This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
The zone is approximately 470m long and35m wide, access is via Wapping Old Stairs next to the Town of Ramsgate ph. The ground conditions are generally firm, except in front of the entrance to London Dock. Other possible hazards include wash from passing vessels and uneven foreshore surfaces. Extra care should be taken if working east of the River Police jetty, as there is potential to be cut off by a rising tide.
archaeological and historical background
prehistoric This site itself lies on the edge of the River Thames alluvial floodplain deposits, in what seems likely to have been marshland at this time. While the area may have been exploited for fish and wildfowl, any occupation is likely to have been temporary or seasonal and confined to the edge of the marshland on the higher gravels, or on eyots within the wetlands. No firm evidence of occupation dating to this period has yet been recorded. roman The Ratcliff Highway, now known as the Highway, runs along the crest of a gravel terrace which was a shortcut across the meander of the Thames at Wapping. In this area, a number of sites that revealed timber and plaster buildings with wall paintings, a substantial stone, brick and tile bath-house and a mausoleum have been excavated since the 1970s. early medieval The place name „Wapping‟ is thought to refer to a local tribal leader „Waeppa‟. The „ing‟ ending in place names is usually interpreted in to refer to „people of‟, suggesting that the settlement was inhabited by „the people of Waeppa‟. The settlement is likely to have been situated on the higher gravel terraces although no archaeological evidence has yet confirmed its location. late medieval Wapping is absent from the Domesday Book of 1086, but is included in the Manor of Stepney, then known as Stibenhede, which belonged to the Bishop of London. It is likely that a small community lived close to the Bishop‟s mills and along the river walls, milling, fishing and catching wildfowl from the marsh, which was prone to regular flooding. Land reclamation and the creation of flood defences were taking place in the thirteenth century, as on New Year‟s Eve, 1323, a mighty flood destroyed the earthworks of the river wall and an „inquisition‟ was established by the Court of the King‟s Bench to ascertain the cause of the event. It was concluded that the flood had been caused by the “vehement tempests from the Sea” and that all landowners were responsible for the maintenance and repair of their stretch of river wall. In the first half of the thirteenth century, there were two tide mills by the riverside. Wapping is first mentioned in reference to a lost charter dated between 1218 and 1226 in which Terricus of Aldgate surrendered the “molendina de Wapping”, Wapping Mill, to the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul‟s Catherdral. This was later leased by the Dean and Chapter back to Terricus, and all the corn for the common bakehouse at St. Paul‟s and the Hospital of the Knights of St. Thomas of Acon was ground in the Wapping Mill. By the end of this period dwellings had been built close to the wall and mills, and along two gravel causeways leading down to the river. The reclaimed fields were rich pasture but flooded at very high tide. To the west of the site lay undeveloped marshland named Wappingge-atte-Wose, and a little further inland lay the Swan‟s Nest Hermitage. The first wharf built in Wapping was constructed in 1395 by one William Danyell. This was likely to have been a wooden platform projecting out over the river, near Wapping Mill, on land held by the knights of St.Thomas of Acon, who later had a mill house with a wharf and dock close by.
The first small medieval dock was at St Katherine‟s, followed by others at Wapping, Shadwell and Ratcliffe. Wapping Dock was small inlet in the river wall where boats could tie up, with wooden stairs down to the water. This was tidal, without locks and was only suitable for use by small water craft at high tide. Larger ships would have been moored out in the river, with cargo and passengers ferried ashore by boats or lighters, or beached for unloading at low tide. In 1417 there was an Ordinance forbidding the exclusion of the common people from the wharves and stairs on the banks of the Thames, as some wharf owners had been charging people a halfpenny or penny to wash clothes in the river. The local population was growing during the fifteenth century, and this included a number of foreigners, mostly from the Low Countries, along with "pvrates". In 1440, one of the Chronicles of London recorded “Allso in that yere whas hnagid beside seynt Kateryns in the Tempse, upon a pare gallows be cheynes, two men that had robbid a vitteler of fflanderis and kutt the mennes throttes, and Bulged the ship and drowned hem therinne”. post-medieval Wapping maintained its maritime character until the late 20 th century; the Highway being described by John Stow during the 16th century as a “continual street, or a filthy strait passage, with alleys of small tenements or cottages, built, inhabited by sailors’ victuallers’. Indeed, while it appears that more actual shipbuilding (and breaking) took place on the south bank at Bermondsey and Rotherhithe, Wapping seems to have been more of a centre for chandlers, victuallers, sail-makers and instrument makers, as well as providing lodging and entertainment for sailors ashore and housing for their wives and families. Executions continued to be a popular entertainment; mutineers, smugglers and pirates being hung at Execution Dock at Wapping until 1830. Pirates were hung with a shortened rope which led to a slow and agonizing death by asphyxiation, known as “The Marshall’s Dance”. Until the end of the 18th century pirates were not immediately cut down upon death, but left swinging for at least three tides; the most notorious were then tarred and hung in chains either at Blackwall or Cuckold‟s Point, the infamous Captain Kidd, hung in 1701, remained a grisly decaying warning in his gibbet for more than twenty years. In 1798 the first police force in England was formed at Wapping to try and reduce the amount of thieving from the many vessels mooring in the Lower Pool. London Docks, the first large examples built on the north bank, were constructed between 1799 and 1815; the docks and accompanying warehouses replacing many of the small businesses and houses and leading to a 60% decline in population, although those remaining continued in servicing the merchant navy. The Thames tunnel was completed in 1843, Wapping Station opening in 1869. During WWII the area was devastated by bombing and never fully recovered; London Docks being too small for the increasingly large 20 th century vessels using the Royal Docks downstream. The advent of containerisation sounded the death knell for all of the docks within London, the „Londons‟ themselves finally closing in 1969.
