriga Kanlaon Leonard Kniaseff Davao del Norte 0.1953 July 1454 1642 Jan.Active volcanoes Name of Volcano Babuyan Claro Banahaw Biliran Province Cagayan Laguna.200 No Data No Data . 26 Buddajo Bulusan Cagua Sulu Sorsogon Cagayan Cagayan Cagayan (Babuyan Island Group) Camiguin Batanes Camarines Sur Negros Oriental 0.169 1.143 2. 6-9 1948 Sept.843 2.435 2 15 2 1 6 5 1 2 21 1897 1994 Nov.712 0.340 No. of Historical Eruptions 4 3 1 Latest Eruption/Activity 1917 1843 1939 Sept.565 1.160 0. Quezon Biliran Island Elevation (Km) 0.62 1.009 1.

26 1867 Parker Pinatubo Cotobato Boundaries of Pampanga. 24-Jul.815 0.445 1 3 1640 Jan. 04 1992 July 09 .940 2.688 0.460 0.286 No.311 7 5 33 1916 July 1924 1977 Oct. 3 Batangas .784 1. of Historical Eruptions 7 1 Latest Eruption/Activity 1882 1911 March 07 Mayon Musuan Albay Bukidnon 2.646 48 2 2001 Jun. Tarlac and Zambales 1.August 16 Ragang Smith Taal Cotobato Cagayan(Babuyan Island Group) 2.Active volcanoes Name of Volcano Makaturing Matumtum Province Lanao del Sur Cotobato Elevation (Km) 1.

Monitoring volcanic eruptions .

Monitoring volcanic eruptions Volcanic steam plumes rise from new fumaroles on the north flank of Pinatubo after steamdriven explosions on 2 April 1991. Increase in CO2 and SO2 concentrations .

Monitoring volcanic eruptions Increase in the frequency of volcanic quakes. Why? .

triggering earthquakes .Monitoring volcanic eruptions Magma rises into reservoir beneath volcano Rising magma and volcanic gases exert pressure High pressure causes rocks to break.

the rising magma erupted onto the surface of the volcano's lava dome. Within a few days. the cracks moved and "bent" the line. Helens before it erupted. About two days later.Monitoring volcanic eruptions Volcanoes change shape before and during eruptions A series of small ground cracks appeared on the crater floor of Mount St. The crater floor was deformed or changed shape along thrust faults as magma forced its way up the conduit. .

Monitoring volcanic eruptions Volcano deformation is measured using electronic distance measurements. .

.Monitoring volcanic eruptions The Global Positioning System (GPS) can pinpoint horizontal and vertical movement of the ground.

ph . occurrence of volcanic tremors • Increased steaming activity. change in color of steam emission from white to gray due to entrained ash • Crater glow due to presence of magma at or near the crater www.phivolcs.gov.Precursors of an impending volcanic eruption • Increase in the frequency of volcanic quakes with rumbling sounds.dost.

ph .dost. rockfalls and landslides from the summit area not attributable to heavy rains • Noticeable increase in the extent of drying up of vegetation around the volcano's upper slopes www. ground tilt and ground fissuring due to magma intrusion • Localized landslides.gov.Precursors of an impending volcanic eruption • Ground swells (or inflation).phivolcs.

g. Taal) near the volcano • Noticeable variation in the chemical content of springs. wells (e.ph .g.Precursors of an impending volcanic eruption • Increase in the temperature of hot springs.dost. Bulusan and Kanlaon) and crater lake (e. crater lakes within the vicinity of the volcano • Drying up of springs/wells around the volcano www.gov.phivolcs.

Volcanic hazards .

Lava flow – streams of molten rock Pyroclastic flow – hot. CO2 . Volcanic gases – SO2. 3. 5. dry rock fragments Lahar – mixture of water and rock fragments Tephra – volcanic rock that are blasted into the air . 2. 4. etc. HCl.Volcanic hazards 1.

Volcanic hazards .

Mount Pinatubo eruption Magmatic explosive eruption on 12 June 1991 forms enormous eruption column of gas and ash above the volcano. .

while the moisture-laden cloud from Typhoon Yunya shows up as white. the sky was pitch black and it was raining mud. . Pinatubo ash cloud is rendered in blue. By noon.Mount Pinatubo eruption The Mt.

Ashfall deposits .

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gov/ .http://earthobservatory.nasa.

destruction to lives and property • Lava flows – destruction to lives and property • Tephra – obscure sunlight. infrastructure damages .Effects • Gases – health problems • Lahars – severe flooding. impassable roads.

Effects Environmental/climate effects of volcanic eruptions: • Fine ash blocks sunlight • SO2 + H2O produces fine aerosols (fine droplets) that block sunlight • SO2 produces acid rain .

Benefits • Fertile agricultural lands • Source of geothermal energy – benign source of electricity .

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