A101 A102 A103 A104 A105 A106 A107 A108 A109 A110 A111 A112 A113 A114 A115 A116 A117 A118 A119 A120 A121-6 A127 A128 A129 A130 A131 A132 A133 A134 A135 A136 A137 A138 A139 A140 A141 A142 A143 A144 A145 A146-7 A148 A149 A150 A151 A152 A153 A154 A155
Deposit Access Access Access Wharf Wharf Access Hard? Deposit Artefact scatter Artefact scatter Bargebed? Consolidation Bargebed Consolidation Timber Timber Consolidation Deposit Access Drain Access Structure (unclassified) Structure (unclassified) Artefact scatter Consolidation Artefact scatter Dock Consolidation Mooring post? Drain Shopping trolley Drain Timber Artefact scatter Consolidation Mooring feature Access Artefact scatter Mooring feature? Access Mooring post? Consolidation Deposit Jetty Gridiron?
Building material Vertical metal ladder Stair: 'Wapping New Stair.' Brick/timber. Causeway: „Wapping New Stair.' Brick/timber. Timber. 5 vertical timbers Timber. 6 vertical, 2 horizontal Stair and causeway: Wapping Police Station. Timber stair with timber, stone and concrete causeway. Timber and stone. Rectangular platform. Building material against wall. Ceramic Finds scatter. Pottery, clay pipe, glass and bone. Timbers. Shipyard waste? 2.0m +. Timber. Revetment?. Parallel timbers, 0.50m apart, 6.0m long. Stone rubble and building material Timber revetment: vertical, parallel timbers, 2.0m apart, with horizontals. Consolidation deposit: with nails embedded. Barge bed? Shipyard waste? Shipyard waste? Including timbers, nails and iron fragments. Brick rubble Stair and causeway: 'King Henry's Stairs'. Timbers below modern jetty. VOID Bored log. Broken both ends. 2.0m +. Causeway? Timber. Very large, horizontal. Part of Wapping New Stair? Mooring feature? Timber and metal. Three sides approx. 1.0m square. Submerged. Concrete/metal. Square. Next to concrete jetty support. 2.0mx1.50m. Timbers. Shipyard waste? Small parts of tree trunks under concrete. Brick/concrete/metal etc. next to concrete jetty support. Ceramic. Pottery. Stone, timber and metal platform against wall. Entrance to Gun Dock Chalk Timber. Brick. Round or ovoid section. Parallel to wall. 3.0m long x 0.75m wide. Timber plank. 2.0m long x 0.4m wide. Shipyard waste? Timber. Horizontal, heavily eroded. Timbers. 3-4 worked timbers. 1 trunk? Shipyard waste scatter? Two distinct layers. VOID Block. Timber 0.25m square. 1.20m. long. Metal strips on corners. Stair and causeway: 'Wapping Old Stairs'. Vertical and horizontal timbers and stone. 0.25m square timbers VOID Nails. Shipyard waste Timber structure. Stair. Timber removed from Stair. Vertical timber Chalk and flint Mud Parallel horizontal timbers. Only partly exposed
A156 A157 A158 A159 A160 A161 A162 A163 A164 A165 A301
Artefact scatter Structure (unclassified) Artefact scatter Jetty Bargebed Gridiron Bargebed Deposit Deposit Artefact Artefact scatter
Timbers. Shipyard waste?. Drain? Line of small vertical timbers. Ceramic. Delftware pottery waste. Timber. Double front revetment Timber. Two re-used timbers exposed. One is a rudder. Timber revetted Silt. Dark grey black clay silt with frequent inclusions of ceramics nails etc. over rudder (A160) Gravel and black clay, consolidated. Token in deposit A163 Modern Hindu artefacts
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.